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Sample records for highly select group

  1. Selection of high risk groups among prognostically favorable patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J A; Fischermann, K; Hou-Jensen, K; Henriksen, E; Andersen, K W; Johansen, H; Brincker, H; Mouridsen, H T; Castberg, T; Rossing, N; Rørth, M

    1981-01-01

    In a prospective, nationwide, decentralized breast cancer project conducted by The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) the recurrence rate within the first year after surgery was analysed in relation to tumor anaplasia. One thousand forty-eight patients met the requirements of eligibility, i.e. tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm with negative axillary nodes, and no skin or deep invasion. The recurrence rates in tumors with anaplasia Grades I, II, and III were 4, 9, and 14%, respectively (p = 0.001). Therefore, it seems possible, prospectively, among otherwise prognostically favorable patients, to select a group with high risk of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. PMID:7247527

  2. Synthesis and application of a highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin group

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangjie; Liu, Xiangli; Xu, Jinhe; Ji, Liguo; Yang, Linlin; Fan, Aiying; Wang, Songjun; Wang, Qingzhi

    2018-02-01

    A highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin-type Schiff base derivative 1 (probe) was produced by condensation reaction between coumarin carbohydrazide and 1H-indazole-3-carbaldehyde. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed that the maximum absorption peak of compound 1 appeared at 439 nm. In the presence of Cu2 + ions, the maximum peak decreased remarkably compared with other physiological important metal ions and a new absorption peak at 500 nm appeared. The job's plot experiments showed that complexes of 1:2 binding mode were formed in CH3CN:HEPES (3:2, v/v) solution. Compound 1 exhibited a strong blue fluorescence. Upon addition of copper ions, the fluorescence gradually decreased and reached a plateau with the fluorescence quenching rate up to 98.73%. The detection limit for Cu2 + ions was estimated to 0.384 ppm. Fluorescent microscopy experiments demonstrated that probe 1 had potential to be used to investigate biological processes involving Cu2 + ions within living cells.

  3. The Complete Local Volume Groups Sample - I. Sample selection and X-ray properties of the high-richness subsample

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ewan; Ponman, Trevor J.; Kolokythas, Konstantinos; Raychaudhury, Somak; Babul, Arif; Vrtilek, Jan M.; David, Laurence P.; Giacintucci, Simona; Gitti, Myriam; Haines, Chris P.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample (CLoGS), a statistically complete optically selected sample of 53 groups within 80 Mpc. Our goal is to combine X-ray, radio and optical data to investigate the relationship between member galaxies, their active nuclei and the hot intra-group medium (IGM). We describe sample selection, define a 26-group high-richness subsample of groups containing at least four optically bright (log LB ≥ 10.2 LB⊙) galaxies, and report the results of XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of these systems. We find that 14 of the 26 groups are X-ray bright, possessing a group-scale IGM extending at least 65 kpc and with luminosity >1041 erg s-1, while a further three groups host smaller galaxy-scale gas haloes. The X-ray bright groups have masses in the range M500 ≃ 0.5-5 × 1013 M⊙, based on system temperatures of 0.4-1.4 keV, and X-ray luminosities in the range 2-200 × 1041 erg s-1. We find that ∼53-65 per cent of the X-ray bright groups have cool cores, a somewhat lower fraction than found by previous archival surveys. Approximately 30 per cent of the X-ray bright groups show evidence of recent dynamical interactions (mergers or sloshing), and ∼35 per cent of their dominant early-type galaxies host active galactic nuclei with radio jets. We find no groups with unusually high central entropies, as predicted by some simulations, and confirm that CLoGS is in principle capable of detecting such systems. We identify three previously unrecognized groups, and find that they are either faint (LX, R500 < 1042 erg s-1) with no concentrated cool core, or highly disturbed. This leads us to suggest that ∼20 per cent of X-ray bright groups in the local universe may still be unidentified.

  4. Applying group selection in upland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...

  5. Highly effective degradation of selected groups of organic compounds by cavitation based AOPs under basic pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gągol, Michał; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2018-07-01

    Cavitation has become on the most often applied methods in a number of industrial technologies. In the case of oxidation of organic pollutants occurring in the aqueous medium, cavitation forms the basis of numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This paper presents the results of investigations on the efficiency of oxidation of the following groups of organic compounds: organosulfur, nitro derivatives of benzene, BTEX, and phenol and its derivatives in a basic model effluent using hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation combined with external oxidants, i.e., hydrogen peroxide, ozone and peroxone. The studies revealed that the combination of cavitation with additional oxidants allows 100% oxidation of the investigated model compounds. However, individual treatments differed with respect to the rate of degradation. Hydrodynamic cavitation aided by peroxone was found to be the most effective treatment (100% oxidation of all the investigated compounds in 60 min). When using hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation alone, the effectiveness of oxidation was diversified. Under these conditions, nitro derivatives of benzene and phenol and its derivatives were found to be resistant to oxidation. In addition, hydrodynamic cavitation was found to be more effective in degradation of model compounds than acoustic cavitation. The results of investigations presented in this paper compare favorably with the investigations on degradation of organic contaminants using AOPs under conditions of basic pH published thus far. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  7. Highly selective adsorption of organic dyes containing sulphonic groups using Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Jincan; Wang, Honghong; Niu, Helin, E-mail: niuhelin@ahu.edu.cn; Chen, Jingshuai; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi [Anhui University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Gao, Yuanhao [Xuchang University, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials (China); Chen, Changle [University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, we report a facile approach to synthesize Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} nanosheets via simply sonochemical method, which showed high efficiency and selectivity towards the adsorption of organic dyes containing sulphonic groups. The structure and morphology of the nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, particle size and zeta potential analysis. The adsorption results indicated that the equilibrium data coincide very well with Langmuir isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacities for Congo red, methyl blue and methyl orange were 1864, 1270 and 959 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. The kinetic data can be explained by pseudo-second-order model. The Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} nanosheets also demonstrated high selectivity towards the adsorption of dyes containing sulphonic groups from mixed dye solutions. The rational mechanism of adsorption was attributed to hydrogen bonding, electrostatic attractions and ion exchanges between the dye molecules and Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} in the adsorption process.

  8. Applied group theory selected readings in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    1968-01-01

    Selected Readings in Physics: Applied Group Theory provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of applied group theory. This book discusses the properties of symmetry of a system in quantum mechanics.Organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the problem of elastic vibrations of a symmetric structure. This text then examines the numbers, degeneracies, and symmetries of the normal modes of vibration. Other chapters consider the conditions under which a polyatomic molecule can have a stable equilibrium configuration when its electronic

  9. Selecting groups of covariates in the elastic net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    This paper introduces a novel method to select groups of variables in sparse regression and classication settings. The groups are formed based on the correlations between covariates and ensure that for example spatial or spectral relations are preserved without explicitly coding for these....... The preservation of relations gives increased interpretability. The method is based on the elastic net and adaptively selects highly correlated groups of variables and does therefore not waste time in grouping irrelevant variables for the problem at hand. The method is illustrated on a simulated data set...

  10. Emotional bookkeeping and high partner selectivity are necessary for the emergence of partner-specific reciprocal affiliation in an agent-based model of primate groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Evers

    Full Text Available Primate affiliative relationships are differentiated, individual-specific and often reciprocal. However, the required cognitive abilities are still under debate. Recently, we introduced the EMO-model, in which two emotional dimensions regulate social behaviour: anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE. Emotional bookkeeping is modelled by providing each individual with partner-specific LIKE attitudes in which the emotional experiences of earlier affiliations with others are accumulated. Individuals also possess fixed partner-specific FEAR attitudes, reflecting the stable dominance hierarchy. In this paper, we focus on one key parameter of the model, namely the degree of partner selectivity, i.e. the extent to which individuals rely on their LIKE attitudes when choosing affiliation partners. Studying the effect of partner selectivity on the emergent affiliative relationships, we found that at high selectivity, individuals restricted their affiliative behaviours more to similar-ranking individuals and that reciprocity of affiliation was enhanced. We compared the emotional bookkeeping model with a control model, in which individuals had fixed LIKE attitudes simply based on the (fixed rank-distance, instead of dynamic LIKE attitudes based on earlier events. Results from the control model were very similar to the emotional bookkeeping model: high selectivity resulted in preference of similar-ranking partners and enhanced reciprocity. However, only in the emotional bookkeeping model did high selectivity result in the emergence of reciprocal affiliative relationships that were highly partner-specific. Moreover, in the emotional bookkeeping model, LIKE attitude predicted affiliative behaviour better than rank-distance, especially at high selectivity. Our model suggests that emotional bookkeeping is a likely candidate mechanism to underlie partner-specific reciprocal affiliation.

  11. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  12. Applicant Personality and Procedural Justice Perceptions of Group Selection Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Sandal, Gro M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how job applicants' personalities influence perceptions of the structural and social procedural justice of group selection interviews (i.e., a group of several applicants being evaluated simultaneously). We especially addressed trait interactions between neuroticism and extraversion (the affective plane) and extraversion and agreeableness (the interpersonal plane). Data on personality (pre-interview) and justice perceptions (post-interview) were collected in a field study among job applicants ( N  = 97) attending group selection interviews for positions as teachers in a Norwegian high school. Interaction effects in hierarchical regression analyses showed that perceptions of social and structural justice increased with levels of extraversion among high scorers on neuroticism. Among emotionally stable applicants, however, being introverted or extraverted did not matter to justice perceptions. Extraversion did not impact on the perception of social justice for applicants low in agreeableness. Agreeable applicants, however, experienced the group interview as more socially fair when they were also extraverted. The impact of applicant personality on justice perceptions may be underestimated if traits interactions are not considered. Procedural fairness ratings for the group selection interview were high, contrary to the negative reactions predicted by other researchers. There was no indication that applicants with desirable traits (i.e., traits predictive of job performance) reacted negatively to this selection tool. Despite the widespread use of interviews in selection, previous studies of applicant personality and fairness reactions have not included interviews. The study demonstrates the importance of previously ignored trait interactions in understanding applicant reactions.

  13. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20 in...

  14. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  15. Kin groups and trait groups: population structure and epidemic disease selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, A G

    1984-10-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation based on the population structure of a small-scale human population, the Semai Senoi of Malaysia, has been developed to study the combined effects of group, kin, and individual selection. The population structure resembles D.S. Wilson's structured deme model in that local breeding populations (Semai settlements) are subdivided into trait groups (hamlets) that may be kin-structured and are not themselves demes. Additionally, settlement breeding populations are connected by two-dimensional stepping-stone migration approaching 30% per generation. Group and kin-structured group selection occur among hamlets the survivors of which then disperse to breed within the settlement population. Genetic drift is modeled by the process of hamlet formation; individual selection as a deterministic process, and stepping-stone migration as either random or kin-structured migrant groups. The mechanism for group selection is epidemics of infectious disease that can wipe out small hamlets particularly if most adults become sick and social life collapses. Genetic resistance to a disease is an individual attribute; however, hamlet groups with several resistant adults are less likely to disintegrate and experience high social mortality. A specific human gene, hemoglobin E, which confers resistance to malaria, is studied as an example of the process. The results of the simulations show that high genetic variance among hamlet groups may be generated by moderate degrees of kin-structuring. This strong microdifferentiation provides the potential for group selection. The effect of group selection in this case is rapid increase in gene frequencies among the total set of populations. In fact, group selection in concert with individual selection produced a faster rate of gene frequency increase among a set of 25 populations than the rate within a single unstructured population subject to deterministic individual selection. Such rapid evolution with plausible rates of

  16. SOXE transcription factors form selective dimers on non-compact DNA motifs through multifaceted interactions between dimerization and high-mobility group domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Jankowski, Aleksander; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Prabhakar, Shyam; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-05-27

    The SOXE transcription factors SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10 are master regulators of mammalian development directing sex determination, gliogenesis, pancreas specification and neural crest development. We identified a set of palindromic SOX binding sites specifically enriched in regulatory regions of melanoma cells. SOXE proteins homodimerize on these sequences with high cooperativity. In contrast to other transcription factor dimers, which are typically rigidly spaced, SOXE group proteins can bind cooperatively at a wide range of dimer spacings. Using truncated forms of SOXE proteins, we show that a single dimerization (DIM) domain, that precedes the DNA binding high mobility group (HMG) domain, is sufficient for dimer formation, suggesting that DIM : HMG rather than DIM:DIM interactions mediate the dimerization. All SOXE members can also heterodimerize in this fashion, whereas SOXE heterodimers with SOX2, SOX4, SOX6 and SOX18 are not supported. We propose a structural model where SOXE-specific intramolecular DIM:HMG interactions are allosterically communicated to the HMG of juxtaposed molecules. Collectively, SOXE factors evolved a unique mode to combinatorially regulate their target genes that relies on a multifaceted interplay between the HMG and DIM domains. This property potentially extends further the diversity of target genes and cell-specific functions that are regulated by SOXE proteins.

  17. SOXE transcription factors form selective dimers on non-compact DNA motifs through multifaceted interactions between dimerization and high-mobility group domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Jankowski, Aleksander; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.; Prabhakar, Shyam; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The SOXE transcription factors SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10 are master regulators of mammalian development directing sex determination, gliogenesis, pancreas specification and neural crest development. We identified a set of palindromic SOX binding sites specifically enriched in regulatory regions of melanoma cells. SOXE proteins homodimerize on these sequences with high cooperativity. In contrast to other transcription factor dimers, which are typically rigidly spaced, SOXE group proteins can bind cooperatively at a wide range of dimer spacings. Using truncated forms of SOXE proteins, we show that a single dimerization (DIM) domain, that precedes the DNA binding high mobility group (HMG) domain, is sufficient for dimer formation, suggesting that DIM : HMG rather than DIM:DIM interactions mediate the dimerization. All SOXE members can also heterodimerize in this fashion, whereas SOXE heterodimers with SOX2, SOX4, SOX6 and SOX18 are not supported. We propose a structural model where SOXE-specific intramolecular DIM:HMG interactions are allosterically communicated to the HMG of juxtaposed molecules. Collectively, SOXE factors evolved a unique mode to combinatorially regulate their target genes that relies on a multifaceted interplay between the HMG and DIM domains. This property potentially extends further the diversity of target genes and cell-specific functions that are regulated by SOXE proteins. PMID:26013289

  18. Tree regeneration following group selection harvesting in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; George R. Parker

    1995-01-01

    An increased interest in the use of group selection harvesting in the Central Hardwood forests has emphasized the lack of scientific information about species response under this uneven-aged management system. Tree regeneration response following group selection harvesting was studied on thirty-six group selection openings on the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane...

  19. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current understanding of differences in behavior and physiology which may impact exposures in children. A consistent set of early-life age groups, supported by an underlying scientific rationale, is expected to improve Agency exposure and risk assessments for children by increasing the consistency and comparability of risk assessments across the Agency; by improving accuracy and transparency in assessments for those cases where current practice might too broadly combine behaviorally and physiologically disparate age groups; and by fostering a consistent approach to future exposure surveys and monitoring efforts to generate improved exposure factors for children. see description

  20. [The knowledge of students and teachers of selected groups about the OTC drugs containing codeine and pseudoephedrine--an alternative to "legal highs"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Marcinkiewicz, Marcin; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Currently the youth to intoxication increasingly used drugs generally available over the counter (OTC, Over-The-Counter drug) containing psychotropic substances. The knowledge on the subject among parents and teachers is inadequate. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of students and teachers about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and their consequences on the use and popularity of these drugs. The study was conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 of 93 respondents. In conducting the study used research tool in the form of an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 21 questions for the students and teachers of 16 questions, the questions relate knowledge of the studied group persons on the OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and the effects of their use. Among the students participating in the study, the majority of respondents are aware that using drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine can be addicted to them. Higher knowledge on this subject have demonstrated high school students, but less teachers. Most of the respondents had knowledge about the health effects that result from an overdose of these drugs. Among the students most frequently reported sources of knowledge about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine were friends and the Internet. The general knowledge of high school students and teachers on the effects of OTC medications containing codeine or pseudoephedrine is not sufficient. There is a need to conduct preventive and educational action aimed at increasing knowledge among youth and adults on the health effects of these drugs.

  1. Cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ions with covalently bonded CMPO groups as selective extraction agents for lanthanide and actinide cations from highly acidic nuclear waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, B.; Plesek, J.; Baca, J.; Cisarova, I.; Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Vinas, C.; Selucky, P.; Rais, J.

    2002-01-01

    A new series of boron substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide)(1-) ion (1) derivatives of the general formula [(8-CMPO-(CH 2 -CH 2 O) 2 -1,2-C 2 B 9 H 10 )(1',2'-C 2 B 9 H 11 )-3,3'-Co] - (CMPO = Ph 2 P(O)-CH 2 C(O)NR, R = C 4 H 9 (3b), -C 12 H 25 (4b), -CH 2 -C 6 H 5 (5b)) was prepared by ring cleavage of the 8-dioxane-cobalt bis(dicarbollide) (2) bi-polar compound by the respective primary amines and by subsequent reaction of the resulting amino derivatives (3a-5a) with the nitrophenyl ester of diphenyl-phosphoryl-acetic acid. The compounds were synthesized with the aim to develop a new class of more efficient extraction agents for liquid/liquid extraction of polyvalent cations, i.e. lanthanides and actinides, from high-level activity nuclear waste. All compounds were characterized by a combination of 11 B NMR, 1 H high field NMR, Mass Spectrometry with Electro-spray and MALDI TOF ionisation, HPLC and other techniques. The molecular structure of the supramolecular Ln 3+ complex of the anion 5b was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystallographic results proved that the Ln(m) atom is bonded to three functionalized cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anions in a charge compensated complex. The cation is tightly coordinated by six oxygen atoms of the CMPO terminal groups (two of each ligand) and by three water molecules completing the metal coordination number to 9. Atoms occupying the primary coordination sphere form a tri-capped trigonal prismatic arrangement. Very high liquid-liquid extraction efficiency of all anionic species was observed. Moreover, less polar toluene can be applied as an auxiliary solvent replacing the less environmentally friendly nitro- and chlorinated solvents used in the current dicarbollide liquid-liquid extraction process. The extraction coefficients are sufficiently high for possible technological applications. (authors)

  2. Synthesis of Novel Synthetic Vitamin K Analogues Prepared by Introduction of a Heteroatom and a Phenyl Group That Induce Highly Selective Neuronal Differentiation of Neuronal Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kimito; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Tode, Chisato; Wada, Akimori; Osakabe, Naomi; Suhara, Yoshitomo

    2017-03-23

    We synthesized novel vitamin K 2 analogues that incorporated a heteroatom and an aromatic ring in the side chain and evaluated their effect on the selective differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells into neurons in vitro. The results showed that a menaquinone-2 analogue bearing a p-fluoroaniline had the most potent activity, which was more than twice as great as the control. In addition, the neuronal selectivity was more than 3 times greater than the control.

  3. Operation of the Selected Local Action Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to compare the current operation of elected local action group with the concept of learning regions. This comparison is built on detailed knowledge and understanding of the operation of local action group Podbrnensko citizens’ association (Podbrnensko CA and learning regions in general. The following is assumed: the understanding of community-based processes from the perspective of residents, the important stakeholders who influence the operation of communities or locations. The operation of local action groups is in line with the current concept led by local community development (community led local development, CLLD, which uses elements of the LEADER method. In this method the solution of development problems comes primarily from the inside, not from the outside of the studied territory. The methods used for the collection of empirical data were mostly observation and interviews with all partners involved in LAG (31 people, all mayors in LAG (29 people and 176 people from region, i.e. methods, which result in so called deep data. Between the primary techniques applied in the research are: participant observation, unstructured or semi-structured interviews and public debates.

  4. Multispectral iris recognition based on group selection and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Foysal; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    A commercially available iris recognition system uses only a narrow band of the near infrared spectrum (700-900 nm) while iris images captured in the wide range of 405 nm to 1550 nm offer potential benefits to enhance recognition performance of an iris biometric system. The novelty of this research is that a group selection algorithm based on coalition game theory is explored to select the best patch subsets. In this algorithm, patches are divided into several groups based on their maximum contribution in different groups. Shapley values are used to evaluate the contribution of patches in different groups. Results show that this group selection based iris recognition

  5. Discovery of Novel, Highly Potent, and Selective Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 Inhibitors with a 1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl Moiety as a Zinc Binding Group Using a Structure-Based Design Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Hiroshi; Kaieda, Akira; Sato, Kenjiro; Naito, Takako; Mototani, Hideyuki; Oki, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Kuno, Haruhiko; Santou, Takashi; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Terauchi, Jun; Uchikawa, Osamu; Kori, Masakuni

    2017-01-26

    On the basis of a superposition study of X-ray crystal structures of complexes of quinazoline derivative 1 and triazole derivative 2 with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 catalytic domain, a novel series of fused pyrimidine compounds which possess a 1,2,4-triazol-3-yl group as a zinc binding group (ZBG) was designed. Among the herein described and evaluated compounds, 31f exhibited excellent potency for MMP-13 (IC 50 = 0.036 nM) and selectivities (greater than 1,500-fold) over other MMPs (MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10, and -14) and tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). Furthermore, the inhibitor was shown to protect bovine nasal cartilage explants against degradation induced by interleukin-1 and oncostatin M. In this article, we report the discovery of extremely potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable fused pyrimidine derivatives that possess a 1,2,4-triazol-3-yl group as a novel ZBG for selective MMP-13 inhibition.

  6. Bayesian Group Bridge for Bi-level Variable Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Himel; Yi, Nengjun

    2017-06-01

    A Bayesian bi-level variable selection method (BAGB: Bayesian Analysis of Group Bridge) is developed for regularized regression and classification. This new development is motivated by grouped data, where generic variables can be divided into multiple groups, with variables in the same group being mechanistically related or statistically correlated. As an alternative to frequentist group variable selection methods, BAGB incorporates structural information among predictors through a group-wise shrinkage prior. Posterior computation proceeds via an efficient MCMC algorithm. In addition to the usual ease-of-interpretation of hierarchical linear models, the Bayesian formulation produces valid standard errors, a feature that is notably absent in the frequentist framework. Empirical evidence of the attractiveness of the method is illustrated by extensive Monte Carlo simulations and real data analysis. Finally, several extensions of this new approach are presented, providing a unified framework for bi-level variable selection in general models with flexible penalties.

  7. Fluctuating survival selection explains variation in avian group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Roche, Erin A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Page, Catherine E

    2016-05-03

    Most animal groups vary extensively in size. Because individuals in certain sizes of groups often have higher apparent fitness than those in other groups, why wide group size variation persists in most populations remains unexplained. We used a 30-y mark-recapture study of colonially breeding cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) to show that the survival advantages of different colony sizes fluctuated among years. Colony size was under both stabilizing and directional selection in different years, and reversals in the sign of directional selection regularly occurred. Directional selection was predicted in part by drought conditions: birds in larger colonies tended to be favored in cooler and wetter years, and birds in smaller colonies in hotter and drier years. Oscillating selection on colony size likely reflected annual differences in food availability and the consequent importance of information transfer, and/or the level of ectoparasitism, with the net benefit of sociality varying under these different conditions. Averaged across years, there was no net directional change in selection on colony size. The wide range in cliff swallow group size is probably maintained by fluctuating survival selection and represents the first case, to our knowledge, in which fitness advantages of different group sizes regularly oscillate over time in a natural vertebrate population.

  8. Group Delay of High Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    Group Delay variations versus frequency is an essential factor which can cause distortion and degradation in the signals. Usually this is an issue in wideband communication systems, such as satellite communication systems, which are used for transmitting wideband data. However, group delay can also...... become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....

  9. Group therapy for selective mutism - a parents' and children's treatment group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Louise; Mc Nicholas, Fiona; Barry, Edwina; Begley, Maire; Ahern, Sinead

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of group therapy for children with selective mutism and their parents. Five children (mean age 6.1 years) with a diagnosis of selective mutism were administered group therapy over an 8-week period. Parents simultaneously attended a second group, aimed at providing education and advice on managing selective mutism in everyday situations, and in the school environment. At post-treatment, all children increased their level of confident speaking in school, clinic and community settings. Parents indicated a reduction in their own anxiety levels, from pre- to post-treatment on self-rating scales. Findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of group therapy for children with selective mutism and their parents.

  10. Vegetation in group selection openings: ecology and manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1991-01-01

    Group selection openings ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 acres in mixed conifer stands in northern and central California were evaluated for effect of site preparation, opening size, kind and amount of vegetation, and release treatment. Small openings, in general, are characterized by less sunlight and lower temperature extremes than clearcuttings. Roots from border trees...

  11. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is

  12. Group selection on population size affects life-history patterns in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashey, Farrah; Lively, Curtis M

    2009-05-01

    Selection is recognized to operate on multiple levels. In disease organisms, selection among hosts is thought to provide an important counterbalance to selection for faster growth within hosts. We performed three experiments, each selecting for a divergence in group size in the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. These nematodes infect and kill insect larvae, reproduce inside the host carcass, and emerge as infective juveniles. We imposed selection on group size by selecting among hosts for either high or low numbers of emerging nematodes. Our goal was to determine whether this trait could respond to selection at the group level, and if so, to examine what other traits would evolve as correlated responses. One of the three experiments showed a significant response to group selection. In that experiment, the high-selected treatment consistently produced more emerging nematodes per host than the low-selected treatment. In addition, nematodes were larger and they emerged later from hosts in the low-selected lines. Despite small effective population sizes, the effects of inbreeding were small in this experiment. Thus, selection among hosts can be effective, leading to both a direct evolutionary response at the population level, as well as to correlated responses in populational and individual traits.

  13. Spin selection at organic spinterface by anchoring group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhao; Qiu, Shuai; Miao, Yuan-yuan; Ren, Jun-feng; Wang, Chuan-kui [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Hu, Gui-chao, E-mail: hgc@sdnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The sign of interfacial spin polarization can be selected by using different anchoring groups. • A sp{sup 3}-d or sp-d hybridization may occur and induce spin polarization when the anchoring group changes. • Interfacial spin polarization depends on both the type of the outer orbital of the anchoring atom as well as its energy. - Abstract: Control of organic interfacial spin polarization is crucial in organic spintronics. Based on ab initio theory, here we proposed a spin selection at organic interface via anchoring group by adsorbing an organic molecule onto Ni(111) surface. The results demonstrate that either a positive or negative interfacial spin polarization may be obtained by choosing different anchoring groups. The orbital analysis via the projected density of states shows that the interfacial spin polarization is sensitive to the hybridization of the outer orbital of the anchoring atom as well as its energy relative to the d orbital of the ferromagnetic atom. The work indicates a feasible way to realize spin selection at the organic spinterface by anchoring group.

  14. Evolution of generous cooperative norms by cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, István

    2009-04-07

    Evolution of cooperative norms is studied in a population where individual- and group-level selection are both in operation. Individuals play indirect reciprocity game within their group. Individuals are well informed about the previous actions and reputations, and follow second-order norms. Individuals are norm-followers, and imitate their successful group mates. In contrast to previous models where norms classify actions deterministically, we assume that norms determine only the probabilities of actions, and mutants can differ in these probabilities. The central question is how a selective cooperative norm can emerge in a population where initially only non-cooperative norms were present. It is shown that evolution leads to a cooperative state if generous cooperative strategies are dominant, although the "always defecting" and the "always cooperating"-like strategies remain stably present. The characteristics of these generous cooperative strategies and the presence of always defecting and always cooperating strategies are in concordance with experimental observations.

  15. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  16. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Krasnow

    Full Text Available Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation

  17. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  18. Social Groups Prioritize Selective Attention to Faces: How Social Identity Shapes Distractor Interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    Full Text Available Human faces automatically attract visual attention and this process appears to be guided by social group memberships. In two experiments, we examined how social groups guide selective attention toward in-group and out-group faces. Black and White participants detected a target letter among letter strings superimposed on faces (Experiment 1. White participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (Black compared to in-group (White distractor faces. Likewise, Black participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (White compared to in-group (Black distractor faces. However, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load-when the task was visually difficult. To examine the malleability of this pattern of racial bias, a separate sample of participants were assigned to mixed-race minimal groups (Experiment 2. Participants assigned to groups were less accurate on trials with their minimal in-group members compared to minimal out-group distractor faces, regardless of race. Again, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load. Taken together, these results suggest that social identity guides selective attention toward motivationally relevant social groups-shifting from out-group bias in the domain of race to in-group bias in the domain of minimal groups-when perceptual resources are scarce.

  19. High temperature solar selective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  20. Internal radioactive contamination in selected groups of CRNL employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.W.S.

    1975-10-01

    This report details the development and execution of a 30 month program designed to characterize the magnitude and distribution of internal radioactive contaminaton amongst selected groups of employees at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, using a shadow shield whole-body counter. The results show that the levels of contamination in these employees are very low, and no contaminant was present in amounts exceeding 10% of the maximum permissible body burden, with the exception of a medically administered radionuclide (selenium-75). Details of the time course of some of the body burdens are also furnished. (author)

  1. Using Creative Group Techniques in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, Laura J.; Gladding, Samuel T.

    2007-01-01

    Groups in high schools that use creative techniques help adolescents express their emotions appropriately, behave differently, and gain insight into themselves and others. This article looks at seven different creative arts media--music, movement, visual art, literature, drama, play, and humor--and offers examples of how they can be used in groups…

  2. Management of Assortment Inventory Groups in Selected Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymszal J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As experience shows the practical, reliable assessment and optimisation of total costs of logistical processes implemented in supply chains of foundry plants is a quite complex and complicated process, because it requires to enclose all, without exception, performed actions, including them in various reference cross-sections, systematic activities and finally transforming them in a totally homogenous collection. Only solid analysis and assessment of assortment management in logistical supply systems in foundry plants of particular assortment groups allows to lower the supply costs significantly. In the article the analysis and assessment of the newest implemented optimising algorithms are presented in the process stock management of selected material groups used in a production process of a chosen foundry plant. A practical solution to solve a problem of rotary stock cost minimisation is given as well as of costs while creating a stock with the usage of economical volume and value of order.

  3. Opportunity for natural selection among some selected population groups of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Farida Ahmed; Mithun, Sikdar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for seven population groups inhabiting different geographical locations of Northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crow’s as well as Johnston and Kensinger’s index have been used for the present purpose. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among the Deoris followed by the Kaibartas. The lowest selection index was found among the Oraon population. If the relative contribution of fertility and mortality components to the total index is considered to be multiplicative, it is observed that in all these communities the fertility component exceeds that of mortality component, which may indicate initiation of demographic transitional phase in the selected populations with the betterment of healthcare and socioeconomic condition within the last few decades. PMID:21031053

  4. Opportunity for natural selection among some selected population groups of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Farida Ahmed; Mithun, Sikdar

    2010-05-01

    Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for seven population groups inhabiting different geographical locations of Northeast India. Crow's as well as Johnston and Kensinger's index have been used for the present purpose. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among the Deoris followed by the Kaibartas. The lowest selection index was found among the Oraon population. If the relative contribution of fertility and mortality components to the total index is considered to be multiplicative, it is observed that in all these communities the fertility component exceeds that of mortality component, which may indicate initiation of demographic transitional phase in the selected populations with the betterment of healthcare and socioeconomic condition within the last few decades.

  5. Discovery of novel, highly potent, and selective quinazoline-2-carboxamide-based matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 inhibitors without a zinc binding group using a structure-based design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Hiroshi; Sato, Kenjiro; Naito, Takako; Mototani, Hideyuki; Oki, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Kuno, Haruhiko; Santou, Takashi; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Terauchi, Jun; Uchikawa, Osamu; Kori, Masakuni

    2014-11-13

    Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) has been implicated to play a key role in the pathology of osteoarthritis. On the basis of X-ray crystallography, we designed a series of potent MMP-13 selective inhibitors optimized to occupy the distinct deep S1' pocket including an adjacent branch. Among them, carboxylic acid inhibitor 21k exhibited excellent potency and selectivity for MMP-13 over other MMPs. An effort to convert compound 21k to the mono sodium salt 38 was promising in all animal species studied. Moreover, no overt toxicity was observed in a preliminary repeat dose oral toxicity study of compound 21k in rats. A single oral dose of compound 38 significantly reduced degradation products (CTX-II) released from articular cartilage into the joint cavity in a rat MIA model in vivo. In this article, we report the discovery of highly potent, selective, and orally bioavailable MMP-13 inhibitors as well as their detailed structure-activity data.

  6. How High School Students Select a College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Joseph E., Jr.; And Others

    The college selection process used by high school students was studied and a paradigm that describes the process was developed, based on marketing theory concerning consumer behavior. Primarily college freshmen and high school seniors were interviewed, and a few high school juniors and upper-level college students were surveyed to determine…

  7. Job Satisfaction of a selected group of hospital dietitians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie E. Van Heernden

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the job satisfaction of a selected group of hospital dietitians is reported in an attempt to explain the interrelationship of various aspects contributing to such satisfaction. General job satisfaction, satisfaction with specific aspects of the job and personality profiles of a newly developed Job Factor scale. The study is a further contribution to the understanding of job satisfaction of professional women in a specific work environment - in this case professional dietitians in hospitals. Opsomming Die werkstevredenheid van hospitaaldieetkundiges word ondersoek na aanleiding van die interverwantskap van verskillende aspekte wat tot 'n beter verklaring daarvan kan lei. Die algemene werkstevredenheid, werkstevredenheid met spesifieke aspekte van die werk en persoonlikheidstrekke van dieetkundiges word met bestaande skale en ‘n ontwikkelde meetmiddel ondersoek. Die studie is 'n bydrae tot die verdere verklaring en moontlike bevraagtekening van die werkstevredenheid van professionele vroue in 'n bepaalde werksomgewing - in hierdie geval professionele dieetkundiges in hospitale.

  8. Multicriteria decision group model for the selection of suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have been studying group decision making over the years, which indicates how relevant it is. This paper presents a multicriteria group decision model based on ELECTRE IV and VIP Analysis methods, to those cases where there is great divergence among the decision makers. This model includes two stages. In the first, the ELECTRE IV method is applied and a collective criteria ranking is obtained. In the second, using criteria ranking, VIP Analysis is applied and the alternatives are selected. To illustrate the model, a numerical application in the context of the selection of suppliers in project management is used. The suppliers that form part of the project team have a crucial role in project management. They are involved in a network of connected activities that can jeopardize the success of the project, if they are not undertaken in an appropriate way. The question tackled is how to select service suppliers for a project on behalf of an enterprise that assists the multiple objectives of the decision-makers.Vários autores têm estudado decisão em grupo nos últimos anos, o que indica a relevância do assunto. Esse artigo apresenta um modelo multicritério de decisão em grupo baseado nos métodos ELECTRE IV e VIP Analysis, adequado aos casos em que se tem uma grande divergência entre os decisores. Esse modelo é composto por dois estágios. No primeiro, o método ELECTRE IV é aplicado e uma ordenação dos critérios é obtida. No próximo estágio, com a ordenação dos critérios, o método VIP Analysis é aplicado e as alternativas são selecionadas. Para ilustrar o modelo, uma aplicação numérica no contexto da seleção de fornecedores em projetos é realizada. Os fornecedores que fazem parte da equipe do projeto têm um papel fundamental no gerenciamento de projetos. Eles estão envolvidos em uma rede de atividades conectadas que, caso não sejam executadas de forma apropriada, podem colocar em risco o sucesso do

  9. Monitoring community mobilisation and organisational capacity among high-risk groups in a large-scale HIV prevention programme in India: selected findings using a Community Ownership and Preparedness Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Pradeep; Moulasha, K; Wheeler, Tisha; Baer, James; Bharadwaj, Sowmyaa; Ramanathan, T V; Thomas, Tom

    2012-10-01

    In a participatory approach to health and development interventions, defining and measuring community mobilisation is important, but it is challenging to do this effectively, especially at scale. A cross-sectional, participatory monitoring tool was administered in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 across a representative sample of 25 community-based groups (CBGs) formed under the Avahan India AIDS Initiative, to assess their progress in mobilisation, and to inform efforts to strengthen the groups and make them sustainable. The survey used a weighted index to capture both qualitative and quantitative data in numeric form. The index permitted broad, as well as highly detailed, analysis of community mobilisation, relevant at the level of individual groups, as well as state-wide and across the whole programme. The survey demonstrated that leadership and programme management were the strongest areas among the CBGs, confirming the programme's investment in these areas. Discussion of the Round 1 results led to efforts to strengthen governance and democratic decision making in the groups, and progress was reflected in the Round 2 survey results. CBG engagement with state authorities to gain rights and entitlements and securing the long-term financial stability of groups remain a challenge. The survey has proven useful for informing the managers of programmes about what is happening on the ground, and it has opened spaces for discussion within community groups about the nature of leadership, decision making and their goals, which is leading to accelerated progress. The tool provided useful data to manage community mobilisation in Avahan.

  10. Comparison of high group velocity accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.

    1987-02-01

    It is well known that waveguides with no perturbations have phase velocities greater than the velocity of light c. If the waveguide dimensions are chosen so that the phase velocity is only moderately greater than c, only small perturbations are required to reduce the phase velocity to be synchronous with a high energy particle bunch. Such a lightly loaded accelerator structure will have smaller longitudinal and transverse wake potentials and hence will lead to lower emittance growth in an accelerated beam. Since these structures are lightly loaded, their group velocities are only slightly less than c and not in the order of 0.01c, as is the case for the standard disk-loaded structures. To ascertain that the peak and average power requirements for these structures are not prohibitive, we examine the elastance and the Q for several traveling wave structures: phase slip structures, bellows-like structures, and lightly loaded disk-loaded structures

  11. Do extra-group fertilizations increase the potential for sexual selection in male mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isvaran, Kavita; Sankaran, Sumithra

    2017-10-01

    Fertilizations by males outside the social breeding group (extra-group paternity, EGP) are widespread in birds and mammals. EGP is generally proposed to increase male reproductive skew and thereby increase the potential for sexual selection, but the generality of this relationship is unclear. We extracted data from 27 mammals in seven orders and used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the influence of EGP and social mating system on measures of inequality in male fertilization success, which are indices of the potential for sexual selection. We find that EGP and social mating system can predict the potential for sexual selection in mammalian populations, but only when considered jointly and not individually. EGP appears to increase the potential for sexual selection but only when the degree of social polygyny is relatively low. When social polygyny is high, EGP appears to result in a more uniform distribution of reproduction and a decrease in the potential for sexual selection. A possible explanation to be investigated is that the phenotype of extra-group fathers differs systematically across social mating systems. Our findings have implications for the use of EGP and social mating system as indices of sexual selection in comparative analyses of trait evolution under sexual selection. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity (ζ = ΔQ/(Δp/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  13. Simultaneous Channel and Feature Selection of Fused EEG Features Based on Sparse Group Lasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and classification of EEG signals are core parts of brain computer interfaces (BCIs. Due to the high dimension of the EEG feature vector, an effective feature selection algorithm has become an integral part of research studies. In this paper, we present a new method based on a wrapped Sparse Group Lasso for channel and feature selection of fused EEG signals. The high-dimensional fused features are firstly obtained, which include the power spectrum, time-domain statistics, AR model, and the wavelet coefficient features extracted from the preprocessed EEG signals. The wrapped channel and feature selection method is then applied, which uses the logistical regression model with Sparse Group Lasso penalized function. The model is fitted on the training data, and parameter estimation is obtained by modified blockwise coordinate descent and coordinate gradient descent method. The best parameters and feature subset are selected by using a 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the test data is classified using the trained model. Compared with existing channel and feature selection methods, results show that the proposed method is more suitable, more stable, and faster for high-dimensional feature fusion. It can simultaneously achieve channel and feature selection with a lower error rate. The test accuracy on the data used from international BCI Competition IV reached 84.72%.

  14. Fabrication of high efficacy selective solar absorbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tile, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency tandem selective solar absorber materials of carbon in nickel oxide (C-NiO) composite were fabricated on an aluminium substrate using a simple and cost effective sol-gel process. The process involved preparation of carbon and nickel...

  15. Processing Consequences of Perceptual Grouping in Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Mitchell S.; Hoyer, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Examined adult age differences in the effects of perceptual grouping on attentional performance. All three age groups were slowed by the presence of similar irrelevant information, but the elderly were slowed more than were the young adults. (Author)

  16. Diagnosis and Management of High Risk Group for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086

  17. OPPS Provider Summary for 30 Selected APC Groups - CY2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A provider level summary of Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) average estimated submitted charges and average Medicare Payments for 30 selected Ambulatory...

  18. EPA Selects Lawrence, Mass. Group for Brownfields Job Training Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, EPA announced that the Merrimack Valley Workforce Investment Board, of Lawrence, Mass., was one of 14 organizations nationwide selected to receive funding to operate environmental job training programs for local unemployed residents.

  19. Directional selection causes decanalization in a group I ribozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Eric J; Weikert, Christian; Wagner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A canalized genotype is robust to environmental or genetic perturbations. Canalization is expected to result from stabilizing selection on a well-adapted phenotype. Decanalization, the loss of robustness, might follow periods of directional selection toward a new optimum. The evolutionary forces causing decanalization are still unknown, in part because it is difficult to determine the fitness effects of mutations in populations of organisms with complex genotypes and phenotypes. Here, we report direct experimental measurements of robustness in a system with a simple genotype and phenotype, the catalytic activity of an RNA enzyme. We find that the robustness of a population of RNA enzymes decreases during a period of directional selection in the laboratory. The decrease in robustness is primarily caused by the selective sweep of a genotype that is decanalized relative to the wild-type, both in terms of mutational robustness and environmental robustness (thermodynamic stability). Our results experimentally demonstrate that directional selection can cause decanalization on short time scales, and demonstrate co-evolution of mutational and environmental robustness.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Selected Bacterial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszak, Dorota; Gałęcka, Mirosława; Cichy, Wojciech; Szachta, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was evaluation of qualitative and quantitative changes in bacterial ecosystem in 109 children with inflammatory bowel diseases. Stools obtained from patients were analysed for selected bacteria and concentration of faecal inflammatory markers (calprotectin, lactoferrin, M2-PK). The number of selected microorganisms depends on the level of clinical activity of disease and is correlated with faecal concentration of inflammatory markers. Differences in microflora disturbance, observed in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, may suggest different causes of development of both pathologies.

  1. Animal Rights Groups Target High School Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Two groups leading the charge against dissection are People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and the Student Action Corps for Animals (SACA). Protests by student and community members remain the movement's strongest weapon. (MLF)

  2. Perceived Visual Deterioration among a Selected Group of Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the perceived visual deterioration and the determinants among selected dental surgeons in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of Resident doctors attending the Revision course of Faculty of Dental Surgery of the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, ...

  3. Maximizing Consensus in Portfolio Selection in Multicriteria Group Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michael, Emmerich T. M.; Deutz, A.H.; Li, L.; Asep, Maulana A.; Yevseyeva, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a scenario of decision making where a moderator selects a (sub)set (aka portfolio) of decision alternatives from a larger set. The larger the number of decision makers who agree on a solution in the portfolio the more successful the moderator is. We assume that decision makers

  4. Selected papers on harmonic analysis, groups, and invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Nomizu, Katsumi

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains papers that originally appeared in Japanese in the journal Sūgaku. Ordinarily the papers would appear in the AMS translation of that journal, but to expedite publication the Society has chosen to publish them as a volume of selected papers. The papers range over a variety of topics, including representation theory, differential geometry, invariant theory, and complex analysis.

  5. Personnel selection using group fuzzy AHP and SAW methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Afshari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Personnel evaluation and selection is a very important activity for the enterprises. Different job needs different ability and the requirement of criteria which can measure ability is different. It needs a suitable and flexible method to evaluate the performance of each candidate according to different requirements of different jobs in relation to each criterion. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is one of Multi Criteria decision making methods derived from paired comparisons. Simple Additive Weighting (SAW is most frequently used multi attribute decision technique. The method is based on the weighted average. It successfully models the ambiguity and imprecision associated with the pair wise comparison process and reduces the personal biasness. This study tries to analyze the Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to make the recruitment process more reasonable, based on the fuzzy multiple criteria decision making model to achieve the goal of personnel selection. Finally, an example is implemented to demonstrate the practicability of the proposed method.

