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Sample records for highly selective selective

  1. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  2. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  3. Highly Selective Hydroformylation of the Cinchona Alkaloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, Marielle; Beijer, Felix H.; Padron, José M.; Toth, Imre; Vries, Johannes G. de

    2002-01-01

    The four naturally occurring cinchona alkaloids were subjected to hydroformylation to create an extra functional group that allows immobilization. Cinchonidine, quinine, and quinidine, could be hydroformylated with virtually complete terminal selectivity, using a rhodium/tetraphosphite catalyst. The

  4. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Selection of Highly Expressed Gene Variants in Escherichia coli Using Translationally Coupled Antibiotic Selection Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Daley, Daniel O.; Nørholm, Morten H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Strategies to select highly expressed variants of a protein coding sequence are usually based on trial-and-error approaches, which are time-consuming and expensive. We address this problem using translationally coupled antibiotic resistance markers. The system requires that the target gene can...... be fused at the 3'-end with a translational coupling element and an antibiotic resistance gene. Highly expressed target genes can then be selected using a fast and simple whole cell survival assay in the presence of high antibiotic concentrations. Herein we show that the system can be used to select highly...

  6. Optical Transmitter Terminal for Selective RF High Frequency Bans Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposal work is to investigate the highly innovative conceptual design of an optical communication selective frequency transmitter terminal...

  7. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... 15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in .... Growth in media of osmotic pressure range 0 - 25% (w/v) sorbitol ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae through soya flour supplementation. Biotechnol. Lett. 10(3): 217-220. Bechem ...

  8. Super-surface selective nanomembranes providing simultaneous high permeation flux and high selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Simpson, John T.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Sturgeon, Matthew R.

    2016-04-12

    Superhydrophobic membrane structures having a beneficial combination of throughput and a selectivity. The membrane structure can include a porous support substrate; and a membrane layer adherently disposed on and in contact with the porous support substrate. The membrane layer can include a nanoporous material having a superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface can include a textured surface, and a modifying material disposed on the textured surface. Methods of making and using the membrane structures.

  9. CBFS: high performance feature selection algorithm based on feature clearness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Seo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of feature selection is to select useful features and simultaneously exclude garbage features from a given dataset for classification purposes. This is expected to bring reduction of processing time and improvement of classification accuracy. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we devised a new feature selection algorithm (CBFS based on clearness of features. Feature clearness expresses separability among classes in a feature. Highly clear features contribute towards obtaining high classification accuracy. CScore is a measure to score clearness of each feature and is based on clustered samples to centroid of classes in a feature. We also suggest combining CBFS and other algorithms to improve classification accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From the experiment we confirm that CBFS is more excellent than up-to-date feature selection algorithms including FeaLect. CBFS can be applied to microarray gene selection, text categorization, and image classification.

  10. Enzyme assays: high-throughput screening, genetic selection, and fingerprinting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    ... (Testing Many Substrates Toward Hydrolase) Comparison with Other Methods 26 Estimating and Measuring Selectivity 27 Estimating Selectivity without a Reference Compound 28 Quantitative Measure of Se...

  11. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin eWu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput computing (HTC uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general purpose computation on a graphics processing unit (GPU provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin – Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit (CPU capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of

  12. Optimal Feature Selection in High-Dimensional Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Mladen; Liu, Han

    2015-02-01

    We consider the high-dimensional discriminant analysis problem. For this problem, different methods have been proposed and justified by establishing exact convergence rates for the classification risk, as well as the ℓ 2 convergence results to the discriminative rule. However, sharp theoretical analysis for the variable selection performance of these procedures have not been established, even though model interpretation is of fundamental importance in scientific data analysis. This paper bridges the gap by providing sharp sufficient conditions for consistent variable selection using the sparse discriminant analysis (Mai et al., 2012). Through careful analysis, we establish rates of convergence that are significantly faster than the best known results and admit an optimal scaling of the sample size n , dimensionality p , and sparsity level s in the high-dimensional setting. Sufficient conditions are complemented by the necessary information theoretic limits on the variable selection problem in the context of high-dimensional discriminant analysis. Exploiting a numerical equivalence result, our method also establish the optimal results for the ROAD estimator (Fan et al., 2012) and the sparse optimal scaling estimator (Clemmensen et al., 2011). Furthermore, we analyze an exhaustive search procedure, whose performance serves as a benchmark, and show that it is variable selection consistent under weaker conditions. Extensive simulations demonstrating the sharpness of the bounds are also provided.

  13. High density transcriptional mapping of chromosome 21 by hybridization selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassone, F.; Wade, H.; Gardiner, K. [Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A transcriptional map of human chromosome 21 is important for the study of Down syndrome, development processes and genome organization. To construct a high density transcriptional map, the technique of cDNA hybrid selection is being applied to a minimal tiling path of YAC clones that span 21q. The cDNA used for selection represents a complex pool of sequences obtained from a variety of fetal and adult tissues and cell lines. Approximately 70-80 YAC clones are sufficient to span 21q; each is individually processed through the selection procedure to obtain a YAC-specific {open_quotes}selected cDNA library{close_quotes}. Survey analysis of each library includes determination of levels of ribosomal contamination, verification of enrichment of control genes, identification of a preliminary number of novel unique sequences, and verification that novel sequences map to the correct YAC and chromosomal regions. This analysis has been completed for 19 YACs that together comprise approximately 10 Mb of non-overlapping DNA, 25% of the long arm. Ribosomal cDNA contamination is low (<10%) and all known genes of appropriate tissue specificity of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries from 8 of these YACs are now being subjected to exhaustive analysis to identify all novel genes contained within them and to obtain complete cDNAs and expression analysis for each. Not all regions of the chromosome, however, are equally amenable to these analyses. Selected cDNA libraries from the centromeric YACs are yielding apparently novel genes, but confirmation of map position is problematic. Also of interest is a region of several megabases within the Giemsa dark band, 21q21. Selected cDNA libraries from these YACs so far have yielded no novel genes and support the idea of a genuinely very gene-poor region.

  14. Peptide-Directed Highly Selective Targeting of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Takeo; Järvinen, Tero A.H.; Toba, Michie; Sawada, Junko; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Mann, David; McMurtry, Ivan; Oka, Masahiko; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Komatsu, Masanobu

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder of the pulmonary vasculature associated with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Despite recent advances in the treatment of PAH, with eight approved clinical therapies and additional therapies undergoing clinical trials, PAH remains a serious life-threatening condition. The lack of pulmonary vascular selectivity and associated systemic adverse effects of these therapies remain the main obstacles to successful treatment. Peptide-mediated drug delivery that specifically targets the vasculature of PAH lungs may offer a solution to the lack of drug selectivity. Herein, we show highly selective targeting of rat PAH lesions by a novel cyclic peptide, CARSKNKDC (CAR). Intravenous administration of CAR peptide resulted in intense accumulation of the peptide in monocrotaline-induced and SU5416/hypoxia-induced hypertensive lungs but not in healthy lungs or other organs of PAH rats. CAR homed to all layers of remodeled pulmonary arteries, ie, endothelium, neointima, medial smooth muscle, and adventitia, in the hypertensive lungs. CAR also homed to capillary vessels and accumulated in the interstitial space of the PAH lungs, manifesting its extravasation activity. These results demonstrated the remarkable ability of CAR to selectively target PAH lung vasculature and effectively penetrate and spread throughout the diseased lung tissue. These results suggest the clinical utility of CAR in the targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds and imaging probes to PAH lungs. PMID:21549345

  15. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Weigel, Kent A.; Gatti, Natalia de Leon; Gianola, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput computing (HTC) uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high-throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long, and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl, and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general-purpose computation on a graphics processing unit provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin–Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general-purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of marker panels to realized

  16. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design. High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devi...

  17. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design.High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devis...

  18. Selective photoantisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David M; Reinisch, Lou

    2016-10-01

    Selective killing of pathogens by laser is possible due to the difference in absorption of photon energy by pathogens and host tissues. The optical properties of pathogenic microorganisms are used along with the known optical properties of soft tissues in calculations of the laser-induced thermal response of pathogen colonies embedded in a tissue model. The objective is to define the laser parameters that optimize pathogen destruction and depth of the bactericidal effect. The virtual periodontium is a computational model of the optical and time-dependent thermal properties of infected periodontal tissues. The model simulates the periodontal procedure: Laser Sulcular Debridement. 1 Virtual pathogen colonies are placed at different depths in the virtual periodontium to determine the depth for effective bactericidal effects given various laser parameters (wavelength, peak power, pulse duration, scan rate, fluence rate) and differences in pathogen sensitivities. Accumulated background heat from multiple passes increases the depth of the bactericidal effect. In visible and near-IR wavelengths the large difference in absorption between normal soft tissue and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) results in selective destruction. Diode laser (810 nm) efficacy and depth of the bactericidal effect are variable and dependent on hemin availability. Both pulsed-Nd:YAG and the 810 nm diode lasers achieve a 2-3 mm deep damage zone for pigmented Pg and Pi in soft tissue without surface damage (selective photoantisepsis). The model predicts no selectivity for the Er:YAG laser (2,940 nm). Depth of the bactericidal effect is highly dependent on pathogen absorption coefficient. Highly sensitive pathogens may be destroyed as deep as 5-6 mm in soft tissue. Short pulse durations enable confinement of the thermal event to the target. Temporal selectivity is achieved by adjusting pulse duration based on target size. The scatter-limited phototherapy model

  19. Material Selection and Characterization for High Gradient RF Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Heikkinen, S; Ramsvik, T; Sgobba, Stefano; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2007-01-01

    The selection of candidate materials for the accelerating cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is carried out in parallel with high power RF testing. The maximum DC breakdown field of copper, copper alloys, refractory metals, aluminium and titanium have been measured with a dedicated setup. Higher maximum fields are obtained for refractory metals and for titanium, which exhibits, however, important damages after conditioning. Fatigue behaviour of copper alloys has been studied for surface and bulk by pulsed laser irradiation and ultrasonic excitation, respectively. The selected copper alloys show consistently higher fatigue resistance than copper in both experiments. In order to obtain the best local properties in the device a possible solution is a bi-metallic assembly. Junctions of molybdenum and copper-zirconium UNS C15000 alloy, achieved by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) diffusion bonding or explosion bonding were evaluated for their mechanical strength. The reliability of the results obtained wit...

  20. High-dimensional model estimation and model selection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review concepts and algorithms from high-dimensional statistics for linear model estimation and model selection. I will particularly focus on the so-called p>>n setting where the number of variables p is much larger than the number of samples n. I will focus mostly on regularized statistical estimators that produce sparse models. Important examples include the LASSO and its matrix extension, the Graphical LASSO, and more recent non-convex methods such as the TREX. I will show the applicability of these estimators in a diverse range of scientific applications, such as sparse interaction graph recovery and high-dimensional classification and regression problems in genomics.

  1. Selective Fatalism.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R

    1998-01-01

    Human beings are selectively fatalistic. Some risks appear as "background noise," whereas other, quantitatively identical risks cause enormous concern. This essay explores the reasons for selective fatalism and possible legal responses. Sometimes selective fatalism is a product of distributional issues, as people focus especially on risks that face particular groups; sometimes people adapt their preferences and beliefs so as to reduce concern with risks that they perceive themselves unable to...

  2. Selection of a tool to decision making for site selection for high level waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiller Madeira Jonni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools addressed in this work are also well known and with easy implementation. The decision-making process in matters of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multicriteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various stakeholders. Thus, a comprehensive study was performed with the literature in this subject, specifically in documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision-making process. Therefore, we highlighted six judgment attributes for selecting a decision support tool, suitable for the problem. For this study, we have selected the following multicriteria tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed.

  3. Nanotechnological selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-18

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach-combining therapy and diagnosis-to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of California

  4. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Jensen, Ole N

    2006-01-01

    a protocol for selective phosphopeptide enrichment using titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The selectivity toward phosphopeptides is obtained by loading the sample in a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) or phthalic acid solution containing acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) onto a TiO2 micro...

  5. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added...... in order to obtain a unique selection...

  6. High Selectivity Wideband Bandpass Filter Using Stub Loaded Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing-Bing; Jiang, Ting

    2017-07-01

    This article presents a high selectivity wideband bandpass filter (BPF) adopting stub loaded resonator. Hereinto, aim passband is determined by BPF without stub embedded, which is only composed of four half-wavelength open-loop resonators. Based on typical tapped-line coupling, two same stubs are located at physical middle points of two resonators connected with I/O feed lines, respectively. Due to embedded point at middle of loaded resonator, the stub with two open-end branches has no influence on original half-wavelength resonant frequency, and aim passband keeps unchanged. Because of different even-mode resonant frequencies between loaded and unloaded resonators, no new passband is constructed. With the help of embedded stubs, original transmission zero (TZ) near low-edge of aim passband is shifted towards passband, and a new TZ is introduced near high-edge. High selectivity and good passband characteristics are obtained optimizing sizes of stubs, I/O tapped position and top open-end length of loaded resonator.

  7. Guidelines for Microplate Selection in High Content Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Oscar J

    2018-01-01

    Since the inception of commercialized automated high content screening (HCS) imaging devices in the mid to late 1990s, the adoption of media vessels typically used to house and contain biological specimens for interrogation has transitioned from microscope slides and petri dishes into multi-well microtiter plates called microplates. The early 96- and 384-well microplates commonly used in other high-throughput screening (HTS) technology applications were often not designed for optical imaging. Since then, modifications and the use of next-generation materials with improved optical clarity have enhanced the quality of captured images, reduced autofocusing failures, and empowered the use of higher power magnification objectives to resolve fine detailed measurements at the subcellular pixel level. The plethora of microplates and their applications requires practitioners of high content imaging (HCI) to be especially diligent in the selection and adoption of the best plates for running longitudinal studies or larger screening campaigns. While the highest priority in experimental design is the selection of the biological model, the choice of microplate can alter the biological response and ultimately may change the experimental outcome. This chapter will provide readers with background, troubleshooting guidelines, and considerations for choosing an appropriate microplate.

  8. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  9. Selection of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-Sik Eugene

    2017-01-01

    In the future higher temperature Stirling convertors for improved efficiency and performance, various high temperature organic materials have been demanded as essential components for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The higher temperature capabilities would also allow current state-of-the-art (SOA) convertors to be used in additional missions, particularly those that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of comprehensive structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, o-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This paper presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection recommendations.

  10. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach—combining therapy and diagnosis—to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of

  11. Myopic Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Geroski, P. A.; Mazzucato, M.

    2002-01-01

    The severity of selection mechanisms and the myopia of selection are explored through a duopoly model where one firm tries to move down a learning curve in which costs are initially higher than its rival's but ultimately much lower. A trade-off is found between catch-up time and asymptotic market share: the more severe are selection pressures, the less likely is it that the learning technology will survive; however, if it does survive, the learning technology will in the limit be more competi...

  12. Myopic selection

    OpenAIRE

    Geroski, P.A.; Mazzucato, M.

    2002-01-01

    The severity of selection mechanisms and the myopia of selection are explored through a duopoly model where one firm tries to move down a learning curve in which costs are initially higher than its rival's but ultimately much lower. A trade-off is found between catch-up time and asymptotic market share: the more severe are selection pressures, the less likely is it that the learning technology will survive; however, if it does survive, the learning technology will in the limit be more competi...

  13. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  14. Selective mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a family history of selective mutism, extreme shyness, or anxiety disorders, which may increase their risk ... well Inability to speak in certain social situations Shyness This pattern must be seen for at least ...

  15. Selective Enumeration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damon, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Selective enumeration is an approach to pruning search trees with the goal of preventing the generation of extraneous paths in the search tree, rather than generating paths that will later be pruned...

  16. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd

    2011-02-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  17. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hung-Lun; Yip, Bak-Sau; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Chih, Ya-Han; Cheng, Hsi-Tsung; Chou, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Jya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.

  18. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Lun Chu

    Full Text Available We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.

  19. High throughput in vivo protease inhibitor selection platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant microbial cell comprising a selection platform for screening for a protease inhibitor, wherein the platform comprises transgenes encoding a protease having selective peptide bond cleavage activity at a recognition site amino acid sequence; and transgenes...... encoding polypeptides conferring resistance to microbial growth inhibitors; wherein the polypeptides comprise the recognition site amino acid sequence cleavable by the protease. Protease inhibitors are detected by their ability to inhibit protease specific cleavage and inactivation of the polypeptides...... platform for screening for a protease inhibitor....

  20. Highly oxidized peroxisomes are selectively degraded via autophagy in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Michitaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Yoshimoto, Kohki; Kondo, Maki; Mano, Shoji; Yamada, Kenji; Hayashi, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-12-01

    The positioning of peroxisomes in a cell is a regulated process that is closely associated with their functions. Using this feature of the peroxisomal positioning as a criterion, we identified three Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (peroxisome unusual positioning1 [peup1], peup2, and peup4) that contain aggregated peroxisomes. We found that the PEUP1, PEUP2, and PEUP4 were identical to Autophagy-related2 (ATG2), ATG18a, and ATG7, respectively, which are involved in the autophagic system. The number of peroxisomes was increased and the peroxisomal proteins were highly accumulated in the peup1 mutant, suggesting that peroxisome degradation by autophagy (pexophagy) is deficient in the peup1 mutant. These aggregated peroxisomes contained high levels of inactive catalase and were more oxidative than those of the wild type, indicating that peroxisome aggregates comprise damaged peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisome aggregation was induced in wild-type plants by exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide. The cat2 mutant also contained peroxisome aggregates. These findings demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide as a result of catalase inactivation is the inducer of peroxisome aggregation. Furthermore, an autophagosome marker, ATG8, frequently colocalized with peroxisome aggregates, indicating that peroxisomes damaged by hydrogen peroxide are selectively degraded by autophagy in the wild type. Our data provide evidence that autophagy is crucial for quality control mechanisms for peroxisomes in Arabidopsis.

  1. High throughput selection of effective serodiagnostics for Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Cooley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection by direct pathogen detection is complicated by the low parasite burden in subjects persistently infected with this agent of human Chagas disease. Determination of infection status by serological analysis has also been faulty, largely due to the lack of well-characterized parasite reagents for the detection of anti-parasite antibodies.In this study, we screened more than 400 recombinant proteins of T. cruzi, including randomly selected and those known to be highly expressed in the parasite stages present in mammalian hosts, for the ability to detect anti-parasite antibodies in the sera of subjects with confirmed or suspected T. cruzi infection.A set of 16 protein groups were identified and incorporated into a multiplex bead array format which detected 100% of >100 confirmed positive sera and also documented consistent, strong and broad responses in samples undetected or discordant using conventional serologic tests. Each serum had a distinct but highly stable reaction pattern. This diagnostic panel was also useful for monitoring drug treatment efficacy in chronic Chagas disease.These results substantially extend the variety and quality of diagnostic targets for Chagas disease and offer a useful tool for determining treatment success or failure.

  2. Family Structure Changes during High School and College Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Brian P.; Sorensen, Kia N.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that family structure changes negatively influence educational attainment, but they overlook qualitative distinctions in college choice, such as college selectivity. Yet, college choice research has largely focused on static measures of family structure, failing to account for year-to-year family structure changes that occur…

  3. Selective Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dubovik (Andrei); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a dynamic (differential) game with three players competing against each other. Each period each player can allocate his resources so as to direct his competition towards particular rivals -- we call such competition selective. The setting can be applied to a wide variety of

  4. ON SELECTION OF CIRCUIT-BREAKERS SWITCHING ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS OF HIGH AND EXTRA-HIGH VOLTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lazimov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes some additional conditions for high-voltage circuit-breaker selection keeping in mind coordination of the switched over-voltages and voltages induced in secondary circuits with their permissible values.

  5. Feature selection for high-dimensional integrated data

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Charles

    2012-04-26

    Motivated by the problem of identifying correlations between genes or features of two related biological systems, we propose a model of feature selection in which only a subset of the predictors Xt are dependent on the multidimensional variate Y, and the remainder of the predictors constitute a “noise set” Xu independent of Y. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated the relative performance of two methods: thresholding and singular-value decomposition, in combination with stochastic optimization to determine “empirical bounds” on the small-sample accuracy of an asymptotic approximation. We demonstrate utility of the thresholding and SVD feature selection methods to with respect to a recent infant intestinal gene expression and metagenomics dataset.

  6. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Tamm, I E; Frenkel, V Ya

    1991-01-01

    I.E. Tamm is one of the great figures of 20th-century physics and the mentor of the late A.D. Sakharov. Together with I.M. Frank, he received the Nobel Prize in 1958 for the explanation of the Cherenkov effect. This book contains an annotated selection of his most important contributions to physics literature and essays on his contemporaries - Mandelstam, Einstein, Landau and Bohr as well as his contributions to the Pugwash conferences. About a third of the selections originally appeared in Russian and are now available to Western readers. This volume includes a preface by Sir Rudolf Peierls, a biography compiled by Tamm's former students, V.Ya. Frenkel and B.M. Bolotovskii, and a complete bibliography. This monograph on quantum theory, science history, particles and fields and the Cherenkov effect is intended for students, researchers, mathematicians and natural scientists in general.

  7. Friendship Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Javier

    2007-01-01

    We model the formation of friendships as repeated cooperation within a set of heterogeneous players. The model builds around three of the most important facts about friendship: friends help each other, there is reciprocity in the relationship and people usually have few friends. In our results we explain how similarity between people affects the friendship selection. We also characterize when the friendship network won’t depend on the random process by which people meet each other. Finally, w...

  8. Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

    1992-11-30

    Efforts to synthesize bimetallic cluster-derived Rh-Mo catalysts for CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation to preferentially produce oxygenates. The rhodium-molybdenum cluster, (PPh[sub 3])[sub 2]RhMO(CO)([mu]-CO)[sub 2]Cp, was employed as a precursor to alumina- and silica-supported catalysts which were in CO hydrogenation. When compared to catalysts made from the distinct organometallic complexes, RhH(CO)(PPh[sub 3])[sub 3] and [MO(CO)[sub 3]Cp][sub 2], the catalysts derived from a binuclear precursor show higher activities for CO hydrogenation and superior selectivities towards oxygenates, namely, methanol, dimethyl ether and ethanol. Their product distributions depend on the support. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate that CO chemisorbs on cluster-derived catalysts as gem-dicarbonyls while it is chemisorbed only in the linear-carbonyl configuration on catalysts made from separate rhodium and molybdenum complexes. The particular oxygenate selectivity of the cluster-derived catalysts may be correlated to the strong electronic interaction between Rh and Mo. Carbon dioxide hydrogenation has also been carried out on the catalysts mentioned above. Again, the cluster-derived catalysts show higher oxygenate selectivities. Finally, the catalysts were studied with regard to both CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation kinetics, apparent activation energies inferred.

  9. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric sensing of antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Hong; He, Yujian; Li, Xiangjun; Yuan, Zhuobin

    2013-05-17

    Antibiotics residues in foods are very harmful to human beings. Determination of antibiotics residues relies largely on the availability of adequate analytical techniques. Currently, there is an urgent need for on site and real time detection of antibiotics in food. In this work, a novel one step synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was proposed using pyrocatechol violet (PCV) as a reducer agent. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric detection of four antibiotics kanamycin mono sulfate (KA), neomycin sulfate (NE), streptomycin sulfate (ST) and bleomycin sulfate (BL) was realized during the formation of AuNPs. PCV has -OH groups and these antibiotics have -OH, -NH2, -NH- groups, so there may be some special hydrogen-bonding interactions between PCV and these antibiotics. Therefore, the presence of KA, NE, ST and BL would influence the synthesis of AuNPs, then the color and state of AuNPs would change, which could be observed with the naked eye or a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Results showed that A670 was linear with the logarithm of KA concentration in the range from 1.0×10(-8) to 5.0×10(-7)M and 5.0×10(-7) to 5.5×10(-5)M. The detection limit of KA was 1.0×10(-9)M (S/N=3). The coexisting substances including 1.0×10(-5)M phenylalanine, alanine, glycerol, glucose, Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), CO3(2-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-) and Br(-) did not affect the determination of 1.0×10(-7)M antibiotics. In particular, the proposed method could be applied successfully to the detection of antibiotics in the pretreated liquid milk products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transport of water vapor and inert gas mixtures through highly selective and highly permeable polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; van de Ven, W.J.C.; Potreck, Jens; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies in detail the measurement of the permeation properties of highly permeable and highly selective polymers for water vapor/nitrogen gas mixtures. The analysis of the mass transport of a highly permeable polymer is complicated by the presence of stagnant boundary layers at feed and

  11. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  12. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  13. Noria: A Highly Xe-Selective Nanoporous Organic Solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rahul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia Missouri 65211 United States; Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States; Banerjee, Debasis [Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States; Simon, Cory M. [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720 United States; Atwood, Jerry L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia Missouri 65211 United States; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States

    2016-07-05

    The successful mass-implementation of nuclear energy requires reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) to mitigate harmful radioactive waste. Volatile radionuclides such as Xe and Kr evolve into off-gas streams of UNF reprocessing facilities in parts per million concentrations; their capture and successive safe handing is essential from a regulatory point of view. As radioactive Xe has a short half-life, this captured Xe could be sold in the chemical market. Energy-intensive, expensive, and hazardous cryogenic distillation is the current benchmark process to capture and separate radioactive Xe and Kr from air. Thus, a cost-effective, alternative technology for the separation of Xe and Kr and their capture from air is of significant importance. Thus far, nanoporous materials, such as aluminosilicate zeolites, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and porous organic molecules have shown promise for an adsorption-based separation process at room temperature. Herein, we report the selective Xe uptake in a crystalline porous organic oligomeric molecule, noria, and its structural analogue, PgC-noria, under ambient conditions. The selectivity of noria towards Xe arises from its tailored pore size and small cavities, which allows a directed non-bonding interaction of Xe atoms with a large number of carbon atoms of the noria molecular wheel in a confined space.

  14. Aromatic amino acids in high selectivity bismuth(III) recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Sen, Souvik; Sen, Kamalika

    2013-04-21

    The three aromatic amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, play different physiological roles in life processes. Metal ions capable of binding these amino acids may aid in the reduction of effective concentration of these amino acids in any physiological system. Here we have studied the efficacy of some heavy metals for their complexation with these three amino acids. Bismuth has been found to bind selectively with these aromatic amino acids and this was confirmed using spectrofluorimetric, spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric studies. The series of heavy metals has been chosen because each of these metals remains associated with the others at very low concentration levels and Bi(III) is the least toxic amongst the other elements. So, selective recognition for Bi(III) would also mean no response for the other heavy elements if contaminants are present even at low concentration levels. The affinity towards these amino acids has been found to be in the order tryptophan < phenylalanine < tyrosine. The association constants of these amino acids have been calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand equations and the corresponding free energy change has also been calculated. The values of the association constants obtained from BH equations using absorbance values corroborate with the Stern-Volmer constants obtained from fluorimetric studies. The evidence for complexation is also supported by the results of cyclic voltammetry.

  15. When selection ratios are high: predicting the expatriation willingness of prospective domestic entry-level job applicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, S.T.; Born, M.P.; Willemsen, M.E.; van der Molen, H.T.; Derous, E.

    2009-01-01

    High expatriate selection ratios thwart the ability of multinational organizations to select expatriates. Reducing the selection ratio may be accomplished by selecting those applicants for entry level domestic positions who have expatriate aspirations. Regression analyses conducted on data from a

  16. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  17. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Gao; Wujiao Dai; Zhiyong Song; Changsheng Cai

    2017-01-01

    Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP) value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection ...

  18. High-density nanopore array for selective biomolecule transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2011-11-01

    Development of sophisticated tools capable of manipulating molecules at their own length scale enables new methods for chemical synthesis and detection. Although nanoscale devices have been developed to perform individual tasks, little work has been done on developing a truly scalable platform: a system that combines multiple components for sequential processing, as well as simultaneously processing and identifying the millions of potential species that may be present in a biological sample. The development of a scalable micro-nanofluidic device is limited in part by the ability to combine different materials (polymers, metals, semiconductors) onto a single chip, and the challenges with locally controlling the chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties within a micro or nanochannel. We have developed a unique construct known as a molecular gate: a multilayered polymer based device that combines microscale fluid channels with nanofluidic interconnects. Molecular gates have been demonstrated to selectively transport molecules between channels based on size or charge. In order to fully utilize these structures, we need to develop methods to actively control transport and identify species inside a nanopore. While previous work has been limited to creating electrical connections off-channel or metallizing the entire nanopore wall, we now have the ability to create multiple, separate conductive connections at the interior surface of a nanopore. These interior electrodes will be used for direct sensing of biological molecules, probing the electrical potential and charge distribution at the surface, and to actively turn on and off electrically driven transport of molecules through nanopores.

  19. Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid Vik; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Borowik, Tomasz; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Kusak, Josip; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ozolins, Janis; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2015-10-01

    Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north-south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n = 7, Dinaric-Balkan n = 9, Ukrainian Steppe n = 11). Our analyses combined identification of outlier loci with findings from genome-wide association study of individual genomic profiles and 12 environmental variables. We identified 353 candidate SNP loci. We examined the SNP position and neighboring megabase (1 Mb, one million bases) regions in the dog (C. lupus familiaris) genome for genes potentially under selection, including homologue genes in other vertebrates. These regions included functional genes for, for example, temperature regulation that may indicate local adaptation and genes controlling for functions universally important for wolves, including olfaction, hearing, vision, and cognitive functions. We also observed strong outliers not associated with any of the investigated variables, which could suggest selective pressures associated with other unmeasured environmental variables and/or demographic factors. These patterns are further supported by the examination of spatial distributions of the SNPs associated with universally important traits, which typically show marked differences in allele frequencies among population clusters. Accordingly, parallel selection for features important to all wolves may eclipse local environmental selection and implies long-term separation among population clusters.

  20. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Elgot, Calvin C

    1982-01-01

    Cal Elgot was a very serious and thoughtful researcher, who with great determi­ nation attempted to find basic explanations for certain mathematical phenomena­ as the selection of papers in this volume well illustrate. His approach was, for the most part, rather finitist and constructivist, and he was inevitably drawn to studies of the process of computation. It seems to me that his early work on decision problems relating automata and logic, starting with his thesis under Roger Lyndon and continuing with joint work with Biichi, Wright, Copi, Rutledge, Mezei, and then later with Rabin, set the stage for his attack on the theory of computation through the abstract treatment of the notion of a machine. This is also apparent in his joint work with A. Robinson reproduced here and in his joint papers with John Shepherdson. Of course in the light of subsequent work on decision problems by Biichi, Rabin, Shelah, and many, many others, the subject has been placed on a completely different plane from what it was whe...

  1. Regeneration of the vagus nerve after highly selective vagotomy, an autoradiographic study in the ferret stomach .

    OpenAIRE

    Al Muhtaseb, M. H. [محمد هاشم المحتسب; Abu-Khalaf, M.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the regeneration of the vagal nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy in the ferret stomach by using the autoradiographic technique. Autoradiographic examination of the body of the stomach in the acute experimental animals has failed to show any labelled nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy while the pylorus has shown many labelled nerve fibres . These observations indicate that the highly selective vagotomy has been performed properly and adequately. ...

  2. [Employees in high-reliability organizations: systematic selection of personnel as a final criterion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubaid, V; Anheuser, P

    2014-05-01

    Employees represent an important safety factor in high-reliability organizations. The combination of clear organizational structures, a nonpunitive safety culture, and psychological personnel selection guarantee a high level of safety. The cockpit personnel selection process of a major German airline is presented in order to demonstrate a possible transferability into medicine and urology.

  3. Heterogeneous natural selection on oxidative phosphorylation genes among fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Broughton, Richard E

    2015-08-26

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the primary source of ATP in eukaryotes and serves as a mechanistic link between variation in genotypes and energetic phenotypes. While several physiological and anatomical factors may lead to increased aerobic capacity, variation in OXPHOS proteins may influence OXPHOS efficiency and facilitate adaptation in organisms with varied energy demands. Although there is evidence that natural selection acts on OXPHOS genes, the focus has been on detection of directional (positive) selection on specific phylogenetic branches where traits that increase energetic demands appear to have evolved. We examined patterns of selection in a broader evolutionary context, i.e., on multiple lineages of fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance. We found that patterns of natural selection on mitochondrial OXPHOS genes are complex among fishes with different swimming performance. Positive selection is not consistently associated with high performance taxa and appears to be strongest on lineages containing low performance taxa. In contrast, within high performance lineages, purifying (negative) selection appears to predominate. We provide evidence that selection on OXPHOS varies in both form and intensity within and among lineages through evolutionary time. These results provide evidence for fluctuating selection on OXPHOS associated with divergence in aerobic performance. However, in contrast to previous studies, positive selection was strongest on low performance taxa suggesting that adaptation of OXPHOS involves many factors beyond enhancing ATP production in high performance taxa. The broader pattern indicates a complex interplay between organismal adaptations, ATP demand, and OXPHOS function.

  4. Bayesian Variable Selection in High Dimensional Survival Time Cancer Genomic Datasets using Nonlocal Priors

    OpenAIRE

    Nikooienejad, Amir; Wang, Wenyi; Johnson, Valen E.

    2017-01-01

    Variable selection in high dimensional cancer genomic studies has become very popular in the past decade, due to the interest in discovering significant genes pertinent to a specific cancer type. Censored survival data is the main data structure in such studies and performing variable selection for such data type requires certain methodology. With recent developments in computational power, Bayesian methods have become more attractive in the context of variable selection. In this article we i...

  5. Low Cost High Performance Nanostructured Spectrally Selective Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sungho [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Sunlight absorbing coating is a key enabling technology to achieve high-temperature high-efficiency concentrating solar power operation. A high-performance solar absorbing material must simultaneously meet all the following three stringent requirements: high thermal efficiency (usually measured by figure of merit), high-temperature durability, and oxidation resistance. The objective of this research is to employ a highly scalable process to fabricate and coat black oxide nanoparticles onto solar absorber surface to achieve ultra-high thermal efficiency. Black oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile process and coated onto absorber metal surface. The material composition, size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticle are guided by numeric modeling. Optical and thermal properties have been both modeled and measured. High temperature durability has been achieved by using nanocomposites and high temperature annealing. Mechanical durability on thermal cycling have also been investigated and optimized. This technology is promising for commercial applications in next-generation high-temperature concentration solar power (CSP) plants.

  6. Selection of local extremophile lactic acid bacteria with high capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is related to the isolation and identification of strains of local thermophilic lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria can exist under extreme conditions of the digestive tract (acidity and high concentration of bile salts) and have a high ...

  7. Bayesian Variable Selection in High-dimensional Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Rockova (Veronika)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Advances in research technologies over the past few decades have encouraged the proliferation of massive datasets, revolutionizing statistical perspectives on high-dimensionality. Highthroughput technologies have become pervasive in diverse scientific disciplines

  8. Engineering Data on Selected High Speed Passenger Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to compile a list of high speed truck engineering parameters for characterization in dynamic performance modeling activities. Data tabulations are supplied for trucks from France, Germany, Italy, England, Japan, U.S.S.R...

  9. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection method to improve structure of the normal equation, because condition number can indicate the ill condition of the normal equation. The experimental results show that the new method can improve positioning accuracy and reliability in precise relative positioning.

  10. The feature selection bias problem in relation to high-dimensional gene data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczuk, Jerzy; Łukaszuk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection is a technique widely used in data mining. The aim is to select the best subset of features relevant to the problem being considered. In this paper, we consider feature selection for the classification of gene datasets. Gene data is usually composed of just a few dozen objects described by thousands of features. For this kind of data, it is easy to find a model that fits the learning data. However, it is not easy to find one that will simultaneously evaluate new data equally well as learning data. This overfitting issue is well known as regards classification and regression, but it also applies to feature selection. We address this problem and investigate its importance in an empirical study of four feature selection methods applied to seven high-dimensional gene datasets. We chose datasets that are well studied in the literature-colon cancer, leukemia and breast cancer. All the datasets are characterized by a significant number of features and the presence of exactly two decision classes. The feature selection methods used are ReliefF, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, support vector machine-recursive feature elimination and relaxed linear separability. Our main result reveals the existence of positive feature selection bias in all 28 experiments (7 datasets and 4 feature selection methods). Bias was calculated as the difference between validation and test accuracies and ranges from 2.6% to as much as 41.67%. The validation accuracy (biased accuracy) was calculated on the same dataset on which the feature selection was performed. The test accuracy was calculated for data that was not used for feature selection (by so called external cross-validation). This work provides evidence that using the same dataset for feature selection and learning is not appropriate. We recommend using cross-validation for feature selection in order to reduce selection bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Input variable selection for interpolating high-resolution climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-20

    Oct 20, 2010 ... Accurate climate surfaces are vital for applications relating to groundwater recharge modelling, evapotranspiration estima- ... with distance to oceans and elevation to generate 8 sets of high-resolution (i.e. 3 arc second) climate surfaces of the Western .... ANUSPLIN, developed by the Australian National.

  12. Marker-assisted selection of high molecular weight glutenin alleles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bread-making quality in hexaploid wheats is a complex trait. It has been shown that the amount and composition of protein can influence dough rheological properties. The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins are encoded by a complex locus, Glu-1, on the long arm of group-1 homoeologus chromosome of the A, B and ...

  13. Green chemistry: highly selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of highly substrate-specific catalysts, such as biocatalysts, can reduce the number of synthetic steps required to generate organic compounds. A wide range of bacteria and yeast cultures were enriched on nitriles as the sole source...

  14. Machine learning for event selection in high energy physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Whiteson, D.

    2009-01-01

    The field of high energy physics aims to discover the underlying structure of matter by searching for and studying exotic particles, such as the top quark and Higgs boson, produced in collisions at modern accelerators. Since such accelerators are extraordinarily expensive, extracting maximal

  15. Selected Practices and Characteristics of Highly Effective Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritson, George Allen

    2012-01-01

    The federal government, through NCLB legislation, has provided target proficiency goals schools will be accountable to meet. Missouri public elementary schools use these target goals to determine their success. The focus of this study was to examine the highly effective public elementary schools in Missouri that met or exceeded the 2011 Adequate…

  16. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial compo...... visible errors on contrast reduction. This information is subsequently analyzed via fuzzy clustering to enable a probabilistic interpretation. To evaluate the proposed approach, we performed an experimental study on a large set of publicly available HDR images....

  17. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  18. Selected topics in high temperature chemistry defect chemistry of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesen, Ø

    2013-01-01

    The properties of materials at high temperature play a vital role in their processing and practical use. The real properties of materials at elevated temperatures are very often governed by defects in their structure. Lattice defects may consist of point defects like vacancies, interstitial atoms or substituted atoms. These classes are discussed in general and specifically for oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides. Defect aggregates, shear structures and adaptive structures are also described. Special attention is paid to hydrogen defects which seem to play an important role in several mater

  19. Dynamo Enhancement and Mode Selection Triggered by High Magnetic Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzahler, S.; Ponty, Y.; Plihon, N.; Homann, H.; Grauer, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from consistent dynamo simulations, where the electrically conducting and incompressible flow inside a cylinder vessel is forced by moving impellers numerically implemented by a penalization method. The numerical scheme models jumps of magnetic permeability for the solid impellers, resembling various configurations tested experimentally in the von Kármán sodium experiment. The most striking experimental observations are reproduced in our set of simulations. In particular, we report on the existence of a time-averaged axisymmetric dynamo mode, self-consistently generated when the magnetic permeability of the impellers exceeds a threshold. We describe a possible scenario involving both the turbulent flow in the vicinity of the impellers and the high magnetic permeability of the impellers.

  20. Mixed models for selection of Jatropha progenies with high adaptability and yield stability in Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Costa, R D; Rocha, R B; Laviola, B G

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters via mixed models and simultaneously to select Jatropha progenies grown in three regions of Brazil that meet high adaptability and stability. From a previous phenotypic selection, three progeny tests were installed in 2008 in the municipalities of Planaltina-DF (Midwest), Nova Porteirinha-MG (Southeast), and Pelotas-RS (South). We evaluated 18 families of half-sib in a randomized block design with three replications. Genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction. Selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method in three strategies considering: 1) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); 2) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); and 3) simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability and adaptability. Accuracy obtained (91%) reveals excellent experimental quality and consequently safety and credibility in the selection of superior progenies for grain yield. The gain with the selection of the best five progenies was more than 20%, regardless of the selection strategy. Thus, based on the three selection strategies used in this study, the progenies 4, 11, and 3 (selected in all environments and the mean environment and by adaptability and phenotypic stability methods) are the most suitable for growing in the three regions evaluated.

  1. Thermal Expansion Studies of Selected High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Caillat, Thierry; Brandon, Erik; Van Der Walde, Keith; Maricic, Lina; Sayir, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) generate electrical power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes (typically plutonium-238) into electricity using a thermoelectric converter. RTGs have been successfully used to power a number of space missions and have demonstrated their reliability over an extended period of time (tens of years) and are compact, rugged, radiation resistant, scalable, and produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. System conversion efficiency for state-of-practice RTGs is about 6% and specific power less than or equal to 5.1 W/kg. Higher specific power would result in more on-board power for the same RTG mass, or less RTG mass for the same on-board power. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been leading, under the advanced thermoelectric converter (ATEC) project, the development of new high-temperature thermoelectric materials and components for integration into advanced, more efficient RTGs. Thermoelectric materials investigated to date include skutterudites, the Yb14MnSb11 compound, and SiGe alloys. The development of long-lived thermoelectric couples based on some of these materials has been initiated and is assisted by a thermo-mechanical stress analysis to ensure that all stresses under both fabrication and operation conditions will be within yield limits for those materials. Several physical parameters are needed as input to this analysis. Among those parameters, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is critically important. Thermal expansion coefficient measurements of several thermoelectric materials under consideration for ATEC are described in this paper. The stress response at the interfaces in material stacks subjected to changes in temperature is discussed, drawing on work from the literature and project-specific tools developed here. The degree of CTE mismatch and the associated effect on the formation of stress is highlighted.

  2. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  3. Evaluation and Selection of Technology Concepts for a Hypersonic High Speed Standoff Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Bryce

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a method for technology concept selection to the design of a hypersonic high-speed standoff missile capable of achieving pin-point strike of long-range targets...

  4. Genetically correlated effects of selective breeding for high and low methamphetamine consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, J M; Reed, C; Burkhart-Kasch, S; Li, N; Cunningham, C L; Janowsky, A; Franken, F H; Wiren, K M; Hashimoto, J G; Scibelli, A C; Phillips, T J

    2009-01-01

    .... We produced mouse lines that orally self-administer high (MAHDR) or low (MALDR) amounts of methamphetamine, representing the first demonstration of selective breeding for self-administration of any psychostimulant drug...

  5. Inference for feature selection using the Lasso with high-dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2014-01-01

    that involve various effects strengths and correlation between predictors. The algorithm is also applied to a prostate cancer dataset that has been analyzed in recent papers on the subject. The proposed method is found to provide a powerful way to make inference for feature selection even for small samples......Penalized regression models such as the Lasso have proved useful for variable selection in many fields - especially for situations with high-dimensional data where the numbers of predictors far exceeds the number of observations. These methods identify and rank variables of importance but do...... not generally provide any inference of the selected variables. Thus, the variables selected might be the "most important" but need not be significant. We propose a significance test for the selection found by the Lasso. We introduce a procedure that computes inference and p-values for features chosen...

  6. Selective high-affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denardo, Sally J.; Denardo, Gerald L.; Balhorn, Rodney L.

    2018-02-06

    This invention provides novel polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each bind different region son the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  7. High Trans Kinetic Selectivity in Ruthenium-Based Olefin Cross-Metathesis through Stereoretention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Adam M; Ahmed, Tonia S; Jackson, Bradford W; Grubbs, Robert H; Pederson, Richard L

    2016-02-19

    The first kinetically controlled, highly trans-selective (>98%) olefin cross-metathesis reaction is demonstrated using Ru-based catalysts. Reactions with either trans or cis olefins afford products with highly trans or cis stereochemistry, respectively. This E-selective olefin cross-metathesis is shown to occur between two trans olefins and between a trans olefin and a terminal olefin. Additionally, new stereoretentive catalysts have been synthesized for improved reactivity.

  8. High-throughput screening to identify selective inhibitors of microbial sulfate reduction (and beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. K.; Coates, J. D.; Deutschbauer, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The selective perturbation of complex microbial ecosystems to predictably influence outcomes in engineered and industrial environments remains a grand challenge for geomicrobiology. In some industrial ecosystems, such as oil reservoirs, sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM) produce hydrogen sulfide which is toxic, explosive and corrosive. Current strategies to selectively inhibit sulfidogenesis are based on non-specific biocide treatments, bio-competitive exclusion by alternative electron acceptors or sulfate-analogs which are competitive inhibitors or futile/alternative substrates of the sulfate reduction pathway. Despite the economic cost of sulfidogenesis, there has been minimal exploration of the chemical space of possible inhibitory compounds, and very little work has quantitatively assessed the selectivity of putative souring treatments. We have developed a high-throughput screening strategy to target SRM, quantitatively ranked the selectivity and potency of hundreds of compounds and identified previously unrecognized SRM selective inhibitors and synergistic interactions between inhibitors. Once inhibitor selectivity is defined, high-throughput characterization of microbial community structure across compound gradients and identification of fitness determinants using isolate bar-coded transposon mutant libraries can give insights into the genetic mechanisms whereby compounds structure microbial communities. The high-throughput (HT) approach we present can be readily applied to target SRM in diverse environments and more broadly, could be used to identify and quantify the potency and selectivity of inhibitors of a variety of microbial metabolisms. Our findings and approach are relevant for engineering environmental ecosystems and also to understand the role of natural gradients in shaping microbial niche space.

  9. Participatory Barley Variety Selection and Farmers' Selection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory Barley Variety Selection and Farmers' Selection Criteria in the Bale Highlands of Southeastern Ethiopia. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... The aim of the study was to identify farmers' selection criteria, preferences and generate baseline information on the importance of participatory barley ...

  10. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  11. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Sadowska

    Full Text Available Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  12. Selective and Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Capture by Highly Polarizing Porous Carbon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youngtak; Le, Viet-Duc; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Hwang, Jin Ok; Park, Woo Jin; Lim, Joonwon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Youn-Sang; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-22

    Energy-efficient CO2 capture is a stringent demand for green and sustainable energy supply. Strong adsorption is desirable for high capacity and selective capture at ambient conditions but unfavorable for regeneration of adsorbents by a simple pressure control process. Here we present highly regenerative and selective CO2 capture by carbon nitride functionalized porous reduced graphene oxide aerogel surface. The resultant structure demonstrates large CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient conditions (0.43 mmol·g(-1)) and high CO2 selectivity against N2 yet retains regenerability to desorb 98% CO2 by simple pressure swing. First-principles thermodynamics calculations revealed that microporous edges of graphitic carbon nitride offer the optimal CO2 adsorption by induced dipole interaction and allows excellent CO2 selectivity as well as facile regenerability. This work identifies a customized route to reversible gas capture using metal-free, two-dimensional carbonaceous materials, which can be extended to other useful applications.

  13. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...... of mixture in the distribution of the observed FP and by studying the evolution of the proportion of very high FP along the sequence of 8 generations. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that the gene transcription profile of the birds performing high FP differs from the profile of the other...

  14. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Sugawara, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-01-27

    Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  15. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kawanishi

    Full Text Available Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  16. Simple and highly Z-selective ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Hansen, Fredrik R; Törnroos, Karl W; Jensen, Vidar R

    2013-03-06

    A one-step substitution of a single chloride anion of the Grubbs-Hoveyda second-generation catalyst with a 2,4,6-triphenylbenzenethiolate ligand resulted in an active olefin metathesis catalyst with remarkable Z selectivity, reaching 96% in metathesis homocoupling of terminal olefins. High turnover numbers (up to 2000 for homocoupling of 1-octene) were obtained along with sustained appreciable Z selectivity (>85%). Apart from the Z selectivity, many properties of the new catalyst, such as robustness toward oxygen and water as well as a tendency to isomerize substrates and react with internal olefin products, resemble those of the parent catalyst.

  17. Near-infrared light controlled photocatalytic activity of carbon quantum dots for highly selective oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-03-01

    Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize the transformation from benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high selectivity (100%) and conversion (92%) under NIR light irradiation. HO&z.rad; is the main active oxygen specie in benzyl alcohol selective oxidative reaction confirmed by terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing assay (TA-PL), selecting toluene as the substrate. Such metal-free photocatalytic system also selectively converts other alcohol substrates to their corresponding aldehydes with high conversion, demonstrating a potential application of accessing traditional alcohol oxidation chemistry.Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize

  18. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2017-09-13

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  19. A visual method for direct selection of high-producing Pichia pastoris clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, offers the possibility to generate a high amount of recombinant proteins in a fast and easy way to use expression system. Being a single-celled microorganism, P. pastoris is easy to manipulate and grows rapidly on inexpensive media at high cell densities. A simple and direct method for the selection of high-producing clones can dramatically enhance the whole production process along with significant decrease in production costs. Results A visual method for rapid selection of high-producing clones based on mannanase reporter system was developed. The study explained that it was possible to use mannanase activity as a measure of the expression level of the protein of interest. High-producing target protein clones were directly selected based on the size of hydrolysis holes in the selected plate. As an example, the target gene (9elp-hal18 was expressed and purified in Pichia pastoris using this technology. Conclusions A novel methodology is proposed for obtaining the high-producing clones of proteins of interest, based on the mannanase reporter system. This system may be adapted to other microorganisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the selection of clones.

  20. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria eShimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc. However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the adult time-window related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM

  1. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults' selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children's selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults' selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the "adult time-window" related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children's neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in children.

  2. SELECTION RESPONSE FOR INCREASED GRAIN YIELD IN TWO HIGH OIL MAIZE SYNTHETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made J. Mejaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selection for increased oil level in maize showed the increase was associated with decrease in starch concentration, kernel weight, and grain yield. The study was conducted with the objectives: (1 to evaluate response to six cycles for increased grain yield in the high oil maize Alexho Elite (AE: 60-90 g kg-1 oil concentration and Ultra High Oil (UHO: 100-140 g kg-1 oil concentration using inbred tester B73; (2 to measure responses to selection for increased grain yield with changes in yield components; and (3 to determine a suitable tester. Previously the two synthetics had been selected for oil concentration. After six cycles, the six genotypes i.e. AE C0, AE C3, AE C6, UHO C0, UHO C3, and UHO C6 were testcrossed to B73, LH185, and LH202 inbreds (40 g kg-1 oil concentration to a total of 18 testcrosses. Two field experiments were used to evaluate selection in AE and UHO testcrosses. The study showed selection using inbred tester B73 in AE and UHO was effective in increasing grain yield of AE testcrosses without changing (i.e. decreasing oil and protein concentrations. AE testcrosses produced higher grain yield and greater selection response for grain yield than UHO testcrosses. LH185 was best for grain yield in AE and UHO testcrosses. Increase in grain yield in most of the testcrosses was associated with increases in starch concentration, kernel weight, kernel number, and grain weight.

  3. Natural Selection on Genes Related to Cardiovascular Health in High-Altitude Adapted Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Amaru, Ricardo; Song, Jihyun; Julian, Colleen G; Racimo, Fernando; Cheng, Jade Yu; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Lima, João A; Rotter, Jerome I; Stehlik, Josef; Moore, Lorna G; Prchal, Josef T; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-11-02

    The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia. In contrast, high-altitude-adapted Quechua- and Aymara-speaking inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano are not protected from high-altitude polycythemia in the same way, yet they exhibit other adaptive features for which the genetic underpinnings remain obscure. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to scan high-altitude Andeans for signals of selection. The genes showing the strongest evidence of selection-including BRINP3, NOS2, and TBX5-are associated with cardiovascular development and function but are not in the response-to-hypoxia pathway. Using association mapping, we demonstrated that the haplotypes under selection are associated with phenotypic variations related to cardiovascular health. We hypothesize that selection in response to hypoxia in Andeans could have vascular effects and could serve to mitigate the deleterious effects of polycythemia rather than reduce polycythemia itself. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The social selection alternative to sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughgarden, Joan

    2012-08-19

    Social selection offers an alternative to sexual selection by reversing its logic. Social selection starts with offspring production and works back to mating, and starts with behavioural dynamics and works up to gene pool dynamics. In social selection, courtship can potentially be deduced as a negotiation, leading to an optimal allocation of tasks during offspring rearing. Ornaments facilitate this negotiation and also comprise 'admission tickets' to cliques. Mating pairs may form 'teams' based on the reciprocal sharing of pleasure. The parent-offspring relation can be managed by the parent considered as the owner of a 'family firm' whose product is offspring. The cooperation in reproductive social behaviour evolves as a mutual direct benefit through individual selection rather than as some form of altruism requiring kin or multi-level selection.

  5. A Highly Selective Photoresist Ashing Process for Silicon Nitride Films by Addition of Trifluoromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Makoto; Eto, Hideo; Makino, Nobuaki; Omiya, Kayoko; Homma, Tetsuya; Nagatomo, Takao

    2001-09-01

    A highly selective photoresist ashing process was developed for the fabrication of thin-film transistor liquid-crystal displays (TFT-LCDs). This ashing process utilizes downflow plasma consisting of a carbon trifluoromethane/oxygen (CHF3/O2) gas mixture at a low temperature. The etching selectivity of photoresist films to silicon nitride (SiN) film increased when using the CHF3/O2 gas mixture plasma, as compared to that when using the carbon tetrafluoride/oxygen (CF4/O2) gas mixture plasma. At the CHF3 gas flow rate of 30 sccm, a high etching selectivity ratio of about 1080 for the photoresist films to the SiN films was achieved at room temperature. On the basis of surface analysis results for SiN films and plasma analysis results for the CHF3/O2 gas mixture, a mechanism for the high etching selectivity of the photoresist films was proposed. Reaction products that were formed on SiN films by the CHF3/O2 gas mixture plasma obstructed the etching of SiN films by fluorine (F) radicals, resulting in the high selectivity. It was found that the CHF3/O2 gas mixture plasma reacted with SiN, resulting in the formation of a protective reaction product that is considered to be an ammonium salt such as (NH4)2SiF6.

  6. High-paraffinaceous oil as a disperse system: The selection of a flow equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, V.N.; Kirsanov, E.S.; Remizov, S.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1994-05-01

    The rheological properties of high-paraffinaceous oil were studied for different preliminary mechanical treatments of the samples. The flow curves were analyzed by different rheological models. The selection of Casson`s model for the range of high shear velocities was proven.

  7. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  8. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  9. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the efficient real time selection of the rare physics process of interest. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging the experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principal among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, specific trigger objects have been improved by building algorithms using detailed tracking and vertexing in specific detector regions to improve background rejection without loosing signal efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have benefited from a new high performance Inner Detector (ID) software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced in future by the installation...

  10. An Augmented Common Weight Data Envelopment Analysis for Material Selection in High-tech Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Shokr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a challenging issue in manufacturing processes while the inappropriate selected material may lead to fail the manufacturing process or end user experience especially in high-tech industries such as aircraft and shipping. Every material has different quantitative and qualitative criteria which should be considered simultaneously when assessing and selecting the right material. A weighted linear optimization method (WLOM in the class of data envelopment analysis which exists in literature is adopted to address material selection problem while accounting for both qualitative and quantitative criteria. However, it is demonstrated the adopted WLOM method is not able to produce a full ranking vector for the material selection problems borrowed from the literature. Thus, an augmented common weight data envelopment analysis model (ACWDEA is developed in this paper with the aim of eliminating deficiencies of WLOM model. The proposed ACWDEA is able to produce full ranking vector in decision making problems with less computational complexities in superior to the WLOM. Two material selection problems are solved and results are compared with WLOM and previous methods. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed ACWDEA method are evaluated through Spearman’s correlation tests.

  11. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  12. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  13. Design of Highly Selective Gas Sensors via Physicochemical Modification of Oxide Nanowires: Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sik Woo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the enhancement of gas sensing properties, and specifically the improvement of gas selectivity of metal oxide semiconductor nanowire (NW networks grown by chemical vapor deposition and thermal evaporation, are reviewed. Highly crystalline NWs grown by vapor-phase routes have various advantages, and thus have been applied in the field of gas sensors over the years. In particular, n-type NWs such as SnO2, ZnO, and In2O3 are widely studied because of their simple synthetic preparation and high gas response. However, due to their usually high responses to C2H5OH and NO2, the selective detection of other harmful and toxic gases using oxide NWs remains a challenging issue. Various strategies—such as doping/loading of noble metals, decorating/doping of catalytic metal oxides, and the formation of core–shell structures—have been explored to enhance gas selectivity and sensitivity, and are discussed herein. Additional methods such as the transformation of n-type into p-type NWs and the formation of catalyst-doped hierarchical structures by branch growth have also proven to be promising for the enhancement of gas selectivity. Accordingly, the physicochemical modification of oxide NWs via various methods provides new strategies to achieve the selective detection of a specific gas, and after further investigations, this approach could pave a new way in the field of NW-based semiconductor-type gas sensors.

  14. Enhanced selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells following cyclophosphamide treatment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kawabata

    Full Text Available A major goal for the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with cytotoxic therapies is the induction of long-term remission. There is, however, a paucity of information concerning the effects of these therapies on the reconstituting B cell repertoire. Since there is recent evidence suggesting that B cell lymphopenia might attenuate negative selection of autoreactive B cells, we elected to investigate the effects of cyclophosphamide on the selection of the re-emerging B cell repertoire in wild type mice and transgenic mice that express the H chain of an anti-DNA antibody. The reconstituting B cell repertoire in wild type mice contained an increased frequency of DNA-reactive B cells; in heavy chain transgenic mice, the reconstituting repertoire was characterized by an increased frequency of mature, high affinity DNA-reactive B cells and the mice expressed increased levels of serum anti-DNA antibodies. This coincided with a significant increase in serum levels of BAFF. Treatment of transgene-expressing mice with a BAFF blocking agent or with DNase to reduce exposure to autoantigen limited the expansion of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells during B cell reconstitution. These studies suggest that during B cell reconstitution, not only is negative selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells impaired by increased BAFF, but also that B cells escaping negative selection are positively selected by autoantigen. There are significant implications for therapy.

  15. High performance selectively oxidized VCSELs and arrays for parallel high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederer, Felix; Grabherr, Martin; Eberhard, Franz; Ecker, Irene; Jäger, Roland; Joos, Jürgen; Jung, Chistian; Kicherer, Max; King, Roger; Schnitzer, Peter; Unold, Heiko; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Ebeling, Karl Joachim

    We introduce a new layout for high-bandwidth single-mode selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays operating at 980 nm or 850 nm emission wavelength for substrate or epitaxial side emission. Coplanar feeding lines and polyimide passivation are used to reduce electrical parasitics in top-emitting GaAs and bottom-emitting InGaAs VCSELs. In order to enhance fundamental single-mode emission for larger devices of reduced series resistance a surface relief transverse mode filter is employed. Fabricated VCSELs are applied in various interconnect schemes. In detail, we demonstrate 2.5 Gb/s pseudo-random data transmission with GaAs VCSELs at an emission wavelength of λ=835 nm over 120 μm core diameter step index plastic-optical fiber (POF) of 2.5 m length. InGaAs quantum-well based VCSELs at 935 nm emission wavelength are investigated for use in perfluorinated graded-index plastic-optical fiber (GI-POF) links. We obtain a 7 Gb/s pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data transmission over 80 m long 155 μm diameter GI-POF. We investigate data transmission over standard 1300 nm, 9 μm core diameter single-mode fiber using selectively oxidized single-mode GaAs or InGaAs VCSELs. We achieve biased 3 Gb/s and bias-free 1 Gb/s pseudo-random data transmission over 4.3 km at 830 nm emission wavelength where a simple fiber mode filter is used to suppress intermodal dispersion caused by the second order fiber mode. For the first time, we demonstrate 12.5 Gb/s data rate transmission of PRBS signals over 100 m graded-index multimode fiber or 1 km single-mode fiber using high performance single-mode GaAs VCSELs of 12.3 GHz modulation bandwidth emitting at λ=850 nm. Longer wave-length InGaAs VCSELs with emission at λ=1130 nm are used to transmit 2.5 Gb/s signals over 10 km of 9 μm standard fiber. For all data transmission experiments bit-error rates (BER) remain better than 10-11 for transmission of PRBS signals for back

  16. Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S.; Saha, Tanmoy; Desai, Aamod V.; Talukdar, Pinaki; Ghosh, Sujit K.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known to play a vital role in human physiology and pathology which stimulated interest in understanding complex behaviour of H2S. Discerning the pathways of H2S production and its mode of action is still a challenge owing to its volatile and reactive nature. Herein we report azide functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) as a selective turn-on fluorescent probe for H2S detection. The MOF shows highly selective and fast response towards H2S even in presence of other relevant biomolecules. Low cytotoxicity and H2S detection in live cells, demonstrate the potential of MOF towards monitoring H2S chemistry in biological system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOF that exhibit fast and highly selective fluorescence turn-on response towards H2S under physiological conditions.

  17. Graphene oxide membranes with high permeability and selectivity for dehumidification of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Chase-Woods, Dylan G.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Devanathan, Ram; Fifield, Leonard S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Gotthold, David W.

    2016-09-01

    Hierarchically stacked 2D graphene oxide (GO) membranes are a fascinating and promising new class of materials with the potential for radically improved water vapor/gas separation with excellent selectivity and high permeability. This paper details dehumidification results from flowing gas mixtures through free-standing GO membrane samples prepared by a casting method. The first demonstrated use of free-standing GO membranes for water vapor separation reveals outstanding water vapor permeability and H2O/N2 selectivity. Free-standing GO membranes exhibit extremely high water vapor permeability of 1.82 x 105 Barrer and a water vapor permeance of 1.01 x 10-5 mol/m2sPa, while the nitrogen permeability was below the system’s detection limit, yielding a selectivity >104 in 80% relative humidity (RH) air at 30.8 °C. The results show great potential for a range of energy conversion and environmental applications

  18. Genomic mapping of social behavior traits in a F2 cross derived from mice selectively bred for high aggression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Wang, Shiliang; Buus, Ryan J; Perkins, James; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Rapid response to selection was previously observed in mice selected for high levels of inter-male aggression based on number of attacks displayed in a novel social interaction test after isolation housing...

  19. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Einar E; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Poulsen, Nina A; Loeschcke, Volker; Moen, Thomas; Johansen, Torild; Mittelholzer, Christian; Taranger, Geir-Lasse; Ogden, Rob; Carvalho, Gary R

    2009-01-01

    .... Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection...

  20. Selectivity in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.; Ensing, K

    1999-01-01

    This review gives a survey of selectivity modes in capillary electrophoresis separations in pharmaceutical analysis and bioanalysis. Despite the high efficiencies of these separation techniques, good selectivity is required to allow quantitation or identification of a Chemistry and Toxicology,

  1. From selective to highly selective SSRIs: a comparison of the antinociceptive properties of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram and escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Shaul; Pick, Chaim G

    2006-08-01

    Most Serotonin Selective Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been found to possess secondary binding properties, while citalopram and its S-enantiomer (escitalopram) have been reconfirmed "purest SSRIs". Using the mouse model of acute pain hotplate analgesia meter, we evaluated the antinociceptive properties of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram and escitalopram, injected i.p. Fluvoxamine induced a dose-dependent clear antinociceptive effect (with an ED(50) value of 6.4 mg/kg). Both fluoxetine and citalopram induced (separately) only a weak antinociceptive effect with an inverse "U" shape curve. All three drug's effects were not abolished by naloxone. Escitalopram did not elicit any effect at quasi-equipotent doses. These findings show that fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and citalopram given i.p. are weak antinociceptors, (not mediated through opioid mechanisms), while escitalopram possesses no antinociceptive properties when injected i.p. This difference between citalopram and escitalopram calls for further studies in order to assess the various differences between the two enantiomers of citalopram, and between each enantiomer and the racemic mixture.

  2. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  3. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  4. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  5. A high-content subtractive screen for selecting small molecules affecting internalization of GPCRs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kwon, Y-J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available transduction to physiology. Here, the authors demonstrate a high-content screen using a panel of GPCR assays to identify receptor selective molecules acting within the kinase/phosphatase inhibitor family. A collection of 88 kinase and phosphatase inhibitors...

  6. Highly selective detection of Zn 2 and Cd 2 with a simple amino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 1. Highly selective detection of Zn2+ and Cd2+ with a simple amino-terpyridine compound in ... Author Affiliations. Duobin Chao1. School of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin, Liaoning 124221, P. R. China ...

  7. Pd-Diimine : A Highly Selective Catalyst System for the Base-Free Oxidative Heck Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Teichert, Johannes F.; Heijnen, Donis; Eisink, Niek; van Dijk, Simon; Ferrer, Catalina; van den Hoogenband, Adri; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2011-01-01

    Pd(OAc)(2)/3 is an efficient catalyst system for the base-free oxidative Heck reaction that outperforms the currently available catalysts for the more challenging substrates studied. The catalyst system is highly selective, and works at room temperature with dioxygen as the oxidant.

  8. High-tide habitat choice : insights from modelling roost selection by shorebirds around a tropical bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Danny I.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis; Van Gils, Jan A.; Rogers, Ken G.

    High tides force shorebirds from intertidal feeding areas to sites known as roosts. We investigated the roost selection of great knots, Calidris tenuirostris, and red knots, Calidris canutus, on a tropical coastline in northwestern Australia, assessing several roost attributes and recording the

  9. Process for selecting NEAMS applications for access to Idaho National Laboratory high performance computing resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Pernice

    2010-09-01

    INL has agreed to provide participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Mod- eling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with access to its high performance computing (HPC) resources under sponsorship of the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) program element. This report documents the process used to select applications and the software stack in place at INL.

  10. A Highly Active and Selective Manganese Oxide Promoted Cobalt-on-Silica Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Breejen, Johan P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837318; Frey, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341358851; Yang, Jia; Holmen, Anders; van Schooneveld, Matti M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315032863; de Groot, Frank M. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Stephan, Odile; Bitter, Johannes H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/160581435; de Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    A highly active and selective manganese oxide-promoted silica-supported cobalt catalyst for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is reported. Co/MnO/SiO2 catalysts were prepared via impregnation of a cobalt nitrate and manganese nitrate precursor, followed by drying and calcination in an NO/He flow. The

  11. Selecting microalgae with high lipid productivity and photosynthetic activity under nitrogen starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benvenuti, G.; Bosma, R.; Cuaresma Franco, M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    An economically feasible microalgal lipid industry heavily relies on the selection of suitable strains. Because microalgae lipid content increases under a range of adverse conditions (e.g. nutrient deprivation, high light intensity), photosynthetic activity is usually strongly reduced. As a

  12. Ir/Sn dual-reagent catalysis towards highly selective alkylation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    *For correspondence. Ir/Sn dual-reagent catalysis towards highly selective alkylation of arenes and heteroarenes with benzyl alcohols. SUJIT ROY*, SUSMITA PODDER and JOYANTA CHOUDHURY. Organometallics and Catalysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur 721 302.

  13. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    in current diesel after-treatment techniques. The electrochemical system consisted of an electrochemical cell modified with NOx adsorbents and a diesel oxidation catalyst placed upstream of the cell. The system offers highly selective NOx reduction and a strong resistance to oxygen interference with almost...... zero emission of secondary pollutants....

  14. Materials selection for low temperature processed high Q resonators using ashby approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazmi, S.N.R.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging class of microfabrication technology that can truly be anticipated as an enabling technology for future radio frequency (RF) communications. This work focuses on the material selection using the Ashby approach for the high-Q resonators that need

  15. Middle-Class Parents' Educational Work in an Academically Selective Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study on the nature of parent-school engagement at an academically selective public high school in New South Wales, Australia. Such research is pertinent given recent policies of "choice" and decentralization, making a study of local stakeholders timely. The research comprised a set of interviews…

  16. Highly Active Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts Exhibiting Unprecedented Activity and Z-Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrugh, Lauren E.; Herbert, Myles B.; Marx, Vanessa M.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel chelated ruthenium-based metathesis catalyst bearing an N-2,6-diisopropylphenyl group is reported and displays near-perfect selectivity for the Z-olefin (>95%), as well as unparalleled TONs of up to 7400, in a variety of homodimerization and industrially relevant metathesis reactions. This derivative and other new catalytically-active species were synthesized using an improved method employing sodium carboxylates to induce the salt metathesis and C-H activation of these chelated complexes. All of these new ruthenium-based catalysts are highly Z-selective in the homodimerization of terminal olefins. PMID:23317178

  17. Examining applying high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajab, Murad; Lu, Joan; Xu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and efficiency (time complexity) of high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis. The need for this research derives from the urgent and increasing need for accurate and efficient algorithms. Colon cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, hence it is vitally important for the cancer tissues to be expertly identified and classified in a rapid and timely manner, to assure both a fast detection of the disease and to expedite the drug discovery process. In this research, a three-phase approach was proposed and implemented: Phases One and Two examined the feature selection algorithms and classification algorithms employed separately, and Phase Three examined the performance of the combination of these. It was found from Phase One that the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm performed best with the colon dataset as a feature selection (29 genes selected) and from Phase Two that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm outperformed other classifications, with an accuracy of almost 86%. It was also found from Phase Three that the combined use of PSO and SVM surpassed other algorithms in accuracy and performance, and was faster in terms of time analysis (94%). It is concluded that applying feature selection algorithms prior to classification algorithms results in better accuracy than when the latter are applied alone. This conclusion is important and significant to industry and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  19. Detecting selection signatures between Duroc and Duroc synthetic pig populations using high-density SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edea, Z; Hong, J-K; Jung, J-H; Kim, D-W; Kim, Y-M; Kim, E-S; Shin, S S; Jung, Y C; Kim, K-S

    2017-08-01

    The development of high throughput genotyping techniques has facilitated the identification of selection signatures of pigs. The detection of genomic selection signals in a population subjected to differential selection pressures may provide insights into the genes associated with economically and biologically important traits. To identify genomic regions under selection, we genotyped 488 Duroc (D) pigs and 155 D × Korean native pigs (DKNPs) using the Porcine SNP70K BeadChip. By applying the FST and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH-Rsb) methods, we detected genes under directional selection associated with growth/stature (DOCK7, PLCB4, HS2ST1, FBP2 and TG), carcass and meat quality (TG, COL14A1, FBXO5, NR3C1, SNX7, ARHGAP26 and DPYD), number of teats (LOC100153159 and LRRC1), pigmentation (MME) and ear morphology (SOX5), which are all mostly near or at fixation. These results could be a basis for investigating the underlying mutations associated with observed phenotypic variation. Validation using genome-wide association analysis would also facilitate the inclusion of some of these markers in genetic evaluation programs. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. Selection for postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, Gominda G

    2010-12-01

    Selection for an educational programme requires meticulous planning and the adoption of sound educational principles to decide on how and what should be assessed. This article provides a step-wise guide for developing a selection process for postgraduate specialty training, based on the best practice in the literature. The literature on selecting applicants for educational programmes was reviewed to categorise the selection methods according to their purpose, and their relative strengths and weaknesses. A step-wise guide that encapsulated the best practice for designing a selection process for postgraduate specialty training was then developed. The steps of developing a selection process for postgraduate specialty training are: determining the competencies required for the training programme; selecting the competencies that can be assessed at selection; identifying content for selection; blueprinting; choice of selection tests; development of test material; piloting; and implementation and evaluation of the selection process. There are robust tests to assess applicants' knowledge at the lower two levels of Miller's pyramid. Scenario-based testing holds promise for assessing at 'shows-how' level. Assessing at 'does' level during selection is difficult, but not impossible. There is no one test that can be used to select an applicant for a postgraduate training programme. Rather a battery of tests that assesses all the competencies, sampled according to a blueprint, should be used. The eight-step guide proposed in this article provides an educationally sound and defensible procedure to develop a selection process. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  1. Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensing of Proteins Based on a Fluorescent Molecularly Imprinted Nanosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent molecularly imprinted nanosensor was obtained by grafting imprinted polymer onto the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and post-imprinting treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. The fluorescence of lysozyme-imprinted polymer (Lys-MIP was quenched more strongly by Lys than that of nonimprinted polymer (NIP, which indicated that the Lys-MIP could recognize Lys. The resulted imprinted material has the ability to selectively sense a target protein, and an imprinting factor of 3.34 was achieved. The Lys-MIP also showed selective detection for Lys among other proteins such as cytochrome C (Cyt C, hemoglobin (HB and bovine serum albumin (BSA due to the imprinted sites in the Lys-MIP. This approach combines the high selectivity of surface molecular imprinting technology and fluorescence, and converts binding events into detectable signals by monitoring fluorescence spectra. Therefore, it will have further applications for Lys sensing.

  2. Entrepreneurs and Economic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk

    model for competition in service sectors is seen as particularly interesting, as the Mark I model thus provides a framework for future analysis of competition in sectors that are very poorly described by the focus on production, goods and quantities of most traditional theory. The selection aspect...... of Schumpeter's models is also mapped and it is shown that the traditional interpretation of selection as a source of allocative efficiency is at most applicable to input markets in manufacturing sectors. In output markets and in service sectors in general selection is a more dynamic phenomenon where resources......The paper discusses Schumpeter's models of competition and then attempts to identify the Mark I model empirically. The results are that entrepreneurial activity is important in young sectors, as expected, but also often in high-tech sectors and in many service sectors. The relevance of the Mark I...

  3. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  4. High amino acid diversity and positive selection at a putative coral immunity gene (tachylectin-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellberg Michael E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in immune functions, including pathogen recognition and the activation of innate defense pathways, are among the most genetically variable known, and the proteins that they encode are often characterized by high rates of amino acid substitutions, a hallmark of positive selection. The high levels of variation characteristic of immunity genes make them useful tools for conservation genetics. To date, highly variable immunity genes have yet to be found in corals, keystone organisms of the world's most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reef. Here, we examine variation in and selection on a putative innate immunity gene from Oculina, a coral genus previously used as a model for studies of coral disease and bleaching. Results In a survey of 244 Oculina alleles, we find high nonsynonymous variation and a signature of positive selection, consistent with a putative role in immunity. Using computational protein structure prediction, we generate a structural model of the Oculina protein that closely matches the known structure of tachylectin-2 from the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus, a protein with demonstrated function in microbial recognition and agglutination. We also demonstrate that at least three other genera of anthozoan cnidarians (Acropora, Montastrea and Nematostella possess proteins structurally similar to tachylectin-2. Conclusions Taken together, the evidence of high amino acid diversity, positive selection and structural correspondence to the horseshoe crab tachylectin-2 suggests that this protein is 1 part of Oculina's innate immunity repertoire, and 2 evolving adaptively, possibly under selective pressure from coral-associated microorganisms. Tachylectin-2 may serve as a candidate locus to screen coral populations for their capacity to respond adaptively to future environmental change.

  5. SELECTION IN SPORT - FOOTBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Vukajlović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative system children and youth sports’ training in most of the countries contain well defined procedure of selection top-level sportsman. In developed countries basis of prestige include well organized football schools in which selected groups of potential top/level football players are treated with very re- strictive training programs. Selection of football players is multiple activity which contains download and selectivity. Using organized selection incidental is avoided and first precondition for quali- tative work of football school is ensured. Selections in schools should be conducted at least two times per year, basic selec- tions once per year after ending competing season

  6. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Daniel; Golomb, Julie D; Walther, Dirk B

    2017-01-01

    In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA), was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the

  7. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Berman

    Full Text Available In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA, was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings

  8. Marker-Assisted Selection to Pyramid Nematode Resistance and the High Oleic Trait in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of peanut ( L. farming demand a quick response from breeders to develop new cultivars, a process that can be aided by the application of molecular markers. With the goal to pyramid nematode resistance and the trait for high oleic:linoleic acid (high O:L ratio in seeds, nematode-resistant cultivar Tifguard was used as the recurrent female parent and high O:L cultivars Georgia-02C and Florida-07 were used as donor parents for the high O:L trait. ‘Tifguard High O/L’ was generated through three rounds of accelerated backcrossing using BCF progenies selected with molecular markers for these two traits as the pollen donors. Selfed BCF plants yielded marker-homozygous individuals identified as Tifguard High O/L, compressing the hybridization and selection phases of the cultivar development process to less than 3 yr. The accuracy of marker-assisted selection (MAS was confirmed by phenotyping a subset of F populations from both parental combinations. Once additional molecular markers linked with traits of interest are designed to be compatible with high-throughput screening platforms, MAS will be more widely integrated into peanut breeding programs.

  9. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  10. Hierarchical High-Order Functional Connectivity Networks and Selective Feature Fusion for MCI Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Han; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-07-01

    Conventional Functional connectivity (FC) analysis focuses on characterizing the correlation between two brain regions, whereas the high-order FC can model the correlation between two brain region pairs. To reduce the number of brain region pairs, clustering is applied to group all the brain region pairs into a small number of clusters. Then, a high-order FC network can be constructed based on the clustering result. By varying the number of clusters, multiple high-order FC networks can be generated and the one with the best overall performance can be finally selected. However, the important information contained in other networks may be simply discarded. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose to make full use of the information contained in all high-order FC networks. First, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering technique is applied such that the clustering result in one layer always depends on the previous layer, thus making the high-order FC networks in the two consecutive layers highly correlated. As a result, the features extracted from high-order FC network in each layer can be decomposed into two parts (blocks), i.e., one is redundant while the other might be informative or complementary, with respect to its previous layer. Then, a selective feature fusion method, which combines sequential forward selection and sparse regression, is developed to select a feature set from those informative feature blocks for classification. Experimental results confirm that our novel method outperforms the best single high-order FC network in diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects.

  11. Deep Mutational Scanning: Library Construction, Functional Selection, and High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Fields, Stanley

    2015-08-03

    Deep mutational scanning is a highly parallel method that uses high-throughput sequencing to track changes in >10(5) protein variants before and after selection to measure the effects of mutations on protein function. Here we outline the stages of a deep mutational scanning experiment, focusing on the construction of libraries of protein sequence variants and the preparation of Illumina sequencing libraries. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Oligonucleotide Functionalised Microbeads: Indispensable Tools for High-Throughput Aptamer Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis A. Fraser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalisation of microbeads with oligonucleotides has become an indispensable technique for high-throughput aptamer selection in SELEX protocols. In addition to simplifying the separation of binding and non-binding aptamer candidates, microbeads have facilitated the integration of other technologies such as emulsion PCR (ePCR and Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS to high-throughput selection techniques. Within these systems, monoclonal aptamer microbeads can be individually generated and assayed to assess aptamer candidate fitness thereby helping eliminate stochastic effects which are common to classical SELEX techniques. Such techniques have given rise to aptamers with 1000 times greater binding affinities when compared to traditional SELEX. Another emerging technique is Fluorescence Activated Droplet Sorting (FADS whereby selection does not rely on binding capture allowing evolution of a greater diversity of aptamer properties such as fluorescence or enzymatic activity. Within this review we explore examples and applications of oligonucleotide functionalised microbeads in aptamer selection and reflect upon new opportunities arising for aptamer science.

  13. Oligonucleotide Functionalised Microbeads: Indispensable Tools for High-Throughput Aptamer Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lewis A; Kinghorn, Andrew B; Tang, Marco S L; Cheung, Yee-Wai; Lim, Bryce; Liang, Shaolin; Dirkzwager, Roderick M; Tanner, Julian A

    2015-12-01

    The functionalisation of microbeads with oligonucleotides has become an indispensable technique for high-throughput aptamer selection in SELEX protocols. In addition to simplifying the separation of binding and non-binding aptamer candidates, microbeads have facilitated the integration of other technologies such as emulsion PCR (ePCR) and Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) to high-throughput selection techniques. Within these systems, monoclonal aptamer microbeads can be individually generated and assayed to assess aptamer candidate fitness thereby helping eliminate stochastic effects which are common to classical SELEX techniques. Such techniques have given rise to aptamers with 1000 times greater binding affinities when compared to traditional SELEX. Another emerging technique is Fluorescence Activated Droplet Sorting (FADS) whereby selection does not rely on binding capture allowing evolution of a greater diversity of aptamer properties such as fluorescence or enzymatic activity. Within this review we explore examples and applications of oligonucleotide functionalised microbeads in aptamer selection and reflect upon new opportunities arising for aptamer science.

  14. Miniaturizable Ion-Selective Arrays Based on Highly Stable Polymer Membranes for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Mir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylchloride (PVC is the most common polymer matrix used in the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs. However, the surfaces of PVC-based sensors have been reported to show membrane instability. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, here we developed two alternative methods for the preparation of highly stable and robust ion-selective sensors. These platforms are based on the selective electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, where the sulfur atoms contained in the polymer covalently interact with the gold electrode, also permitting controlled selective attachment on a miniaturized electrode in an array format. This platform sensor was improved with the crosslinking of the membrane compounds with poly(ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (PEG, thus also increasing the biocompatibility of the sensor. The resulting ISE membranes showed faster signal stabilization of the sensor response compared with that of the PVC matrix and also better reproducibility and stability, thus making these platforms highly suitable candidates for the manufacture of robust implantable sensors.

  15. Submillimetre observations of WISE-selected high-redshift, luminous AGN and their surrounding overdense environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Suzy F.

    2016-08-01

    We present JCMT SCUBA-2 850 μm submillimetre (submm) observations of 10 mid-infrared (mid-IR) luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky IR survey and 30 that have also been detected by the NVSS/FIRST radio survey. These rare sources are selected by their extremely red mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Further investigations show that they are highly obscured, have abundant warm AGN-heated dust and are thought to be experiencing intense AGN feedback. When comparing the number of submm galaxies detected serendipitously in the surrounding 1.5 arcmin to those in blank-field submm surveys, there is a very significant overdensity, of order 3-5, but no sign of radial clustering centred at our primary objects. The WISE-selected AGN thus reside in 10-Mpc-scale overdense environments that could be forming in pre-viralized clusters of galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be the strongest signposts of high-density regions of active, luminous and dusty galaxies. SCUBA-2 850 μm observations indicate that their submm fluxes are low compared to many popular AGN SED templates, hence the WISE/radio-selected AGNs have either less cold and/or more warm dust emission than normally assumed for typical AGN. Most of the targets have total IR luminosities ≥1013 L⊙, with known redshifts of 20 targets between z ˜ 0.44-4.6.

  16. Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panos G. Datskos; Michael J. Sepaniak; Nickolay Lavrik; Pampa Dutta; Mustafa Culha

    2005-12-28

    The main objective of this research program is to develop robust and reliable micro-electro-mechanical sensing systems, based on microcantilevers (MCs), that can operate in liquid environments with high levels of sensitivity and selectivity. The chemical responses of MCs result from analyte-induced differential stress at the cantilever surfaces. We aim to employ various surface nanostructuring strategies that enhance these stresses and hence the degree of static bending of the cantilevers. Receptor phases as self assembled monolayers (SAMs) and thin films are being synthesized and tested to provide selectivity. Selectivity is chemically enhanced by using different phases on individual MCs in arrays and by adding a spectroscopic component, surface enhanced Raman spectrometry (SERS), in hybrid approaches to sensing. Significant progress was made in tasks that were listed in the work plan for DOE EMSP project ''Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste''. Several project areas are listed below and discussed and referenced to our literature on the topics.

  17. Highly selective Lewis acid sites in desilicated MFI zeolites for dihydroxyacetone isomerization to lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapsens, Pierre Y; Mondelli, Cecilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Desilication of commercial MFI-type (ZSM-5) zeolites in solutions of alkali metal hydroxides is demonstrated to generate highly selective heterogeneous catalysts for the aqueous-phase isomerization of biobased dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid (LA). The best hierarchical ZSM-5 sample attains a LA selectivity exceeding 90 %, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art catalyst (i.e., the Sn-beta zeolite); this optimized hierarchical catalyst is recyclable over three runs. The Lewis acid sites, which are created through desilication along with the introduction of mesoporosity, are shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the desired product; these cannot be achieved by using other post-synthetic methods, such as steaming or impregnation of aluminum species. Desilication of other metallosilicates, such as Ga-MFI, also leads to high LA selectivity. In the presence of a soluble aluminum source, such as aluminum nitrate, alkaline-assisted alumination can introduce these unique Lewis acid centers in all-silica MFI zeolites. These findings highlight the potential of zeolites in the field of biomass-to-chemical conversion, and expand the applicability of desilication for the generation of selective catalytic centers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil over high-silica zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Guan, Guoqing; Rizkiana, Jenny; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Zhang, Zhonglin; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-03-01

    Four high silica zeolites, i.e., HSZ-385, 890, 960, and 990 were utilized for the selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil from Fallopia japonica to certain chemicals in a fixed-bed reactor. The Beta-type HSZ-960 zeolite showed the highest selectivity to hydrocarbons, especially to aromatics as well as PAH compounds with the lowest unwanted chemicals while HSZ-890 showed high selectivity to aromatics. NH3-Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) analysis indicated that different amounts of acid sites in different zeolites determined the catalytic activity for the oxygen removal from bio-oil, in which the acid sites at low temperature (LT) region gave more contribution within the utilized temperature region. The reusability test of HSZ-960 showed the stability of hydrocarbons yield at higher temperature due to the significant contribution of coke gasification which assisted further deoxygenation of bio-oil. These results provide a guidance to select suitable zeolite catalysts for the upgrading of bio-oil in a practical process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High temperature and bacteriophages can indirectly select for bacterial pathogenicity in environmental reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville-Petri Friman

    Full Text Available The coincidental evolution hypothesis predicts that traits connected to bacterial pathogenicity could be indirectly selected outside the host as a correlated response to abiotic environmental conditions or different biotic species interactions. To investigate this, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Serratia marcescens, was cultured in the absence and presence of the lytic bacteriophage PPV (Podoviridae at 25°C and 37°C for four weeks (N = 5. At the end, we measured changes in bacterial phage-resistance and potential virulence traits, and determined the pathogenicity of all bacterial selection lines in the Parasemia plantaginis insect model in vivo. Selection at 37°C increased bacterial motility and pathogenicity but only in the absence of phages. Exposure to phages increased the phage-resistance of bacteria, and this was costly in terms of decreased maximum population size in the absence of phages. However, this small-magnitude growth cost was not greater with bacteria that had evolved in high temperature regime, and no trade-off was found between phage-resistance and growth rate. As a result, phages constrained the evolution of a temperature-mediated increase in bacterial pathogenicity presumably by preferably infecting the highly motile and virulent bacteria. In more general perspective, our results suggest that the traits connected to bacterial pathogenicity could be indirectly selected as a correlated response by abiotic and biotic factors in environmental reservoirs.

  20. Highly Selective, Reversible Inhibitor Identified by Comparative Chemoproteomics Modulates Diacylglycerol Lipase Activity in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggelaar, Marc P; Chameau, Pascal J P; Kantae, Vasudev; Hummel, Jessica; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Janssen, Freek; van der Wel, Tom; Soethoudt, Marjolein; Deng, Hui; den Dulk, Hans; Allarà, Marco; Florea, Bogdan I; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Wadman, Wytse J; Kruse, Chris G; Overkleeft, Herman S; Hankemeier, Thomas; Werkman, Taco R; Cravatt, Benjamin F; van der Stelt, Mario

    2015-07-15

    Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)-α and -β are enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective and reversible inhibitors are required to study the function of DAGLs in neuronal cells in an acute and temporal fashion, but they are currently lacking. Here, we describe the identification of a highly selective DAGL inhibitor using structure-guided and a chemoproteomics strategy to characterize the selectivity of the inhibitor in complex proteomes. Key to the success of this approach is the use of comparative and competitive activity-based proteome profiling (ABPP), in which broad-spectrum and tailor-made activity-based probes are combined to report on the inhibition of a protein family in its native environment. Competitive ABPP with broad-spectrum fluorophosphonate-based probes and specific β-lactone-based probes led to the discovery of α-ketoheterocycle LEI105 as a potent, highly selective, and reversible dual DAGL-α/DAGL-β inhibitor. LEI105 did not affect other enzymes involved in endocannabinoid metabolism including abhydrolase domain-containing protein 6, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12, monoacylglycerol lipase, and fatty acid amide hydrolase and did not display affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Targeted lipidomics revealed that LEI105 concentration-dependently reduced 2-AG levels, but not anandamide levels, in Neuro2A cells. We show that cannabinoid CB1-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity in a mouse hippocampal slice model can be reduced by LEI105. Thus, we have developed a highly selective DAGL inhibitor and provide new pharmacological evidence to support the hypothesis that "on demand biosynthesis" of 2-AG is responsible for retrograde signaling.

  1. A highly selective, reversible inhibitor identified by comparative chemoproteomics modulates diacylglycerol lipase activity in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggelaar, Marc P.; Chameau, Pascal J. P.; Kantae, Vasudev; Hummel, Jessica; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Janssen, Freek; van der Wel, Tom; Soethoudt, Marjolein; Deng, Hui; den Dulk, Hans; Allarà, Marco; Florea, Bogdan I.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Wadman, Wytse J.; Kruse, Chris G.; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Werkman, Taco R.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; van der Stelt, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)-α and -β are enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective and reversible inhibitors are required to study the function of DAGLs in neuronal cells in an acute and temporal fashion, but they are currently lacking. Here, we describe the identification of a highly selective DAGL inhibitor using structure-guided and a chemoproteomics strategy to characterize the selectivity of the inhibitor in complex proteomes. Key to the success of this approach is the use of comparative and competitive activity-based proteome profiling (ABPP), in which broad-spectrum and tailor-made activity-based probes are combined to report on the inhibition of a protein family in its native environment. Competitive ABPP with broad-spectrum fluorophosphonate-based probes and specific β-lactone-based probes led to the discovery of α-ketoheterocycle LEI105 as a potent, highly selective and reversible dual DAGL-α/DAGL-β inhibitor. LEI105 did not affect other enzymes involved in endocannabinoid metabolism including abhydrolase domain-containing protein 6, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12, monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase and did not display affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Targeted lipidomics revealed that LEI105 concentration-dependently reduced 2-AG levels, but not anandamide levels, in Neuro2A cells. We show that cannabinoid CB1-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity in a mouse hippocampal slice model can be reduced by LEI105. Thus, we have developed a highly selective DAGL inhibitor and provide new pharmacological evidence to support the hypothesis that ‘on demand biosynthesis’ of 2-AG is responsible for retrograde signaling. PMID:26083464

  2. Behaviorism and Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    consequences resistance to selectionist thinking for as long as the evidence Thomas J. Gamble permits. [Cf. Chomsk.. "Rules and Representations" BBS 3(1...years befbre the similarity to natural 7 " Probem Solving.") Input-output suggests a stimulus- selection suggested itself. Selection is not a metaphor... Gamble implies, that selected and what are the selecting consequences. With- experimental behavior analysts wsere the first to suggest a * ~it givenm

  3. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the detection of physics processes of interest for further study. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging participating experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principle among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, individual trigger groups focusing on specific physics objects have implemented novel algorithms which make use of the detailed tracking and vertexing performed within the trigger to improve rejection without losing efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have also benefited from a new high performance inner detector software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced i...