  6. A Selective Group Authentication Scheme for IoT-Based Medical Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2017-04-01

    The technology of IoT combined with medical systems is expected to support advanced medical services. However, unsolved security problems, such as misuse of medical devices, illegal access to the medical server and so on, make IoT-based medical systems not be applied widely. In addition, users have a high burden of computation to access Things for the explosive growth of IoT devices. Because medical information is critical and important, but users have a restricted computing power, IoT-based medical systems are required to provide secure and efficient authentication for users. In this paper, we propose a selective group authentication scheme using Shamir's threshold technique. The property of selectivity gives the right of choice to users to form a group which consists of things users select and access. And users can get an access authority for those Things at a time. Thus, our scheme provides an efficient user authentication for multiple Things and conditional access authority for safe IoT-based medical information system. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first in which selectivity is combined with group authentication in IoT environments.

  7. The selection and use of control groups in epidemiologic studies of radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.; Friedenreich, C.M.; Howe, P.D.

    1990-09-01

    Current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are based on epidemiologic studies of humans exposed to high doses of radiation. A critical feature of such studies is the selection of an appropriate control group. This report presents a detailed examination of the principles underlying the selection and use of control groups in such epidemiologic studies. It is concluded that the cohort study is the preferred design, because of the rarity of exposure to high levels of radiation in the general population and because the cohort design is less susceptible to bias. This report also assesses potential bias in current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer due to inappropriate choice and use of control groups. Detailed summaries are presented for those epidemiologic studies on which the BEIR IV risk estimates are based. It is concluded that confounding is by far the major potential concern. Bias is probably negligible in risk estimates for breast cancer. For lung cancer, risk estimates may be underestimated by about 30 percent for males and 10 percent for females due to confounding of smoking and radiation exposure. For leukemia and cancers of the thyroid and bone, the absence of established non-radiation risk factors with a high prevalence in the population under study suggests that there is unlikely to be any substantial confounding radiation risk estimates. Finally, lifetime excess mortality risks have been estimated for several of the cancers of interest following exposure to radiation based on Canadian age-, sex- and cause-specific mortality rates. It is concluded that errors in measurement exposure, uncertainty in extrapolating the results of high dose studies to low doses and low dose rates, and sampling variation in the epidemiologic studies contribute far more to uncertainty in current risk estimates than do any biases in the epidemiologic studies introduced by inappropriate selection and use of control groups. (161 refs., 19 tabs.)

  8. Exploiting peer group concept for adaptive and highly available services

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, M A; Fraz, M M; Ali, A; Ali, Arshad; Fraz, Mohammad Moazam; Jan, Muhammad Asif; Zahid, Fahd Ali

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype for redundant, highly available and fault tolerant peer to peer framework for data management. Peer to peer computing is gaining importance due to its flexible organization, lack of central authority, distribution of functionality to participating nodes and ability to utilize unused computational resources. Emergence of GRID computing has provided much needed infrastructure and administrative domain for peer to peer computing. The components of this framework exploit peer group concept to scope service and information search, arrange services and information in a coherent manner, provide selective redundancy and ensure availability in face of failure and high load conditions. A prototype system has been implemented using JXTA peer to peer technology and XML is used for service description and interfaces, allowing peers to communicate with services implemented in various platforms including web services and JINI services. It utilizes code mobility to achieve role interchange amo...

  9. Application of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Kozhanova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: motivation of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises considering compatibility factor. Material: in the research 40 high qualification sportswomen of 17-23 yrs age with sport experience of 11-16 years participated. With cluster analysis 10 gymnasts with morphological indicators, meeting modern standards of group exercises were selected. Results: we found 5 generalized factors, which characterize structure of selection to teams and determines 72% of dispersion. Influence of kinds and connected with them criteria of compatibility on efficiency of gymnasts’ competition functioning were also determined. The authors substantiated methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor. Conclusions: in selection to calisthenics teams for group exercises it is purposeful to realize complex registration of compatibility kinds, considering gymnasts’ similar features by recommended indicators.

  10. Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is

  11. Comparing single-tree selection, group selection, and clearcutting for regenerating oaks and pines in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    In the Missouri Ozarks, there is considerable concern about the effectiveness of the uneven-aged methods of single-tree selection and group selection for oak (Quercus L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration. We compared the changes in reproduction density of oaks and pine following harvesting by single-tree...

  12. The Current Evidence for Hayek’s Cultural Group Selection Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Lowell Stone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I summarize Friedrich Hayek’s cultural group selection theory and describe the evidence gathered by current cultural group selection theorists within the behavioral and social sciences supporting Hayek’s main assertions. I conclude with a few comments on Hayek and libertarianism.

  13. An expert system for estimating production rates and costs for hardwood group-selection harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; B. Gopalakrishnan; R. S. Pabba

    2003-01-01

    As forest managers shift their focus from stands to entire ecosystems alternative harvesting methods such as group selection are being used increasingly. Results of several field time and motion studies and simulation runs were incorporated into an expert system for estimating production rates and costs associated with harvests of group-selection units of various size...

  14. Logging costs and production rates for the group selection cutting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1965-01-01

    Young-growth, mixed-conifer stands were logged by a group-selection method designed to create openings 30, 60, and 90 feet in diameter. Total costs for felling, limbing, bucking, and skidding on these openings ranged from $7.04 to $7.99 per thousand board feet. Cost differences between openings were not statistically significant. Logging costs for group selection...

  15. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili; Wickens, Zachary K.; Dong, Guangbin; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Network-based group variable selection for detecting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuegong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL aims to identify the genetic loci associated with the expression level of genes. Penalized regression with a proper penalty is suitable for the high-dimensional biological data. Its performance should be enhanced when we incorporate biological knowledge of gene expression network and linkage disequilibrium (LD structure between loci in high-noise background. Results We propose a network-based group variable selection (NGVS method for QTL detection. Our method simultaneously maps highly correlated expression traits sharing the same biological function to marker sets formed by LD. By grouping markers, complex joint activity of multiple SNPs can be considered and the dimensionality of eQTL problem is reduced dramatically. In order to demonstrate the power and flexibility of our method, we used it to analyze two simulations and a mouse obesity and diabetes dataset. We considered the gene co-expression network, grouped markers into marker sets and treated the additive and dominant effect of each locus as a group: as a consequence, we were able to replicate results previously obtained on the mouse linkage dataset. Furthermore, we observed several possible sex-dependent loci and interactions of multiple SNPs. Conclusions The proposed NGVS method is appropriate for problems with high-dimensional data and high-noise background. On eQTL problem it outperforms the classical Lasso method, which does not consider biological knowledge. Introduction of proper gene expression and loci correlation information makes detecting causal markers more accurate. With reasonable model settings, NGVS can lead to novel biological findings.

  18. Tree regeneration response to the group selection method in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Tree regeneration response following the use of the group selection method was studied within 36 group openings on the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division in south central Indiana. Two different aspects and three time periods since cutting were examined. The objectives were to determine whether aspect, age, species group, location within the opening, or their...

  19. Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur, North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M; Meitei, S Y; Luxmi, Y; Achoubi, N; Meitei, K S; Murry, B; Sachdeva, M P; Saraswathy, K N

    2014-01-01

    Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur in comparison with other North East Indian population has been studied. Crow's index as well as Johnston and Kensinger's index for natural selection were calculated based on differential fertility and mortality. The mortality component was found to be lower compared to fertility component in all the populations which may attribute to comparatively improved and easily accessible health care facilities. However, different selection pressures, artificial and natural, seem to be influencing the selection intensity through induced abortion and spontaneous abortion among the two non-tribal migrant groups: Bamon and Muslims, respectively. This study highlights the probable interaction of artificial and natural selection in determining the evolutionary fate of any population group.

  20. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, W.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references

  1. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1977-11-08

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references.

  2. Pawtucket R.I. Group Selected for EPA Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training Program Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwork Rhode Island, a Pawtucket-based organization, was one of 17 groups selected today by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to share $3.3 million to operate environmental job training programs for local citizens.

  3. Effect of Group-Selection Opening Size on Breeding Bird Habitat Use in a Bottomland Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, C.E.; D.C. Guynn, Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.

  4. Ability Group Configuration for the High School Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Scott

    This research project looks to investigate the effectiveness of different ability grouping arrangements for the high school physics classroom. Students were first organized based on their academic aptitude in physics into three general groups of high, medium, and low achieving students. They were then divided into both groups of four and dyads that were constructed in one of four arrangements, namely: random, homogeneous, heterogeneous, or student choice. Data was collected based on their academic performance as well as survey responses regarding the group and dyad performance. Students worked in a rotation of these groups and dyads for a unit to measure student preference and introduce collaborative work formally to the classes. At this point it was evident that students preferred the student choice arrangement based on survey responses, yet the student choice survey responses also resulted in the lowest level of reliability when compared to all other grouping methods. For the next unit students were kept in either the random, homogeneous, or heterogeneous grouping arrangement for the entirety of the unit. At the conclusion of the second unit student achievement as well as survey responses were analyzed. As a result of this research there appears to be a slight student preference as well as academic benefit to homogeneous group and dyad arrangements for each of the three ability groups of students in the high school physics classroom when compared to random and heterogeneous grouping methods of academic group arrangement.

  5. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  6. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application ... sources include cashew, apple juice (Osho, 2005), palm ... choice for fermentation (Chandra and Panchal, 2003). Yeasts ...

  7. An integrated approach for determining the size of hardwood group-selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1999-01-01

    The use of group-selection methods is becoming more widespread as landowners and forest managers attempt to respond to public pressure to reduce the size of clearcut blocks. Several studies have shown that harvesting timber in smaller groups or clumps increases the cost of operations for both cable and ground-based logging systems. Recent regeneration studies have...

  8. Effects of group-selection timber harvest in bottomland hardwoods on fall migrant birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo; Karl V. Miller; Winston P. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Due to projected demands for hardwood timber, development of silvicultural practices that provide for adequate regeneration in southeastern bottomland hardwoods without causing undue harm to wildlife resources is critical. Group-selection silviculture involves harvesting a small group of trees, which creates a canopy gap (usually

  9. A quantitative genetic model of reciprocal altruism: a condition for kin or group selection to prevail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K

    1983-01-01

    A condition is derived for reciprocal altruism to evolve by kin or group selection. It is assumed that many additively acting genes of small effect and the environment determine the probability that an individual is a reciprocal altruist, as opposed to being unconditionally selfish. The particular form of reciprocal altruism considered is TIT FOR TAT, a strategy that involves being altruistic on the first encounter with another individual and doing whatever the other did on the previous encounter in subsequent encounters with the same individual. Encounters are restricted to individuals of the same generation belonging to the same kin or breeding group, but first encounters occur at random within that group. The number of individuals with which an individual interacts is assumed to be the same within any kin or breeding group. There are 1 + i expected encounters between two interacting individuals. On any encounter, it is assumed that an individual who behaves altruistically suffers a cost in personal fitness proportional to c while improving his partner's fitness by the same proportion of b. Then, the condition for kin or group selection to prevail is [Formula: see text] if group size is sufficiently large and the group mean and the within-group genotypic variance of the trait value (i.e., the probability of being a TIT-FOR-TAT strategist) are uncorrelated. Here, C, Vb, and Tb are the population mean, between-group variance, and between-group third central moment of the trait value and r is the correlation between the additive genotypic values of interacting kin or of individuals within the same breeding group. The right-hand side of the above inequality is monotone decreasing in C if we hold Tb/Vb constant, and kin and group selection become superfluous beyond a certain threshold value of C. The effect of finite group size is also considered in a kin-selection model. PMID:6575395

  10. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in ethanologenic fermentations. Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure ...

  11. Effects of task-irrelevant grouping on visual selection in partial report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Rasmus; Habekost, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    and the selection criterion was luminance. This effect was accompanied by impaired selectivity in unsorted-color trials. Overall, the results suggest that the benefit of task-irrelevant color grouping of targets is contingent on the processing locus of the selection criterion....... the color of the elements in these trials. In the sorted-color condition, the color of the display elements was arranged according to the selection criterion, and in the unsorted-color condition, colors were randomly assigned. The distractor cost was inferred by subtracting performance in partial......-report trials from performance in a control condition that had no distractors in the display. Across five experiments, we manipulated trial order, selection criterion, and exposure duration, and found that attentional selectivity was improved in sorted-color trials when the exposure duration was 200 ms...

  12. MR urography of obstructive uropathy: diagnostic value of the method in selected clinical groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielonko, J.; Studniarek, M. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Debinki 7, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Markuszewski, M. [Department of Radiology, Clinical Hospital No. 3, Kieturakisa 1, 80-742 Gdansk (Poland)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of MR urography (MRU) in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy in selected groups of patients. The groups involved following pathologies: calculi; strictures of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ); benign and malignancy-induced ureterostenosis. Sixty patients with clinical diagnosis of obstructive uropathy were subjected to static fluid MRU (sMRU) with the use of 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence in a 0.5-T magnet. The examination was completed with conventional MR sequences and in 12 cases additionally with sequences after the administration of Gd-DTPA and excretory MRU. The results were compared with intravenous urography (IVU), CT, US, clinical and histopathological data. The degree of the urinary tract dilatation as well as the level and type of obstruction were estimated. In patients with urolithiasis sMRU correctly depicted the degree of ureterohydronephrosis in 85%, in cases of UPJ stenosis and malignancy-induced ureterostenosis in 100% and in the group of benign ureterostenosis in 91% of patients. Determination of obstruction level in patients with stones was adequate in 92% and in cases of non-calculous ureteral strictures in 100% of patients. The sMRU sequence alone could not specify the nature of obstruction except 1 case of bladder carcinoma. Filling defects in ureters visible on MR urograms were verified with IVU or CT to exclude intrinsic tumours. Completed with conventional MR sequences sMRU enabled the depiction of solid mass or infiltration in 83% cases of malignancy-induced ureterostenosis, and in the remaining groups of patients neoplastic process was excluded in 91%. In conjunction with excretory MRU and conventional MR images sMRU appears to be a highly useful technique in assessment of obstructive uropathy, especially that of non-calculous origin. Among different clinical applications MRU is superior in the evaluation of dilated urinary tract in altered anatomical conditions (e.g. in patients with ileal

  13. Silyl-protective groups influencing the reactivity and selectivity in glycosylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Silyl groups such as TBDPS, TBDMS, TIPS or TMS are well-known and widely used alcohol protective groups in organic chemistry. Cyclic silylene protective groups are also becoming increasingly popular. In carbohydrate chemistry silyl protective groups have frequently been used primarily as an ortho...... protected. Within the last decade polysilylated glycosyl donors have been found to have unusual properties such as high (or low) reactivity or high stereoselectivity. This mini review will summarize these findings...

  14. The effectiveness of group selection theory on the quality of drug addicted life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sodani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and aim: Increase in addiction in the community and the plight of its people demand for improving the problems of addicts, indicate a need for individuals to interventions and training expertise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of group selection theory on the quality of drug addicted life.  .  Methods: This study is an quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest and follow up with the control group. The study population included: all addicted people who referred to ahvaz addiction treatment center in 2015. 50 addicts were selected by using of  available sampling and randomly divided into  two experimental group (number=25 and control group (number=25. The participants were completed the quality of life inventory in three stages (pre-test, post-test and follow-up after 60 days. The experimental group was received group training of the concepts of selection theory of 10 sessions of 90 minutes per week.Statistical data were analyzed  using of covariance(ANCOVA analysis. Results: Group training theory led to a significant difference among pretest, posttest, and follow-up of quality of addicted people life (p <0.001. In this case, the post-test and follow-up, after controlling of pre-test score, the experimental group compared to the control group higher quality of life was reported. Conclusion: Group training of selected theory about the role of choosing a behavior, five senses  the importance of self control, the role of effective behavior, the way of need fulfilment, responsibility, self worth, Quality world, seven destructive behavior, seven caring behavior, faiure identification and success identification can result in increasing the quality of life for addicted people.

  15. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  16. The Group Selection Debate and ALife: Weak Altruism, Strong Altruism, and Inclusive Fitness (abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Simon T.; Watson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Models of the evolution of social behaviour are often framed in terms of either multi-level selection or inclusive individual fitness theory. Although both of these descriptions correctly predict changes in gene frequency (where group fitness is defined as the average individual fitness of the group members), it is still a hotly contested issue as to which provides a faithful description of the underlying causal processes at work. Furthermore, the type of model analysis used reflects the phil...

  17. Seed fall and regeneration from a group selection cut . . . first year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1966-01-01

    To approximate a group selection cut at the Challenge Experimental Forest, 48 small openings of three sizes—30, 60, and 90 feet in diameter—were logged in 1963. One aim was to create conditions of light and soil moisture that would favor establishment and growth of Douglas-fir, sugar pine, and white fir over ponderosa pine. Seed fall and first-year...

  18. Ten-year diameter and basal area growth of trees surrounding small group selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie; Celeste S. Abbott

    1996-01-01

    The effects of small openings in forest stands has interested silviculturists and ecologists for years. Interest generally has centered on the vegetation in the openings, not on that immediately outside of them. Quantitative information on the growth of trees adjacent to group-selection openings, although often mentioned in forestry textbooks as contributing to cost...

  19. Hybrid Multicriteria Group Decision Making Method for Information System Project Selection Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information system (IS project selection is of critical importance to every organization in dynamic competing environment. The aim of this paper is to develop a hybrid multicriteria group decision making approach based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory for IS project selection. The decision makers’ assessment information can be expressed in the form of real numbers, interval-valued numbers, linguistic variables, and intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs. All these evaluation pieces of information can be transformed to the form of IFNs. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is used to obtain the entropy weights of the criteria. TOPSIS method combined with intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed to select appropriate IS project in group decision making environment. Finally, a numerical example for information system projects selection is given to illustrate application of hybrid multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM method based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory and TOPSIS method.

  20. Naturally seeded versus planted ponderosa pine seedlings in group-selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary Fiddler; Martin Ritchie; Paula Anderson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to determine whether natural regeneration or planted seedlings should be used in group-selection openings. The answer dependson the survival and growth rate of both types of seedlings, and that could depend on the size of the openings and the effect of trees on their edge. In thisside-by-side study, the natural pine seedlings originated...

  1. Determinants of Labour Force Participation for Selected Groups With Weak Labour Market Attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Maire, Daniel; Scheuer, Christian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the eects of economic incentives on the labour market participation for selected groups with weak labour market attachment. We argue that the people most likely to be affected by economic incentives are recipients of socialassistance and home-working housewives. Partner ...

  2. Comparative evaluation of 5 different selective media for Group B Streptococcus screening in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubrel, Caroline; Gendron, Nicolas; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Touak, Gérald; Verlaguet, Martine; Poyart, Claire; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène

    2014-12-01

    We compared the performances and the cost-effectiveness of 5 selective media for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening in vaginal samples from pregnant women. The usefulness of these media is unquestionable for GBS screening; the choice will depend largely on the laboratory organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In love and war: altruism, norm formation, and two different types of group selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, C.M.; Hopfensitz, A.

    2007-01-01

    We analyse simulations reported in "The co-evolution of individual behaviors and social institutions" by Bowles et al., 2003 in the Journal of Theoretical Biology 223, 135-147, and begin with distinguishing two types of group selection models. The literature does not provide different names for

  4. Obligations to High Priority Target Groups: Philosophical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, June Jackson

    Community mental health center services must be most plentiful where the need is greatest and must be appropriate and available to meet these needs. The first high priority group, according to statistics on juvenile delinquency, and narcotics, is the black inner city. Socio-psychiatric services, numerous enough in quantity to begin to meet needs…

  5. Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI Imaging of HI-selected Local Group Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elizabeth A.; Cannon, J. M.; Oosterloo, T.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    The paucity of low mass galaxies in the Universe is a long-standing problem. We recently presented a set of isolated ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) identified within the dataset of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) HI line survey that are consistent with representing low mass gas-bearing dark matter halos within the Local Group (Adams et al. 2013). At distances of ~1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have HI masses of ~10^5 Msun and indicative dynamical masses of ~10^7 Msun. The HI diameters of the UCHVCs range from 4' to 20', or 1 to 6 kpc at a distance of 1 Mpc. We have selected the most compact and isolated UCHVCs with the highest average column densities as representing the best galaxy candidates. Seven of these systems have been observed with WSRT to enable higher spatial resolution 40-60") studies of the HI distribution. The HI morphology revealed by the WSRT data offers clues to the environment of the UCHVCs, and velocity fields allow the underlying mass distribution to be constrained. The Cornell ALFALFA team is supported by NSF AST-1107390 and by the Brinson Foundation. JMC is supported by NSF grant AST-1211683.

  6. A simple three step method for selective placement of organic groups in mesoporous silica thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, Esteban A. [Gerencia Química, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llave, Ezequiel de la; Williams, Federico J. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soler-Illia, Galo J.A.A., E-mail: galo.soler.illia@gmail.com [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Nanosistemas, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-01

    Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. The first step consists in an outer surface functionalization, followed by washing off the structuring agent (second step), leaving the inner surface of the pores free to be functionalized in the third step. This reproducible method permits to anchor a volatile silane group in the outer film surface, and a second type of silane group in the inner surface of the pores. As a concept test we modified the outer surface of a mesoporous silica film with trimethylsilane (–Si–(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) groups and the inner pore surface with propylamino (–Si–(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}–NH{sub 2}) groups. The obtained silica films were characterized by Environmental Ellipsometric Porosimetry (EEP), EDS, XPS, contact angle and electron microscopy. The selectively functionalized silica (SF) shows an amount of surface amino functions 4.3 times lower than the one-step functionalized (OSF) silica samples. The method presented here can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides as functional groups, opening up a new route toward the synthesis of multifunctional mesoporous thin films with precisely localized organic functions. - Highlights: • Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. • A volatile silane group is anchored by evaporation on the outer film surface. • A second silane is deposited in the inner surface of the pores by post-grafting. • Contact angle, EDS and XPS measurements show different proportions of amino groups on both surfaces. • This method can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides functional groups.

  7. BOOGIE: Predicting Blood Groups from High Throughput Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Scalzotto, Marta; Leonardi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Carlo; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an incredible growth in the amount of available genotype data due to high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. This information may be used to predict phenotypes of medical relevance, and pave the way towards personalized medicine. Blood phenotypes (e.g. ABO and Rh) are a purely genetic trait that has been extensively studied for decades, with currently over thirty known blood groups. Given the public availability of blood group data, it is of interest to predict these phenotypes from HTS data which may translate into more accurate blood typing in clinical practice. Here we propose BOOGIE, a fast predictor for the inference of blood groups from single nucleotide variant (SNV) databases. We focus on the prediction of thirty blood groups ranging from the well known ABO and Rh, to the less studied Junior or Diego. BOOGIE correctly predicted the blood group with 94% accuracy for the Personal Genome Project whole genome profiles where good quality SNV annotation was available. Additionally, our tool produces a high quality haplotype phase, which is of interest in the context of ethnicity-specific polymorphisms or traits. The versatility and simplicity of the analysis make it easily interpretable and allow easy extension of the protocol towards other phenotypes. BOOGIE can be downloaded from URL http://protein.bio.unipd.it/download/.

  8. Selective memory retrieval in social groups: When silence is golden and when it is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that the selective remembering of a speaker and the resulting silences can cause forgetting of related, but unmentioned information by a listener (Cuc, Koppel, & Hirst, 2007). Guided by more recent work that demonstrated both detrimental and beneficial effects of selective memory retrieval in individuals, the present research explored the effects of selective remembering in social groups when access to the encoding context at retrieval was maintained or impaired. In each of three experiments, selective retrieval by the speaker impaired recall of the listener when access to the encoding context was maintained, but it improved recall of the listener when context access was impaired. The results suggest the existence of two faces of selective memory retrieval in social groups, with a detrimental face when the encoding context is still active at retrieval and a beneficial face when it is not. The role of silence in social recall thus seems to be more complex than was indicated in prior work, and mnemonic silences on the part of a speaker can be "golden" for the memories of a listener under some circumstances, but not be "golden" under others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly Selective Synthesis of Catalytically Active Monodisperse Rhodium Nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Grass, M.E.; Kuhn, J.N.; Tao, F.; Habas, S.E.; Huang, W.; Yang, P.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-02-21

    Synthesis of monodisperse and shape-controlled colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) is of increasing scientific interest and technological significance. Recently, shape control of Pt, Pd, Ag, Au, and Rh NCs has been obtained by tuning growth kinetics in various solution-phase approaches, including modified polyol methods, seeded growth by polyol reduction, thermolysis of organometallics, and micelle techniques. Control of reduction kinetics of the noble metal precursors and regulation of the relative growth rates of low-index planes (i.e. {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace}) via selective adsorption of selected chemical species are two keys for achieving shape modification of noble metal NCs. One application for noble metal NCs of well-defined shape is in understanding how NC faceting (determines which crystallographic planes are exposed) affects catalytic performance. Rh NCs are used in many catalytic reactions, including hydrogenation, hydroformylation, hydrocarbonylation, and combustion reactions. Shape manipulation of Rh NCs may be important in understanding how faceting on the nanoscale affects catalytic properties, but such control is challenging and there are fewer reports on the shape control of Rh NCs compared to other noble metals. Xia and coworkers obtained Rh multipods exhibiting interesting surface plasmonic properties by a polyol approach. The Somorjai and Tilley groups synthesized crystalline Rh multipods, cubes, horns and cuboctahedra, via polyol seeded growth. Son and colleagues prepared catalytically active monodisperse oleylamine-capped tetrahedral Rh NCs for the hydrogenation of arenes via an organometallic route. More recently, the Somorjai group synthesized sizetunable monodisperse Rh NCs using a one-step polyol technique. In this Communication, we report the highly selective synthesis of catalytically active, monodisperse Rh nanocubes of < 10 nm by a seedless polyol method. In this approach, Br{sup -} ions from trimethyl

  10. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  11. Positive and purifying selection influence the evolution of doublesex in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iderval S Sobrinho

    Full Text Available The gene doublesex (dsx is considered to be under strong selective constraint along its evolutionary history because of its central role in somatic sex differentiation in insects. However, previous studies of dsx used global estimates of evolutionary rates to investigate its molecular evolution, which potentially miss signals of adaptive changes in generally conserved genes. In this work, we investigated the molecular evolution of dsx in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group (Diptera, Tephritidae, and test the hypothesis that this gene evolved solely by purifying selection using divergence-based and population-based methods. In the first approach, we compared sequences from Anastrepha and other Tephritidae with other Muscomorpha species, analyzed variation in nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS in the Tephritidae, and investigated radical and conservative changes in amino acid physicochemical properties. We show a general selective constraint on dsx, but with signs of positive selection mainly in the common region. Such changes were localized in alpha-helices previously reported to be involved in dimer formation in the OD2 domain and near the C-terminal of the OD1 domain. In the population-based approach, we amplified a region of 540 bp that spanned almost all of the region common to both sexes from 32 different sites in Brazil. We investigated patterns of selection using neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum and locations of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in a haplotype network. As in the divergence-based approach, these analyses showed that dsx has evolved under an overall selective constraint, but with some events of positive selection. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses indicate that even though dsx has indeed evolved as a conserved gene, the common region of dsx has also experienced bouts of positive selection, perhaps driven by sexual selection, during its evolution.

  12. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.

  13. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-01-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  14. Green chemistry: highly selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ambient temperatures and moderate pH, thereby reducing environmental impact, minimising the cost of equipment and improving reaction safety2. A further benefit is that biocatalysts can synthesise complex chemicals selectively3. This avoids... nitrile group in a dinitrile molecule permits the incorporation of the unreacted nitrile into the final product or further functionalisation, such as reduction to an amino group. Hence, these enzymes can be used to provide access to specific complex...

  15. Health of women: associations among life events, social support, and personality for selected patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group.

  16. Selection and storage of perceptual groups is constrained by a discrete resource in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David E; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2013-06-01

    Perceptual grouping can lead observers to perceive a multielement scene as a smaller number of hierarchical units. Past work has shown that grouping enables more elements to be stored in visual working memory (WM). Although this may appear to contradict so-called discrete resource models that argue for fixed item limits in WM storage, it is also possible that grouping reduces the effective number of "items" in the display. To test this hypothesis, we examined how mnemonic resolution declined as the number of items to be stored increased. Discrete resource models predict that precision will reach a stable plateau at relatively early set sizes, because no further items can be stored once putative item limits are exceeded. Thus, we examined whether the precision by set size function was bilinear when storage was enhanced via perceptual grouping. In line with the hypothesis that each perceptual group counted as a single "item," precision still reached a clear plateau at a set size determined by the number of stored groups. Moreover, the maximum number of elements stored was doubled, and electrophysiological measures showed that selection and storage-related neural responses were the same for a single element and a multielement perceptual group. Thus, perceptual grouping allows more elements to be held in working memory while storage is still constrained by a discrete item limit.

  17. Partner Selection in a Virtual Enterprise: A Group Multiattribute Decision Model with Weighted Possibilistic Mean Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an extended technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS for partner selection in a virtual enterprise (VE. The imprecise and fuzzy information of the partner candidate and the risk preferences of decision makers are both considered in the group multiattribute decision-making model. The weighted possibilistic mean values are used to handle triangular fuzzy numbers in the fuzzy environment. A ranking procedure for partner candidates is developed to help decision makers with varying risk preferences select the most suitable partners. Numerical examples are presented to reflect the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed TOPSIS. Results show that the varying risk preferences of decision makers play a significant role in the partner selection process in VE under a fuzzy environment.

  18. A pragmatic pairwise group-decision method for selection of sites for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    A pragmatic pairwise group-decision approach is applied to compare two regions in order to select the more suitable one for construction of nulcear power plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The selection methodology is based on pairwise comparison by forced choice. The method facilitates rating of the regions or sites using simple calculations. Two regions, one close to Dhahran on the Arabian Gulf and another close to Jeddah on the Red Sea, are evaluated. No specific site in either region is considered at this stage. The comparison is based on a set of selection criteria which include (i) topography, (ii) geology, (iii) seismology, (iv) meteorology, (v) oceanography, (vi) hydrology and (vii) proximetry to oil and gas fields. The comparison shows that the Jeddah region is more suitable than the Dhahran region. (orig.)

  19. College grade point average as a personnel selection device: ethnic group differences and potential adverse impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, P L; Bobko, P

    2000-06-01

    College grade point average (GPA) is often used in a variety of ways in personnel selection. Unfortunately, there is little empirical research literature in human resource management that informs researchers or practitioners about the magnitude of ethnic group differences and any potential adverse impact implications when using cumulative GPA for selection. Data from a medium-sized university in the Southeast (N = 7,498) indicate that the standardized average Black-White difference for cumulative GPA in the senior year is d = 0.78. The authors also conducted analyses at 3 GPA screens (3.00, 3.25, and 3.50) to demonstrate that employers (or educators) might face adverse impact at all 3 levels if GPA continues to be implemented as part of a selection system. Implications and future research are discussed.

  20. A Multi-criteria neutrosophic group decision making metod based TOPSIS for supplier selection

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Rıdvan; Yiğider, Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    The process of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) is of determining the best choice among all of the probable alternatives. The problem of supplier selection on which decision maker has usually vague and imprecise knowledge is a typical example of multi criteria group decision-making problem. The conventional crisp techniques has not much effective for solving MCDM problems because of imprecise or fuzziness nature of the linguistic assessments. To find the exact values for MCDM problems...

  1. Group decision making in nest-site selection by honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley , Thomas; Kirk Visscher , P.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; In recent years, renewed attention has been paid to the mechanisms of group decision making that underlie the nest-site selection process in honey bees. We review the results of these new investigations by discussing how the recent work builds on the earlier descriptive studies of this decision-making process, how the decision-making abilities of swarms have been tested, and how the mechanisms of this decision-making process have been experimentally analyzed. We conclu...

  2. An Integrated Approach with Group Decision-Making for Strategy Selection in SWOT Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    İhsan Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to improve the analytical dimension of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis with group decision-making, which underlines the analysis of internal and external environments that in turn, will improve the definition of corporate strategy within the strategic planning process. The main issue of the study was how to select the most appropriate strategy by taking into consideration different effects of each factor of SWOT analysis on strat...

  3. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  4. Sex, kings and serial killers and other group-selected human traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, J T

    2000-06-01

    (Note: This unorthodox paper contains the first argument for heart disease being a programmed age change and promoted by the dramatic, post age-40 increases in the hormones FSH and hCG seen in some individuals.) A recent issue of Science suggests that the evolutionary purpose of sex is unknown. Surviving to adulthood implies a valuable gene combination which is destroyed by sexual recombination. This should be detrimental to offspring. PROPOSED: Sex is group-selected in prey to allow coalescence of beneficial, and disposal of detrimental, mutations in single individuals enabling rapid adaptation to novel predation. Group selection is a universal force driven by local inter-species (not intra-species) competition. Aging, metabolism, litter size, and fixed body size are directly linked. Sexual recombination and chromosomes destroy gene linkage and exist because mutations are usually detrimental, rarely positive, and occur in linked groups. In unevolving environments, sex is selected against and asexuality emerges. Periodic evolution of novel predators, like man, can explain the 'punctuated equilibria' fossil record. Genes inhibited by methylation or chromatin condensation, expressed at older ages in predation-minimized environments, allow for group selection. Stress increases mutation rates and beneficial mutation likelihood. Females select bigger, brighter, louder, or stronger males that can survive predator attention. Size approximates age and thus predator encounters; male traits represent predation-survival potential. Human male traits include, balding, acne, beard-length, wrinkling, graying, nose/ear growth. Progeria accelerates development of most male traits. Domination of groups by single males allows rapid predation-defense evolution: adolescent males are expelled, brave the wild, and expel another group's male to mate. If expelled and dominant males are culled by predation, males reaching puberty first will reproduce. Hormonal acceleration of puberty

  5. Selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducas, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    This specification relates to the selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high lying states and a method of separating different isotopes of the same element by selective excitation of the isotopes. (U.K.)

  6. An Improved Test Selection Optimization Model Based on Fault Ambiguity Group Isolation and Chaotic Discrete PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Lv

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor data-based test selection optimization is the basis for designing a test work, which ensures that the system is tested under the constraint of the conventional indexes such as fault detection rate (FDR and fault isolation rate (FIR. From the perspective of equipment maintenance support, the ambiguity isolation has a significant effect on the result of test selection. In this paper, an improved test selection optimization model is proposed by considering the ambiguity degree of fault isolation. In the new model, the fault test dependency matrix is adopted to model the correlation between the system fault and the test group. The objective function of the proposed model is minimizing the test cost with the constraint of FDR and FIR. The improved chaotic discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is adopted to solve the improved test selection optimization model. The new test selection optimization model is more consistent with real complicated engineering systems. The experimental result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Akihiro; Wang, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation.

  8. The Influence of Membership Groups on Selecting Accommodations: the Case of the Residential Tourist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Perez-Aranda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of consumer behavior when choosing property as accommodations improves the use of limited resources such as land and may promote the suitable development of tourism destinations. Knowledge of the factors that influence consumer behavior and that condition the process of purchasing a residential tourism property is useful in managing and designing strategies for segmenting tourism destinations. This study analyzes the influence of membership groups such as social class, culture, and family on choosing the type of property (ownership versus renting or using family or friends’ property and the typology (single- or multifamily that is in demand among residential tourists in the destination. Firstly, we identify which membership groups specifically influence the selection of type of property (social class and family. Then, we identify which groups influence the property typology (social class and people who are traveling and, in addition, those that influence both choices (social class.

  9. Liquidity Determinants of the Selected Banking Sectors and their Size Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Laštůvková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the factors affecting the liquidity of selected bank sectors, as well as their size groups, using panel regression analysis. For higher complexity of the results, multiple dependent variables are used: liquidity creation, outflow and net change. The values are calculated based on the specific method of liquidity risk measurement – gross liquidity flows. The results indicate both multiple effects of some factors on the given variables, as well as isolated influence of factors on a single liquidity form or size group. Thus, when looking for determinants using just one form of liquidity, such as creation, the results need not necessarily comprehensively show the influence of the given factors, and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The results also point to the differing behaviours of the size groups and their different sensitivity on the factors; smaller banks have shown higher sensitivity on macroeconomic variables. Higher flexibility in regulation could lead to higher optimization.

  10. Risk selection and risk adjustment: improving insurance in the individual and small group markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Dow, William H

    2009-01-01

    Insurance market reforms face the key challenge of addressing the threat that risk selection poses to the availability, of stable, high-value insurance policies that provide long-term risk protection. Many of the strategies in use today fail to address this breakdown in risk pooling, and some even exacerbate it. Flexible risk adjustment schemes are a promising avenue for promoting market stability and limiting insurer cream-skimming, potentially providing greater benefits at lower cost. Reforms intended to increase insurance coverage and the value of care delivered will be much more effective if implemented in conjunction with policies that address these fundamental selection issues.

  11. Ceramic-supported thin PVA pervaporation membranes combining high flux and high selectivity : contradicting the flux-selectivity paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.A.; Poeth, C.H.S.; Benes, N.E.; Buijs, H.C.W.M.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Thin, high-flux and highly selective cross-linked poly(vinyl)alcohol waterselective layers have been prepared on top of hollow fibre ceramic supports. The supports consist of an alpha-Al2O3 hollow fibre substrate and an intermediate gamma-Al2O3 layer, which provides a sufficiently smooth surface for

  12. A model for selecting project team members using multicriteria group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a project team is a complex multi-criteria decision-making problem. For this reason, one appropriate way to tackle such problems involves the use of multi-criteria decision aid methods. However, most of the decisions taken regarding the selection of project teams are made by a group of people. It is this which changes the focus of the problem by moving from one decision-maker (DM to a group of DMs. Analysis needs to be extended in order to consider the preference structure of each individual group member. In this paper, we present a group decision model for project team selection based on a multi-criteria evaluation of the preferences of a client's representatives. It could be applied to any decision problem since it involves a group of decision makers whose preferences diverge little. An application of the model in order to select consultants for a construction project is presented.A seleção da equipe em um projeto é um problema de decisão multicritério. Uma forma apropriada de tratar tais problemas envolve o uso de métodos de apoio multicritério a decisão. Grande parte desses problemas envolve um grupo de decisores. Dessa forma, há uma mudança no foco da decisão de um decisor para um grupo de decisores. A análise deve ser ampliada no intuito de considerar a estrutura de preferência de cada membro do grupo. Nesse artigo, apresentamos um modelo aplicado à seleção de equipe de um projeto baseado na avaliação multicritério das preferências dos representantes do cliente do projeto. Pode ser aplicado a qualquer problema de decisão desde que envolva um grupo de decisores que tenham pequena divergência em relação às suas preferências. Uma aplicação para seleção de parte da equipe de um projeto de construção é apresentada.

  13. Effectiveness of Rational- Emotive- Behavior Group Counseling (REBT on Irrational Attitudes about Spouse Selection in Girls and Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karami boldaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to determine the effectiveness of Rational- Emotional- Behavior therapy (REBT on irrational attitudes about Spouse Selection in girls and boys. Therefore, 32 girls and boys in city of Bandar Abbas were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental and control groups with 16 girls and boys in each group. The experimental group received 8 sessions in each week. Attitudes about Mate Selection Scale (ARMSS were used as the pretest and post-test. Results of analysis of covariate showed that the mean scores of irrational attitudes about romance and mate selection in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group in the post test (p= 0/001. Also, mean scores of subscales of irrational attitudes about romance and mate selection (believe love, pivotal experience, idealization, opposite seeking, easy getting and optimistic view in experimental group was significantly lower than control group in the post test.

  14. High-throughput selection for cellulase catalysts using chemical complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Carter, Brian T; Lin, Hening; Tao, Haiyan; Cornish, Virginia W

    2008-12-24

    Efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material remains one of the major bottlenecks to cost-effective conversion of biomass to ethanol. Improvement of glycosylhydrolases, however, is limited by existing medium-throughput screening technologies. Here, we report the first high-throughput selection for cellulase catalysts. This selection was developed by adapting chemical complementation to provide a growth assay for bond cleavage reactions. First, a URA3 counter selection was adapted to link chemical dimerizer activated gene transcription to cell death. Next, the URA3 counter selection was shown to detect cellulase activity based on cleavage of a tetrasaccharide chemical dimerizer substrate and decrease in expression of the toxic URA3 reporter. Finally, the utility of the cellulase selection was assessed by isolating cellulases with improved activity from a cellulase library created by family DNA shuffling. This application provides further evidence that chemical complementation can be readily adapted to detect different enzymatic activities for important chemical transformations for which no natural selection exists. Because of the large number of enzyme variants that selections can now test as compared to existing medium-throughput screens for cellulases, this assay has the potential to impact the discovery of improved cellulases and other glycosylhydrolases for biomass conversion from libraries of cellulases created by mutagenesis or obtained from natural biodiversity.

  15. Selection of decommissioning strategies: Issues and factors. Report by an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    A comprehensive assessment of possible strategies is the key step in a decommissioning process. It should be initiated at an early stage in a facility's lifecycle and include a number of factors. The IAEA has provided extensive guidance on decommissioning strategy selection, but there are a number of cases - particularly in countries with limited resources, but not limited to them - where the selection is forced and constrained by prevailing factors and conditions. In its role of an international expert committee assisting the IAEA, the Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE) debates and draws conclusions on topics omitted from general guidance. TEGDE members met in Vienna in 2003, 2004 and 2005 to develop the basis for this publication. The views expressed here reflect those of TEGDE and not necessarily those of the IAEA

  16. In love and war: altruism, norm formation, and two different types of group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, Matthijs; Hopfensitz, Astrid

    2007-12-21

    We analyse simulations reported in "The co-evolution of individual behaviors and social institutions" by Bowles et al., 2003 in the Journal of Theoretical Biology 223, 135-147, and begin with distinguishing two types of group selection models. The literature does not provide different names for them, but they are shown to be fundamentally different and have quite different empirical implications. The working of the first one depends on the answer to the question "is the probability that you also are an altruist large enough", while the other needs an affirmative answer to "are our interests enough in line". The first one therefore can also be understood as a kin selection model, while the working of the second can also be described in terms of the direct benefits. The actual simulation model is a combination of the two. It is also a Markov chain, which has important implications for how the output data should be handled.

  17. Cyclic cholecystokinin analogues with high selectivity for central receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, B.; Pelaprat, D.; Durieux, C.; Dor, A.; Roques, B.P.; Reibaud, M.; Blanchard, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Taking as a model the N-terminal folding of the cholecystokinin tyrosine-sulfated octapeptide deduced from conformational studies, two cyclic cholecystokinin (CCK) analogues were synthesized by conventional peptide synthesis. The binding characteristics of these peptides were investigated on brain cortex membranes and pancreatic acini of guinea pig. Compounds I and II were competitive inhibitors of [ 3 H]Boc[Ahx 28,31 ]CCK-(27-33) binding to central CCK receptors and showed a high degree of selectivity for these binding sites. This high selectivity was associated with a high affinity for central CCK receptors. Similar affinities and selectivities were found when 125 I Bolton-Hunter-labeled CCK-8 was used as a ligand. Moreover, these compounds were only weakly active in the stimulation of amylase release from guinea pig pancreatic acini and were unable to induce contractions in the guinea pig ileum. The two cyclic CCK analogues, therefore, appear to be synthetic ligands exhibiting both high affinity and high selectivity for central CCK binding sites. These compounds could help clarify the respective role of central and peripheral receptors for various CCK-8-induced pharmacological effects

  18. Group IV all-semiconductor spintronics. Materials aspects and optical spin selection rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sircar, Narayan

    2012-04-03

    In the scope of the present thesis various aspects for the realization of spintronic applications based on group IV semiconductors are discussed. This work comprises a refined material characterization of the magnetic semiconductor GeMn. We furthermore present efforts to utilize this material as spin injector for a Si-based optical spintronic device. Applying transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we are able to resolve a vertical anisotropy in the self-assembly, leading to the stacking of well-defined clusters in the growth direction. Three-dimensional atom distribution maps confirm that clusters are built from a nonstoichiometric GeMn alloy and exhibit a high-Mn-concentration core with a decreasing Mn concentration toward a shell. An amorphous nature of the cluster cores as well as the crystallinity of the shells, coherent with the surrounding Ge lattice, are revealed in scanning transmission electron microscopy. We localize a strain field surrounding each GeMn cluster by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The importance of strain to the stacking phenomenon of the clusters becomes clear in studies of Ge/GeMn superlattice structures, where a vertical spatial correlation of clusters over 30 nm-thick Ge spacer layers is observed. We present evidence that electrical transport properties of the p-type GeMn thin films fabricated on high-resistivity Ge substrates are severely influenced by parallel conduction through the substrate. It is shown that substrate conduction persists also for wellconducting degenerate p-type reference thin films, giving rise to an effective two-layer conduction scheme. GeMn thin films fabricated on these substrates exhibit only a negligible magnetoresistance effect. Before integrating GeMn in an optical spintronic device, some key aspects important for an understanding of the optical injection and detection of carrier spins in Si and Si-based heterostructures are clarified in the second part of this thesis. In

  19. The effect of group rational emotive behavior therapy on inefficient ideas of female high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The perpose of this stud was to determiine the effpyct of group rational emotive therapy on inefficient ideas of female high school students . Therfor 24 students were randomly selected and two therapy and control groups. The therapy group received 10 sessions of 90 minute therapy while the control groups did not receive any thing. The inefficient ideas quertomaire was administered to all subjects as the pre and post tests. The results of analysis of covariance showed that the mean total scores of the therapy group was significantly less on the following sub-scales : expectations (p=0/05 , excessive anxiety (p=0/04 , helplessness with change (p=0/05 , expecting others support (p=0/03 , and dependency (p=0/0001 .