  4. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  5. Selection of high heterozygosity popcorn varieties in Brazil based on SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, I B O; Mangolin, C A; Scapim, C A; Gonçalves, C S; Machado, M F P S

    2012-07-19

    We analyzed genetic structure and diversity among eight populations of popcorn, using SSR loci as genetic markers. Our objectives were to select SSR loci that could be used to estimate genetic diversity within popcorn populations, and to analyze the genetic structure of promising populations with high levels of heterozygosity that could be used in breeding programs. Fifty-seven alleles (3.7 alleles per locus) were detected; the highest effective number of alleles (4.21) and the highest gene diversity (0.763) were found for the Umc2226 locus. A very high level of population differentiation was found (F(ST) = 0.3664), with F(ST) for each locus ranging from 0.1029 (Umc1664) to 0.6010 (Umc2350). This analysis allowed us to identify SSR loci with high levels of heterozygosity and heterozygous varieties, which could be selected for production of inbred lines and for developing new cultivars.

  6. Molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide: highly sensitive and selective hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, A.; Rathi, Servin; Lee, In-yeal; Park, Jinwoo; Lim, Dongsuk; Kang, Moonshik; Joh, Han-Ik; Kim, Gil-Ho; Kannan, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we report on the hydrogen (H2) sensing behavior of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nano particles (NPs) based composite film. The RGO/MoS2 composite exhibited a highly enhanced H2 response (∼15.6%) for 200 ppm at an operating temperature of 60 °C. Furthermore, the RGO/MoS2 composite showed excellent selectivity to H2 with respect to ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) which are highly reactive gas species. The composite’s response to H2 is 2.9 times higher than that of NH3 whereas for NO it is 3.5. This highly improved H2 sensing response and selectivity of RGO/MoS2 at low operating temperatures were attributed to the structural integration of MoS2 nanoparticles in the nanochannels and pores in the RGO layer.

  7. SELF-ALIGNED SINGLE CRYSTAL CONTACTED HIGH-SPEED SILICON BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR UTILIZING SELECTIVE (SEG) AND CONFINED SELECTIVE EPITAXIAL GROWTH (CLSEG)

    OpenAIRE

    Siekkinen, James W.; Neudeck, Gerold W.

    1992-01-01

    A new high-speed bipolar transistor structure, the ELOBJT-3, is proposed as a novel application of selective epitaxy technology. The new structure is greatly suited to high-speed ECL circuits, where Ccb, C,, and Rbx are of prime importance. The reduction of these parasitics to their nearly theoretical minimums is accomplished through the use of dielectric isolation and concentric contacting. For extremely high speed operation, dimensions can be scaled to sub-micron size due to the completely ...

  8. Basis of selection of first and second line highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, several low genetic barrier agents select for mutations that confer broad class resistance (10,. 11). The selection of the K103N and Y181C mutations cause loss of activity to all currently available NNRTIs. Most NRTIs are rendered inactive by the selection of the K65R mutation (12). The M184V mutation in ad-.

  9. High-throughput phenotyping and genomic selection: the frontiers of crop breeding converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Crossa, José; von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Serret, María Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2012-05-01

    Genomic selection (GS) and high-throughput phenotyping have recently been captivating the interest of the crop breeding community from both the public and private sectors world-wide. Both approaches promise to revolutionize the prediction of complex traits, including growth, yield and adaptation to stress. Whereas high-throughput phenotyping may help to improve understanding of crop physiology, most powerful techniques for high-throughput field phenotyping are empirical rather than analytical and comparable to genomic selection. Despite the fact that the two methodological approaches represent the extremes of what is understood as the breeding process (phenotype versus genome), they both consider the targeted traits (e.g. grain yield, growth, phenology, plant adaptation to stress) as a black box instead of dissecting them as a set of secondary traits (i.e. physiological) putatively related to the target trait. Both GS and high-throughput phenotyping have in common their empirical approach enabling breeders to use genome profile or phenotype without understanding the underlying biology. This short review discusses the main aspects of both approaches and focuses on the case of genomic selection of maize flowering traits and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and plant spectral reflectance as high-throughput field phenotyping methods for complex traits such as crop growth and yield. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Case Selection via Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    This article shows how statistical matching methods can be used to select "most similar" cases for qualitative analysis. I first offer a methodological justification for research designs based on selecting most similar cases. I then discuss the applicability of existing matching methods to the task of selecting most similar cases and…

  11. Toward high-throughput phenotyping: unbiased automated feature extraction and selection from knowledge sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng; Liao, Katherine P; Shaw, Stanley Y; Gainer, Vivian S; Churchill, Susanne E; Szolovits, Peter; Murphy, Shawn N; Kohane, Isaac S; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of narrative (text) data from electronic health records (EHRs) can improve population-scale phenotyping for clinical and genetic research. Currently, selection of text features for phenotyping algorithms is slow and laborious, requiring extensive and iterative involvement by domain experts. This paper introduces a method to develop phenotyping algorithms in an unbiased manner by automatically extracting and selecting informative features, which can be comparable to expert-curated ones in classification accuracy. Comprehensive medical concepts were collected from publicly available knowledge sources in an automated, unbiased fashion. Natural language processing (NLP) revealed the occurrence patterns of these concepts in EHR narrative notes, which enabled selection of informative features for phenotype classification. When combined with additional codified features, a penalized logistic regression model was trained to classify the target phenotype. The authors applied our method to develop algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis and coronary artery disease cases among those with rheumatoid arthritis from a large multi-institutional EHR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for classifying RA and CAD using models trained with automated features were 0.951 and 0.929, respectively, compared to the AUCs of 0.938 and 0.929 by models trained with expert-curated features. Models trained with NLP text features selected through an unbiased, automated procedure achieved comparable or slightly higher accuracy than those trained with expert-curated features. The majority of the selected model features were interpretable. The proposed automated feature extraction method, generating highly accurate phenotyping algorithms with improved efficiency, is a significant step toward high-throughput phenotyping. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All

  12. Selection of High Performance Alloy for Gas Turbine Blade Using Multiphysics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Khawaja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive increase in the utilization of energy resources in the modern era, the need of energy extraction from various resources has pronounced in recent years. Thus comprehensive efforts have been made around the globe in the technological development of turbo machines where means of energy extraction is energized fluids. This development led the aviation industry to power boost due to better performing engines. Meanwhile, the structural conformability requirements relative to the functional requirements have also increased with the advent of newer, better performing materials. Thus there is a need to study the material behavior and its usage with the idea of selecting the best possible material for its application. In this work a gas turbine blade of a small turbofan engine, where geometry and aerodynamic data was available, was analyzed for its structural behavior in the proposed mission envelope, where the engine turbine is subjected to high thermal, inertial and aerodynamic loads. Multiphysics Finite Element (FE linear stress analysis was carried out on the turbine blade. The results revealed the upper limit of Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS for the blade. Based on the limiting factor, high performance alloys were selected from the literature. The two most recommended alloy categories for gas turbine blades are NIMONIC and INCONEL from where total of 21 types of INCONEL alloys and 12 of NIMONIC alloys, available on commercial bases, were analyzed individually to meet the structural requirements. After applying selection criteria, four alloys were finalized from NIMONIC and INCONEL alloys for further analysis. On the basis of stress-strain behavior of finalized alloys, the Multiphysics FE nonlinear stress analysis was then carried out for the selection of the individual alloy by imposing a restriction of Ultimate Factor of Safety (UFOS of 1.33 and yield strength. Final selection is made keeping in view other factors

  13. Overdensities of SMGs around WISE-selected, ultraluminous, high-redshift AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Suzy F.; Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Lonsdale, Carol; Condon, James; Farrah, Duncan; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Bridge, Carrie; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Jarrett, Tom

    2017-08-01

    We investigate extremely luminous dusty galaxies in the environments around Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) and WISE/radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at average redshifts of z = 2.7 and 1.7, respectively. Previous observations have detected overdensities of companion submillimetre-selected sources around 10 Hot DOGs and 30 WISE/radio AGNs, with overdensities of ˜2-3 and ˜5-6, respectively. We find that the space densities in both samples to be overdense compared to normal star-forming galaxies and submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS). Both samples of companion sources have consistent mid-infrared (mid-IR) colours and mid-IR to submm ratios as SMGs. The brighter population around WISE/radio AGNs could be responsible for the higher overdensity reported. We also find that the star formation rate densities are higher than the field, but consistent with clusters of dusty galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be good signposts for protoclusters at high redshift on arcmin scales. The results reported here provide an upper limit to the strength of angular clustering using the two-point correlation function. Monte Carlo simulations show no angular correlation, which could indicate protoclusters on scales larger than the SCUBA-2 1.5-arcmin scale maps.

  14. Rabies infection and specific effect of vaccination in mice selected for high and low immunobiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz-da-Silva L.H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate and acquired resistance to rabies infection was investigated in mice genetically selected for high (H or low (L antibody responsiveness from selections I, III and IV and in mice selected for maximal (AIRmax or minimal (AIRmin acute inflammatory reaction. These mouse lines were infected intramuscularly with different virus dilutions and the LD50 was determined. The HIII and HIV mouse lines were more susceptible than the LIII and LIV lines and the HI line showed a discrete but higher resistance than the LI line. Analysis of the interline (H x L F1 hybrids from selections III and IV indicated different dominance effects on the "resistant" and" susceptible" phenotypes when the route of vaccination was changed. No differences were observed between the AIRmax and AIRmin mice, suggesting that inflammation plays a minor role in the resistance to rabies virus. The comparison of LD50 in mice vaccinated by distinct routes showed that the highest interline difference occurred after intramuscular vaccination (250-fold between H and L and 800-fold between F1 and L. These results indicate that different mechanisms may participate in acquired antirabies resistance

  15. Inherently stealthy and highly tumor-selective gold nanoraspberries for photothermal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, Naveen; Portz, Christopher; Nergiz, Saide Z; Fales, Andrew; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2015-05-14

    Owing to their unique optical properties such as large absorption and scattering cross section and large enhancement of electromagnetic field at the surface, plasmonic nanostructures have received extensive attention as a highly promising class of materials for nano-oncology. Most of the existing plasmonic nanostructures require extensive post-synthesis treatments and biofunctionalization routines to mitigate their cytotoxicity and/or make them tumor-specific. Here, we report one-pot synthesis of a novel class of plasmonic nanostructures, namely, gold nanoraspberries (GRBs) with tunable size and localized surface plasmon resonance by using a naturally abundant polysaccharide, chitosan, which acts as a template and capping agent. Significantly, the GRBs, which do not require any further biofunctionalization, exhibit excellent selectivity to tumor cells, thus enabling locoregional therapy at the cellular level. We demonstrate the tumor-selectivity of GRBs by photothermal ablation of tumor cells selectively from their co-culture with normal cells. The simple, scalable and tumor-selective nature of GRBs makes them excellent candidates for translational plasmonics-based nanomedicine.

  16. Automated respiratory cycles selection is highly specific and improves respiratory mechanics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Vincent; Graas, Estelle; Rigo, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    Selected optimal respiratory cycles should allow calculation of respiratory mechanic parameters focusing on patient-ventilator interaction. New computer software automatically selecting optimal breaths and respiratory mechanics derived from those cycles are evaluated. Retrospective study. University level III neonatal intensive care unit. Ten mins synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and assist/control ventilation recordings from ten newborns. The ventilator provided respiratory mechanic data (ventilator respiratory cycles) every 10 secs. Pressure, flow, and volume waves and pressure-volume, pressure-flow, and volume-flow loops were reconstructed from continuous pressure-volume recordings. Visual assessment determined assisted leak-free optimal respiratory cycles (selected respiratory cycles). New software graded the quality of cycles (automated respiratory cycles). Respiratory mechanic values were derived from both sets of optimal cycles. We evaluated quality selection and compared mean values and their variability according to ventilatory mode and respiratory mechanic provenance. To assess discriminating power, all 45 "t" values obtained from interpatient comparisons were compared for each respiratory mechanic parameter. A total of 11,724 breaths are evaluated. Automated respiratory cycle/selected respiratory cycle selections agreement is high: 88% of maximal κ with linear weighting. Specificity and positive predictive values are 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. Averaged values are similar between automated respiratory cycle and ventilator respiratory cycle. C20/C alone is markedly decreased in automated respiratory cycle (1.27 ± 0.37 vs. 1.81 ± 0.67). Tidal volume apparent similarity disappears in assist/control: automated respiratory cycle tidal volume (4.8 ± 1.0 mL/kg) is significantly lower than for ventilator respiratory cycle (5.6 ± 1.8 mL/kg). Coefficients of variation decrease for all automated respiratory cycle parameters in all infants. "t

  17. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  18. Direct conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels with high selectivity over a bifunctional catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Li, Shenggang; Bu, Xianni; Dang, Shanshan; Liu, Ziyu; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Liangshu; Qiu, Minghuang; Yang, Chengguang; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation to various C1 chemicals, it is still a great challenge to synthesize value-added products with two or more carbons, such as gasoline, directly from CO2 because of the extreme inertness of CO2 and a high C-C coupling barrier. Here we present a bifunctional catalyst composed of reducible indium oxides (In2O3) and zeolites that yields a high selectivity to gasoline-range hydrocarbons (78.6%) with a very low methane selectivity (1%). The oxygen vacancies on the In2O3 surfaces activate CO2 and hydrogen to form methanol, and C-C coupling subsequently occurs inside zeolite pores to produce gasoline-range hydrocarbons with a high octane number. The proximity of these two components plays a crucial role in suppressing the undesired reverse water gas shift reaction and giving a high selectivity for gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Moreover, the pellet catalyst exhibits a much better performance during an industry-relevant test, which suggests promising prospects for industrial applications.

  19. Efficient removal and highly selective adsorption of Hg2+ by polydopamine nanospheres with total recycle capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiulan; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Guoxiang; Hu, Jiamei; Sheng, Wenbo; Ma, Zhiyuan; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    This study reported a new method for efficient removal of Hg2+ from contaminated water using highly selective adsorptive polydopamine (PDA) nanospheres, which were uniform and had a small diameter (150-200 nm). The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics were investigated. Also, the effects of ionic strength, co-existing ions on removing ability of PDA nanospheres for Hg2+ were studied. Adsorption of Hg2+ was very fast and efficient as adsorption equilibrium was completed within 4 h and the maximum adsorption capacities were 1861.72 mg/g, 2037.22 mg/g, and 2076.81 mg/g at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K respectively, increasing with increasing of temperature. The PDA nanospheres exhibited highly selective adsorption of Hg2+ and had a total desorption capacity of 100% in hydrochloric acid solution, pH 1. The results showed that the structure of PDA nanospheres remained almost unchanged after recycling five times. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to determine the elements of PDA nanospheres before and after Hg2+ adsorption. Considering their efficient and highly Hg2+ selective adsorption, total recycle capacity, and high stability, PDA nanospheres will be feasible in a number of practical applications.

  20. Strategic Sample Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Tillio, Alfredo; Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2017-01-01

    is double logconvex, as with normal noise. The results are applied to the analysis of strategic sample selection by a biased researcher and extended to the case of uncertain and unanticipated selection. Our theoretical analysis offers applied research a new angle on the problem of selection in empirical......What is the impact of sample selection on the inference payoff of an evaluator testing a simple hypothesis based on the outcome of a location experiment? We show that anticipated selection locally reduces noise dispersion and thus increases informativeness if and only if the noise distribution...

  1. Economic Selection Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2003-01-01

    principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved.......The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...

  2. High temperature size selective membranes. Final report, September 1992--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Availability of a high temperature size selective membrane capable of separating hydrogen from carbon dioxide and other gases is seen as highly desirable from an economic perspective. Preparation of such a membrane is technically very difficult due to the limitations that the high temperature places on materials selection. We have prepared high temperature membranes as thin film composites of a porous Blackglas{trademark} support and a carbon molecular sieve selective film. Porous Blackglail{trademark} supports have been prepared by pyrolysis of a formed mixture of Blackglas{trademark} B-staged precursor and short Carbon fibers. Such supports have the necessary smoothness for use as a membrane support, good mechanical properties, and an appropriate pore size distribution. These supports can be made either in flat sheet form or in a tubular configuration. A carbon molecular sieve layer can be added to the support by repeated coating/pyrolysis with a dilute solution of precursor polymer. The preferred precursors are polyimide or polyamic acid. Crack formation is observed after the first pyrolyses, but these cracks are repaired during later pyrolyses. The final membrane thickness is only 2.5 {mu}m. The permeation flux of the membrane for hydrogen ranges from 8.1 x 10{sup -5} at room temperature to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 3} (STP) cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} cmHg{sup -1} at 717{degrees}C, and the selectivity for hydrogen over nitrogen from 2.8 to 3.8, and a selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide of 2.4. This selectivity is close to the Knudsen diffusion limit. In a companion study, unsupported carbon molecular sieve films were also prepared under pyrolysis conditions similar to those used for the supported film. Hydrogen adsorption porosimetry at 19.7{degrees}K was used to show that, under appropriate activation or pyrolysis conditions, such films can be prepared which adsorb hydrogen to a much greater extent than carbon dioxide.

  3. Selection Criteria for Combining High Yield and Striga Resistance in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showemimo, FA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten genetically diverse but homozygote sorghum cultivars that are adapted to northern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria were grown in Striga sick-field for two years. Agronomic traits of maturity, Striga resistance traits and actual grain yield were quantitatively heritable. Correlation coefficients computed among these traits revealed that grain yield was positively correlated with plant vigour, stem girth, root weight, shoot weight and plant height, while Striga count was negative and highly significantly correlated (r= -0.86 with grain yield. Correlated response indicated that selecting for bigger stem girth, high root, good plant vigour and shoot weight, and taller plants under Striga infestation will lead to a corresponding increase of 1.1%, 1.4%, 2.7%, 7.8% and 14.9% respectively on grain yield, while a 52.4% reduction in grain yield is observed by selecting Striga encouraging traits.

  4. High-temperature selective solar thermal absorber based on Fabry-Perot resonance cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Liping

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigate the design, fabrication and characterization of a multilayer selective solar absorber made of metallic and dielectric thin films. The investigated selective absorber exhibits theoretical spectral absorptance higher than 95% within solar spectrum and infrared emittance lower than 5%, due to the Fabry-Perot resonance and antireflection effect. In terms of fabrication, different materials are tested under high temperatures in order to obtain the structure with best thermal stability. Structures with different materials are fabricated with sputtering, chemical vapor deposition and electron beam evaporation techniques. The near normal reflectance is characterized with a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer for these structures before and after heat treatment. Meanwhile, Rutherford backscattering Spectroscopy is employed to analyze the diffusion and oxidation conditions during the heating process. Moreover, better material choice and fabrication techniques are considered to construct solar absorber sample with better high temperature thermal stability.

  5. Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyo-Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Taikjin; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Q-Han; Seo, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Molecular recognition and discrimination of carbohydrates are important because carbohydrates perform essential roles in most living organisms for energy metabolism and cell-to-cell communication. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify or distinguish various carbohydrate molecules owing to the lack of a significant distinction in the physical or chemical characteristics. Although there has been considerable effort to develop a sensing platform for individual carbohydrates selectively using chemical receptors or an ensemble array, their detection and discrimination limits have been as high in the millimolar concentration range. Here we show a highly sensitive and selective detection method for the discrimination of carbohydrate molecules using nano-slot-antenna array-based sensing chips which operate in the terahertz frequency range. This THz metamaterial sensing tool recognizes various types of carbohydrate molecules over a wide range of molecular concentrations. Strongly localized and enhanced terahertz t...

  6. Therapeutic Antibodies to Ganglioside GD2 Evolved from Highly Selective Germline Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Sterner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies play a crucial role in host defense and are indispensable research tools, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Antibody generation involves binding of genomically encoded germline antibodies followed by somatic hypermutation and in vivo selection to obtain antibodies with high affinity and selectivity. Understanding this process is critical for developing monoclonal antibodies, designing effective vaccines, and understanding autoantibody formation. Prior studies have found that antibodies to haptens, peptides, and proteins evolve from polyspecific germline antibodies. The immunological evolution of antibodies to mammalian glycans has not been studied. Using glycan microarrays, protein microarrays, cell binding studies, and molecular modeling, we demonstrate that therapeutic antibodies to the tumor-associated ganglioside GD2 evolved from highly specific germline precursors. The results have important implications for developing vaccines and monoclonal antibodies that target carbohydrate antigens. In addition, they demonstrate an alternative pathway for antibody evolution within the immune system that is distinct from the polyspecific germline pathway.

  7. Networked Pd (core) @ polyaniline (shell) composite: Highly electro-catalytic ability and unique selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youyi; Liu, Ning; Sun, Ling; Xu, Hao; Gao, Hong; Lu, Taofeng

    2018-01-01

    A networked composite (Pd@PANI), which is self-assemblied freely from Pd (core) @polyaniline (shell) nanoparticles, has been prepared successfully by a facilely one-step approach. Owing to the conductive environment and acid-doped behavior provided by PANI, the composite exhibits highly catalytic ability in the reaction involving acidic reactants. For instance, in the HCOOH electro-oxidation, 9.16 times of specific activity (comparing with that when using commercial Pd/C catalyst) is observed. Meanwhile, the as-prepared product is unable to catalyze some other systems like the electro-oxidation of C2H5OH, showing novel and unique selectivity. Those would open up new routes for synthesizing high-performance Pd-based catalysts, and could also shed some light on synthesizing new types of selective catalysts.

  8. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  9. Highly sensitive and selective liquid crystal optical sensor for detection of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofang; Zhong, Yuanbo; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei; Luo, Dan

    2017-06-12

    Ammonia detection technologies are very important in environment monitoring. However, most existing technologies are complex and expensive, which limit the useful range of real-time application. Here, we propose a highly sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of ammonia (NH3) based on liquid crystals (LCs). This optical sensor is realized through the competitive binding between ammonia and liquid crystals on chitosan-Cu2+ that decorated on glass substrate. We achieve a broad detection range of ammonia from 50 ppm to 1250 ppm, with a low detection limit of 16.6 ppm. This sensor is low-cost, simple, fast, and highly sensitive and selective for detection of ammonia. The proposal LC sensing method can be a sensitive detection platform for other molecule monitors such as proteins, DNAs and other heavy metal ions by modifying sensing molecules.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic code selection for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Bogaard, J.P.A. van den

    1995-06-01

    In order to study the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors, the thermal-hydraulic computer codes RELAP5, MELCOR, THATCH, MORECA, and VSOP are considered at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN. This report presents the selection of the most appropriate codes. To cover the range of relevant accidents, a suite of three codes is recommended for analyses of HTR-M and MHTGR reactors. (orig.).

  11. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High strain-rate compressive behavior and constitutive modeling of selected polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama T; Nakai K

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with constitutive modeling of the compressive stress-strain behavior of selected polymers at strain rates from 10−3 to 103/s using a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. High strain-rate compressive stress-strain curves for four different commercially available extruded polymers are determined on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. The low and intermediate strain-rates compressive stress-strain relations are measured in an Instron testing machine. The five paramete...

  13. Highly efficient cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymers for solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons with molecular oxygen has been of great interest in catalysis, and the development of highly efficient catalysts for this process is a crucial challenge. A new kind of heterogeneous catalyst, cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymer (g-C3N4, was harnessed for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope revealed that Co species were highly dispersed in g-C3N4 matrix and the characteristic structure of polymeric g-C3N4 can be retained after Co-doping, although Co-doping caused the incomplete polymerization to some extent. Ultraviolet–visible, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further proved the successful Co doping in g-C3N4 matrix as the form of Co(IIN bonds. For the selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Co-doping can markedly promote the catalytic performance of g-C3N4 catalyst due to the synergistic effect of Co species and g-C3N4 hybrid. Furthermore, the content of Co largely affected the activity of Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts, among which the catalyst with 9.0 wt% Co content exhibited the highest yield (9.0% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol, as well as a high stability. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism over Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts was elaborated. Keywords: Selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Oxygen oxidant, Carbon nitride, Co-doping

  14. Selective screening of 650 high risk Iranian patients for detection of inborn error of metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Pishva; Alie Mirzaee; Zohre Karamizade; Shahnaz Pourarian; Fariba Hemmati; Mostajab Razvi; Forough Saki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although metabolic diseases individually are rare ,but overall have an incidence of 1/2000 and can cause devastating and irreversible effect if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. selective screening is an acceptable method for detection of these multi presentation diseases. Method: using panel neonatal screening for detection of metabolic diseases in 650 high risk Iranian patients in Fars province. The following clinical features were used as inclusion criteria for inv...

  15. Ultrasensitive and highly selective detection of Cu2 + ions based on a new carbazole-Schiff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Bing, Qijing; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guang

    2018-01-01

    A new chemosensor for Cu2 + based on Schiff base with high sensitivity and selectivity was designed and synthesized. The fluorescence intensity of the chemosensor in CH3CN solution was enhanced 160-fold after the addition of 10 equiv. Cu2 + over other metal ions. In addition, it also facilitates colorimetric detection for Cu2 + in CH3CN solution. The chemosensor displayed low detection limit and fast response time to Cu2 +.

  16. Highly selective and active niobia-supported cobalt catalysts for fischer-tropsch synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Otter, Jan H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337238774; De Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    The performance of Co/Nb2O5 was compared to that of Co/γ-Al2O3 for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at 20 bar and over the temperature range of 220-260°C. The C5+ selectivity of Nb2O5-supported cobalt catalysts was found to be very high, i.e. up to 90 wt% C5+ at 220°C. The activity per unit weight

  17. Algeria; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper explores the monetary policy transmission channels in Algeria and analyzes available options to strengthen monetary policy effectiveness. High liquidity has been the hallmark of the Algerian monetary policy framework for most of the 2000s. The paper assesses the impact of monetary policy changes on its final targets—growth and inflation, and outlines policy options to strengthen the efficacy of monetary policy. It takes stock of Algeria’s current fiscal framewor...

  18. FIFS: A data mining method for informative marker selection in high dimensional population genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Samaras, Patroklos; Triantafyllidis, Alexandros; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    2017-11-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) are, nowadays, becoming the marker of choice for biological analyses involving a wide range of applications with great medical, biological, economic and environmental interest. Classification tasks i.e. the assignment of individuals to groups of origin based on their (multi-locus) genotypes, are performed in many fields such as forensic investigations, discrimination between wild and/or farmed populations and others. Τhese tasks, should be performed with a small number of loci, for computational as well as biological reasons. Thus, feature selection should precede classification tasks, especially for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) datasets, where the number of features can amount to hundreds of thousands or millions. In this paper, we present a novel data mining approach, called FIFS - Frequent Item Feature Selection, based on the use of frequent items for selection of the most informative markers from population genomic data. It is a modular method, consisting of two main components. The first one identifies the most frequent and unique genotypes for each sampled population. The second one selects the most appropriate among them, in order to create the informative SNP subsets to be returned. The proposed method (FIFS) was tested on a real dataset, which comprised of a comprehensive coverage of pig breed types present in Britain. This dataset consisted of 446 individuals divided in 14 sub-populations, genotyped at 59,436 SNPs. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art and baseline methods in every case. More specifically, our method surpassed the assignment accuracy threshold of 95% needing only half the number of SNPs selected by other methods (FIFS: 28 SNPs, Delta: 70 SNPs Pairwise FST: 70 SNPs, In: 100 SNPs.) CONCLUSION: Our approach successfully deals with the problem of informative marker selection in high dimensional genomic datasets. It offers better results compared to existing approaches and can aid biologists

  19. Selective Stopping? Maybe not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2013-01-01

    Selective stopping paradigms address selectivity in controlled behavior, as subjects stop certain responses or responses to certain stimuli. The literature has discussed two strategies for selective stopping. First, selective stopping may prolong the stop process by adding a discrimination stage (Independent Discriminate then Stop). Second, selective stopping may involve stopping non-selectively and then restarting the response if the signal is an ignore signal (Stop then Discriminate). We discovered a variant of the first strategy that occurred often in our experiments and previously published experiments: the requirement to discriminate stop and ignore signals may interact with the go process, invalidating the independent race model (Dependent Discriminate then Stop). Our experiments focused on stimulus selective stopping, in which subjects stop to one signal and ignore another. When stop and ignore signals were equally likely, some subjects used the Stop then Discriminate strategy and others used the Dependent Discriminate then Stop strategy. When stop signals were more frequent than ignore signals, most subjects used the Stop then Discriminate strategy; when ignore signals were more frequent than stop signals, most subjects used the Dependent Discriminate then Stop strategy. The commonly accepted Independent Discriminate then Stop strategy was seldom implemented. Selective stopping was either not selective (Stop then Discriminate), or interacted with going (Dependent Discriminate then Stop). Implications for the cognitive science, lifespan development, clinical science, and neuroscience of selective stopping are discussed. PMID:23477668

  20. Selecting Optimal Feature Set in High-Dimensional Data by Swarm Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the right set of features from data of high dimensionality for inducing an accurate classification model is a tough computational challenge. It is almost a NP-hard problem as the combinations of features escalate exponentially as the number of features increases. Unfortunately in data mining, as well as other engineering applications and bioinformatics, some data are described by a long array of features. Many feature subset selection algorithms have been proposed in the past, but not all of them are effective. Since it takes seemingly forever to use brute force in exhaustively trying every possible combination of features, stochastic optimization may be a solution. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection scheme called Swarm Search to find an optimal feature set by using metaheuristics. The advantage of Swarm Search is its flexibility in integrating any classifier into its fitness function and plugging in any metaheuristic algorithm to facilitate heuristic search. Simulation experiments are carried out by testing the Swarm Search over some high-dimensional datasets, with different classification algorithms and various metaheuristic algorithms. The comparative experiment results show that Swarm Search is able to attain relatively low error rates in classification without shrinking the size of the feature subset to its minimum.

  1. Highly efficient selection of epitope specific antibody through competitive yeast display library sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vinita; Streaker, Emily; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2013-01-01

    Combinatory antibody library display technologies have been invented and successfully implemented for the selection and engineering of therapeutic antibodies. Precise targeting of important epitopes on the protein of interest is essential for such isolated antibodies to serve as effective modulators of molecular interactions. We developed a strategy to efficiently isolate antibodies against a specific epitope on a target protein from a yeast display antibody library using dengue virus envelope protein domain III as a model target. A domain III mutant protein with a key mutation inside a cross-reactive neutralizing epitope was designed, expressed, and used in the competitive panning of a yeast display naïve antibody library. All the yeast display antibodies that bound to the wild type domain III but not to the mutant were selectively sorted and characterized. Two unique clones were identified and showed cross-reactive binding to envelope protein domain IIIs from different serotypes. Epitope mapping of one of the antibodies confirmed that its epitope overlapped with the intended neutralizing epitope. This novel approach has implications for many areas of research where the isolation of epitope-specific antibodies is desired, such as selecting antibodies against conserved epitope(s) of viral envelope proteins from a library containing high titer, high affinity non-neutralizing antibodies, and targeting unique epitopes on cancer-related proteins.

  2. Selection Effects in the Study of High-Redshift Galaxy Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, B.

    2010-05-01

    Selection effects from bandshifting, angular resolution limitations, surface brightness dimming, and intergalactic absorption skew our view of high redshift galaxies so that we primarily see those that are extremely bright, massive, and star-bursting. Bandshifting shows a galaxy in its restframe NUV or FUV at z>1, and also biases the determination of age from BViz colors to lower values. The rapid increase in resolvable physical size with redshift for zUDF) noise by redshift z 2. Intergalactic absorption further decreases the brightness of galaxies by factors of a few at this z. These effects combine to make the average star formation rate in an observable clump increase as (1+z)8 for z<1. None of these selection effects directly causes the clump mass to increase with redshift in clumpy galaxies, however. Clumps are well separated from each other and they show up over a wide range of wavelengths. The increase in clump mass with redshift is mostly from an increase in observable galaxy mass. This is because there is a nearly constant ratio of clump mass to galaxy luminosity and the primary selection effect is for bright galaxies, considering that the intrinsic surface brightness for anything observable increases sharply with z. Redshifted versions of local grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies, along with dwarf irregulars and interacting galaxies, will be shown to indicate which features are observable at high redshift.

  3. Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste supported aluminum oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuanyi; Xi, Junjun; Chen, Guijie; Feng, Zhihui; Ke, Fei; Ning, Jingming; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Cai, Huimei; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-03-01

    Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea-Al), was successfully prepared. The Tea-Al biosorbent was characterized by energy-dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The Tea-Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), but a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine, under the same conditions. Fluoride adsorption by Tea-Al for different times obeyed the surface reaction and adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Results from this study demonstrated that Tea-Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Guy Cassuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p<10-6, OR = 2.4; and p<0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI.

  5. Ultrathin and Ion-Selective Janus Membranes for High-Performance Osmotic Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Sui, Xin; Li, Pei; Xie, Ganhua; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xiao, Kai; Gao, Longcheng; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2017-07-05

    The osmotic energy existing in fluids is recognized as a promising "blue" energy source that can help solve the global issues of energy shortage and environmental pollution. Recently, nanofluidic channels have shown great potential for capturing this worldwide energy because of their novel transport properties contributed by nanoconfinement. However, with respect to membrane-scale porous systems, high resistance and undesirable ion selectivity remain bottlenecks, impeding their applications. The development of thinner, low-resistance membranes, meanwhile promoting their ion selectivity, is a necessity. Here, we engineered ultrathin and ion-selective Janus membranes prepared via the phase separation of two block copolymers, which enable osmotic energy conversion with power densities of approximately 2.04 W/m 2 by mixing natural seawater and river water. Both experiments and continuum simulation help us to understand the mechanism for how membrane thickness and channel structure dominate the ion transport process and overall device performance, which can serve as a general guiding principle for the future design of nanochannel membranes for high-energy concentration cells.

  6. The selective catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch liquids to high value transportation fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.M.; Reagon, W.J.; Nicholas, J.J.; Hughes, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    Amoco Oil Company, investigated a selective catalytic cracking process (FCC) to convert the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) gasoline and wax fractions to high value transportation fuels. The primary tasks of this contract were to (1) optimize the catalyst and process conditions of the FCC process for maximum conversion of F-T wax into reactive olefins for later production of C{sub 4}{minus}C{sub 8} ethers, and (2) use the olefin-containing light naphtha obtained from FCC processing of the F-T wax as feedstock for the synthesis of ethers. The catalytic cracking of F-T wax feedstocks gave high conversions with low activity catalysts and low process severities. HZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts gave higher yields of propylene, isobutylene, and isoamylenes but a lower gasoline yield than Y zeolite catalysts. Catalyst selection and process optimization will depend on product valuation. For a given catalyst and process condition, Sasol and LaPorte waxes gave similar conversions and product selectivities. The contaminant iron F-T catalyst fines in the LaPorte wax caused higher coke and hydrogen yields.

  7. Molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jialuo; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-03-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin (PC) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), via a sol-gel polymerization process using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) as fluorescent signal source. The ratio of two fluorescence peak emission intensities of NBD and PC was utilized to determine the concentration of PC, which could effectively reduce the background interference and fluctuation of diverse conditions. As a result, this sensor obtained high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14 nM within 6 min, and excellent recognition specificity for PC over its analogues with a high imprinting factor of 9.1. Furthermore, the sensor attained high recoveries in the range of 93.8-110.2% at three spiking levels of PC, with precisions below 4.7% in seawater and lake water samples. The developed sensor strategy demonstrated simplicity, reliability, rapidity, high selectivity and high sensitivity, proving to be a feasible way to develop high efficient fluorescence sensors and thus potentially applicable for ultratrace analysis of complicated matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fearfulness and feather damage in laying hens divergently selected for high and low feather pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenburg, T Bas; de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) remains a major welfare and economic problem in laying hens. FP has been found to be related to other behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness. There are indications that fearful birds are more likely to develop FP. Furthermore, FP can lead to increased fearfulness...... in the victims. To investigate further the relationship between FP and fearfulness, feather damage and behavioural fear responses were recorded in three White Leghorn lines of laying hens: a line selected for high FP (HFP line), a line selected for low FP (LFP line) and an unselected control line (10th...... in fear responses between the HFP and LFP lines were not found, neither in the TI-test, nor in the HA or NO test. As expected, birds from the HFP line had considerably more feather damage than birds from the LFP line and birds from the unselected control line were intermediate. Cages that withdrew from...

  9. Direct Selective Laser Sintering/Melting of High Density Alumina Powder Layers at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, J.; Meyers, S.; Kruth, J. P.; Vleugels, J.

    Direct selective laser sintering (SLS) or selective laser melting (SLM) are additive manufacturing techniques that can be used to produce three-dimensional ceramic parts directly, without the need for a sacrificial binder. In this paper, a low laser energy density is applied to SLS/SLM high density powder layers of sub-micrometer alumina at elevated temperatures (up to 800̊C). In order to achieve this, a furnace was designed and built into a commercial SLS machine. This furnace was able to produce a homogeneously heated cylindrical zone with a height of 60 mm and a diameter of 32 mm. After optimizing the layer deposition and laser scanning parameters, two ceramic parts with a density up to 85% and grain sizes as low as 5 μm were successfully produced.

  10. Palladium-tin catalysts for the direct synthesis of H₂O₂ with high selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freakley, Simon J; He, Qian; Harrhy, Jonathan H; Lu, Li; Crole, David A; Morgan, David J; Ntainjua, Edwin N; Edwards, Jennifer K; Carley, Albert F; Borisevich, Albina Y; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2016-02-26

    The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from H2 and O2 represents a potentially atom-efficient alternative to the current industrial indirect process. We show that the addition of tin to palladium catalysts coupled with an appropriate heat treatment cycle switches off the sequential hydrogenation and decomposition reactions, enabling selectivities of >95% toward H2O2. This effect arises from a tin oxide surface layer that encapsulates small Pd-rich particles while leaving larger Pd-Sn alloy particles exposed. We show that this effect is a general feature for oxide-supported Pd catalysts containing an appropriate second metal oxide component, and we set out the design principles for producing high-selectivity Pd-based catalysts for direct H2O2 production that do not contain gold. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Nielsen, Scott Eric; Takii, Akiko; Izumiyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF). Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  12. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Takahata

    Full Text Available When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF. Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  13. Solar selective absorber coating for high service temperatures, produced by plasma sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanxner, Michael; Elgat, Zvi

    1990-08-01

    Spectrally selective absorber coatings, deposited on engineering material substrates such as stainless steel, have been developed for service as efficient solar photothermal energy converters. The selective solar absorber is based on a multilayer of thin films, produced by sputtering. The main solar absorber is a metal/ceramic (cermet) composite, such as, Mo/Al2th or Mo/Si02, with a graded metal concentration. Such a cermet layer, strongly absorbs radiation over most of the range of the solar spectrum but is transparent to longer wavelength radiation. The cermet layer is deposited on a highly reflecting infrared metal layer. Two more layers were added: An AhO diffusion barrier layer which is deposited first on the substrate and an AI2O or a Si02 antireflection layer which is deposited on the top of the cermet film. In order to better understand the spectral reflectivity of the multilayered selective coating, a procedure for the calculation of the optical properties was developed. After the R&D development phase was successfully completed, a full scale production coating machine was constructed. The production machine is a linear in line coater. The selective coating is deposited on stainless steel tubes, translating in the coating machine while rotating about their axes, along their axial direction. Measurements of reflectance, solar absorptivity, a, thermal emissivity, C, and high temperature durability, are all parts of the quality control routine. The results show values of a in the range 0.96 - 0.98. The thermal emissivity at 350CC is in the range 0.16 - 0.18. Thermal durability tests, show no degradation of the coating when subjected to up to 65O in vacuum for one month and when passed through a temperature cycling test which includes 1200 cycles between temperatures of 150CC and 450CCfor a period of two months.

  14. Optimal site selection for a high-resolution ice core record in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Tessa R.; Roberts, Jason L.; Moy, Andrew D.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Tozer, Carly R.; Gallant, Ailie J. E.; Abram, Nerilie J.; van Ommen, Tas D.; Young, Duncan A.; Grima, Cyril; Blankenship, Don D.; Siegert, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    Ice cores provide some of the best-dated and most comprehensive proxy records, as they yield a vast and growing array of proxy indicators. Selecting a site for ice core drilling is nonetheless challenging, as the assessment of potential new sites needs to consider a variety of factors. Here, we demonstrate a systematic approach to site selection for a new East Antarctic high-resolution ice core record. Specifically, seven criteria are considered: (1) 2000-year-old ice at 300 m depth; (2) above 1000 m elevation; (3) a minimum accumulation rate of 250 mm years-1 IE (ice equivalent); (4) minimal surface reworking to preserve the deposited climate signal; (5) a site with minimal displacement or elevation change in ice at 300 m depth; (6) a strong teleconnection to midlatitude climate; and (7) an appropriately complementary relationship to the existing Law Dome record (a high-resolution record in East Antarctica). Once assessment of these physical characteristics identified promising regions, logistical considerations (for site access and ice core retrieval) were briefly considered. We use Antarctic surface mass balance syntheses, along with ground-truthing of satellite data by airborne radar surveys to produce all-of-Antarctica maps of surface roughness, age at specified depth, elevation and displacement change, and surface air temperature correlations to pinpoint promising locations. We also use the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast ERA 20th Century reanalysis (ERA-20C) to ensure that a site complementary to the Law Dome record is selected. We find three promising sites in the Indian Ocean sector of East Antarctica in the coastal zone from Enderby Land to the Ingrid Christensen Coast (50-100° E). Although we focus on East Antarctica for a new ice core site, the methodology is more generally applicable, and we include key parameters for all of Antarctica which may be useful for ice core site selection elsewhere and/or for other purposes.

  15. Optimal site selection for a high resolution ice core record in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, T.; Roberts, J.; Moy, A.; Curran, M.; Tozer, C.; Gallant, A.; Abram, N.; van Ommen, T.; Young, D.; Grima, C.; Blankenship, D.; Siegert, M.

    2015-11-01

    Ice cores provide some of the best dated and most comprehensive proxy records, as they yield a vast and growing array of proxy indicators. Selecting a site for ice core drilling is nonetheless challenging, as the assessment of potential new sites needs to consider a variety of factors. Here, we demonstrate a systematic approach to site selection for a new East Antarctic high resolution ice core record. Specifically, seven criteria are considered: (1) 2000 year old ice at 300 m depth, (2) above 1000 m elevation, (3) a minimum accumulation rate of 250 mm yr-1 IE, (4) minimal surface re-working to preserve the deposited climate signal, (5) a site with minimal displacement or elevation change of ice at 300 m depth, (6) a strong teleconnection to mid-latitude climate and (7) an appropriately complementary relationship to the existing Law Dome record (a high resolution record in East Antarctica). Once assessment of these physical characteristics identified promising regions, logistical considerations (for site access and ice core retrieval) were briefly considered. We use Antarctic surface mass balance syntheses, along with ground-truthing of satellite data by airborne radar surveys to produce all-of-Antarctica maps of surface roughness, age at specified depth, elevation and displacement change and surface air temperature correlations to pinpoint promising locations. We also use the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast ERA 20th Century reanalysis (ERA-20C) to ensure a site complementary to the Law Dome record is selected. We find three promising sites in the Indian Ocean sector of East Antarctica in the coastal zone from Enderby Land to the Ingrid Christensen Coast (50-100° E). Although we focus on East Antarctica for a new ice core site, the methodology is more generally applicable and we include key parameters for all of Antarctica which may be useful for ice core site selection elsewhere and/or for other purposes.

  16. Effect of acclimation to high ambient temperature of pigs selected for residual feed intake

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six Large White castrate males belonging to two divergent lines in residual feed intake, with average initial body weight of 50.5 ± 0.9 kg and approximately 92 days of age, were used to evaluate the effects of acclimation to high temperature on the performance, thermoregulatory responses and blood parameters of pigs divergently selected for low and high residual feed intake. The experiment was conducted in two successive replicates of 18 animals each. The first replicate was composed b...

  17. Aging Behavior of High-Strength Al Alloy 2618 Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Riccardo; Lemke, Jannis Nicolas; Alarcon, Adrianni Zanatta; Vedani, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    High Si-bearing Al alloys are commonly used in additive manufacturing, but they have moderate mechanical properties. New high-strength compositions are necessary to spread the use of additively manufactured Al parts for heavy-duty structural applications. This work focuses on the microstructure, mechanical behavior, and aging response of an Al alloy 2618 processed by selective laser melting. Calorimetric analysis, electron microscopy, and compression tests were performed in order to correlate the mechanical properties with the peculiar microstructure induced by laser melting and thermal treatments

  18. Prompting one low-fat, high-fiber selection in a fast-food restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J L; Winett, R A

    1988-01-01

    Evidence increasingly links a high-fat, low-fiber diet to coronary heart disease and certain site cancers, indicating a need for large-scale dietary change. Studies showing the effectiveness of particular procedures in specific settings are important at this point. The present study, using an A-B-A-B design and sales data from computerized cash registers, replicated and extended previous work by showing that inexpensive prompts (i.e., signs and fliers) in a national fast-food restaurant could increase the sales of salads, a low-fat, high-fiber menu selection. Suggestions also are made pertinent to more widespread use of the procedures.

  19. Silver nanoparticles supported on alumina-​a highly efficient and selective nanocatalyst for imine reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles supported on alumina were prepared and tested in the catalytic reduction of various imines to primary and secondary amines and were shown to be exceptionally active and chemoselective. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the prepared nanocatalyst was also tested...... organic synthesis. Due to the mild reaction conditions and high conversion as well as high selectivity, we consider that the utilization of silver nanoparticles supported on alumina represents an attractive and environmentally friendly alternative to the current synthesis of N-alkyl amines....

  20. Optimal band selection for high dimensional remote sensing data using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianfeng; Sun, Quan; Li, Jonathan

    2009-06-01

    A 'fused' method may not be suitable for reducing the dimensionality of data and a band/feature selection method needs to be used for selecting an optimal subset of original data bands. This study examined the efficiency of GA in band selection for remote sensing classification. A GA-based algorithm for band selection was designed deliberately in which a Bhattacharyya distance index that indicates separability between classes of interest is used as fitness function. A binary string chromosome is designed in which each gene location has a value of 1 representing a feature being included or 0 representing a band being not included. The algorithm was implemented in MATLAB programming environment, and a band selection task for lithologic classification in the Chocolate Mountain area (California) was used to test the proposed algorithm. The proposed feature selection algorithm can be useful in multi-source remote sensing data preprocessing, especially in hyperspectral dimensionality reduction.

  1. Sociodemographic differences in selected eating practices among alternative high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary

    2009-05-01

    Students attending alternative high schools are an at-risk group of youth for poor health behaviors and obesity. However, little is known about their dietary practices. To examine associations between sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status and selected dietary practices, including consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, and fruits and vegetables and fast-food restaurant use, among students attending alternative high schools. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of adolescents (n=145; 52% men; 63% aged sociodemographic differences in fruit/vegetable consumption. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a higher consumption of regular soda (P=0.027). Racial/ethnic and sex differences in the consumption of regular soda, high-fat foods, and fast-food restaurant use among alternative high school students underscores the importance of implementing health promotion programs in alternative high schools.

  2. IT Project Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the right IT projects is increasingly important for many organizations. Project portfolio managers play a key role during project selection, but even though they have a great impact on the selection process, we have little knowledge about how they decide which projects to recommend...... for initiation. Most of the research on project selection is normative, suggesting new methods, but available empirical studies indicate that many methods are seldom used in practice. This paper addresses the issue by providing increased understanding of IT project selection practice, thereby facilitating...... the development of methods that better fit current practice. The study is based on naturalistic decision-making theory and interviews with experienced project portfolio managers who, when selecting projects, primarily rely on political skills, experience and personal networks rather than on formal IT project...

  3. Tuning PIM-PI-Based Membranes for Highly Selective Transport of Propylene/Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy J.

    2016-12-06

    To date there exists a great deal of energetic and economic inefficiency in the separation of olefins from paraffins because the principal means of achieving industrial purity requirements is accomplished with very energy intensive cryogenic distillation. Mitigation of the severe energy intensity of the propylene/propane separation has been identified as one of seven chemical separations which can change the landscape of global energy use, and membranes have been targeted as an emerging technology because they offer scalability and lower capital and operating costs. The focus of this work was to evaluate a new direction of material development for the very industrially relevant propylene/propane separation using membranes. The objective was to develop a rational design approach for generating highly selective membranes using a relatively new platform of materials known as polyimides of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PIs), the prospects of which have never been examined for the propylene/propane separation. Structurally, PIMs comprise relatively inflexible macromolecular architectures integrating contortion sites that help disrupt packing and trap microporous free volume elements (< 20 Å). To date most of the work reported in the literature on this separation is based on conventional low free volume 6FDA-based polyimides which in the best case show moderate C3H6/C3H8 selectivities (<20) with C3H6 permeabilities too low to garner industrial interest. Due to propylene and propane’s relatively large molecular size, we hypothesized that the use of more open structures can provide greater accessibility to the pores necessary to enhance membrane sieving and flux. It has been shown for numerous key gas separations that introduction of microporosity into a polymer structure can defy the notorious permeability/selectivity tradeoff curve and induce simultaneous boosts in both permeability and selectivity. The cornerstone approach to designing state of the art high

  4. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Andria eShimi; Anna Christina eNobre; Gaia eScerif

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these ...

  5. Automation in the high-throughput selection of random combinatorial libraries--different approaches for select applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glökler, Jörn; Schütze, Tatjana; Konthur, Zoltán

    2010-04-08

    Automation in combination with high throughput screening methods has revolutionised molecular biology in the last two decades. Today, many combinatorial libraries as well as several systems for automation are available. Depending on scope, budget and time, a different combination of library and experimental handling might be most effective. In this review we will discuss several concepts of combinatorial libraries and provide information as what to expect from these depending on the given context.

  6. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  7. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  8. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  9. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  10. A novel algorithm for simultaneous SNP selection in high-dimensional genome-wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuber Verena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of causal SNPs in most genome wide association studies relies on approaches that consider each SNP individually. However, there is a strong correlation structure among SNPs that needs to be taken into account. Hence, increasingly modern computationally expensive regression methods are employed for SNP selection that consider all markers simultaneously and thus incorporate dependencies among SNPs. Results We develop a novel multivariate algorithm for large scale SNP selection using CAR score regression, a promising new approach for prioritizing biomarkers. Specifically, we propose a computationally efficient procedure for shrinkage estimation of CAR scores from high-dimensional data. Subsequently, we conduct a comprehensive comparison study including five advanced regression approaches (boosting, lasso, NEG, MCP, and CAR score and a univariate approach (marginal correlation to determine the effectiveness in finding true causal SNPs. Conclusions Simultaneous SNP selection is a challenging task. We demonstrate that our CAR score-based algorithm consistently outperforms all competing approaches, both uni- and multivariate, in terms of correctly recovered causal SNPs and SNP ranking. An R package implementing the approach as well as R code to reproduce the complete study presented here is available from http://strimmerlab.org/software/care/.

  11. Au-decorated sodium titanate nanotubes as high-performance selective photocatalysts for pollutant degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rouby, Waleed M. A.; Comesaña-Hermo, Miguel; Testa-Anta, Martín; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Salgueiriño, Verónica; Pérez-Lorenzo, Moisés; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.

    2017-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds originating from textile processing industries is nowadays a major environmental problem worldwide. In order to tackle this situation, several inorganic semiconductors have been tested as photocatalysts for the degradation of these harmful pollutants in the search of sustainable and cost-effective solutions. Nevertheless, these semiconductor materials often involve important limitations, such as poor efficiency and selectivity, which, in the end, substantially restrict their implementation at the industrial scale. As an alternative, we herein report the fabrication and application of Au-decorated titanate nanotubes (TNTs) as high-performance architectures for the selective degradation of organic contaminants. This synthetic strategy is intended to establish a synergetic integration of the physicochemical and photocatalytic features of these hybrid nanostructures, by combining the remarkable adsorption capabilities of TNTs with the enhanced light-harvesting efficiency provided by the incorporation of a noble metal component. The obtained results evidence the great potential that rationally designed plasmonic composites may have for the development of selective environmental remediation technologies and in particular on the current challenges faced by the wastewater treatment sector.

  12. Multivariate EEG analyses support high-resolution tracking of feature-based attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfort, Johannes Jacobus; Grubert, Anna; Olivers, Christian N L; Eimer, Martin

    2017-05-15

    The primary electrophysiological marker of feature-based selection is the N2pc, a lateralized posterior negativity emerging around 180-200 ms. As it relies on hemispheric differences, its ability to discriminate the locus of focal attention is severely limited. Here we demonstrate that multivariate analyses of raw EEG data provide a much more fine-grained spatial profile of feature-based target selection. When training a pattern classifier to determine target position from EEG, we were able to decode target positions on the vertical midline, which cannot be achieved using standard N2pc methodology. Next, we used a forward encoding model to construct a channel tuning function that describes the continuous relationship between target position and multivariate EEG in an eight-position display. This model can spatially discriminate individual target positions in these displays and is fully invertible, enabling us to construct hypothetical topographic activation maps for target positions that were never used. When tested against the real pattern of neural activity obtained from a different group of subjects, the constructed maps from the forward model turned out statistically indistinguishable, thus providing independent validation of our model. Our findings demonstrate the power of multivariate EEG analysis to track feature-based target selection with high spatial and temporal precision.

  13. Spectroscopic Characteristics of Highly Selective Manganese Catalysis in Acqueous Polyurethane Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakic, Suzana; Lacnjevac, Caslav; Nikolic, Goran; Stamenkovic, Jakov; Rajkovic, Milos B.; Gligoric, Miladin; Barac, Miroljub

    2006-01-01

    The latest investigations on producing more efficient catalytic aqueous polyurethane systems are in the domain of metal complexes with mixed ligands. In our previous research works, the high selectivity for the isocyanate-hydroxyl reaction in aqueous polyurethane systems has been shown by the manganese(III) mixed-ligand complexes. The two new complexes have been prepared with two acetylacetonate (acac) ligands and one maleate ligand and its hydroxylamine derivative of the general formula [Mn(C5H7O2)2L]. Their structures have been established by using the fundamental analyses, the FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopic methods, as well as the magnetic measurements. In order to explain the different selectivity of the manganese(III) mixed-ligand complexes, the UV and ESR spectroscopy have been employed to determine the kinetics of the complexes' decomposition. The thermal stability of the complexes has been determined by way of the dynamic TG method at the heating rate of 5°C·min-1 and at the temperature ranged 20-550°C. It suggests the decomposition of the complexes by loss of acid ligand. The main factor in the selective catalysis control in the aqueous polyurethane systems is the nature of the acid ligands and their impact on the manganese(II)/manganese(III) equilibrium.

  14. Spectroscopic Characteristics of Highly Selective Manganese Catalysis in Acqueous Polyurethane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroljub Barac

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest investigations on producing more efficient catalytic aqueouspolyurethane systems are in the domain of metal complexes with mixed ligands. In ourprevious research works, the high selectivity for the isocyanate-hydroxyl reaction inaqueous polyurethane systems has been shown by the manganese(III mixed-ligandcomplexes. The two new complexes have been prepared with two acetylacetonate (acacligands and one maleate ligand and its hydroxylamine derivative of the general formula[Mn(C5H7O22L]. Their structures have been established by using the fundamental analyses,the FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopic methods, as well as the magnetic measurements. Inorder to explain the different selectivity of the manganese(III mixed-ligand complexes, theUV and ESR spectroscopy have been employed to determine the kinetics of the complexes’decomposition. The thermal stability of the complexes has been determined by way of thedynamic TG method at the heating rate of 5°C⋅min-1 and at the temperature ranged 20-550°C. It suggests the decomposition of the complexes by loss of acid ligand. The main factor in the selective catalysis control in theaqueous polyurethane systems is the nature of the acid ligands and their impact on themanganese(II/manganese(III equilibrium.

  15. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  16. Detection of genomic variation by selection of a 9 mb DNA region and high throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I Nikolaev

    Full Text Available Detection of the rare polymorphisms and causative mutations of genetic diseases in a targeted genomic area has become a major goal in order to understand genomic and phenotypic variability. We have interrogated repeat-masked regions of 8.9 Mb on human chromosomes 21 (7.8 Mb and 7 (1.1 Mb from an individual from the International HapMap Project (NA12872. We have optimized a method of genomic selection for high throughput sequencing. Microarray-based selection and sequencing resulted in 260-fold enrichment, with 41% of reads mapping to the target region. 83% of SNPs in the targeted region had at least 4-fold sequence coverage and 54% at least 15-fold. When assaying HapMap SNPs in NA12872, our sequence genotypes are 91.3% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 4-fold, and 97.9% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 15-fold. About 81% of the SNPs recovered with both thresholds are listed in dbSNP. We observed that regions with low sequence coverage occur in close proximity to low-complexity DNA. Validation experiments using Sanger sequencing were performed for 46 SNPs with 15-20 fold coverage, with a confirmation rate of 96%, suggesting that DNA selection provides an accurate and cost-effective method for identifying rare genomic variants.

  17. Pipe leak diagnostic using high frequency piezoelectric pressure sensor and automatic selection of intrinsic mode function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Hanafi M.; Ghazali, M. F.; Yusof, M. F. M.; Remli, M. A. Pi; Kamarulzaman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    In a recent study, the analysis of pressure transient signals could be seen as an accurate and low-cost method for leak and feature detection in water distribution systems. Transient phenomena occurs due to sudden changes in the fluid’s propagation in pipelines system caused by rapid pressure and flow fluctuation due to events such as closing and opening valves rapidly or through pump failure. In this paper, the feasibility of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method/technique in analysing the pressure transient signals in presented and discussed. HHT is a way to decompose a signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMF). However, the advantage of HHT is its difficulty in selecting the suitable IMF for the next data postprocessing method which is Hilbert Transform (HT). This paper reveals that utilizing the application of an integrated kurtosis-based algorithm for a z-filter technique (I-Kaz) to kurtosis ratio (I-Kaz-Kurtosis) allows/contributes to/leads to automatic selection of the IMF that should be used. This technique is demonstrated on a 57.90-meter medium high-density polyethylene (MDPE) pipe installed with a single artificial leak. The analysis results using the I-Kaz-kurtosis ratio revealed/confirmed that the method can be used as an automatic selection of the IMF although the noise level ratio of the signal is low. Therefore, the I-Kaz-kurtosis ratio method is recommended as a means to implement an automatic selection technique of the IMF for HHT analysis.

  18. Differences in course selection among high school girls and the rationale thereof in terms of life course outlook

    OpenAIRE

    日下田, 岳史; 矢野, 眞和

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the rationale behind course selection among high school girls̶on the basis of their life course outlook̶and to clarify the conflict that arises when girls select courses.  A lifetime income maximization model indicates that the course that will maximize a girl's lifetime income depends on her life course outlook and household economic conditions. A comparison between the rational selection and a result from the survey of high school students'course selection shows t...

  19. High-content analysis of antibody phage-display library selection outputs identifies tumor selective macropinocytosis-dependent rapidly internalizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Many forms of antibody-based targeted therapeutics, including antibody drug conjugates, utilize the internalizing function of the targeting antibody to gain intracellular entry into tumor cells. Ideal antibodies for developing such therapeutics should be capable of both tumor-selective binding and efficient endocytosis. The macropinocytosis pathway is capable of both rapid and bulk endocytosis, and recent studies have demonstrated that it is selectively up-regulated by cancer cells. We hypothesize that receptor-dependent macropinocytosis can be achieved using tumor-targeting antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway, improving potency and selectivity of the antibody-based targeted therapeutic. Although phage antibody display libraries have been utilized to find antibodies that bind and internalize to target cells, no methods have been described to screen for antibodies that internalize specifically via macropinocytosis. We hereby describe a novel screening strategy to identify phage antibodies that bind and rapidly enter tumor cells via macropinocytosis. We utilized an automated microscopic imaging-based, High Content Analysis platform to identify novel internalizing phage antibodies that colocalize with macropinocytic markers from antibody libraries that we have generated previously by laser capture microdissection-based selection, which are enriched for internalizing antibodies binding to tumor cells in situ residing in their tissue microenvironment (Ruan, W., Sassoon, A., An, F., Simko, J. P., and Liu, B. (2006) Identification of clinically significant tumor antigens by selecting phage antibody library on tumor cells in situ using laser capture microdissection. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 5, 2364-2373). Full-length human IgG molecules derived from macropinocytosing phage antibodies retained the ability to internalize via macropinocytosis, validating our screening strategy. The target antigen for a cross-species binding antibody with a highly active

  20. High-content Analysis of Antibody Phage-display Library Selection Outputs Identifies Tumor Selective Macropinocytosis-dependent Rapidly Internalizing Antibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Many forms of antibody-based targeted therapeutics, including antibody drug conjugates, utilize the internalizing function of the targeting antibody to gain intracellular entry into tumor cells. Ideal antibodies for developing such therapeutics should be capable of both tumor-selective binding and efficient endocytosis. The macropinocytosis pathway is capable of both rapid and bulk endocytosis, and recent studies have demonstrated that it is selectively up-regulated by cancer cells. We hypothesize that receptor-dependent macropinocytosis can be achieved using tumor-targeting antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway, improving potency and selectivity of the antibody-based targeted therapeutic. Although phage antibody display libraries have been utilized to find antibodies that bind and internalize to target cells, no methods have been described to screen for antibodies that internalize specifically via macropinocytosis. We hereby describe a novel screening strategy to identify phage antibodies that bind and rapidly enter tumor cells via macropinocytosis. We utilized an automated microscopic imaging-based, High Content Analysis platform to identify novel internalizing phage antibodies that colocalize with macropinocytic markers from antibody libraries that we have generated previously by laser capture microdissection-based selection, which are enriched for internalizing antibodies binding to tumor cells in situ residing in their tissue microenvironment (Ruan, W., Sassoon, A., An, F., Simko, J. P., and Liu, B. (2006) Identification of clinically significant tumor antigens by selecting phage antibody library on tumor cells in situ using laser capture microdissection. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 5, 2364–2373). Full-length human IgG molecules derived from macropinocytosing phage antibodies retained the ability to internalize via macropinocytosis, validating our screening strategy. The target antigen for a cross-species binding antibody with a highly

  1. Recombination and selectional forces in cyanopeptolin NRPS operons from highly similar, but geographically remote Planktothrix strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Tom

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanopeptolins are nonribosomally produced heptapetides showing a highly variable composition. The cyanopeptolin synthetase operon has previously been investigated in three strains from the genera Microcystis, Planktothrix and Anabaena. Cyanopeptolins are displaying protease inhibitor activity, but the biological function(s is (are unknown. Cyanopeptolin gene cluster variability and biological functions of the peptide variants are likely to be interconnected. Results We have investigated two cyanopeptolin gene clusters from highly similar, but geographically remote strains of the same genus. Sequencing of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS cyanopeptolin gene cluster from the Japanese strain Planktothrix NIES 205 (205-oci, showed the 30 kb gene cluster to be highly similar to the oci gene cluster previously described in Planktothrix NIVA CYA 116, isolated in Norway. Both operons contained seven NRPS modules, a sulfotransferase (S and a glyceric acid loading (GA-domain. Sequence analyses showed a high degree of conservation, except for the presence of an epimerase domain in NIES 205 and the regions around the epimerase, showing high substitution rates and Ka/Ks values above 1. The two strains produce almost identical cyanopeptolins, cyanopeptolin-1138 and oscillapeptin E respectively, but with slight differences regarding the production of minor cyanopeptolin variants. These variants may be the result of relaxed adenylation (A-domain specificity in the nonribosomal enzyme complex. Other genetic markers (16S rRNA, ntcA and the phycocyanin cpcBA spacer were identical, supporting that these geographically separated Planktothrix strains are closely related. Conclusion A horizontal gene transfer event resulting in exchange of a whole module-encoding region was observed. Nucleotide statistics indicate that both purifying selection and positive selection forces are operating on the gene cluster. The positive selection forces are

  2. Review of Mid- to High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the concentrating solar power (CSP) systems using solar absorbers to convert concentrated sunlight to thermal electric power. It is possible to achieve solar absorber surfaces for efficient photothermal conversion having high solar absorptance (a) for solar radiation and a low thermal emittance (e) at the operational temperature. A low reflectance (?'' 0) at wavelengths (?) 3 mm and a high reflectance (?'' 1) at l 3 mm characterize spectrally selective surfaces. The operational temperature ranges of these materials for solar applications can be categorized as low temperature (T< 100 C), mid-temperature (100 C< T< 400 C), and high-temperature (T> 400 C). High- and mid-temperature applications are needed for CSP applications. For CSP applications, the ideal spectrally selective surface would be low-cost and easy to manufacture, chemically and thermally stable in air at elevated operating temperatures (T= 500 C), and have a solar absorptance= 0.98 and a thermal emittance= 0.05 at 500 C.

  3. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podevin, Michael; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-11-27

    Microalgae are well known for their ability to accumulate lipids intracellularly, which can be used for biofuels and mitigate CO2 emissions. However, due to economic challenges, microalgae bioprocesses have maneuvered towards the simultaneous production of food, feed, fuel, and various high-value chemicals in a biorefinery concept. On-line and in-line monitoring of macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and high-value pigments will be more critical to maintain product quality and consistency for downstream processing in a biorefinery to maintain and valorize these markets. The main contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity - the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously - in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation of a microalgal biorefinery. The high-selectivity PAT under consideration are mid-infrared (MIR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. The current review contains a critical assessment of these technologies in the context of recent advances in software and hardware in order to move microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on "big data". The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development.

  4. High resolution profiling of ammonium and carbonate with solid contact ion selective electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, R.; Wehrli, B.; Dinkel, C.; Crespo, G.; Bakker, E.; Brand, A.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical processes involved in the carbon and nitrogen cycle are often confined to very narrow zones in aquatic systems. To study such processes, highly resolved measurements are required, which are not possible by conventional sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Potentiometric solid contact ion selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) are promising tools for high resolution in-situ profiling owing to their robustness to pressure changes, their improved detection limits ( 10-6 M) and selectivity and the fast response (t95 ≤ 10s). Conventional SC-ISEs work well under controlled laboratory conditions but can fail to meet the challenges of natural water matrices. In-situ application requires SC-ISEs which are insensitive to changes in redox conditions, pH, and light and to reactive solutes such as high sulfide concentrations. To meet these criteria, we adapted a double layer design by using different combinations of transducing materials and membrane matrices for fabrication of SC-ISEs. We applied these sensors in an custom built profiling set up and demonstrated the potential of this system for high resolution in-situ measurements.

  5. Reduced Variance of Gene Expression at Numerous Loci in a Population of Chickens Selected for High Feather Pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, A L; Buitenhuis, A J

    2010-01-01

    Changes in gene expression in response to selection were studied by comparing microarray expression profiles among a population of domestic chickens selected for high feather pecking (FP) with a control population and a population selected for low FP. No transcripts showed significant differences...... and gentle FP were distinct, suggesting that very distinct underlying neural mechanisms underlie these 2 behaviors, with SFP showing more signs of an association with synaptic plasticity and with an immunosuppressive stress response...

  6. A highly selective and sensitive rhodamine-derived fluorescent probe for detection of Cu2 +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Linlin; Diao, Quanping

    2017-05-01

    A novel water-soluble and reversible fluorescent probe was designed and synthesized based on a rhodamine B derivative. It was used for detection of Cu2 + in drinking water and in living cells with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. The tested concentration range and the limit of detection (LOD) of the probe were 0-15.00 μmol L- 1 and 0.085 μmol L- 1, respectively. In addition, the mode of binding and mechanism of interaction between the probe and Cu2 + were analyzed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  7. GRINDABILITY OF SELECTED GRADES OF LOW-ALLOY HIGH-SPEED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jaworski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presents the results of investigations studied the cutting ability and grindability of selected high-speed steels. We analysed the effect of the austenitization temperature on the grain size, the amount of retained austenite and percentage of retained austenite in HS3-1-1 steel. Furthermore, the investigations concerned on the efficiency of the keyway broaches during the whole period of operation were carried out. It was found that the value of average roughness parameter increases together with increases in the grinding depth. The investigations also show the influence of tempering conditions on the volume of carbide phases in HS3-1-1 steel.

  8. Two-dimensional gold nanostructures with high activity for selective oxidation of carbon–hydrogen bonds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang

    2015-04-22

    Efficient synthesis of stable two-dimensional (2D) noble metal catalysts is a challenging topic. Here we report the facile synthesis of 2D gold nanosheets via a wet chemistry method, by using layered double hydroxide as the template. Detailed characterization with electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that the nanosheets are negatively charged and [001] oriented with thicknesses varying from single to a few atomic layers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals unusually low gold–gold coordination numbers. These gold nanosheets exhibit high catalytic activity and stability in the solvent-free selective oxidation of carbon–hydrogen bonds with molecular oxygen.

  9. Hitting times of local and global optima in genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to upper bounds on the expected first hitting times of the sets of local or global optima for non-elitist genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure. The results of this paper extend the range of situations where the upper bounds on the expected runtime are known for genetic algorithms and apply, in particular, to the Canonical Genetic Algorithm. The obtained bounds do not require the probability of fitness-decreasing mutation to be bounded by a constant which is less than one.

  10. Highly Sensitive Fluorescence Probe Based on Functional SBA-15 for Selective Detection of Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An inorganic–organic hybrid fluorescence chemosensor (DA/SBA-15 was prepared by covalent immobilization of a dansylamide derivative into the channels of mesoporous silica material SBA-15 via (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES groups. The primary hexagonally ordered mesoporous structure of SBA-15 was preserved after the grafting procedure. Fluorescence characterization shows that the obtained inorganic–organic hybrid composite is highly selective and sensitive to Hg2+ detection, suggesting the possibility for real-time qualitative or quantitative detection of Hg2+ and the convenience for potential application in toxicology and environmental science.

  11. Highly selective and reversible chemosensor for Pd(2+) detected by fluorescence, colorimetry, and test paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Liu, Xiaomei; Lu, Huizhe; Wang, Hongmei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-01-21

    A "turn-on" fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor (RBS) for Pd(2+) has been designed and synthesized through introduction of sulfur as a ligand atom to Rhodamine B. RBS exhibits high selectivity (freedom from the interference of Hg(2+ )in particular) and sensitivity toward Pd(2+) with a detection limit as low as 2.4 nM. RBS is also a reversible sensor, and it can be made into test paper to detect Pd(2+) in pure water. Compared to the chemosensors that introduced phosphorus to Rhodamine to detect Pd(2+), RBS can be synthesized more simply and economically.

  12. Sexual selection in Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is an important factor that drives evolution, in which fitness is increased, not by increasing survival or viability, but by acquiring more or better mates. Sexual selection favours traits that increase the ability of an individual to obtain more matings than other individuals that

  13. Selecting Schizosaccharomyces pombe diploids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe procedures for the selection of diploid Schizosaccharomyces pombe. ade6-M210/ade6-M216 heteroallelic complementation is widely used to select for Ade+ diploids. Such diploids will readily sporulate when starved of nitrogen. For some investigations, stable diploids are preferable (e...

  14. Designing Menu Selection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Ben

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the multiple design issues involved in creating successful menu selection systems: semantic organization, response time, display rates, shortcuts for frequent users, titles, phrasing of menu items, graphic layout, and selection mechanisms. Pop-up and embedded menus, experimental results, and design guidelines are also covered.…

  15. Potentiometric anion selective sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1999-01-01

    In comparison with selective receptors (and sensors) for cationic species, work on the selective complexation and detection of anions is of more recent date. There are three important components for a sensor, a transducer element, a membrane material that separates the transducer element and the

  16. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  17. Use of Selection Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Thomas K., Comp.

    In December 1973, questionnaires were sent to academic libraries of varying size to discover which book and materials selection aids were used in the library's acquisition process. Aids under consideration included book reviews in library journals, professional subject journals, and publisher's selection/promotional material. The highlights of the…

  18. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  19. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  20. Review of Aviator Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    achieved by a battery that reliably and accurately measures general intelligence: psychomotor skills; selective and divided attention; working memory ...aviator selection, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Caldwell, O’Hara, Caldwell, Stephens, & Krueger, 1993), Eysenck Personality...administered tests measuring psychomotor skills, short-term memory , time- sharing ability, and attitudes toward risk-taking. Across several studies, the

  1. Shape-selective catalysis for synthesis of high-value chemicals from aromatics in coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Liquids derived from coals contain numerous aromatic compounds. Many of the one- to four-ring aromatic and polar compounds can be converted into valuable chemicals. Economic analysis of the viability of liquefaction (and related conversion processes) may well produce a different result if some of the aromatics and phenolics are used for making high-value chemicals and some of the liquids for making high-quality fuels such as thermally stable aviation fuels. To make effective use of aromatics in coal liquids, we are studying shape-selective catalytic conversion of multi-ring compounds. The products of such reactions are intermediates for making value-added chemicals, monomers of advanced polymer materials, or components of advanced jet fuels. Two broad strategic approaches can be used for making chemicals and materials from coals. The first is the indirect approach: conversion of coals to liquids, followed by transformation of compounds in the liquids into value-added products. The second is direct conversion of coals to materials and chemicals. Both approaches are being explored in this laboratory. In this paper, we will give an account of our recent work on (1) shape-selective catalysis which demonstrates that high-value chemicals can be obtained from aromatic compounds by catalytic conversion over certain zeolites; and (2) catalytic graphitization of anthracites, which reveals that using some metal compounds promotes graphitization at lower temperatures and may lead to a more efficient process for making graphites from coals.

  2. Highly Sensitive and Selective VOC Sensor Systems Based on Semiconductor Gas Sensors: How to?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schütze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs is of increasing importance in many application fields such as environmental monitoring, indoor air quality, industrial safety, fire detection, and health applications. The challenges in all of these applications are the wide variety and low concentrations of target molecules combined with the complex matrix containing many inorganic and organic interferents. This paper will give an overview over the application fields and address the requirements, pitfalls, and possible solutions for using low-cost sensor systems for VOC monitoring. The focus lies on highly sensitive metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors, which show very high sensitivity, but normally lack selectivity required for targeting relevant VOC monitoring applications. In addition to providing an overview of methods to increase the selectivity, especially virtual multisensors achieved with dynamic operation, and boost the sensitivity further via novel pro-concentrator concepts, we will also address the requirement for high-performance gas test systems, advanced solutions for operating and read-out electronic, and, finally, a cost-efficient factory and on-site calibration. The various methods will be primarily discussed in the context of requirements for monitoring of indoor air quality, but can equally be applied for environmental monitoring and other fields.

  3. Selective adsorption of protein by a high-efficiency Cu(2+) -cooperated magnetic imprinted nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Tang, Yuhai; Hao, Yi; He, Gaiyan; Gao, Ruixia; Tang, Xiaoshuang

    2016-07-01

    We report a core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer with high affinity through a facile sol-gel method for the selective adsorption of bovine hemoglobin from real bovine blood. Copper ions grafted on the surface of the matrix could immobilize template protein through chelation, which greatly enhances the orderliness of imprinted cavities and affinity of polymers. The obtained products exhibit a desired level of magnetic susceptibility, resulting in the highly efficient adsorption process. The results of adsorption experiments show that the saturation adsorption capacity of imprinted products could reach 116.3 mg/g within 30 min. Meanwhile, the specific binding experiment demonstrates the high selectivity of polymers for bovine hemoglobin. Furthermore, satisfactory reusability is demonstrated by ten adsorption-desorption cycles with no obvious deterioration in binding capacity. Electrophoretic analysis suggests the polymer could be used successfully in separation and enrichment of bovine hemoglobin from the bovine blood sample, which exhibits potential application in pretreatment of proteomics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Achieving Highly Efficient, Selective, and Stable CO2 Reduction on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Yadav, Ram Manohar; Liu, Mingjie; Sharma, Pranav P; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ma, Lulu; Zou, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yakobson, Boris I; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-05-26

    The challenge in the electrosynthesis of fuels from CO2 is to achieve durable and active performance with cost-effective catalysts. Here, we report that carbon nanotubes (CNTs), doped with nitrogen to form resident electron-rich defects, can act as highly efficient and, more importantly, stable catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to CO. The unprecedented overpotential (-0.18 V) and selectivity (80%) observed on nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) are attributed to their unique features to facilitate the reaction, including (i) high electrical conductivity, (ii) preferable catalytic sites (pyridinic N defects), and (iii) low free energy for CO2 activation and high barrier for hydrogen evolution. Indeed, DFT calculations show a low free energy barrier for the potential-limiting step to form key intermediate COOH as well as strong binding energy of adsorbed COOH and weak binding energy for the adsorbed CO. The highest selective site toward CO production is pyridinic N, and the NCNT-based electrodes exhibit no degradation over 10 h of continuous operation, suggesting the structural stability of the electrode.

  5. Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Nanomolar Ferric Ions Using Dopamine Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Chowdhury, Ankan; Doong, Ruey-An

    2016-08-17

    The good stability, low cytotoxicity, and excellent photoluminescence property of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) make them an emerging class of promising materials in various application fields ranging from sensor to drug delivery. In the present work, the dopamine-functionalized GQDs (DA-GQDs) with stably bright blue fluorescence were successfully synthesized for low level Fe(3+) ions detection. The as-synthesized GQDs are uniform in size with narrow-distributed particle size of 4.5 ± 0.6 nm and high quantum yield of 10.2%. The amide linkage of GQDs with dopamine, confirmed by using XPS and FTIR spectra, results in the specific interaction between Fe(3+) and catechol moiety of dopamine at the interfaces for highly sensitive and selective detection of Fe(3+). A linear range of 20 nM to 2 μM with a detection limit of 7.6 nM is obtained for Fe(3+) detection by DA-GQDs. The selectivity of DA-GQDs sensing probe is significantly excellent in the presence of other interfering metal ions. In addition, the reaction mechanism for Fe(3+) detection based on the complexation and oxidation of dopamine has been proposed and validated. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the superiority of surface functionalized GQDs to Fe(3+) detection, which can pave an avenue for the development of high performance and robust sensing probes for detection of metal ions and other organic metabolites in environmental and biomedical applications.

  6. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades...... selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  7. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  8. Phenotypic selection in natural populations: what limits directional selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Diamond, Sarah E

    2011-03-01

    Studies of phenotypic selection document directional selection in many natural populations. What factors reduce total directional selection and the cumulative evolutionary responses to selection? We combine two data sets for phenotypic selection, representing more than 4,600 distinct estimates of selection from 143 studies, to evaluate the potential roles of fitness trade-offs, indirect (correlated) selection, temporally varying selection, and stabilizing selection for reducing net directional selection and cumulative responses to selection. We detected little evidence that trade-offs among different fitness components reduced total directional selection in most study systems. Comparisons of selection gradients and selection differentials suggest that correlated selection frequently reduced total selection on size but not on other types of traits. The direction of selection on a trait often changes over time in many temporally replicated studies, but these fluctuations have limited impact in reducing cumulative directional selection in most study systems. Analyses of quadratic selection gradients indicated stabilizing selection on body size in at least some studies but provided little evidence that stabilizing selection is more common than disruptive selection for most traits or study systems. Our analyses provide little evidence that fitness trade-offs, correlated selection, or stabilizing selection strongly constrains the directional selection reported for most quantitative traits.

  9. EPAS1 variants in high altitude Tibetan wolves were selectively introgressed into highland dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgett vonHoldt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Admixture can facilitate adaptation. For example, black wolves have obtained the variant causing black coat color through past hybridization with domestic dogs and have higher fitness than gray colored wolves. Another recent example of the transfer of adaptive variation between the two species has been suggested by the similarity between high altitude Tibetan mastiffs and wolves at the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor induced in low oxygen environments. Methods Here, we investigate the directionality of admixture in EPAS1 between 28 reference highland gray wolves, 15 reference domestic dogs, and 21 putatively admixed highland wolves. This experimental design represents an expanded sample of Asian dogs and wolves from previous studies. Admixture was inferred using 17,709 publicly available SNP genotypes on canine chromosome 10. We additionally conducted a scan for positive selection in the highland dog genome. Results We find an excess of highland gray wolf ancestry at the EPAS1 locus in highland domestic dogs, suggesting adaptive introgression from wolves to dogs. The signal of admixture is limited in genomic extent to a small region on chromosome 10, indicating that it is the focus of selection in an oxygen-limited environment. Discussion Our results suggest that an adaptive variant of EPAS1 in highland wolves was transferred to highland dogs, carrying linked variants that potentially function in hypoxia response at high elevation. The intertwined history of dogs and wolves ensures a unique evolutionary dynamic where variants that have appeared in the history of either species can be tested for their effects on fitness under natural and artificial selection. Such coupled evolutionary histories may be key to the persistence of wild canines and their domesticated kin given the increasing anthropogenic modifications that characterize the future of both species.

  10. Patterning pallet arrays for cell selection based on high-resolution measurements of fluorescent biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadpour, Hamed; Zawistowski, Jon S; Herman, Annadele; Hahn, Klaus; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2011-06-24

    Pallet arrays enable cells to be separated while they remain adherent to a surface and provide a much greater range of cell selection criteria relative to that of current technologies. However there remains a need to further broaden cell selection criteria to include dynamic intracellular signaling events. To demonstrate the feasibility of measuring cellular protein behavior on the arrays using high resolution microscopy, the surfaces of individual pallets were modified to minimize the impact of scattered light at the pallet edges. The surfaces of the three-dimensional pallets on an array were patterned with a coating such as fibronectin using a customized stamping tool. Micropatterns of varying shape and size were printed in designated regions on the pallets in single or multiple steps to demonstrate the reliability and precision of patterning molecules on the pallet surface. Use of a fibronectin matrix stamped at the center of each pallet permitted the localization of H1299 and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells to the pallet centers and away from the edges. Compared to pallet arrays with fibronectin coating the entire top surface, arrays with a central fibronectin pattern increased the percentage of cells localized to the pallet center by 3-4-fold. Localization of cells to the pallet center also enabled the physical separation of cells from optical artifacts created by the rough pallet side walls. To demonstrate the measurement of dynamic intracellular signaling on the arrays, fluorescence measurements of high spatial resolution were performed using a RhoA GTPase biosensor. This biosensor utilized fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to measure localized RhoA activity in cellular ruffles at the cell periphery. These results demonstrated the ability to perform spatially resolved measurements of fluorescence-based sensors on the pallet arrays. Thus, the patterned pallet arrays

  11. Selection for the compactness of highly expressed genes in Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Ming

    2010-05-01

    (n = 1105, and compared the first intron length and the average intron length between highly expressed genes (top 5% expressed genes and weakly expressed genes (bottom 5% expressed genes. We found that the first intron length and the average intron length in highly expressed genes are not different from that in weakly expressed genes. We also made a comparison between ubiquitously expressed genes and narrowly expressed somatic genes with similar expression levels. Our data demonstrated that ubiquitously expressed genes are less compact than narrowly expressed genes with the similar expression levels. Obviously, these observations can not be explained by mutational bias hypotheses either. We also found that the significant trend between genes' compactness and expression level could not be affected by local mutational biases. We argued that the selection of economy model is most likely one to explain the relationship between gene expression and gene characteristics in chicken genome. Conclusion Natural selection appears to favor the compactness of highly expressed genes in chicken genome. This observation can be explained by the selection of economy model. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Gavin Huttley, Dr. Liran Carmel (nominated by Dr. Eugene V. Koonin and Dr. Araxi Urrutia (nominated by Dr. Laurence D. Hurst.

  12. Experimental High Speed Milling of the Selected Thin-Walled Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Zajac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a technical practice, it is possible to meet thin-walled parts more and more often. These parts are most commonly used in the automotive industry or aircraft industry to reduce the weight of different design part of cars or aircraft. Presented article is focused on experimental high speed milling of selected thin-walled component. The introduction of this article presents description of high speed machining and specification of thin – walled parts. The experiments were carried out using a CNC machine Pinnacle VMC 650S and C45 material - plain carbon steel for automotive components and mechanical engineering. In the last part of the article, described are the arrangements to reduction of deformation of thin-walled component during the experimental high speed milling.

  13. Highly Sensitive and Selective Gas Sensor Using Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Surajit; Xu, Yang; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Qin, Hongyi; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-06-01

    New hydrophilic 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with various oxygen functional groups were employed to maintain high sensitivity in highly unfavorable environments (extremely high humidity, strong acidic or basic). Novel one-headed polymer optical fiber sensor arrays using hydrophilic GO and hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were carefully designed, leading to the selective sensing of volatile organic gases for the first time. The two physically different surfaces of GO and rGO could provide the sensing ability to distinguish between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dichloromethane (MC), respectively, which is the most challenging issue in the area of gas sensors. The eco-friendly physical properties of GO allowed for faster sensing and higher sensitivity when compared to previous results for rGO even under extreme environments of over 90% humidity, making it the best choice for an environmentally friendly gas sensor.

  14. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    2009-01-01

    -associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) across the species distribution. Results: Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional...... selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread...

  15. Highly Selective Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Alcohol Mixtures for Jet/Diesel-Fuel Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Xu, Guoqiang; Wang, Xicheng; Liu, Xiaoran; Mu, Xindong

    2016-12-20

    In light of the increasing concern about the energy and environmental problems caused by the combustion of petroleum-based fuels (e.g., jet and diesel fuels), the development of new procedures for their sustainable production from renewable biomass-derived platform compounds has attracted tremendous attention recently. Long-chain ketones/alcohols are promising fuel components owing to the fuel properties that closely resemble those of traditional fuels. The focus of this report is the production of long-chain ketones/alcohols by direct upgrading of biomass-derived short-chain alcohol mixtures (e.g., isopropanol-butanol-ethanol mixtures) in pure water. An efficient Pd catalyst system was developed for these highly selective transformations. Long-chain ketones/alcohols (C8 -C19 ), which can be used as precursors for renewable jet/diesel fuel, were obtained in good-to-high selectivity (>90 %) by using the developed Pd catalyst. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. High level of microsynteny and purifying selection affect the evolution of WRKY family in Gramineae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Kong, Jingjing; Qiu, Jianle; Zhu, Huasheng; Peng, Yuancheng; Jiang, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY gene family, which encodes proteins in the regulation processes of diverse developmental stages, is one of the largest families of transcription factors in higher plants. In this study, by searching for interspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) and dating the age distributions of duplicated genes, we found 35 chromosomal segments of subgroup I genes of WRKY family (WRKY I) in four Gramineae species (Brachypodium, rice, sorghum, and maize) formed eight orthologous groups. After a stepwise gene-by-gene reciprocal comparison of all the protein sequences in the WRKY I gene flanking areas, highly conserved regions of microsynteny were found in the four Gramineae species. Most gene pairs showed conserved orientation within syntenic genome regions. Furthermore, tandem duplication events played the leading role in gene expansion. Eventually, environmental selection pressure analysis indicated strong purifying selection for the WRKY I genes in Gramineae, which may have been followed by gene loss and rearrangement. The results presented in this study provide basic information of Gramineae WRKY I genes and form the foundation for future functional studies of these genes. High level of microsynteny in the four grass species provides further evidence that a large-scale genome duplication event predated speciation.

  17. Manufacturing of a high-temperature resistojet heat exchanger by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romei, F.; Grubišić, A. N.; Gibbon, D.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the design, manufacturing and postproduction analysis of a novel high-temperature spacecraft resistojet heat exchanger manufactured through selective laser melting to validate the manufacturing approach. The work includes the analysis of critical features of a heat exchanger with integrated converging-diverging nozzle as a single piece element. The metrology of the component is investigated using optical analysis and profilometry to verify the integrity of components. High-resolution micro-Computed Tomography (CT) is applied as a tool for volumetric non-destructive inspection and conformity since the complex geometry of the thruster does not allow internal examination. The CT volume data is utilised to determine a surface mesh on which a novel perform coordinate measurement technique is applied for nominal/actual comparison and wall thickness analysis. A thin-wall concentric tubular heat exchanger design is determined to meet dimensional accuracy requirements. The work indicates the production of fine structures with feature sizes below 200 μm in 316L stainless via selective laser melting is feasible and opens up new possibilities for the future developments in multiple industries.

  18. An Integrated Model for Supplier Selection for a High-Tech Manufacturer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau; Lin, Chun-Yu

    2011-11-01

    Global competitiveness has become the biggest concern of manufacturing companies, especially in high-tech industries. Improving competitive edges in an environment with rapidly changing technological innovations and dynamic customer needs is essential for a firm to survive and to acquire a decent profit. Thus, the introduction of successful new products is a source of new sales and profits and is a necessity in the intense competitive international market. After a product is developed, a firm needs the cooperation of upstream suppliers to provide satisfactory components and parts for manufacturing final products. Therefore, the selection of suitable suppliers has also become a very important decision. In this study, an analytical approach is proposed to select the most appropriate critical-part suppliers in order to maintain a high reliability of the supply chain. A fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) model, which incorporates the benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) concept, is constructed to evaluate various aspects of suppliers. The proposed model is adopted in a TFT-LCD manufacturer in Taiwan in evaluating the expected performance of suppliers with respect to each important factor, and an overall ranking of the suppliers can be generated as a result.

  19. High-throughput screening for potent and selective inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jeffrey; Michnoff, Carolyn H; Malmquist, Nicholas A; White, John; Roth, Michael G; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Phillips, Margaret A

    2005-06-10

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most serious and fatal malarial infections, and it has developed resistance to commonly employed chemotherapeutics. The de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis enzymes offer potential as targets for drug design, because, unlike the host, the parasite does not have pyrimidine salvage pathways. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the fourth reaction in this essential pathway. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is utilized as the oxidant. Potent and species-selective inhibitors of malarial DHODH were identified by high-throughput screening of a chemical library, which contained 220,000 drug-like molecules. These novel inhibitors represent a diverse range of chemical scaffolds, including a series of halogenated phenyl benzamide/naphthamides and urea-based compounds containing napthyl or quinolinyl substituents. Inhibitors in these classes with IC(50) values below 600 nm were purified by high pressure liquid chromatography, characterized by mass spectroscopy, and subjected to kinetic analysis against the parasite and human enzymes. The most active compound is a competitive inhibitor of CoQ with an IC(50) against malarial DHODH of 16 nm, and it is 12,500-fold less active against the human enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in the CoQ-binding site significantly reduced inhibitor potency. The structural basis for the species selective enzyme inhibition is explained by the variable amino acid sequence in this binding site, making DHODH a particularly strong candidate for the development of new anti-malarial compounds.