  20. Quantitative Analysis of High-Quality Officer Selection by Commandants Career-Level Education Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    impact on the organization and allocate resources to improve the human capital of this select group. From 2011 onward, CCLEB revamped the application...ANALYSIS OF HIGH-QUALITY OFFICER SELECTION BY COMMANDANT’S CAREER - LEVEL EDUCATION BOARD by Clifton N. Rateike March 2017 Thesis Advisor...of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE March

  1. High carotenoids content can enhance resistance of selected Pinctada fucata families to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zihao; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baosuo; Li, Haimei; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Dahui

    2017-02-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural antioxidants widely found in aquatic, and they have significant effects on the growth, survival, and immunity of these organisms. To investigate the mechanisms of carotenoids in high temperature resistance, we observed the immune response of selected pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Akoya pearl oyster) families with different carotenoids contents to high temperature stress. The results indicated that the survival rate (SR) of P. fucata decreased significantly with increase in temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C and with the decrease of total carotenoids content (TCC); when the TCC was higher, the SR tended to be higher. TCC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreased significantly at 30 °C with increasing stress time. Correlation analysis indicated that TAC was positively and linearly correlated with TCC, and SR was S-type correlated with TCC and TAC. Immune analysis indicated that levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in selected families (with higher TCC) under temperature stress (at 30 °C) were generally significantly lower than in the control group (with lowest TCC) and from 0 to 96 h, the levels of each of these substances varied significantly. Levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA within each family first rose from 0 to 3 h, then decreased to their lowest point after 24 h, and then rose again to their highest levels at 96 h. When TCC was higher, the levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA tended to be lower. These findings indicated that carotenoids play an important role in improving survival rates of P. fucata under high temperature stress by enhancing animals' antioxidant system, and could serve as an index for breeding stress-resistant lines in selective breeding practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection of Highly Expressed Gene Variants in Escherichia coli Using Translationally Coupled Antibiotic Selection Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Daley, Daniel O.; Nørholm, Morten H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Strategies to select highly expressed variants of a protein coding sequence are usually based on trial-and-error approaches, which are time-consuming and expensive. We address this problem using translationally coupled antibiotic resistance markers. The system requires that the target gene can...

  3. High selectivity ZIF-93 hollow fiber membranes for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Bailo, Fernando; Caro, Guillermo; Etxeberría-Benavides, Miren; Karvan, Oğuz; Téllez, Carlos; Coronas, Joaquín

    2015-06-30

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework-93 (ZIF-93) continuous membranes were synthesized on the inner side of P84 co-polyimide hollow fiber supports by microfluidics. MOFs and polymers showed high compatibility and the membrane exhibited H2-CH4 and CO2-CH4 separation selectivities of 97 (100 °C) and 17 (35 °C), respectively.

  4. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  5. A Group Decision Framework with Intuitionistic Preference Relations and Its Application to Low Carbon Supplier Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiayu; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2016-09-19

    This article develops a group decision framework with intuitionistic preference relations. An approach is first devised to rectify an inconsistent intuitionistic preference relation to derive an additive consistent one. A new aggregation operator, the so-called induced intuitionistic ordered weighted averaging (IIOWA) operator, is proposed to aggregate individual intuitionistic fuzzy judgments. By using the mean absolute deviation between the original and rectified intuitionistic preference relations as an order inducing variable, the rectified consistent intuitionistic preference relations are aggregated into a collective preference relation. This treatment is presumably able to assign different weights to different decision-makers' judgments based on the quality of their inputs (in terms of consistency of their original judgments). A solution procedure is then developed for tackling group decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. A low carbon supplier selection case study is developed to illustrate how to apply the proposed decision model in practice.

  6. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Selecting instruments for assessing psychological wellbeing in Afghan and Kurdish refugee groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman-Hill Cheryl MR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghan and Iraqi refugees comprise nearly half of all those currently under United Nations protection. As many of them will eventually be resettled in countries outside the region of origin, their long term health and settlement concerns are of relevance to host societies, and will be a likely focus for future research. Since Australia and New Zealand have both accepted refugees for many years and have dedicated, but different settlement and immigration policies, a study comparing the resettlement of two different refugee groups in these countries was undertaken. The purpose of this article is to describe the instrument selection for this study assessing mental health and psychological well being with Afghan and Kurdish former refugees, in particular to address linguistic considerations and translated instrument availability. A summary of instruments previously used with refugee and migrant groups from the Middle East region is presented to assist other researchers, before describing the three instruments ultimately selected for the quantitative component of our study. Findings The Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (GPSE, and Personal Well-Being Index (PWI all showed good reliability (Cronbach's alphas of 0.86, 0.89 and 0.83 respectively for combined language versions and ease of use even for pre-literate participants, with the sample of 193 refugees, although some concepts in the GPSE proved problematic for a small number of respondents. Farsi was the language of choice for the majority of Afghan participants, while most of the Kurds chose to complete English versions in addition to Farsi. No one used Arabic or Turkish translations. Participants settled less than ten years were more likely to complete questionnaires in Farsi. Descriptive summary statistics are presented for each instrument with results split by gender, refugee group and language version completed. Conclusion

  8. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  9. Selection-driven extinction dynamics for group II introns in Enterobacteriales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leclercq

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Some TEs were proposed to evolve under a pattern of periodic extinctions-recolonizations, in which elements recurrently invade and quickly proliferate within their host genomes, then start to disappear until total extinction. Depending on the model, TE extinction is assumed to be driven by purifying selection against colonized host genomes (Sel-DE model or by saturation of host genomes (Sat-DE model. Bacterial group II introns are suspected to follow an extinction-recolonization model of evolution, but whether they follow Sel-DE or Sat-DE dynamics is not known. Our analysis of almost 200 group II intron copies from 90 sequenced Enterobacteriales genomes confirms their extinction-recolonization dynamics: patchy element distributions among genera and even among strains within genera, acquisition of new group II introns through plasmids or other mobile genetic elements, and evidence for recent proliferations in some genomes. Distributions of recent and past proliferations and of their respective homing sites further provide strong support for the Sel-DE model, suggesting that group II introns are deleterious to their hosts. Overall, our observations emphasize the critical impact of host properties on TE dynamics.

  10. Prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols with a group contribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelczarska, Aleksandra; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Rarey, Jurgen; Domańska, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The prediction of solubility of pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols was presented. ► Improved group contribution method UNIFAC was proposed for 42 binary mixtures. ► Infinite activity coefficients were used in a model. ► A semi-predictive model with one experimental point was proposed. ► This model qualitatively describes the temperature dependency of Pharms. -- Abstract: An improved group contribution approach using activity coefficients at infinite dilution, which has been proposed by our group, was used for the prediction of the solubility of selected pharmaceuticals in water and alcohols [B. Moller, Activity of complex multifunctional organic compounds in common solvents, PhD Thesis, Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2009]. The solubility of 16 different pharmaceuticals in water, ethanol and octan-1-ol was predicted over a fairly wide range of temperature with this group contribution model. The predicted values, along with values computed with the Schroeder-van Laar equation, are compared to experimental results published by us previously for 42 binary mixtures. The predicted solubility values were lower than those from the experiments for most of the mixtures. In order to improve the prediction method, a semi-predictive calculation using one experimental solubility value was implemented. This one point prediction has given acceptable results when comparison is made to experimental values

  11. High Precision Renormalization Group Study of the Roughening Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenbusch, M; Pinn, K

    1994-01-01

    We confirm the Kosterlitz-Thouless scenario of the roughening transition for three different Solid-On-Solid models: the Discrete Gaussian model, the Absolute-Value-Solid-On-Solid model and the dual transform of the XY model with standard (cosine) action. The method is based on a matching of the renormalization group flow of the candidate models with the flow of a bona fide KT model, the exactly solvable BCSOS model. The Monte Carlo simulations are performed using efficient cluster algorithms. We obtain high precision estimates for the critical couplings and other non-universal quantities. For the XY model with cosine action our critical coupling estimate is $\\beta_R^{XY}=1.1197(5)$. For the roughening coupling of the Discrete Gaussian and the Absolute-Value-Solid-On-Solid model we find $K_R^{DG}=0.6645(6)$ and $K_R^{ASOS}=0.8061(3)$, respectively.

  12. A group-based spatial decision support system for wind farm site selection in Northwest Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsevski, Pece V.; Cathcart, Steven C.; Mirzaei, Golrokh; Jamali, Mohsin M.; Ye, Xinyue; Gomezdelcampo, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of applying a spatial decision support system (SDSS) framework for evaluating the suitability for wind farm siting in Northwest Ohio. The multiple criteria evaluation (MCE) prototype system is intended for regional planning but also for promoting group decision making that could involve participants with different interests in the development of decision alternatives. The framework integrates environmental and economic criteria and builds a hierarchy for wind farm siting using weighted linear combination (WLC) techniques and GIS functionality. The SDSS allows the multiple participants to interact and develop an understanding of the spatial data for assigning importance values to each factor. The WLC technique is used to combine the assigned values with map layers, which are standardized using fuzzy set theory, to produce individual suitability maps. The maps created by personal preferences from the participants are aggregated for producing a group solution using the Borda method. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the group solution to examine how small changes in the factor weights affect the calculated suitability scores. The results from the sensitivity analysis are intended to aid understanding of compromised solutions through changes in the input data from the participant's perspective. - Highlights: ► We present a prototype tool that we developed for wind farm site selection. ► Multiple participants rank the factors for promoting group-based decision making. ► The factors are aggregated by WLC technique to generate maps from participants. ► Group-based solution uses Borda method to aggregate the maps from participants. ► Sensitivity analysis is performed on the group solution to examine solution affects

  13. Expert and non-expert groups perception of LILW repository site selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Polic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenia is now in the process of the site selection for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository. Earlier searches for the LILW repository site confronted the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) with a number of problems, mainly concerning the contacts with the local communities and their willingness to accept the repository. Therefore the Agency started with a new, so-called mixed mode approach to the site selection, where the special role of a mediator is introduced. The mediator represents the link between the investor and the local community, and facilitates the communication and negotiations between both. In this study we try to find out how people perceive the mediating process and conditions under which the LILW repository would be accepted in the local community. Therefore a special survey was conducted. The results showed some of the conditions under which participants would possibly accept the LILW repository. Differences in the perception between non-expert and expert groups were demonstrated and analysed, especially in the assessment of the consequences of LILW repository construction on the environment. Also the socio-psychological influences of the LILW repository were noted and examined. Consequences and recommendations for future work on the site selection procedure were prepared on the basis of the research results.(author)

  14. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS and group DSS (GDSS, emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria into consideration simultaneously. This study proposes a GDSS architecture named hybrid decision-making support model (HDMSM and integrated four decision approaches (Delphi, DEMATEL, ANP, and MDS to help decision maker to rank and select appropriate alternatives. The HDMSM consists of five steps, namely, criteria identification, criteria correlation calculation, criteria evaluation, critical criteria selection, and alternative rank and comparison. Finally, to validate the proposed feasibility of the proposed model, this study also conducts a case study to find out the important indexes of corporate social responsibility (CSR from multiple perspectives. As the case study demonstrates the proposed HDMSM enables a group of decision makers to implement the MCDM effectively and help them to analyze the relation and degree of mutual influence among different evaluation factors.

  15. Selective auditory grouping by zebra finches: testing the iambic-trochaic law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Ten Cate, Carel

    2017-07-01

    Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals. In the current study, we explore to which extent these perceptual biases are present in a songbird, the zebra finch. Zebra finches were trained to discriminate between short strings of pure tones organized as iambs and as trochees. One group received tones that alternated in pitch, a second group heard tones alternating in duration, and for a third group, tones alternated in intensity. Those zebra finches that showed sustained correct discrimination were next tested with longer, ambiguous strings of alternating sounds. The zebra finches in the pitch condition categorized ambiguous strings of alternating tones as trochees, similar to humans. However, most of the zebra finches in the duration and intensity condition did not learn to discriminate between training stimuli organized as iambs and trochees. This study shows that the perceptual bias to group tones alternating in pitch as trochees is not specific to humans and rats, but may be more widespread among animals.

  16. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Jensen, Ole N

    2006-01-01

    -column. Although phosphopeptide enrichment can be achieved by using TFA and acetonitrile alone, the selectivity is dramatically enhanced by adding DHB or phthalic acid since these compounds, in conjunction with the low pH caused by TFA, prevent binding of nonphosphorylated peptides to TiO2. Using an alkaline...... a protocol for selective phosphopeptide enrichment using titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The selectivity toward phosphopeptides is obtained by loading the sample in a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) or phthalic acid solution containing acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) onto a TiO2 micro...... solution (pH > or = 10.5) both monophosphorylated and multiphosphorylated peptides are eluted from the TiO2 beads. This highly efficient method for purification of phosphopeptides is well suited for the characterization of phosphoproteins from both in vitro and in vivo studies in combination with mass...

  17. Analysis of consumer behaviour when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Poměnková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is consumer behaviour analysis when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics. Analysis proceed from the Czech household marketing research, where 726 households were electronically questioned. As mentioned above, selected factors for the analysis were habit, products‘ characteristics, price and discount actions.Primary aim is to measure the correspondence of selected factors influence on consumer behaviour during purchase decision making process of selected commodity groups. Interpretation is based on two-tier evaluation. First level represents commodity groups distinction by the character of goods and subsequent evaluation of goods characteristics correspondence in accordance with each influencing factor. Second one represents behaviour of commodity group in cross-section of selected factors. For consumer behaviour analysis chi-square test was used. Before its application the data set (responses was divided according to the ten-point scale into three interval’ groups.

  18. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin eWu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput computing (HTC uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general purpose computation on a graphics processing unit (GPU provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin – Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit (CPU capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of

  19. Design of highly selective ethanol dehydration nanocatalysts for ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Natalie; Kostetskyy, Pavlo; Mpourmpakis, Giannis

    2018-02-22

    Rational design of catalysts for selective conversion of alcohols to olefins is key since product selectivity remains an issue due to competing etherification reactions. Using first principles calculations and chemical rules, we designed novel metal-oxide-protected metal nanoclusters (M 13 X 4 O 12 , with M = Cu, Ag, and Au and X = Al, Ga, and In) exhibiting strong Lewis acid sites on their surface, active for the selective formation of olefins from alcohols. These symmetrical nanocatalysts, due to their curvature, show unfavorable etherification chemistries, while favoring the olefin production. Furthermore, we determined that water removal and regeneration of the nanocatalysts is more feasible compared to the equivalent strong acid sites on solid acids used for alcohol dehydration. Our results demonstrate an exceptional stability of these new nanostructures with the most energetically favorable being Cu-based. Thus, the high selectivity and stability of these in-silico-predicted novel nanoclusters (e.g. Cu 13 Al 4 O 12 ) make them attractive catalysts for the selective dehydration of alcohols to olefins.

  20. Assessing group differences in biodiversity by simultaneously testing a user-defined selection of diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallmann, Philip; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Hothorn, Ludwig A; Fischer, Christiane; Nacke, Heiko; Priesnitz, Kai U; Schork, Nicholas J

    2012-11-01

    Comparing diversities between groups is a task biologists are frequently faced with, for example in ecological field trials or when dealing with metagenomics data. However, researchers often waver about which measure of diversity to choose as there is a multitude of approaches available. As Jost (2008, Molecular Ecology, 17, 4015) has pointed out, widely used measures such as the Shannon or Simpson index have undesirable properties which make them hard to compare and interpret. Many of the problems associated with the use of these 'raw' indices can be corrected by transforming them into 'true' diversity measures. We introduce a technique that allows the comparison of two or more groups of observations and simultaneously tests a user-defined selection of a number of 'true' diversity measures. This procedure yields multiplicity-adjusted P-values according to the method of Westfall and Young (1993, Resampling-Based Multiple Testing: Examples and Methods for p-Value Adjustment, 49, 941), which ensures that the rate of false positives (type I error) does not rise when the number of groups and/or diversity indices is extended. Software is available in the R package 'simboot'. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The use of selected community groups to elicit and understand the values underlying attitudes towards biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Joanna; Kassardjian, Elsa

    2008-04-01

    Focus groups were used to examine the social, cultural and spiritual dimensions of biotechnology through an analysis of five selected community groups (total n = 68): scientists, Buddhists, business people, mothers with young children and the environmentally active. Participants from all groups were united in their perspective on three of the value spheres explored: health and welfare of family/society; maintaining/preserving the environment; and ethical considerations (e.g. welfare of animals, sanctity of life). However, values regarding science and business differentiated scientists and business people from the remaining community segments. Business people were more likely to adhere to "productionism," resulting in a greater acceptance of biotechnology, since business people did not hold the same resentment toward the business sphere held by other community segments. Scientists were far more accepting of the norms and values inherent in the sphere of science, believing science to be more predictable and controllable than general public perceptions. The disparity in worldviews for this value sphere meant scientists and laypeople did not communicate at the same level, in spite of having the same concerns for health and the environment. This resulted in feelings of frustration and powerlessness on the part of the layperson and the scientist.

  2. Multi-state systems with selective propagated failures and imperfect individual and group protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Xing Liudong; Ben-Haim, Hanoch; Da, Yuanshun

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm for evaluating performance distribution of complex series–parallel multi-state systems with propagated failures and imperfect protections. The failure propagation can have a selective effect, which means that the failures originated from different system elements can cause failures of different subsets of elements. Individual elements or some disjoint groups of elements can be protected from propagation of failures originated outside the group. The protections can fail with given probabilities. The suggested algorithm is based on the universal generating function approach and a generalized reliability block diagram method. The performance distribution evaluation procedure is repeated for each combination of propagated failures and protection failures. Both an analytical example and a numerical example are provided to illustrate the suggested algorithm. - Highlights: ► Systems with propagated failures and imperfect protections are considered. ► Failures originated from different elements can affect different subsets of elements. ► Protections of individual elements or groups of elements can fail with given probabilities. ► An algorithm for evaluating multi-state system performance distribution is suggested.

  3. Life expectancy for the University of Utah beagle colony and selection of a control group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, D.R.; Stevens, W.; Bruenger, F.W.; Woodbury, L.; Stover, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the internal-emitters toxicity program at the University of Utah Radiobiology Laboratory, each experimental group carries its own specific control cohort, which is the same size as most of the individual experimental cohorts. Variations in average lifetime are observed among individual control cohorts. This may be due to external causes, genetic variances such as the occurrence of epileptic syndromes, or changes such as those that result from improved medical core or husbandry. The Stover-Eyring method was used to eliminate from control and experimental cohorts those dogs with specific diseases such as epilepsy - dogs that were at risk for too short a time for a later pathological response to occur. By the use of conventional statistical techniques, it ws shown to be reasonable to pool individual control cohorts into a much larger selected cohort that provided greater precision in the estimate of control survival and thus a more sensitive basis for the estimation of the relative life shortening in the experimental groups. The analysis suggested that control groups could be combined, and a control population of 114 beagles was proposed. Their average lifespan was 4926 +- 849 days, and the time when half the animals had died was 5000 days. 3 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  5. Support System Model for Value based Group Decision on Roof System Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiono Utomo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A group decision support system is required on a value-based decision because there are different concern caused by differing preferences, experiences, and background. It is to enable each decision-maker to evaluate and rank the solution alternatives before engaging into negotiation with other decision-makers. Stakeholder of multi-criteria decision making problems usually evaluates the alternative solution from different perspective, making it possible to have a dominant solution among the alternatives. Each stakeholder needs to identify the goals that can be optimized and those that can be compromised in order to reach an agreement with other stakeholders. This paper presents group decision model involving three decision-makers on the selection of suitable system for a building’s roof. The objective of the research is to find an agreement options model and coalition algorithms for multi person decision with two main preferences of value which are function and cost. The methodology combines value analysis method using Function Analysis System Technique (FAST; Life Cycle Cost analysis, group decision analysis method based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP in a satisfying options, and Game theory-based agent system to develop agreement option and coalition formation for the support system. The support system bridges theoretical gap between automated design in construction domain and automated negotiation in information technology domain by providing a structured methodology which can lead to systematic support system and automated negotiation. It will contribute to value management body of knowledge as an advanced method for creativity and analysis phase, since the practice of this knowledge is teamwork based. In the case of roof system selection, it reveals the start of the first negotiation round. Some of the solutions are not an option because no individual stakeholder or coalition of stakeholders desires to select it. The result indicates

  6. Selective incivility: immigrant groups experience subtle workplace discrimination at different rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Franciska; Johnston, Claire; Binggeli, Steve; Maggiori, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Immigrants play an increasingly important role in local labor markets. Not only do they grow steadily in number but also in cultural, educational, and skill diversity, underlining the necessity to distinguish between immigrant groups when studying discrimination against immigrants. We examined immigrant employees' subtle discrimination experiences in a representative sample in Switzerland, controlling for dispositional influences. Results showed that mainly members of highly competitive immigrant groups, from immediate neighbor countries, experienced workplace incivility and that these incivility experiences were related to higher likelihoods of perceived discrimination at work. This research confirms recent accounts that successful but disliked groups are particularly likely to experience subtle interpersonal discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost

  8. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The study group on the selection procedures of radioactive waste final repository sites has presented the report in December 2002. The author dicusses the consequences of this report with respect to the site selection focussing on two topics: the serach for the best possible site and the prevention of prejudices

  9. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  10. High Energy Physics Group. Annual progress report, fiscal year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Perhaps the most significant progress during the past twelve months of the Hawaii experimental program, aside from publication of results of earlier work, has been the favorable outcome of several important proposals in which a substantial fraction of our group is involved: the Mark II detector as first-up at the SLC, and DUMAND's Stage I approval, both by DOE review panels. When added to Fermilab approval of two neutrino bubble-chamber experiments at the Tevatron, E632 and E646, the major part of the Hawaii experimental program for the next few years is now well determined. Noteworthy in the SLAC/SLC/Mark II effort is the progress made in developing silicon microstrip detectors with microchip readout. Results from the IMB(H) proton decay experiment at the Morton Salt Mine, although not detecting proton decay, set the best lower limit on the proton's lifetime. Similarly the Very High Energy Gamma Ray project is closely linked with DUMAND, at least in principle, since these gammas are expected to arise from pi-zero decay, while the neutrinos come from charged meson decay. Some signal has been seen from Cygnus X-3, and other candidates are being explored. Preparations for upgrading the Fermilab 15' Bubble Chamber have made substantial progress. Sections of the Progress Report are devoted to VAX computer system improvements, other hardware and software improvements, travel in support of physics experiments, publications and other public reports, and last analysis of data still being gleaned from experimental data taken in years past (PEP-14 and E546, E388). High energy physics theoretical research is briefly described

  11. Lifetime ultraviolet exposure estimates for selected population groups in south-east Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, A.V.; Meldrum, L.R.; Wong, J.C.F.; Fleming, R.A.; Aitken, J.

    1999-01-01

    The lifetime erythemal UV exposures received by selected population groups in south-east Queensland from birth up to an age of 55 years have been quantitatively estimated. A representative sample of teachers and other school workers received (64±22)x10 5 J m -2 to the neck compared with (4.1±1.4)x10 5 Jm -2 to the upper leg. A sample of indoor workers (bank officers, solicitors and psychologists) received approximately 2% less and a sample of outdoor workers (carpenters, tilers, electricians and labourers) received approximately 10% more to the neck than the school workers. These differences in erythemal UV exposures may influence the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. (author)

  12. Schwarzian conditions for linear differential operators with selected differential Galois groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, Y; Maillard, J-M

    2017-01-01

    We show that non-linear Schwarzian differential equations emerging from covariance symmetry conditions imposed on linear differential operators with hypergeometric function solutions can be generalized to arbitrary order linear differential operators with polynomial coefficients having selected differential Galois groups. For order three and order four linear differential operators we show that this pullback invariance up to conjugation eventually reduces to symmetric powers of an underlying order-two operator. We give, precisely, the conditions to have modular correspondences solutions for such Schwarzian differential equations, which was an open question in a previous paper. We analyze in detail a pullbacked hypergeometric example generalizing modular forms, that ushers a pullback invariance up to operator homomorphisms. We finally consider the more general problem of the equivalence of two different order-four linear differential Calabi–Yau operators up to pullbacks and conjugation, and clarify the cases where they have the same Yukawa couplings. (paper)

  13. Schwarzian conditions for linear differential operators with selected differential Galois groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Y.; Maillard, J.-M.

    2017-11-01

    We show that non-linear Schwarzian differential equations emerging from covariance symmetry conditions imposed on linear differential operators with hypergeometric function solutions can be generalized to arbitrary order linear differential operators with polynomial coefficients having selected differential Galois groups. For order three and order four linear differential operators we show that this pullback invariance up to conjugation eventually reduces to symmetric powers of an underlying order-two operator. We give, precisely, the conditions to have modular correspondences solutions for such Schwarzian differential equations, which was an open question in a previous paper. We analyze in detail a pullbacked hypergeometric example generalizing modular forms, that ushers a pullback invariance up to operator homomorphisms. We finally consider the more general problem of the equivalence of two different order-four linear differential Calabi-Yau operators up to pullbacks and conjugation, and clarify the cases where they have the same Yukawa couplings.

  14. Dream interpretation, affect, and the theory of neuronal group selection: Freud, Winnicott, Bion, and Modell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Walker

    2006-12-01

    The author uses a dream specimen as interpreted during psychoanalysis to illustrate Modell's hypothesis that Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection (TNGS) may provide a valuable neurobiological model for Freud's dynamic unconscious, imaginative processes in the mind, the retranscription of memory in psychoanalysis, and intersubjective processes in the analytic relationship. He draws parallels between the interpretation of the dream material with keen attention to affect-laden meanings in the evolving analytic relationship in the domain of psychoanalysis and the principles of Edelman's TNGS in the domain of neurobiology. The author notes how this correlation may underscore the importance of dream interpretation in psychoanalysis. He also suggests areas for further investigation in both realms based on study of their interplay.

  15. Selective displacement of the tributylstannyl group to form [125I]phenylboronic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, B.M.; Kassis, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Three radioiodinated phenylboronic acid derivatives (1a, 2a, 3a) were prepared at the no-carrier-added level by selective displacement of the corresponding tributylstannyl group. The tributylstannyl compounds 1b, 2b, and 3b were synthesized from the bromo derivatives 1c, 2c and 3c. Radioiodination was accomplished using Na 125 I and either Chloramine-T or peracetic acid to give 1a, 2a and 3a in radiochemical yields of 46, 26, and 67% respectively after HPLC purification. Compounds 1a, 2a and 3a were concentrated in vitro preferentially in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells compared to V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts, with 3a having the highest uptake

  16. A novel reduced-complexity group detection structure in MIMO frequency selective fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Ahimian, Nariman R.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a novel reduced complexity detection method named modified symbol flipping method is introduced and its advantages on reducing the burden of the calculations at the receiver compared to the optimum maximum likelihood detection method on multiple input- multiple output frequency selective fading channels are explained. The initial concept of the symbol flipping method is derived from a preliminary detection scheme named bit flipping which was introduced in [1]. The detection structure employed in this paper is ing, detection, and cancellation. On the detection stage, the proposed method is employed and the results are compared to the group maximum likelihood detection scheme proposed in [2]. Simulation results show that a 6 dB performance gain can be achieved at the expense of a slight increase in complexity in comparison with the conventional symbol flipping scheme. © 2010 Crown.

  17. A novel reduced-complexity group detection structure in MIMO frequency selective fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper a novel reduced complexity detection method named modified symbol flipping method is introduced and its advantages on reducing the burden of the calculations at the receiver compared to the optimum maximum likelihood detection method on multiple input- multiple output frequency selective fading channels are explained. The initial concept of the symbol flipping method is derived from a preliminary detection scheme named bit flipping which was introduced in [1]. The detection structure employed in this paper is ing, detection, and cancellation. On the detection stage, the proposed method is employed and the results are compared to the group maximum likelihood detection scheme proposed in [2]. Simulation results show that a 6 dB performance gain can be achieved at the expense of a slight increase in complexity in comparison with the conventional symbol flipping scheme. © 2010 Crown.

  18. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  19. Patients who reattend after head injury: a high risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Knottenbelt, J. D.; Peden, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess risk factors for important neurosurgical effects in patients who reattend after head injury. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SUBJECTS--606 patients who reattended a trauma unit after minor head injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intracranial abnormality detected on computed tomography or the need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS--Five patients died: two from unrelated causes and three from raised intracranial pressure. On multiple regression analysis the only significant predictor for both abnormality on computed tomography (14.4% of reattenders) and the need for operation (5% of reattenders) was vault fracture seen on the skull radiograph (P personality change, and seizures were significantly associated only with abnormality on computed tomography. Headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were common in reattenders but were found to have no independent significance. CONCLUSIONS--All patients who reattend after head injury should undergo computed tomography as at least 14% of scans can be expected to yield positive results. Where this facility is not available patients with predictors for operation should be urgently referred for neurosurgical opinion. Other patients can be readmitted and need referral only if symptoms persist despite symptomatic treatment or there is neurological deterioration while under observation. These patients are a high risk group and should be treated seriously. PMID:8520273

  20. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Mechanisms of Winner-Take-All and Group Selection in Neuronal Spiking Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    A major function of central nervous systems is to discriminate different categories or types of sensory input. Neuronal networks accomplish such tasks by learning different sensory maps at several stages of neural hierarchy, such that different neurons fire selectively to reflect different internal or external patterns and states. The exact mechanisms of such map formation processes in the brain are not completely understood. Here we study the mechanism by which a simple recurrent/reentrant neuronal network accomplish group selection and discrimination to different inputs in order to generate sensory maps. We describe the conditions and mechanism of transition from a rhythmic epileptic state (in which all neurons fire synchronized and indiscriminately to any input) to a winner-take-all state in which only a subset of neurons fire for a specific input. We prove an analytic condition under which a stable bump solution and a winner-take-all state can emerge from the local recurrent excitation-inhibition interactions in a three-layer spiking network with distinct excitatory and inhibitory populations, and demonstrate the importance of surround inhibitory connection topology on the stability of dynamic patterns in spiking neural network.

  2. High-dimensional model estimation and model selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review concepts and algorithms from high-dimensional statistics for linear model estimation and model selection. I will particularly focus on the so-called p>>n setting where the number of variables p is much larger than the number of samples n. I will focus mostly on regularized statistical estimators that produce sparse models. Important examples include the LASSO and its matrix extension, the Graphical LASSO, and more recent non-convex methods such as the TREX. I will show the applicability of these estimators in a diverse range of scientific applications, such as sparse interaction graph recovery and high-dimensional classification and regression problems in genomics.

  3. A primer on high-throughput computing for genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Beissinger, Timothy M; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Weigel, Kent A; Gatti, Natalia de Leon; Gianola, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput computing (HTC) uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high-throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long, and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl, and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general-purpose computation on a graphics processing unit provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin-Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general-purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of marker panels to realized

  4. Selection of a tool to decision making for site selection for high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, J.G.; Alvin, A.C.M.; Martins, V.B.; Monteiro, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools addressed in this work are also well known and with easy implementation. The decision-making process in matters of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multi-criteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various stakeholders. Thus, a comprehensive study was performed with the literature in this subject, specifically in documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision-making process. Therefore, we highlighted six judgment attributes for selecting a decision support tool, suitable for the problem. For this study, we have selected the following multi-criteria tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed. (authors)

  5. Selection of a tool to support decision making for site selection for high level waste - 15010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, J.G.; Alvim, A.C.M.; Martins, V.B.; Monteiro, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools presented in this work are also well-known and with easy implementation. The decision making process in issues of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multi-criteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various of stakeholders. Thus a comprehensive study was performed with the literature on this subject, specifically documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision making process. Therefore, we highlighted 6 judgments attributes for selecting an adequate support tool: -) transparency and reliability, -) subjectivity, -) updating and adapting, -) multi-criteria analysis, -) ease of deployment, and -) application time. We have selected the following key decision-making support tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique, and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed

  6. Selection of high hectolitre weight mutants of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.; Jones, P.

    1989-01-01

    Grain quality in wheat includes hectolitre weight (HLW) besides protein content and thousand-grain weight (TGW). The British winter wheat variety ''Guardian'' has a very high yield potential. Although the long grain of ''Guardian'' results in a desirable high TGW the HLW is too low. To select mutants exhibiting increased HLW the character was first analyzed to identify traits that could more easily be screened for using M 2 seeds. In comparison of 6 wheat cultivars, correlation analyses with HLW resulted in coefficients of -0.86 (grain length, L:P 2 seeds for shorter, less prolate grains. Mutagenesis was carried out using EMS sulphonate (1.8 or 3.6%), sodium azide (2 or 20 mM) or X-rays (7.5 or 20 kR). 69 M 2 grains with altered shape were selected. Examination of the M 3 progeny confirmed 6 grain-shape mutants, most of them resulting from EMS treatment (Table). Two of the mutants showed TGW values significantly below the parental variety, but three mutants exhibited HLW and TGW values significantly greater than those of the parental variety. Microplot yield trails on selected M 3 lines are in progress. The influence of physical grain characteristics on HLW offers prospects for mechanical fractionation of large M 2 populations. The application of gravity separators (fractionation on the basis of grain density) and sieves (fractionation on the basis of grain length) in screening mutants possessing improved grain quality is being investigated

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Group A Rotaviruses in Water Sources and Selected Raw Vegetables in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, W. B.; Page, N. A.; Grabow, W. O. K.; Steele, A. D.; Taylor, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are the most important cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children. In this study raw and treated drinking water supplies at plants in two geographic areas, as well as selected irrigation water and corresponding raw vegetables in three regions of southern Africa, were screened for the presence of RVs using molecular techniques. Group A RVs were detected in 11.8% of partially treated and 1.7% of finally treated drinking water samples and in 14% of irrigation water samples and 1.7% of corresponding raw vegetable samples. Type-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of multiple types (G1, G2, G8, and G9) in irrigation water and single types (G1 or G3) in raw and treated drinking water. Group A RVs detected in all samples consisted of mixed P types (P[4], P[6], P[8], and P[9]), with P[6] predominating. The detection of types G8, G9, and P[6] reflects the emergence of these types in clinical infections. The similarity of environmental types to those in patients with clinical RV infections confirms the value of wastewater screening as a tool for assessing RVs circulating in communities, with the benefit of detecting types that cause both clinical and subclinical infections. The results provide new information on RV types in water and related environments and identify the potential risk of waterborne transmission. In addition, the presence of RVs in drinking water underlines shortcomings in quality specifications. These data provide valuable information regarding the prevalence of RVs in environmental sources, with important implications for vaccine development. PMID:16820443

  8. Coevolution of honest signaling and cooperative norms by cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, István

    2010-08-01

    Evolution of cooperative norms is studied in a population where individual and group level selection are both in operation. Individuals play indirect reciprocity game within their group and follow second order norms. Individuals are norm-followers, and imitate their successful group mates. Aside from direct observation individuals can be informed about the previous actions and reputations by information transferred by others. A potential donor estimates the reputation of a potential receiver either by her own observation or by the opinion of the majority of others (indirect observation). Following a previous study (Scheuring, 2009) we assume that norms determine only the probabilities of actions, and mutants can differ in these probabilities. Similarly, we assume that individuals follow a stochastic information transfer strategy. The central question is whether cooperative norm and honest social information transfer can emerge in a population where initially only non-cooperative norms were present, and the transferred information was not sufficiently honest. It is shown that evolution can lead to a cooperative state where information transferred in a reliable manner, where generous cooperative strategies are dominant. This cooperative state emerges along a sharp transition of norms. We studied the characteristics of actions and strategies in this transition by classifying the stochastic norms, and found that a series of more and more judging strategies invade each other before the stabilization of the so-called generous judging strategy. Numerical experiments on the coevolution of social parameters (e.g. probability of direct observation and the number of indirect observers) reveal that it is advantageous to lean on indirect observation even if information transfer is much noisier than for direct observation, which is because to follow the majorities' opinion suppresses information noise meaningfully.

  9. PBL Group Autonomy in a High School Environmental Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D. Mark; Belland, Brian R.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing class sizes, teachers and facilitators alike hope for learning groups where students work together in self-contained and autonomous ways requiring reduced teacher support. Yet many instructors find the idea of developing independent learning in small groups to be elusive particularly in K-12 settings (Ertmer and Simons in…

  10. Material Selection and Characterization for High Gradient RF Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Heikkinen, S; Ramsvik, T; Sgobba, Stefano; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2007-01-01

    The selection of candidate materials for the accelerating cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is carried out in parallel with high power RF testing. The maximum DC breakdown field of copper, copper alloys, refractory metals, aluminium and titanium have been measured with a dedicated setup. Higher maximum fields are obtained for refractory metals and for titanium, which exhibits, however, important damages after conditioning. Fatigue behaviour of copper alloys has been studied for surface and bulk by pulsed laser irradiation and ultrasonic excitation, respectively. The selected copper alloys show consistently higher fatigue resistance than copper in both experiments. In order to obtain the best local properties in the device a possible solution is a bi-metallic assembly. Junctions of molybdenum and copper-zirconium UNS C15000 alloy, achieved by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) diffusion bonding or explosion bonding were evaluated for their mechanical strength. The reliability of the results obtained wit...

  11. SURVEY OF SELECTED PROCEDURES FOR THE INDIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE GROUP REFRACTIVE INDEX OF AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Dvořáček

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research was to evaluate numeric procedures of the indirect determination of the group refractive index of air and to choose the suitable ones for requirements of ordinary and high accuracy distance measurement in geodesy and length metrology. For this purpose, 10 existing computation methods were derived from various authors’ original publications and all were analysed for wide intervals of wavelengths and atmospheric parameters. The determination of the phase and the group refractive indices are essential parts in the evaluation of the first velocity corrections of laser interferometers and electronic distance meters. The validity of modern procedures was tested with respect to updated CIPM-2007 equations of the density of air. The refraction model of Leica AT401 laser tracker was analysed.

  12. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuisen, B; van der Schoot, C E; de Haas, M

    2009-10-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human platelet antigens is known. In many laboratories, blood group genotyping assays are routinely used for diagnostics in cases where patient red cells cannot be used for serological typing due to the presence of auto-antibodies or after recent transfusions. In addition, DNA genotyping is used to support (un)-expected serological findings. Fetal genotyping is routinely performed when there is a risk of alloimmune-mediated red cell or platelet destruction. In case of patient blood group antigen typing, it is important that a genotyping result is quickly available to support the selection of donor blood, and high-throughput of the genotyping method is not a prerequisite. In addition, genotyping of blood donors will be extremely useful to obtain donor blood with rare phenotypes, for example lacking a high-frequency antigen, and to obtain a fully typed donor database to be used for a better matching between recipient and donor to prevent adverse transfusion reactions. Serological typing of large cohorts of donors is a labour-intensive and expensive exercise and hampered by the lack of sufficient amounts of approved typing reagents for all blood group systems of interest. Currently, high-throughput genotyping based on DNA micro-arrays is a very feasible method to obtain a large pool of well-typed blood donors. Several systems for high-throughput blood group genotyping are developed and will be discussed in this review.

  13. Multi-year high-frequency hydrothermal monitoring of selected high-threat Cascade Range volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, I. M.; Archfield, S. A.; Newman, A. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Clor, L. E.; Spicer, K. R.; Kelly, P. J.; Evans, W. C.; Ingebritsen, S. E.

    2018-05-01

    From 2009 to 2015 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) systematically monitored hydrothermal behavior at selected Cascade Range volcanoes in order to define baseline hydrothermal and geochemical conditions. Gas and water data were collected regularly at 25 sites on 10 of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascade Range. These sites include near-summit fumarole groups and springs/streams that show clear evidence of magmatic influence (high 3He/4He ratios and/or large fluxes of magmatic CO2 or heat). Site records consist mainly of hourly temperature and hydrothermal-flux data. Having established baseline conditions during a multiyear quiescent period, the USGS reduced monitoring frequency from 2015 to present. The archived monitoring data are housed at (doi:10.5066/F72N5088). These data (1) are suitable for retrospective comparison with other continuous geophysical monitoring data and (2) will provide context during future episodes of volcanic unrest, such that unrest-related variations at these thoroughly characterized sites will be more clearly recognizable. Relatively high-frequency year-round data are essential to achieve these objectives, because many of the time series reveal significant diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability that would tend to mask unrest signals in the absence of baseline data. Here we characterize normal variability for each site, suggest strategies to detect future volcanic unrest, and explore deviations from background associated with recent unrest.

  14. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  15. Characterization of selective solar absorber under high vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberto; Monti, Matteo; di Giamberardino, Francesco; Palmieri, Vittorio G

    2018-05-14

    Total absorption and emission coefficients of selective solar absorbers are measured under high vacuum conditions from room temperature up to stagnation temperature. The sample under investigation is illuminated under vacuum @1000W/m 2 and the sample temperature is recorded during heat up, equilibrium and cool down. During stagnation, the absorber temperature exceeds 300°C without concentration. Data analysis allows evaluating the solar absorptance and thermal emittance at different temperatures. These in turn are useful to predict evacuated solar panel performances at operating conditions.

  16. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial...... component of such validation studies is the selection of a challenging and balanced set of source (reference) HDR content. In order to facilitate this, we present an objective method based on the premise that a more challenging HDR scene encapsulates higher contrast, and as a result will show up more...

  17. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-01-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food g...

  18. Using the Leaderless Group Discussion Technique for the Selection of Residence Hall Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W.; McCormick, Jane E.

    1969-01-01

    Describes successful effort to involve head residents in selection responsibilities. Discusses use of Record of Previous Leadership Experience, behavior ratings adapted from Interview and LGD Rating Scale (T. W. Banta) recommendation from head resident as selection criteria. (CJ)

  19. Herbivorous insect response to group selection cutting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Christopher E. Moorman.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the abundance and species richness of insect herbivores were greater at the centers of young gaps than at the edge of young gaps or in the forest surrounding young gaps. There were no differences in abundance or species richness among old gap locations (i.e., centers, edges, and forest), and we collected significantly more insects in young gaps than old gaps. The insect communities in old gaps were more similar to the forests surrounding them than young gap communities were to their respective forest locations, but the insect communities in the two forests locations (surrounding young and old gaps) had the highest percent similarity of all. Although both abundance and richness increased in the centers of young gaps with increasing gap size, these differences were not significant.Weattribute the increased numbers of herbivorous insects to the greater abundance of herbaceous plants available in young gaps.