  20. Industrially feasible, dopant-free, carrier-selective contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xinbo

    2017-05-31

    Dopant-free, carrier-selective contacts (CSCs) on high efficiency silicon solar cells combine ease of deposition with potential optical benefits. Electron-selective titanium dioxide (TiO) contacts, one of the most promising dopant-free CSC technologies, have been successfully implemented into silicon solar cells with an efficiency over 21%. Here, we report further progress of TiO contacts for silicon solar cells and present an assessment of their industrial feasibility. With improved TiO contact quality and cell processing, a remarkable efficiency of 22.1% has been achieved using an n-type silicon solar cell featuring a full-area TiO contact. Next, we demonstrate the compatibility of TiO contacts with an industrial contact-firing process, its low performance sensitivity to the wafer resistivity, its applicability to ultrathin substrates as well as its long-term stability. Our findings underscore the great appeal of TiO contacts for industrial implementation with their combination of high efficiency with robust fabrication at low cost.

  1. Development of immobilized Sn(4+) affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we first immobilized tin(IV) ion on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (magG@PDA) to synthesize Sn(4+) -immobilized magG@PDA (magG@PDA-Sn(4+) ) and successfully applied the material to highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The material gathered the advantages of large surface area of graphene, superparamagnetism of Fe3 O4 , good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine, and strong interaction between Sn(4+) and phosphopeptides. The enrichment performance of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) toward phosphopeptides from digested β-casein at different concentrations, with and without added digested BSA was investigated and compared with magG@PDA-Ti(4+) . The results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the Sn(4+) -IMAC material toward phosphopeptides, as good as the Ti(4+) -IMAC material. Finally, magG@PDA-Sn(4+) was applied to the analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides from a real sample, human saliva, with both MALDI-TOF MS and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. The results indicated that the as-synthesized Sn(4+) -IMAC material not only has good enrichment performance, but also could serve as a supplement to the Ti(4+) -IMAC material and expand the phosphopeptide coverage enriched by the single Ti(4+) -IMAC material, demonstrating the broad application prospects of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) in phosphoproteome research. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Female infertility in India: Causes, treatment and impairment of fertility in selected districts with high prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraboni Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the ‘universal access to sexual and reproductive health care’ has received priority in the SDG‐3, the rural women experiencing infertility problem in India are unable to access and afford quality reproductive health care. The study investigates the present infertility situation, with a focus on risk factors, treatment seeking for infertility, and impact of infertility on fertility in India and its districts with high infertility prevalence. The DLHS‐3 data is used. Top fifteen districts with high infertility prevalence are selected for analysis. Simple bivariate and multivariate techniques are applied. In India, the prevalence of ever‐experienced primary, secondary, and current infertility is 6.6%, 2.1% and 4.6% respectively, whereas, in the selected districts, the estimates for the same indicators are 15%, 3.1%, and 5% respectively. A higher prevalence of reported symptoms of RTIs/STIs and menstrual problems is observed among women who ever had infertility. Treatment seeking for infertility is low in Korba and Koryia. The MCEB is less among women who ever had experienced infertility. The prevalence of ever‐experienced infertility and current infertility is considerably higher among women from socio‐economically disadvantaged sections. Awareness of RTIs, STIs, and menstrual problems, and preventive care can reduce infertility among rural women.

  3. Selection, periodicity and potential function for Highly Iterative Palindrome-1 (HIP1) in cyanobacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minli; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Durand, Dannie

    2018-02-08

    Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1, GCGATCGC) is hyper-abundant in most cyanobacterial genomes. In some cyanobacteria, average HIP1 abundance exceeds one motif per gene. Such high abundance suggests a significant role in cyanobacterial biology. However, 20 years of study have not revealed whether HIP1 has a function, much less what that function might be. We show that HIP1 is 15- to 300-fold over-represented in genomes analyzed. More importantly, HIP1 sites are conserved both within and between open reading frames, suggesting that their overabundance is maintained by selection rather than by continual replenishment by neutral processes, such as biased DNA repair. This evidence for selection suggests a functional role for HIP1. No evidence was found to support a functional role as a peptide or RNA motif or a role in the regulation of gene expression. Rather, we demonstrate that the distribution of HIP1 along cyanobacterial chromosomes is significantly periodic, with periods ranging from 10 to 90 kb, consistent in scale with periodicities reported for co-regulated, co-expressed and evolutionarily correlated genes. The periodicity we observe is also comparable in scale to chromosomal interaction domains previously described in other bacteria. In this context, our findings imply HIP1 functions associated with chromosome and nucleoid structure. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Fast liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (highly selective selected reaction monitoring) for the determination of toltrazuril and its metabolites in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Villalba, Anna; Moyano, Encarnación; Martins, Claudia P B; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2010-08-01

    In this work a fast liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of toltrazuril, a coccidiostatic drug, and its metabolites in meat food products. The applicability of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and heated electrospray ionization in both positive and negative modes was studied. APCI in negative mode provided the best results and the base peak originated from the loss of CF(3) (toltrazuril and toltrazuril sulfone) and CHF(3)* (toltrazuril sulfoxide) was used as the precursor ion in MS/MS. A fast LC separation on a C(18) Fused-Core column was used together with the APCI-MS/MS method developed using enhanced mass resolution mode (highly selective selected reaction monitoring, H-SRM) to improve the sensitivity and selectivity for the analysis of these compounds in food samples. A simple sample treatment based on an extraction with acetonitrile and a cleanup with a C(18) cartridge was used. The LC-MS/MS (H-SRM) method showed good precision (relative standard deviation lower than 10%), accuracy, and linearity and allowed the determination of these compounds in food samples down to the parts per billion level (limits of detection between 0.5 and 5 microg kg(-1)).

  5. The Effects of Reform in Principal Selection on Leadership Behavior of General and Vocational High School Principals in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsi-Chi; Lee, Ming-Chao; Tu, Ya-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deregulation has formed the primary core of education reform in Taiwan in the past decade. The principal selection system was one of the specific recommendations in the deregulation of education. The method of designation of senior high school principals has changed from being "appointed" to being "selected." The issue as to…

  6. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  7. A Small Molecule Inhibitor Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Cells Transformed by High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K Sheaffer

    Full Text Available A phenotypic high-throughput cell culture screen was performed to identify compounds that prevented proliferation of the human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16 transformed cell line Ca Ski. A series of quinoxaline compounds exemplified by Compound 1 was identified. Testing against a panel of cell lines demonstrated that Compound 1 selectively inhibited replication of all HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 transformed cell lines tested with 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 values of 2 to 8 μM relative to IC50 values of 28 to 73 μM in HPV-negative cell lines. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a cascade of multiple apoptotic events, including selective activation of effector caspases 3 and 7, fragmentation of cellular DNA, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in HPV-positive cells relative to HPV-negative cells. Unregulated proliferation of HPV transformed cells is dependent on the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a decrease in HPV E7 protein in Ca Ski cells. However, the timing of this reduction relative to other effects of compound treatment suggests that this was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the apoptotic cascade. Likewise, compound treatment resulted in no obvious effects on the E6- and E7- mediated down regulation of p53 and Rb, or their downstream effectors, p21 or PCNA. Further investigation of apoptotic signals induced by Compound 1 revealed cleavage of Caspase-8 in HPV-positive cells as early as 2 hours post-treatment, suggesting the compound initiates apoptosis through the extrinsic, death receptor-mediated, pathway of cell death. These studies provide proof of concept that cells transformed by oncogenic Papillomaviruses can be selectively induced to undergo apoptosis by compound treatment.

  8. Toward high permeability, selectivity and controllability of water desalination with FePc nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qingming; Pan, Jun; Yin, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lina; Kang, Seung-gu; Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo A; Zhou, Ruhong; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-03-21

    Nanoporous materials exhibit promising potential in water transportation applications, especially in ocean water desalination. It is highly desired to have great permeability, selectivity and controllability in the desalination performance of these nanopores. However, it is still a challenge to achieve all three features in one material or device. Here, we demonstrate efficient and controllable water desalination with a nanoporous 2D Fe phthalocyanine (FePc) membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. We find the FePc membrane not only conducts fast water flow, but it also suppresses ion permeation. The selectivity is attributed to a mechanism distinct from the traditional steric exclusion: cations are excluded due to electrostatic repulsion, whereas anions can be trapped in the nanopore and induce the reorganization of ions in the vicinity of the nanopore, which in turn creates a tendency for the trapped anions to move back into the saline reservoir. More interestingly, we find such mechanism is largely due to the sufficiently strong electrostatic interaction of the charged nanopore region with ions and is not restricted to the FePc nanopore. In addition, the number of protonated nitrogen atoms in FePc pores can be modulated by adjusting the pH value of the solution. The extent of the anion occupancy can thus be regulated, giving rise to control of the water flow. Taken together, great permeability, selectivity and controllability can be achieved with this nanosheet system. Moreover, our study suggests there is an alternative mechanism of water desalination which may be realized by intrinsically nanoporous materials such as FePc membranes.

  9. A Small Molecule Inhibitor Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Cells Transformed by High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Amy K; Lee, Min S; Qi, Huilin; Chaniewski, Susan; Zheng, Xiaofan; Farr, Glen A; Esposito, Kim; Harden, David; Lei, Ming; Schweizer, Liang; Friborg, Jacques; Agler, Michele; McPhee, Fiona; Gentles, Robert; Beno, Brett R; Chupak, Lou; Mason, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A phenotypic high-throughput cell culture screen was performed to identify compounds that prevented proliferation of the human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) transformed cell line Ca Ski. A series of quinoxaline compounds exemplified by Compound 1 was identified. Testing against a panel of cell lines demonstrated that Compound 1 selectively inhibited replication of all HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 transformed cell lines tested with 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) values of 2 to 8 μM relative to IC50 values of 28 to 73 μM in HPV-negative cell lines. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a cascade of multiple apoptotic events, including selective activation of effector caspases 3 and 7, fragmentation of cellular DNA, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) cleavage in HPV-positive cells relative to HPV-negative cells. Unregulated proliferation of HPV transformed cells is dependent on the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a decrease in HPV E7 protein in Ca Ski cells. However, the timing of this reduction relative to other effects of compound treatment suggests that this was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the apoptotic cascade. Likewise, compound treatment resulted in no obvious effects on the E6- and E7- mediated down regulation of p53 and Rb, or their downstream effectors, p21 or PCNA. Further investigation of apoptotic signals induced by Compound 1 revealed cleavage of Caspase-8 in HPV-positive cells as early as 2 hours post-treatment, suggesting the compound initiates apoptosis through the extrinsic, death receptor-mediated, pathway of cell death. These studies provide proof of concept that cells transformed by oncogenic Papillomaviruses can be selectively induced to undergo apoptosis by compound treatment.

  10. Aspartic acid-promoted highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of cysteine in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qin; Deng, Jingjing; Wang, Dalei; Yang, Lifen; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2012-11-06

    Direct selective determination of cysteine in the cerebral system is of great importance because of the crucial roles of cysteine in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report a sensitive and selective colorimetric assay for cysteine in the rat brain with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. Initially, Au-NPs synthesized with citrate as the stabilizer are red in color and exhibit absorption at 520 nm. The addition of an aqueous solution (20 μL) of cysteine or aspartic acid alone to a 200 μL Au-NP dispersion causes no aggregation, while the addition of an aqueous solution of cysteine into a Au-NP dispersion containing aspartic acid (1.8 mM) causes the aggregation of Au-NPs and thus results in the color change of the colloid from wine red to blue. These changes are ascribed to the ion pair interaction between aspartic acid and cysteine on the interface between Au-NPs and solution. The concentration of cysteine can be visualized with the naked eye and determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The signal output shows a linear relationship for cysteine within the concentration range from 0.166 to 1.67 μM with a detection limit of 100 nM. The assay demonstrated here is highly selective and is free from the interference of other natural amino acids and other thiol-containing species as well as the species commonly existing in the brain such as lactate, ascorbic acid, and glucose. The basal dialysate level of cysteine in the microdialysate from the striatum of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats is determined to be around 9.6 ± 2.1 μM. The method demonstrated here is facile but reliable and durable and is envisaged to be applicable to understanding the chemical essence involved in physiological and pathological events associated with cysteine.

  11. Pure zinc sulfide quantum dot as highly selective luminescent probe for determination of hazardous cyanide ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: h.rajabi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    A rapid and simple fluorescence method is presented for selective and sensitive determination of hazardous cyanide ion in aqueous solution based on functionalized zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dot (QD) as luminescent prob. The ultra-small ZnS QDs were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as an efficient capping agent. The prepared pure ZnS QDs was applied as an optical sensor for determination of cyanide ions in aqueous solutions. ZnS nanoparticles have exhibited a strong fluorescent emission at about 424 nm. The fluorescence intensity of QDs is linearly proportional to the cyanide ion concentration in the range 2.44 × 10{sup −6} to 2.59 × 10{sup −5} M with a detection limit of 1.70 × 10{sup −7} M at pH 11. The designed fluorescent sensor possesses remarkable selectivity for cyanide ion over other anions such as Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, F{sup −}, I{sup −}, IO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}, BrO{sub 3}{sup −}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 2}{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}, C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}, SCN{sup −}, N{sub 3}{sup −}, citrate and tartarate with negligible influences on the cyanide detection by fluorescence spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Preparation of functionalized ZnS quantum dots in aqueous media • Highly selective quantum dot based luminescent probe for determination of cyanide • Fast and sensitive determination of hazardous CN{sup −} by fluorescence quenching.

  12. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  13. Selective screening of 650 high risk Iranian patients for detection of inborn error of metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Pishva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although metabolic diseases individually are rare ,but overall have an incidence of 1/2000 and can cause devastating and irreversible effect if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. selective screening is an acceptable method for detection of these multi presentation diseases. Method: using panel neonatal screening for detection of metabolic diseases in 650 high risk Iranian patients in Fars province. The following clinical features were used as inclusion criteria for investigation of the patients. Lethargy, poor feeding ,persistent vomiting, cholestasis, intractable seizure ,decreased level of consciousness ,persistent hypoglycemia, unexplained acid base disturbance and unexplained neonatal death. Result: Organic acidemia with 40 cases (42% was the most frequent disorder diagnosed in our high risk populations, followed by disorder of galactose metabolism(30%, 15 patient had classic galactosemia(GALT

  14. Selective screening of 650 high risk Iranian patients for detection of inborn error of metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Pishva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although metabolic diseases individually are rare ,but overall have an incidence of 1/2000 and can cause devastating and irreversible effect if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. selective screening is an acceptable method for detection of these multi presentation diseases.Method: using panel neonatal screening for detection of metabolic diseases in 650 high risk Iranian patients in Fars province. The following clinical features were used as inclusion criteria for investigation of the patients.Lethargy, poor feeding ,persistent vomiting, cholestasis, intractable seizure ,decreased level of consciousness ,persistent hypoglycemia, unexplained acid base disturbance and unexplained neonatal death.Result: Organic acidemia with 40 cases (42% was the most frequent disorder diagnosed in our high risk populations, followed by disorder of galactose metabolism(30%, 15 patient had classic galactosemia(GALT

  15. A new hydroxynaphthyl benzothiazole derived fluorescent probe for highly selective and sensitive Cu2 + detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lijun; He, Ping; Zhong, Keli; Hou, Shuhua; Bian, Yanjiang

    2016-12-01

    A new reactive probe, 1-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-yl-picolinate (BTNP), was designed and synthesized. BTNP acts as a highly selective probe to Cu2 + in DMSO/H2O (7/3, v/v, Tris-HCl 10 mM, pH = 7.4) solution based on Cu2 + catalyzed hydrolysis of the picolinate ester moiety in BTNP, which leads to the formation of an ESIPT active product with dual wavelength emission enhancement. The probe also possesses the advantages of simple synthesis, rapid response and high sensitivity. The pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant was calculated to be 0.205 min- 1. Moreover, application of BTNP to Cu2 + detection in living cells and real water samples was also explored.

  16. An ultra-thin chiral metamaterial absorber with high selectivity for LCP and RCP waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minhua; Guo, Linyan; Dong, Jianfeng; Yang, Helin

    2014-05-01

    An ultra-thin chiral metamaterial absorber (CMMA) is constructed from twisted ‘L-shaped’ folded metallic wires. In particular, it has high selectivity for left-handed and right-handed circular polarized (LCP and RCP) incident waves, which is impossible in traditional metamaterial absorbers. The thickness of the CMMA is only 0.8 mm, with absorption of 93.2% for LCP and 8.4% for RCP waves, respectively. This superb performance can be applied in homogeneous circular polarizers for an arbitrarily polarized incident wave with high polarization conversion efficiency. Meanwhile, current distributions, retrieval results and multipole theory have been used in analyzing the absorption mechanism. Microwave experiments are performed to successfully realize these ideas, and measured results are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  17. Spatial Qualification Tests for Highly Selective Compact Micromachined Band Pass Planar Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghida Hajj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly selective planar band pass filter is proposed for satellite receivers to suppress intermodulation components. The 4-pole filter has a center frequency of 19.825 GHz with a bandwidth of 240 MHz. The measured quality factor is over 600 and the insertion losses are 4.1 dB. The micromachining technological process is used to fabricate this filter. A BCB (benzocyclobutene thin layer is used as an electrical and mechanical support for the filter. The compatibility of the BCB with the spatial constraints was tested. Various tests were accomplished for this purpose and the results of all these tests are presented in the paper. The tests showed a very small influence of the temperature variation and high temperature storage test and practically no influence of the radiation test on the circuit.

  18. Reconfigurable all-dielectric metamaterial frequency selective surface based on high-permittivity ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Du, Hongliang; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Based on effective medium theory and dielectric resonator theory, we propose the design of reconfigurable all-dielectric metamaterial frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) using high-permittivity ceramics. The FSS is composed of ceramic resonators with different band stop responses under front and side incidences. By mechanically tuning the orientation of the ceramic resonators, reconfigurable electromagnetic (EM) responses between two adjacent stopbands can be achieved. The two broad stopbands originate from the first two resonant modes of the ceramic resonators. As an example, a reconfigurable FSS composed of cross-shaped ceramic resonators is demonstrated. Both numerical and experimental results show that the FSS can switch between two consecutive stopbands in 3.55–4.60 GHz and 4.54–4.94 GHz. The design method can be readily extended to the design of FSSs in other frequencies for high-power applications. PMID:27052098

  19. Ultra-selective high-flux membranes from directly synthesized zeolite nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mi Young; Kim, Donghun; Kumar, Prashant; Lee, Pyung Soo; Rangnekar, Neel; Bai, Peng; Shete, Meera; Elyassi, Bahman; Lee, Han Seung; Narasimharao, Katabathini; Basahel, Sulaiman Nasir; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel; Xu, Wenqian; Cho, Hong Je; Fetisov, Evgenii O.; Thyagarajan, Raghuram; Dejaco, Robert F.; Fan, Wei; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Siepmann, J. Ilja; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2017-03-01

    A zeolite with structure type MFI is an aluminosilicate or silicate material that has a three-dimensionally connected pore network, which enables molecular recognition in the size range 0.5-0.6 nm. These micropore dimensions are relevant for many valuable chemical intermediates, and therefore MFI-type zeolites are widely used in the chemical industry as selective catalysts or adsorbents. As with all zeolites, strategies to tailor them for specific applications include controlling their crystal size and shape. Nanometre-thick MFI crystals (nanosheets) have been introduced in pillared and self-pillared (intergrown) architectures, offering improved mass-transfer characteristics for certain adsorption and catalysis applications. Moreover, single (non-intergrown and non-layered) nanosheets have been used to prepare thin membranes that could be used to improve the energy efficiency of separation processes. However, until now, single MFI nanosheets have been prepared using a multi-step approach based on the exfoliation of layered MFI, followed by centrifugation to remove non-exfoliated particles. This top-down method is time-consuming, costly and low-yield and it produces fragmented nanosheets with submicrometre lateral dimensions. Alternatively, direct (bottom-up) synthesis could produce high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets, with improved yield and at lower cost. Here we use a nanocrystal-seeded growth method triggered by a single rotational intergrowth to synthesize high-aspect-ratio MFI nanosheets with a thickness of 5 nanometres (2.5 unit cells). These high-aspect-ratio nanosheets allow the fabrication of thin and defect-free coatings that effectively cover porous substrates. These coatings can be intergrown to produce high-flux and ultra-selective MFI membranes that compare favourably with other MFI membranes prepared from existing MFI materials (such as exfoliated nanosheets or nanocrystals).

  20. Performance of High Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting of Ti6Al4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuezhi; Ma, Shuyuan; Liu, Changmeng; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Qianru; Chen, Xianping; Lu, Jiping

    2016-12-01

    To increase building rate and save cost, the selective laser melting (SLM) of Ti6Al4V with a high layer thickness (200 μm) and low cost coarse powders (53 μm-106 μm) at a laser power of 400 W is investigated in this preliminary study. A relatively large laser beam with a diameter of 200 μm is utilized to produce a stable melt pool at high layer thickness, and the appropriate scanning track, which has a smooth surface with a shallow contact angle, can be obtained at the scanning speeds from 40 mm/s to 80 mm/s. By adjusting the hatch spacings, the density of multi-layer samples can be up to 99.99%, which is much higher than that achieved in previous studies about high layer thickness selective laser melting. Meanwhile, the building rate can be up to 7.2 mm³/s, which is about 2 times-9 times that of the commercial equipment. Besides, two kinds of defects are observed: the large un-melted defects and the small spherical micropores. The formation of the un-melted defects is mainly attributed to the inappropriate overlap rates and the unstable scanning tracks, which can be eliminated by adjusting the processing parameters. Nevertheless, the micropores cannot be completely eliminated. It is worth noting that the high layer thickness plays a key role on surface roughness rather than tensile properties during the SLM process. Although a sample with a relatively coarse surface is generated, the average values of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation are 1050 MPa, 1140 MPa, and 7.03%, respectively, which are not obviously different than those with the thin layer thickness used in previous research; this is due to the similar metallurgical bonding and microstructure.

  1. Perceptions of selected science careers by African American high school males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijames, Erika Denise

    Research indicates that internal and external factors such as role models, stereotypes, and pressures placed on African American males by their family and friends influence their perceptions of science careers (Assibey-Mensah, 1997; Hess & Leal, 1997; Jacobowitz, 1983; Maple & Stage, 1991; Thomas, 1989; Ware & Lee, 1988). The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of African American high school males about selected science careers based on apparent internal and external factors. Two questions guided this research: (1) What are high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? (2) What influences high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? This research was based on a pilot study in which African American college males perceived a selection of science careers along racial and gender lines. The follow-up investigation was conducted at Rockriver High School in Acorn County, and the participants were three college-bound African American males. The decision to choose males was based on the concept of occupational niching along gender lines. In biology, niching is defined as the role of a particular species regarding space and reproduction, and its interactions with other factors. During the seven-week period of the students' senior year, they met with the researcher to discuss their perceptions of science careers. An ethnographic approach was used to allow a richer and thicker narrative to occur. Critical theory was used to describe and interpret the voices of the participants from a social perspective. The data collected were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis technique. The participants revealed role models, negative stereotypes, peer pressure, social pressures, and misconceptions as some of the factors that influenced their perceptions of science careers. Results of this research suggest that by dispelling the misconceptions, educators can positively influence the attitudes and perceptions of

  2. Development and characterization of ultra lightweight, highly selective, filter media for oil-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghernejad, Lida

    Emulsions formed by oil-water mixtures can cause serious issues at different stages of crude oil production, produced water remediation, and oil spills. Efficient, cost-effective processes for separation of oil--water emulsions or dispersions are critical and highly desirable. Filters are among the most common means employed to separate oil-water emulsions into their corresponding components. To conduct single step gravity-based or centrifugal separation of oil--water mixtures into their pure phase, it is essential that the filter be hydrophilic and oleophobic both in air and water. The filter medium should also have high surface porosity, which affects the rate of permeation of one phase. It should be stable at operating temperatures and pressures and be resistant to degradation by chemicals in the feed stream. Favorable oil rejection characteristics, resistance to fouling by organic and inorganic foulants and low cost of production are also important. The goal of this project is to develop ultra-lightweight filters that are durable, highly porous and able to selectively separate oil-water mixtures, from non-woven cellulose based materials by electrospinning. Since electrospinning is a cost-effective, scalable method that can be used to fabricate filters with very thin nanoscale fibers and nano-dimension pores, and cellulose is a very cheap and abundant ingredient, these filters may be considered as novel tools for efficient, cost-effective separation of oil-water emulsions in industry. Currently there is a growing demand for highly porous selective filters for oil-water mixtures in the petroleum industry. These filters are beneficial to both manufacturers and consumers. This research focuses on the development and characterization of the new filter material and evaluation of its suitability for oil-water separation in the field.

  3. Performance of High Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting of Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhi Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To increase building rate and save cost, the selective laser melting (SLM of Ti6Al4V with a high layer thickness (200 μm and low cost coarse powders (53 μm–106 μm at a laser power of 400 W is investigated in this preliminary study. A relatively large laser beam with a diameter of 200 μm is utilized to produce a stable melt pool at high layer thickness, and the appropriate scanning track, which has a smooth surface with a shallow contact angle, can be obtained at the scanning speeds from 40 mm/s to 80 mm/s. By adjusting the hatch spacings, the density of multi-layer samples can be up to 99.99%, which is much higher than that achieved in previous studies about high layer thickness selective laser melting. Meanwhile, the building rate can be up to 7.2 mm3/s, which is about 2 times–9 times that of the commercial equipment. Besides, two kinds of defects are observed: the large un-melted defects and the small spherical micropores. The formation of the un-melted defects is mainly attributed to the inappropriate overlap rates and the unstable scanning tracks, which can be eliminated by adjusting the processing parameters. Nevertheless, the micropores cannot be completely eliminated. It is worth noting that the high layer thickness plays a key role on surface roughness rather than tensile properties during the SLM process. Although a sample with a relatively coarse surface is generated, the average values of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation are 1050 MPa, 1140 MPa, and 7.03%, respectively, which are not obviously different than those with the thin layer thickness used in previous research; this is due to the similar metallurgical bonding and microstructure.

  4. Inference of selection based on temporal genetic differentiation in the study of highly polymorphic multigene families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark McMullan

    Full Text Available The co-evolutionary arms race between host immune genes and parasite virulence genes is known as Red Queen dynamics. Temporal fluctuations in allele frequencies, or the 'turnover' of alleles at immune genes, are concordant with predictions of the Red Queen hypothesis. Such observations are often taken as evidence of host-parasite co-evolution. Here, we use computer simulations of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC of guppies (Poecilia reticulata to study the turnover rate of alleles (temporal genetic differentiation, G'(ST. Temporal fluctuations in MHC allele frequencies can be ≥≤order of magnitude larger than changes observed at neutral loci. Although such large fluctuations in the MHC are consistent with Red Queen dynamics, simulations show that other demographic and population genetic processes can account for this observation, these include: (1 overdominant selection, (2 fluctuating population size within a metapopulation, and (3 the number of novel MHC alleles introduced by immigrants when there are multiple duplicated genes. Synergy between these forces combined with migration rate and the effective population size can drive the rapid turnover in MHC alleles. We posit that rapid allelic turnover is an inherent property of highly polymorphic multigene families and that it cannot be taken as evidence of Red Queen dynamics. Furthermore, combining temporal samples in spatial F(ST outlier analysis may obscure the signal of selection.

  5. MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangu, Raghu; Rajaputra, Suresh; Singh, Vijay P.

    2011-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-polymer composite-based hybrid sensors were fabricated and integrated into a resistive sensor design for gas sensing applications. Thin films of MWCNTs were grown onto Si/SiO2 substrates via xylene pyrolysis using the chemical vapor deposition technique. Polymers like PEDOT:PSS and polyaniline (PANI) mixed with various solvents like DMSO, DMF, 2-propanol and ethylene glycol were used to synthesize the composite films. These sensors exhibited excellent response and selectivity at room temperature when exposed to low concentrations (100 ppm) of analyte gases like NH3 and NO2. The effect of various solvents on the sensor response imparting selectivity to CNT-polymer nanocomposites was investigated extensively. Sensitivities as high as 28% were observed for an MWCNT-PEDOT:PSS composite sensor when exposed to 100 ppm of NH3 and - 29.8% sensitivity for an MWCNT-PANI composite sensor to 100 ppm of NO2 when DMSO was used as a solvent. Additionally, the sensors exhibited good reversibility.

  6. Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wen [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Banerjee, Debasis [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Liu, Jian [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Crum, Jarrod V. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Fernandez, Carlos A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nie, Zimin [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Motkuri, Radha K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chapman, Karena W. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Hayes, James C. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Silvers, Kurt L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Krishna, Rajamani [Van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904 1098 XH Amsterdam The Netherlands; McGrail, B. Peter [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Liu, Jun [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-03-08

    Incorporating, a redox active organometallic molIncorporating, a redox active organometallic molecule within a porous matrix is a useful strategy to form redox active composite materials for emerging applications such as energy storage, electro-catalysis and electro-magnetic separation. Herein we report a new class of stable, redox active metal organic composites for oxygen/air separation with exceptional efficiency. In particular, Ferrocene impregnated in a thermally stable hierarchical porous framework showed a saturation uptake capacity of >51 mg/g for oxygen at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.06. The material shows excellent O2 selectivity from air as evident from experimental and simulated breakthrough experiments. In detail structural analysis using 57Fe-Mössbauer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis show that of O2 adsorption affinity and selectivity originates by the formation Fe3+-O oxide due to the highly reactive nature of the organometallics imbedded in the porous matrix.

  7. Selective culling of high avidity antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertelt, James M; Johanns, Tanner M; Mysz, Margaret A; Nanton, Minelva R; Rowe, Jared H; Aguilera, Marijo N; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a persistent infection caused by host-adapted Salmonella strains adept at circumventing immune-mediated host defences. Given the importance of T cells in protection, the culling of activated CD4+ T cells after primary infection has been proposed as a potential immune evasion strategy used by this pathogen. We demonstrate that the purging of activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection requires SPI-2 encoded virulence determinants, and is not restricted only to cells with specificity to Salmonella-expressed antigens, but extends to CD4+ T cells primed to expand by co-infection with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, however, the loss of activated CD4+ T cells during Salmonella infection demonstrated using a monoclonal population of adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells was not reproduced among the endogenous repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells identified with MHC class II tetramer. Analysis of T-cell receptor variable segment usage revealed the selective loss and reciprocal enrichment of defined CD4+ T-cell subsets after Salmonella co-infection that is associated with the purging of antigen-specific cells with the highest intensity of tetramer staining. Hence, virulent Salmonella triggers the selective culling of high avidity activated CD4+ T-cell subsets, which re-shapes the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells that persist later after infection. PMID:22044420

  8. Selection of psychrotrophic Leuconostoc spp. producing highly active dextransucrase from lactate fermented vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Ju; Seo, Dong Mi; Han, Nam Soo

    2007-06-10

    Leuconostoc is the major bacterial genus in the initial phase of the lactate fermentation of vegetables. The dextransucrase elaborated from this bacterium is used to synthesize dextran polymers or prebiotic oligosaccharides. To use Leuconostoc as a starter culture in the manufacture of the kimchi-like fermented foods at low temperature, we isolated microbial flora that showed fast growth rates and high enzyme activity under the test conditions. Nine hundred colonies of Leuconostoc were collected from kimchi, sauerkraut, and pickled cucumber using three consecutive selection media; after batch culture and enzyme activity assays, four strains were selected. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of the strains revealed that HJ-S7 and HJ-S13 were Leuconostoc (Ln.) mesenteroides and HJ-P4 and HJ-P5 were Ln. citreum. When compared to the type strain, Ln. mesenteroides B-512F, HJ-P4 showed a more than twofold faster growth rate and 20-fold higher enzyme activity during cultivation at 8 degrees C. These strains are suitable as oligosaccharide-synthesizing starters for the fermentation of not only kimchi but also sauerkraut and pickled cucumbers.

  9. Complexity control algorithm based on adaptive mode selection for interframe coding in high efficiency video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Gao, Zhiyong

    2017-07-01

    The latest high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard significantly increases the encoding complexity for improving its coding efficiency. Due to the limited computational capability of handheld devices, complexity constrained video coding has drawn great attention in recent years. A complexity control algorithm based on adaptive mode selection is proposed for interframe coding in HEVC. Considering the direct proportionality between encoding time and computational complexity, the computational complexity is measured in terms of encoding time. First, complexity is mapped to a target in terms of prediction modes. Then, an adaptive mode selection algorithm is proposed for the mode decision process. Specifically, the optimal mode combination scheme that is chosen through offline statistics is developed at low complexity. If the complexity budget has not been used up, an adaptive mode sorting method is employed to further improve coding efficiency. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a very large complexity control range (as low as 10%) for the HEVC encoder while maintaining good rate-distortion performance. For the lowdelayP condition, compared with the direct resource allocation method and the state-of-the-art method, an average gain of 0.63 and 0.17 dB in BDPSNR is observed for 18 sequences when the target complexity is around 40%.

  10. High power burst-mode optical parametric amplifier with arbitrary pulse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergament, M; Kellert, M; Kruse, K; Wang, J; Palmer, G; Wissmann, L; Wegner, U; Lederer, M J

    2014-09-08

    We present results from a unique burst-mode femtosecond non-collinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) under development for the optical - x-ray pump-probe experiments at the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility. The NOPA operates at a burst rate of 10 Hz, a duty cycle of 2.5% and an intra-burst repetition rate of up to 4.5 MHz, producing high fidelity 15 fs pulses at a center wavelength of 810 nm. Using dispersive amplification filtering of the super-continuum seed pulses allows for selectable pulse duration up to 75 fs, combined with a tuning range in excess of 100 nm whilst remaining nearly transform limited. At an intra-burst rate of 188 kHz the single pulse energy from two sequential NOPA stages reached 180 µJ, corresponding to an average power of 34W during the burst. Acousto- and electro-optic switching techniques enable the generation of transient free bursts of required length and the selection of arbitrary pulse sequences inside the burst.

  11. Synthesis of Novel Fluorescent Sensors Based on Naphthalimide Fluorophores for the Highly Selective Hg2+-Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordkhuan Tachapermpon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With an aim to develop the new sensors for optical detection of Hg2+ ions, two novel fluorometric sensors were designed and successfully prepared using 2-(3-(2-aminoethylsulfanylpropylsulfanylethanamine and one or two N-methylnaphthalimide moieties (1 and 2. Sensor 1 was obtained via N-alkylation, N-imidation and a one-pot nucleophilic aromatic substitution, and N-formylation of the amine, while sensor 2 was prepared via N-alkylation, N-imidation, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution. The characterization, including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry, was then performed for 1 and 2. The Hg2+-binding behaviors of the sensors were investigated in terms of sensitivity and selectivity by fluorescence spectroscopy. Sensor 1 especially provided the reversible and highly Hg2+-selective ON-OFF fluorescence behavior by discriminating various interfering ions such as Pb2+, Co2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, K+, Na+, and in particular Cu2+ and Ag+ with a detection limit of 22 ppb toward Hg2+ ions.

  12. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D. A.; Freudling, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Floc'h, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Christensen, L.; Levan, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Malesani, D.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Goldoni, P.; Gomboc, A.; Heintz, K. E.; Sparre, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the relations between gas kinematics, metallicity and stellar mass in a sample of 82 gamma-ray burst (GRB)-selected galaxies using absorption and emission methods. We find the velocity widths of both emission and absorption profiles to be a proxy of stellar mass. We also investigate the velocity-metallicity correlation and its evolution with redshift. Using 33 GRB hosts with measured stellar mass and metallicity, we study the mass-metallicity relation for GRB host galaxies in a stellar mass range of 108.2-1011.1 M⊙ and a redshift range of z ∼ 0.3-3.4. The GRB-selected galaxies appear to track the mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies but with an offset of 0.15 towards lower metallicities. This offset is comparable with the average error bar on the metallicity measurements of the GRB sample and also the scatter on the mass-metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high redshifts. Our analysis shows that the metallicity measurements from absorption methods can significantly differ from emission metallicities and assuming identical measurements from the two methods may result in erroneous conclusions.

  13. Molecularly imprinted upconversion nanoparticles for highly selective and sensitive sensing of Cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Liu, Cuicui; Huang, Xuan; Wang, Shuo

    2015-12-15

    A novel method combined the high selectivity of molecular imprinting technology with the strong fluorescence property of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for sensing of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) was proposed. The molecularly imprinted material-coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs@MIP) were obtained by in situ coating Cyt c imprinted materials to the surface of the carboxyl modified UCNPs through sol-gel technique. The structure and component of the prepared UCNPs@MIP was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), power X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS). The TEM showed the diameter of UCNPs was 40 nm, and thickness of MIP was 5-10nm. The fluorescence intensity of UCNPs@MIP reduced gradually with the increase of Cyt c concentration. Under optimum conditions, the imprinting factor is 3.19, and the UCNPs@MIP showed selective recognition for Cyt c among other proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Lysozyme (Lyz). Therefore, this new method for sensing protein is very promising for future applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Different pioneer plant species select specific rhizosphere bacterial communities in a high mountain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccazzo, Sonia; Esposito, Alfonso; Rolli, Eleonora; Zerbe, Stefan; Daffonchio, Daniele; Brusetti, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The rhizobacterial communities of 29 pioneer plants belonging to 12 species were investigated in an alpine ecosystem to assess if plants from different species could select for specific rhizobacterial communities. Rhizospheres and unvegetated soils were collected from a floristic pioneer stage plot at 2,400 m a.s.l. in the forefield of Weisskugel Glacier (Matsch Valley, South Tyrol, Italy), after 160 years of glacier retreat. To allow for a culture-independent perspective, total environmental DNA was extracted from both rhizosphere and bare soil samples and analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). ARISA fingerprinting showed that rhizobacterial genetic structure was extremely different from bare soil bacterial communities while rhizobacterial communities clustered strictly together according to the plant species. Sequencing of DGGE bands showed that rhizobacterial communities were mainly composed of Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria whereas bare soil was colonized by Acidobacteria and Clostridia. UniFrac significance calculated on DGGE results confirmed the rhizosphere effect exerted by the 12 species and showed different bacterial communities (P < 0.05) associated with all the plant species. These results pointed out that specific rhizobacterial communities were selected by pioneer plants of different species in a high mountain ecosystem characterized by oligotrophic and harsh environmental conditions, during an early primary succession.

  15. High-Yield Process for Selectively Converting CO2 to Aromatics and Olefins Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Phase I addresses the selective conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons via integrated CO2-to-methanol, methanol-to-olefins, and olefins-to-aromatics...

  16. Microstructure and spectral selectivity of Pt-AI203 nanocoatings for high temperature applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nuru, ZY

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Monodispersed spherical core-shell particles of Cr/a-Cr2O3 cermet ACG coatings investigated within this contribution could be successfully employed in thermal converters. Their selectivity depends on their chemical, physical and structural...

  17. A highly selective route to linear alpha olefins from biomass-derived lactones and unsaturated acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Hakim, Sikander H; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A

    2013-08-14

    This work demonstrates the use of Lewis-acid catalysts, such as gamma-alumina and tungstated alumina, for selective production of linear alpha olefins by decarboxylation of lactones and unsaturated carboxylic acids.

  18. Embryo selection in IVF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; van der Veen, Fulco; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Shapiro, Bruce; Bossuyt, Patrick; Repping, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    To optimize success rates of IVF, selection of the most viable embryo(s) for transfer has always been essential, as embryos that are cryopreserved are thought to have a reduced chance of implanting after thawing...

  19. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Social conflict, in the form of intraspecific selfish "cheating" has been observed in a number of natural systems. However, a formal, evolutionary genetic theory of social cheating that provides an explanatory, predictive framework for these observations is lacking. Here we derive the kin...... selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...... lineages are transient and do not invade. Instead, cheating lineages are eliminated by kin selection but are constantly reintroduced by mutation, maintaining a stable equilibrium frequency of cheaters. The presence of cheaters at equilibrium creates a "cheater load" that selects for mechanisms of cheater...

  20. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor mode selection laser, particularly to a VCSEL laser (200) having mode selection properties. The mode selection capability of the laser is achieved by configuring one of the reflectors (15,51) in the resonance cavity so that a reflectivity of the reflector...... (15) varies spatially in one dimension or two dimensions. Accordingly, the reflector (15) with spatially varying reflectivity is part both of the resonance cavity and the mode selection functionality of the laser. A plurality of the lasers configured with different mode selectors, i.e. different...... spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33...

  1. Highly Selective TiN-Supported Highly Dispersed Pt Catalyst: Ultra Active toward Hydrogen Oxidation and Inactive toward Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Tang, Haibo; Tian, Xinlong; Hou, Sanying; Li, Xiuhua; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2018-01-31

    The severe dissolution of the cathode catalyst, caused by an undesired oxygen reduction reaction at the anode during startup and shutdown, is a fatal challenge to practical applications of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. To address this important issue, according to the distinct structure-sensitivity between the σ-type bond in H 2 and the π-type bond in O 2 , we design a HD-Pt/TiN material by highly dispersing Pt on the TiN surface to inhibit the unwanted oxygen reduction reaction. The highly dispersed Pt/TiN catalyst exhibits excellent selectivity toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. With a Pt loading of 0.88 wt %, our catalyst shows excellent hydrogen oxidation reaction activity, close to that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst, and much lower oxygen reduction reaction activity than the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The lack of well-ordered Pt facets is responsible for the excellent selectivity of the HD-Pt/TiN materials toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Our work provides a new and cost-effective solution to design selective catalysts toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, making the strategy of using oxygen-tolerant anode catalyst to improve the stability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown more affordable and practical.

  2. Cyclodextrin-based artificial oxidases with high rate accelerations and selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, You; Lindbäck, Emil Anders; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Three cyclodextrin derivatives with one to four 2-O-formylmethyl groups attached to the secondary rim were prepared and investigated as catalysts for the oxidation of aminophenols in buffered dilute hydrogen peroxide. The derivatives were found to be Michaelis-Menten catalysts and to give rate ac....... The ability of one of the new artificial enzymes to oxidize selectively one aminophenol from a mixture of two was investigated giving substrate selectivities of up to 16:1....

  3. Cu and Boron Doped Carbon Nitride for Highly Selective Oxidation of Toluene to Benzaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongling; Ding, Guodong; Wu, Tianbin; Yang, Dexin; Jiang, Tao; Han, Buxing

    2015-07-13

    A novel Cu and boron doped graphitic carbon nitride catalyst (Cu-CNB) was synthesized using cheap precursors and systematically characterized. The selective oxidation of toluene proceeded very smoothly over the catalyst at 70 °C using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant to exclusively afford benzaldehyde. The catalyst can be used for at least five cycles without decrease in activity and selectivity.

  4. Cu and Boron Doped Carbon Nitride for Highly Selective Oxidation of Toluene to Benzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel Cu and boron doped graphitic carbon nitride catalyst (Cu-CNB was synthesized using cheap precursors and systematically characterized. The selective oxidation of toluene proceeded very smoothly over the catalyst at 70 °C using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP as the oxidant to exclusively afford benzaldehyde. The catalyst can be used for at least five cycles without decrease in activity and selectivity.

  5. Cu and Boron Doped Carbon Nitride for Highly Selective Oxidation of Toluene to Benzaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hongling; Ding, Guodong; Wu, Tianbin; Yang, Dexin; Jiang, Tao; Han, Buxing

    2015-01-01

    A novel Cu and boron doped graphitic carbon nitride catalyst (Cu-CNB) was synthesized using cheap precursors and systematically characterized. The selective oxidation of toluene proceeded very smoothly over the catalyst at 70 °C using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant to exclusively afford benzaldehyde. The catalyst can be used for at least five cycles without decrease in activity and selectivity.

  6. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  7. A guinea pig model of selective severe high-frequency hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, Sarah; Klis, Sjaak F L; Versnel, Huib; Grolman, Wilko

    2013-10-01

    Using an appropriate dose of an aminoglycoside antibiotic cotreated with a loop diuretic a guinea pig model of high-frequency loss can be obtained mimicking cochlear implant candidates with low-frequency residual hearing. We examined the stability of this model over time. A well-established method to create an animal model for profound deafness is cotreatment with an aminoglycoside antibiotic and a loop diuretic. Recent data indicated that reduction of the aminoglycoside dose might yield selective high-frequency hearing loss. Such a model is relevant for studies related to hybrid cochlear implant devices, for example, with respect to preservation of residual hearing. Guinea pigs received an electrode for chronic recording of compound action potentials to tones to assess thresholds. They were treated with a coadministration of kanamycin (200 mg/kg) and furosemide (100 mg/kg), after which, the animals were sacrificed for histologic analysis at 2, 4, or 7 weeks. After 2 to 7 weeks threshold shifts were greater than 50 dB for 8 to 16 kHz in 15 of 17 animals, whereas threshold shifts at 2 kHz or lower were less than 50 dB in 13 animals. Major threshold shifts occurred the first 2 to 4 days; subsequently, some spontaneous recovery occurred and, after 2-3 weeks thresholds, remained stable. Inner hair cell loss still progressed between 2 and 4 weeks in the most basal cochlear region; thereafter, hair cell loss was stable. An appropriate animal model for selective severe high-frequency hearing loss was obtained, which is stable at 4 weeks after ototoxic treatment.

  8. Spin-on metal oxide materials with high etch selectivity and wet strippability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Huirong; Mullen, Salem; Wolfer, Elizabeth; McKenzie, Douglas; Rahman, Dalil; Cho, JoonYeon; Padmanaban, Munirathna; Petermann, Claire; Hong, SungEun; Her, YoungJun

    2016-03-01

    Metal oxide or metal nitride films are used as hard mask materials in semiconductor industry for patterning purposes due to their excellent etch resistances against the plasma etches. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques are usually used to deposit the metal containing materials on substrates or underlying films, which uses specialized equipment and can lead to high cost-of-ownership and low throughput. We have reported novel spin-on coatings that provide simple and cost effective method to generate metal oxide films possessing good etch selectivity and can be removed by chemical agents. In this paper, new spin-on Al oxide and Zr oxide hard mask formulations are reported. The new metal oxide formulations provide higher metal content compared to previously reported material of specific metal oxides under similar processing conditions. These metal oxide films demonstrate ultra-high etch selectivity and good pattern transfer capability. The cured films can be removed by various chemical agents such as developer, solvents or wet etchants/strippers commonly used in the fab environment. With high metal MHM material as an underlayer, the pattern transfer process is simplified by reducing the number of layers in the stack and the size of the nano structure is minimized by replacement of a thicker film ACL. Therefore, these novel AZ® spinon metal oxide hard mask materials can potentially be used to replace any CVD or ALD metal, metal oxide, metal nitride or spin-on silicon-containing hard mask films in 193 nm or EUV process.

  9. ASDAS high disease activity versus BASDAI elevation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis as selection criterion for anti-TNF therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastesaeger, Nathan; Cruyssen, Bert Vander; Mulero, Juan; Gratacós Masmitjá, Jordi; Zarco, Pedro; Almodovar, Raquel; Font, Pilar; Juanola, Xavier; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which of the 2 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) disease activity instruments identifies better those patients with characteristics that have been associated with positive response to anti-TNF therapy. Data from patients with AS in the REGISPONSER registry were analyzed. Patients were categorized by disease activity using 3 different selection criteria: elevated Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index criteria (BASDAI≥4), high Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS≥2.1), or very high ASDAS (ASDAS≥3.5). To determine which criterion selects for patients most likely to respond to anti-TNF therapy, the groups of patients selected with each criterion were compared on five disease characteristics that are associated with good response to anti-TNF therapy: lower age, lower function score, less enthesitis, higher C-reactive protein (CRP), and HLA-B27-positive status. 50.9%, 66.3%, and 24.9% of 1156 patients had elevated BASDAI, high ASDAS, or very high ASDAS, respectively. Compared to patients selected with elevated BASDAI, more patients selected with high ASDAS had characteristics associated with good response to anti-TNF therapy. Patients with very high ASDAS had higher CRP and were younger, but more frequently had enthesitis and had higher function scores when compared to those with elevated BASDAI. Selection of AS patients with the ASDAS instrument results in patient sub-populations with different characteristics than those selected with the BASDAI instrument. Since some of these characteristics have been associated with response to anti-TNF therapy, further study should establish if the choice of selection instrument improves the outcome of therapy in the selected populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical characterization of selected high copper dental amalgams using XPS and XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, E. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: talik@us.edu.pl; Babiarz-Zdyb, R. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Dziedzic, A. [Medical University of Silesia, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Akademicki 17 Sqr., 41-209 Bytom (Poland)

    2005-08-02

    The study was carried out to analyze some dependencies between the composition of seven high copper dental amalgams and mercury release behavior, as well as oxygen reactivity of metallic elements. Chemical comparative analysis of selected dental amalgams was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The X-ray powder diffraction measurements revealed two main phases for measured amalgams: {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ag{sub 2}Hg{sub 3}) and {eta}'-(Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}). The amount of mercury obtained by the XPS method was lower than the value quoted in the manufacturer's literature, which suggested evaporation of mercury under the UHV conditions. A linear decrease of oxygen and carbon contamination with the growing amount of Cu and Ag was observed. The XPS analysis showed that a high Sn concentration caused less resistance to oxidation. Some of the amalgams contained some extra elements, such as Bi, In, and Zn. All samples contained lead in metallic state and oxides. The amount of Ag, Cu, Sn ingredients determines the main properties of high copper amalgams and plays an important role in mercury evaporation. High tin concentration combined with the presence of smaller amounts of silver and copper (high Sn/Ag ratio) may influence the increase of mercury vaporization.

  11. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of

  12. Phenotypic and molecular differences between rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high vs. low nightly distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Brown, Jacob D; Company, Joseph M; Oberle, Lauren P; Heese, Alexander J; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Wells, Kevin D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Knouse, John A; Ferreira, J Andries; Childs, Thomas E; Brown, Marybeth; Booth, Frank W

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to partially phenotype male and female rats from generations 8-10 (G8-G10) that had been selectively bred to possess low (LVR) vs. high voluntary running (HVR) behavior. Over the first 6 days with wheels, 34-day-old G8 male and female LVRs ran shorter distances (P values, while LVR did not lose or gain fat mass during the 6-day voluntary running period. RNA deep sequencing efforts in the nucleus accumbens showed only eight transcripts to be >1.5-fold differentially expressed between lines in HVR and LVR nonrunners. Interestingly, HVRs presented less Oprd1 mRNA, which ties in to potential differences in dopaminergic signaling between lines. This unique animal model provides further evidence as to how exercise may be mechanistically regulated.

  13. High strain-rate compressive behavior and constitutive modeling of selected polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with constitutive modeling of the compressive stress-strain behavior of selected polymers at strain rates from 10−3 to 103/s using a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. High strain-rate compressive stress-strain curves for four different commercially available extruded polymers are determined on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. The low and intermediate strain-rates compressive stress-strain relations are measured in an Instron testing machine. The five parameters for the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation are determined by fitting to the experimental compressive stress-strain data using a least-squares fit. The compressive stress-strain curves at three different strain rates derived from the modified Ramberg-Osgood models are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the compressive stress-strain behavior during loading process can be successfully predicted by the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation.

  14. Cs selective extraction from high level liquid wastes with crown calixarenes: Where are we today?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Tournois, B.; Eymard, S.; Volle, G.; Rivalier, P.; Leybros, J.; Lanoe, J.Y.; Reynier-Tronche, N.; Ferlay, G.; Dozol, J.F

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the developments carried out around the caesium process these last years to prove its scientific feasibility, then to acquire technical feasibility.The crown-calixarenes molecules showed their efficiency towards selective Cs extraction and their superiority with respect to the traditional alkaline cations extraction systems: crown-ether molecules. After acquisition of experimental data, calculations of flow-sheet were carried out. Tests, first on simulated effluents, then on real effluents, demonstrated the scientific feasibility of the concept. The technical feasibility is currently in progress through the following studies: - hydrodynamic and transfer studies; - kinetics data are in progress; - calixarene molecule are known to be highly resistant molecules towards hydrolysis and radiolysis phenomena but regeneration studies have to be taken into account to define the industrial process. (authors)

  15. Development of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we first designed and synthesized an IMAC material with Hf(4+) immobilized on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene and applied it to phosphopeptides enrichment successfully. The newly prepared material gathered the advantages of large specific surface area of graphene, good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine and superparamagnetism of Fe3O4. We investigated the performance of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (denoted as magG@PDA-Hf(4+)) in phosphopeptides enrichment and the results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the new material. Finally, we successfully applied magG@PDA-Hf(4+) to phosphopeptides enrichment from non-fat milk digests and human serum, further demonstrating excellent performance of this new material in phosphopeptides enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon dioxide selective adsorption within a highly stable mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Lin

    2014-08-01

    A new mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Zn4(2-mbIm) 3(bIm)5·4H2O (named JUC-160, 2-mbIm = 2-methylbenzimidazole, bIm = benzimidazole and JUC = Jilin University China) was synthesized with a solvothermal reaction of Zn(NO3) 2·6H2O, bIm and 2-mbIm in DMF solution at 180 °C. Topological analysis indicated that JUC-160 has a zeolite GIS (gismondine) topology. Study of the gas adsorption and thermal and chemical stability of JUC-160 demonstrated its selective adsorption property for carbon dioxide, high thermal stability, and remarkable chemical resistance to boiling alkaline water and organic solvent for up to one week. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    practical implications for exercise prescription for optimal shoulder function. For example, both workers with neck pain and athletes at risk of shoulder impingement (e.g. overhead sports) should perform push-up plus and press-up to specifically strengthen the serratus anterior and lower trapezius.......A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important to optimize performance and prevent injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence based recommendations are important...... for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...

  18. A highly selective, colorimetric, and environment-sensitive optical potassium ion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guangjie; Sun, Ruofan; Du, Jiqing; Chen, Meiwan; Tian, Yanqing

    2017-05-18

    Potassium ions (K+) play vital roles in many biological processes and thus highly selective sensors for K+ are critical for disease diagnosis and health monitoring. Herein, we report a colorimetric K+ sensor (KS7) in which a hemicyanine dye was used as a fluorophore and phenylaza-[18]crown-6 lariat ether (ACLE) was utilized as a K+ ligand. The maximum absorption peak of KS7 shifted hypsochromically by 77 nm (from 515 to 438 nm) with an isosbestic point at 452 nm upon the addition of K+ to its aqueous solution accompanied by a color change from red to yellow. This sensor exhibited a linear response range to K+ from 1 to 200 mM, indicating its wide detection range for cellular, urinary, and environmental potassium ions. Further, this sensor is solvent-sensitive, implying its environmental sensitivity. For the demonstration of its applications, we prepared filter paper-based K+ test strips, which were used to detect K+ in urine conveniently.

  19. Structure-Guided Design of a Series of MCL-1 Inhibitors with High Affinity and Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruncko, Milan; Wang, Le; Sheppard, George S.; Phillips, Darren C.; Tahir, Stephen K.; Xue, John; Erickson, Scott; Fidanze, Steve; Fry, Elizabeth; Hasvold, Lisa; Jenkins, Gary J.; Jin, Sha; Judge, Russell A.; Kovar, Peter J.; Madar, David; Nimmer, Paul; Park, Chang; Petros, Andrew M.; Rosenberg, Saul H.; Smith, Morey L.; Song, Xiaohong; Sun, Chaohong; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Wang, Xilu; Xiao, Yu; Zhang, Haichao; Tse, Chris; Leverson, Joel D.; Elmore, Steven W.; Souers, Andrew J.

    2015-03-12

    Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) is a BCL-2 family protein that has been implicated in the progression and survival of multiple tumor types. Herein we report a series of MCL-1 inhibitors that emanated from a high throughput screening (HTS) hit and progressed via iterative cycles of structure-guided design. Advanced compounds from this series exhibited subnanomolar affinity for MCL-1 and excellent selectivity over other BCL-2 family proteins as well as multiple kinases and GPCRs. In a MCL-1 dependent human tumor cell line, administration of compound 30b rapidly induced caspase activation with associated loss in cell viability. The small molecules described herein thus comprise effective tools for studying MCL-1 biology.

  20. Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, David; Tranchemontagne, David; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarks have been established for the performance of six metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and isoreticular MOFs (IRMOFs, which have the same underlying topology as MOF-5), MOF-5, IRMOF-3, MOF-74, MOF-177, MOF-199, and IRMOF-62, as selective adsorbents for eight harmful gases: sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic breakthrough measurements are used to determine the calculated dynamic adsorption capacity of each “benchmark” MOF for each gas. The capacity of each MOF is compared to that of a sample of Calgon BPL activated carbon. We find that pore functionality plays a dominant role in determining the dynamic adsorption performance of MOFs. MOFs featuring reactive functionality outperform BPL carbon in all but one case and exhibit high dynamic adsorption capacities up to 35% by weight. PMID:18711128

  1. High strain-rate compressive behavior and constitutive modeling of selected polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, K.; Yokoyama, T.

    2012-08-01

    The present paper deals with constitutive modeling of the compressive stress-strain behavior of selected polymers at strain rates from 10-3 to 103/s using a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. High strain-rate compressive stress-strain curves for four different commercially available extruded polymers are determined on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. The low and intermediate strain-rates compressive stress-strain relations are measured in an Instron testing machine. The five parameters for the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation are determined by fitting to the experimental compressive stress-strain data using a least-squares fit. The compressive stress-strain curves at three different strain rates derived from the modified Ramberg-Osgood models are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the compressive stress-strain behavior during loading process can be successfully predicted by the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation.

  2. High Strain-Rate Compressive Properties and Constitutive Modeling of Selected Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Kenji; Yokoyama, Takashi

    The present paper is concerned with constitutive modeling of the compressive stress-strain behavior of selected polymers at strain rates from 10-3 to 103/s using a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. High strain-rate compressive stress-strain curves within a strain range of nearly 0.08 for four different commercially available extruded polymers are determined on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. The low and intermediate strain-rates compressive stress-strain relations are measured in an Instron testing machine. The five parameters for the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation are determined by fitting to the experimental compressive stress-strain data using a least-squares fit. It is shown that the compressive stress-strain behavior at different strain rates up to the maximum stress can successfully be predicted by the modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. The limitations of the modified Ramberg-Osgood models are discussed.

  3. Discovery of Potent and Highly Selective A2B Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maatougui, Abdelaziz; Azuaje, Jhonny; González-Gómez, Manuel; Miguez, Gabriel; Crespo, Abel; Carbajales, Carlos; Escalante, Luz; García-Mera, Xerardo; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Sotelo, Eddy

    2016-03-10

    Three novel families of A2B adenosine receptor antagonists were identified in the context of the structural exploration of the 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one chemotype. The most appealing series contain imidazole, 1,2,4-triazole, or benzimidazole rings fused to the 2,3-positions of the parent diazinone core. The optimization process enabled identification of a highly potent (3.49 nM) A2B ligand that exhibits complete selectivity toward A1, A2A, and A3 receptors. The results of functional cAMP experiments confirmed the antagonistic behavior of representative ligands. The main SAR trends identified within the series were substantiated by a molecular modeling study based on a receptor-driven docking model constructed on the basis of the crystal structure of the human A2A receptor.

  4. High efficiency mode-locked, cylindrical vector beam fiber laser based on a mode selective coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongdan; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Zuxing; Cai, Yu; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Lin

    2017-05-15

    We propose and demonstrate an all-fiber passively mode-locked laser with a figure-8 cavity, which generates pulsed cylindrical vector beam output based on a mode selective coupler (MSC). The MSC made of a two mode fiber and a standard single mode fiber is used as both the intracavity transverse mode converter and mode splitter with a low insertion loss of about 0.65 dB. The slope efficiency of the fiber laser is > 3%. Through adjusting the polarization state in the laser cavity, both radially and azimuthally polarized beams have been obtained with high mode purity which are measured to be > 94%. The laser operates at 1556.3 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 3.2 nm. The mode-locked pulses have duration of 17 ns and a repetition rate of 0.66 MHz.

  5. New highly selective turn-on fluorescence receptor for the detection of copper (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Qian; Rong, Pu; Jiang, Yunbao; Yang, Rui

    2017-03-01

    Three new receptors (1a-c) bearing a p-dimethylaminobenzamide fluorophore have been synthesized and evaluated in terms of their fluoroionophoric properties towards various metal ions. Notably, receptors 1a and 1c exhibited dramatic fluorescent enhancement towards Cu2 + in acetonitrile. Subsequent investigations revealed that the highly selective behavior of these receptors towards Cu2 + could be attributed to the Cu2 +-mediated oxidative cyclization of these compounds to the corresponding 1,3,4-oxadiazoles. Solvent effects and quantum calculations indicated that 1a and 1c both possessed an intramolecular charge transfer channel, which could be obstructed by the oxidative cyclization of these receptors. Receptor 1a was successfully applied to the determination of the Cu2 + in drug sample with a low detection limit of 2.2 × 10- 8 mol L- 1.

  6. The integrated method to select drilling muds for abnormally high pressure formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorev, V. S.; Dmitriev, A. Yu; Boyko, I. A.; Kayumova, N. S.; Rakhimov, T. R.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the method for choosing a drilling mud for drilling abnormally high pressure formations. A carefully selected drilling mud formulation would not only enhance an array of interrelated fluid properties, but also minimize the impact on the pay zones when the drill bit first penetrates the pay. To ensure a better assessment of drilling mud impact on the pay zone, it is reasonable to carry out the study focused on the analysis of technological parameters, involving filtration, acid and drilling mud tests, as well as formation damage analysis. This would enable evaluating the degree of mudding off, reservoirs acid fracturing effect and the risks of pipe sticking at significant depth. The article presents the results of the above-described study with regard to the currently used drilling mud and new experimental formulations developed at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Laboratory).

  7. SNP calling using genotype model selection on high-throughput sequencing data

    KAUST Repository

    You, Na

    2012-01-16

    Motivation: A review of the available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling procedures for Illumina high-throughput sequencing (HTS) platform data reveals that most rely mainly on base-calling and mapping qualities as sources of error when calling SNPs. Thus, errors not involved in base-calling or alignment, such as those in genomic sample preparation, are not accounted for.Results: A novel method of consensus and SNP calling, Genotype Model Selection (GeMS), is given which accounts for the errors that occur during the preparation of the genomic sample. Simulations and real data analyses indicate that GeMS has the best performance balance of sensitivity and positive predictive value among the tested SNP callers. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequency selective bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowitt, M.S.; Fixsen, D.J.; Goldin, A.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a concept for radiometry in the millimeter, the submillimeter, and the far-IR spectral regions, the frequency selective bolometer (FSB). This system uses a bolometer as a coupled element of a tuned quasi-optical interference filter in which the absorption, the transmission......-dimensional transmission-line model. Instruments based on FSB technology should have several advantages over current multiband bolometric radiometers including smaller and more compact cryogenic optics; reduced demands on cryostat size and weight, high coupling efficiency, minimum constraints on the geometry in the focal...... plane. An FSB system can be configured as a multiband, close-packed focal-plane array, permitting efficient use of the throughput of a telescope....

  9. Phenotypic responses of chickens to long-term selection for high or low antibody titers to sheep red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X L; Honaker, C F; Siegel, P B

    2012-05-01

    A long-term bidirectional selection experiment was conducted to study antibody response to SRBC. Lines, high antibody selection (HAS) and low antibody selection (LAS), originating from the same White Leghorn base population had undergone 37 generations of selection for either high or low antibody response 5 d after a single intravenous injection of 0.1 mL of a 0.25% suspension of SRBC antigen. Subpopulations, where selection was relaxed, were maintained as contemporaries with the selected lines from generations 16 to 24 [high antibody relaxed (HAR) and low antibody relaxed (LAR)] and 24 to 37. Body weights were obtained at 4, 24, and 38 wk of age and at the onset of lay (BW at first egg). Also measured were age in days to first egg, percentages of hen-day ovulations and normal egg production, and percentages of normal and defective eggs from total ovulation (PNE and PDE). Selection lead to a large divergence in antibody titers between the selected lines, with a plateau reached in line LAS. Line HAS and HAR females displayed higher antibody titers, lower BW4, and matured at older ages than those from LAS and LAR (P selected lines, being positive in line LAS and negative in line HAS. Quadratic regression models fit well with antibody titers, BW4, and PNE, with limiting values for these traits calculated based on regression curves. For line HAS, plots showed that an increased tendency of antibody titers was followed by decreased BW4 and increased PNE. For line LAS, however, antibody titers and BW4 decreased in parallel while PNE increased. It appears that at the phenotypic level there was a resource balance between immune response, growth, and reproductive traits, which during long-term selection, individuals altered their dynamic of resource allocations to satisfy certain needs.

  10. A highly selective biosensor with nanomolar sensitivity based on cytokinin dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Tian

    Full Text Available We have developed a N6-dimethylallyladenine (cytokinin dehydrogenase-based microbiosensor for real-time determination of the family of hormones known as cytokinins. Cytokinin dehydrogenase from Zea mays (ZmCKX1 was immobilised concurrently with electrodeposition of a silica gel film on the surface of a Pt microelectrode, which was further functionalized by free electron mediator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP in supporting electrolyte to give a bioactive film capable of selective oxidative cleavage of the N6- side chain of cytokinins. The rapid electron shuffling between freely diffusible DCPIP and the FAD redox group in ZmCKX1 endowed the microbiosensor with a fast response time of less than 10 s. The immobilised ZmCKX1 retained a high affinity for its preferred substrate N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl adenine (iP, and gave the miniaturized biosensor a large linear dynamic range from 10 nM to 10 µM, a detection limit of 3.9 nM and a high sensitivity to iP of 603.3 µAmM-1cm-2 (n = 4, R2 = 0.9999. Excellent selectivity was displayed for several other aliphatic cytokinins and their ribosides, including N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl adenine, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl adenosine, cis-zeatin, trans-zeatin and trans-zeatin riboside. Aromatic cytokinins and metabolites such as cytokinin glucosides were generally poor substrates. The microbiosensors exhibited excellent stability in terms of pH and long-term storage and have been used successfully to determine low nanomolar cytokinin concentrations in tomato xylem sap exudates.

  11. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Ling Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP. This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS, were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50% of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284 and intronic regions (169 with the least in exon's (4, suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a, excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1, neurotransmitters (Pomc, and synapses (Snap29. This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  12. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Lossie, Amy C; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C; Muir, William M

    2016-08-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  13. A highly selective biosensor with nanomolar sensitivity based on cytokinin dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Faming; Greplová, Marta; Frébort, Ivo; Dale, Nicholas; Napier, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a N6-dimethylallyladenine (cytokinin) dehydrogenase-based microbiosensor for real-time determination of the family of hormones known as cytokinins. Cytokinin dehydrogenase from Zea mays (ZmCKX1) was immobilised concurrently with electrodeposition of a silica gel film on the surface of a Pt microelectrode, which was further functionalized by free electron mediator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) in supporting electrolyte to give a bioactive film capable of selective oxidative cleavage of the N6- side chain of cytokinins. The rapid electron shuffling between freely diffusible DCPIP and the FAD redox group in ZmCKX1 endowed the microbiosensor with a fast response time of less than 10 s. The immobilised ZmCKX1 retained a high affinity for its preferred substrate N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenine (iP), and gave the miniaturized biosensor a large linear dynamic range from 10 nM to 10 µM, a detection limit of 3.9 nM and a high sensitivity to iP of 603.3 µAmM-1cm-2 (n = 4, R2 = 0.9999). Excellent selectivity was displayed for several other aliphatic cytokinins and their ribosides, including N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenine, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenosine, cis-zeatin, trans-zeatin and trans-zeatin riboside. Aromatic cytokinins and metabolites such as cytokinin glucosides were generally poor substrates. The microbiosensors exhibited excellent stability in terms of pH and long-term storage and have been used successfully to determine low nanomolar cytokinin concentrations in tomato xylem sap exudates.

  14. Catalytic conversion of methanol/ethanol to isobutanol--a highly selective route to an advanced biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingad, Richard L; Bergström, Emilie J E; Everett, Matthew; Pellow, Katy J; Wass, Duncan F

    2016-04-14

    Catalysts based on ruthenium diphosphine complexes convert methanol/ethanol mixtures to the advanced biofuel isobutanol, with extremely high selectivity (>99%) at good (>75%) conversion via a Guerbet-type mechanism.

  15. Catalytic conversion of methanol/ethanol to isobutanol – a highly selective route to an advanced biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Wingad, Richard; Bergström, Emilie J E; Everett, Matthew; Pellow, Katy; Wass, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Catalysts based on ruthenium diphosphine complexes convert methanol/ethanol mixtures to the advanced biofuel isobutanol, with extremely high selectivity (>99%) at good (>75%) conversion via a Guerbet-type mechanism.

  16. Genomic analysis of natural selection and phenotypic variation in high-altitude mongolians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jinchuan; Wuren, Tana; Simonson, Tatum S; Watkins, W Scott; Witherspoon, David J; Wu, Wilfred; Qin, Ga; Huff, Chad D; Jorde, Lynn B; Ge, Ri-Li

    2013-01-01

    Deedu (DU) Mongolians, who migrated from the Mongolian steppes to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau approximately 500 years ago, are challenged by environmental conditions similar to native Tibetan highlanders. Identification of adaptive genetic factors in this population could provide insight into coordinated physiological responses to this environment. Here we examine genomic and phenotypic variation in this unique population and present the first complete analysis of a Mongolian whole-genome sequence. High-density SNP array data demonstrate that DU Mongolians share genetic ancestry with other Mongolian as well as Tibetan populations, specifically in genomic regions related with adaptation to high altitude. Several selection candidate genes identified in DU Mongolians are shared with other Asian groups (e.g., EDAR), neighboring Tibetan populations (including high-altitude candidates EPAS1, PKLR, and CYP2E1), as well as genes previously hypothesized to be associated with metabolic adaptation (e.g., PPARG). Hemoglobin concentration, a trait associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans, is at an intermediate level in DU Mongolians compared to Tibetans and Han Chinese at comparable altitude. Whole-genome sequence from a DU Mongolian (Tianjiao1) shows that about 2% of the genomic variants, including more than 300 protein-coding changes, are specific to this individual. Our analyses of DU Mongolians and the first Mongolian genome provide valuable insight into genetic adaptation to extreme environments.

  17. Genomic analysis of natural selection and phenotypic variation in high-altitude mongolians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchuan Xing

    Full Text Available Deedu (DU Mongolians, who migrated from the Mongolian steppes to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau approximately 500 years ago, are challenged by environmental conditions similar to native Tibetan highlanders. Identification of adaptive genetic factors in this population could provide insight into coordinated physiological responses to this environment. Here we examine genomic and phenotypic variation in this unique population and present the first complete analysis of a Mongolian whole-genome sequence. High-density SNP array data demonstrate that DU Mongolians share genetic ancestry with other Mongolian as well as Tibetan populations, specifically in genomic regions related with adaptation to high altitude. Several selection candidate genes identified in DU Mongolians are shared with other Asian groups (e.g., EDAR, neighboring Tibetan populations (including high-altitude candidates EPAS1, PKLR, and CYP2E1, as well as genes previously hypothesized to be associated with metabolic adaptation (e.g., PPARG. Hemoglobin concentration, a trait associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans, is at an intermediate level in DU Mongolians compared to Tibetans and Han Chinese at comparable altitude. Whole-genome sequence from a DU Mongolian (Tianjiao1 shows that about 2% of the genomic variants, including more than 300 protein-coding changes, are specific to this individual. Our analyses of DU Mongolians and the first Mongolian genome provide valuable insight into genetic adaptation to extreme environments.

  18. Energy utilization in pigs selected for high and low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, R; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Sellier, P; van Milgen, J; Noblet, J

    2010-06-01

    Genetic selection on residual feed intake (RFI) can be used as an alternative method to G:F to improve feed efficiency in pigs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of selection for RFI on digestive and metabolic utilization of energy in 2 lines of purebred French Large White castrated male pigs obtained from a divergent selection experiment over 6 generations. The RFI(+) (high RFI) line consumed more feed than predicted from performance compared with the RFI(-) (low RFI) line. Digestibility of energy and nutrients, total heat production (HP), HP related to physical activity, and energy and N balance were measured in respiration chambers for a 6-d period in pigs offered feed ad libitum. Pigs remained in the chamber for an additional day and did not receive any feed to estimate the fasting HP and calculate the thermic effect of feeding. Five pairs of 2 littermates from the same farrowing batch were used in each line. Because 2 respiration chambers were available for the trial, pigs were measured regularly during the 25- to 95-kg growing period. Two pigs per chamber were used until pigs reached 45 kg of BW, and 1 pig per chamber was used thereafter. Individual feed intake and BW gain were measured continuously from weaning to the end of the trial. Pigs were fed 3 diets with decreasing CP contents during the 25 to 45 (period 1), 45 to 65 (period 2), and 65 to 95 (period 3) kg of BW periods. Average daily feed intake was greater in RFI(+) pigs than in RFI(-) pigs between 25 and 65 kg of BW (2,128 vs. 1,891 g/d; P energy retention. The activity-related HP tended to be greater in RFI(+) pigs than in RFI(-) pigs (250 vs. 218 kJ.kg of BW(-0.60).d(-1); P = 0.09), and the fasting HP was 10% greater (P = 0.04) in RFI(+) pigs than in RFI(-) pigs (846 vs. 771 kJ.kg of BW(-0.60).d(-1)). The thermic effect of feeding, expressed as a percentage of ME intake, was the same for both lines of pigs (average, 14.7%). In conclusion, the RFI(+) pigs are energetically

  19. Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for the production of hydrocarbon fuels with high selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghong; Cheng, Kang; Kang, Jincan; Deng, Weiping; Wang, Ye

    2014-05-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a key reaction in the utilization of non-petroleum carbon resources, such as methane (natural gas, shale gas, and biogas), coal, and biomass, for the sustainable production of clean liquid fuels from synthesis gas. Selectivity control is one of the biggest challenges in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This Minireview focuses on the development of new catalysts with controllable product selectivities. Recent attempts to increase the selectivity to C5+ hydrocarbons by preparing catalysts with well-defined active phases or with new supports or by optimizing the interaction between the promoter and the active phase are briefly highlighted. Advances in developing bifunctional catalysts capable of catalyzing both CO hydrogenation to heavier hydrocarbons and hydrocracking/isomerization of heavier hydrocarbons are critically reviewed. It is demonstrated that the control of the secondary hydrocracking reactions by using core-shell nanostructures or solid-acid materials, such as mesoporous zeolites and carbon nanotubes with acid functional groups, is an effective strategy to tune the product selectivity of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Very promising selectivities to gasoline- and diesel-range hydrocarbons have been attained over some bifunctional catalysts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that interact with both heme propionate and tetrahydrobiopterin show high isoform selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soosung; Tang, Wei; Li, Huiying; Chreifi, Georges; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B

    2014-05-22

    Overproduction of NO by nNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neuronal disorders. Since NO signaling is involved in diverse physiological functions, selective inhibition of nNOS over other isoforms is essential to minimize side effects. A series of α-amino functionalized aminopyridine derivatives (3-8) were designed to probe the structure-activity relationship between ligand, heme propionate, and H4B. Compound 8R was identified as the most potent and selective molecule of this study, exhibiting a Ki of 24 nM for nNOS, with 273-fold and 2822-fold selectivity against iNOS and eNOS, respectively. Although crystal structures of 8R complexed with nNOS and eNOS revealed a similar binding mode, the selectivity stems from the distinct electrostatic environments in two isoforms that result in much lower inhibitor binding free energy in nNOS than in eNOS. These findings provide a basis for further development of simple, but even more selective and potent, nNOS inhibitors.

  1. Highly selective electrode for potentiometric analysis of methadone in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshiri, Moslem; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop a fast and simple procedure for methadone analysis in biological fluids, a graphite paste electrode (GPE) was modified with the ion-pair of methadone-phosphotungstic acid, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Optimized composition of the electrode with respect to graphite powder:paraffin oil:MWCNTs:ion pair, was 58:30:8:4 (w/w%). The electrode showed a near-Nernstian slope of 58.9 ± 0.3 mV/decade for methadone in a wide linear range of 1.0 × 10(-8)-4.6 × 10(-3)M, with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-8)M. The electrode response was independent of pH in the range of 5-11, with a fast response time (~4s) at 25 °C. The sensor showed high selectivity and was successfully applied to the determination of sub-micromolar concentrations of methadone in human blood serum and urine samples, with recoveries in the range of 95-99.8%. The average recovery of methadone from tablets (5 mg/tablet) by using the proposed method was 98%. The life time of the modified electrode was more than 5 months, due to the characteristic of GPE which can be cut off and fresh electrode surface be available. A titration procedure was performed for methadone analysis by using phosphotungstic acid, as titrating agent, which showed an accurate end point and 1:1 stoichiometry for the ion-pair formed (methadone:phosphotungstic acid). The simple and rapid procedure as well as excellent detection limit and selectivity are some of the advantages of the proposed sensor for methadone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection of haplotype variables from a high-density marker map for genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyabano, Beatriz Cd; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens S

    2015-08-01

    Using haplotype blocks as predictors rather than individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may improve genomic predictions, since haplotypes are in stronger linkage disequilibrium with the quantitative trait loci than are individual SNPs. It has also been hypothesized that an appropriate selection of a subset of haplotype blocks can result in similar or better predictive ability than when using the whole set of haplotype blocks. This study investigated genomic prediction using a set of haplotype blocks that contained the SNPs with large effects estimated from an individual SNP prediction model. We analyzed protein yield, fertility and mastitis of Nordic Holstein cattle, and used high-density markers (about 770k SNPs). To reach an optimum number of haplotype variables for genomic prediction, predictions were performed using subsets of haplotype blocks that contained a range of 1000 to 50 000 main SNPs. The use of haplotype blocks improved the prediction reliabilities, even when selection focused on only a group of haplotype blocks. In this case, the use of haplotype blocks that contained the 20 000 to 50 000 SNPs with the highest effect was sufficient to outperform the model that used all individual SNPs as predictors (up to 1.3 % improvement in prediction reliability for mastitis, compared to individual SNP approach), and the achieved reliabilities were similar to those using all haplotype blocks available in the genome data (from 0.6 % lower to 0.8 % higher reliability). Haplotype blocks used as predictors can improve the reliability of genomic prediction compared to the individual SNP model. Furthermore, the use of a subset of haplotype blocks that contains the main SNP effects from genomic data could be a feasible approach to genomic prediction in dairy cattle, given an increase in density of genotype data available. The predictive ability of the models that use a subset of haplotype blocks was similar to that obtained using either all haplotype blocks

  3. Characterization of carotenoid high-producing Capsicum annuum cultivars selected for paprika production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Costa-García, Joaquín; Mínguez-Mosquera, Maria Isabel

    2002-09-25

    Twelve selected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars, bred for mechanical harvesting (grouped ripeness) and adaptation to different cultivation cycles (short to long), have been characterized by their carotenoid pigment content and composition with the aim of producing high-quality paprika. A detailed analysis of the carotenogenesis was performed throughout the ripening process, but with special emphasis on the ripe stage, with the aim of selecting the best cultivar for paprika production. The MA1 cultivar (with grouped ripeness and very short cultivation cycle) showed the highest carotenoid content (12697.58 mg/kg dwt), followed by DN5 and RN2 cultivars with 11086.88 and 10393.29 mg/kg dwt, respectively. Most of the cultivars (MA3, RN1, LR2, LR7, DN3, DR6, Datler, and Mulato) showed a total carotenoid content in the range of 7000-9700 mg/kg dwt. In general, chlorophyll-retaining character was related to high carotenoid content (cultivars DN3, DN5, MA3, Mulato, RN1, and RN2). The general trend of the cultivation cycle was that the shorter the cycle, the higher the total carotenoid content (as exemplified by the cultivar MA1). The lowest total carotenoid content was found for the RR1 cultivar (4856.77 mg/kg dwt), which showed the longest cultivation cycle. Carotenogenic capacity of the cultivars has been discussed relative to total carotenoid content and the R/Y and Caps/Zeax ratios, the main quality traits for breeding cultivars for production of high-quality paprika. The cultivar MA1, with the highest total carotenoid content, high R/Y (2.11) ratio, and highest Caps/Zeax (9.85) ratio, was found to be the most suitable cultivar for paprika production in terms of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis capacity. Moreover, this cultivar has a short cultivation cycle and grouped ripeness, which are both important characteristics for a proper application of mechanical harvesting. The potential improvement of other varieties is also discussed.

  4. Selection for wide adaptability and high phenotypic stability of Brazilian soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, V M; Hamawaki, O T; Nogueira, A O; Sousa, L B; Santos, F M; Hamawaki, R L

    2016-03-31

    Advances in genetic enhancement techniques have led to an increase in soybean production. Thus, soybean is currently one the most economically important cultured species worldwide. The objectives of the present study were to study the interaction of soybean genotypes per environment in terms of grain productivity and to evaluate their phenotypic adaptability and stability, with the final aim of selecting lineages with high productivity, wide adaptability, and high stability. Seven soybean genotypes, consisting of five lineages developed by the soybean genetic enhancement program of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (Brazil) and two controls, were evaluated during several annual cycles in seven different environments. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates was adopted in each site. This study followed the methodology proposed by Eberhart and Russel and Lin and Binns, with modifications by Carneiro, and the AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model) analysis. The average productivity of soybean cultivars in the trials was 2739.26 kg/ha. The L01V13 genotype and the UFUS Guarani cultivar had wide adaptation according to the methodology proposed by Eberhart and Russel and Lin and Binns, with modifications by Carneiro. When analyzed with the AMMI model, the UFUS Guarani cultivar showed high stability. In general, the methodologies studied are complementary and, when used together, increase the reliability of the classification, providing support for the use of specific soybean cultivars in different environments.

  5. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh K. [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  6. Artificial intelligence in the selection of common bean genotypes with high phenotypic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Barroso, L M A; Nascimento, M; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-04-28

    Artificial neural networks have been used for various purposes in plant breeding, including use in the investigation of genotype x environment interactions. The aim of this study was to use artificial neural networks in the selection of common bean genotypes with high phenotypic adaptability and stability, and to verify their consistency with the Eberhart and Russell method. Six trials were conducted using 13 genotypes of common bean between 2002 and 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replicates. Grain yield data were submitted to individual and joint variance analyses. The data were then submitted to analysis of adaptability and stability through the Eberhart and Russell and artificial neural network methods. There was high concordance between the methodologies evaluated for discrimination of phenotypic adaptability of common bean genotypes, indicating that artificial neural networks can be used in breeding programs. Based on both approaches, the genotypes Aporé, Rudá, and CNFv 8025 are recommended for use in unfavorable, general and favorable environments, respectively by the grain yield above the overall average of environments and high phenotypic stability.

  7. Hydrogen bond based smart polymer for highly selective and tunable capture of multiply phosphorylated peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Guangyan; Lu, Qi; Li, Xiuling; Liu, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei

    2017-09-06

    Multisite phosphorylation is an important and common mechanism for finely regulating protein functions and subsequent cellular responses. However, this study is largely restricted by the difficulty to capture low-abundance multiply phosphorylated peptides (MPPs) from complex biosamples owing to the limitation of enrichment materials and their interactions with phosphates. Here we show that smart polymer can serve as an ideal platform to resolve this challenge. Driven by specific but tunable hydrogen bonding interactions, the smart polymer displays differential complexation with MPPs, singly phosphorylated and non-modified peptides. Importantly, MPP binding can be modulated conveniently and precisely by solution conditions, resulting in highly controllable MPP adsorption on material surface. This facilitates excellent performance in MPP enrichment and separation from model proteins and real biosamples. High enrichment selectivity and coverage, extraordinary adsorption capacities and recovery towards MPPs, as well as high discovery rates of unique phosphorylation sites, suggest its great potential in phosphoproteomics studies.Capture of low-abundance multiply phosphorylated peptides (MPPs) is difficult due to limitation of enrichment materials and their interactions with phosphates. Here the authors show, a smart polymer driven by specific but tunable hydrogen bonding interactions can differentially complex with MPPs, singly phosphorylated and non-modified peptides.

  8. The Relevance of Emotional Intelligence in Personnel Selection for High Emotional Labor Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, Sarah; Nizielski, Sophia; Hock, Michael; Schütz, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Although a large number of studies have pointed to the potential of emotional intelligence (EI) in the context of personnel selection, research in real-life selection contexts is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine whether EI would predict Assessment Center (AC) ratings of job-relevant competencies in a sample of applicants for the position of a flight attendant. Applicants' ability to regulate emotions predicted performance in group exercises. However, there were inconsistent effects of applicants' ability to understand emotions: Whereas the ability to understand emotions had a positive effect on performance in interview and role play, the effect on performance in group exercises was negative. We suppose that the effect depends on task type and conclude that tests of emotional abilities should be used judiciously in personnel selection procedures.

  9. The Relevance of Emotional Intelligence in Personnel Selection for High Emotional Labor Jobs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Herpertz

    Full Text Available Although a large number of studies have pointed to the potential of emotional intelligence (EI in the context of personnel selection, research in real-life selection contexts is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine whether EI would predict Assessment Center (AC ratings of job-relevant competencies in a sample of applicants for the position of a flight attendant. Applicants' ability to regulate emotions predicted performance in group exercises. However, there were inconsistent effects of applicants' ability to understand emotions: Whereas the ability to understand emotions had a positive effect on performance in interview and role play, the effect on performance in group exercises was negative. We suppose that the effect depends on task type and conclude that tests of emotional abilities should be used judiciously in personnel selection procedures.

  10. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  11. A study of metaheuristic algorithms for high dimensional feature selection on microarray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankolo, Muhammad Nasiru; Radzi, Nor Haizan Mohamed; Sallehuddin, Roselina; Mustaffa, Noorfa Haszlinna

    2017-11-01

    Microarray systems enable experts to examine gene profile at molecular level using machine learning algorithms. It increases the potentials of classification and diagnosis of many diseases at gene expression level. Though, numerous difficulties may affect the efficiency of machine learning algorithms which includes vast number of genes features comprised in the original data. Many of these features may be unrelated to the intended analysis. Therefore, feature selection is necessary to be performed in the data pre-processing. Many feature selection algorithms are developed and applied on microarray which including the metaheuristic optimization algorithms. This paper discusses the application of the metaheuristics algorithms for feature selection in microarray dataset. This study reveals that, the algorithms have yield an interesting result with limited resources thereby saving computational expenses of machine learning algorithms.

  12. A proposed framework on hybrid feature selection techniques for handling high dimensional educational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahiri, Amirah Mohamed; Husain, Wahidah; Rashid, Nur'Aini Abd

    2017-10-01

    Huge amounts of data in educational datasets may cause the problem in producing quality data. Recently, data mining approach are increasingly used by educational data mining researchers for analyzing the data patterns. However, many research studies have concentrated on selecting suitable learning algorithms instead of performing feature selection process. As a result, these data has problem with computational complexity and spend longer computational time for classification. The main objective of this research is to provide an overview of feature selection techniques that have been used to analyze the most significant features. Then, this research will propose a framework to improve the quality of students' dataset. The proposed framework uses filter and wrapper based technique to support prediction process in future study.

  13. High spin spectroscopy near the N=Z line: Channel selection and excitation energy systematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, C.E.; Cameron, J.A.; Flibotte, S. [McMaster Univ., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The total {gamma}-ray and charged-particle energies emitted in fusion-evaporation reactions leading to N=Z compound systems in the A = 50-70 mass region have been measured with the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer and the miniball charged-particle detector array. A new method of channel selection has been developed which combines particle identification with these total energy measurements and greatly improves upon the selectivity possible with particle detection alone. In addition, the event by event measurement of total {gamma}-ray energies using the BGO ball of the 8{pi} spectrometer has allowed a determination of excitation energies following particle evaporation for a large number of channels in several different reactions. The new channel selection procedure and excitation energy systematics are illustrated with data from the reaction of {sup 24}Mg on {sup 40}Ca at E{sub lab} = 80MeV.

  14. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  15. Antecedent Selection for Sluicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Pranav; Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sluicing is an elliptical process where the majority of a question can go unpronounced as long as there is a salient antecedent in previous discourse. This paper considers the task of antecedent selection: finding the correct antecedent for a given case of sluicing. We argue that both syntactic...... and discourse relationships are important in antecedent selection, and we construct linguistically sophisticated features that describe the relevant relationships. We also define features that describe the relation of the content of the antecedent and the sluice type. We develop a linear model which achieves...... accuracy of 72.4%, a substantial improvement over a strong manually constructed baseline. Feature analysis confirms that both syntactic and discourse features are important in antecedent selection....

  16. Improving staff selection processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerinus, Marie; Shannon, Marina

    2014-11-11

    This article, the second in a series of articles on Leading Better Care, describes the actions undertaken in recent years in NHS Lanarkshire to improve selection processes for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) posts. This is an area of significant interest to these professions, management colleagues and patients given the pivotal importance of NMAHPs to patient care and experience. In recent times the importance of selecting staff not only with the right qualifications but also with the right attributes has been highlighted to ensure patients are well cared for in a safe, effective and compassionate manner. The article focuses on NMAHP selection processes, tracking local, collaborative development work undertaken to date. It presents an overview of some of the work being implemented, highlights a range of important factors, outlines how evaluation is progressing and concludes by recommending further empirical research.

  17. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. [Farr Co., El Segundo, CA (United States)]|[Farr Co., Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    A thorough analysis of the dust to be captured and determination of specific application requirements are necessary when designing a baghouse collection system. Independent consultants specializing in pollution control equipment and manufacturers with experience in several types of collectors are possible sources of assistance. These experts typically have testing facilities to analyze the dust characteristics. This final article of a two-part series on baghouse design and selection concentrates on application considerations created by the type of dust handled, selecting the best filtration media, selecting the best filtration media, and determining the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio. The first article discussed bag sizing and cleaning methods and housing and hopper designs.