  20. Using selective chromogenic plates to optimize isolation of group B Streptococcus in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS remains the leading cause of severe bacterial infections (sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia in neonates. We compared the detection of GBS from recto-vaginal swabs on blood agar and two chromogenic media and evaluated their antibiotic susceptibility. A total of 1351 swabs were taken from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Following enrichment in Todd Hewitt broth + nalidixic acid and colistin, the samples were plated on Columbia CNA agar (CNA, chromID Strepto B agar (STRB and Granada Agar (GRAN, respectively. GBS were found in 22.4% of recto-vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of GBS detection were 88%, 88%, 81% and 96% for CNA, 99%, 97%, 90% and 99% for STRB and 94%, 99%, 98% e 99% for GRAN; Cohen’s k index concordances for CNA, STREB and GRAN were 0.68, 0.92 and 0.96, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, whereas resistances of erythromycin and clindamycin were 40% and 42%, respectively. To conclude, selective broth enrichment combined with chromogenic plates is recommended for GBS screening in pregnant women.

  1. Managing the market. Focusing on a select group of customers can keep an organization competitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-05-01

    The real challenge in healthcare marketing today is managing markets, focusing on selected groups of customers rather than on the organization or its services. Market management includes three distinct but related levels: Strategic market management assesses current and potential markets and chooses those the organization can serve best; segment management focuses on the needs and wants of subsets of chosen customers; and customer management reinforces long-term commitments to the organization. The patient care experience can be broken down into specific contacts with each staff member. The key to managing the experience is to identify and achieve standards of performance for each contact by examining what each event means to the patients and how patients judge each staff member, as well as the overall care experience. Regular feedback helps. An unavoidable risk in market management is that a given segment may decline in size, in need for services, or in cohesiveness as a segment. Yet those organizations which can identify the right segments and "manage" them effectively will have an advantage in a competitive market.

  2. Gibbs Free Energy of Formation for Selected Platinum Group Minerals (PGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Olivotos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic data for platinum group (Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd and Pt minerals are very limited. The present study is focused on the calculation of the Gibbs free energy of formation (ΔfG° for selected PGM occurring in layered intrusions and ophiolite complexes worldwide, applying available experimental data on their constituent elements at their standard state (ΔG = G(species − ΔG(elements, using the computer program HSC Chemistry software 6.0. The evaluation of the accuracy of the calculation method was made by the calculation of (ΔGf of rhodium sulfide phases. The calculated values were found to be ingood agreement with those measured in the binary system (Rh + S as a function of temperature by previous authors (Jacob and Gupta (2014. The calculated Gibbs free energy (ΔfG° followed the order RuS2 < (Ir,OsS2 < (Pt, PdS < (Pd, PtTe2, increasing from compatible to incompatible noble metals and from sulfides to tellurides.

  3. Comprehensive Group Therapy of Obesity and Its Impact on Selected Anthropometric and Postural Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Stanislav; Sovová, Eliška; Pastucha, Dalibor; Konečný, Petr; Radová, Lenka; Calabová, Naděžda; Janoutová, Jana; Janout, Vladimír

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease. This non-infectious epidemic has reached pandemic proportions in the 21 century. Posture is a dynamic process referring to an active maintenance of body movement segments against the action of external forces. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of comprehensive group therapy for obese persons on selected anthropometric and postural parameters. The study comprised 53 females with a mean age of 44.5 years (range 29–65 years, standard deviation 9.42 years, median 44 years), who completed a controlled weight loss programme. At the beginning and at the end of the programme, anthropometric parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI), weight and waist circumference) were measured and the posturography tests Limits of Stability (LOS) and Motor Control Test (MCT) were performed using the NeuroCom's SMART EquiTest system. The data were statistically analyzed using R software at a level of significance of 0.05. There were positive changes after the controlled weight loss programme in anthropometric parameters (BMI reduction, with pobesity in terms of reductions in waist circumference, body weight and BMI, and thus the overall reduction of both cardiovascular and metabolic risks, as well as improved postural skills (activity and reactions). Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  4. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  5. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, N.; Pham, B.; Tawfik, M.; Coble, J.B.; Meyer, R.M.; Ramuhalli, P.; Bond, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  6. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.; Heinz, R.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Indiana University Task C group is participating in the experiments GEM at the SSC and MACRO at the Gran Sasso. After an introduction to GEM in paragraph II, a detailed report is presented on the work done during the current contract period on the design of the outer region of the GEM Central Tracker. The Central Tracker Monte Carlo, which was the other significant GEM activity by the group, is included. In paragraph III is introduced MACRO and a brief status report is given. Muon Astronomy analysis done using MACRO data is also presented

  7. On dark matter selected high-scale supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Department of Physics, Chongqing University,Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2015-03-11

    The prediction for the Higgs mass in the dark matter selected high-scale SUSY is explored. We show the bounds on SUSY-breaking scale in models of SM +w-tilde and SM +h-tilde/s-tilde due to the observed Higgs mass at the LHC. We propose that effective theory below scale m-tilde described by SM +w-tilde is possibly realized in gauge mediation with multiple spurion fields that exhibit significant mass hierarchy, and that by SM +h-tilde/s-tilde can be realized with direct singlet-messenger-messenger coupling for singlet Yukawa coupling λ∼(v/m-tilde){sup 1/2}g{sub SM}. Finally, the constraint on high-scale SUSY is investigated in the light of inflation physics if these two subjects are directly related.

  8. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  9. Development and application of a selective pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach to detect a recently cultivated Bacillus group predominant in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzeneva, V.A.; Li, Y.; Felske, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vaughan, E.E.; Smidt, H.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide presence of a hitherto-nondescribed group of predominant soil microorganisms related to Bacillus benzoevorans was analyzed after development of two sets of selective primers targeting 16S rRNA genes in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The high abundance

  10. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  11. Highly selective electrocoagulation therapy: an innovative treatment for lymphangioma circumscriptum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Jin, Yunbo; Chen, Hui; Li, Suolan; Ma, Gang; Hu, Xiaojie; Qiu, Yajing; Yu, Wenxin; Chang, Lei; Wang, Tianyou; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2014-08-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is a type of microcystic lymphatic malformation involving the skin and mucosa that presents as translucent vesicles of varying size with a pink, red, or black hue. Lymphangioma circumscriptum causes not only cosmetic problems but also refractory rupture, infection, lymphorrhea, and bleeding. Various invasive methods, such as surgical excision, lasers, and sclerotherapy, have been used in the past to treat LC with varying success. Herein, we report a new treatment for the management of LC. This study reports the outcomes of 12 patients (aged 4-31 years) with LC treated by electrocoagulation using a special isolated needle. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, radiologic findings, treatment course, and clinical responses are recorded. All 12 patients who were treated with the highly selective electrocoagulation therapy achieved near-complete clearance. Minimal intra- and postoperative sequelae were observed. The local complications included mild pain (n = 9), proliferous scarring (n = 1), and ulceration (n = 1) with no systemic side effects. The mean follow-up period was 8.25 months (3-14 months). Highly selective electrocoagulation therapy is an innovative, minimally invasive technique that seems to be safe and effective for the treatment of LC; the results from our limited study population seem promising, and the observed complications are acceptable.

  12. The Influence of Selected Leadership Variables on the Effectiveness of Curriculum Planning Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Glen Michael

    This study evaluated whether effectiveness in curriculum planning groups is raised by involving a professional adult educator as a nondirective, information giving group member, or by training group chairmen in discussion leadership skills. Group effectiveness was measured by member satisfaction with the group product, satisfaction with…

  13. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  14. Evolution of high mobility group nucleosome-binding proteins and its implications for vertebrate chromatin specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirín-López, José M; Ausió, Juan

    2015-01-01

    High mobility group (HMG)-N proteins are a family of small nonhistone proteins that bind to nucleosomes (N). Despite the amount of information available on their structure and function, there is an almost complete lack of information on the molecular evolutionary mechanisms leading to their exclusive differentiation. In the present work, we provide evidence suggesting that HMGN lineages constitute independent monophyletic groups derived from a common ancestor prior to the diversification of vertebrates. Based on observations of the functional diversification across vertebrate HMGN proteins and on the extensive silent nucleotide divergence, our results suggest that the long-term evolution of HMGNs occurs under strong purifying selection, resulting from the lineage-specific functional constraints of their different protein domains. Selection analyses on independent lineages suggest that their functional specialization was mediated by bursts of adaptive selection at specific evolutionary times, in a small subset of codons with functional relevance-most notably in HMGN1, and in the rapidly evolving HMGN5. This work provides useful information to our understanding of the specialization imparted on chromatin metabolism by HMGNs, especially on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying their functional differentiation in vertebrates. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghi Kim

    2015-01-01

    The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only easy to use, but also high-powered robustly across various scenarios. The usage and advantages of these novel tests are demonstrated on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and simulated data.

  16. Strategic project selection based on evidential reasoning approach for high-end equipment manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Guangyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science and technology, emerging information technologies have significantly changed the daily life of people. In such context, strategic project selection for high-end equipment manufacturing industries faces more and more complexities and uncertainties with the consideration of several complex criteria. For example, a group of experts rather than a single expert should be invited to select strategic project for high-end equipment manufacturing industries and the experts may feel difficulty to express their preferences towards different strategic projects due to their limited cognitive capabilities. In order to handle these complexities and uncertainties, the criteria framework of strategic project selection is firstly constructed based on the characteristics of high-end equipment manufacturing industries and then evidential reasoning (ER approach is introduced in this paper to help experts express their uncertain preferences and aggregate these preferences to generate an appropriate strategic project. A real case of strategic project selection in a high-speed train manufacturing enterprise is investigated to demonstrate the validity of the ER approach in solving strategic project selection problem.

  17. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis and Risk Factors Related to High Risk Occupational Groups in Kazeroon, South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Beheshti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a major zoonosis worldwide. Many people for their professions are at higher risk of contracting the disease. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in a group of high risk professions. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all personnel or students of veterinary schools, slaughters and butchers working in the city were invited to participate (n=141. A comparison group (n=44 randomly selected from patients who were selected at random from people attended our healthcare center for reasons other than the infectious diseases. Results: 4 veterinarians, 15 veterinary assistants, 42 veterinarian students, 52 butchers, 17 slaughters, 8 slaughterhouse workers and 3 chefs made the first group and 14 storekeepers, 5 students of engineering, 11 clerks, 13 freelance workers, and 1 high school student made the comparison group. While the rate of consumption of most of the studied dairy products was almost similar in both groups, comparison group patients consumed more often milk (p<0.001 and cream (p<0.001 than the high risk group. 11 (7.8%; 95% CI: 3.4%–12.2% cases from high risk group and none of the comparison group were found seropositive for Brucella. Conclusion: Profession is the main factor in seropositivity. Consumption of dairy products and raw milk is not associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.

  18. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria eShimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc. However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the adult time-window related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM

  19. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults' selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children's selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults' selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the "adult time-window" related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children's neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in children.

  20. Animal Welfare Groups Press for Limits on High School Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioScience, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussions from the conference on "The Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes" are highlighted in this article. The list of science fair rules, which resulted from the conference, is included. (SA)

  1. The APOSTLE project: Local Group kinematic mass constraints and simulation candidate selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Sawala, Till; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Crain, Robert A.; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Jenkins, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    We use a large sample of isolated dark matter halo pairs drawn from cosmological N-body simulations to identify candidate systems whose kinematics match that of the Local Group (LG) of galaxies. We find, in agreement with the `timing argument' and earlier work, that the separation and approach velocity of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) galaxies favour a total mass for the pair of ˜5 × 1012 M⊙. A mass this large, however, is difficult to reconcile with the small relative tangential velocity of the pair, as well as with the small deceleration from the Hubble flow observed for the most distant LG members. Halo pairs that match these three criteria have average masses a factor of ˜2 times smaller than suggested by the timing argument, but with large dispersion. Guided by these results, we have selected 12 halo pairs with total mass in the range 1.6-3.6 × 1012 M⊙ for the APOSTLE project (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment), a suite of hydrodynamical resimulations at various numerical resolution levels (reaching up to ˜104 M⊙ per gas particle) that use the subgrid physics developed for the EAGLE project. These simulations reproduce, by construction, the main kinematics of the MW-M31 pair, and produce satellite populations whose overall number, luminosities, and kinematics are in good agreement with observations of the MW and M31 companions. The APOSTLE candidate systems thus provide an excellent testbed to confront directly many of the predictions of the Λ cold dark matter cosmology with observations of our local Universe.

  2. Group Selection and Learning for a Lab-Based Construction Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Pranshoo; Kothari, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    In construction industries' projects, working in groups is a normal practice. Group work in a classroom is defined as students working collaboratively in a group so that everyone can participate on a collective task. The results from literature review indicate that group work is more effective method of learning as compared to individual work.…

  3. EAC Working Group for Archaeological Archives, A European View of Selecting for Archaeological Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, Duncan H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issues around selecting for archaeological archives, including the reasons for doing so, how selection fit into a project and the methodological framework. The context is ‘Making Choices’, a project of the Europae Archaeologiae Consilium that is looking at how all choices are made across archaeological practice, while the foundations are provided by existing standards for archiving and for selection.

  4. Selection for high and low oxygen consumption-induced differences in maintenance energy requirements of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhan, Hongyu; Kikusato, Motoi; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Katoh, Kazuo; Sato, Masahiro; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2017-07-01

    Maintenance energy requirements (MER) of mice selected for high (H) or low (L) oxygen consumption (OC) were compared. Forty-four mice from H and L OC lines were weaned at 3 weeks and divided into four experimental groups: group A were sacrificed at 4 weeks; group B were fed ad libitum, and groups C and D were fed 2.8 and 2.4 g/day, respectively, from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Groups B-D were sacrificed at 8 weeks. Chemical components were estimated for all groups. MER was estimated using a model that partitioned metabolizable energy intake into that used for maintenance, and protein and fat deposition. The feed conversion ratio for the B group was significantly higher in the H than in the L line. Feed intake for metabolic energy content per metabolic body size was significantly also higher in the H line, whereas accumulated energy content per metabolic body size was significantly higher in the L line. MER of the H line was greater than that of the L line (P < 0.10). These results suggest that selection for H or L OC produced differences in chemical components, feed efficiency, and MER between the H and L lines. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Selective versus non-selective culture medium for group B streptococcus detection in pregnancies complicated by preterm labor or preterm-premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luís Nomura

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify group B streptococcus (GBS colonization rates and compare detection efficiency of selective versus non-selective culture media and anorectal versus vaginal cultures in women with preterm labor and preterm-premature rupture of membranes (PROM. A prospective cohort study of 203 women was performed. Two vaginal and two anorectal samples from each woman were collected using sterile swabs. Two swabs (one anorectal and one vaginal were placed separately in Stuart transport media and cultured in blood-agar plates for 48 hours; the other two swabs were inoculated separately in Todd-Hewitt selective media for 24 hours and then subcultured in blood-agar plates. Final GBS identification was made by the CAMP test. A hundred thrity-two cultures out of 812 were positive. The maternal colonization rate was 27.6%. Colonization rates were 30% for preterm PROM and 25.2% for preterm labor. Todd-Hewitt selective medium detected 87.5% and non-selective medium 60.7% GBS-positive women. Vaginal samples and anorectal samples had the same detection rate of 80.3%. Anorectal selective cultures detected 75% of carriers; 39% of GBS-positive women were detected only in selective medium. A combined vaginal-anorectal selective culture is appropriate for GBS screening in this population, minimizing laboratory costs.

  6. Adaptive evolution of the spike gene of SARS coronavirus: changes in positively selected sites in different epidemic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shao-Heng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that animal-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS coronavirus (CoV is the cause of the SARS outbreak worldwide. The spike (S protein is one of the best characterized proteins of SARS-CoV, which plays a key role in SARS-CoV overcoming species barrier and accomplishing interspecies transmission from animals to humans, suggesting that it may be the major target of selective pressure. However, the process of adaptive evolution of S protein and the exact positively selected sites associated with this process remain unknown. Results By investigating the adaptive evolution of S protein, we identified twelve amino acid sites (75, 239, 244, 311, 479, 609, 613, 743, 765, 778, 1148, and 1163 in the S protein under positive selective pressure. Based on phylogenetic tree and epidemiological investigation, SARS outbreak was divided into three epidemic groups: 02–04 interspecies, 03-early-mid, and 03-late epidemic groups in the present study. Positive selection was detected in the first two groups, which represent the course of SARS-CoV interspecies transmission and of viral adaptation to human host, respectively. In contrast, purifying selection was detected in 03-late group. These indicate that S protein experiences variable positive selective pressures before reaching stabilization. A total of 25 sites in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group and 16 sites in 03-early-mid epidemic group were identified under positive selection. The identified sites were different between these two groups except for site 239, which suggests that positively selected sites are changeable between groups. Moreover, it was showed that a larger proportion (24% of positively selected sites was located in receptor-binding domain (RBD than in heptad repeat (HR1-HR2 region in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group (p = 0.0208, and a greater percentage (25% of these sites occurred in HR1–HR2 region than in RBD in 03-early

  7. Working group report: High energy and collider physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in such a high value of tan β in the present investigation as the loss of light ..... 1 de- cays for θt = 130◦, and tan β = 10: in (a) as a function of φ1 for M2 = 225 ..... rana masses of the neutrinos can be generated both at the tree-level and at the.

  8. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy of clusters of Group V elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-sheng; Niu, B.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1989-07-01

    High resolution HeI (580 angstrom) photoelectron spectra of As 2 , As 4 , and P 4 were obtained with a newly-built high temperature molecular beam source. Vibrational structure was resolved in the photoelectron spectra of the three cluster species. The Jahn-Teller effect is discussed for the 2 E and 2 T 2 states of P 4 + and As 4 + . As a result of the Jahn-Teller effect, the 2 E state splits into two bands, and the 2 T 2 state splits into three bands, in combination with the spin-orbit effect. It was observed that the ν 2 normal vibrational mode was involved in the vibronic interaction of the 2 E state, while both the ν 2 and ν 3 modes were active in the 2 T 2 state. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Introduction of 5'-terminal functional groups into synthetic oligonucleotides for selective immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Coull, J.M.; Regnier, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides terminating in a 5'-primary amine group are synthesized using solid-phase supported phosphoramidite chemistry. The 5'-terminal amine group in the deprotected oligomers is further derivatized with either succinic anhydride to give 5'-carboxylic acid or with

  10. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the detection of physics processes of interest for further study. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging participating experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principle among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, individual trigger groups focusing on specific physics objects have implemented novel algorithms which make use of the detailed tracking and vertexing performed within the trigger to improve rejection without losing efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have also benefited from a new high performance inner detector software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced i...

  11. Bifunctional groups grafted polyethersulfone magnetic beads for selective sequestration of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sumana; Aggarwal, S.K.; Pandey, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study involves synthesis of polyethersulfone (PES) beads grafted with two different monomers viz. 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate phosphoric acid ester (HEMP) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS) by photo-induced free radical polymerization method. The selection of bifunctional polymer was based on our previous studies, which indicated its efficacy for selective preconcentration of Pu from 3-4 mol L -1 HNO 3 . The HEMP-co-AMPS grafted PES beads were used for selective extraction of plutonium from dissolver solution

  12. Selective gettering of hydrogen in high pressure metal iodide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuus, G.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main problems in the manufacture of high pressure gas discharge lamps is the elimination of gaseous impurities from their arc tubes. Long degassing processes of all the lamp components are necessary in order to produce lamps with a low ignition voltage and good maintenance of the radiation properties. The investigation described deals with a selective getter place in the arc tube which can replace the long degassing process. The getter consists of a piece of yttrium encapsulated in thin tantalum foil. By this way it is possible to use the gettering action of tantalum and yttrium without having reaction between the metal iodide of the arc tube and yttrium. Yttrium is used because this metal can adsorb a large quantity of hydrogen even at a temperature of 1000 0 C. Hydrogen forms the main gaseous impurity in the high pressure metal iodide lamp. For this reason the adsorption properties like adsorption rate and capacity of the tantalum--yttrium getter for hydrogen are examined, and the results obtained from lamp experiments are given

  13. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  14. The active galactic nucleus population in X-ray-selected galaxy groups at 0.5 < Z < 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Semyeong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-01-01

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(L X,H >10 42 ;M R <−20)=8.0 −2.3 +3.0 % at z-bar ∼0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L X, H > 10 41 erg s –1 ) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  15. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly selective determination of methylmercury with methylmercury-imprinted polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yongwen [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China)]. E-mail: dtlyw@263.net; Zai Yunhui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chang Xijun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo Yong [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Meng Shuangming [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Feng Feng [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China)

    2006-08-11

    Methylmercury-imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were prepared by formation monomer complex of methylmercury with (4-ethenylphenyl)-4-formate-6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine and thermally polymerizing with divinylbenzene (crosslinker) in the presence of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator and subsequently leached with the acidic thiourea solution (1.0 mol L{sup -1} of thiourea and 4.0 mol L{sup -1} of HCl). In the same way, non-imprinted copolymers were prepared without methylmercury chloride added. The separation and preconcentration characteristics of the polymers for methylmercury were investigated by batch and column procedures. The results demonstrated that the methylmercury-imprinted polymers had higher adsorption capacity (170 {mu}mol g{sup -1} of dry microbeads) and good selectivity for methylmercury compared to non-imprinted polymers. The distribution ratio (D) values of the methylmercury-imprinted polymers increased for methylmercury with respect to both D values of Hg(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and non-imprinted polymers. The relatively selective factor ({alpha} {sub r}) values of CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}/Hg(II), CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}/Cu(II), CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}/Zn(II), and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}/Cd(II) are 24.0, 46.7, 50.7, and 40.2, which are greater than 1. The methylmercury-imprinted polymers can be used at least twenty times with recoveries no less than 95%. Based on the packed columns with methylmercury-imprinted polymers, a highly selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) and preconcentration method for methylmercury was developed. The metal ion imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (MIIP-SPE) preconcentration procedure showed a linear calibration curve within concentration range from 0.093 to 22 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The detection limit and quantification limit were 0.041 and 0.093 {mu}g L{sup -1} (3{sigma}) for cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). The relative standard deviation of the 10 replicate determinations was 3.5% for the

  17. Different Levels of DNA Methylation Detected in Human Sperms after Morphological Selection Using High Magnification Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Guy Cassuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze DNA methylation levels between two groups of spermatozoa taken from the same sample, following morphological selection by high magnification (HM at 6100x microscopy. A prospective study was conducted and studied 876 spermatozoa from 10 randomly selected men. Sperm morphology was characterized at HM according to criteria previously established. High-scoring Score 6 and low-scoring Score 0 sperm were selected. Sperm DNA methylation level was assessed using an immunoassay method targeting 5-methylcytosine residues by fluorescence microscopy with imaging analysis system to detect DNA methylation in single spermatozoon. Results. In total, 448 S6 spermatozoa and 428 S0 spermatozoa were analyzed. A strong relationship was found between sperm DNA methylation levels and sperm morphology observed at HM. Sperm DNA methylation level in the S6 group was significantly lower compared with that in the S0 group (p<10-6, OR = 2.4; and p<0.001, as determined using the Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Differences in DNA methylation levels are associated with sperm morphology variations as observed at HM, which allows spermatozoa with abnormal levels to be discarded and ultimately decrease birth defects, malformations, and epigenetic diseases that may be transmitted from sperm to offspring in ICSI.

  18. Selective polymerization catalysis: controlling the metal chain end group to prepare block copolyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-09-30

    Selective catalysis is used to prepare block copolyesters by combining ring-opening polymerization of lactones and ring-opening copolymerization of epoxides/anhydrides. By using a dizinc complex with mixtures of up to three different monomers and controlling the chemistry of the Zn-O(polymer chain) it is possible to select for a particular polymerization route and thereby control the composition of block copolyesters.

  19. Microfluidic sensor for ultra high redox cycling amplification for highly selective electrochemical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; Straver, Martin; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution a SU8/glass-based microfluidic sensor is described with two closely spaced parallel electrodes for highly selective measurements using the redox cycling (RC) effect. Using this sensor, a RC amplification of ~2000x is measured using the ferrocyanide redox couple, which is much

  20. Novel extractants with high selectivity for valuable metals in seawater. Calixarene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakoi, Takahiko; Goto, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Seawater contains various valuable metals such as uranium and lithium. Therefore, attempts are being made to develop highly selective extractants which recognize target metal ions in reclaimed seawater. In this review, we have focused our study on the application of novel cyclic compound calixarene based extractants. A novel host compound calixarene, which is a cyclic compound connecting some phenol rings, is capable of forming several different extractant ring sizes and introducing various kinds of functional groups towards targeting of metal ions in seawater. Therefore, calixarene derivatives are capable of extracting valuable metals such as uranium, alkaline metals, heavy metals, rare earth metals and noble metals selectively by varying structural ring size and functional groups. The novel host compound calixarene has given promising results which line it up as a potential extractant for the separation of valuable metal ions in seawater. (author)

  1. ABO blood groups and oral premalignancies: A clinical study in selected Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, S; Arora, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ABO blood group antigens are present on the surface of red blood cells and various epithelial cells. As the majority of human cancers are derived from epithelial cells, changes in blood group antigens constitute an important aspect of human cancers. The aim of the study was to establish clinical usefulness of ABO blood group as a predisposing factor in early diagnosis and management of patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 50 control and 50 oral precancer (25 leukoplakia and 25 Oral Submucous Fibrosis) confirmed by histopathologic examination. All samples were subjected to blood group testing and their prevalence was compared by Z-test using STATA version 8. Results: The "A" blood group was prevalent among the precancerous group. Significant differences on prevalences of blood groups were found (P blood group. Conclusion: Blood group type should be considered along with other risk factors to understand the individual patient's risk and further studies in larger samples with inclusion of Rh factor is needed to elucidate the relationship with ABO blood group types.

  2. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Coates, K.S.; Birkhofer, K.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investig......The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system...... to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly...... and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival...

  3. When Do Low Status Groups Help High Status Groups? The Moderating Effects of Ingroup Identification, Audience Group Membership, and Perceived Reputational Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Kevin Owuamalam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that, when negative metastereotypes are made salient, members of low status groups help members of high status groups in order to improve the reputation of their low status group and its associated social identity. The present research investigated three potential moderators of low status groups’ outgroup helping: ingroup identification, audience group membership, and perceived reputational benefit. In Study 1 (N = 112 we found that members of a low status group (Keele University students were most likely to offer to help raise funds for a high status group (University of Birmingham students when they were high identifiers who had considered a negative metastereotype and believed that their responses would be viewed by an outgroup member. In Study 2 (N = 100 we found a similar effect in an intergroup context that referred to psychology students (low status ingroup and junior doctors (high status outgroup, showing that the effect was limited to people who perceived reputational benefit in helping the outgroup. The practical and social implications of these findings are discussed in relation to intergroup contact and international relations.

  4. Studies on Lyme disease incidence rates in selected groups of forestry workers in West Pomerania, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stawicki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The data collected by sanitary-epidemiological stations in 2005–2014 were analyzed to determine the incidence rates of borreliosis Lyme disease in the West Pomerania group of workers exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: It was assumed that an adequate comparison of official epidemiological data with the data concerning the number of exposed people, is an indispensable condition for assessing properly the trend in Lyme disease incidence rates, concerning at the same time a real scale of occupational exposure. The study covered a selected group of forestry workers, i.e., white-collar staff employed in different units of the State Forests National Forest Holding with their seats in West Pomerania. The aim of the research was to process and analyze the data on workers employed in the forest sector and their positions, requested from district sanitary-epidemiological stations. Results: In the years concerned 282 cases of the occupational disease were recorded mainly in the groups of forest rangers, junior foresters and forest service inspectors. The values of the incidence factor exhibit high variability with the major share of cases recorded in the years 2008–2010 that accounted for 61.8% of the total occurrences concerned. The incidence in the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 amounted to 2418, 2828 and 2646 cases per 100 000 employees, respectively. Conclusions: The results show that previously published information about the incidence of Lyme disease in the agriculture, forestry and hunting sector, did not fully illustrate a real scale of occupational risk. Med Pr 2017;68(2:211–220

  5. Selection and Storage of Perceptual Groups Is Constrained by a Discrete Resource in Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David E.; Vogel, Edward K.; Awh, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual grouping can lead observers to perceive a multielement scene as a smaller number of hierarchical units. Past work has shown that grouping enables more elements to be stored in visual working memory (WM). Although this may appear to contradict so-called discrete resource models that argue for fixed item limits in WM storage, it is also possible that grouping reduces the effective number of “items” in the display. To test this hypothesis, we examined how mnemonic resolution declined ...

  6. A Hybrid Neutrosophic Group ANP-TOPSIS Framework for Supplier Selection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Basset

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant competitive strategies for organizations is sustainable supply chain management (SSCM. The vital part in the administration of a sustainable supply chain is the sustainable supplier selection, which is a multi-criteria decision-making issue, including many conflicting criteria. The valuation and selection of sustainable suppliers are difficult problems due to vague, inconsistent and imprecise knowledge of decision makers. In the literature on supply chain management for measuring green performance, the requirement for methodological analysis of how sustainable variables affect each other, and how to consider vague, imprecise and inconsistent knowledge, is still unresolved. This research provides an incorporated multi-criteria decision-making procedure for sustainable supplier selection problems (SSSPs. An integrated framework is presented via interval-valued neutrosophic sets to deal with vague, imprecise and inconsistent information that exists usually in real world. The analytic network process (ANP is employed to calculate weights of selected criteria by considering their interdependencies. For ranking alternatives and avoiding additional comparisons of analytic network processes, the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used. The proposed framework is turned to account for analyzing and selecting the optimal supplier. An actual case study of a dairy company in Egypt is examined within the proposed framework. Comparison with other existing methods is implemented to confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  7. Novel pyridylmethylamines as highly selective 5-HT(1A) superagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Stefan; Hübner, Harald; Heinemann, Frank W; Meyer, Karsten; Gmeiner, Peter

    2010-10-14

    To further improve the maximal serotonergic efficacy and better understand the configurational requirements for 5-HT(1A) binding and activation, we generated and biologically investigated structural variants of the lead structure befiradol. For a bioisosteric replacement of the 3-chloro-4-fluoro moiety, a focused library of 63 compounds by solution phase parallel synthesis was developed. Target binding of our compound collection was investigated, and their affinities for 5-HT(2), α(1), and α(2)-adrenergic as well as D(1)-D(4) dopamine receptors were compared. For particularly interesting test compounds, intrinsic activities at 5-HT(1A) were examined in vitro employing a GTPγS assay. The investigation guided us to highly selective 5HT(1A) superagonists. The benzothiophene-3-carboxamide 8bt revealed almost exclusive 5HT(1A) recognition with a K(i) value of 2.7 nM and a maximal efficacy of 124%. To get insights into the bioactive conformation of our compound collection, we synthesized conformationally constrained bicyclic scaffolds when SAR data indicated a chair-type geometry and an equatorially dispositioned aminomethyl substituent for the 4,4-disubstituted piperidine moiety.

  8. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Group Selection Methods and Contribution to the West Point Leadership Development System (WPLDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Government. 14. ABSTRACT Group work in an academic setting can consist of projects or problems students can work on collaboratively. Although pedagogical ...ABSTRACT Group work in an academic setting can consist of projects or problems students can work on collaboratively. Although pedagogical studies...helping students develop intangibles like communication, time management, organization, leadership, interpersonal, and relationship skills. Supporting

  10. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  11. Selective intrapartum anti-bioprophylaxy of group B streptococci infection of neonates: a prospective study in 2454 subsequent deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, P; Betremieux, P; Donnio, P Y; Proudhon, J F; Karege, G; Giraud, J R

    1997-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a selective intrapartum prophylaxy of group B streptococci (GBS) infection of the neonates. A prospective protocol of universal antepartum screening of GBS and selective intrapartum treatment from the 1st February 1994 to the 31st December 1995, on 2454 subsequent deliveries was designed. Our policy included: (1) antepartum screening as soon as possible after 28 weeks by a single vaginal and perianal sample for culture; (2) intrapartum recognition of one condition of high risk of fetal contamination during labor (these conditions included: a temperature of 38 degrees C during labor, rupture of membranes for more than 12 h or prolonged labor for more than 12 h with rupture of membranes, prematurity, twins, maternal diabetes, previous pregnancy with GBS infection of the neonate); and (3) intrapartum anti-bioprophylaxy (amoxicillin) for women with positive screening during pregnancy and one condition of high risk of fetal contamination during labor. We studied the outcome of neonates during this period to look for immediate GBS severe infection of the neonates in the form of bacteraemia or meningitis and compared the results with the rate of neonatal infection before this protocol (4.5/1000 live births in 1993). We noted that 11% of pregnant women were carriers, 25% of which led to antibiotic chemoprophylaxis during the labor. We noticed four cases of neonatal bacteraemia of GBS. One case arose from the group of carriers (but no condition of risk of fetal contamination during the labor and no chemoprophylaxy). The three other cases were from women with a negative antepartum screening. There was no case of meningitis and all four babies were in good health at day 10 of life. Comparing with results prior to the study, we noticed that the rate of neonatal bacteraemia dropped from 4.5 to 1.6 per 1000 livebirths (P < 0.0001). This protocol of intrapartum anti-bioprophylaxy significantly decreases the rate of GBS neonatal sepsis. We propose to

  12. A Combined group EA-PROMETHEE method for a supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rezaee Kelidbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the important decisions which impacts all firms’ activities is the supplier selection problem. Since the 1950s, several works have addressed this problem by treating different aspects and instances. In this paper, a combined multiple criteria decision making (MCDM technique (EA-PROMETHEE has been applied to implement a proper decision making. To this aim, after reviewing the theoretical background regarding to supplier selection, the extension analysis (EA is used to determine the importance of criteria and PROMETHEE for appraisal of suppliers based on the criteria. An empirical example illustrated the proposed approach.

  13. Compatibility of sportswomen at selection in commands on group exercises of artistic gymnastics accounting their functional condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Kozhanova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The degree of trained and predisposition of work is certain from data of mechanisms of energy-supply of sportswomen. 40 students took part in research. The degree of trained sportswomen was determined on results a vectorcardiography. On the level of functional possibilities of heart of sportswomen were up-diffused on three groups. It was set that most corresponds the specific of group exercises the first group of gymnasts the heart of which is in a greater degree predispositioned to implementation of loadings of anaerobic and mixed orientation. The first group of sportswomen is characterized optimum accordance of processes depolarization and repolarization of ventricles and normal functioning of auricles. For the sportswomen of this group a heart works in the economical mode without tension. It is set that the account of compatible functionality at a selection in commands on group exercises comes forward the factor of increase of efficiency of competition activity of sportswomen.

  14. Estimating group size: effects of category membership, differential construal and selective exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld, W.; Koomen, W.; van der Pligt, J.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of category membership, differential construal, and selective exposure in consensus estimation concerning the social categorization of religion. 54 involved and less involved Christians and 40 non-believers were asked to estimate the percentage of Christians in the Netherlands

  15. Determinants of Individual Academic Achievement - Group Selectivity Effects Have Many Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwick, Th.

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures determinants of individual academic achievements. In addition to an extensive list of individual characteristics, skills obtained during study and socio-economic background factors, many dimensions of selectivity into academic study subjects are shown to drive individual academic

  16. Selective digestive decontamination in patients in intensive care. The Dutch Working Group on Antibiotic Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, M. J.; Kullberg, B. J.; van Dalen, R.; Girbes, A. R.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Hustinx, W.; van der Meer, J. W.; Speelman, P.; Stobberingh, E. E.; Verbrugh, H. A.; Verhoef, J.; Zwaveling, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) is the most extensively studied method for the prevention of infection in patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Despite 27 prospective randomized studies and six meta-analyses, routine use of SDD is still controversial. In this review, we summarize the

  17. High throughput in vivo protease inhibitor selection platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant microbial cell comprising a selection platform for screening for a protease inhibitor, wherein the platform comprises transgenes encoding a protease having selective peptide bond cleavage activity at a recognition site amino acid sequence; and transgenes...... platform for screening for a protease inhibitor....

  18. EU DEMO blanket concepts safety assessment. Final report of Working Group 6a of the Blanket Concept Selection Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeldt, K.; Porfiri, T.

    1996-06-01

    The European Union has been engaged since 1989 in a programme to develop tritium breeding blankets for application in a fusion power reactor. There are four blanket concepts under development. Two of them use lithium ceramics, the other two concepts employ an eutectic lead-lithium alloy (Pb-17Li) as breeder material. The two most promising concepts were to select in 1995 for further development. In order to prepare the selection, a Blanket Concept Selection Exercise (BCSE) has been inititated by the participating associations under the auspices of the European Commission. This BCSE has been performed in 14 working groups which, in a comparative evaluation of the four blanket concepts, addressed specific fields. The working group safety addressed the safety implications. This report describes the methodology adopted, the safety issues identified, their comparative evaluation for the four concepts, and the results and conclusions of the working group to be entered into the overall evaluation. There, the results from all 14 working groups have been combined to yield a final ranking as a basis for the selection. In summary, the safety assessment showed that the four European blanket concepts can be considered as equivalent in terms of the safety rating adopted, each concept, however, rendering safety concerns of different quality in different areas which are substantiated in this report. (orig.) [de

  19. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: Disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Salmela-Aro, K.; Nurmi, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants

  20. Pressure to Drink but Not to Smoke: Disentangling Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Peer Networks and Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…

  1. Elevated CO2 and O3t concentrations differentially affect selected groups of the fauna in temperate forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladys I. Loranger; Kurt S. Pregitzer; John S. King

    2004-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may change soil fauna abundance. How increase of tropospheric ozone (O3t) concentration will modify these responses is still unknown. We have assessed independent and interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and [O3t] on selected groups of soil...

  2. Magnitude of physiological curvatures of the spine and the incidence of contractures of selected muscle groups in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Elżbieta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of contractures of selected muscle groups with respect to the magnitude of the physiological curvatures of the spine in young men with above-average levels of physical activity.

  3. Magnitude of physiological curvatures of the spine and the incidence of contractures of selected muscle groups in students

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewska Elżbieta; Tabor Piotr; Czarniecka Renata

    2018-01-01

    Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of contractures of selected muscle groups with respect to the magnitude of the physiological curvatures of the spine in young men with above-average levels of physical activity.

  4. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...

  5. Radiolytic and thermal stability of selected plutonium salts containing nitrate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, G.H.

    1976-04-01

    (Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O, K 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 6 , and (NH 4 ) 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 6 ) were studied to evaluate their ability to serve as shipping forms that meet criteria. The radiolytic gas evolution study eliminated (NH 4 ) 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 6 from further consideration. None of the compounds produced H 2 or O 2 in sufficient quantity to produce a flammable mixture, except Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O which produced O 2 and H 2 in a ratio that is above explosive limits after long storage time. The ammonium salt decomposition appears to be about the same as that observed upon heating of NH 4 NO 3 to produce N 2 , H 2 O, and nitrous oxides. Plutonium nitrate contains hydration water. This water is of some concern due to the production of hydrogen by alpha-radiolysis. Two waters of hydration appear to be the lower limit to which Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O may be taken before decomposition of the solid begins. TGA results indicate the simple nitrate (Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O) is somewhat less thermally stable than either the ammonium or potassium hexanitrato plutonate which detracts somewhat from its suitability as a shipping form. Maintaining large quantities of this compound with a high 238 Pu content (less than 1 percent 238 Pu) may require specially designed and larger containers to prevent thermal degradation and gas pressure buildup problems. The informaion was presented to plutonium processors; the final consensus of this group was that in spite of some thermal instability of Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O at fairly low temperatures, it was preferable to K 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 6 due to the additional waste disposal problems the potassium would present. (Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . XH 2 O also has several other advantages. A possible problem that could arise due to the variable weight of plutonium nitrate could be in plutonium accountability, but this would be prevented if the plutonium content of the solution prior to evaporation to the solid is known

  6. Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures to Environmental Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document recommends a set of age groupings based on current understanding of differences in lifestage behavior and anatomy and physiology that can serve as a starting set for consideration by Agency risk assessors and researchers.

  7. Why and how selection patterns in classroom networks differ between students.The potential influence of networks size preferences, level of information, and group membership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baerveldt, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High school students can select class mates for new friendships using a repertoire of patterns. They can actively pursue new friendships, make use of the existing network structure, and/ or use the scarce and often erroneous information about candidates. In this theoretical paper, we argue that such selection patterns should not be studied as the result of general rules, as is usually done in social network studies. Specifically, we state that network size preferences, the level of information about individual attributes of fellow classmates, and group membership are likely to differ among high school students, and that as a result, also their selection patterns are likely to be different. In this paper we sketch the theoretical articulations between these.

  8. Detection of Group B Streptococci in Lim Broth by Use of Group B Streptococcus Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Selective and Nonselective Agars▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Naomi S.; Cleary, Timothy J.; Martinez, Octavio V.; Procop, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of group B streptococci from Lim enrichment broth with sheep blood agar (SBA), with selective Streptococcus agar (SSA), and by a peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assay were as follows: for culture on SBA, 68.4%, 100%, 100%, and 87.9%, respectively; for culture on SSA, 85.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.1%, respectively; and for the PNA FISH assay, 97.4%, 98.3%, 96.1%, and 98.9%, respectively. PMID:18667597

  9. Detection of group B streptococci in Lim broth by use of group B streptococcus peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization and selective and nonselective agars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Naomi S; Cleary, Timothy J; Martinez, Octavio V; Procop, Gary W

    2008-10-01

    The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of group B streptococci from Lim enrichment broth with sheep blood agar (SBA), with selective Streptococcus agar (SSA), and by a peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assay were as follows: for culture on SBA, 68.4%, 100%, 100%, and 87.9%, respectively; for culture on SSA, 85.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.1%, respectively; and for the PNA FISH assay, 97.4%, 98.3%, 96.1%, and 98.9%, respectively.

  10. Hemoadsorption of high-mobility-group box 1 using a porous polymethylmethacrylate fiber in a swine acute liver failure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Ryusuke; Shinoda, Masahiro; Yamada, Masayuki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Kaoru; Fujieda, Hiroaki; Yagi, Hiroshi; Mizota, Takamasa; Nishiyama, Ryo; Oshima, Go; Yamada, Shingo; Matsubara, Kentaro; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Kitago, Minoru; Obara, Hideaki; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2018-04-01

    High-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 has been identified as an important mediator of various kinds of acute and chronic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to develop a column that effectively adsorbs high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 by altering the pore size of the fiber. First, we produced three types of porous polymethylmethacrylate fiber by altering the concentration of polymethylmethacrylate dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. We then selected a fiber based on the results of an in vitro incubation test of high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 adsorption. Using the selected fiber, we constructed a new column and tested its high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 adsorption capacity during 4-h extracorporeal hemoperfusion in a swine acute liver failure model. Electron microscope observation showed that the three types of fibers had different pore sizes on the surface and in cross section, which were dependent on the concentration of polymethylmethacrylate. In the in vitro incubation test, fiber with moderate-sized pores demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity. In the in vivo hemoperfusion study, the ratio of the high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 concentration at the outlet versus the inlet of the column was significantly lower with the new column than with the control column during 4-h extracorporeal hemoperfusion. The normalized plasma level of high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 at 12 h after the completion of hemoperfusion was significantly lower with the new column than with the control column. The newly developed polymethylmethacrylate column adsorbs high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 during hemoperfusion in swine ALF model.