  18. Potentiometric sensors based on fluorous membranes doped with highly selective ionophores for carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li D; Mandal, Debaprasad; Pozzi, Gianluca; Gladysz, John A; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2011-12-28

    Manganese(III) complexes of three fluorophilic salen derivatives were used to prepare ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) with ionophore-doped fluorous sensing membranes. Because of their extremely low polarity and polarizability, fluorous media are not only chemically very inert but also solvate potentially interfering ions poorly, resulting in a much improved discrimination of such ions. Indeed, the new ISEs exhibited selectivities for CO(3)(2-) that exceed those of previously reported ISEs based on nonfluorous membranes by several orders of magnitude. In particular, the interference from chloride and salicylate was reduced by 2 and 6 orders of magnitude, respectively. To achieve this, the selectivities of these ISEs were fine-tuned by addition of noncoordinating hydrophobic ions (i.e., ionic sites) into the sensing membranes. Stability constants of the anion-ionophore complexes were determined from the dependence of the potentiometric selectivities on the charge sign of the ionic sites and the molar ratio of ionic sites and the ionophore. For this purpose, a previously introduced fluorophilic tetraphenylborate and a novel fluorophilic cation with a bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium group, (R(f6)(CH(2))(3))(3)PN(+)P(R(f6)(CH(2))(3))(3), were utilized (where R(f6) is C(6)F(13)). The optimum CO(3)(2-) selectivities were found for sensing membranes composed of anionic sites and ionophore in a 1:4 molar ratio, which results in the formation of 2:1 complexes with CO(3)(2-) with stability constants up to 4.1 × 10(15). As predicted by established theory, the site-to-ionophore ratios that provide optimum potentiometric selectivity depend on the stoichiometries of the complexes of both the primary and the interfering ions. However, the ionophores used in this study give examples of charges and stoichiometries previously neither explicitly predicted by theory nor shown by experiment. The exceptional selectivity of fluorous membranes doped with these carbonate ionophores

  19. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  20. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    The CPS transformation makes all functions continuation-passing, uniformly. Not all functions, however, need continuations: they only do if their evaluation includes computational effects. In this paper we focus on control operations, in particular "call with current continuation" and "throw". We...... characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  1. SHRS RRCL selection methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, J E; Delaney, H M

    1980-05-01

    The CRBRP Safety Related Reliability Program requires a listing of those design items whose failure would impact the ability of the plant for a safe shutdown or shutdown heat removal mission. This listing is referred to as the Reliability Related Components List (RRCL) and heretofore, has been based on sound engineering judgement. As a check for completeness and as a means of providing a probabilistic-based rationale for component selection, this report presents a methodology by which this selection can be made for each of the decay heat removal loops comprising the Shutdown Heat Removal System (SHRS) using existing EG and G fault tree models.

  2. Solar selective surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buskirk, O.R.

    1982-01-12

    Postformable solar selective coatings are disclosed for use on substrates such as aluminum. The coatings use a finely divided black inherently selective spinel pigment such as Co3O4, CuCr2O4 or CuxCo3-xO4 where X is 0.03 to 0.3 and preferably 0.10 to 0.30. The binders are soluble copolymers of vinylidene fluoride or blends thereof or vinylidene fluoride with a copolymer of methyl methacrylate.

  3. Selecting and evoking innovators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    prepared for and conducted selection of and collaboration with innovators. The outcome was successful in the sense that the innovators produced excellent foundation for conceptual interaction design by creating mock-ups and explanations incarnating their preferences, attitudes and habits. By referring...... to theories of learning we try to explain how our way of working with selection and evoking of innovators has contributed to this positive result and how our approach to user-driven innovation can be regarded as a way to combine democracy and creativity in design....

  4. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Wengaard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max, muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students.Methods: Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm completed a V·O2max test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations. The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17% of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue, 224 (67% appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue and 56 (17% appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue. Mean reaction time (RT and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire.Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher V·O2max was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = −2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011, and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = −2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048. There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli (F = 1.01, p = 0.397 or of weekly training and stimuli (F = 0.99, p = 0.405.Conclusion: The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  5. One-step Synthesis of Core-Gold/Shell-Ceria Nanomaterial and Its Catalysis for Highly Selective Semihydrogenation of Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsudome, Takato; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Maeno, Zen; Mizugaki, Tomoo; Jitsukawa, Koichiro; Kaneda, Kiyotomi

    2015-10-28

    We report a facile synthesis of new core-Au/shell-CeO2 nanoparticles (Au@CeO2) using a redox-coprecipitation method, where the Au nanoparticles and the nanoporous shell of CeO2 are simultaneously formed in one step. The Au@CeO2 catalyst enables the highly selective semihydrogenation of various alkynes at ambient temperature under additive-free conditions. The core-shell structure plays a crucial role in providing the excellent selectivity for alkenes through the selective dissociation of H2 in a heterolytic manner by maximizing interfacial sites between the core-Au and the shell-CeO2.

  6. Using Improved Entropy-Cloud Model to Select High-Speed Railway Express Freight Train Service Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed railway (HSR express freight train service sites selection is critical to the development of China’s Third Party Logistics market. In this paper, we formulate an improved entropy-cloud model based approach to solve the HSR express sites selection problem for the first time. The basic data of the indicators, for example, existing railway network conditions, traffic environment, express freight market demand, and policy, will be used as the inputs. We apply improved entropy method to obtain each subindicator’s weight. The cloud model will be used to select and classify each station under evaluation.

  7. Selection mechanisms underlying high impact biomedical research--a qualitative analysis and causal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Zelko

    selection mechanism provides insights that can be translated into research coaching programs as well as research policy models to optimize the introduction of high impact research at a broad scale among institutional and governmental agencies.

  8. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source.

  9. Highly Oxidized Peroxisomes Are Selectively Degraded via Autophagy in Arabidopsis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Michitaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Yoshimoto, Kohki; Kondo, Maki; Mano, Shoji; Yamada, Kenji; Hayashi, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    The positioning of peroxisomes in a cell is a regulated process that is closely associated with their functions. Using this feature of the peroxisomal positioning as a criterion, we identified three Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (peroxisome unusual positioning1 [peup1], peup2, and peup4) that contain aggregated peroxisomes. We found that the PEUP1, PEUP2, and PEUP4 were identical to Autophagy-related2 (ATG2), ATG18a, and ATG7, respectively, which are involved in the autophagic system. The number of peroxisomes was increased and the peroxisomal proteins were highly accumulated in the peup1 mutant, suggesting that peroxisome degradation by autophagy (pexophagy) is deficient in the peup1 mutant. These aggregated peroxisomes contained high levels of inactive catalase and were more oxidative than those of the wild type, indicating that peroxisome aggregates comprise damaged peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisome aggregation was induced in wild-type plants by exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide. The cat2 mutant also contained peroxisome aggregates. These findings demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide as a result of catalase inactivation is the inducer of peroxisome aggregation. Furthermore, an autophagosome marker, ATG8, frequently colocalized with peroxisome aggregates, indicating that peroxisomes damaged by hydrogen peroxide are selectively degraded by autophagy in the wild type. Our data provide evidence that autophagy is crucial for quality control mechanisms for peroxisomes in Arabidopsis. PMID:24368788

  10. Recent advances of highly selective CDK4/6 inhibitors in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxiao Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncontrolled cell division is the hallmark of cancers. Full understanding of cell cycle regulation would contribute to promising cancer therapies. In particular, cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6, which are pivotal drivers of cell proliferation by combination with cyclin D, draw more and more attention. Subsequently, extensive studies were carried out to explore drugs inhibiting CDK4/6 and assess the efficacy and safety of these drugs in cancer, especially breast cancer. Due to the insuperable adverse events and the less activity observed in vivo, the drug development of the initial pan-CDK inhibitor flavopiridol was consequently discontinued, and then highly specific inhibitors were extensively researched and developed, including palbociclib (PD0332991, ribociclib (LEE011, and abemaciclib (LY2835219. Food and Drug Administration has approved palbociclib and ribociclib for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer, and recent clinical trial data suggest that palbociclib significantly improved clinical outcome when combined with letrozole or fulvestrant. Besides, the favorable effects of abemaciclib on prolonging survival of breast cancer patients have also been observed in clinical trials both for single-agent and combination strategy. In this review, we outline the preclinical and clinical advancement of these three orally bioavailable and highly selective CDK4/6 inhibitors in breast cancer.

  11. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  12. Selection and classification of high school volleyball players from performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen-Milder, M; Mayhew, J L

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study were to determine the accuracy of general and specific tests for identifying the players on freshmen (FR), junior varsity (JV), and varsity (VR) teams and the precision of tests to differentiate between starters and nonstarters at each level of play. Fifty high school volleyball players were tested during the first week of practice for six general and four specific motor performance tests. The specific tests included the overhead volley, forearm pass, wall spike, and self bump/set test. The general tests included height, weight, percent body fat, agility run, vertical jump, and two flexibility maneuvers. VR players were significantly better in vertical jump, agility, and all specific ball-handling tests than FR and VJ players. The combination of forearm pass, overhead volley, vertical jump, and weight correctly classified 68% of the players to their team level. The combination of bump-set, height, weight, and shoulder flexibility allowed correct classification of 78% of the starters and nonstarters. General and specific tests can successfully select and classify high school volleyball players.

  13. Highly porous, low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Machová, Markéta; Fousová, Michaela; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Fojt, Jaroslav; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    Recently, porous metallic materials have been extensively studied as candidates for use in the fabrication of scaffolds and augmentations to repair trabecular bone defects, e.g. in surroundings of joint replacements. Fabricating these complex structures by using common approaches (e.g., casting and machining) is very challenging. Therefore, rapid prototyping techniques, such as selective laser melting (SLM), have been investigated for these applications. In this study, we characterized a highly porous (87 vol.%) 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by SLM. 316L steel was chosen because it presents a biomaterial still widely used for fabrication of joint replacements and, from the practical point of view, use of the same material for fabrication of an augmentation and a joint replacement is beneficial for corrosion prevention. The results are compared to the reported properties of two representative nonporous 316L stainless steels prepared either by SLM or casting and subsequent hot forging. The microstructural and mechanical properties and the surface chemical composition and interaction with the cells were investigated. The studied material exhibited mechanical properties that were similar to those of trabecular bone (compressive modulus of elasticity ~0.15GPa, compressive yield strength ~3MPa) and cytocompatibility after one day that was similar to that of wrought 316L stainless steel, which is a commonly used biomaterial. Based on the obtained results, SLM is a suitable method for the fabrication of porous 316L stainless steel scaffolds with highly porous structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pd/ZnO nanorods based sensor for highly selective detection of extremely low concentration hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohit; Singh Bhati, Vijendra; Ranwa, Sapana; Singh, Jitendra; Kumar, Mahesh

    2017-03-22

    We report highly hydrogen selective Pd contacted ZnO nanorods based sensor detecting low concentration even at low operating temperature of 50 °C. The sensor performance was investigated for various gases such as H2, CH4, H2S and CO2 at different operating temperatures from 50 °C to 175 °C for various gas concentrations ranging from 7 ppm to 10,000 ppm (1%). The sensor is highly efficient as it detects hydrogen even at low concentration of ~7 ppm and at operating temperature of 50 °C. The sensor's minimum limit of detection and relative response at 175 °C were found 7 ppm with ~38.7% for H2, 110 ppm with ~6.08% for CH4, 500 ppm with ~10.06% for H2S and 1% with ~11.87% for CO2. Here, Pd exhibits dual characteristics as metal contact and excellent catalyst to hydrogen molecules. The activation energy was calculated for all the gases and found lowest ~3.658 kJ/mol for H2. Low activation energy accelerates desorption reactions and enhances the sensor's performance.

  15. Selective joining technique for high power electronics; Selektive Verbindungstechnik fuer die Leistungselektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, Manfred [EUTECT GmbH, Dusslingen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Stringent demands are placed on the quality, reliability and workmanship of electronic components in modern automotive electronics, high-performance LEDs (HLEDs) and regenerative electrical power generation. Automated selective integrated circuit packaging processes are increasingly becoming irreplaceable. Integrated circuit packing can be performed by means of mini-wave, laser, iron or hot-bar soldering, as well as the micro welding process. In addition to the modification of existing technologies, this also requires new joining technologies and test strategies for quality assurance. Interdisciplinary expertise with regard to process technology and system function is therefore essential for sound process assurance, maximum effectiveness and added value in the joining process. This article addresses the processing of THT electronics assemblies in the areas of printed-circuit boards, LEDs, flex foils, leadframes, hybrids and special types. Using high-power LED processes as examples, integrated circuit packaging is described for IMS, Osram Philips, Samsung and further LED designs, as well as printed-circuit board, flex-foil and jumper connections to the associated LED heat sinks. (orig.)

  16. Manganese powder promoted highly efficient and selective synthesis of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weili; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Shirong; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asao, Naoki; Han, Liyuan; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2015-09-01

    Discovery of an efficient, practical, and flexible synthetic method to produce various important electron acceptors for low-cost organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is highly desirable. Although the most commonly used acceptor materials, such as PC61BM, PC71BM, IC60BA, bisPC61BM have been proved to be promising for the OPVs, they are still very expensive mainly due to their low production yields and limited synthetic methods. Herein, we report an unprecedented and innovative synthetic method of a variety of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts by using manganese powder as a promotor. The reaction of fullerenes with various dibromides proceeds efficiently and selectively under very mild conditions to give the corresponding cycloadducts in good to excellent yields. The combination of manganese power with DMSO additive is crucial for the successful implementation of the present cycloaddition. Notably, the standard OPV acceptors, such as PCBMs, have been obtained in extraordinarily high yields, which cannot be achieved under the previously reported methods.

  17. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. [Farr Co., El Segundo, CA (United States)]|[Farr Co., Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  18. A New Quinoline-Based Acylhydrazone for Highly Selective Fluorescence Recognition of Cu(II) and Sulfide in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lijun; Zhou, Pei; Huang, Zhenlong; Zhao, Jia; Cai, Mingjun [Bohai Univ., Jinzhou (China); Qi, Zhikai [Shanxi Normal Univ., Linfen (China)

    2013-08-15

    A new quinoline-based acylhydrazone (1) has been synthesized and applied as a fluorescent probe. Probe 1 exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity to Cu{sup 2+} with fluorescence 'ON-OFF' behavior in HEPES buffered (1% DMSO, HEPES 20 mM, pH = 7.4) solution. The on-site generated 1-Cu{sup 2+} complex displays excellent selectivity to sulfide ions with fluorescence 'OFF-ON' performance through copper displacement approach.

  19. A highly selective G-quadruplex-based luminescent switch-on probe for the detection of gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Zhang; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2012-10-04

    A G-quadruplex-based switch-on luminescence assay has been developed for the detection of gene deletion using a cyclometallated iridium(III) complex as a G-quadruplex-selective probe. Upon hybridization with the target DNA, the two split G-quadruplex-forming sequences assemble into a split G-quadruplex, which greatly enhances the luminescence emission of the iridium(III) probe. The assay is simple and highly selective.

  20. Fragment-Based Discovery of 7-Azabenzimidazoles as Potent, Highly Selective, and Orally Active CDK4/6 Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Shin; Angove, Hayley; Brain, Christopher; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Cheng, Hong; Cheng, Robert; Chopra, Rajiv; Chung, Kristy; Congreve, Miles; Dagostin, Claudio; Davis, Deborah J.; Feltell, Ruth; Giraldes, John; Hiscock, Steven D.; Kim, Sunkyu; Kovats, Steven; Lagu, Bharat; Lewry, Kim; Loo, Alice; Lu, Yipin; Luzzio, Michael; Maniara, Wiesia; McMenamin, Rachel; Mortenson, Paul N.; Benning, Rajdeep; O' Reilly, Marc; Rees, David C.; Shen, Junqing; Smith, Troy; Wang, Yaping; Williams, Glyn; Woolford, Alison J. -A.; Wrona, Wojciech; Xu, Mei; Yang, Fan; Howard, Steven

    2012-06-14

    Herein, we describe the discovery of potent and highly selective inhibitors of both CDK4 and CDK6 via structure-guided optimization of a fragment-based screening hit. CDK6 X-ray crystallography and pharmacokinetic data steered efforts in identifying compound 6, which showed >1000-fold selectivity for CDK4 over CDKs 1 and 2 in an enzymatic assay. Furthermore, 6 demonstrated in vivo inhibition of pRb-phosphorylation and oral efficacy in a Jeko-1 mouse xenograft model.

  1. Accuracy of the field triage protocol in selecting severely injured patients after high energy trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, J J E M; Lansink, K W W; van Heijl, M; Lichtveld, R A; Leenen, L P H

    2014-05-01

    For optimal treatment of trauma patients it is of great importance to identify patients who are at risk for severe injuries. The Dutch field triage protocol for trauma patients, the LPA (National Protocol of Ambulance Services), is designed to get the right patient, in the right time, to the right hospital. Purpose of this study was to determine diagnostic accuracy and compliance of this triage protocol. Triage criteria were categorised into physiological condition (P), mechanism of trauma (M) and injury type (I). A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all high-energy trauma patients from 2008 to 2011 in the region Central Netherlands is performed. Diagnostic parameters (sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value) of the field triage protocol for selecting severely injured patients were calculated including rates of under- and overtriage. Undertriage was defined as the proportion of severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score (ISS)≥16) who were transported to a level two or three trauma care centre. Overtriage was defined as the proportion of non-severely injured patients (ISS<16) who were transported to a level one trauma care centre. Overall sensitivity and specificity of the field triage protocol was 89.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 84.4-92.6) and 60.5% (95% CI 57.9-63.1), respectively. The overall rate of undertriage was 10.9% (95%CI 7.4-15.7) and the overall rate of overtriage was 39.5% (95%CI 36.9-42.1). These rates were 16.5% and 37.7%, respectively for patients with M+I-P-. Compliance to the triage protocol for patients with M+I-P- was 78.7%. Furthermore, compliance in patients with either a positive I+ or positive P+ was 91.2%. The overall rate of undertriage (10.8%) was mainly influenced by a high rate of undertriage in the group of patients with only a positive mechanism criterion, therefore showing low diagnostic accuracy in selecting severely injured patients. As a consequence these

  2. Contralateral Bias of High Spatial Frequency Tuning and Cardinal Direction Selectivity in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Kirstie J; Figueroa Velez, Dario X; Zeitoun, Jack H; Kim, Hyungtae; Gandhi, Sunil P

    2017-10-18

    Binocular mechanisms for visual processing are thought to enhance spatial acuity by combining matched input from the two eyes. Studies in the primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates have confirmed that eye-specific neuronal response properties are largely matched. In recent years, the mouse has emerged as a prominent model for binocular visual processing, yet little is known about the spatial frequency tuning of binocular responses in mouse visual cortex. Using calcium imaging in awake mice of both sexes, we show that the spatial frequency preference of cortical responses to the contralateral eye is ∼35% higher than responses to the ipsilateral eye. Furthermore, we find that neurons in binocular visual cortex that respond only to the contralateral eye are tuned to higher spatial frequencies. Binocular neurons that are well matched in spatial frequency preference are also matched in orientation preference. In contrast, we observe that binocularly mismatched cells are more mismatched in orientation tuning. Furthermore, we find that contralateral responses are more direction-selective than ipsilateral responses and are strongly biased to the cardinal directions. The contralateral bias of high spatial frequency tuning was found in both awake and anesthetized recordings. The distinct properties of contralateral cortical responses may reflect the functional segregation of direction-selective, high spatial frequency-preferring neurons in earlier stages of the central visual pathway. Moreover, these results suggest that the development of binocularity and visual acuity may engage distinct circuits in the mouse visual system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Seeing through two eyes is thought to improve visual acuity by enhancing sensitivity to fine edges. Using calcium imaging of cellular responses in awake mice, we find surprising asymmetries in the spatial processing of eye-specific visual input in binocular primary visual cortex. The contralateral visual pathway is

  3. First state selective electron capture measurements with trapped highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, F.W.; Woestenenk, G.R.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Morgenstern, R.W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The first state selective electron capture cross section measurements at eV energies are reported for collisions between C4+ ions and H-2 molecules. The cross sections are measured in a crossed beam experiment by means of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. The ion beams are decelerated in an octopole ion

  4. High sintering resistance of size-selected platinum cluster catalysts by suppressed ostwald ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettergren, Kristina; Schweinberger, Florian F.; Deiana, Davide

    2014-01-01

    on different supports exhibit remarkable intrinsic sintering resistance even under reaction conditions. The observed stability is related to suppression of Ostwald ripening by elimination of its main driving force via size-selection. This study thus constitutes a general blueprint for the rational design...

  5. A Highly Selective Sensor for Cyanide in Organic Media and on Solid Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belygona Barare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of IR 786 perchlorate (IR-786 as a selective optical sensor for cyanide anion in both organic solution (acetonitrile (MeCN, 100% and solvent-free solid surfaces was demonstrated. In MeCN, IR-786 was selective to two anions in the following order: CN− > OH−. A significant change in the characteristic dark green color of IR-786 in MeCN to yellow was observed as a result of nucleophilic addition of CN− to the fluorophore, i.e., formation of IR 786-(CN, which was also verified by a blue shift in the 775 nm absorbance peak to 430 nm. A distinct green fluorescence emission from the IR-786-(CN in MeCN was also observed, which demonstrated the selectivity of IR-786 towards CN− in MeCN. Fluorescence emission studies of IR-786 showed that the lower detection limit and the sensitivity of IR-786 for CN− in MeCN was 0.5 μM and 0.5 to 8 μM, respectively. The potential use of IR-786 as a solvent-free solid state sensor for the selective sensing and monitoring of CN− in the environment was also demonstrated. On solvent-free solid state surfaces, the sensitivity of the IR-786 to CN− in water samples was in the range of 50–300 μM with minimal interference by OH−.

  6. High School Biology Students' Transfer of the Concept of Natural Selection: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Kevin J.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The concept of natural selection serves as a foundation for understanding diverse biological concepts and has broad applicability to other domains. However, we know little about students' abilities to transfer (i.e. apply to a new context or use generatively) this concept and the relation between students' conceptual understanding and transfer…

  7. Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wen [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Banerjee, Debasis [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Liu, Jian [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Crum, Jarrod V. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Fernandez, Carlos A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nie, Zimin [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Motkuri, Radha K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chapman, Karena W. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Hayes, James C. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Silvers, Kurt L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Krishna, Rajamani [Van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904 1098 XH Amsterdam The Netherlands; McGrail, B. Peter [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Liu, Jun [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-03-08

    A redox-active metal-organic composite material shows improved and selective O-2 adsorption over N-2 with respect to individual components (MIL-101 and ferrocene). The O-2 sensitivity of the composite material arises due to the formation of maghemite nanoparticles with the pore of the metal-organic framework material.

  8. High-throughput transformation pipeline for a Brazilian japonica rice with bar gene selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedicova, B; Bermudez, C; Prias, M; Zuniga, E; Brondani, C

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work was to establish a transformation pipeline for upland Curinga rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) with bar gene selection employing bialaphos and phosphinothricin as selection agents. The following genes of interest: AtNCED3, Lsi1, GLU2, LEW2, PLD-alpha, DA1, TOR, AVP1, and Rubisco were cloned into the binary vector p7i2x-Ubi and were transferred into Agrobacterium strain EHA 105. Embryogenic calli derived from the mature embryos were transformed, and transgenic cells and shoots were selected on the medium supplemented with bialaphos or phosphinothricin (PPT) using a stepwise selection scheme. Molecular analyses were established using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot for the bar gene and the NOS terminator. Overall, 273 putative transgenic plants were analyzed by Southern blot with 134 events identified. In total, 77 events had a single copy of the transgene integrated in the plant genome while 29 events had two copies. We tested backbone integration in 101 transgenic plants from all constructs and found 60 transgenic plants having no additional sequence integrated in the plant genome. The bar gene activity was evaluated by the chlorophenol red test and the leaf painting test using phosphinothricin with several transgenic plants. The majority of T0 plants carrying the single copy of transgene produced T1 seeds in the screen house.

  9. Highly Selective, Reversible Inhibitor Identified by Comparative Chemoproteomics Modulates Diacylglycerol Lipase Activity in Neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggelaar, M.P.; Chameau, P.J.P.; Kantae, V.; Hummel, J.; Hsu, K.L.; Janssen, F.; van der Wel, T.; Soethoudt, M.; Deng, H.; den Dulk, H.; Allarà, M.; Florea, B.I.; Di Marzo, V.; Wadman, W.J.; Kruse, C.G.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Hankemeier, T.; Werkman, T.R.; Cravatt, B.F.; van der Stelt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)-alpha and -beta are enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective and reversible inhibitors are required to study the function of DAGLs in neuronal cells in an acute and temporal fashion, but they are currently

  10. The use of diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane as a novel highly selective dechloroacetylation reagent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Lefeber, D.J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In a study directed toward the use of the chloroacetyl protecting group in carbohydrate synthesis, the sterically hindered tertiary amine diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) was found to give complete and selective cleavage of the chloroacetyl group in the presence of other ester functions such as

  11. Preparation of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer for the highly selective extraction of baicalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2015-12-01

    The selective extraction of baicalin is important to its quality control especially when the matrices are complicated. In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared for the selective extraction of baicalin in herbs. The molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized by the copolymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of baicalin by a precipitation polymerization method. After the optimization of parameters for molecularly imprinted polymer preparation, including the functional monomer, porogen, sampling solvent, and washing solvent, good selectivity was obtained, with an imprinting factor of about 4, which is much better than that achieved by the bulk-polymerization method. The performances of the prepared molecularly imprinted polymers were systematically investigated, including adsorption kinetics, isotherm experiment, and Scatchard analysis. On the basis of the good adsorptive capability of the prepared molecularly imprinted polymer, it was also applied for the pretreatment of baicalin in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The result showed that most of the matrices were removed and baicalin was selectively enriched. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High levels of absorption in orientation-unbiased, radio-selected 3CR Active Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Leipski, Christian; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Worrall, Diana; Birkinshaw, Mark; Willner, Steven P.

    A critical problem in understanding active galaxies (AGN) is the separation of intrinsic physical differences from observed differences that are due to orientation. Obscuration of the active nucleus is anisotropic and strongly frequency dependent leading to complex selection effects for observations

  13. A highly sensitive and selective immunoassay for the detection of tetrabromobisphenol A in soil and sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of TBBPA was developed. Six haptens (T1-T6) mimicking different structural elements of TBBPA were synthesized and coupled to keyhole...

  14. Highly selective nitroxyl radical-mediated oxidation of primary alcohol groups in water-soluble glucans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooy, A.E.J. de; Besemer, A.C.; Bekkum, H. van

    1995-01-01

    With catalytic amounts of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) and hypochlorite/bromide as the regenerating oxidant in water, primary alcohol groups in glucans and derivatives thereof were rapidly and completely oxidised. For pyranosides, selectivity was higher than 95% and no side products

  15. Does Tasting Local Sweet Potatoes Increase the Likelihood of Selection by High School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Kelly; Jenkins, Steven; Kelly, Patrick; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools are offering more fruits and vegetables; yet consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents remains low. Many schools are implementing Farm-to-School programs to help generate excitement and increase selection of fruits and vegetables by students. The purpose of this research was to determine if a simple tasting…

  16. Highly porous, low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by selective laser melting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Machová, M.; Fousová, M.; Kubásek, J.; Vojtěch, D.; Fojt, J.; Jablonská, E.; Lipov, J.; Ruml, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, Dec (2016), 631–639 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : selective laser melting * 316L stainless steel * porous implants * scaffolds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  17. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  18. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  19. Frequency selective terahertz retroreflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard James

    The use of novel optical structures operating at terahertz frequencies in industrial and military applications continues to grow. Some of these novel structures include gratings, frequency selective surfaces, metamaterials and metasurfaces, and retroreflectors. A retroreflector is a device that exhibits enhanced backscatter by concentrating the reflected wave in the direction of the source. Retroreflectors have applications in a variety of diverse fields such as aviation, radar systems, antenna technology, communications, navigation, passive identification, and metrology due to their large acceptance angles and frequency bandwidth. This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a retroreflector designed for terahertz frequencies and the incorporation of a frequency selective surface in order to endow the retroreflector with narrow-band frequency performance. The radar cross section of several spherical lens reflectors operating at terahertz frequencies was investigated. Spherical lens reflectors with diameters ranging from 2 mm to 8 mm were fabricated from fused silica ball lenses and their radar cross section was measured at 100 GHz, 160 GHz, and 350 GHz. Crossed-dipole frequency selective surfaces exhibiting band-pass characteristics at 350 GHz fabricated from 12 um-thick Nickel screens were applied to the apertures of the spherical lens reflectors. The radar cross section of the frequency selective retroreflectors was measured at 160 GHz and 350 GHz to demonstrate proof-of-concept of narrow-band terahertz performance.

  20. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  1. Man and Natural Selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Man and Natural Selection. Theodosius Dobzhansky. Reflections Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 92-100. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/10/0092-0100 ...

  2. Reinventing Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-01-01

    Although many research studies report students' Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15-16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is…

  3. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  4. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  5. Whole Genome Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole genome selection (WGS) is an approach to using DNA markers that are distributed throughout the entire genome. Genes affecting most economically-important traits are distributed throughout the genome and there are relatively few that have large effects with many more genes with progressively sm...

  6. A Darwin Selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. A Darwin Selection A Comprehensive Darwin Anthology. Shailesh Deshpande Milind Watve. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 7 July 1997 pp 91-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  8. Selfish spermatogonial selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Jasmine; Maher, Geoffrey J; Turner, Gareth D H

    2012-01-01

    frequencies in the sperm of older men. Previous analyses of DNA from randomly selected cadaveric testes showed that the levels of the corresponding FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET mutations exhibit very uneven spatial distributions, with localised hotspots surrounded by large mutation-negative areas. These studies imply...

  9. Selected Outdoor Recreation Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    In this recreational information report, 96 tables are compiled from Bureau of Outdoor Recreation programs and surveys, other governmental agencies, and private sources. Eight sections comprise the document: (1) The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, (2) Federal Assistance to Recreation, (3) Recreation Surveys for Planning, (4) Selected Statistics of…

  10. selective herbicide glyphosate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... This study examined the phyto-toxic effects of a commonly named non-selective herbicide glyphosate. (Roundup™) on ... balance of onions (A. cepa) and similar plants and subsequent effect on human, the major end user. Key words: ..... potential role in the epidemiology of Iris yellow spot virus in an onion.

  11. SELECTIONS IN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population B3 is the most advanced source of horizontal resistance available at the International Potato Centre. (CIP). In this population, testing and selection for horizontal resistance to late blight, unlike those previously ... succumbed to late blight, recording substantial ...... Kalengyere 2002A, for example, late blight.

  12. Maternal Style Selectively Shapes Amygdalar Development and Social Behavior in Rats Genetically Prone to High Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Kashon, Michael; Lee, Larry A; Healy, Catherine B; Coggins, Marie A; Susi, Pam; O'Brien, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    High and low flow rate respirable size selective samplers including the CIP10-R (10 l min(-1)), FSP10 (11.2 l min(-1)), GK2.69 (4.4 l min(-1)), 10-mm nylon (1.7 l min(-1)), and Higgins-Dewell type (2.2 l min(-1)) were compared via side-by-side sampling in workplaces for respirable crystalline silica measurement. Sampling was conducted at eight different occupational sites in the USA and five different stonemasonry sites in Ireland. A total of 536 (268 pairs) personal samples and 55 area samples were collected. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine respirable dust mass and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine quartz mass. Ratios of respirable dust mass concentration, quartz mass concentration, respirable dust mass, and quartz mass from high and low flow rate samplers were compared. In general, samplers did not show significant differences greater than 30% in respirable dust mass concentration and quartz mass concentration when outliers (ratio 3.0) were removed from the analysis. The frequency of samples above the limit of detection and limit of quantification of quartz was significantly higher for the CIP10-R and FSP10 samplers compared to low flow rate samplers, while the GK2.69 cyclone did not show significant difference from low flow rate samplers. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. Although the samplers did not show significant differences in respirable dust and quartz concentrations, other practical attributes might make them more or less suitable for personal sampling. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2015.

  14. Genetic Particle Swarm Optimization–Based Feature Selection for Very-High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery Object Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Chen, Yunhao; Jiang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    In the field of multiple features Object-Based Change Detection (OBCD) for very-high-resolution remotely sensed images, image objects have abundant features and feature selection affects the precision and efficiency of OBCD. Through object-based image analysis, this paper proposes a Genetic Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO)-based feature selection algorithm to solve the optimization problem of feature selection in multiple features OBCD. We select the Ratio of Mean to Variance (RMV) as the fitness function of GPSO, and apply the proposed algorithm to the object-based hybrid multivariate alternative detection model. Two experiment cases on Worldview-2/3 images confirm that GPSO can significantly improve the speed of convergence, and effectively avoid the problem of premature convergence, relative to other feature selection algorithms. According to the accuracy evaluation of OBCD, GPSO is superior at overall accuracy (84.17% and 83.59%) and Kappa coefficient (0.6771 and 0.6314) than other algorithms. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis results show that the proposed algorithm is not easily influenced by the initial parameters, but the number of features to be selected and the size of the particle swarm would affect the algorithm. The comparison experiment results reveal that RMV is more suitable than other functions as the fitness function of GPSO-based feature selection algorithm. PMID:27483285

  15. Genetic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Feature Selection for Very-High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery Object Change Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Chen, Yunhao; Jiang, Weiguo

    2016-07-30

    In the field of multiple features Object-Based Change Detection (OBCD) for very-high-resolution remotely sensed images, image objects have abundant features and feature selection affects the precision and efficiency of OBCD. Through object-based image analysis, this paper proposes a Genetic Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO)-based feature selection algorithm to solve the optimization problem of feature selection in multiple features OBCD. We select the Ratio of Mean to Variance (RMV) as the fitness function of GPSO, and apply the proposed algorithm to the object-based hybrid multivariate alternative detection model. Two experiment cases on Worldview-2/3 images confirm that GPSO can significantly improve the speed of convergence, and effectively avoid the problem of premature convergence, relative to other feature selection algorithms. According to the accuracy evaluation of OBCD, GPSO is superior at overall accuracy (84.17% and 83.59%) and Kappa coefficient (0.6771 and 0.6314) than other algorithms. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis results show that the proposed algorithm is not easily influenced by the initial parameters, but the number of features to be selected and the size of the particle swarm would affect the algorithm. The comparison experiment results reveal that RMV is more suitable than other functions as the fitness function of GPSO-based feature selection algorithm.

  16. Concave 1-norm group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingfeng; Huang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many high-dimensional problems. Incorporation of such information can improve model fitting and variable selection. Existing group selection methods, such as the group Lasso, require correct membership. However, in practice it can be difficult to correctly specify group membership of all variables. Thus, it is important to develop group selection methods that are robust against group mis-specification. Also, it is desirable to select groups as well as individual variables in many applications. We propose a class of concave [Formula: see text]-norm group penalties that is robust to grouping structure and can perform bi-level selection. A coordinate descent algorithm is developed to calculate solutions of the proposed group selection method. Theoretical convergence of the algorithm is proved under certain regularity conditions. Comparison with other methods suggests the proposed method is the most robust approach under membership mis-specification. Simulation studies and real data application indicate that the [Formula: see text]-norm concave group selection approach achieves better control of false discovery rates. An R package grppenalty implementing the proposed method is available at CRAN. © Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. In the polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax, the non-selective phagocytosis seen in microstomes changes to a highly selective process in macrostomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønlien, Heidi K; Berg, Trond; Løvlie, Arne M

    2002-07-01

    Ciliates use phagocytosis to acquire edible particles. The polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax appears in two forms ('microstomes' and 'macrostomes'). Transformation of microstomes into macrostomes takes place in the presence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and enables the macrostome to phagocytose the latter species. The non-specific, constitutive phagocytosis in microstomes thereby changes into a specific inducible process in macrostomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the phagocytotic process in macrostomes is specifically aimed at catching T. thermophila. The two forms of phagocytosis represent an interesting model system for studying the mechanism whereby phagosomes are formed. The macrostomal form capture deciliated and ciliated Tetrahymena thermophila, latex beads with diameters of 20.3 and 30.0 microm and small microstomal cells. However, the macrostomes select T. thermophila as a prey when they have the opportunity to choose between deciliated T. thermophila and latex beads and between T. thermophila and microstomes. The non-selective formation of phagosomes seen in microstomes changes to a highly selective process during the transformation to macrostomes. Unlike microstomes, macrostomes do not form a closed vacuole after capturing a latex bead, indicating that mechanical stimulation by the prey does not in itself trigger phagocytosis in the macrostomal form of T. vorax. Although macrostomes captured T. thermophila in preference to microstomes, phagocytosis of microstomes started immediately following capture, indicating that the substance/molecule that triggers the formation of the phagosome is not specific for T. thermophila cells. After capturing a T. thermophila cell, the macrostomal cell, which normally swims in a forward direction, reverses direction and swims backwards for a short time before starting to rotate. Macrostomal cells did not change their swimming pattern after capturing a latex bead. We believe, therefore

  18. Activity in vivo of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds selected from a high throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Grasiella; Chessler, Anne-Danielle C; Courtemanche, Gilles; Burleigh, Barbara A; Rodriguez, Ana

    2011-08-01

    Novel technologies that include recombinant pathogens and rapid detection methods are contributing to the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Recently, the results from the first high throughput screening (HTS) to test compounds for activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote infection of host cells were reported. We have selected 23 compounds from the hits of this HTS, which were reported to have high anti-trypanosomal activity and low toxicity to host cells. These compounds were highly purified and their structures confirmed by HPLC/mass spectrometry. The compounds were tested in vitro, where about half of them confirmed the anti-T. cruzi activity reported in the HTS, with IC50 values lower than 5 µM. We have also adapted a rapid assay to test anti-T. cruzi compounds in vivo using mice infected with transgenic T. cruzi expressing luciferase as a model for acute infection. The compounds that were active in vitro were also tested in vivo using this assay, where we found two related compounds with a similar structure and low in vitro IC50 values (0.11 and 0.07 µM) that reduce T. cruzi infection in the mouse model more than 90% after five days of treatment. Our findings evidence the benefits of novel technologies, such as HTS, for the drug discovery pathway of neglected diseases, but also caution about the need to confirm the results in vitro. We also show how rapid methods of in vivo screening based in luciferase-expressing parasites can be very useful to prioritize compounds early in the chain of development.

  19. Activity in vivo of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds selected from a high throughput screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiella Andriani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel technologies that include recombinant pathogens and rapid detection methods are contributing to the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Recently, the results from the first high throughput screening (HTS to test compounds for activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote infection of host cells were reported. We have selected 23 compounds from the hits of this HTS, which were reported to have high anti-trypanosomal activity and low toxicity to host cells. These compounds were highly purified and their structures confirmed by HPLC/mass spectrometry. The compounds were tested in vitro, where about half of them confirmed the anti-T. cruzi activity reported in the HTS, with IC50 values lower than 5 µM. We have also adapted a rapid assay to test anti-T. cruzi compounds in vivo using mice infected with transgenic T. cruzi expressing luciferase as a model for acute infection. The compounds that were active in vitro were also tested in vivo using this assay, where we found two related compounds with a similar structure and low in vitro IC50 values (0.11 and 0.07 µM that reduce T. cruzi infection in the mouse model more than 90% after five days of treatment. Our findings evidence the benefits of novel technologies, such as HTS, for the drug discovery pathway of neglected diseases, but also caution about the need to confirm the results in vitro. We also show how rapid methods of in vivo screening based in luciferase-expressing parasites can be very useful to prioritize compounds early in the chain of development.

  20. Metal-organic and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MOFs and ZIFs) for highly selective separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaghi, Omar M

    2012-09-17

    Metal-organic and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MOFs and ZIFs) have been investigated for the realization as separation media with high selectivity. These structures are held together with strong bonds, making them architecturally, chemically, and thermally stable. Therefore, employing well designed building units, it is possible to discover promising materials for gas and vapor separation. This grant was focused on the study of MOFs and ZIFs with these specific objectives: (i) to develop a strategy for producing MOFs and ZIFs that combine high surface areas with active sites for their use in gas adsorption and separation of small organic compounds, (ii) to introduce active sites in the framework by a post-synthetic modification and metalation of MOFs and ZIFs, and (iii) to design and synthesize MOFs with extremely high surface areas and large pore volumes to accommodate large amounts of guest molecules. By the systematic study, this effort demonstrated how to introduce active functional groups in the frameworks, and this is also the origin of a new strategy, which is termed isoreticular functionalization and metalation. However, a large pore volume is still a prerequisite feature. One of the solutions to overcome this challenge is an isoreticular expansion of a MOF's structure. With triangular organic linker and square building units, we demonstrated that MOF-399 has a unit cell volume 17 times larger than that of the first reported material isoreticular to it, and it has the highest porosity (94%) and lowest density (0.126 g cm-3) of any MOF reported to date. MOFs are not just low density materials; the guest-free form of MOF-210 demonstrates an ultrahigh porosity, whose BET surface area was estimated to be 6240 m2 g-1 by N2 adsorption measurements.

  1. [The effect of high-frequency current and ultrasonic wave on selected indicators of body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczewska, Magdalena; Szymczyk, Jerzy; Leszczyńsk, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Effective change the appearance of the body through available both invasive and non-invasive methods such as treatment has been documented in numerous clinical trials. Liposuction and lipoplasty are currently the most widely used methods of reducing fat deposits. Technological advances made has become increasingly popular use of invasive procedures using energy fields and high-frequency ultrasonic wave. It is now one of the most effective and safe methods of treatment, based on the principle of mechanical and thermal stimulation of the physiological processes leading to the reduction of locally accumulated fat. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of selected parameters of body weight in patients undergoing fat reduction BTL Exilis device. IThe study included a 50-group of women who are patients of the Specialist Outpatient Clinic Al-Med in Kolobrzeg. Taken twice the measurement of body weight, waist circumference and thickness measurement of skinfolds before the first treatment, and after a series of treatments. Treatment consisted of 4 sessions while maintaining the 10-day interval between treatments. In the study a statistically significant reduction in the studied parameters such as actual body weight, waist circumference, fat mass and thickness of the skinfolds were showed. The effect of treatment with the energy field of highfrequency ultrasonic wave in a reduction in the size of fat body mass and improving the contour shape. Willingness to continue participation examined in this type of surgery proves positive reception of therapy and its effectiveness. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  2. A novel sorting technology allows for highly efficient selection of sperm without chromatin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Michael G; Kim, Howard H; Mazel, Svetlana; Bolyakov, Alexander; Goldstein, Marc; Schlegel, Peter N; Paduch, Darius A

    2013-06-01

    Sperm chromatin damage has been associated with male infertility, increased risk for spontaneous abortion, and poor embryo development. Available methods for detecting chromatin damage render the sperm no longer suitable for clinical use. Early apoptotic events resulting in chromatin damage are associated with increased permeability of the cell membrane to large ions. We propose the use of a large fluorescent organic cation, proprietary fluorochrome (PF-1), for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for negative selection of sperm without chromatin damage. Sperm with chromatin damage are PF-1 positive. Performance of cell sorting by PF-1 was verified with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) after FACS on PF-1(+) and PF-1(-) subpopulations. Whereas 19.5% of PF-1 positive sperm were TUNEL positive only 1.5% sperm in the PF-1(-) fraction were TUNEL positive (p positive sperm without adverse effects on viability, providing a new therapeutic avenue for men with a high percentage of TUNEL positive sperm. Further research is needed to determine if the reduction in TUNEL positive sperm using PF-1 will improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes.

  3. Selected wild strains of Agaricus bisporus produce high yields of mushrooms at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    To cultivate the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in warm countries or during summer in temperate countries, while saving energy, is a challenge that could be addressed by using the biological diversity of the species. The objective was to evaluate the yield potential of eight wild strains previously selected in small scale experiments for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at 25°C and above. Culture units of 8 kg of compost were used. The yield expressed as weight or number per surface unit and earliness of fruiting were recorded during cultivation in climatic rooms at 17, 25 or 30°C. Only strains of A. bisporus var. burnettii were able to fruit at 30°C. At 25°C they produced the highest yields (27 kg m(-2)) and had best earliness. The yields at 25°C for the strains of A. bisporus var. bisporus ranged from 12 to 16 kg m(-2). The yield ratios 25°C/17°C ranged from 0.8 to 1.2. The variety burnettii originated in the Sonoran Desert in California showed adaptation for quickly producing fruiting bodies at high temperature when humidity conditions were favorable. Strains of the variety bisporus showed interesting potentials for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at higher temperature than present cultivars and might be used in breeding programs. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. HIGH QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO THE ARCHITECTONIC DESIGN SELECTION PROCEDURE: THE NUTRE LAB CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barroso Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to produce more sustainable buildings has been influencing the design decisions all over the world. That’s why it is imperative, in Brazil, the development of strategies and method to aid the decision making during the design process, focused on high quality environmental. This paper presents a decision support tool based on the principles of sustainable construction developed by the Project, Architecture and Sustainability Research Group (GPAS of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. The methodology has been developed for the selection of a preliminary design of a laboratory to be built at Rio Technology Park at the University campus. The support provided by GPAS occurred in three stages: the elaboration of the Reference Guide for the competitors, the development of a methodology to evaluate the proposed solutions (based on environmental performance criteria and the assistance of the members of jury in the trial phase. The theoretical framework was based upon the concepts of the bioclimatic architecture, the procedures specified by the certification HQE® (Haute Qualité Environnementale and the method suggested by the ADDENDA® architecture office. The success of this experience points out the possibility to future application in similar cases.

  5. Dual mode operation, highly selective nanohole array-based plasmonic colour filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi Mahani, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Arash; Mehran, Mahdiyeh

    2017-09-01

    Taking advantage of nanostructured metal films as plasmonic colour filters (PCFs) has been evolved remarkably as an alternative to the conventional technologies of chemical colour filtering. However, most of the proposed PCFs depict a poor colour purity focusing on generating either the additive or subtractive colours. In this paper, we present dual mode operation PCFs employing an opaque aluminium film patterned with sub-wavelength holes. Subtractive colours like cyan, magenta, and yellow are the results of reflection mode of these filters yielding optical efficiencies as high as 70%-80% and full width at half maximum of the stop-bands up to 40-50 nm. The colour selectivity of the transmission mode for the additive colours is also significant due to their enhanced performance through the utilization of a relatively thick aluminium film in contact with a modified dielectric environment. These filters provide a simple design with one-step lithography in addition to compatibility with the conventional CMOS processes. Moreover, they are polarization insensitive due to their symmetric geometry. A complete palette of pure subtractive and additive colours has been realized with potential applications, such as multispectral imaging, CMOS image sensors, displays, and colour printing.

  6. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the fast and highly selective adsorption of sunset yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Xie, Zhihai; Teng, Xiaoxiao; Fan, Jin

    2016-04-01

    Novel molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation polymerization with sunset yellow as the template and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride as the functional monomer. The molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and their specific surface area and thermal stability were measured. The molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles had a high adsorption capacity in wide pH range (pH 1-8) for sunset yellow. The adsorption equilibrium only needed 5 min, and the quantitative desorption was very fast (1 min) by using 10.0 mol/L HCl as the eluant. The maximum adsorption capacity of the molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for sunset yellow was 144.6 mg/g. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic were well consistent with Langmuir adsorption model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. The relative selectivity coefficients of the molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for tartrazine and carmine were 9.766 and 12.64, respectively. The prepared molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles were repeatedly used and regenerated ten times without significant absorption capacity decrease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High-temperature steam oxidation testing of select advanced replacement alloys for potential core internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-19

    Coupons from a total of fourteen commercial and custom fabricated alloys were exposed to 1 bar full steam with ~10 ppb oxygen content at 600 and 650°C. The coupons were weighed at 500-h intervals with a total exposure time of 5,000 h. The fourteen alloys are candidate alloys selected under the ARRM program, which include three ferritic steels (Grade 92, 439, and 14YWT), three austenitic stainless steels (316L, 310, and 800), seven Ni-base superalloys (X750, 725, C22, 690, 625, 625 direct-aging, and 625- plus), and one Zr-alloy (Zr–2.5Nb). Among the alloys, 316L and X750 are served as reference alloys for low- and high-strength alloys, respectively. The candidate Ni-base superalloy 718 was procured too late to be included in the tests. The corrosion rates of the candidate alloys can be approximately interpreted by their Cr, Ni and Fe content. The corrosion rate was significantly reduced with increasing Cr content and when Ni content is above ~15 wt%, but not much further reduced when Fe content is less than ~55 wt%. Simplified thermodynamics analyses of the alloy oxidation provided reasonable indications for the constituents of oxide scales formed on the alloys and explanations for the porosity and exfoliation phenomena because of the nature of specific types of oxides.

  8. KCl-induced high temperature corrosion of selected commercial alloys. Part I: chromia-formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiamehr, Saeed; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Montgomery, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory testing of selected chromia-forming alloys was performed to rank the materials and gain further knowledge on the mechanism of KCl-induced high temperature corrosion. The investigated alloys were stainless steels EN1.4021, EN1.4057, EN1.4521, TP347H (coarse-grained), TP347HFG (fine......-grained), Sanicro 28 and the nickel-based alloys 625, 263 and C276. Exposure was performed at 600 °C for 168 h in flowing N2(g)+5%O2(g)+15% H2O(g) (vol.%). Samples were covered with KCl powder prior to exposure. A salt-free exposure was also performed for comparison. Corrosion morphology and products were studied...... with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). It was observed that in the salt-free exposure, stainless steels TP347H (coarse-grained) and EN1.4521 failed to form a thin protective oxide layer compared to the oxide formed on the other alloys...

  9. Selective laser sintering of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimell, J T; Marquis, P M

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a relatively new technology, which although prominent in the engineering industry is only just starting to make an impact in the medical field. Its current medical uses are mainly confined to surgical planning and teaching, but the technology also has the potential to allow for patient-tailored prostheses. The work reported here describes the application of a simplified selective laser sintering apparatus with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The morphology and chemistry of the starting powders and lased material have been characterized using Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy and a combination of light and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that solid linear continuous bodies could be formed, but material shrinkage caused problems when trying to form sheet-like structures. The porosity of the formed material was also a concern. The material exposed to the laser beam was shown to have undergone degradation in terms of chain scission, cross-linking, and oxidation. It has been concluded that to apply this technology to the fabrication of UHMWPE devices requires the development of improved starting powders, in particular with increased density. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Synthesis and application of a highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin group

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangjie; Liu, Xiangli; Xu, Jinhe; Ji, Liguo; Yang, Linlin; Fan, Aiying; Wang, Songjun; Wang, Qingzhi

    2018-02-01

    A highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin-type Schiff base derivative 1 (probe) was produced by condensation reaction between coumarin carbohydrazide and 1H-indazole-3-carbaldehyde. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed that the maximum absorption peak of compound 1 appeared at 439 nm. In the presence of Cu2 + ions, the maximum peak decreased remarkably compared with other physiological important metal ions and a new absorption peak at 500 nm appeared. The job's plot experiments showed that complexes of 1:2 binding mode were formed in CH3CN:HEPES (3:2, v/v) solution. Compound 1 exhibited a strong blue fluorescence. Upon addition of copper ions, the fluorescence gradually decreased and reached a plateau with the fluorescence quenching rate up to 98.73%. The detection limit for Cu2 + ions was estimated to 0.384 ppm. Fluorescent microscopy experiments demonstrated that probe 1 had potential to be used to investigate biological processes involving Cu2 + ions within living cells.

  11. Making non-aqueous high internal phase pickering emulsions: influence of added polymer and selective drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongyu; Thijssen, Job H T; Clegg, Paul S

    2014-06-25

    We report the first example of a non-aqueous (oil-in-oil) Pickering high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) stabilized by chemically modified fumed silica. In this case, a 75 vol % ethylene carbonate (EC)-rich internal phase is emulsified in 25 vol % p-xylene (xylene)-rich continuous phase using interfacial nanoparticles. It is revealed that no phase inversion takes place during the HIPE formation process when using the appropriate wettability of solid particles. Incorporating polystyrene (PS) into xylene enables one-step formation of PS-filled HIPEs in place of a multi-step polymerization of the continuous phase. We observe that the size of droplets changes with the addition of PS, and we associate this with the change in the viscosity of the continuous xylene-rich phase. Drying the pure HIPE results in the selective removal of xylene and coalescence of EC-rich droplets. With the PS in the xylene-rich continuous phase, we show that EC-rich droplets can be retained even though the xylene is evaporated off, and a new semi-solid composite containing both liquid phase and solid phase is formed via this non-aqueous Pickering-HIPE template.

  12. A new highly selective fluorescent turn-on chemosensor for cyanide anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yabin; Shi, Wei; Hui, Yonghai; Sun, Xinhua; Xu, Linxian; Feng, Lei; Xie, Zhengfeng

    2015-05-01

    A new simple molecule, 2-((2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylene)malononitrile (M1), was synthesized successfully by the Knoevenagel condensation reaction between 2-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxaldehyde and malononitrile. The receptor M1 is highly sensitive and selective to cyanide anion due to the nucleophilic addition of cyanide anion with M1. Distinct changes on UV-vis and fluorescence spectra can be detected with the addition of cyanide anion to the DMSO solution of M1. Optical properties of M1 were scarcely affected by the addition of other common background anions (F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), SCN(-), OH(-), CO4(2-), H2PO4(-), SO4(2-), HSO4(-), AcO(-), and NO3(-)) under the same condition. The detection limit of CN(-) reaches ~1.43 μM by M1 and the presence of background anions brought very slight interference for the detection of CN(-). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High selectivity of colorimetric detection of p-nitrophenol based on Ag nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fei; Chen, Ping; Zhu, Shuyun; You, Jinmao

    2017-01-01

    Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) templated by hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (PEI) with different terminal groups and molecular weights had been developed as a special optical sensor for detecting p-nitrophenol (p-NP). When adding p-NP into Ag NCs, an obvious color change from pale yellow to deep yellow could be observed by naked eyes, accompanying with an apparent red-shift of absorption peak, and the reason was attributed to the formation of oxygen anion of p-NP based on the transfer of H+ from p-NP to amine groups of PEI. The molecular weights of template would greatly affect the sensitivity of p-NP. Ag NCs capped by PEI terminated ethylenediamine (EDA) possessed better sensitivity than other Ag NCs, showing good linear range from 5 to 140 μM with the limit of detection as low as 1.28 μM. Most importantly, this present system displayed high selectivity toward p-NP even in the presence of other nitrophenols and nitrotoluenes. This reliable method had been successfully applied for the detection of p-NP in real water and soil samples.

  14. Handheld highly selective plasmonic chem/biosensor using engineered binding proteins for extreme conformational changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosciolek, Derek J.; Sonar, Ajay; Lepak, Lori A.; Schnatz, Peter; Bendoym, Igor; Brown, Mia C.; Koder, Ronald L.; Crouse, David T.

    2017-08-01

    In this project we develop a handheld, portable, highly selective and sensitive chem/biosensor that has potential applications in both airborne and water-based environmental sensing. The device relies on a plasmonic chip of subwavelength-scale periodic gold rods engineered to resonate in the near infrared. The chip is functionalized with a novel class of proteins that exhibit large conformational changes upon binding to a specific target analyte. The subsequent change in local refractive index near the surface of the gold is one to two orders of magnitude greater than current conventional methods, which produces a readily measurable 5 to 10 percent difference in light transmission. This allows us to forgo traditional, bulky tabletop setups in favor of a compact form factor. Using commercially available optics to construct a transmission-based optical train, measured changes in bulk refractive index are presented here. While synthesis of binding protein efforts are focused on heme as analyte for proof of concept validation, the functionalized protein can be engineered to pair with a wide variety of analytes with minimal alterations to the plasmonic chip or device design. Such flexibility allows for this device to potentially meet the needs of first responders and health care professionals in a multitude of scenarios.

  15. High-surface-area carbon molecular sieves for selective CO(2) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahby, Anass; Ramos-Fernández, José M; Martínez-Escandell, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2010-08-23

    A series of carbon molecular sieves (CMSs) has been prepared, either as powders or monoliths, from petroleum pitch using potassium hydroxide as the activating agent. The CMS monoliths are prepared without the use of a binder based on the self-sintering ability of the mesophase pitch. Characterization results show that these CMSs combine a large apparent surface area (up to ca. 3100 m(2) g(-1)) together with a well-developed narrow microporosity (V(n) up to ca. 1.4 cm(3) g(-1)). The materials exhibit high adsorption capacities for CO(2) at 1 bar and 273 K (up to ca. 380 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1)). To our knowledge, this is the best result obtained for CO(2) adsorption using carbon-based materials. Furthermore, although the CO(2) adsorption capacity for activated carbons has usually been considered lower than that of zeolites, the reported values exceed the total amount adsorbed on traditional 13X and 5A zeolites (ca. 230 mg and 180 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1), respectively), under identical experimental conditions. Additionally, the narrow pore openings found in the CMS samples (ca. 0.4 nm) allows for the selective adsorption of CO(2) from molecules of similar dimensions (e.g., CH(4) and N(2)).

  16. Material selection for a constructed wetroof receiving pre-treated high strength domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater-Pereyra, M; van Dien, F; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2013-01-01

    A constructed wetroof (CWR) is defined in this study as the combination of a green roof and a constructed wetland: a shallow wastewater treatment system placed on the roof of a building. The foremost challenge of such CWRs, and the main aim of this investigation, is the selection of an appropriate matrix capable of assuring the required hydraulic retention time, the long-term stability and the roof load-bearing capacity. Six substrata were subjected to water dynamics and destructive tests in two testing-tables. Among all the materials tested, the substratum configuration composed of sand, light expanded clay aggregates, biodegradable polylactic acid beads together with stabilization plates and a turf mat is capable of retaining the water for approximately 3.8 days and of providing stability (stabilization plates) and an immediate protection (turf mat) to the system. Based on those results, a full-scale CWR was built, which did not show any physical deterioration after 1 year of operation. Preliminary wastewater treatment results on the full-scale CWR suggest that it can highly remove main wastewater pollutants (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, PO4(3-)-P and NH4(+)-N). The results of these tests and practical design considerations of the CWR are discussed in this paper.

  17. Feature selection from high resolution remote sensing data for biotope mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bindel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of Landscape Protection Areas with regard to user requirements for detailed land cover and biotope classes has been limited by the spatial and temporal resolution of Earth observation data. The synergistic use of new generation optical and SAR data may overcome these limitations. The presented work is part of the ENVILAND-2 project, which focuses on the complementary use of RapidEye and TerraSAR-X data to derive land cover and biotope classes as needed by the Environmental Agencies. The goal is to semi-automatically update the corresponding maps by utilising more Earth observation data and less field work derived information. Properties of both sensors are used including the red edge band of the RapidEye system and the high spatial and temporal resolution TerraSAR-X data.The main part of this work concentrates on the process of feature selection. Based upon multi-temporal optical and SAR data various features like textural measurements, spectral features and vegetation indices can be computed. The resulting information stacks can easily exceed hundreds of layers. The goal of this work is to reduce these information layers to get a set of decorrelated features for the classification of biotope types. The first step is to evaluate possible features. Followed by a feature extraction and pre-processing. The pre-processing contains outlier removal and feature normalization. The next step describes the process of feature selection and is divided into two parts. The first part is a regression analysis to remove redundant information. The second part constitutes the class separability analysis. For the remaining features and for every class combination present in the study area different separability measurements like divergence or Jeffries-Matusita distance are computed. As result there is a set of features for every class providing the highest class separability values. As the final step an evaluation is performed to estimate how much features

  18. Emotional responsiveness in fish from lines artificially selected for a high or low degree of laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco; Zandonà, Eugenia; Bisazza, Angelo

    2007-11-23

    Evidence showing that cerebral asymmetries exist in a wide range of animals has prompted investigation into the advantages and disadvantages of brain lateralization. In the teleost fish Girardinus falcatus individuals selected for a high degree of lateralization (LAT) performed better than those fish selected for reduced lateralization (NL) in several tasks, including schooling, foraging and spatial orientation. These findings were interpreted as evidence of hemispheric specialization allowing more efficient parallel processing and thus better cognitive performance under conditions that require multitasking, but the possibility that the results may simply reflect line differences in behavioral/physiological coping styles (i.e. in their emotional responsiveness during the tests) could not be ruled out. To test the hypothesis that NL and LAT fish differ in coping style, the present study examined differences in response in these lines to a novel situation in four different conditions. NL and LAT fish did not differ in a behavioral measure of emotional response: their readiness to explore a new environment. After being isolated in a tight space they showed a similar increase in opercular beating rates, suggesting that their physiological response to an acute stressor was comparable. The overall tendency to remain close to a shoalmate after being moved to an unfamiliar place was similar in the two groups but a significant difference was found in the temporal pattern; LAT fish swam closer than NL to their mirror image in the initial stages but this difference was later reversed. NL and LAT males placed in a new, unfamiliar environment did not differ in the number of sexual acts performed but LAT males resumed sexual behavior earlier signifying that cerebral lateralization has some influence on the trade-off between predator surveillance and mating behavior. Although this study found some differences between NL and LAT lines in their response to novelty, present evidence

  19. High density marker panels, SNPs prioritizing and accuracy of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yun; Toghiani, Sajjad; Ling, Ashley; Aggrey, Sammy E; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2018-01-05

    The availability of high-density (HD) marker panels, genome wide variants and sequence data creates an unprecedented opportunity to dissect the genetic basis of complex traits, enhance genomic selection (GS) and identify causal variants of disease. The disproportional increase in the number of parameters in the genetic association model compared to the number of phenotypes has led to further deterioration in statistical power and an increase in co-linearity and false positive rates. At best, HD panels do not significantly improve GS accuracy and, at worst, reduce accuracy. This is true for both regression and variance component approaches. To remedy this situation, some form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) filtering or external information is needed. Current methods for prioritizing SNP markers (i.e. BayesB, BayesCπ) are sensitive to the increased co-linearity in HD panels which could limit their performance. In this study, the usefulness of FST, a measure of allele frequency variation among populations, as an external source of information in GS was evaluated. A simulation was carried out for a trait with heritability of 0.4. Data was divided into three subpopulations based on phenotype distribution (bottom 5%, middle 90%, top 5%). Marker data were simulated to mimic a 770 K and 1.5 million SNP marker panel. A ten-chromosome genome with 200 K and 400 K SNPs was simulated. Several scenarios with varying distributions for the quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects were simulated. Using all 200 K markers and no filtering, the accuracy of genomic prediction was 0.77. When marker effects were simulated from a gamma distribution, SNPs pre-selected based on the 99.5, 99.0 and 97.5% quantile of the FST score distribution resulted in an accuracy of 0.725, 0.797, and 0.853, respectively. Similar results were observed under other simulation scenarios. Clearly, the accuracy obtained using all SNPs can be easily achieved using only 0.5 to 1% of all markers. These

  20. Improving near vision in presbyopic eyes by selective treatment of high-order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa MA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mounir A Khalifa1,2, Waleed A Allam1,2, Ahmed M Khalifa21Tanta University Eye Hospital, Tanta, Egypt; 2Horus Vision Correction Center, Alexandria, EgyptPurpose: Evaluation of improving near vision in presbyopic patients with low to moderate myopia with selective treatment of high-order aberrations (HOAs using the ORK-CAM software aberrometer and a SCHWIND ESIRIS excimer laser. In this study, all HOAs except vertical coma were treated and the effect on near visual function was evaluated.Setting: Horus Vision Correction Center, Alexandria, Egypt.Methods: Twenty-six presbyopic patients (52 eyes with low to moderate myopia were divided into two groups, A and B. The ORK-CAM software aberrometer was used in both groups to measure HOAs and design wavefront-guided treatment. All included eyes had total coma >0.2 µm. The Moria M2 mechanical microkeratome was used for flap making in both groups. Wavefront-guided laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis using ESIRIS laser was done for all eyes. In Group A (30 eyes all HOAs were treated. In Group B (22 eyes vertical coma was left untreated. Postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA, uncorrected near acuity (UCNA, distance corrected near acuity (DCNA, best corrected near acuity with addition for near vision (BCNA, manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE, HOAs, and contrast sensitivity for both groups were done preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively.Results: Mean age was 47.46 and 45.2 years for groups A and B, respectively. Mean preoperative MRSE was -2.37 and -2.87 D and mean preoperative total HOAs was 0.35 and 0.38 µm in groups A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference between groups regarding age, sex, preoperative MRSE, and preoperative total HOAs. After 3 months, there was no significant difference between groups in terms of UCVA, BCVA, MRSE, and contrast sensitivity. Analysis of postoperative HOAs showed

  1. Transmission and selection of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma genitalium infections detected by rapid high resolution melt analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Twin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG causes urethritis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease. The MG treatment failure rate using 1 g azithromycin at an Australian Sexual Health clinic in 2007-9 was 31% (95%CI 23-40%. We developed a rapid high resolution melt analysis (HRMA assay targeting resistance mutations in the MG 23S rRNA gene, and validated it against DNA sequencing by examining pre- and post-treatment archived samples from MG-infected patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Available MG-positive pre-treatment (n = 82 and post-treatment samples from individuals with clinical treatment failure (n = 20 were screened for 23S rRNA gene mutations. Sixteen (20% pre-treatment samples possessed resistance mutations (A2058G, A2059G, A2059C, which were significantly more common in patients with symptomatic azithromycin-treatment failure (12/26; 44% than in those clinically cured (4/56; 7%, p<0.001. All 20 patients experiencing azithromycin-failure had detectable mutations in their post-treatment samples. In 9 of these cases, the same mutational types were present in both pre- and post-treatment samples indicating transmitted resistance, whilst in 11 of these cases (55%, mutations were absent in pre-treatment samples indicating likely selection of resistant isolates have occurred. HRMA was able to detect all mutational changes determined in this study by DNA sequencing. An additional HRMA assay incorporating an unlabelled probe was also developed to detect type 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms found in other populations, with a slightly lower sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment failure is associated with the detection of macrolide resistance mutations, which appear to be almost equally due to selection of resistant isolates following exposure to 1 g azithromycin and pre-existing transmitted resistance. The application of a rapid molecular assay to detect resistance at the time of initial detection of infection allows

  2. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  3. Nursing performance under high workload: a diary study on the moderating role of selection, optimization and compensation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baethge, Anja; Müller, Andreas; Rigotti, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether selective optimization with compensation constitutes an individualized action strategy for nurses wanting to maintain job performance under high workload. High workload is a major threat to healthcare quality and performance. Selective optimization with compensation is considered to enhance the efficient use of intra-individual resources and, therefore, is expected to act as a buffer against the negative effects of high workload. The study applied a diary design. Over five consecutive workday shifts, self-report data on workload was collected at three randomized occasions during each shift. Self-reported job performance was assessed in the evening. Self-reported selective optimization with compensation was assessed prior to the diary reporting. Data were collected in 2010. Overall, 136 nurses from 10 German hospitals participated. Selective optimization with compensation was assessed with a nine-item scale that was specifically developed for nursing. The NASA-TLX scale indicating the pace of task accomplishment was used to measure workload. Job performance was assessed with one item each concerning performance quality and forgetting of intentions. There was a weaker negative association between workload and both indicators of job performance in nurses with a high level of selective optimization with compensation, compared with nurses with a low level. Considering the separate strategies, selection and compensation turned out to be effective. The use of selective optimization with compensation is conducive to nurses' job performance under high workload levels. This finding is in line with calls to empower nurses' individual decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Highly Selective Detection of Silver in the Low ppt Range with Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on Ionophore-Doped Fluorous Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Ze; Fierke, Melissa A.; Costa, Rosenildo Corrêa da; Gladysz, John A.; Stein, Andreas; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Ionophore-doped sensing membranes exhibit greater selectivities and wider measuring ranges if their membrane matrixes are noncoordinating and solvate interfering ions poorly. This is particularly true for fluorous phases, which are the least polar and polarizable condensed phases known. In this work, fluorous membrane matrixes were used to prepare silver ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Sensing membranes composed of perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene, sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate, and one of four fluorophilic Ag+-selective ionophores with one or two thioether groups were investigated. All electrodes exhibited Nernstian responses to Ag+ in a wide range of concentrations. Their selectivities for Ag+ over interfering ions were found to depend on host preorganization and the length of the –(CH2)n– spacers separating the coordinating thioether group from the strongly electron withdrawing perfluoroalkyl groups. ISEs based on the most selective of the four ionophores, i.e., 1,3-bis(perfluorodecylethylthiomethyl)benzene, provided much higher selectivities for Ag+ over many alkaline and heavy metal ions than most Ag+ ISEs reported in the literature (e.g., logKAg,Jpot for K+, −11.6; Pb2+, −10.2; Cu2+, −13.0; Cd2+, −13.2). Moreover, the use of this ionophore with a linear perfluorooligoether as membrane matrix and solid contacts consisting of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbon resulted in a detection limit for Ag+ of 4.1 ppt (3.8×10−11 M). PMID:20799720

  5. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  6. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  7. Polyoxometalate incorporated polymer monolith microextraction for highly selective extraction of antidepressants in undiluted urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiao; Zhu, Gang-Tian; He, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Ren-Qi; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a polyoxometalate (POM) incorporated polymer monolith microextraction (PMME) was successfully proposed and employed in the selective extraction of basic antidepressants in undiluted urine sample. This hybrid monolith exhibited strong cation-exchange interaction (SCX) with positively charged antidepressants when pH was 3.0, because of the multiple ionizable moieties on polyanionic POM. As such, antidepressants in complex sample matrices were efficiently extracted by the monolith, and the matrix effect was significantly reduced. In addition, due to the high amount of anionic POM, the monolith exhibited remarkable extraction capacities for target antidepressants ranging from 4.7 to 5.8mg/g. Further, the POM incorporated PMME was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV). Thus, antidepressants in undiluted urine sample was efficiently extracted under optimized extraction conditions online. The limits of detection (LODs) for the target antidepressants ranged from 0.7 to 1.4ng/mL, and the linear range was 5-1000ng/mL with determination coefficients (R2) higher than 0.9960. The recoveries ranged from 86.8% to 104.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-10.1%. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to determine antidepressant in human urine. Taken together, the developed method presented a new strategy for the analysis of basic drugs in undiluted urine sample, which could be used for monitoring medicines in pharmacokinetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Research on High Layer Thickness Fabricated of 316L by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM is a potential additive manufacturing (AM technology. However, the application of SLM was confined due to low efficiency. To improve efficiency, SLM fabrication with a high layer thickness and fine powder was systematically researched, and the void areas and hollow powders can be reduced by using fine powder. Single-track experiments were used to narrow down process parameter windows. Multi-layer fabrication relative density can be reached 99.99% at the exposure time-point distance-hatch space of 120 μs-40 μm-240 μm. Also, the building rate can be up to 12 mm3/s, which is about 3–10 times higher than the previous studies. Three typical defects were found by studying deeply, including the un-melted defect between the molten pools, the micro-pore defect within the molten pool, and the irregular distribution of the splashing phenomenon. Moreover, the microstructure is mostly equiaxed crystals and a small amount of columnar crystals. The averages of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation are 625 MPa, 525 MPa, and 39.9%, respectively. As exposure time increased from 80 μs to 200 μs, the grain size is gradually grown up from 0.98 μm to 2.23 μm, the grain aspect ratio is close to 1, and the tensile properties are shown as a downward trend. The tensile properties of high layer thickness fabricated are not significantly different than those with a coarse-powder layer thickness of low in previous research.

  9. Highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence and its determinants in selected regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can reduce morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients. However, it depends upon adherence to medication. The objective of this study was to examine the adherence to HAART and to evaluate individual patient characteristics i.e. self-efficacy, depression level, and social support and to finally determine HAART adherence in selected regions in Indonesia.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jakarta, Malang, Bandung, Makasar and Banda Aceh. The subject of the study was HIV-infected patients who were older than 13 years old and had taken HAART for at least a month. They were recruited consecutively then asked how many pills they had missed during the previous month. Poor adherence can be stated if the percentage of adherence rate is below 95%. HIV treatment adherence self-efficacy scale  (HIVASES, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL was adapted to assess self-efficacy, depression level and social support, respectively.Results: We found that 96% (n=53 of the subjects adhered to HAART. There were no associations between adherence with self-efficacy, depression level, and social support. The main cause of non-adherence in this study was ‘simply  forget’.Conclusion: Adherence to HAART was found to be high and not associated with self-efficacy, depression level and social support in some central regions in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:50-5Keywords: adherence, depression, HAART, HIV, self-efficacy, social support

  10. A reusable electrochemical proximity assay for highly selective, real-time protein quantitation in biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaming; Yu, Yajiao; Brooks, Jessica C; Godwin, Leah A; Somasundaram, Subramaniam; Torabinejad, Ferdous; Kim, Joonyul; Shannon, Curtis; Easley, Christopher J

    2014-06-11

    Rapid and specific quantitation of a variety of proteins over a wide concentration range is highly desirable for biosensing at the point-of-care, in clinical laboratories, and in research settings. Our recently developed electrochemical proximity assay (ECPA) is a target-flexible, DNA-directed, direct-readout protein quantitation method with detection limits in the low femtomolar range, making it particularly amenable to point-of-care detection. However, consistent quantitation in more complex matrices is required at the point-of-care, and improvements in measurement speed are needed for clinical and research settings. Here, we address these concerns with a reusable ECPA, where a gentle regeneration of the surface DNA monolayer (used to capture the proximity complex) is achieved enzymatically through a novel combination of molecular biology and electrochemistry. Strategically placed uracils in the DNA sequence trigger selective cleavage of the backbone, releasing the assembled proximity complex. This allows repeated protein quantitation by square-wave voltammetry (SWV)-as quickly as 3 min between runs. The process can be repeated up to 19 times on a single electrode without loss of assay sensitivity, and currents are shown to be highly repeatable with similar calibrations using seven different electrodes. The utility of reusable ECPA is demonstrated through two important applications in complex matrices: (1) direct, quantitative monitoring of hormone secretion in real time from as few as five murine pancreatic islets and (2) standard addition experiments in unspiked serum for direct quantitation of insulin at clinically relevant levels. Results from both applications distinguish ECPA as an exceptional tool in protein quantitation.

  11. Mass selection in maize composites by means of selection indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, de F.

    1972-01-01

    General considerations

    A selection index may be applied to selection based either upon the performance of single plants or upon the performance of progenies. In the latter case however, index selection should only result in a modest gain in selection efficiency, when

  12. Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance 316L Stainless Steel Nanocomposites via Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMangour, Bandar Abdulaziz

    Austenitic 316L stainless steel alloy is an attractive industrial material combining outstanding corrosion resistance, ductility, and biocompatibility, with promising structural applications and biomedical uses. However, 316L has low strength and wear resistance, limiting its high-performance applicability. Adding secondary hard nanoscale reinforcements to steel matrices, thereby forming steel-matrix nanocomposites (SMCs), can overcome these problems, improving the performance and thereby the applicability of 316L. However, SMC parts with complex-geometry cannot be easily achieved limiting its application. This can be avoided through additive manufacturing (AM) by generating layer-by-layer deposition using computer-aided design data. Expanding the range of AM-applicable materials is necessary to fulfill industrial demand. This dissertation presents the characteristics of new AM-processed high-performance 316L-matrix nanocomposites with nanoscale TiC or TiB2 reinforcements, addressing specific aspects of material design, process control and optimization, and physical metallurgy theory. The nanocomposites were prepared by high-energy ball-milling and consolidated by AM selective laser melting (SLM). Continuous and refined ring-like network structures were obtained with homogenously distributed reinforcements. Additional grain refinement occurred with reinforcement addition, attributed to nanoparticles acting as nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation. The influence of reinforcement content was first investigated; mechanical and tribological behaviors improved with increased reinforcement contents. The compressive yield strengths of composites with TiB2 or TiC reinforcements were approximately five or two times those of 316L respectively. Hot isostatic pressing post-treatment effectively eliminated major cracks and pores in SLM-fabricated components. The effects of the SLM processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical performance were also investigated. Laser

  13. High efficiency organic light-emitting display using selective spectral photo-recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjung; Song, Jang-Kun

    2012-11-01

    Here, we introduce a selective photo-recycling scheme for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. The conventional photo-recycling method, which uses a recycling film named DBEF, diminishes the ambient contrast ratio of the OLED display, so it is not suitable for display applications. The selective recycling scheme, which uses a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) layer that recycles light only in a specific spectral range, can minimize the deterioration of the ambient contrast ratio while improving the photo-efficiency. We found that the aperture ratio of the OLED display influences the recycling efficiency significantly, and that a thin CLC layer diminishes the ambient contrast ratio less than a thick CLC layer while it still recycles the emitted light. By recycling the blue spectral range, one can improve the lifetime of blue OLE material, which has the shortest lifetime, or reduce the size of the blue pixel, which has the largest size among red, green, and blue pixels.

  14. Highly Selective Deoxydehydration of Tartaric Acid over Supported and Unsupported Rhenium Catalysts with Modified Acidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiukai; Zhang, Yugen

    2016-10-06

    The deoxydehydration (DODH) of sugar acids to industrially important carboxylic acids is a very attractive topic. Oxorhenium complexes are the most-often employed DODH catalysts. Because of the acidity of the rhenium catalysts, the DODH products of sugar acids were usually in the form of mixture of free carboxylic acids and esters. Herein, we demonstrate strategies for the selective DODH of sugar acids to free carboxylic acids by tuning the Lewis acidity or the Brønsted acidity of the rhenium-based catalysts. Starting from tartaric acid, up to 97 % yield of free maleic acid was achieved. Based on our strategies, functional polymer immobilized heterogeneous rhenium catalysts were also developed for the selective DODH conversion of sugar acids. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Natural Selection as Coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerlak, Matteo

    2017-11-01

    Analogies between evolutionary dynamics and statistical mechanics, such as Fisher's second-law-like "fundamental theorem of natural selection" and Wright's "fitness landscapes", have had a deep and fruitful influence on the development of evolutionary theory. Here I discuss a new conceptual link between evolution and statistical physics. I argue that natural selection can be viewed as a coarsening phenomenon, similar to the growth of domain size in quenched magnets or to Ostwald ripening in alloys and emulsions. In particular, I show that the most remarkable features of coarsening—scaling and self-similarity—have strict equivalents in evolutionary dynamics. This analogy has three main virtues: it brings a set of well-developed mathematical tools to bear on evolutionary dynamics; it suggests new problems in theoretical evolution; and it provides coarsening physics with a new exactly soluble model.

  16. Selecting a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghovanlou, A.H. (MITRE Corp., McLean, VA); Ettlinger, L.; Cotton, T.; Barnard, W.; Siever, R.

    1982-01-01

    Present knowledge about the regional and local geologic predictions as it relates to waste repository sites and some related knowledge gained from oil and mining explorations are summarized. The types of geologic testing involved in selecting a repository site are described, and a simple analytic scheme for estimating the costs of such a program is discussed. This scheme is based on the sequential accumulation of knowledge throughout the process of siting. It is concluded that several sites should be investigated simultaneously since there is a trade-off to be made between the economic costs of carrying forward all the sites that pass the screening process and the political costs of selecting from a limited number of qualified sites. This would help to insure that a qualified site would be publicly acceptable at some point in the future. (BLM)

  17. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  18. Quantitative Analysis of High-Quality Officer Selection by Commandants Career-Level Education Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Officers Training Corps OCC Officer Candidate Course OccFld Occupational Field PFT Physical Fitness Test PLC Platoon Leaders Class PME Professional...attributes based on such facts as physical fitness scores, experience, and performance indicators in order to create an overall first impression. Then the...Other important findings relate to an increased likelihood of selection for prior enlisted Marines and some evidence supports higher Physical Fitness

  19. Graphite oxide: a selective and highly efficient oxidant of thiols and sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Daniel R; Jia, Hong-Peng; Todd, Alexander D; Geng, Jianxin; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2011-11-07

    The selective oxidation of thiols to disulfides and sulfides to sulfoxides using graphite oxide (GO), a heterogeneous carbocatalyst obtained from low cost, commercial starting materials is described. The aforementioned oxidation reactions were found to proceed rapidly (as short as 10 min in some cases) and in good yield (51-100%) (19 examples). No over-oxidation of the substrates was observed, and GO's heterogeneous nature facilitated isolation and purification of the target products.

  20. Highly sensitive and selective chemiresistor gas/vapor sensors based on polyaniline nanocomposite: A comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Sadanand

    2016-01-01

    This review article directs particular attention to some current breakthrough developments in the area of gas sensors based on polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposite. Conducting polymers symbolize a paramount class of organic materials that boost the resistivity towards external stimuli. Nevertheless, PANI-based sensor experiences some disadvantages of relatively low reproducibility, selectivity, and stability. In order to overcome these restrictions, PANI was functionalised or incorporated with na...

  1. Selection of Military Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    biases, or racism against a particular group of people should be an advisor. However all people generalize and stereotype to a degree. There are...Personal observation of author and commonly discussed in Vietnam-era documents. In this case, “ racism ” is defined as “[t]he belief that race...have been successfully transferred from Coalition to Iraqi Security Forces. However, to make selection sufficiently attractive, no negative stigma

  2. Senegal; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes Senegal’s real effective exchange rate (REER) and external competitiveness. A REER significantly above its equilibrium, as determined by economic fundamentals, can impede a country’s external competitiveness, calling for corrective macroeconomic measures. This paper finds no conclusive evidence of a REER overvaluation, implying that structural reforms are key to improving Senegal’s external competitiveness. The paper also describes Senegal’s export performa...

  3. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science

    2014-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  4. Nigeria; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper discusses promotion of economic transformation in Nigeria. Nigeria’s long-term potential is keyed on promoting economic transformation. This implies taking stock of initial conditions, assessing long-term financing capacity, and evaluating the policies and reforms to be implemented to meet the long term vision. The recent fall in prices has highlighted the challenging but compelling need to address remaining development challenges. This paper discusses some of these...

  5. Bhutan; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper describes the current tax system in Bhutan and suggests options for tax policy reform. Though significant hydropower revenues are expected in the medium term as major projects come on-stream, reforms to the existing tax system in the interim will generate fiscal room and prevent recourse to domestic debt to finance development needs. Key reforms include reducing tax exemptions in the near term and introduction of value-added tax in the medium term. The paper also an...

  6. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  7. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  8. Selection Of High Performing Geometry In Flexure Bearings For Linear Compressor Applications Using Fea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz H. Kharadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The word bearing comes from the verb to bear a bearing is thus a machine element that permits one part to bear another by allowing relative motion between them. A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion and reduces friction between moving parts to only the desired motion or it is a mechanical element which locates two machine parts relative to each other and permits a relative motion between them. Bearings are components that are used to reduce the amount of friction in a machine. The present work reported in this paper is specific to the selection of a bestgeometry among the selected geometries for flexure bearing used in linear compressor. This paper proposes FEM as tool to find the equivalent stress.Selection of geometry is one of the most important steps in the process of design. The best geometry is one which will serve the desired objective like performance and service life at minimum cost. The main objective of this paper is to investigate best geometry of flexure spring to enhance its performance and improve upon the life of the flexure of service. Performance of the flexure service life of the spring can be enhanced by achieving lower operating stresses and higher factor of safety.

  9. Highly Selective Polypyrrole MIP-Based Gravimetric and Electrochemical Sensors for Picomolar Detection of Glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazouz, Zouhour; Rahali, Seyfeddine; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Aloui, Nadia; Seydou, Mahamadou; Yaakoubi, Nourdin; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Othmane, Ali; Kalfat, Rafik

    2017-11-09

    There is a global debate and concern about the use of glyphosate (Gly) as an herbicide. New toxicological studies will determine its use in the future under new strict conditions or its replacement by alternative synthetic or natural herbicides. In this context, we designed biomimetic polymer sensing layers for the selective molecular recognition of Gly. Towards this end, complementary surface acoustic wave (SAW) and electrochemical sensors were functionalized with polypyrrole (PPy)-imprinted polymer for the selective detection of Gly. Their corresponding limits of detection were on the order of 1 pM, which are among the lowest values ever reported in literature. The relevant dissociation constants between PPy and Gly were estimated at [K d1 = (0.7 ± 0.3) pM and K d2 = (1.6 ± 1.4) µM] and [K d1 = (2.4 ± 0.9) pM and K d2 = (0.3 ± 0.1) µM] for electrochemical and gravimetric measurements, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations permitted to estimate the interaction energy between Gly and PPy film: ΔE = -145 kJ/mol. Selectivity and competitivity tests were investigated with the most common pesticides. This work conclusively shows that gravimetric and electrochemical results indicate that both MIP-based sensors are perfectly able to detect and distinguish glyphosate without any ambiguity.

  10. Factors that Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-10-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how demographics, school context, pedagogical approaches and professional development (PD) influenced the likelihood of a teacher using a tool via a multilevel cross-classification-ordered logit analysis (Goldstein 1995). The findings revealed that science teachers were more likely to use hardware than software; more specifically, this included instructional tools (i.e., SMARTboards, clickers) and laboratory tools (probeware). Differences in teachers' use of tools were largely due to differences in tools as opposed to differences in teacher characteristics. Use of a tool was more likely by teachers who taught physics, who taught via inquiry, or who had more PD with a tool. These findings have implications for how we conceptualize selection and usage of technologies that enter the science education pipeline; which tools become sustainable in the science classroom and how technological take-up differs across science disciplines.

  11. Performance of variable selection methods using stability-based selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Danny; Weljie, Aalim; de Leon, Alexander R; McConnell, Yarrow; Bathe, Oliver F; Kopciuk, Karen

    2017-04-04

    Variable selection is frequently carried out during the analysis of many types of high-dimensional data, including those in metabolomics. This study compared the predictive performance of four variable selection methods using stability-based selection, a new secondary selection method that is implemented in the R package BioMark. Two of these methods were evaluated using the more well-known false discovery rate (FDR) as well. Simulation studies varied factors relevant to biological data studies, with results based on the median values of 200 partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. There was no single top performing method across all factor settings, but the student t test based on stability selection or with FDR adjustment and the variable importance in projection (VIP) scores from partial least squares regression models obtained using a stability-based approach tended to perform well in most settings. Similar results were found with a real spiked-in metabolomics dataset. Group sample size, group effect size, number of significant variables and correlation structure were the most important factors whereas the percentage of significant variables was the least important. Researchers can improve prediction scores for their study data by choosing VIP scores based on stability variable selection over the other approaches when the number of variables is small to modest and by increasing the number of samples even moderately. When the number of variables is high and there is block correlation amongst the significant variables (i.e., true biomarkers), the FDR-adjusted student t test performed best. The R package BioMark is an easy-to-use open-source program for variable selection that had excellent performance characteristics for the purposes of this study.

  12. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  13. Selective leptin resistance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In addition to effects on appetite and metabolism, leptin influences many neuroendocrine and physiological systems, including the sympathetic nervous system. Building on my Carl Ludwig Lecture of the American Physiological Society, I review the sympathetic and cardiovascular actions of leptin. The review focuses on a critical analysis of the concept of selective leptin resistance (SLR) and the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension in both experimental animals and humans. We introduced the concept of SLR in 2002 to explain how leptin might increase blood pressure (BP) in obese states, such as diet-induced obesity (DIO), that are accompanied by partial leptin resistance. This concept, analogous to selective insulin resistance in the metabolic syndrome, holds that in several genetic and acquired models of obesity, there is preservation of the renal sympathetic and pressor actions of leptin despite attenuation of the appetite and weight-reducing actions. Two potential overlapping mechanisms of SLR are reviewed: 1) differential leptin molecular signaling pathways that mediate selective as opposed to universal leptin action and 2) brain site-specific leptin action and resistance. Although the phenomenon of SLR in DIO has so far focused on preservation of sympathetic and BP actions of leptin, consideration should be given to the possibility that this concept may extend to preservation of other actions of leptin. Finally, I review perplexing data on the effects of leptin on sympathetic activity and BP in humans and its role in human obesity-induced hypertension. PMID:23883674

  14. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  15. Selection of Celebrity Endorsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting....... Practical implications – Conducted case studies indicate that there are various avenues how brands come to their endorser. We could not find evidence of a best practice strategy.......Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting...... several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures. Design/methodology/approach – A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 541 - Criteria for Selecting Light Duty Truck Lines Likely To Have High Theft Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for Selecting Light Duty Truck Lines Likely To Have High Theft Rates C Appendix C to Part 541 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Light Duty Truck Lines Likely To Have High Theft Rates Scope These criteria specify the factors the...

  17. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  18. N-phenylalkyl-substituted tropane analogs of boat conformation with high selectivity for the dopamine versus serotonin transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K R; Tamiz, A P; Araldi, G L; Zhang, M; Johnson, K M; Kozikowski, A P

    1999-12-06

    A series of N-phenylalkyl-substituted tropane analogs of boat conformation was synthesized, and these tropanes were evaluated for their ability to inhibit high affinity uptake of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) into striatal nerve endings (synaptosomes). Some of these compounds exhibit high affinity for the DA transporter with a 5-HT/DA transporter selectivity ratio of >50.

  19. Raman-shifted wavelength-selectable pulsed fiber laser with high repetition rate and high pulse energy in the visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Alam, S; Kang, Q; Shepherd, D P; Richardson, D J

    2017-01-09

    A high-pulse-energy, diffraction-limited, wavelength-selectable, visible source, based on Raman frequency shifting of a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fiber laser, has been studied. The relative length-scaling laws of Raman gain and self-phase modulation push the design towards short fiber lengths with large core size. It is experimentally demonstrated that the Raman clean-up effect in a graded-index multi-mode fiber is not sufficient to obtain diffraction-limited beam quality in the short fiber length. Thus, a large-core photonic crystal fiber is used to maintain diffraction-limited performance and output pulse energies of ~1 μJ, at a 1-MHz repetition rate and 1.3-ns pulse-width are successfully achieved. This step-tunable visible source should find applications in photoacoustic microscopy.

  20. Rationally tuned micropores within enantiopure metal-organic frameworks for highly selective separation of acetylene and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Sheng-Chang; Zhang, Zhangjing; Zhao, Cong-Gui; Hong, Kunlun; Zhao, Xuebo; Ding, De-Rong; Xie, Ming-Hua; Wu, Chuan-De; Das, Madhab C; Gill, Rachel; Thomas, K Mark; Chen, Banglin

    2011-02-22

    Separation of acetylene and ethylene is an important industrial process because both compounds are essential reagents for a range of chemical products and materials. Current separation approaches include the partial hydrogenation of acetylene into ethylene over a supported Pd catalyst, and the extraction of cracked olefins using an organic solvent; both routes are costly and energy consuming. Adsorption technologies may allow separation, but microporous materials exhibiting highly selective adsorption of C(2)H(2)/C(2)H(4) have not been realized to date. Here, we report the development of tunable microporous enantiopure mixed-metal-organic framework (M'MOF) materials for highly selective separation of C(2)H(2) and C(2)H(4). The high selectivities achieved suggest the potential application of microporous M'MOFs for practical adsorption-based separation of C(2)H(2)/C(2)H(4).