  11. Evaluation of the capacity for direct regeneration of maize inbreds of the Lancaster selection group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Derkach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the necessity of bringing elite maize inbreds of the Lancaster germplasm group, which have potential for cultivation in Ukraine, into the system of genetic tranformation, the aim of this investigation is to identify the ability of maize inbreds of this group to regenerate by direct organogenesis and to determine the optimal mineral basis for their nutritional environment using segments of the node area of shoots. As explantats we used sterile 4-day old seedlings of 4 maize inbreds of Lancaster germplasm and model inbred Chi31 exotic germplasm. The seedlings were obtained by germination of sterile seeds in Petri dishes between two layers of moist sterile filter paper at a temperature of 27 ºC in dark conditions. A single 1 cmlong segment was cut from each from each seedling, running from 0.5 cmbefore the node to 0.5 cmafter the node. A cut was made in each segment of the node in order to create a wounded surface. Explantats were planted in a nutrient environment with mineral bases of MS or N6, modified by the addition of 10 mg/l silver nitrate, 100 mg/l casein hydrolyzate, 690 mg/l L-proline, 30 g/l sucrose, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dychlorphenoksiacetic acid and 0,1 mg/l abscisic acid. Cultivation was carried out at 25–27 ºC in the light. Direct hemogenesis in this environment on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro reached 100% for each line. This meant that all researched lines of Lancaster germplasm and the model line showed a high capacity for direct regeneration through direct hemogenesis, which does not depend on the composition of the mineral content of their nutritional environment. Callus formation was observed in all genotypes on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro and the extent of its formation increased during the following month of cultivation. The callus formation was observed only at the site of the wounded surface. The calluses were transparent. Although green areas appeared in these calluses, they were

  12. Criteria for the Selection of Reference Groups in the Statistical Evaluation of Tumor Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubec jr., L.; Topolčan, O.; Pikner, R.; Pecen, Ladislav; Holubec sen., L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1B (2002), s. 531 ISSN 0250-7005. [International Hamburg Symposium on Tumor Markers /11./. 27.01.2002-29.01.2002, Hamburg] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : reference groups * tumor markers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Pitch structure, but not selective attention, affects accent weightings in metrical grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jon B

    2014-10-01

    Among other cues, pitch and temporal accents contribute to grouping in musical sequences. However, exactly how they combine remains unclear, possibly because of the role of structural organization. In 3 experiments, participants rated the perceived metrical grouping of sequences that either adhered to the rules of tonal Western musical pitch structure (musical key) or did not (atonal). The tonal status of sequences did not provide any grouping cues and was irrelevant to the task. Experiment 1 established equally strong levels of pitch leap accents and duration accents in baseline conditions, which were then recombined in subsequent experiments. Neither accent type was stronger or weaker for tonal and atonal contexts. In Experiment 2, pitch leap accents dominated over duration accents, but the extent of this advantage was greater when sequences were tonal. Experiment 3 ruled out an attentional origin of this effect by replicating this finding while explicitly manipulating attention to pitch or duration accents between participant groups. Overall, the presence of tonal pitch structure made the dimension of pitch more salient at the expense of time. These findings support a dimensional salience framework in which the presence of organizational structure prioritizes the processing of the more structured dimension regardless of task relevance, independent from psychophysical difficulty, and impervious to attentional allocation.

  14. Lexical Cohesion in Students' Argumentative Essay among a Select Group of Filipino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Josephine B.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the lexical devices used by undergraduate students in their argumentative text using Halliday and Hasan (1976) and Halliday's (2004) taxonomy. One hundred forty-eight argumentative essays were analyzed. The essays underwent interrating by three independent raters using a 20-point rubric and were grouped according to rating.…

  15. Energy efficiency advocacy groups: A study of selected interactive efforts and independent initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-03-01

    Non-utility groups participate in a myriad of activities--initiated by themselves and others--aimed at influencing the policies and actions of utilities and their regulators related to Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM). Some of these activities are not directed toward a particular regulatory body or utility but are designed to influence public knowledge and acceptance of IRP and DSM. Other activities involve interaction with a particular utility or regulatory body. The traditional forum for this interaction is an adversarial debate (i.e., litigation or regulatory intervention) over the merits of a utility`s plan or proposed action. However, an increasingly common forum is one in which non-utility groups and utilities cooperatively develop plans, policies, and/or programs. Arrangements of this type are referred to in this report as ``interactive efforts``. This report presents the findings derived from ten case studies of energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAG) activities to influence the use of cost-effective DSM and to promote IRP; nine of these ten cases involve some form of interactive effort and all of them also include other EEAG activities. The goal of this research is not to measure the success of individual activities of the various groups, but to glean from a collective examination of their activities an understanding of the efficacy of various types of interactive efforts and other EEAG activities and of the contextual and procedural factors that influence their outcomes.

  16. Disgust sensitivity selectively predicts attitudes toward groups that threaten (or uphold) traditional sexual morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crawford, J.; Inbar, Y.; Malony, V.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has linked disgust sensitivity to negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians. We extend this existing research by examining the extent to which disgust sensitivity predicts attitudes more generally toward groups that threaten or uphold traditional sexual morality. In a sample of

  17. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice. PMID:28926985

  18. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-09-17

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice.

  19. Highly Sensitive Fluorescence Probe Based on Functional SBA-15 for Selective Detection of Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An inorganic–organic hybrid fluorescence chemosensor (DA/SBA-15 was prepared by covalent immobilization of a dansylamide derivative into the channels of mesoporous silica material SBA-15 via (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES groups. The primary hexagonally ordered mesoporous structure of SBA-15 was preserved after the grafting procedure. Fluorescence characterization shows that the obtained inorganic–organic hybrid composite is highly selective and sensitive to Hg2+ detection, suggesting the possibility for real-time qualitative or quantitative detection of Hg2+ and the convenience for potential application in toxicology and environmental science.

  20. Self-portraits and selected indices of psychopathology of a group of heroin-addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucho, A O

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a self-portrait scoring system and compares the self-portraits of two groups of adults. The scoring system effectively differentiated between the two groups of subjects which were known to differ on several observable behavioral characteristics. It correlated well with the ratings obtained from counselors but not with a self-report inventory of anxiety. A self-portrait is a single manifestation of an individual's self-concept. It presents only a fraction of the hypothetical universe of one's behavioral manifestations. In addition, every single observation is affected by the place, time, and the presence of the observer. However, if these isolated observations can be studied systematically, they can contribute to a reliable and a valid index of the self-concept. This paper presents one means of achieving that end.

  1. Selected source term topics. Report to CSNI by an OECD/NEA Group of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    CSNI Report 136 summarizes the results of the work performed by the Group of Experts on the Source Term and Environmental Consequences (PWG4) during the period extending from 1983 and 1986. This report is complementary to Part 1, 'Technical Status of the Source Term' of CSNI Report 135, 'Report to CSNI on Source Term Assessment, Containment atmosphere control systems, and accident consequences'; it considers in detail a number of very specific issues thought to be important in the source term area. It consists of: an executive summary (prepared by the Chairman of the Group), a section on conclusions and recommendations, and five technical chapters (fission product chemistry in the primary circuit of a LWR during severe accidents; resuspension/re-entrainment of aerosols in LWRs following a meltdown accident; iodine chemistry under severe accident conditions; effects of combustion, steam explosions and pressurized melt ejection on fission product behaviour; radionuclide removal by pool scrubbing), a technical annex and two appendices

  2. ILK statement on the recommendations by the working group on procedures for the selection of repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The Working Group on Procedures for the Selection of Repository Sites (AkEnd) had been appointed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) to develop procedures and criteria for the search for, and selection of, a repository site for all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations in Germany. ILK in principle welcomes the attempt on the part of AkEnd to develop a systematic procedure. On the other hand, ILK considers the two constraints imposed by BMU inappropriate: AkEnd was not to take into account the two existing sites of Konrad and Gorleben and, instead, work from a so-called white map of Germany. ILK recommends to perform a comprehensive safety analysis of Gorleben and define a selection procedure including the facts about Gorleben and, in addition, to commission the Konrad repository as soon as possible. The one-repository concept established as a precondition by BMU greatly restricts the selection procedure. There are no technical or scientific reasons for such concept. ILK recommends to plan for separate repositories, which would also correspond to international practice. The geoscientific criteria proposed by AkEnd should be examined and revised. With respect to the site selection procedure proposed, ILK feels that procedure is unable to define a targeted approach. Great importance must be attributed to public participation. The final site selection must be made under the responsibility of the government or the parliament. (orig.) [de

  3. Dietary study and whole body measurements in selected groups in Norway 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerlie, A.A.; Boee, E.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1994-12-01

    This study is a continuation of a study that started in 1987. The main sources to the radiocesium intake in the different groups are almost the same compared to the previous years. The radiation dose burden to which the Norwegian population is subjected shows great variations and is dependent on the types of foods eaten. The consumption of reindeer meat and freshwater fish is of major importance. 6 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Ingestion of radium 226 and its evaluation in a selected population group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, J.; Slovak, M.; Abel, E.; Patzeltova, N.

    1976-01-01

    The activity of 226 Ra was followed in the drinking water of the West Slovakia region and in the all-day food intake. The volume activities of 226 Ra in drinking water were in the range 0 to 63 mBq.l -1 (0.0 to 1.7 pCi.l -1 ) with the mean value 9.3 mBq.l -1 (0.25 pCi.l -1 ). The average activity of 226 Ra in the food, as expressed per person and day, was 47.7 mBq (1.29 pCi). A general intake of 226 Ra by ingestion in the observed group, also calculated per person and day, was 57 mBq (1.54 pCi) on the average. The value found was used for the evaluation of the group exposure of a homogeneous group of boarders of a university canteen. The values obtained indicate an average exposure to 226 Ra. The calculated value of the annual dose equivalent of 226 Ra to the skeleton in adults was 2.48 mrem, with the corresponding dose equivalent being 0.119 rem; these values are small in view of the above mentioned annual 226 Ra intake, but are not negligible with regard to the ICRP recommendations. (author)

  5. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF TESTS FOR EVALUATING SITUATIONMOTORIC ABILITIES BETWEEN TWO GROUPS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS SELECTED BY THE TEST OF SOCIOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had been elected with the help of the sociometric test. Analyses were made with the program SPSS 8.0. The discriminative analysis has determined that the differences in the arithmetic means between the groups of basketball players who had most positive points and the group of basketball players who had most negative points in some tests for assessing situation-motor abilities do not exist

  6. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate intestinal selection of commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Matthew R.; Fung, Thomas C.; Masur, Samuel H.; Kelsen, Judith R.; McConnell, Fiona M.; Dubrot, Juan; Withers, David R.; Hugues, Stephanie; Farrar, Michael A.; Reith, Walter; Eberl, Gerard; Baldassano, Robert N.; Laufer, Terri M.; Elson, Charles O.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory CD4+ T cell responses to self or commensal bacteria underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), respectively. While selection of self-specific T cells in the thymus limits responses to tissue antigens, the mechanisms that control selection of commensal bacteria-specific T cells remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-intrinsic expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) is regulated similarly to thymic epithelial cells, and that MHCII+ ILC3s directly induce cell death of activated commensal bacteria-specific T cells. Further, MHCII on human colonic ILC3s was reduced in pediatric IBD patients. Collectively, these results define a selection pathway for commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells in the intestine, and suggest that this process is dysregulated in human IBD. PMID:25908663

  7. Strategies toward protecting group-free glycosylation through selective activation of the anomeric center

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Downey, Alan Michael; Hocek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, Jun 27 (2017), s. 1239-1279 ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1501 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : glycosides * glycosylation * oligosaccharides * protecting groups Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2016 http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/articles/13/123

  8. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  9. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF TESTS FOR EVALUATING SITUATIONMOTORIC ABILITIES BETWEEN TWO GROUPS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS SELECTED BY THE TEST OF SOCIOMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla Elezi; Nazim Myrtaj; Florian Miftari

    2011-01-01

    Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević) in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had bee...

  10. A COPRAS-F base multi-criteria group decision making approach for site selection of wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Chandra Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today global warming is on the rise and the natural resources are getting consumed at a faster rate. Power consumption has increased many folds to cater the human need. Thus renewable energy resources are the only option available at this juncture. Wind energy is one of the renewable energy. Location selection for wind farm takes an important role on power generation. However, the location selection is a complex multicriteria problem due to the criteria factors which are conflicting in nature as well as uncertain. The process becomes more complex when a group of decision makers are involved in decision making. In the present study, a COPRAS (COmplex PRoportional ASsessment based multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methodology is done under fuzzy environment with the help of multiple decision makers. More specifically, this study is aimed to focus the applicability of COPRAS-F as a strategic decision making tools to handle the group decision-making problems.

  11. High Expression of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Menstrual Blood: Implications for Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Keiko; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Sakamoto, Ai; Matsuda, Miwa; Nakatsuka, Mikiya; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2017-11-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrium and associated with inflammation and immune abnormalities. However, the molecular basis for endometriosis is not well understood. To address this issue, the present study examined the expression of high-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 in menstrual blood to investigate its role in the ectopic growth of human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). A total of 139 patients were enrolled in this study; 84 had endometriosis and 55 were nonendometriotic gynecological patients (control). The HMGB1 levels in various fluids were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and RAGE and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) messenger RNA expression in HMGB1- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated ESCs was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The HMGB1 concentration was higher in menstrual blood than in serum or peritoneal fluid ( P endometriosis following retrograde menstruation when complexed with other factors such as LPS by inducing inflammation and angiogenesis.

  12. Highly Sensitive and Selective Gas Sensor Using Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Surajit; Xu, Yang; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Qin, Hongyi; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-01-01

    New hydrophilic 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with various oxygen functional groups were employed to maintain high sensitivity in highly unfavorable environments (extremely high humidity, strong acidic or basic). Novel one-headed polymer optical fiber sensor arrays using hydrophilic GO and hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were carefully designed, leading to the selective sensing of volatile organic gases for the first time. The two physically different surfaces of GO and rGO could provide the sensing ability to distinguish between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dichloromethane (MC), respectively, which is the most challenging issue in the area of gas sensors. The eco-friendly physical properties of GO allowed for faster sensing and higher sensitivity when compared to previous results for rGO even under extreme environments of over 90% humidity, making it the best choice for an environmentally friendly gas sensor. PMID:23736838

  13. Effects of a phosphinothricin based herbicide on selected groups of soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampulha, M E; Ferreira, M A S S; Oliveira, A

    2007-08-01

    The effects of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium on soil microbial populations and activity were observed in a laboratory microcosms over a 40 day period. Culturable aerobic bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, the fundamental groups of heterotrophic microorganisms, were studied. Nitrifiers, considered a very sensitive group to these compounds were also evaluated. Since herbicides have been found to inhibit decomposition of cellulose in the soil, the effects of glufosinate on cellulolytic bacteria and fungi were determined. Dehydrogenase activity as a measure of microbial activity was another parameter considered. Both stimulating and inhibitory effects on microbial populations were observed, depending on concentration of the herbicide and the period of incubation. A severe inhibiting effect of glufosinate on dehydrogenase activity was found. We concluded that the widespread use of this herbicide may have possible injurious effects on soil microorganisms and their activities. The toxicity exerted by glufosinate may lead to a shift in microbial community structure tending toward a significant loss in functional diversity. Dehydrogenase activity was shown to be an important indicator of glufosinate side-effects.

  14. Dentinal sensitivity among a selected group of young adults in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30.3) reported unhappiness due to the shocking sensation. Eating and talking were disturbed, respectively, in 59 (28.0%) and 12 (5.7%) of the participants. Conclusion: The prevalence of dentinal sensitivity was high which was significantly ...

  15. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  16. Regulation of expression of a select group of Bacillus anthracis spore coat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Arthur

    2018-04-01

    The spore coat of Bacilli is a relatively complex structure comprised of about 70 species of proteins in 2 or 3 layers. While some are involved in assembly or protection, the regulation of many are not well defined so lacZ transcriptional fusions were constructed to six Bacillus anthracis spore coat genes in order to gain insight into their possible functions. The genes were selected on the basis of the location of the encoded proteins within the coat and distribution among spore forming species. Conditions tested were temperature and media either as solid or liquid. The most extensive differences were for the relatively well expressed fusions to the cotH and cotM genes, which were greatest at 30°C on plates of a nutrient rich medium. The cotJ operon was moderately expressed under all conditions although somewhat higher on enriched plates at 30°C. Cot S was low under all conditions except for a substantial increase in biofilm medium. Cot∝ and cotF were essentially invariant with a somewhat greater expression in the more enriched medium. The capacity of a subset of coat genes to respond to various conditions reflects a flexibility in spore coat structure that may be necessary for adaptation to environmental challenges. This could account, at least in part, for the complexity of this structure.

  17. Sparse Bayesian classification and feature selection for biological expression data with high correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang

    Full Text Available Classification models built on biological expression data are increasingly used to predict distinct disease subtypes. Selected features that separate sample groups can be the candidates of biomarkers, helping us to discover biological functions/pathways. However, three challenges are associated with building a robust classification and feature selection model: 1 the number of significant biomarkers is much smaller than that of measured features for which the search will be exhaustive; 2 current biological expression data are big in both sample size and feature size which will worsen the scalability of any search algorithms; and 3 expression profiles of certain features are typically highly correlated which may prevent to distinguish the predominant features. Unfortunately, most of the existing algorithms are partially addressing part of these challenges but not as a whole. In this paper, we propose a unified framework to address the above challenges. The classification and feature selection problem is first formulated as a nonconvex optimisation problem. Then the problem is relaxed and solved iteratively by a sequence of convex optimisation procedures which can be distributed computed and therefore allows the efficient implementation on advanced infrastructures. To illustrate the competence of our method over others, we first analyse a randomly generated simulation dataset under various conditions. We then analyse a real gene expression dataset on embryonal tumour. Further downstream analysis, such as functional annotation and pathway analysis, are performed on the selected features which elucidate several biological findings.

  18. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  19. Evaluation of the prevalence of dietary supplement consumption in selected group of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior and habits of dietary supplemnts consumed by adults. The study included 108 participants. In the study group, 67,6% of respondents were females whereas 32,4% were males. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 35 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to March 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 21 questions single-choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. Respondents were asked about education, knowledge of dietary supplements and frequency of dietary supplements and the reason for their use. More than half of respondents used or currently apply dietary supplements 67.6%. All respondents were convinced of the effectiveness of dietary supplements, especially those of natural origin. Diet supplements were more often used by women (p <0.05, especially with higher education. The reason most women used dietary supplements was the desire to lose weight (31.5% of respondents and beneficial effects on hair, nails and complexion (29.6% of respondents. Among the group of men, the reason they used to go to dietary supplements was the desire to increase the body's immunity (38.9% of respondents.Respondents said that they most often use dietary supplements bought at pharmacies (57.4%. As the average time of dietary supplements, the most common response was 2-3 months (50.9%. 7.4% of respondents experienced side effects of dietary supplements (gastrointestinal disorders, headache, rash, skin discoloration.

  20. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    Full Text Available Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis. We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture the observed locality of interactions. Traditional self-propelled particle models fail to capture the fine scale dynamics of the system. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics, while maintaining a biologically plausible perceptual range. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  1. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis. We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture fine scale rules of interaction, which are primarily mediated by physical contact. Conversely, the Markovian self-propelled particle model captures the fine scale rules of interaction but fails to reproduce global dynamics. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  2. Feature selection for high-dimensional integrated data

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Charles; Schwartz, Scott; Chapkin, Robert S.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Ivanov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of identifying correlations between genes or features of two related biological systems, we propose a model of feature selection in which only a subset of the predictors Xt are dependent on the multidimensional variate Y, and the remainder of the predictors constitute a “noise set” Xu independent of Y. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated the relative performance of two methods: thresholding and singular-value decomposition, in combination with stochastic optimization to determine “empirical bounds” on the small-sample accuracy of an asymptotic approximation. We demonstrate utility of the thresholding and SVD feature selection methods to with respect to a recent infant intestinal gene expression and metagenomics dataset.

  3. Feature selection for high-dimensional integrated data

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Charles

    2012-04-26

    Motivated by the problem of identifying correlations between genes or features of two related biological systems, we propose a model of feature selection in which only a subset of the predictors Xt are dependent on the multidimensional variate Y, and the remainder of the predictors constitute a “noise set” Xu independent of Y. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated the relative performance of two methods: thresholding and singular-value decomposition, in combination with stochastic optimization to determine “empirical bounds” on the small-sample accuracy of an asymptotic approximation. We demonstrate utility of the thresholding and SVD feature selection methods to with respect to a recent infant intestinal gene expression and metagenomics dataset.

  4. Parent-child associations in selected food group and nutrient intakes among overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Barr, Susan I; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanning, Rhona M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have compared parent-child dietary intake among adolescents who are overweight or obese. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between parent-teen intake of selected dietary components among this sample. Baseline data from 165 parent and adolescent (aged 11 to 16 years) pairs who presented for a lifestyle behavior modification intervention were collected between 2010 and 2012. Parent and adolescent dietary intake (servings of fruits and vegetables [F/V]; grams of sugar; and percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, dessert/treats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks) was assessed using web-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariable linear and negative binomial regression models identified associations between parent and child dietary intake adjusting for relevant covariates. A large proportion of adolescents and parents did not meet dietary recommendations for F/V, total fat, and saturated fat. Parent-adolescent intake of F/V, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks were positively associated (r=0.19 to 0.37). No relationship was observed for dessert/treats. In multivariate models, significant interaction effects suggest that the parent-child association in diet was weaker for fat intake among parents with higher educational attainment (b=-.31; P<0.05) and for snacking among adolescent boys (b=-.30; P<.05). Parent intake of several dietary components important for good health, and related to obesity, was associated with adolescent intake. Helping parents improve their diet may promote improvements in their adolescent's diet and is a potential target for interventions designed to increase healthy eating among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultra-compact high velocity clouds in the ALFALFA HI survey: Candidate Local Group galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elizabeth Ann Kovenz

    The increased sensitivity and spatial resolution of the ALFALFA HI survey has resulted in the detection of ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs). These objects are good candidates to represent low mass gas-rich galaxies in the Local Group and Local Volume with stellar populations that are too faint to be detected in extant optical surveys. This idea is referred to as the "minihalo hypothesis". We identify the UCHVCs within the ALFALFA dataset via the use of a 3D matched filtering signal identification algorithm. UCHVCs are selected based on a compact size ( 120 km s-1) and isolation. Within the 40% complete ALFALFA survey (alpha.40), 59 UCHVCs are identified; 19 are in a most-isolated subset and are the best galaxy candidates. Due to the presence of large HVC complexes in the fall sky, most notably the Magellanic Stream, the association of UCHVCs with existing structure cannot be ruled out. In the spring sky, the spatial and kinematic distribution of the UCHVCs is consistent with simulations of dark matter halos within the Local Group. In addition, the HI properties of the UCHVCs (if placed at 1 Mpc) are consistent with both theoretical and observational predictions for low mass gas-rich galaxies. Importantly, the HI properties of the UCHVCs are consistent with those of two recently discovered low mass gas-rich galaxies in the Local Group and Local Volume, Leo T and Leo P. Detailed follow-up observations are key for addressing the minihalo hypothesis. High resolution HI observations can constrain the environment of a UCHVC and offer evidence for a hosting dark matter halo through evidence of rotation support and comparison to theoretical models. Observations of one UCHVC at high resolution (15'') reveal the presence of a clumpy HI distribution, similar to both low mass galaxies and circumgalactic compact HVCs. An extended envelope containing ˜50% of the HI flux is resolved out by the array configuration; observations at lower spatial resolution can recover

  6. Nominal group technique to select attributes for discrete choice experiments: an example for drug treatment choice in osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiligsmann M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mickael Hiligsmann,1-3 Caroline van Durme,2 Piet Geusens,2 Benedict GC Dellaert,4 Carmen D Dirksen,3 Trudy van der Weijden,5 Jean-Yves Reginster,6 Annelies Boonen21Department of Health Services Research, School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, 2Department of Internal Medicine, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, 4Department of Business Economics, Erasmus Rotterdam University, The Netherlands, 5Department of General Practice, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, 6Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health Economics, University of Liege, BelgiumBackground: Attribute selection represents an important step in the development of discrete-choice experiments (DCEs, but is often poorly reported. In some situations, the number of attributes identified may exceed what one may find possible to pilot in a DCE. Hence, there is a need to gain insight into methods to select attributes in order to construct the final list of attributes. This study aims to test the feasibility of using the nominal group technique (NGT to select attributes for DCEs.Methods: Patient group discussions (4–8 participants were convened to prioritize a list of 12 potentially important attributes for osteoporosis drug therapy. The NGT consisted of three steps: an individual ranking of the 12 attributes by importance from 1 to 12, a group discussion on each of the attributes, including a group review of the aggregate score of the initial rankings, and a second ranking task of the same attributes.Results: Twenty-six osteoporotic patients participated in five NGT sessions. Most (80% of the patients changed their ranking after the discussion. However, the average initial and final ranking did not differ markedly. In the final ranking, the most important medication attributes were

  7. New Highly Sensitive Real-Time PCR Assay for HIV-2 Group A and Group B DNA Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertine, Mélanie; Gueudin, Marie; Mélard, Adeline; Damond, Florence; Descamps, Diane; Matheron, Sophie; Collin, Fidéline; Rouzioux, Christine; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique

    2017-09-01

    HIV-2 infection is characterized by a very low replication rate in most cases and low progression. This necessitates an approach to patient monitoring that differs from that for HIV-1 infection. Here, a new highly specific and sensitive method for HIV-2 DNA quantification was developed. The new test is based on quantitative real-time PCR targeting the long terminal repeat (LTR) and gag regions and using an internal control. Analytical performance was determined in three laboratories, and clinical performance was determined on blood samples from 63 patients infected with HIV-2 group A ( n = 35) or group B ( n = 28). The specificity was 100%. The 95% limit of detection was three copies/PCR and the limit of quantification was six copies/PCR. The within-run coefficients of variation were between 1.03% at 3.78 log 10 copies/PCR and 27.02% at 0.78 log 10 copies/PCR. The between-run coefficient of variation was 5.10%. Both manual and automated nucleic acid extraction methods were validated. HIV-2 DNA loads were detectable in blood cells from all 63 patients. When HIV-2 DNA was quantifiable, median loads were significantly higher in antiretroviral-treated than in naive patients and were similar for groups A and B. HIV-2 DNA load was correlated with HIV-2 RNA load ( r = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4 to 0.8; P < 0.0001). Our data show that this new assay is highly sensitive and quantifies the two main HIV-2 groups, making it useful for the diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and for pathogenesis studies on HIV-2 reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Low Cost High Performance Nanostructured Spectrally Selective Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sungho [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Sunlight absorbing coating is a key enabling technology to achieve high-temperature high-efficiency concentrating solar power operation. A high-performance solar absorbing material must simultaneously meet all the following three stringent requirements: high thermal efficiency (usually measured by figure of merit), high-temperature durability, and oxidation resistance. The objective of this research is to employ a highly scalable process to fabricate and coat black oxide nanoparticles onto solar absorber surface to achieve ultra-high thermal efficiency. Black oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile process and coated onto absorber metal surface. The material composition, size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticle are guided by numeric modeling. Optical and thermal properties have been both modeled and measured. High temperature durability has been achieved by using nanocomposites and high temperature annealing. Mechanical durability on thermal cycling have also been investigated and optimized. This technology is promising for commercial applications in next-generation high-temperature concentration solar power (CSP) plants.

  9. Dental caries in relation to diet, saliva and cariogenic microorganisms in Tanzanians of selected age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengo, M C; Tenovuo, J; Hausen, H

    1996-06-01

    The relationship between diet and dental caries in a Tanzanian population was studied. Mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, yeasts, salivary flow rate as well as buffer effect were also analyzed. A random sample of 12-, 35-44- and 65- to 74- year olds was drawn from Msongola (rural) and Ukombozi (urban), Dar-es-Salaam. The mean of two 24-h recalls was used for the assessment of food intake. The percentage of those with at least one carious tooth ranged from 30% in the 12-year-olds to 80% in the oldest age group. The mean number of decayed teeth (DT) increased significantly with age (P = 0.000) but was not significantly associated with the area of residence. DT increased significantly (P = 0.048) with the number of snacks per day and was also associated with dietary sucrose (P = 0.025), total carbohydrates (P = 0.002) and fiber (P = 0.002). Among salivary variables lactobacilli (P = 0.000) correlated positively with DT. Our study did not reveal any strong association between total energy intake and dental caries in rural or urban populations in Tanzania but snacking and sucrose intake were significantly associated with caries, in particular in the urban area.

  10. Yakima tribal perspectives on high level selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Wittman, J.; Tousley, D.R.; Hovis, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    When Congress went through the arduous process of fashioning a comprehensive plan for resolution of the nation's long-standing nuclear waste problem, it explicitly recognized that past federal efforts in this area had been inadequate. Congress also recognized that the primary reasons for the failure of earlier federal efforts was failure on the part of the federal government to seriously deal with very real technical questions about the geologic adequacy of prospective repository sites, and failure to address the concerns of state, tribal, and local governments in the repository selection and development process

  11. Automatic Feature Selection and Weighting for the Formation of Homogeneous Groups for Regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Curve Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Burn, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme rainfall events can have devastating impacts on society. To quantify the associated risk, the IDF curve has been used to provide the essential rainfall-related information for urban planning. However, the recent changes in the rainfall climatology caused by climate change and urbanization have made the estimates provided by the traditional regional IDF approach increasingly inaccurate. This inaccuracy is mainly caused by two problems: 1) The ineffective choice of similarity indicators for the formation of a homogeneous group at different regions; and 2) An inadequate number of stations in the pooling group that does not adequately reflect the optimal balance between group size and group homogeneity or achieve the lowest uncertainty in the rainfall quantiles estimates. For the first issue, to consider the temporal difference among different meteorological and topographic indicators, a three-layer design is proposed based on three stages in the extreme rainfall formation: cloud formation, rainfall generation and change of rainfall intensity above urban surface. During the process, the impacts from climate change and urbanization are considered through the inclusion of potential relevant features at each layer. Then to consider spatial difference of similarity indicators for the homogeneous group formation at various regions, an automatic feature selection and weighting algorithm, specifically the hybrid searching algorithm of Tabu search, Lagrange Multiplier and Fuzzy C-means Clustering, is used to select the optimal combination of features for the potential optimal homogenous groups formation at a specific region. For the second issue, to compare the uncertainty of rainfall quantile estimates among potential groups, the two sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test-based sample ranking process is used. During the process, linear programming is used to rank these groups based on the confidence intervals of the quantile estimates. The proposed methodology fills the gap

  12. Selective traditions in group discussions: teachers' views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Sund, Per

    2016-11-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers. In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as "good" science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers' views. The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider. The findings show that `resistance' to including SSI is not just an issue for individual teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge

  13. One size does not fit all: HIV testing preferences differ among high-risk groups in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Jan; Njau, Bernard; Mtuy, Tara; Brown, Derek S; Mühlbacher, Axel; Thielman, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximize the effectiveness of "Seek, Test, and Treat" strategies for curbing the HIV epidemic, new approaches are needed to increase the uptake of HIV testing services, particularly among high-risk groups. Low HIV testing rates among such groups suggest that current testing services may not align well with the testing preferences of these populations. Female bar workers and male mountain porters have been identified as two important high-risk groups in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. We used conventional survey methods and a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a preference elicitation method increasingly applied by economists and policy-makers to inform health policy and services, to analyze trade-offs made by individuals and quantify preferences for HIV testing services. Bivariate descriptive statistics were used to analyze differences in survey responses across groups. Compared to 486 randomly selected community members, 162 female bar workers and 194 male Kilimanjaro porters reported 2-3 times as many lifetime sexual partners (p porters preferred testing in venues where antiretroviral therapy was readily available. Both high-risk groups were less averse to traveling longer distances to test compared to their community counterparts. These results expose systematic differences in HIV testing preferences across high-risk populations compared to their community peers. Tailoring testing options to the preferences of high-risk populations should be evaluated as a means of improving uptake of testing in these populations.

  14. Selection of local extremophile lactic acid bacteria with high capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is related to the isolation and identification of strains of local thermophilic lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria can exist under extreme conditions of the digestive tract (acidity and high concentration of bile salts) and have a high ...

  15. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid binding assay in selecting motile spermatozoa with normal morphology at high magnification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Ana L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hyaluronic acid (HA binding assay in the selection of motile spermatozoa with normal morphology at high magnification (8400x. Methods A total of 16592 prepared spermatozoa were selected and classified into two groups: Group I, spermatozoa which presented their head attached to an HA substance (HA-bound sperm, and Group II, those spermatozoa that did not attach to the HA substance (HA-unbound sperm. HA-bound and HA-unbound spermatozoa were evaluated according to the following sperm forms: 1-Normal morphology: normal nucleus (smooth, symmetric and oval configuration, length: 4.75+/-2.8 μm and width: 3.28+/-0.20 μm, no extrusion or invagination and no vacuoles occupied more than 4% of the nuclear area as well as acrosome, post-acrosomal lamina, neck, tail, besides not presenting a cytoplasmic droplet or cytoplasm around the head; 2-Abnormalities of nuclear form (a-Large/small; b-Wide/narrow; c-Regional disorder; 3-Abnormalities of nuclear chromatin content (a-Vacuoles: occupy >4% to 50% of the nuclear area and b-Large vacuoles: occupy >50% of the nuclear area using a high magnification (8400x microscopy system. Results No significant differences were obtained with respect to sperm morphological forms and the groups HA-bound and HA-unbound. 1-Normal morphology: HA-bound 2.7% and HA-unbound 2.5% (P = 0.56. 2-Abnormalities of nuclear form: a-Large/small: HA-bound 1.6% vs. HA-unbound 1.6% (P = 0.63; b-Wide/narrow: HA-bound 3.1% vs. HA-unbound 2.7% (P = 0.13; c-Regional disorders: HA-bound 4.7% vs. HA-unbound 4.4% (P = 0.34. 3. Abnormalities of nuclear chromatin content: a-Vacuoles >4% to 50%: HA-bound 72.2% vs. HA-unbound 72.5% (P = 0.74; b-Large vacuoles: HA-bound 15.7% vs. HA-unbound 16.3% (P = 0.36. Conclusions The findings suggest that HA binding assay has limited efficacy in selecting motile spermatozoa with normal morphology at high magnification.

  16. Depression evaluation in an attendance group for high-risk pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Said Daher Baptista; Makilim Nunes Baptista

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to verify the variation of depression symptomatology in an informative high-risk post-partum group of pregnant (GAGER). Six high-risk pregnant women, from a University Hospital participated in this research, and they were evaluated four times: first, before forming the group; second, after two participations in this group; third, 24 to 36 hours after partum; and, four weeks post-partum. The instruments used were a Psychological Clinic Interview and, the Edinburgh Po...

  17. A Hybrid Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Approach for Green Supplier Selection in the TFT-LCD Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Tsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the need for environmental protection is increasing throughout the world. The focuses of green supplier selection are on considering environmental criteria and strengthening the competitiveness of the entire supply chain. The purpose of this study is to develop a green supplier selection procedure for the thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD industry using polarizer suppliers as an example. First, a decision framework for green supplier selection is developed based on literatures and the supplier audit forms provided by an anonymous flat panel display manufacturer in Taiwan. Then, a hybrid multiple criteria group decision-making (MCGDM method is proposed based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP, entropy, elimination and choice expressing the reality III (ELECTRE III, and the linear assignment method to assist the manufacturer in choosing among four polarizer suppliers. The final ranking results for green supplier selection and different opinions from each department are provided. An improvement report is suggested to enhance suppliers’ performance. For the evaluation procedure, most managers emphasize the importance of current capability and the capability of research and development. Furthermore, we found that the subsidiary supplier should improve quality control competence immediately to be considered as the potential candidate of primary supplier.

  18. Selection and Physical Properties of High-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G. W.

    2014-09-01

    Extremely Red Objects (EROs) and BzKs continue to attract considerable interest. It has been suggested that they may be the direct progenitors of present-day massive E/S0 galaxies, and can provide crucial constraints on the current galaxy formation and evolution models. Therefore, the key question is to measure the relative fraction of OGs (old galaxies) and DGs (young, and dusty starburst galaxies) in the sample of EROs. Many groups have been currently investigating the fractions of these two ERO populations using a variety of observational approaches, but the fraction of OGs and DGs from different surveys is different. In the meantime, a number of observations suggest that the epoch of z˜2 also plays an important role in galaxy formation and evolution for various reasons: the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) begins to drop at z˜2 from a flat plateau at higher redshifts; the morphological type mix of field galaxies changes remarkably at z˜2; the number density of QSOs has a peak at z˜2; and about 50% to 70% of the stellar mass assembly of galaxies took place in the redshift range 1distribution (SED), [3.6]-[8.0] color, and the nonparametric measures of galaxy morphology, we classify EROs into two classes: DGs and OGs. We find that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample (COSMOS) is similar, about 52% of them are DGs, and the other 48% are OGs. For 24 EROs in the UDF, 16 fall into DGs, while 8 are OGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we perform a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that the nonparametric measures and SEDs are efficient in segregating DGs and OGs. We investigate the dependence of the fraction of EROs on their observational properties, and the results suggest that DGs become increasingly important toward fainter magnitudes, redder colors, and higher redshifts. Moreover, we find that the clustering of EROs is much stronger than that of full K-limited samples of

  19. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Yusof, Noor Azah; Tee, Tan Wee; Abdullah, Abd Halim; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Heng, Lee Yook

    2011-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl + cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -1 M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu 2+ Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl + cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl + cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -1 M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  20. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd

    2011-02-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  1. Sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and blood gas responses to highly selective mu and delta opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiritsy-Roy, J A; Marson, L; Van Loon, G R

    1989-12-01

    The relative importance of mu and delta opioid receptors in brain regulation of sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and respiratory function was investigated using highly selective mu and delta opioid peptide analogs. Groups of conscious rats received i.c.v. injections of either the mu-selective agonist, [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) or the delta-selective agonist, [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded continuously via a chronic catheter in the carotid artery, and arterial blood samples were taken at intervals through the same catheter for determination of blood pH, pCO2, pO2 and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Both DAMGO and DPDPE increased plasma catecholamine levels and blood pressure in a dose-related manner. The slopes of the dose-response lines were parallel, but the delta compound was about 250 times less potent than DAMGO. Only the highest dose of 5 nmol of DAMGO caused a significant bradycardia, mediated by parasympathetic (vagal) activation. DAMGO and DPDPE also induced dose-dependent acidosis, with DAMGO again being much more potent than DPDPE. The effects of both DAMGO and DPDPE on plasma catecholamines, blood pressure and blood gases were antagonized by a mu-selective dose of naloxone (0.4 mg/kg i.a.). Intracerebroventricular administration of the delta-selective antagonist, ICI 174,864, only partially attenuated sympathoadrenal and blood gas responses to DAMGO or DPDPE. The pressor responses to DAMGO or DPDPE were resistant to antagonism by ICI 174,864. These results indicate that brain opioid receptors regulating autonomic outflow, cardiovascular and respiratory function are mainly of the mu type, although a delta opioid system may contribute to sympathoadrenal and respiratory effects of opioids.

  2. Study of amino acid disorders among a high risk group of Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the work: The present work aimed at investigating infants (In neonatal and post neonatal period) and children suspected of having inborn errors of metabolism with unexplained mental retardation. The frequency pattern of the various amino acid disorders, in a group of selected infants and children was done to ...

  3. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Yusof, Noor Azah; Tee, Tan Wee; Abdullah, Abd Halim [Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh [Department of Chemistry, Factuality of Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heng, Lee Yook, E-mail: anuar@science.upm.edu.my [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl{sup +} cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 x 10{sup -8} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1}M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu{sup 2+} Ni{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl{sup +} cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl{sup +} cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 x 10{sup -8} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1}M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  4. Functional groups of macro-benthos of selected sites of upstream of Hron River and Hnilec River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufusova, A.

    2011-01-01

    The author used six functional groups of macro-benthos based on 'species traits', which are indicated with the Greek letters α to ζ. In the work authors applied this method to the macroinvertebrate communities of selected sites of upstream of the Hron River and the Hnilec River. The method appropriately captured increasing gradient of anthropogenic changes in the direction of the river continuum. Although the method was used for Slovak rivers for the first time, it seems to be promising for use in the future. (author)

  5. A Hybrid Feature Subset Selection Algorithm for Analysis of High Correlation Proteomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordy, Hussain Montazery; Baygi, Mohammad Hossein Miran; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Pathological changes within an organ can be reflected as proteomic patterns in biological fluids such as plasma, serum, and urine. The surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) has been used to generate proteomic profiles from biological fluids. Mass spectrometry yields redundant noisy data that the most data points are irrelevant features for differentiating between cancer and normal cases. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid feature subset selection algorithm based on maximum-discrimination and minimum-correlation coupled with peak scoring criteria. Our algorithm has been applied to two independent SELDI-TOF MS datasets of ovarian cancer obtained from the NCI-FDA clinical proteomics databank. The proposed algorithm has used to extract a set of proteins as potential biomarkers in each dataset. We applied the linear discriminate analysis to identify the important biomarkers. The selected biomarkers have been able to successfully diagnose the ovarian cancer patients from the noncancer control group with an accuracy of 100%, a sensitivity of 100%, and a specificity of 100% in the two datasets. The hybrid algorithm has the advantage that increases reproducibility of selected biomarkers and able to find a small set of proteins with high discrimination power. PMID:23717808

  6. Denitration of simulated high-level liquid wastes and selective removal of cesium with zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, Hitoshi; Kanno, Takuji [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy; Kimura, Toshiya

    1982-03-01

    Denitration of high-level liquid wastes (HLW) from nuclear fuel reprocessing has been studied. Selective removal of Cs has been also examined with various types of zeolites. The following zeolites were used in this study; Na-synthetic mordenite (NaSM), Na-natural mordenite (NaNM), Na-natural clinoptilolite (NaCP) and H-synthetic mordenites (HSM). The effective denitration is found in the simulated HLW (15 components, 2N HNO/sub 3/ soln.) containing platinum group elements in the case of the addition of formic acid, and the pH of the solution shows the value of 5.4 when the excess formic acid ((HCOOH)/(HNO/sub 3/) = 2.0) was added. Platinum group elements may react as a catalyst for the decomposition of nitric acid and the excess formic acid. The break-through properties of NaSM column are poor for the simulated HLW, and the selective removal of Cs appears to be difficult. On the other hand, good results are obtained in the denitrated HLW, i.e., break-through capacity, total capacity and column utilization are 59.4 (meq./100 g zeolite), 147 (meq./100 g zeolite) and 40.4 (%), respectively. The break-through properties of NaSM and NaNM are superior to those of HSM. The break-through capacity and column utilization increase with an increase in column temperature.

  7. Denitration of simulated high-level liquid wastes and selective removal of cesium with zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hitoshi; Kanno, Takuji; Kimura, Toshiya.

    1982-01-01

    Denitration of high-level liquid wastes (HLW) from nuclear fuel reprocessing has been studied. Selective removal of Cs has been also examined with various types of zeolites. The following zeolites were used in this study; Na-synthetic mordenite (NaSM), Na-natural mordenite (NaNM), Na-natural clinoptilolite (NaCP) and H-synthetic mordenites (HSM). The effective denitration is found in the simulated HLW (15 components, 2N HNO 3 soln.) containing platinum group elements in the case of the addition of formic acid, and the pH of the solution shows the value of 5.4 when the excess formic acid ([HCOOH]/[HNO 3 ] = 2.0) was added. Platinum group elements may react as a catalyst for the decomposition of nitric acid and the excess formic acid. The break-through properties of NaSM column are poor for the simulated HLW, and the selective removal of Cs appears to be difficult. On the other hand, good results are obtained in the denitrated HLW, i.e., break-through capacity, total capacity and column utilization are 59.4 (meq./100 g zeolite), 147 (meq./100 g zeolite) and 40.4 (%), respectively. The break-through properties of NaSM and NaNM are superior to those of HSM. The break-through capacity and column utilization increase with an increase in column temperature. (author)

  8. Filler metal selection for welding a high nitrogen stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Madeleine

    2002-06-01

    Cromanite is a high-strength austenitic stainless steel that contains approximately 19% chromium, 10% manganese, and 0.5% nitrogen. It can be welded successfully, but due to the high nitrogen content of the base metal, precautions have to be taken to ensure sound welds with the desired combination of properties. Although no matching filler metals are currently available, Cromanite can be welded using a range of commercially available stainless steel welding consumables. E307 stainless steel, the filler metal currently recommended for joining Cromanite, produces welds with mechanical properties that are generally inferior to those of the base metal. In wear applications, these lower strength welds would probably be acceptable, but in applications where full use is made of the high strength of Cromanite, welds with matching strength levels would be required. In this investigation, two welding consumables, ER2209 (a duplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steel) and 15CrMn (an austenitic-manganese hardfacing wire), were evaluated as substitutes for E307. When used to join Cromanite, 15CrMn produced welds displaying severe nitrogen-induced porosity, and this consumable is therefore not recommended. ER2209, however, outperformed E307, producing sound porosity-free welds with excellent mechanical properties, including high ductility and strength levels exceeding the minimum limits specified for Cromanite.

  9. High-density nanopore array for selective biomolecule transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2011-11-01

    Development of sophisticated tools capable of manipulating molecules at their own length scale enables new methods for chemical synthesis and detection. Although nanoscale devices have been developed to perform individual tasks, little work has been done on developing a truly scalable platform: a system that combines multiple components for sequential processing, as well as simultaneously processing and identifying the millions of potential species that may be present in a biological sample. The development of a scalable micro-nanofluidic device is limited in part by the ability to combine different materials (polymers, metals, semiconductors) onto a single chip, and the challenges with locally controlling the chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties within a micro or nanochannel. We have developed a unique construct known as a molecular gate: a multilayered polymer based device that combines microscale fluid channels with nanofluidic interconnects. Molecular gates have been demonstrated to selectively transport molecules between channels based on size or charge. In order to fully utilize these structures, we need to develop methods to actively control transport and identify species inside a nanopore. While previous work has been limited to creating electrical connections off-channel or metallizing the entire nanopore wall, we now have the ability to create multiple, separate conductive connections at the interior surface of a nanopore. These interior electrodes will be used for direct sensing of biological molecules, probing the electrical potential and charge distribution at the surface, and to actively turn on and off electrically driven transport of molecules through nanopores.

  10. Highly sensitive and selective detection of dopamine using one-pot synthesized highly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaokai; Kai, Siqi; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yang, Jingjing; Wu, Fu-Gen; Chen, Zhan

    2015-03-17

    A simple and highly efficient method for dopamine (DA) detection using water-soluble silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) was reported. The SiNPs with a high quantum yield of 23.6% were synthesized by using a one-pot microwave-assisted method. The fluorescence quenching capability of a variety of molecules on the synthesized SiNPs has been tested; only DA molecules were found to be able to quench the fluorescence of these SiNPs effectively. Therefore, such a quenching effect can be used to selectively detect DA. All other molecules tested have little interference with the dopamine detection, including ascorbic acid, which commonly exists in cells and can possibly affect the dopamine detection. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity difference between the quenched and unquenched cases versus the fluorescence intensity without quenching (ΔI/I) was observed to be linearly proportional to the DA analyte concentration in the range from 0.005 to 10.0 μM, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM (S/N = 3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest limit for DA detection reported so far. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching is attributed to the energy transfer from the SiNPs to the oxidized dopamine molecules through Förster resonance energy transfer. The reported method of SiNP synthesis is very simple and cheap, making the above sensitive and selective DA detection approach using SiNPs practical for many applications.

  11. Medication withdrawal may be an option for a select group of patients in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the clinical and radiological evolution of a stable group of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that had their disease-modifying therapy (DMT withdrawn. Forty patients, which had made continuous use of one immunomodulator and had remained free of disease for at least 5 years, had their DMT withdrawn and were observed from 13 to 86 months. Out of the followed patients, 4 (10% patients presented with new attacks. In addition to these patients, 2 (5% patients had new lesions revealed by magnetic resonance imaging that did not correspond to clinical attacks. Despite these results, the difficult decision to withdraw medication requires careful analysis. Withdrawal, however, should not be viewed as simply the suspension of treatment because these patients should be evaluated periodically, and the immunomodulators should be readily reintroduced if new attacks occur. Nonetheless, medication withdrawal is an option for a select group of patients.

  12. A grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of hydrogen technologiess in Life Cycle Sustainability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...... the issue of uncertainty. The proposed methodology allows multi-person to participate in the decision-making process and to give linguistic evaluation on the weights of the criteria and the performance of the alternative technologies. In this paper, twelve hydrogen production technologies have been assessed...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....

  13. Operation and design selection of high temperature superconducting magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Rothfeld, R; Wippich, D; Goebel, B

    2004-01-01

    Axial and radial high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic bearings are evaluated by their parameters. Journal bearings possess advantages over thrust bearings. High magnetic gradients in a multi-pole permanent magnet (PM) configuration, the surrounding melt textured YBCO stator and adequate designs are the key features for increasing the overall bearing stiffness. The gap distance between rotor and stator determines the specific forces and has a strong impact on the PM rotor design. We report on the designing, building and measuring of a 200 mm prototype 100 kg HTS bearing with an encapsulated and thermally insulated melt textured YBCO ring stator. The encapsulation requires a magnetically large-gap (4-5 mm) operation but reduces the cryogenic effort substantially. The bearing requires 3 l of LN 2 for cooling down, and about 0.2 l LN 2 h -1 under operation. This is a dramatic improvement of the efficiency and in the practical usage of HTS magnetic bearings

  14. Focus point in dark matter selected high-scale supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Department of Physics, Chongqing University,Chongqing, 401331 P.R. (China)

    2015-03-19

    In this paper, we explore conditions for focus point in the high-scale supersymmetry with the weak-scale gaugino masses. In this context the tension between the naturalness and LHC 2013 data about supersymmetry as well as the cold dark matter candidate are addressed simultaneously. It is shown that the observed Higgs mass can be satisfied in a wide classes of new models, which are realized by employing the non-minimal gauge mediation.

  15. Supported polytertiary amines: highly efficient and selective SO2 adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Ritesh; Abboud, Mohamed; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Tertiary amine containing poly(propyleneimine) second (G2) and third (G3) generation dendrimers as well as polyethyleneimine (PEI) were developed for the selective removal of SO2. N-Alkylation of primary and secondary amines into tertiary amines was confirmed by FTIR and NMR analysis. Such modified polyamines were impregnated on two nanoporous supports, namely, SBA-15PL silica with platelet morphology and ethanol-extracted pore-expanded MCM-41 (PME) composite. In the presence of 0.1% SO2/N2 at 23 °C, the uptake of modified PEI, G2, and G3 supported on SBA-15PL was 2.07, 2.35, and 1.71 mmol/g, respectively; corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.22, 0.4, and 0.3. Under the same conditions, the SO2 adsorption capacity of PME-supported modified PEI and G3 was significantly higher, reaching 4.68 and 4.34 mmol/g, corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.41 and 0.82, respectively. The working SO2 adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, reflecting the exothermic nature of the process. The adsorption capacity of these materials was enhanced dramatically in the presence of humidity in the gas mixture. FTIR data before SO2 adsorption and after adsorption and regeneration did not indicate any change in the materials. Nonetheless, the SO2 working capacity decreased in consecutive adsorption/regeneration cycles due to evaporation of impregnated polyamines, rather than actual deactivation. FTIR and (13)C and (15)N CP-MAS NMR of fresh and SO2 adsorbed modified G3 on PME confirmed the formation of a complexation adduct.

  16. Soy and legume seeds as sources of isoflavones: selected individual determinants of their consumption in a group of perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gacek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze selected individual determinants of consumption of soy products and legumes by menopausal women. The analyzed individual characteristics included the level of general self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life. The study, using a questionnaire for the assessment of food product consumption frequency, and psychological tests (GSES, LOT-R, SWLS, was conducted in a group of 320 women aged between 45 and 55 years. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation and the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn test for multiple comparisons were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Material and methods: The analyzed 45-55-year-old women consumed legume seeds several times a month on average, while the frequency of soy/soy product consumption was lower than once a month. Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of soy product consumption increased with the level of self-efficacy, optimism and satisfaction with life (p < 0.01. Also the increased frequency of legume seed consumption was associated with higher level of optimism and satisfaction with life (p < 0.01. Results: Intergroup comparisons of the average consumption frequency of these products confirmed that legume seeds were significantly more frequently chosen by women characterized by high rather than low levels of optimism (3.36 vs. 2.62, p < 0.001 and satisfaction with life (3.36 vs. 2.65, p < 0.01. Also soy products were preferred significantly more often by women with higher levels of optimism (2.00 vs. 1.38, p < 0.05 and satisfaction with life (2.02 vs. 1.39, p < 0.05. Conclusions : The consumption of legume seeds, and especially soy products, was revealed to be very low among perimenopausal women, and varied depending on the analyzed individual traits, with a tendency to more frequent ingestion by individuals with higher levels of self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life.

  17. EXPLORING THE DIVERSITY OF GROUPS AT 0.1 < z < 0.8 WITH X-RAY AND OPTICALLY SELECTED SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, J. L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wilman, David J.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Saglia, Roberto [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Hou, Annie; Parker, Laura C.; Henderson, Robert D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton ON L8S4M1 (Canada); Mulchaey, John S. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); McGee, Sean L.; Balogh, Michael L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bower, Richard G. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-10

    We present the global group properties of two samples of galaxy groups containing 39 high-quality X-ray-selected systems and 38 optically (spectroscopically) selected systems in coincident spatial regions at 0.12 < z < 0.79. The total mass range of the combined sample is {approx}(10{sup 12}-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. Only nine optical systems are associable with X-ray systems. We discuss the confusion inherent in the matching of both galaxies to extended X-ray emission and of X-ray emission to already identified optical systems. Extensive spectroscopy has been obtained and the resultant redshift catalog and group membership are provided here. X-ray, dynamical, and total stellar masses of the groups are also derived and presented. We explore the effects of utilizing different centers and applying three different kinds of radial cut to our systems: a constant cut of 1 Mpc and two r{sub 200} cuts, one based on the velocity dispersion of the system and the other on the X-ray emission. We find that an X-ray-based r{sub 200} results in less scatter in scaling relations and less dynamical complexity as evidenced by results of the Anderson-Darling and Dressler-Schectman tests, indicating that this radius tends to isolate the virialized part of the system. The constant and velocity dispersion based cuts can overestimate membership and can work to inflate velocity dispersion and dynamical and stellar mass. We find L{sub X} -{sigma} and M{sub stellar}-L{sub X} scaling relations for X-ray and optically selected systems are not dissimilar. The mean fraction of mass found in stars, excluding intracluster light, for our systems is {approx}0.014 with a logarithmic standard deviation of 0.398 dex. We also define and investigate a sample of groups which are X-ray underluminous given the total group stellar mass. For these systems the fraction of stellar mass contributed by the most massive galaxy is typically lower than that found for the total population of

  18. Highly selective Ba2+ separations with acyclic, lipophilic di-[N-(X)sulfonyl carbamoyl] polyethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshani, Sadik; Chun, Sangki; Amiri-Eliasi, Bijan; Bartsch, Richard A

    2005-01-14

    New lipophilic acyclic polyethers with two N-(X)sulfonyl carbamoyl groups of "tunable" acidity exhibit remarkable selectivity for Ba2+ over other alkaline earth metal ions in competitive solvent extraction and transport across polymer inclusion membranes.

  19. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  20. Selected topics in high temperature chemistry defect chemistry of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesen, Ø

    2013-01-01

    The properties of materials at high temperature play a vital role in their processing and practical use. The real properties of materials at elevated temperatures are very often governed by defects in their structure. Lattice defects may consist of point defects like vacancies, interstitial atoms or substituted atoms. These classes are discussed in general and specifically for oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides. Defect aggregates, shear structures and adaptive structures are also described. Special attention is paid to hydrogen defects which seem to play an important role in several mater

  1. Conduction properties of KcsA measured using brownian dynamics with flexible carbonyl groups in the selectivity filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shin-Ho; Corry, Ben

    2007-07-01

    In the narrow segment of an ion conducting pathway, it is likely that a permeating ion influences the positions of the nearby atoms that carry partial or full electronic charges. Here we introduce a method of incorporating the motion of charged atoms lining the pore into Brownian dynamics simulations of ion conduction. The movements of the carbonyl groups in the selectivity filter of the KcsA channel are calculated explicitly, allowing their bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angels to change in response to the forces acting upon them. By systematically changing the coefficients of bond stretching and of angle bending, the carbon and oxygen atoms can be made to fluctuate from their fixed positions by varying mean distances. We show that incorporating carbonyl motion in this way does not alter the mechanism of ion conduction and only has a small influence on the computed current. The slope conductance of the channel increases by approximately 25% when the root mean-square fluctuations of the carbonyl groups are increased from 0.01 to 0.61 A. The energy profiles and the number of resident ions in the channel remain unchanged. The method we utilized here can be extended to allow the movement of glutamate or aspartate side chains lining the selectivity filters of other ionic channels.

  2. High level of microsynteny and purifying selection affect the evolution of WRKY family in Gramineae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Kong, Jingjing; Qiu, Jianle; Zhu, Huasheng; Peng, Yuancheng; Jiang, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY gene family, which encodes proteins in the regulation processes of diverse developmental stages, is one of the largest families of transcription factors in higher plants. In this study, by searching for interspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) and dating the age distributions of duplicated genes, we found 35 chromosomal segments of subgroup I genes of WRKY family (WRKY I) in four Gramineae species (Brachypodium, rice, sorghum, and maize) formed eight orthologous groups. After a stepwise gene-by-gene reciprocal comparison of all the protein sequences in the WRKY I gene flanking areas, highly conserved regions of microsynteny were found in the four Gramineae species. Most gene pairs showed conserved orientation within syntenic genome regions. Furthermore, tandem duplication events played the leading role in gene expansion. Eventually, environmental selection pressure analysis indicated strong purifying selection for the WRKY I genes in Gramineae, which may have been followed by gene loss and rearrangement. The results presented in this study provide basic information of Gramineae WRKY I genes and form the foundation for future functional studies of these genes. High level of microsynteny in the four grass species provides further evidence that a large-scale genome duplication event predated speciation.

  3. Phase associations and potential selective extraction methods for selected high-tech metals from ferromanganese nodules and crusts with siderophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohwinkel, Dennis; Kleint, Charlotte; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase associations of metals in marine Fe–Mn nodules and crusts were determined. • Selective leaching experiments with siderophore desferrioxamine B were conducted. • Siderophores selectively mobilize high-tech metals associated with Fe carrier phases. • Base metal liberation including Fe and Mn is limited. • Siderophores have promising potential for application in ore processing industries. - Abstract: Deep-sea ferromanganese deposits contain a wide range of economically important metals. Ferromanganese crusts and nodules represent an important future resource, since they not only contain base metals such as Mn, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn, but are also enriched in critical or rare high-technology elements such as Li, Mo, Nb, W, the rare earth elements and yttrium (REY). These metals could be extracted from nodules and crusts as a by-product to the base metal production. However, there are no proper separation techniques available that selectively extract certain metals out of the carrier phases. By sequential leaching, we demonstrated that, except for Li, which is present in an easily soluble form, all other high-tech metals enriched in ferromanganese nodules and crusts are largely associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxide phases and only to subordinate extents with Mn-oxide phases. Based on this fact, we conducted selective leaching experiments with the Fe-specific organic ligand desferrioxamine-B, a naturally occurring and ubiquitous siderophore. We showed by leaching of ferromanganese nodules and crusts with desferrioxamine-B that a significant and selective extraction of high-tech metals such as Li, Mo, Zr, Hf and Ta is possible, while other elements like Fe and the base metals Mn, Ni, Cu, Co and Zn are not extracted to large extents. The set of selectively extracted elements can be extended to Nb and W if Mn and carbonate phases are stripped from the bulk nodule or crust prior to the siderophore leach by e.g. a sequential leaching technique. This

  4. Screening in high-risk group of gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and fetal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angadi Rajasab Nilofer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care.

  5. Prediction of high pressure vapor-liquid equilibria with mixing rule using ASOG group contribution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K.; Kojima, K.; Kurihara, K.

    1985-02-01

    To develop a widely applicable method for predicting high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria by the equation of state, a mixing rule is proposed in which mixture energy parameter ''..cap alpha..'' of theSoave-RedlichKwong, Peng-Robinson, and Martin cubic equations of state is expressed by using the ASOG group contribution method. The group pair parameters are then determined for 14 group pairs constituted by six groups, i.e. CH/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/, CH/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, and CO/sub 2/ groups. By using the group pair parameters determined, high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria are predicted with good accuracy for binary and ternary systems constituted by n-paraffins, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide in the temperature range of 100 - 450K.

  6. Effects of genetic group selection against mortality on behavior and peripheral serotonin in domestic laying hens with trimmed and intact beaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Ellen, E.D.; Reenen, van C.G.; Groot, de J.; Napel, ten J.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Kemp, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Severe feather pecking is a maladaptive behavior in laying hens that may result in cannibalism and ultimately death of the victims. Selection methods in which the genetic effect of an animal on the survival of its group members is taken into account, i.e. `group selection¿, have been shown to be

  7. When selection ratios are high: predicting the expatriation willingness of prospective domestic entry-level job applicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, S.T.; Born, M.P.; Willemsen, M.E.; van der Molen, H.T.; Derous, E.

    2009-01-01

    High expatriate selection ratios thwart the ability of multinational organizations to select expatriates. Reducing the selection ratio may be accomplished by selecting those applicants for entry level domestic positions who have expatriate aspirations. Regression analyses conducted on data from a

  8. When high achievers and low achievers work in the same group: the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong; Chan, Joanne Chung-yan

    2008-06-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the inconsistent effects of heterogeneous ability grouping on students in small group work such as project-based learning. The present research investigated the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. At the student level, we examined the interaction effect between students' within-group achievement and group processes on their self- and collective efficacy. At the group level, we examined how group heterogeneity was associated with the average self- and collective efficacy reported by the groups. The participants were 1,921 Hong Kong secondary students in 367 project-based learning groups. Student achievement was determined by school examination marks. Group processes, self-efficacy and collective efficacy were measured by a student-report questionnaire. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse the nested data. When individual students in each group were taken as the unit of analysis, results indicated an interaction effect of group processes and students' within-group achievement on the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy. When compared with low achievers, high achievers reported lower collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of low quality. However, both low and high achievers reported higher collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of high quality. With 367 groups taken as the unit of analysis, the results showed that group heterogeneity, group gender composition and group size were not related to the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy reported by the students. Group heterogeneity was not a determinant factor in students' learning efficacy. Instead, the quality of group processes played a pivotal role because both high and low achievers were able to benefit when group processes were of high quality.

  9. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  10. [Employees in high-reliability organizations: systematic selection of personnel as a final criterion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubaid, V; Anheuser, P

    2014-05-01

    Employees represent an important safety factor in high-reliability organizations. The combination of clear organizational structures, a nonpunitive safety culture, and psychological personnel selection guarantee a high level of safety. The cockpit personnel selection process of a major German airline is presented in order to demonstrate a possible transferability into medicine and urology.

  11. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarasinghe, K S; Kirda, C; Bowen, G D [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section; Zapata, F; Awonaike, K O; Holmgren, E; Arslan, A; De Bisbal, E C; Mohamed, A R.A.G.; Montenegro, A [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Lab., Seibersdorf (Austria). Soils Science Unit

    1996-07-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of {Delta} with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of {Delta} with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that {Delta} values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N{sub 2} derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use {Delta} values for screening of leguminous crops for high N{sub 2} fixation potential. {sup 13}C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of {Delta} with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of {Delta} with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. A rhodamine B-based fluorescent sensor toward highly selective mercury (II) ions detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Peng

    2016-04-01

    This work presented the design, syntheses and photophysical properties of a rhodamine B-based fluorescence probe, which exhibited a sensitive and selective recognition towards mercury (II). The chemosensor RA (Rhodamine- amide- derivative) contained a 5-aminoisophthalic acid diethyl ester and a rhodamine group, and the property of spirolactone of this chemosensor RA was detected by X-ray crystal structure analyses. Chemosensor RA afforded turn-on fluorescence enhancement and displayed high brightness for Hg(2+), which leaded to the opening of the spirolactone ring and consequently caused the appearance of strong absorption at visible range, moreover, the obvious and characteristic color changed from colorless to pink was observed. We envisioned that the chemosensor RA exhibited a considerable specificity with two mercury (II) ions which was attributed to the open of spirolactone over other interference metal ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of inorganic ion exchangers with high selectivity for lithium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    Development of ion exchangers that show large lithium isotope effects is hoped for to establish highly efficient chromatographic processes of lithium isotope separation. In this paper, preparation, characterization, ion exchange properties, and lithium isotope selectivity of inorganic materials that have been and still are being studied by my research group at Sophia University are reviewed. They include manganese oxides-based ion exchangers, antimonic acids and titanium/zirconium phosphates-based ion exchangers. As a result, the lithium isotope separation effects that were one order of magnitude larger than those of organic ion exchangers were obtained. Some inorganic ion exchangers were found to show ion exchange rates more than comparable to those of organic ones. (author)

  14. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving Study Habits of Junior High School Students Through Self-Management versus Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary B.; Trujillo, Amaryllis E.

    1975-01-01

    Both a self-management approach, teaching the principles of behavior modification and self-control (n=36), and a group-discussion technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n=41), led to improvements in grade point averages compared with a no-treatment control group (n=36) for low-achieving junior high school students. (Author)

  16. Preference for High Status Predicts Implicit Outgroup Bias among Children from Low-Status Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Dunham, Yarrow; Merrill, Anna; Hoosain, Leah; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas members of high-status racial groups show ingroup preference when attitudes are measured implicitly, members of low-status racial groups--both adults and children--typically show no bias, potentially reflecting awareness of the ingroup's low status. We hypothesized that when status differences are especially pronounced, children from…

  17. High-consequence analysis, evaluation, and application of select criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmanis, I.; Jaksch, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of characteristics distinguish environmental risk from pollution problems. The characteristics make environmental risk problems harder to manage through existing regulatory, legal, and economic institutions. Hence, technologies involving environmental risk impose on society extremely difficult collective decisions. This paper is concerned with the process of reaching social decisions that involve low-probability, high-consequence outcomes. It is divided into five major parts. Part I contains the introduction. Part II reviews the two main classes of criteria that have been proposed for social decisions: approaches based on market mechanisms and their extension, and approaches associated with Rawls and Buchanan, which not only focus on outcomes, but also impose a set of minimal constraints on the process for reaching decisions and social consensus. Part III proposes a set of eight criteria for evaluating social decision processes. In Parts IV and V we investigate applying the criteria to two case studies -- one on nuclear waste disposal and the other on transportation of liquefied natural gas

  18. Novel furosemide cocrystals and selection of high solubility drug forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, N Rajesh; Gangavaram, Swarupa; Suresh, Kuthuru; Pal, Sharmistha; Manjunatha, Sulur G; Nambiar, Sudhir; Nangia, Ashwini

    2012-02-01

    Furosemide was screened in cocrystallization experiments with pharmaceutically acceptable coformer molecules to discover cocrystals of improved physicochemical properties, that is high solubility and good stability. Eight novel equimolar cocrystals of furosemide were obtained by liquid-assisted grinding with (i) caffeine, (ii) urea, (iii) p-aminobenzoic acid, (iv) acetamide, (v) nicotinamide, (vi) isonicotinamide, (vii) adenine, and (viii) cytosine. The product crystalline phases were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared, Raman, near IR, and (13) C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Furosemide-caffeine was characterized as a neutral cocrystal and furosemide-cytosine an ionic salt by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The stability of furosemide-caffeine, furosemide-adenine, and furosemide-cytosine was comparable to the reference drug in 10% ethanol-water slurry; there was no evidence of dissociation of the cocrystal to furosemide for up to 48 h. The other five cocrystals transformed to furosemide within 24 h. The solubility order for the stable forms is furosemide-cytosine > furosemide-adenine > furosemide-caffeine, and their solubilities are approximately 11-, 7-, and 6-fold higher than furosemide. The dissolution rates of furosemide cocrystals were about two times faster than the pure drug. Three novel furosemide compounds of higher solubility and good phase stability were identified in a solid form screen. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The relative age effect in the German Football TID Programme: biases in motor performance diagnostics and effects on single motor abilities and skills in groups of selected players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votteler, Andreas; Höner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the disturbing effects of relative age on the talent identification process in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. The bias in the selection rate was examined via the extent of relative age effects. The bias in motor performance diagnostics was analysed by comparing the motor performance of selected players with normal motor development. The mechanisms underlying the relative age biases in motor performance were examined by modelling the direct and indirect effects of relative age on single motor performance tests for sprint, running agility, dribbling and ball passing and control. Data from 10,130 selected football players from the U12 to U15 age groups were collected in autumn 2010. The birth distribution differed significantly from the reference population with approximately 61% of the players born in the first half of the year. The selection probability was approximately two times higher for players born in the first quarter of the year than for players born in the last quarter. Revised motor performance diagnostics showed better results on average for relatively younger players. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect relative age effects for physiologically demanding tests and almost no effects for technically demanding tests. Large sample sizes allowed high resolution in relative age with additional informational content and multivariate modelling of the complex relationships among relative age, physical development and motor performance. The results are discussed on how relative age affects the effectiveness and fairness of talent identification and development processes.

  20. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  1. Selection mechanisms underlying high impact biomedical research--a qualitative analysis and causal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Zelko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although scientific innovation has been a long-standing topic of interest for historians, philosophers and cognitive scientists, few studies in biomedical research have examined from researchers' perspectives how high impact publications are developed and why they are consistently produced by a small group of researchers. Our objective was therefore to interview a group of researchers with a track record of high impact publications to explore what mechanism they believe contribute to the generation of high impact publications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Researchers were located in universities all over the globe and interviews were conducted by phone. All interviews were transcribed using standard qualitative methods. A Grounded Theory approach was used to code each transcript, later aggregating concept and categories into overarching explanation model. The model was then translated into a System Dynamics mathematical model to represent its structure and behavior. Five emerging themes were found in our study. First, researchers used heuristics or rules of thumb that came naturally to them. Second, these heuristics were reinforced by positive feedback from their peers and mentors. Third, good communication skills allowed researchers to provide feedback to their peers, thus closing a positive feedback loop. Fourth, researchers exhibited a number of psychological attributes such as curiosity or open-mindedness that constantly motivated them, even when faced with discouraging situations. Fifth, the system is dominated by randomness and serendipity and is far from a linear and predictable environment. Some researchers, however, took advantage of this randomness by incorporating mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from random findings. The aggregation of these themes into a policy model represented the overall expected behavior of publications and their impact achieved by high impact researchers. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed

  2. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasinghe, K.S.; Kirda, C.; Bowen, G.D.; Zapata, F.; Awonaike, K.O.; Holmgren, E.; Arslan, A.; De Bisbal, E.C.; Mohamed, A.R.A.G.; Montenegro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of Δ with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of Δ with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that Δ values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N 2 derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use Δ values for screening of leguminous crops for high N 2 fixation potential. 13 C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of Δ with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of Δ with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. While 13 C isotope discrimination may be a valuable tool for identifying annual crops with high water use efficiency and high yield potential, it may be more attractive for tree species considering the long growth periods taken for trees

  3. Interaction of a non-histone chromatin protein (high-mobility group protein 2) with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, G.H.; Shooter, K.V.; Johns, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction with DNA of the calf thymus chromatin non-histone protein termed the high-mobility group protein 2 has been studied by sedimentation analysis in the ultracentrifuge and by measuring the binding of the 125 I-labelled protein to DNA. The results have been compared with those obtained previously by us [Eur. J. Biochem. (1974) 47, 263-270] for the interaction of high-mobility group protein 1 with DNA. Although the binding parameters are similar for these two proteins, high-mobility group protein 2 differs from high-mobility group protein 1 in that the former appears to change the shape of the DNA to a more compact form. The molecular weight of high-mobility group protein 2 has been determined by equilibrium sedimentation and a mean value of 26,000 was obtained. A low level of nuclease activity detected in one preparation of high-mobility group protein 2 has been investigated. (orig.) [de

  4. Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Jahromi, Fatemeh Nikhalat

    2013-09-01

    The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy female students (24.3 ± 2.6 years) completed three testing session with a break period of at least 2 days. During each session, postural control was assessed during two 30-s trials of bipedal stance with eyes close before and after the fatigue protocol. Fatigue protocols were performed by 60% of their unfatigued Maximum Voluntary Contraction of unilateral ankle plantar flexors, bilateral lumbar extensors and bilateral neck extensors. One of the three fatigue protocols was performed on each session. The result showed that fatigue had a significant effect on COP velocity and it increase COP velocity but there was not found any difference in postural sway between muscle groups. Localized muscle fatigue caused deficits in postural control regardless of the location of fatigue. Authors suggest the possibility of the contributions of central mechanisms to postural deficits due to fatigue and it seems that difference was not between muscle groups due to central fatigue.

  5. Genomic analysis of natural selection and phenotypic variation in high-altitude mongolians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchuan Xing

    Full Text Available Deedu (DU Mongolians, who migrated from the Mongolian steppes to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau approximately 500 years ago, are challenged by environmental conditions similar to native Tibetan highlanders. Identification of adaptive genetic factors in this population could provide insight into coordinated physiological responses to this environment. Here we examine genomic and phenotypic variation in this unique population and present the first complete analysis of a Mongolian whole-genome sequence. High-density SNP array data demonstrate that DU Mongolians share genetic ancestry with other Mongolian as well as Tibetan populations, specifically in genomic regions related with adaptation to high altitude. Several selection candidate genes identified in DU Mongolians are shared with other Asian groups (e.g., EDAR, neighboring Tibetan populations (including high-altitude candidates EPAS1, PKLR, and CYP2E1, as well as genes previously hypothesized to be associated with metabolic adaptation (e.g., PPARG. Hemoglobin concentration, a trait associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans, is at an intermediate level in DU Mongolians compared to Tibetans and Han Chinese at comparable altitude. Whole-genome sequence from a DU Mongolian (Tianjiao1 shows that about 2% of the genomic variants, including more than 300 protein-coding changes, are specific to this individual. Our analyses of DU Mongolians and the first Mongolian genome provide valuable insight into genetic adaptation to extreme environments.

  6. Tuning PIM-PI-Based Membranes for Highly Selective Transport of Propylene/Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy J.

    2016-12-06

    performance PIM-PI membranes for the light gas separations involving maximizing the intra-segmental rigidity of the polymer chain was applied to the C3H6/C3H8 separation. A study regarding a stepwise maximization of intra-molecular rigidity and its effects on C3H6/C3H8 permeation was evaluated by conducting systematic structural modifications to high performance PIM-PIs. State of the art increases in performance were observed in pure-gas measurements as there were significant increases in C3H6/C3H8 selectivity and C3H6 permeability upon doing so. However, mixed-gas measurements showed that there were 65% losses in selectivity due to competitive sorption and mainly plasticization. Based on the conclusions drawn, a fundamental departure from conventional PIM design principles was used, instead emphasizing enhancing inter-chain interactions by introduction of a flexible diamine and functionalization with hydroxyl groups to attempt to immobilize the polymer chains. In doing so, the polymer chains may be able to pack more efficiently and upon sub-Tg annealing cause a microstructural reorganization to form a coplanarized configuration due to the combination of inter-chain charge transfer complexes (CTC) and hydrogen bonding networks. This approach successfully mitigated plasticization, but more importantly resulted in a tightening of the microstructure, especially in the ultra-microporous range (<7 Å) thereby yielding significant boosts in C3H6/C3H8 selectivity. Based on the PIM platform and novel polymer design approach thereof, the C3H6/C3H8 upper bound was thrust to new limits and led to the generation of the most selective solution processable polymers reported for the C3H6/C3H8 separation. Although the PIM platform has redefined the polymer upper bound, the permeability/selectivity tradeoff still endures, as the C3H6 permeabilities were on the order of 1 to 3.5 Barrer for the most selective polymers. To bridge that gap in permeability, several different approaches were taken

  7. Selective and sensitive fluorescence-shift probes based on two dansyl groups for mercury(ii) ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Jun; Liu, Jialun; Deng, Lefang; Zhao, Meili; Deng, Zhifu; Li, Xutian; Tang, Jian; Yang, Liting

    2014-11-01

    Two probes ( and ) bearing two dansyl fluorophores were synthesized and applied to the detection of mercury(ii) ions in aqueous solution. These probes exhibited a selective response to Hg(2+) in a buffered solution, with high sensitivity and a unique fluorescence response signal which displayed a blue-shift effect in the fluorescence emission peak. The Hg(2+) recognition mechanisms of the probes were determined by NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results showed that probe and mercury(ii) ions formed an unusual 2:2 stoichiometric ratio complex, while probe and Hg(2+) formed a multidentate complex with a stoichiometric ratio of 2:1.

  8. Selective digestive tract decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination and antibiotic resistance in patients in intensive-care units: an open-label, clustered group-randomised, crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, A.M. de; Kluytmans, J.A.; Blok, H.E.; Mascini, E.M.; Benus, R.F.; Bernards, A.T.; Kuijper, E.J.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Jansz, A.R.; Jongh, B.M. de; Asselt, G.J. van; Frenay, I.H.; Thijsen, S.F.; Conijn, S.N.; Kaan, J.A.; Arends, J.P.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Bootsma, M.C.; Bonten, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, we assessed selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) on survival and prevention of bacteraemia in patients in intensive-care units. In this analysis, we aimed to assess effectiveness of these interventions for

  9. Selective digestive tract decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination and antibiotic resistance in patients in intensive-care units : an open-label, clustered group-randomised, crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Blok, Hetty E. M.; Mascini, Ellen M.; Benus, Robin F. J.; Bernards, Alexandra T.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A.; Jansz, Arjan R.; de Jongh, Bartelt M.; van Asselt, Gerard J.; Frenay, Ine H. M. E.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Conijn, Simon N. M.; Kaan, Jan A.; Arends, Jan P.; Sturm, Patrick D. J.; Bootsma, Martin C. J.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    Background Previously, we assessed selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) on survival and prevention of bacteraemia in patients in intensive-care units. In this analysis, we aimed to assess effectiveness of these interventions for prevention

  10. Study on the partner selecting method of strategic alliance in high and new technology enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏起; 唐宇; 迟运领

    2004-01-01

    A successful and effective strategic alliance involves many factors, of which selecting a proper partner is the most important factor to achieve the success of the alliance. In view of the characteristics of strategic alliance in high and new technology enterprises and according to the analysis on the standards of partner selecting and the factors of the success of alliance, this paper does some deeper research on the partner selecting and the alliance evaluation process from the perspective of different strategic levels by using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluating method, thus providing a method to select the alliance partner for high and new technology enterprises in China.

  11. Comparison of the neurobiological effects of attribution retraining group therapy with those of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Subjects were sequentially recruited and randomized into two groups, one receiving ARGT (n = 63 and the other SSRIs (n = 66 for 8 weeks. Fifty-four ARGT outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 16 and 55 SSRI outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 17 completed the study. All subjects were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. The 10-item Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was employed only for OCD subjects. Plasma levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were also measured at baseline and 8 weeks after completion of treatment. Symptom scores were significantly reduced (P < 0.001 in both the ARGT and SSRI groups at the end of treatment. However, MDD, GAD and OCD patients in the ARGT group had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentrations compared to baseline (P < 0.05, whereas MDD and OCD patients receiving SSRIs showed significantly increased plasma levels of serotonin (P < 0.05. These findings suggest that ARGT may modulate plasma cortisol levels and affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as opposed to SSRIs, which may up-regulate plasma serotonin levels via a different pathway to produce an overall improvement in the clinical condition of the patients.

  12. Comparison of the neurobiological effects of attribution retraining group therapy with those of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Subjects were sequentially recruited and randomized into two groups, one receiving ARGT (n = 63 and the other SSRIs (n = 66 for 8 weeks. Fifty-four ARGT outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 16 and 55 SSRI outpatients with MDD (n = 19, GAD (n = 19, and OCD (n = 17 completed the study. All subjects were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. The 10-item Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was employed only for OCD subjects. Plasma levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were also measured at baseline and 8 weeks after completion of treatment. Symptom scores were significantly reduced (P < 0.001 in both the ARGT and SSRI groups at the end of treatment. However, MDD, GAD and OCD patients in the ARGT group had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentrations compared to baseline (P < 0.05, whereas MDD and OCD patients receiving SSRIs showed significantly increased plasma levels of serotonin (P < 0.05. These findings suggest that ARGT may modulate plasma cortisol levels and affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as opposed to SSRIs, which may up-regulate plasma serotonin levels via a different pathway to produce an overall improvement in the clinical condition of the patients.

  13. Selection of critical group in relation to the release of radionuclides from nuclear spent fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In respect of internal radiation due to the coastal release of radionuclides, survey on marine food consumption is most useful for the selection of critical group. Species of marine organisms they usually eat is fully over 100 in the coastal area of Ibaraki prefecture where the fuel reprocessing plant is located. Though it gives only a spot datum, one day's consumption survey a season is of convenience to obtain cooperation from housewives and is of use to pick up critical organisms and those who eat much of them. However, long-term survey is required to estimate ordinary intake of the critical foods or those who are supposed critical people. One day's consumption survey makes it easy to perform the subsequent long-term one

  14. Generation and relaxation of high rank coherences in AX3 systems in a selectively methionine labelled SH2 domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloiber, Karin; Fischer, Michael; Ledolter, Karin; Nagl, Michael; Schmid, Walther; Konrat, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The usefulness of selective isotope labelling patterns is demonstrated using the C-terminal SH2 domain of PLC-γ1 selectively 13 C labelled at methionine methyl groups. We demonstrate the generation and relaxation of coherences that are second rank in protons and first rank in carbons that derive from quadrupolar order in protons. The decay rates of second rank double quantum proton coherences are measured. These terms exhibit fewer channels for cross-correlated relaxation compared to single quantum coherences. Our results indicate the potential application of the measurement of high order proton coherences to the analysis of dynamics in methyl-bearing side chains

  15. Identification of Atuveciclib (BAY 1143572), the First Highly Selective, Clinical PTEFb/CDK9 Inhibitor for the Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücking, Ulrich; Scholz, Arne; Lienau, Philip; Siemeister, Gerhard; Kosemund, Dirk; Bohlmann, Rolf; Briem, Hans; Terebesi, Ildiko; Meyer, Kirstin; Prelle, Katja; Denner, Karsten; Bömer, Ulf; Schäfer, Martina; Eis, Knut; Valencia, Ray; Ince, Stuart; von Nussbaum, Franz; Mumberg, Dominik; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Klebl, Bert; Choidas, Axel; Nussbaumer, Peter; Baumann, Matthias; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Rühter, Gerd; Eickhoff, Jan; Brands, Michael

    2017-11-08

    Selective inhibition of exclusively transcription-regulating PTEFb/CDK9 is a promising new approach in cancer therapy. Starting from lead compound BAY-958, lead optimization efforts strictly focusing on kinase selectivity, physicochemical and DMPK properties finally led to the identification of the orally available clinical candidate atuveciclib (BAY 1143572). Structurally characterized by an unusual benzyl sulfoximine group, BAY 1143572 exhibited the best overall profile in vitro and in vivo, including high efficacy and good tolerability in xenograft models in mice and rats. BAY 1143572 is the first potent and highly selective PTEFb/CDK9 inhibitor to enter clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Effects of leptin treatment and Western diet on wheel running in selectively bred high runner mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2012-05-15

    The role of leptin in regulating physical activity is varied. The behavioral effects of leptin signaling depend on the type of activity and the animal's physiological state. We used mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running to further study how leptin regulates volitional exercise. Mice from four replicate high runner (HR) lines typically run ~3-fold more revolutions per day than those from four non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice have altered dopamine function and differences from C in brain regions known to be important in leptin-mediated behavior. Furthermore, male HR mice have been found to dramatically increase running when administered Western diet, an effect possibly mediated through leptin signaling. Male mice from generation 61 (representing three HR lines and one C line) were allowed wheel access at 24 days of age and given either Western diet (high in fat and with added sucrose) or standard chow. After four weeks, Western diet significantly increased circulating leptin, insulin, C-peptide, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and inflammatory hormone resistin concentrations in HR mice (C mice not measured). Western diet increased running in HR mice, but did not significantly affect running in C mice. During the fifth week, all mice received two days of intra-peritoneal sham injections (physiological saline) followed by three days of murine recombinant leptin injections, and then another six days of sham injections. Leptin treatment significantly decreased caloric intake (adjusted for body mass) and body mass in all groups. Wheel running significantly increased with leptin injections in HR mice (fed Western or standard diet), but was unaffected in C mice. Whether Western diet and leptin treatment stimulate wheel running in HR mice through the same physiological pathways awaits future study. These results have implications for understanding the neural and endocrine systems that control locomotor activity, food consumption, and body

  17. Stock selection of high-dose-irradiation-resistant materials for filter press under high-dose irradiation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Minami, Mamoru; Hara, Kouji; Yamashita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    In a volume reduction process for the decontamination of contained soil, the performance degradation of a filter press is expected owing to material deterioration under high-dose irradiation. Eleven-stock selection of candidate materials including polymers, fibers and rubbers for the filter press was conducted to achieve a high performance of volume reduction of contaminated soil and the following results were derived. Crude rubber and nylon were selected as prime candidates for packing, diaphragm and filter plate materials. Polyethylene was also selected as a prime candidate for the filter cloth material. (author)

  18. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  19. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOU, W.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade

  20. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  1. Non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes: Controlling Chirality Selectivity via Alkyl Groups of Conjugated Co-Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight, Braden; Gifford, Brendan; Kilina, Svetlana

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) play an important role in nanotechnology, including electronics, chemical sensors, and solar cells. Their electronic and optical properties depend on the size and geometry (chirality) of the nanotube. However, one main concern regarding nanotube application in optoelectronic devices is the difficulty of separating them based upon chirality after synthesis, as all known synthesis methods produce more than one chirality simultaneously. To get around this, one method is the functionalization of the CNTs via non-covalent bonding of co-polymers by wrapping them around the tube. We use force field simulations to explore the effects of various structural manipulations to the co-polymer 9,9-dialkylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl bipyridine (PFO-BPY) to find the preferential mechanisms of selective interactions between the PFO-BPY and CNTs of various chiralities. In particular, we focus on the effect of the branching in alkyl side-groups of PFO-BPY on their binding to the CNT surface. We have observed correlations between the side-group structures and their wrapping morphology on the CNT-Polymer interactions. Our calculations demonstrate that the branching in the position closest to the conjugated backboned results in the strongest interaction with all CNT. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (CHE 1413614) and the Center for Computationally-Assisted Science and Technology at NDSU.

  2. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeonhu Bae; Minwoo Park; Byungryul Jang; Yura Kang; Jinwoo Park; Hosik Lee; Haegeun Chung; ChiHye Chung; Suklyun Hong; Yongkyung Kwon; Boris I. Yakobson; Hoonkyung Lee

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures...

  3. Mitochondrial haplotypes are not associated with mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won C; Schutz, Heidi; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-04

    Mitochondrial haplotypes have been associated with human and rodent phenotypes, including nonshivering thermogenesis capacity, learning capability, and disease risk. Although the mammalian mitochondrial D-loop is highly polymorphic, D-loops in laboratory mice are identical, and variation occurs elsewhere mainly between nucleotides 9820 and 9830. Part of this region codes for the tRNA Arg gene and is associated with mitochondrial densities and number of mtDNA copies. We hypothesized that the capacity for high levels of voluntary wheel-running behavior would be associated with mitochondrial haplotype. Here, we analyzed the mtDNA polymorphic region in mice from each of four replicate lines selectively bred for 54 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from four control lines (Control) randomly bred for 54 generations. Sequencing the polymorphic region revealed a variable number of adenine repeats. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) varied from 2 to 3 adenine insertions, resulting in three haplotypes. We found significant genetic differentiations between the HR and Control groups (F st  = 0.779, p ≤ 0.0001), as well as among the replicate lines of mice within groups (F sc  = 0.757, p ≤ 0.0001). Haplotypes, however, were not strongly associated with voluntary wheel running (revolutions run per day), nor with either body mass or litter size. This system provides a useful experimental model to dissect the physiological processes linking mitochondrial, genomic SNPs, epigenetics, or nuclear-mitochondrial cross-talk to exercise activity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Selection for the compactness of highly expressed genes in Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Ming

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding sequence (CDS length, gene size, and intron length vary within a genome and among genomes. Previous studies in diverse organisms, including human, D. Melanogaster, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana, indicated that there are negative relationships between expression level and gene size, CDS length as well as intron length. Different models such as selection for economy model, genomic design model, and mutational bias hypotheses have been proposed to explain such observation. The debate of which model is a superior one to explain the observation has not been settled down. The chicken (Gallus gallus is an important model organism that bridges the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates. As D. Melanogaster, chicken has a larger effective population size, selection for chicken genome is expected to be more effective in increasing protein synthesis efficiency. Therefore, in this study the chicken was used as a model organism to elucidate the interaction between gene features and expression pattern upon selection pressure. Results Based on different technologies, we gathered expression data for nuclear protein coding, single-splicing genes from Gallus gallus genome and compared them with gene parameters. We found that gene size, CDS length, first intron length, average intron length, and total intron length are negatively correlated with expression level and expression breadth significantly. The tissue specificity is positively correlated with the first intron length but negatively correlated with the average intron length, and not correlated with the CDS length and protein domain numbers. Comparison analyses showed that ubiquitously expressed genes and narrowly expressed genes with the similar expression levels do not differ in compactness. Our data provided evidence that the genomic design model can not, at least in part, explain our observations. We grouped all somatic-tissue-specific genes

  5. The patient perspective: utilizing focus groups to inform care coordination for high-risk medicaid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheff, Alex; Park, Elyse R; Neagle, Mary; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2017-07-25

    Care coordination programs for high-risk, high-cost patients are a critical component of population health management. These programs aim to improve outcomes and reduce costs and have proliferated over the last decade. Some programs, originally designed for Medicare patients, are now transitioning to also serve Medicaid populations. However, there are still gaps in the understanding of what barriers to care Medicaid patients experience, and what supports will be most effective for providing them care coordination. We conducted two focus groups (n = 13) and thematic analyses to assess the outcomes drivers and programmatic preferences of Medicaid patients enrolled in a high-risk care coordination program at a major academic medical center in Boston, MA. Two focus groups identified areas where care coordination efforts were having a positive impact, as well as areas of unmet needs among the Medicaid population. Six themes emerged from the focus groups that clustered in three groupings: In the first group (1) enrollment in an existing medical care coordination programs, and (2) provider communication largely presented as positive accounts of assistance, and good relationships with providers, though participants also pointed to areas where these efforts fell short. In the second group (3) trauma histories, (4) mental health challenges, and (5) executive function difficulties all presented challenges faced by high-risk Medicaid patients that would likely require redress through additional programmatic supports. Finally, in the third group, (6) peer-to-peer support tendencies among patients suggested an untapped resource for care coordination programs. Programs aimed at high-risk Medicaid patients will want to consider programmatic adjustments to attend to patient needs in five areas: (1) provider connection/care coordination, (2) trauma, (3) mental health, (4) executive function/paperwork and coaching support, and (5) peer-to-peer support.

  6. Relations between high and low power groups: the importance of legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Spears, Russell; Cremers, Iris; Hogg, Michael A

    2003-02-01

    Using a social identity perspective, two experiments examined the effects of power and the legitimacy of power differentials on intergroup bias. In Experiment 1, 125 math-science students were led to believe that they had high or low representation in a university decision-making body relative to social-science students and that this power position was either legitimate or illegitimate. Power did not have an independent effect on bias; rather, members of both high and low power groups showed more bias when the power hierarchy was illegitimate than when it was legitimate. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 105). In addition, Experiment 2 showed that groups located within an unfair power hierarchy expected the superordinate power body to be more discriminatory than did those who had legitimately high or low power. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for group relations. Copyright 2003 Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Pt Single Atoms Embedded in the Surface of Ni Nanocrystals as Highly Active Catalysts for Selective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuhan; Geng, Zhigang; Zhao, Songtao; Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Li, Zhenyu; Si, Rui; Zeng, Jie

    2018-06-13

    Single-atom catalysts exhibit high selectivity in hydrogenation due to their isolated active sites, which ensure uniform adsorption configurations of substrate molecules. Compared with the achievement in catalytic selectivity, there is still a long way to go in exploiting the catalytic activity of single-atom catalysts. Herein, we developed highly active and selective catalysts in selective hydrogenation by embedding Pt single atoms in the surface of Ni nanocrystals (denoted as Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals). During the hydrogenation of 3-nitrostyrene, the TOF numbers based on surface Pt atoms of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals reached ∼1800 h -1 under 3 atm of H 2 at 40 °C, much higher than that of Pt single atoms supported on active carbon, TiO 2 , SiO 2 , and ZSM-5. Mechanistic studies reveal that the remarkable activity of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals derived from sufficient hydrogen supply because of spontaneous dissociation of H 2 on both Pt and Ni atoms as well as facile diffusion of H atoms on Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals. Moreover, the ensemble composed of the Pt single atom and nearby Ni atoms in Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals leads to the adsorption configuration of 3-nitrostyrene favorable for the activation of nitro groups, accounting for the high selectivity for 3-vinylaniline.

  8. Why do adults entitled to free or highly subsidized dental services select fully out-of-pocket-paid care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Fariborz; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Murtomaa, Heikki; Tala, Heikki

    2010-02-01

    To investigate patients' reasons for selecting a dental clinic given their choice of free or highly-subsidized dental services. The study was based on cross-sectional data obtained through phone interviews with adults in Tehran, Iran. The present study included those entitled to free or highly-subsidized dental services (n = 726). The data covered the patients' awareness of subsidized dental services and type of dental clinic for their most recent visit and their reasons for selecting that clinic. Awareness of subsidized dental services was dichotomized as being either aware or unaware of such subsidy. The type of clinic was dichotomized as providing either free or highly-subsidized (FHS) or fully out-of-pocket paid (FOP) services. Free format answers about the subjects' reasons for selecting a particular clinic were later sub-grouped as: convenient access, good technical aspects, good interpersonal aspects, low or reasonable fees, recommendation by a friend, and no reason. Socio-demographic status was based on background. Data analysis included the chi-square test and logistic regression model. Of the subjects (n = 726), 60% were women and 58% were under 35 years of age. The subjects' mean age was 33.5 years with no difference by gender (P = 0.24) and the majority had public insurance (91%). Of all the subjects, 60% selected FOP. Good interpersonal aspects were the strongest reason for selecting FOP (OR = 4.6), follow by good technical aspects (OR = 2.3). Those subjects who were unaware of their benefit had 4.6 times the odds of selecting FOP. Despite the opportunity to use highly-subsidized dental services, good interpersonal and good technical aspects lead patients to select private dentists and to pay fully out of pocket.

  9. Social skills group training in high-functioning autism: A qualitative responder study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to examine experiences and opinions about social skills group training of children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder and their parents following participation in a manualized social skills group training ("KONTAKT"). Within an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT01854346) and based on outcome data from the Social Responsiveness Scale, six high responders and five low-to-non-responders to social skills group training and one parent of each child (N = 22) were deep interviewed. Interestingly, both high responders and low-to-non-responders (and their parents) reported improvements in social communication and related skills (e.g. awareness of own difficulties, self-confidence, independence in everyday life) and overall treatment satisfaction, although more positive intervention experiences were expressed by responders. These findings highlight the added value of collecting verbal data in addition to quantitative data in a comprehensive evaluation of social skills group training. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. An empirical assessment of high-performing medical groups: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortell, Stephen M; Schmittdiel, Julie; Wang, Margaret C; Li, Rui; Gillies, Robin R; Casalino, Lawrence P; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Rundall, Thomas G

    2005-08-01

    The performance of medical groups is receiving increased attention. Relatively little conceptual or empirical work exists that examines the various dimensions of medical group performance. Using a national database of 693 medical groups, this article develops a scorecard approach to assessing group performance and presents a theory-driven framework for differentiating between high-performing versus low-performing medical groups. The clinical quality of care, financial performance, and organizational learning capability of medical groups are assessed in relation to environmental forces, resource acquisition and resource deployment factors, and a quality-centered culture. Findings support the utility of the performance scorecard approach and identification of a number of key factors differentiating high-performing from low-performing groups including, in particular, the importance of a quality-centered culture and the requirement of outside reporting from third party organizations. The findings hold a number of important implications for policy and practice, and the framework presented provides a foundation for future research.

  11. A highly selective biosensor with nanomolar sensitivity based on cytokinin dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Tian

    Full Text Available We have developed a N6-dimethylallyladenine (cytokinin dehydrogenase-based microbiosensor for real-time determination of the family of hormones known as cytokinins. Cytokinin dehydrogenase from Zea mays (ZmCKX1 was immobilised concurrently with electrodeposition of a silica gel film on the surface of a Pt microelectrode, which was further functionalized by free electron mediator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP in supporting electrolyte to give a bioactive film capable of selective oxidative cleavage of the N6- side chain of cytokinins. The rapid electron shuffling between freely diffusible DCPIP and the FAD redox group in ZmCKX1 endowed the microbiosensor with a fast response time of less than 10 s. The immobilised ZmCKX1 retained a high affinity for its preferred substrate N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl adenine (iP, and gave the miniaturized biosensor a large linear dynamic range from 10 nM to 10 µM, a detection limit of 3.9 nM and a high sensitivity to iP of 603.3 µAmM-1cm-2 (n = 4, R2 = 0.9999. Excellent selectivity was displayed for several other aliphatic cytokinins and their ribosides, including N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl adenine, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl adenosine, cis-zeatin, trans-zeatin and trans-zeatin riboside. Aromatic cytokinins and metabolites such as cytokinin glucosides were generally poor substrates. The microbiosensors exhibited excellent stability in terms of pH and long-term storage and have been used successfully to determine low nanomolar cytokinin concentrations in tomato xylem sap exudates.

  12. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection method to improve structure of the normal equation, because condition number can indicate the ill condition of the normal equation. The experimental results show that the new method can improve positioning accuracy and reliability in precise relative positioning.

  13. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...

  14. Effect of a Selected Physical Exercise on the Development of Displacement Movement Skills in Highly Functional Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Keyhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on the development of displacement skills in High Function Autistic (HFA children. Materials and Methods: In this research, 10 children (7.9±1.4 years among of 33 children with HFA in Sahr-e-Kord city (in Iran based on their pre-test scores randomly were selected. The measuring tool was Test of Gross Motor Development-2000 (TGMD-2. Selected motor program (SPARK motor program in this research includes motor strengthening activities, games and sports for children that were performed for 12 sessions by our subjects. Normal distribution of data checked by K-S test and appropriate statistical Levine's and ANOVA tests (dependent and independent types were used for compare mean values (α=0.05. Results: Twelfth sessions of selected physical exercises training in experiment group made significant differences in some research variables but it was not the case for the control group. There were significant differences in running (p=0.002, trotting (p=0.08, jumping (p=0.002 and gliding (p=0.004 and there were non-significant differences in hop (p=0.035 and leaping (p=0.02. Conclusion: According to the results of this research we suggest that the selected physical exercise programs that derived from SPARK motor program can improve displacement motor skills in children with HFA.

  15. Plant functional groups of potential restoration use in advancing edges of high Andean forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos Castro, Carolina; Bonilla, Maria Argenis

    2011-01-01

    The study of plant functional groups constitutes a useful tool in the identification of ecological characteristics relevant in community regeneration. The aim of this study was to identify plant's functional groups in high Andean forest advance edges and to evaluate their role during secondary succession in abandoned pasture lands. Based on 10 x 10 m vegetation relevees for the shrubby-arboreal stratum and 1 x 1 m plots for the herbaceous stratum and the revision of vital attributes for each of the species found, this study uses a multivariate approach to construct a trait-based emergent group's classification. The most important attributes in the definition of the groups were the dispersion mechanism and the presence of basal trunk ramification in woody species; in addition differences in the presence of vegetative propagation, specific leaf area index and the ratio height/diameter at breast height were found between groups of the shrubby-arboreal stratum. Four distinct groups were defined in the herbaceous layer and five in the shrubby-arboreal layer, each group contains species with similar colonization strategies. Among the defined groups, the herbaceous species dispersed by various abiotic factors, the shrubby species with basal ramification and dispersed by wind and the species dispersed by birds constitute key strategies in forest recovery in adjacent abandoned pasture lands dominated by Holcus lanatus, and facilitate the establishment of secondary forest species.

  16. Selective high-affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denardo, Sally J.; Denardo, Gerald L.; Balhorn, Rodney L.

    2018-02-06

    This invention provides novel polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each bind different region son the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  17. Nonmathematical models for evolution of altruism, and for group selection (peck order-territoriality-ant colony-dual-determinant model-tri-determinant model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, P J

    1972-02-01

    Mathematical biologists have failed to produce a satisfactory general model for evolution of altruism, i.e., of behaviors by which "altruists" benefit other individuals but not themselves; kin selection does not seem to be a sufficient explanation of nonreciprocal altruism. Nonmathematical (but mathematically acceptable) models are now proposed for evolution of negative altruism in dual-determinant and of positive altruism in tri-determinant systems. Peck orders, territorial systems, and an ant society are analyzed as examples. In all models, evolution is primarily by individual selection, probably supplemented by group selection. Group selection is differential extinction of populations. It can act only on populations preformed by selection at the individual level, but can either cancel individual selective trends (effecting evolutionary homeostasis) or supplement them; its supplementary effect is probably increasingly important in the evolution of increasingly organized populations.

  18. Selection of design basis event for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2016-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been investigating safety requirements and basic approach of safety guidelines for modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) aiming to increase internarial contribution for nuclear safety by developing an international HTGR safety standard under International Atomic Energy Agency. In this study, we investigate a deterministic approach to select design basis events utilizing information obtained from probabilistic approach. In addition, selections of design basis events are conducted for commercial HTGR designed by JAEA. As a result, an approach for selecting design basis event considering multiple failures of safety systems is established which has not been considered as design basis in the safety guideline for existing nuclear facility. Furthermore, selection of design basis events for commercial HTGR has completed. This report provides an approach and procedure for selecting design basis events of modular HTGR as well as selected events for the commercial HTGR, GTHTR300. (author)

  19. Indiana University high-energy physics group. Technical progress report, December 1, 1982-October 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Heinz, R.M.; Martin, H.J.; Ogren, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The Indiana University High-Energy Physics Group has been actively involved in a variety of research programs during the current contract period. These programs are associated with major experiments conducted by our group at SLAC, Fermilab, Brookhaven and CERN. The physics areas under investigation include studies of psi meson production in hadron interactions (CERN WA-11), a study of low-p/sub t/ and high-p/sub t/ collisions utilizing the Multiparticle Spectrometer at Fermilab (E110/557/672), a glueball search (Brookhaven E771), and a high resolution study of e + e - interactions at high energy at SLAC (PEP HRS experiment). The status of the various efforts are discussed

  20. EXTRACTION OF ROOF LINES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES BY A GROUPING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dal Poz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for extracting groups of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines from highresolution aerial images using corresponding Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS roof polyhedrons as initial approximations. The proposed method is based on two main steps. First, straight lines that are candidates to represent roof ridgelines and roof boundaries of a building are extracted from the aerial image. Second, a group of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines of a selected building is obtained through the optimization of a Markov Random Field (MRF-based energy function using the genetic algorithm optimization method. The formulation of this energy function considers several attributes, such as the proximity of the extracted straight lines to the corresponding projected ALS-derived roof polyhedron and the rectangularity (extracted straight lines that intersect at nearly 90°. Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. CO2-Free Power Generation on an Iron Group Nanoalloy Catalyst via Selective Oxidation of Ethylene Glycol to Oxalic Acid in Alkaline Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Ooi, Mei Lee; Kitano, Sho; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Kato, Kenichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamauchi, Miho

    2014-07-01

    An Fe group ternary nanoalloy (NA) catalyst enabled selective electrocatalysis towards CO2-free power generation from highly deliverable ethylene glycol (EG). A solid-solution-type FeCoNi NA catalyst supported on carbon was prepared by a two-step reduction method. High-resolution electron microscopy techniques identified atomic-level mixing of constituent elements in the nanoalloy. We examined the distribution of oxidised species, including CO2, produced on the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst in the EG electrooxidation under alkaline conditions. The FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst exhibited the highest selectivities toward the formation of C2 products and to oxalic acid, i.e., 99 and 60%, respectively, at 0.4 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), without CO2 generation. We successfully generated power by a direct EG alkaline fuel cell employing the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst and a solid-oxide electrolyte with oxygen reduction ability, i.e., a completely precious-metal-free system.

  2. Dose-reduction techniques for high-dose worker groups in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a study of the extent of radiation dose received by special work groups in the nuclear power industry. Work groups which chronically get large doses were investigated, using information provided by the industry. The tasks that give high doses to these work groups were examined and techniques described that were found to be particularly successful in reducing dose. Quantitative information on the extent of radiation doses to various work groups shows that significant numbers of workers in several critical groups receive doses greater than 1 and even 2 rem per year, particularly contract personnel and workers at BWR-type plants. The number of radiation workers whose lifetime dose is greater than their age is much less. Although the techniques presented would go some way in reducing dose, it is likely that a sizeable reduction to the high-dose work groups may require development of new dose-reduction techniques as well as major changes in procedures. 10 refs., 26 tabs

  3. The effectiveness of introducing Group Prenatal Care (GPC) in selected health facilities in a district of Bangladesh: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ali, Nausad; Ahmed, Sayem; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Jahangir A M; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque

    2017-01-31

    Despite high rates of antenatal care and relatively good access to health facilities, maternal and neonatal mortality remain high in Bangladesh. There is an immediate need for implementation of evidence-based, cost-effective interventions to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of the intervention namely Group Prenatal Care (GPC) on utilization of standard number of antenatal care, post natal care including skilled birth attendance and institutional deliveries instead of usual care. The study is quasi-experimental in design. We aim to recruit 576 pregnant women (288 interventions and 288 comparisons) less than 20 weeks of gestational age. The intervention will be delivered over around 6 months. The outcome measure is the difference in maternal service coverage including ANC and PNC coverage, skilled birth attendance and institutional deliveries between the intervention and comparison group. Findings from the research will contribute to improve maternal and newborn outcome in our existing health system. Findings of the research can be used for planning a new strategy and improving the health outcome for Bangladeshi women. Finally addressing the maternal health goal, this study is able to contribute to strengthening health system.

  4. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd); Das Verfahren der alternativen Standortsuche im Bericht des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AKEnd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost.

  5. Group Mentoring: a Way to Retain ´High-Risk´Teachers on the Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde

    2015-01-01

    The present article concerns group mentoring combined with action learning as a way to counteract work related sickness and early retirement for´ high risk´ teachers. Focus has been on reflection and vitalization. The data shows that this way of working has many possibilities in supporting...

  6. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Mfg & NOES (number based criteria based criteria significant chemicals (lbs) industrial of workers... 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals AGENCY... section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers, importers, and...

  7. Staircase falls: High-risk groups and injury characteristics in 464 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, P.; Mulder, S.; Luitse, J. S. K.; van Ooijen, M. R.; Goslings, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Few data are available about the epidemiology and injury characteristics in staircase falls. The available literature mainly concerns children and autopsy studies. Objective: To describe the epidemiology and injury characteristics of staircase falls, and to identify high-risk groups

  8. High mobility group A1 enhances tumorigenicity of human cholangiocarcinoma and confers resistance to therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Burmeister, Katharina; Piscuoglio, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein has been described to play an important role in numerous types of human carcinoma. By the modulation of several target genes HMGA1 promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has...

  9. High Y-chromosomal differentiation among ethnic groups of Dir and Swat districts, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Inam; Olofsson, Jill K.; Margaryan, Ashot

    2017-01-01

    The ethnic groups that inhabit the mountainous Dir and Swat districts of northern Pakistan are marked by high levels of cultural and phenotypic diversity. To obtain knowledge of the extent of genetic diversity in this region, we investigated Y-chromosomal diversity in five population samples repr...

  10. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group: Progress report, March 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses work carried out by the High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group at the University of Maryland. Particular topics discussed are: OPAL experiment at LEP; deep inelastic muon interactions; B physics with the CLEO detector at CESR; further results from JADE; and search for ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle

  11. Using Focus Groups to Develop a Nutrition Education Video for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Frazee, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Study used focus group interviews with ninth graders to help develop a nutrition education video and teacher's guide for Florida high schools. Students believed a video would be successful, expressed interest in 10 nutrition topics, recommended using teen actors with varying body types, and suggested no more than three or four topics per video.…

  12. The rational weakness of strong ties : Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Recent research (Flache, 1996; Flache and Macy, 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than

  13. The rational weakness of strong ties : Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Yamamoto, H

    2006-01-01

    Recent research (Flache 1996; Flache and Macy 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than

  14. Generation of High-order Group-velocity-locked Vector Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, X. X.; Wu, Z. C.; Zhang, Q.; Li, L.; Tang, D. Y.; Shen, D. Y.; Fu, S. N.; Liu, D. M.; Zhao, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report numerical simulations on the high-order group-velocity-locked vector soliton (GVLVS) generation based on the fundamental GVLVS. The high-order GVLVS generated is characterized with a two-humped pulse along one polarization while a single-humped pulse along the orthogonal polarization. The phase difference between the two humps could be 180 degree. It is found that by appropriate setting the time separation between the two components of the fundamental GVLVS, the high-order GVLVS wit...

  15. A highly selective and turn-on fluorescence sensor for detection of cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Yi; Hsieh, Wei Hsun; Chir, Jiun-Ly; Wu, An-Tai

    2014-11-01

    2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (receptor 1) serves as a selective chemosensor for cyanide anion (CN(-)). In the presence of CN(-), an enhanced fluorescent intensity and red shift were observed. The observed complexation between receptor 1 and CN(-) may cause from a formation of phenoxide anion by nucleophilic addition of the CN(-) to carbonyl group.

  16. Blooming of the Novel in the Bloomsbury Group: An Investigation to the Impact of the Members of Bloomsbury Group on the Composition of the Selected Works of Virginia Woolf and E.M. Forster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedehZahra Nozen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available “For masterpieces are not single and solitary births; they are the outcome of many years of thinking in common, of thinking by the body of the people, so that the experience of the mass is behind the single voice…”. Woolf’s belief has been put to the test in the Bloomsbury Group and this paper intends to investigate the validity of her claim through a critical analysis of the selected works of its novelist members. In a central part of London during the first half of the twentieth century a group of intellectual and literary writers, artists, critics and an economist came together which later on was labeled as Bloomsbury group. The group’s members had an influential role in blooming novel in a different form of expression and profoundly affect its literary figures, Virginia Woolf and E.M. Forster, in the composition of their fictions The Waves, A Room of One’s Own, To the Lighthouse and Forster’s A Room with a view and Howards End. The formation of Bloomsbury circle acted as a bridge from the Victorian bigotries and narrow-mindedness to the unbounded era of modernism as they searched for universal peace, individual liberalism and human accomplishments due to ideal social norms. They freely exchanged their views on variety of subjects without any limitation. The reasons behind their popularity compared to several contemporary groups were their innumerable works, the clarification of their lives through their diaries, biographies and autobiographies and their diverse kinds of activities such as criticism, painting, politics and literary writings. They were adherents of truth, goodness, enjoyment of beautiful object, intrinsic values, aesthetics, friendship and personal relationship. Intellectual intimacy and cooperation can be considered as the main attribute of its members as they collaborate with each other and employ the fundamental tenets of the group within their works. The modern style of its artists as post

  17. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  18. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) grouping based on larval habitat characteristics in high mountain ecosystems of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-García, Doris; Rúa-Uribe, Guillermo; Correa, Margarita M; Conn, Jan E; Uribe-Soto, Sandra

    2018-06-01

    Information about mosquito ecology in the high mountain ecosystems of the Neotropical region is sparse. In general, few genera and species have been reported in these ecosystems and there is no information available on habitats and the mosquitoes occupying them. In the present study, specimens collected from NW Colombia in HME were grouped using larval habitat data via an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) determination. A total of 719 mosquitoes was analyzed belonging to 44 OTUs. The analysis considered habitat features and clustered the specimens into six groups from A-F. Five of these included species from different genera, suggesting common habitat requirements. Group E with four genera, seven subgenera, and six species occupied the highest areas (above 3,000 m), whereas three groups (B, D, F) were detected at lower altitudes (1,960-2,002 m). Bromeliads were the most common larval habitat, with 47% (335/719) of the specimens; five genera, six subgenera, and eight species were identified and classified into 66% (29/44) of the OTUs. This work showed some similarities to the habitat requirements and provides a grouping system that constitutes an important baseline for the classification of mosquito fauna from high mountain ecosystems according to altitude and larval habitat. © 2018 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. GIS-based identification of areas that have resource potential for critical minerals in six selected groups of deposit types in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Jones, James V.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    2016-11-16

    Alaska has considerable potential for undiscovered mineral resources. This report evaluates potential for undiscovered critical minerals in Alaska. Critical minerals are those for which the United States imports more than half of its total supply and which are largely derived from nations that cannot be considered reliable trading partners. In this report, estimated resource potential and certainty for the state of Alaska are analyzed and mapped for the following six selected mineral deposit groups that may contain one or more critical minerals: (1) rare earth elements-thorium-yttrium-niobium(-uranium-zirconium) [REE-Th-Y-Nb(-U-Zr)] deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic igneous intrusive rocks; (2) placer and paleoplacer gold (Au) deposits that in some places might also produce platinum group elements (PGE), chromium (Cr), tin (Sn), tungsten (W), silver (Ag), or titanium (Ti); (3) platinum group elements(-cobalt-chromium-nickel-titanium-vanadium) [PGE(-Co-Cr-Ni-Ti-V)] deposits associated with mafic to ultramafic intrusive rocks; (4) carbonate-hosted copper(-cobalt-silver-germanium-gallium) [Cu(-Co-Ag-Ge-Ga)] deposits; (5) sandstone-hosted uranium(-vanadium-copper) [U(-V-Cu)] deposits; and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum(-tantalum-indium-fluorspar) [Sn-W-Mo(-Ta-In-fluorspar)] deposits associated with specialized granites.This study used a data-driven, geographic information system (GIS)-implemented method to identify areas that have mineral resource potential in Alaska. This method systematically and simultaneously analyzes geoscience data from multiple geospatially referenced datasets and uses individual subwatersheds (12-digit hydrologic units) as the spatial unit of classification. The final map output uses a red, yellow, green, and gray color scheme to portray estimated relative potential (High, Medium, Low, Unknown) for each of the six groups of mineral deposit types, and it indicates the relative certainty (High, Medium, Low) of that estimate for

  20. Bayesian Multiresolution Variable Selection for Ultra-High Dimensional Neuroimaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yize; Kang, Jian; Long, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-high dimensional variable selection has become increasingly important in analysis of neuroimaging data. For example, in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) study, neuroscientists are interested in identifying important biomarkers for early detection of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using high resolution brain images that include hundreds of thousands voxels. However, most existing methods are not feasible for solving this problem due to their extensive computational costs. In this work, we propose a novel multiresolution variable selection procedure under a Bayesian probit regression framework. It recursively uses posterior samples for coarser-scale variable selection to guide the posterior inference on finer-scale variable selection, leading to very efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. The proposed algorithms are computationally feasible for ultra-high dimensional data. Also, our model incorporates two levels of structural information into variable selection using Ising priors: the spatial dependence between voxels and the functional connectivity between anatomical brain regions. Applied to the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) data in the ABIDE study, our methods identify voxel-level imaging biomarkers highly predictive of the ASD, which are biologically meaningful and interpretable. Extensive simulations also show that our methods achieve better performance in variable selection compared to existing methods.

  1. Microstructuring of thermo-mechanically highly stressed surfaces final report of the DFG research group 576

    CERN Document Server

    Rienäcker, Adrian; Knoll, Gunter; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Maier, Hans; Reithmeier, Eduard; Dinkelacker, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents the final research results of the DFG Research Group 576, which is a joint initiative of five different institutes of the Leibniz Universität Hannover and the Universität Kassel, Germany. The research of the DFG Research Group 576 focuses on improving the tribological behavior of thermomechanically highly stressed surfaces, particularly on cylinder liner for combustion engines. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in the field.

  2. High-efficiency organic solar cells based on end-functional-group-modified poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Lee, Ji Hwang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Engineering Pohang, 790-784 (Korea); Lee, Youngmin; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jin Kon; Cho, Kilwon [Department of Chemical Engineering Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Engineering Pohang, 790-784 (Korea)

    2010-03-26

    Photovoltaic devices of end-functional-group-modified poly 3-(hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) are fabricated with thermal annealing. The surface energies between donor and acceptor were matched by varying the end group, which can be used to control vertical and horizontal phase separation in the active layer, leading mixed nanomorphology with optimized phase separation, low series resistance, and high performance for solar cell devices. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. Final performance report, June 1, 1989--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy Contracts for 1989 covered the initial year of the University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. The first proposal was submitted in the fall of 1988 and the first allocation of funding was received in June 1989. This first contract which covered the time period June 1, 1989--January 31, 1990 was in the amount of $186,000 and covered UVa HEP group operations and equipment during that period. At that point, a regular contract year was established and two subsequent contracts were issued for February 1, 1990--January 31, 1991 and February 1, 1991--January 31, 992 with awards of $280,000 and $580,000, respectively. The funding between June, 1989 and January, 1992 covered the activities of both the UVa Theory Group (Task A) and the UVa HEP Experimental Group (Task B). Expenditures of all above funds was completed by January 31, 1994. In this time period, certain initial things were accomplished using the operating funds provided by DOE and the seed funds ($2.2 million over the period). There were three main areas of activities, the building of the University of Virginia HEP infrastructure (construction of lab space, computer facilities, electronic shop, machine shop and office space), the hiring of personnel (faculty, post docs, and students) and the physics activities of the group. Much of the physics program of the experimental group revolved around the study of production and decay of heavy flavor. A list of technical papers generated by their work is provided.

  4. University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. Final performance report, June 1, 1989 - January 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Contracts for 1989 covered the initial year of the University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. The first proposal was submitted in the fall of 1988 and the first allocation of funding was received in June 1989. This first contract which covered the time period June 1, 1989--January 31, 1990 was in the amount of $186,000 and covered UVa HEP group operations and equipment during that period. At that point, a regular contract year was established and two subsequent contracts were issued for February 1, 1990--January 31, 1991 and February 1, 1991--January 31, 992 with awards of $280,000 and $580,000, respectively. The funding between June, 1989 and January, 1992 covered the activities of both the UVa Theory Group (Task A) and the UVa HEP Experimental Group (Task B). Expenditures of all above funds was completed by January 31, 1994. In this time period, certain initial things were accomplished using the operating funds provided by DOE and the seed funds ($2.2 million over the period). There were three main areas of activities, the building of the University of Virginia HEP infrastructure (construction of lab space, computer facilities, electronic shop, machine shop and office space), the hiring of personnel (faculty, post docs, and students) and the physics activities of the group. Much of the physics program of the experimental group revolved around the study of production and decay of heavy flavor. A list of technical papers generated by their work is provided

  5. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  6. HIGH QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO THE ARCHITECTONIC DESIGN SELECTION PROCEDURE: THE NUTRE LAB CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barroso Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to produce more sustainable buildings has been influencing the design decisions all over the world. That’s why it is imperative, in Brazil, the development of strategies and method to aid the decision making during the design process, focused on high quality environmental. This paper presents a decision support tool based on the principles of sustainable construction developed by the Project, Architecture and Sustainability Research Group (GPAS of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. The methodology has been developed for the selection of a preliminary design of a laboratory to be built at Rio Technology Park at the University campus. The support provided by GPAS occurred in three stages: the elaboration of the Reference Guide for the competitors, the development of a methodology to evaluate the proposed solutions (based on environmental performance criteria and the assistance of the members of jury in the trial phase. The theoretical framework was based upon the concepts of the bioclimatic architecture, the procedures specified by the certification HQE® (Haute Qualité Environnementale and the method suggested by the ADDENDA® architecture office. The success of this experience points out the possibility to future application in similar cases.

  7. Nickel nanoparticle decorated graphene for highly selective isolation of polyhistidine-tagged proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Wei; Yang, Ting; Ma, Lin-Yu; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2013-12-01

    Nickel nanoparticle decorated graphene (GP-Ni) is prepared by one-pot hydrothermal reduction of graphene oxide and nickel cations by hydrazine hydrate in the presence of poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The GP-Ni hybrid is characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, XPS, Raman and FT-IR spectra, demonstrating the formation of poly-dispersed nickel nanoparticles with an average size of 83 nm attached on the surface of graphene sheets. The GP-Ni hybrid exhibits ferromagnetic behavior with a magnetization saturation of 31.1 emu g-1 at 10 000 Oersted (Oe). The GP-Ni also possesses favorable stability in aqueous medium and rapid magnetic response to an external magnetic field. These make it a novel magnetic adsorbent for the separation/isolation of His6-tagged recombinant proteins from a complex sample matrix (cell lysate). The targeted protein species is captured onto the surface of the GP-Ni hybrid via specific metal affinity force between polyhistidine groups and nickel nanoparticles. The SDS-PAGE assay indicates highly selective separation of His6-tagged Smt A from cell lysate. The GP-Ni hybrid displays favorable performance on the separation/isolation of His6-tagged recombinant proteins with respect to the commercial NTA-Ni2+ column.

  8. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Seung Soo

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to identify high-risk groups for industrial accidents by setting up 2003 as the base year and conducting an in-depth analysis of the trends of major industrial accident indexes the index of industrial accident rate, the index of occupational injury rate, the index of occupational illness and disease rate per 10,000 people, and the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people for the past 10 years. This study selected industrial accident victims, who died or received more than 4 days of medical care benefits, due to occupational accidents and diseases occurring at workplaces, subject to the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act, as the study population. According to the trends of four major indexes by workplace characteristics, the whole industry has shown a decreasing tendency in all four major indexes since the base year (2003); as of 2012, the index of industrial accident rate was 67, while the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people was 59. The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  9. A perfluorinated covalent triazine-based framework for highly selective and water-tolerant CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    We designed and synthesized a perfluorinated covalent triazine-based framework (FCTF-1) for selective CO2 capture. The incorporation of fluorine (F) groups played multiple roles in improving the framework\\'s CO 2 adsorption and separation capabilities. Thermodynamically, the strongly polar C-F bonds promoted CO2 adsorption via electrostatic interactions, especially at low pressures. FCTF-1\\'s CO2 uptake was 1.76 mmol g-1 at 273 K and 0.1 bar through equilibrium adsorption, exceeding the CO2 adsorption capacity of any reported porous organic polymers to date. In addition, incorporating F groups produced a significant amount of ultra-micropores (<0.5 nm), which offered not only high gas adsorption potential but also kinetic selectivity for CO2-N 2 separation. In mixed-gas breakthrough experiments, FCTF-1 exhibited an exceptional CO2-N2 selectivity of 77 under kinetic flow conditions, much higher than the selectivity (31) predicted from single-gas equilibrium adsorption data. Moreover, FCTF-1 proved to be tolerant to water and its CO2 capture performance remained excellent when there was moisture in the gas mixture, due to the hydrophobic nature of the C-F bonds. In addition, the moderate adsorbate-adsorbent interaction allowed it to be fully regenerated by pressure swing adsorption processes. These attributes make FCTF-1 a promising sorbent for CO2 capture from flue gas. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Minimization of storage and disposal volumes by treatment of liquids by highly selective ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.; Harjula, R.; Lehto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Novel highly selective inorganic ion exchangers provide new efficient methods for the treatment of nuclear waste liquids. These methods have several advantages compared to conventional technologies such as evaporation, direct solidification or treatment by organic ion exchange resins. Due to high selectivity, the radionuclides can be concentrated to a very small volume even from high-salt effluents. This means that the volume waste will be very small compared to other methods, which brings considerable savings in the cost of intermediate storage and final disposal. Process equipment are highly compact and require little supervision, which brings down the capital and operation costs. The new selective inorganic ion exchangers CsTreat, SrTreat and CoTreat (manufactured by Fortum Engineering Ltd., Finland) have the highest selectivities and processing capacities, exceeding those of zeolites by several orders of magnitude. The materials are now in use in a number of nuclear sites worldwide, including those in the USA, Europe and Japan. Installations include mobile and stationary systems. Considerable experience has been gained in the use of these new materials. Lessons learned, as well as advantages and economic benefits of these highly selective exchangers will be discussed in this paper. (authors)

  11. Natural Selection on Genes Related to Cardiovascular Health in High-Altitude Adapted Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Amaru, Ricardo; Song, Jihyun; Julian, Colleen G; Racimo, Fernando; Cheng, Jade Yu; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Lima, João A; Rotter, Jerome I; Stehlik, Josef; Moore, Lorna G; Prchal, Josef T; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-11-02

    The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia. In contrast, high-altitude-adapted Quechua- and Aymara-speaking inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano are not protected from high-altitude polycythemia in the same way, yet they exhibit other adaptive features for which the genetic underpinnings remain obscure. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to scan high-altitude Andeans for signals of selection. The genes showing the strongest evidence of selection-including BRINP3, NOS2, and TBX5-are associated with cardiovascular development and function but are not in the response-to-hypoxia pathway. Using association mapping, we demonstrated that the haplotypes under selection are associated with phenotypic variations related to cardiovascular health. We hypothesize that selection in response to hypoxia in Andeans could have vascular effects and could serve to mitigate the deleterious effects of polycythemia rather than reduce polycythemia itself. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. FOOD SECURITY SITUATION OF SELECTED HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the food security situation in selected highly developed countries and to identify consumption disparities between them and developing countries. The research is based on the data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the United Nations Statistics Division, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Food Programme (WFP) and selected measures used...

  13. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the US high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the US program, these processes, which are well defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the US program

  14. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costin, L.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Application of high Tc superconductors as frequency selective surfaces: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawei Zhang; Yahya Rahmat-Samii; Fetterman, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and Tl 2 CaBa 2 Cu 2 O 8 high temperature superconducting thin films were utilized to fabricate frequency selective surfaces (FSS) at millimeter-wave frequencies (75--110 GHz). An analytical/numerical model was applied, using a Floquet expansion and the Method of Moments, to analyze bandstop superconducting frequency selective surfaces. Experimental results were compared with the model, and showed a good agreement with resonant frequency prediction with an accuracy of better than 1%. The use of the superconducting frequency selective surfaces as quasi-optical millimeter-wave bandpass filters was also demonstrated

  17. Prediction-Oriented Marker Selection (PROMISE): With Application to High-Dimensional Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lee, J Jack

    2017-06-01

    In personalized medicine, biomarkers are used to select therapies with the highest likelihood of success based on an individual patient's biomarker/genomic profile. Two goals are to choose important biomarkers that accurately predict treatment outcomes and to cull unimportant biomarkers to reduce the cost of biological and clinical verifications. These goals are challenging due to the high dimensionality of genomic data. Variable selection methods based on penalized regression (e.g., the lasso and elastic net) have yielded promising results. However, selecting the right amount of penalization is critical to simultaneously achieving these two goals. Standard approaches based on cross-validation (CV) typically provide high prediction accuracy with high true positive rates but at the cost of too many false positives. Alternatively, stability selection (SS) controls the number of false positives, but at the cost of yielding too few true positives. To circumvent these issues, we propose prediction-oriented marker selection (PROMISE), which combines SS with CV to conflate the advantages of both methods. Our application of PROMISE with the lasso and elastic net in data analysis shows that, compared to CV, PROMISE produces sparse solutions, few false positives, and small type I + type II error, and maintains good prediction accuracy, with a marginal decrease in the true positive rates. Compared to SS, PROMISE offers better prediction accuracy and true positive rates. In summary, PROMISE can be applied in many fields to select regularization parameters when the goals are to minimize false positives and maximize prediction accuracy.

  18. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2017-09-13

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  19. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Kumar, Mahendra; Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Shevate, Rahul; Vovusha, Hakkim; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  20. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  1. Polybenzimidazole Membranes Containing Benzimidazole Side Groups for High Temprature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Xueyuan; Xu, Yizin

    2013-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated temperat......Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated...... temperatures without humidification. At an acid doping level of 13.1 mol H3PO4 per average molar repeat unit, the PBI membranes with a benzimidazole grafting degree of 10.6% demonstrated a conductivity of 0.15 S cm-1 and a H2-air fuel cell peak power density of 378 mW cm-2 at 180 oC at ambient pressure without...

  2. Strategy for distribution of influenza vaccine to high-risk groups and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2005-02-15

    Despite evidence that vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza is effective in limiting community-level transmission, the United States has had a long-standing government strategy of recommending that vaccine be concentrated primarily in high-risk groups and distributed to those people who keep the health system and social infrastructure operating. Because of this year's influenza vaccine shortage, a plan was enacted to distribute the limited vaccine stock to these groups first. This vaccination strategy, based on direct protection of those most at risk, has not been very effective in reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. Although it is too late to make changes this year, the current influenza vaccine crisis affords the opportunity to examine an alternative for future years. The alternative plan, supported by mathematical models and influenza field studies, would be to concentrate vaccine in schoolchildren, the population group most responsible for transmission, while also covering the reachable high-risk groups, who would also receive considerable indirect protection. In conjunction with a plan to ensure an adequate vaccine supply, this alternative influenza vaccination strategy would help control interpandemic influenza and be instrumental in preparing for pandemic influenza. The effectiveness of the alternative plan could be assessed through nationwide community studies.

  3. [School Organization: Theory and Practice; Selected Readings on Grading, Nongrading, Multigrading, Self-Contained Classrooms, Departmentalization, Team Heterogeneous Grouping. Selected Bibliographies.] Rand McNally Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Marian Pope, Comp.

    Over 400 journal articles, case studies, research reports, dissertations, and position papers are briefly described in a series of eight selected bibliographies related to school organization. The eight specific areas treated in the volume and the number of items listed for each include: nongraded elementary school organization, 96; nongraded…

  4. Zirconium-based metal organic frameworks: Highly selective adsorbents for removal of phosphate from water and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew, E-mail: linky@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shen-Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Jochems, Andrew P. [New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources and New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Phosphate is one of the most concerning compounds in wastewater streams and a main nutrient that causes eutrophication. To eliminate the phosphate pollution, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are proposed in this study as adsorbents to remove phosphate from water. The zirconium-based MOF, UiO-66, was selected as representative MOF given its exceptional stability in water. To investigate the effect of an amine functional group, UiO-66-NH2 was also prepared using an amine-substituted ligand. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm reveal that UiO-66-NH2 exhibited higher adsorption capacities than UiO-66 possibly due to the amine group. However, the interaction between phosphate and zirconium sites of UiO MOFs might be the primary factor accounting for the phosphate adsorption to UiO MOFs. UiO MOFs also exhibited a high selectivity towards phosphate over other anions such as bromate, nitrite and nitrate. Furthermore, UiO MOFs were found to adsorb phosphate and to completely remove diluted phosphate in urine. We also found that UiO MOFs could be easily regenerated and re-used for phosphate adsorption. These findings suggest that UiO MOFs can be effective and selective adsorbents to remove phosphate from water as well as urine. - Highlights: • UiO-66 as the first type of MOFs was used to remove phosphate from water and urine. • The amine group in UiO MOFs was found to enhance the phosphate adsorption. • UiO-66 exhibited a high adsorption selectivity towards phosphate over other anions. • UiO-66 could be easily regenerated and re-used with 85% regeneration efficiency.

  5. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group. Progress report 1978/1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, G.

    1979-12-01

    The High Energy Physics Group at the U. of Maryland engaged in a substantial number of different types of particle physics experiments. The largest and most important experiment is that on e + e - interactions. Three experiments were carried out to search for exotic particles or interactions: a heavy neutral lepton, muonium to antimuonium transitions, axions produced by an intense electron beam. No evidence for any of these phenomena was obtained, and the corresponding limitations on relevant parameters were deduced. 10 figures

  6. Culturable microbial groups and thallium-tolerant fungi in soils with high thallium contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jialong; Zou, Xiao; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Peng, Jingquan; Xiao, Tangfu

    2012-12-15

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soil exerts a significant threat to the ecosystem health due to its high toxicity. However, little is known about the effect of Tl on the microbial community in soil. The present study aimed at characterizing the culturable microbial groups in soils which experience for a long time high Tl contamination and elevated Hg and As. The contamination originates from As, Hg and Tl sulfide mineralization and the associated mining activities in the Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Our investigation showed the existence of culturable bacteria, filamentous fungi and actinomyces in long-term Tl-contaminated soils. Some fungal groups grow in the presence of high Tl level up to 1000 mg kg⁻¹. We have isolated and identified nine Tl-tolerant fungal strains based on the morphological traits and ITS analysis. The dominant genera identified were Trichoderma, Penicillium and Paecilomyces. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggested that certain microbes were able to face high Tl pollution in soil and maintain their metabolic activities and resistances. The highly Tl-tolerant fungi that we have isolated are potentially useful in the remediation of Tl-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression and mechanism of high mobility group box protein-1 in retinal tissue of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the expression and mechanism of high mobility group box protein-1(HMGB1in the retina of diabetic rats. METHODS:Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into diabetic group and control group. Diabetic rat model was produced by intraperitioneal injection of 1% STZ with 60mg/Kg weight. The rats in control group received intraperitioneal injection of normal saline with same dosage. After injection, the rats were sacrificed and eyeballs were enucleated for HE staining, the retina fluorescence angiography, TUNEL and Western Blot detection at 1, 2 and 4mo for the expressions of HMGB1 and NF-κB. RESULTS:Compared with the control group, the retinal cells disorder, cell densities decreases, microvasculars occlusion were founded with inner and outer nuclear layer thinning and ganglion cell apoptosis. The fluorescence angiography showed that peripheral capillaries became circuitous and vascular occlusion and non-perfusion area could be seen. The expressions of HMGB1 and NF-κB were higher than those of control with time dependence and they had significant positive correlations(PCONCLUSION:The expression of HMGB1 increases in diabetic rat retina, which may involve in the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy through the NF- κB pathway.

  8. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the efficient real time selection of the rare physics process of interest. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging the experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principal among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, specific trigger objects have been improved by building algorithms using detailed tracking and vertexing in specific detector regions to improve background rejection without loosing signal efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have benefited from a new high performance Inner Detector (ID) software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced in future by the installation...

  9. vuv fluorescence from selective high-order multiphoton excitation of N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffee, Ryan N.; Gibson, George N.

    2004-01-01

    Recent fluorescence studies suggest that ultrashort pulse laser excitation may be highly selective. Selective high-intensity laser excitation holds important consequences for the physics of multiphoton processes. To establish the extent of this selectivity, we performed a detailed comparative study of the vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence resulting from the interaction of N 2 and Ar with high-intensity infrared ultrashort laser pulses. Both N 2 and Ar reveal two classes of transitions, inner-valence ns ' l ' . From their pressure dependence, we associate each transition with either plasma or direct laser excitation. Furthermore, we qualitatively confirm such associations with the time dependence of the fluorescence signal. Remarkably, only N 2 presents evidence of direct laser excitation. This direct excitation produces ionic nitrogen fragments with inner-valence (2s) holes, two unidentified transitions, and one molecular transition, the N 2 + :X 2 Σ g + 2 Σ u + . We discuss these results in the light of a recently proposed model for multiphoton excitation

  10. Directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics from intense laser irradiated blazed grating targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobo; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Weng, Suming; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yanyun; Shao, Fuqiu; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-02

    Relativistically intense laser solid target interaction has been proved to be a promising way to generate high-order harmonics, which can be used to diagnose ultrafast phenomena. However, their emission direction and spectra still lack tunability. Based upon two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics can be realized using blazed grating targets. Such targets can select harmonics with frequencies being integer times of the grating frequency. Meanwhile, the radiation intensity and emission area of the harmonics are increased. The emission direction is controlled by tailoring the local blazed structure. Theoretical and electron dynamics analysis for harmonics generation, selection and directional enhancement from the interaction between multi-cycle laser and grating target are carried out. These studies will benefit the generation and application of laser plasma-based high order harmonics.

  11. POD NUMBER AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS AS PHYSIOLOGICAL SELECTION CRITERIA IN SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. Merrill BREEDING FOR HIGH YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sitompul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in two years using 638 F2 and 1185 F3 lines of selected 16 F1 and 15 F2 parent lines (³80 pods plant-1 to evaluate pod number and CO2 exchange rate (CER as selection criteria. Pod and seed number, and seed weight of individual lines were observed during harvesting time, and CER of randomly selected 32 F2 and 30 F3 lines was measured at initial seed filling stage. The selection of F2 lines based on pod number to generate F3 lines increased the average of seed yield by 39%, and pod number by 77% in F3 lines compared with F2 lines. A close relationships was found between seed weight and pod or seed number per plant. Net CER responded sensitively to a reduction of light in a short-term and showed 78% of F2 lines and all F3 lines with maximum CER (Pmax³20 mmolCO2.m-2.s-1. The ratio of pod number per plant and Pmax varied between lines and were used to group lines resulting in close relationships between Pmax and pod number. It is concluded that the use of pod number and CER (Pmax as selection criteria offers an alternative approach in soybean breeding for high yield.

  12. On the mechanism of high product selectivity for HCOOH using Pb in CO2 electroreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Kim, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Yong-Tae; Jung, Yousung

    2016-04-14

    While achieving high product selectivity is one of the major challenges of the CO2 electroreduction technology in general, Pb is one of the few examples with high selectivity that produces formic acid almost exclusively (versus H2, CO, or other byproducts). In this work, we study the mechanism of CO2 electroreduction reactions using Pb to understand the origin of high formic acid selectivity. In particular, we first assess the proton-assisted mechanism proposed in the literature using density functional calculations and find that it cannot fully explain the previous selectivity experiments for the Pb electrode. We then suggest an alternative proton-coupled-electron-transfer mechanism consistent with existing observations, and further validate a new mechanism by experimentally measuring and comparing the onset potentials for CO2 reduction vs. H2 production. We find that the origin of a high selectivity of the Pb catalyst for HCOOH production over CO and H2 lies in the strong O-affinitive and weak C-, H-affinitive characteristics of Pb, leading to the involvement of the *OCHO species as a key intermediate to produce HCOOH exclusively and preventing unwanted H2 production at the same time.

  13. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy

  14. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  15. Effects of high ambient temperature on ambulance dispatches in different age groups in Fukuoka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuya; Ueda, Kayo; Seposo, Xerxes; Yasukochi, Shusuke; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ono, Masaji; Honda, Akiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2018-01-01

    The elderly population has been the primary target of intervention to prevent heat-related illnesses. According to the literature, the highest risks have been observed among the elderly in the temperature-mortality relationship. However, findings regarding the temperature-morbidity relationship are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the association of temperature with ambulance dispatches due to acute illnesses, stratified by age group. Specifically, we explored the optimum temperature, at which the relative health risks were found to be the lowest, and quantified the health risk associated with higher temperatures among different age groups. We used the data for ambulance dispatches in Fukuoka, Japan, during May and September from 2005 to 2012. The data were grouped according to age in 20-year increments. We explored the pattern of the association of ambulance dispatches with temperature using a smoothing spline curve to identify the optimum temperature for each age group. Then, we applied a distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate the risks of the 85th-95th percentile temperature relative to the overall optimum temperature, for each age group. The relative risk of ambulance dispatches at the 85th and 95th percentile temperature for all ages was 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.12] and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.16), respectively. In comparison, among age groups, the optimum temperature was observed as 25.0°C, 23.2°C, and 25.3°C for those aged 0-19, 60-79, and ≥80, respectively. The optimum temperature could not be determined for those aged 20-39 and 40-59. The relative risks of high temperature tended to be higher for those aged 20-39 and 40-59 than those for other age groups. We did not find any definite difference in the effect of high temperature on ambulance dispatches for different age groups. However, more measures should be taken for younger and middle-aged people to avoid heat-related illnesses.

  16. A highly sensitive and selective fluorescent sensor for detection of sulfide anion based on the steric hindrance effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanfan; Tang, Mengzhuo; Fu, Xiufang; Cheng, Fenmin; Zou, Xianghua; Wang, Jingpei; Zeng, Rongjin

    2018-01-01

    Sulfide anions are not only generated as a byproduct from industrial processes but also as a crucial kind of element in biological systems. Therefore, fluorescent probes for detecting sulfide anion with sensitive and selective characters are highly popular. In this study, we report a highly sensitive and selective fluorescent sensor M1 for detection of sulfide anion based on the steric hindrance effect, where the recognition unit, dinitrobenzenesulfonate ester group is linked to aromatic ortho-position in the porphyrin, and correspondingly the fluorescence of fluorescein is efficiently quenched. Compared with the sensors with recognition unit linked to the other aromatic positions, the fluorescent sensor M1 has a lower fluorescence background. Furthermore, the corresponding fluorescence responses (F/F0) of M1 for mercapto amino-acid GSH, Hcy and Cys, were all far lower than the relative fluorescence ratio F/F0 values for S2-. It means that M1 is sensitive and selective to detection of S2-, and has an anti-disturbance ability to the biologically-relevant thiols, GSH, Hcy and Cys, and has the prospect of application in the exact detection of sulfide anions in living organisms. This approach offers some useful insights for realizing sensitive and selective fluorescent turn-on sensing in the detection assays for other analytes.

  17. Metabolic syndrome in family practice in Jordan: a study of high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasein, N; Masa'd, D

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and its components, as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Jordanian patients attending a family practice clinic for management of cardiovascular risk factors. The sample was 730 randomly selected patients aged > or = 25 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.4% (31.7% in men; 41.0% in women). The prevalence increased with age in the total sample and in both sexes. High waist circumference showed the highest prevalence in the total sample (61.6%). Among females it ranked as the first criterion (73.5%). High serum triglyceride level showed the highest prevalence in males (50.2%). Differences between the sexes were significant. Family practitioners should be alerted to the importance of multiple risk factors in the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Phenylmercuric hydroxide. A highly selective reagent for the hydration of nonconjugated terminal alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janout, V.; Regen, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    This article describes an unusual and highly selective method for hydrating nonconjugated terminal alkynes based on the use of phenylmercuric hydroxide as a reagent. Unlike classical mercury catalyzed procedures, sigma-bonded mercury acetylides are formed initially as stable intermediates and subsequently reacted with water under neutral pH to form the corresponding methyl ketone. Isolated yields which have been obtained by using this approach lie in the range of 49-65%. The high selectivity toward nonconjugated terminal alkynes which characterizes the procedure described herein should make it a useful supplement to existing hydration methods

  19. Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiren Chou and J. Wei

    2002-08-20

    The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

  20. A High-throughput Selection for Cellulase Catalysts Using Chemical Complementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Carter, Brian T.; Lin, Hening; Tao, Haiyan; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material remains one of the major bottlenecks to cost-effective conversion of biomass to ethanol. Improvement of glycosylhydrolases however is limited by existing medium-throughput screening technologies. Here, we report the first high-throughput selection for cellulase catalysts. This selection was developed by adapting chemical complementation to provide a growth assay for bond cleavage reactions. First, a URA3 counter selection was adapted to link chemical dimerizer activated gene transcription to cell death. Next, the URA3 counter selection was shown to detect cellulase activity based on cleavage of a tetrasaccharide chemical dimerizer substrate and decrease in expression of the toxic URA3 reporter. Finally, the utility of the cellulase selection was assessed by isolating cellulases with improved activity from a cellulase library created by family DNA shuffling. This application provides further evidence that chemical complementation can be readily adapted to detect different enzymatic activities for important chemical transformations for which no natural selection exists. Due to the large number of enzyme variants selections can test compared to existing medium-throughput screens for cellulases, this assay has the potential to impact the discovery of improved cellulases and other glycosylhydrolases for biomass conversion from libraries of cellulases created by mutagenesis or obtained from natural biodiversity. PMID:19053460

  1. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Mattová, Eva; Rimárová, Kvetoslava

    2015-01-01

    IIntroduction and objective. The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. A group of 277 agricultural and forestry workers - persons with frequent stay in the countryside and employees of State Border and Customs Police - from years 2011-2012 in the Eastern Slovakia were examined in order to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Sera were screened by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study subjects completed a questionnaires with general demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. The results were evaluated statistically. A 25.3% presence of positive and 8.7% presence of borderline IgG antibodies was detected in all investigated groups. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the agricultural and forestry workers when compared to employees of State Border and Customs Police. Higher seropositivity was observed in older subjects over 30 years of age (P=0.004) than those who were younger, and also in males (P=0.045). A significant number of persons with rheumatologic conditions was statistically higher (P=0.020) in the group with seropositivity than in the group with seronegativity. The presented study confirms the higher risk of Borrelia infection in individuals with frequent exposure to ticks in eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity tests confirmed the highest seropositivity in agriculture and forestry workers, middle positivity was confirmed among other sector workers, and lowest positivity in policemen and employees of the Customs and Border Inspection. The outputs also simultaneously filling the gap of missing seroprevalence data among these exposed groups.

  2. NEWBORNS OF HIGH RISK GROUPS AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CARDIAC ACTIVITY DURING THE PERIOD OF EARLY ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Tumaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study characteristics of electrophysiological cardiac activity in children of risk groups and to assess possibilities of Holter-electrocardiography (H-ECG in revealing of cardiac dysfunction during the period of early adaptation. Patients and methods: 250 newborns were examined. The main group consisted of 200 children with cerebral ischemia (CI. This group was divided into 2 subgroups: 100 full-term and 100 premature (at various gestation age infants. Control group contained 50 children born at 38–40th weeks of gestation with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery, APGAR score of 8–9 points. Complex examination included H-ECG according the standard technic with evaluation of the hearth rate (HR during sleep and wakefulness; HRmin, HRmax; arrhythmias, conductivity disorders, duration of the intervals; rhythm variability. Results: according to the ECG children with CI, especially premature ones, and children delivered via Cesarean section more often had ST-T disturbances, arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, less often — sinus bradycardia and conductivity disorders, Q-Tc prolongation. H-EGC revealed decrease of sleep HR, HRmin and HRmax in children with CI especially in delivered via Cesarean section. The most common arrhythmia was supraventricular extrasystole.  Pauses in rhythms and variability were the highest in premature children delivered via Cesarean section. Conclusions: hypoxia/ischemia is a trigger for development of cardiovascular dysfuncion in newborns. Premature and children delivered via Cesarean section form a group of high risk. H-ECG widens possibilities of revealing of symptoms of cardiac dysfunction (disturbances at the basal level of functioning, of adaptation resources of the sinus node, electric instability of the myocardium and heart rate variability in children of risk group for development of cardiovascular disorders. 

  3. Everything moves on: referral trends to a leavers' group in a high secure hospital and trial leave progress of group graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen; Pyszora, Natalie; Wilson, Claire; Gopie, Ramesh; Thomas, Deryk; Smith, Julia; Glorney, Emily; Moore, Estelle; Tapp, James

    2017-04-01

    Moving on from high secure psychiatric care can be a complex and potentially stressful experience, which may hinder progression. A leavers' group in a UK high secure hospital is offered to support patients with this transition. The aims of this study are to investigate characteristics of patients referred for the leavers' group and compare outcomes for leavers' group graduates with those for patients who never attended a leavers' group for any reason. A retrospective quasi-experimental design was applied to data extracted from various records sources - within and outside the high security hospital. About one-fifth of patients who left the hospital on trial leave during the study were referred to the leavers' group (N = 109). Referred patients were significantly more likely to have either been admitted from another high-security hospital or transferred from prison for treatment and have a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Patients not referred had a significantly higher rate of previously refusing to participate in groups. There was a tendency for rate of return from trial leave for group graduates to be lower than that of patients who did not attend the leavers' group, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (rate ratio [RR] = 1.04; CI 0.97-1.11). A leavers' group appeared to be a valued therapy option for people who had spent a long time in high secure psychiatric care, or those who continued to require hospital treatment beyond prison tariffs. There was a low return rate from trial leave, which made the evaluation of this outcome difficult. A detailed study into both the reasons for return from trial leave and successes would provide further information on ideal preparation for moving on. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Inference for feature selection using the Lasso with high-dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2014-01-01

    Penalized regression models such as the Lasso have proved useful for variable selection in many fields - especially for situations with high-dimensional data where the numbers of predictors far exceeds the number of observations. These methods identify and rank variables of importance but do...... not generally provide any inference of the selected variables. Thus, the variables selected might be the "most important" but need not be significant. We propose a significance test for the selection found by the Lasso. We introduce a procedure that computes inference and p-values for features chosen...... by the Lasso. This method rephrases the null hypothesis and uses a randomization approach which ensures that the error rate is controlled even for small samples. We demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to compute $p$-values of the expected magnitude with simulated data using a multitude of scenarios...

  5. A typical wave wake from high-speed vessels: its group structure and run-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Didenkulova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-amplitude water waves induced by high-speed vessels are regularly observed in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, causing intense beach erosion and disturbing marine habitants in the coastal zone. Such a strong impact on the coast may be a result of a certain group structure of the wave wake. In order to understand it, here we present an experimental study of the group structure of these wakes at Pikakari beach, Tallinn Bay. The most energetic vessel waves at this location (100 m from the coast at the water depth 2.7 m have amplitudes of about 1 m and periods of 8–10 s and cause maximum run-up heights on a beach up to 1.4 m. These waves represent frequency modulated packets where the largest and longest waves propagate ahead of other smaller amplitude and period waves. Sometimes the groups of different heights and periods can be separated even within one wave wake event. The wave heights within a wake are well described by the Weibull distribution, which has different parameters for wakes from different vessels. Wave run-up heights can also be described by Weibull distribution and its parameters can be connected to the parameters of the distribution of wave heights 100 m from the coast. Finally, the run-up of individual waves within a packet is studied. It is shown that the specific structure of frequency modulated wave packets, induced by high-speed vessels, leads to a sequence of high wave run-ups at the coast, even when the original wave heights are rather moderate. This feature can be a key to understanding the significant impact on coasts caused by fast vessels.

  6. Design of Highly Selective Gas Sensors via Physicochemical Modification of Oxide Nanowires: Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sik Woo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the enhancement of gas sensing properties, and specifically the improvement of gas selectivity of metal oxide semiconductor nanowire (NW networks grown by chemical vapor deposition and thermal evaporation, are reviewed. Highly crystalline NWs grown by vapor-phase routes have various advantages, and thus have been applied in the field of gas sensors over the years. In particular, n-type NWs such as SnO2, ZnO, and In2O3 are widely studied because of their simple synthetic preparation and high gas response. However, due to their usually high responses to C2H5OH and NO2, the selective detection of other harmful and toxic gases using oxide NWs remains a challenging issue. Various strategies—such as doping/loading of noble metals, decorating/doping of catalytic metal oxides, and the formation of core–shell structures—have been explored to enhance gas selectivity and sensitivity, and are discussed herein. Additional methods such as the transformation of n-type into p-type NWs and the formation of catalyst-doped hierarchical structures by branch growth have also proven to be promising for the enhancement of gas selectivity. Accordingly, the physicochemical modification of oxide NWs via various methods provides new strategies to achieve the selective detection of a specific gas, and after further investigations, this approach could pave a new way in the field of NW-based semiconductor-type gas sensors.

  7. Closeout Report: Experimental High Energy Physics Group at the University of South Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Charles M; Godang, Romulus

    2013-06-25

    The High Energy Physics group at the University of South Alabama has been supported by this research grant (DE-FG02-96ER40970) since 1996. One researcher, Dr. Merrill Jenkins, has been supported on this grant during this time worked on fixed target experiments at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, west of Chicago, Illinois. These experiments have been E-705, E-771, E-871 (HyperCP) and E-921 (CKM) before it was canceled for budgetary reasons. After the cancellation of CKM, Dr. Jenkins joined the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment as an associate member via the High Energy Physics Group at the Florida State University. A second, recently tenured faculty member, Dr. Romulus Godang joined the group in 2009 and has been supported by this grant since then. Dr. Godang is working on the BaBaR experiment at SLAC and has joined the Belle-II experiment located in Japan at KEK. According to the instructions sent to us by our grant monitor, we are to concentrate on the activities over the last three years in this closeout report.

  8. Dynamic RCS Simulation of a Missile Target Group Based on the High-frequency Asymptotic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To simulate dynamic Radar Cross Section (RCS of missile target group, an efficient RCS prediction approach is proposed based on the high-frequency asymptotic theory. The minimal energy trajectory and coordinate transformation is used to get trajectories of the missile, decoys and roll booster, and establish the dynamic scene for the separate procedure of the target group, and the dynamic RCS including specular reflection, edge diffraction and multi-reflection from the target group are obtained by Physical Optics (PO, Equivalent Edge Currents (EEC and Shooting-and-Bouncing Ray (SBR methods. Compared with the dynamic RCS result with the common interpolation method, the proposed method is consistent with the common method when the targets in the scene are far away from each other and each target is not sheltered by others in the incident direction. When the target group is densely distributed and the shelter effect can not be neglected, the interpolation method is extremely difficult to realize, whereas the proposed method is successful.

  9. A COPRAS-F base multi-criteria group decision making approach for site selection of wind farm

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil Chandra Chatterjee; Goutam Kumar Bose

    2013-01-01

    Today global warming is on the rise and the natural resources are getting consumed at a faster rate. Power consumption has increased many folds to cater the human need. Thus renewable energy resources are the only option available at this juncture. Wind energy is one of the renewable energy. Location selection for wind farm takes an important role on power generation. However, the location selection is a complex multicriteria problem due to the criteria factors which are conflicting in nature...

  10. Test methods for selection of materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste vitrification. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Candidate materials of construction were evaluated for a facility at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant to vitrify high-level radioactive waste. Limited operating experience was available under the corrosive conditions of the complex vitrification process. The objective of the testing program was to provide a high degree of assurance that equipment will meet or exceed design lifetimes. To meet this objective in reasonable time and minimum cost, a program was designed consisting of a combination of coupon immersion and electrochemical laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests. Stainless steels and nickel-based alloys were tested. Alloys that were most resistant to general and local attack contained nickel, molybdenum (>9%), and chromium (where Cr + Mo > 30%). Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference material for process equipment. Stellite 6 was selected for abrasive service in the presence of formic acid. Alloy 690 and ALLCORR were selected for specific applications

  11. Selection of the Mutants with High Hydroquinone Degradation Ability of Serratia Marcesscen by Plasma Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Risheng; You Qidong; He Weijing; Zhu Huixia

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an efficient way by plasma induced mutation was applied to improve the hydroquinone degradation capacity of Serratia marcescens AB 90027 (SM27). The results showed that combined with the selection of hydroquinone tolerance, the mutant with high hydroquinone degradation ability induced by plasma could be achieved. The best dose for plasma mutation was 15 s, which showed a 47.0% higher positive mutation ratio. Besides, the aimed mutant was markedly different from the parent strain (SM27) in colonial traits while cultivated on Kings media. Finally, the hydroquinone degradation ratio reached 70.5% using the induced mutant strain with 1500 mg/L hydroquinone (HQ) after 15 days of cultivation as the selective conditions; however, it was only 46.7% for SM27. The improvement of the degradation capacity by the induced mutant with a high concentration of HQ selection was attributed to its faster growth and higher hydroquinone tolerance compared with that of the parent strain.

  12. Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S.; Saha, Tanmoy; Desai, Aamod V.; Talukdar, Pinaki; Ghosh, Sujit K.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known to play a vital role in human physiology and pathology which stimulated interest in understanding complex behaviour of H2S. Discerning the pathways of H2S production and its mode of action is still a challenge owing to its volatile and reactive nature. Herein we report azide functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) as a selective turn-on fluorescent probe for H2S detection. The MOF shows highly selective and fast response towards H2S even in presence of other relevant biomolecules. Low cytotoxicity and H2S detection in live cells, demonstrate the potential of MOF towards monitoring H2S chemistry in biological system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOF that exhibit fast and highly selective fluorescence turn-on response towards H2S under physiological conditions.

  13. Modular groups in Cantorian E(∞) high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes that the geometry and topology of quantum spacetime is shadowed closely by the Moebius geometry of quasi-Fuschian and Kleinian groups and that is the cause behind the phenomena of high-energy particle physics. In addition, on the large scale measurement of, for instance, the microwave background temperature, the universality of the Merger sponge provides an excellent limit set model for the Charlier-Zeldovich proposal of the fracticality of the universe today and the rather accurate estimate T c =(ln20/ln3)=2.726k. In particular the paper shows the link between the fix points of the modular groups of the vacuum and the golden mean phi=(1/(1+phi))=(Radical radicand 5 -1)/2 of E (∞) spacetime by analytical continuation of a Moebius transformation

  14. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  15. Rhodium Nanoparticle-mesoporous Silicon Nanowire Nanohybrids for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection with High Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiqian; Chang, Hucheng; Zhu, Weiqin; Xu, Chenlong; Feng, Xinjian

    2015-01-01

    Developing nanostructured electrocatalysts, with low overpotential, high selectivity and activity has fundamental and technical importance in many fields. We report here rhodium nanoparticle and mesoporous silicon nanowire (RhNP@mSiNW) hybrids for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection with high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. By employing electrodes that loaded with RhNP@mSiNW nanohybrids, interference caused from both many electroactive substances and dissolved oxygen were eliminated by electrochemical assaying at an optimal potential of +75 mV. Furthermore, the electrodes exhibited a high detection sensitivity of 0.53 μA/mM and fast response (< 5 s). This high-performance nanohybrid electrocatalyst has great potential for future practical application in various oxidase-base biosensors. PMID:25588953

  16. Sports injuries: population based representative data on incidence, diagnosis, sequelae, and high risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Seither, B; Tönges, S; Schmitt, H

    2006-04-01

    To generate national representative data on the incidence, diagnosis, severity, and nature of medically treated sports injuries and to identify high risk groups. The first national health survey for the Federal Republic of Germany, conducted in the format of a standardised, written, cross sectional survey in the period October 1997 to March 1999, gathered data on the incidence of accident and injury and information on social demographics, injury related disability/time off work, and injury location/setting. The net sample comprised 7124 people aged 18-79. 3.1% of adult Germans said they sustained a sports injury during the previous year, corresponding to an annual injury rate of 5.6% among those engaging in regular recreational physical activity and ranking sports injuries as the second most common type of accident. About 62% of all sports injuries result in time taken off work. The period of occupational disability is 14 days or less in around two thirds of these cases. The occupational disability rate after occupational and traffic accidents is much higher by comparison. Dislocations, distortions, and/or torn ligaments make up 60% of all sports injuries, followed by fractures (18%), contusions, surface wounds, or open wounds (12%). Three out of four sports injury casualties are male. The incidence declines noticeably in higher age groups. Future injury prevention measures should focus on the high risk group of young male recreational athletes. The data indicate that the fear of damage to health and injury, believed to be significant internal psychological barriers to participation in sports, is largely unwarranted for the female population and/or older age groups. Sporting injuries are a marginal phenomenon among the female population and mobile seniors actively engaged in sports.

  17. Imaging the Danish Chalk Group with high resolution, 3-component seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, J.; Rasmussen, S. L.; Nielsen, L.; Malehmir, A.; Stemmerik, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Chalk Group in the Danish Basin forms important reservoirs to hydrocarbons as well as water resources, and it has been subject to several seismic studies to determine e.g. structural elements, deposition and burial history. This study focuses on the high quality seismic response of a survey acquired with an accelerated 45 kg weight drop and 3-component MEMS-based sensors and additional wireless vertical-type sensors. The 500 m long profile was acquired during one day close to a chalk quarry and chalk cliffs of the Stevns peninsula in eastern Denmark where the well-known K-T (Cretaceous-Tertiary) boundary and different chalk lithologies are well-exposed. With this simple and fast procedure we were able to achieve deep P-wave penetration to the base of the Chalk Group at about 900 m depth. Additionally, the CMP-processed seismic image of the vertical component stands out by its high resolution. Sedimentary features are imaged in the near-surface Danian, as well as in the deeper Maastrichtian and Upper Campanian parts of the Chalk Group. Integration with borehole data suggests that changes in composition, in particular clay content, correlate with changes in reflectivity of the seismic data set. While the pure chalk in the Maastrichtian deposits shows rather low reflectivity, succession enriched in clay appear to be more reflective. The integration of the mentioned methods gives the opportunity to connect changes in facies to the elastic response of the Chalk Group in its natural environmental conditions.

  18. Multi-group transport methods for high-resolution neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K. A.; Smith, L. E.; Gesh, C. J.; Shaver, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. In these applications, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used to preserve as much information as possible about the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used modeling tool for this type of problem, but computational times for many problems can be prohibitive. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of neutron activation problems. Central to this work is the development of a method for generating multi-group neutron-photon cross-sections in a way that separates the discrete and continuum photon emissions so that the key signatures in neutron activation analysis (i.e., the characteristic line energies) are preserved. The mechanics of the cross-section preparation method are described and contrasted with standard neutron-gamma cross-section sets. These custom cross-sections are then applied to several benchmark problems. Multi-group results for neutron and photon flux are compared to MCNP results. Finally, calculated responses of high-resolution spectrometers are compared. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP. A detailed discussion of the potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach, in terms of accuracy, and computational efficiency, is provided. (authors)

  19. High School Students' Recommendations to Improve School Food Environments: Insights From a Critical Stakeholder Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-11-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain insight into implementation recommendations. We conducted 5 focus groups with high school students (N = 15) from high schools across 9 states. We also conducted follow-up interviews to further explore personal experiences. Focus groups and interview transcripts were coded and organized in Atlas.ti v7 by analysts, following principles of constant comparative analysis. Students reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and supported continued efforts to improve the food environment. Recommendations to improve the food environment included engaging students, focusing on the quality and palatability of meal items, moving toward scratch-cooking, and addressing cafeteria infrastructure. Students' recommendations point to opportunities where school districts, as well as local, state, and federal organizations can work to improve the school food environment. Their insights are directly relevant to USDA's recently released Local School Wellness Policy final rule, of which school meal standards are one provision. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  20. Highly selective coulometric method and equipment for the automated determination of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.; Roensch, F.R.; Rein, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A highly selective, controlled-potential coulometric method has been developed for the determination of plutonium. An automated instrument, consisting of commercial electronic components under control of a programmable calculator, is being constructed. Half-cell potentials and interfering anions are listed

  1. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  2. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  3. A highly selective and sensitive "turn-on" fluorescence chemodosimeter for the detection of mustard gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavender Goud, D; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar; Kumar, Pravin; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-10-21

    A new chemodosimetric protocol based on a tandem S-alkylation followed by desulfurisation reaction of rhodamine-thioamide with mustard gas is reported. The chemodosimeter is highly selective for potential DNA alkylating agents like sulfur mustard, over other simple alkyl halides with the limit of detection of 4.75 μM.

  4. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  5. A terbium(III)-organic framework for highly selective sensing of cytidine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi Juan; He, Rong Xing; Li, Yuan Fang

    2012-11-21

    Highly selective sensing of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) against other triphosphate nucleosides including ATP, GTP and UTP is successfully achieved with a luminescent terbium(III)-organic framework (TbOF) of [Tb(2)(2,3-pzdc)(2)(ox)(H(2)O)(2)](n) (2,3-pzdc(2-) = 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate, ox(2-) = oxalate).

  6. Characterization of the fecal microbiome in different swine groups by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Je; Kim, Jinu; Lee, Jong-Soo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Hongik

    2014-08-01

    Swine have a complex microbial community within their gastrointestinal tract that plays a critical role in both health and disease. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used to identify the possible core microorganisms in the gut of swine groups that differ in meat quality and weight grades (level 1 as higher meat quality and level 2 as lower meat quality). Samples were taken from the rectum and/or stool from ten animals, DNA was extracted, and the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified. Two bacterial populations (Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes) dominated and were shared between the two groups. Significant differences between the groups were found at the genus level. The genera Lactobacillus and Oscillibacter were found in slightly higher proportions in the level 2 group (12.6 and 12.4% of the classified reads, respectively) than those of level 1 (9.6 and 7.7%, respectively). By contrast, the proportion of reads assigned to the genus Roseburia in the level 1 group (13.0%) was higher than that of level 2 (4.8%). The largest differences were related to the genera Clostridium, Oscillibacter, and Roseburia as core microorganisms. Moreover, two genera, Roseburia and Clostridium, related to level 1 produced linoleic acid or short chain fatty acids that might contribute to swine health and development. In conclusion, the presence of core bacteria in the swine gut is associated with meat quality with reduced body fat in swine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. RADIO GALAXY FEEDBACK IN X-RAY-SELECTED GROUPS FROM COSMOS: THE EFFECT ON THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giodini, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Boehringer, H.; Pierini, D.; Smolcic, V.; Massey, R.; BIrzan, L.; Zamorani, G.; Oklopcic, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Schinnerer, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Thompson, D.

    2010-01-01

    We quantify the importance of the mechanical energy released by radio galaxies inside galaxy groups. We use scaling relations to estimate the mechanical energy released by 16 radio-active galactic nuclei located inside X-ray-detected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field. By comparing this energy output to the host groups' gravitational binding energy, we find that radio galaxies produce sufficient energy to unbind a significant fraction of the intragroup medium. This unbinding effect is negligible in massive galaxy clusters with deeper potential wells. Our results correctly reproduce the breaking of self-similarity observed in the scaling relation between entropy and temperature for galaxy groups.

  8. Selection of greenery plants' group tolerant to mineralized human wastes for their inclusion into intrasystem mass exchange of BTLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kalacheva, Galina; Ushakova, Sofya; Trifonov, Sergey V.; Pavlova, Anastasiya

    2016-07-01

    A possible way solving the inclusion problem of the human liquid wastes containing sodium chloride into intrasystem mass exchange of bio-technical life support system (BTLSS) is selection of such species of greenery plants that can utilize sodium chloride, be edible for a human and have rather a high productivity. Our previous works showed that salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea L. was a promising candidate for sodium chloride inclusion into BTLSS mass exchange. However, with the aim of creation of more various human diet possibilities a set of greenery plants cultivated by the water culture method was estimated. Based on preliminary experiments the plants Brassica juncea L., Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Lepidium sativum angustifolia L. and Salicornia europaea L. were chosen as the investigation objects. The nutrient solution for greenery plant's cultivation was obtained after harvesting the wheat plants grown on the solution with mineralized human wastes' addition. The results of the first stage of the investigations carried out showed that plants of Brassica juncea and Lepidium sativum angustifolia are unpromising for their inclusion into BTLSS because of a set of physiological characteristics. On the next stage of investigations, an experimental model of closed ecosystem was created. For that purpose the plants of Salicornia europaea and Nasturtium officinale were introduced in the phototroph unit structure. It was determined that there was deficiency of main macronutrients for Salicornia europaea and Nasturtium officinale including sodium for Salicornia europaea. The deficiency had an effect on plants productivity and on carry-over of sodium from solution by Salicornia europaea. Thus in the future experiment it is necessary to carry out desalinization of solution by Salicornia europaea plants. Nasturtium officinale, that is rich in essential fatty acids and contributes into variety of human vegetable diet is planned to be cultivated by the

  9. Constructing robust and highly-selective hydrogel membranes by bioadhesion-inspired method for CO 2 separation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yingzhen

    2018-06-01

    Water-swollen hydrogel membranes are good candidates for CO2 separations due to the favorable solubility of CO2 in water. However, the excessive amount of water often causes the poor mechanical property and low selectivity. Herein, we propose a bioadhesion-inspired method to construct robust and high-performance CO2 separation membranes via in situ generation of polydopamine (PDA) nanoaggregates within poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. PDA nanoaggregates entangled with PVA chains and formed hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl groups from PVA chains. Physical cross-linking occurred between PVA chains and PDA nanoaggregates. Compared with the PVA membrane, the PVA-PDA hybrid membrane with the dopamine content of 0.5mol% exhibited a 1.7-fold increase in tensile strength and a 2.2-fold increase in the tensile modulus. The membranes were used for CO2/CH4 separation. The physical cross-linking resulted in a PVA chain rigidification region around PDA nanoaggregates, which hindered the penetration of larger-size gas molecules and thus enhancing the CO2/CH4 selectivity. Moreover, the abundant amine groups from PDA nanoaggregates could facilitate CO2 transport. The optimized hybrid hydrogel membrane exhibited CO2/CH4 selectivity of 43.2, which was 43.85% higher than that of the PVA membrane. The bioadhesion-inspired method opens up new opportunities to exploit the potential application of hydrogel membranes.

  10. Working group II report: Production and dynamics of high brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main discussions of the Working Group on the Production and Dynamics of High Brightness Beams. The following topics are covered in this paper. Proposed new electron sources and needed research on existing sources is covered. The discussions on issues relating to the description of phase space on non-thermalized electron beam distributions and the theoretical modeling on non-thermalized electron beam distributions is presented. Finally, the present status of the theoretical modeling of beam transport in bends is given

  11. Density matrix renormalization group for a highly degenerate quantum system: Sliding environment block approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitteckert, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We present an infinite lattice density matrix renormalization group sweeping procedure which can be used as a replacement for the standard infinite lattice blocking schemes. Although the scheme is generally applicable to any system, its main advantages are the correct representation of commensurability issues and the treatment of degenerate systems. As an example we apply the method to a spin chain featuring a highly degenerate ground-state space where the new sweeping scheme provides an increase in performance as well as accuracy by many orders of magnitude compared to a recently published work.

  12. Segregation of the elements of the platinum group in a simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, H.; Banba, T.; Kamizono, H.; Kiriyama, Y.; Kumata, M.; Murakami, T.; Tashiro, S.

    1983-01-01

    Segregation of the elements of the platinum group occurred during vitrification of the borosilicate glass containing 20 wt% simulated high-level waste oxides. The segregated materials were composed of two crystalline phases: one was the solid solution of ruthenium and rhodium dioxides and the other was that of palladium and rhodium metals also with tellurium. The segregated materials were not distributed homogeneously throughout the glass: (i) on the surface of the glass, there occurred palladium, rhodium and tellurium alloy alone; and (ii) at the inner part of the glass, the agglomerates of the two phases were concentrated in one part and dispersed in the other

  13. The effect of topic selection on writing fluency among Japanese high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lin Lubold

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Written fluency and fluency building activities have been shown to promote linguistic choice and student voice development, increased ability to express ideas using complex grammatical structures and greater intrinsic motivation in English language learners. Since the 1970’s, process-oriented writing has been emphasized, yielding an amplified focus on meaning of student content over linguistic form precision. Current research of writing fluency must delve deeper into questions of student ownership of topic and the outcomes for low-risk activities that support fluency practice and encourage confidence building in students. The purpose of this replication study is to further explore previous findings on the effects of topic selection on writing fluency for high school English as foreign language learners. Building off of the work of Bonzo (2008, this study focused on a timed, non-graded writing activity administered to groups of Japanese engineering students in three departments: mechanical, electrical, and global engineering. The six subsequent samples for each participating student were analyzed using online text-analysis for total and unique word counts, providing data used to perform a t-test. Responses to bi-lingual student questionnaires, with prompts on self-perceived written English ability, self-efficacy and strategies for success while writing, provided additional insight into the facets of fluency. The results of these writing sessions offer both confirmation of and contrast to Bonzo’s original work, demonstrate increased student meaning making, and support the use of free writing activities in English language classrooms as a means by which student written fluency may be improved.

  14. The Role of Serum High Mobility Group Box 1 and Interleukin-6 Levels in Acute Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nuo; Wang, Bao-Ming; Cai, Shuang; Liu, Peng-Liang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively investigate the correlation between high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in relation to acute pancreatitis. A highly regulated exploration of various electronic databases, supplemented by manual searching methods, was performed in an attempt to identify pertinent articles of a useful nature. Subsequently, high-quality cohort studies that were deemed to comply with the arduous inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for our meta-analysis. The extensive data analyses reported in our meta-analysis were conducted in connection with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0). A total of 395 studies (135 Chinese studies and 260 English studies) were initially retrieved. 27 of those studies were selected for our meta-analysis, comprising of 896 cases of mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), 700 cases of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) as well as 312 healthy controls. Pooled data suggested that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels of SAP and MAP patients were higher than in healthy controls. Moreover, serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels of SAP patients exhibited significantly higher levels than in that of MAP patients. Based on the rigorous investigation of our meta-analysis, it was concluded that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels might be used as effective indicators for pancreatic lesions as well as the degree of inflammatory response, owing ultimately to the observations and data analyses, suggesting that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels share a close correlation with the severity of pancreatitis. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 616-624, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An Augmented Common Weight Data Envelopment Analysis for Material Selection in High-tech Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Shokr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a challenging issue in manufacturing processes while the inappropriate selected material may lead to fail the manufacturing process or end user experience especially in high-tech industries such as aircraft and shipping. Every material has different quantitative and qualitative criteria which should be considered simultaneously when assessing and selecting the right material. A weighted linear optimization method (WLOM in the class of data envelopment analysis which exists in literature is adopted to address material selection problem while accounting for both qualitative and quantitative criteria. However, it is demonstrated the adopted WLOM method is not able to produce a full ranking vector for the material selection problems borrowed from the literature. Thus, an augmented common weight data envelopment analysis model (ACWDEA is developed in this paper with the aim of eliminating deficiencies of WLOM model. The proposed ACWDEA is able to produce full ranking vector in decision making problems with less computational complexities in superior to the WLOM. Two material selection problems are solved and results are compared with WLOM and previous methods. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed ACWDEA method are evaluated through Spearman’s correlation tests.

  16. High amino acid diversity and positive selection at a putative coral immunity gene (tachylectin-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellberg Michael E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in immune functions, including pathogen recognition and the activation of innate defense pathways, are among the most genetically variable known, and the proteins that they encode are often characterized by high rates of amino acid substitutions, a hallmark of positive selection. The high levels of variation characteristic of immunity genes make them useful tools for conservation genetics. To date, highly variable immunity genes have yet to be found in corals, keystone organisms of the world's most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reef. Here, we examine variation in and selection on a putative innate immunity gene from Oculina, a coral genus previously used as a model for studies of coral disease and bleaching. Results In a survey of 244 Oculina alleles, we find high nonsynonymous variation and a signature of positive selection, consistent with a putative role in immunity. Using computational protein structure prediction, we generate a structural model of the Oculina protein that closely matches the known structure of tachylectin-2 from the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus, a protein with demonstrated function in microbial recognition and agglutination. We also demonstrate that at least three other genera of anthozoan cnidarians (Acropora, Montastrea and Nematostella possess proteins structurally similar to tachylectin-2. Conclusions Taken together, the evidence of high amino acid diversity, positive selection and structural correspondence to the horseshoe crab tachylectin-2 suggests that this protein is 1 part of Oculina's innate immunity repertoire, and 2 evolving adaptively, possibly under selective pressure from coral-associated microorganisms. Tachylectin-2 may serve as a candidate locus to screen coral populations for their capacity to respond adaptively to future environmental change.

  17. The benefits of Outsourcing facility services when selecting right service provider for a hotel:Case Kämp Group Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Paudyal, Manoj; Acharya, Saroj

    2015-01-01

    This research paper examines about the outsourcing of facility services in the Kämp group of hotels. The scope of the study includes Facility Management, outsourcing facilities services, and the selection process of the service providers for a hotel. The research was carried at the hotels of Kämp group Oy in the Metropolitan Area of Helsinki. Facility management includes wide ranges of non-core functions such as Property management, real estates, design and technology. Activities such as secu...

  18. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group: Progress report, March 1, 1987-February 29, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Progress is reported on the OPAL experiment at LEP, including construction and assembly of the hadron calorimeter and development of OPAL software. Progress on the JADE experiment, which examines e + e - interactions at PETRA, and of the PLUTO collaboration are also discussed. Experiments at Fermilab are reported, including deep inelastic muon scattering at TeV II, the D0 experiment at TeV I, and hadron jet physics. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering and a search for point-sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are reported. Other activities discussed include polarization in electron storage rings, participation in studies for the SSC and LEP 200, neutron-antineutron oscillations, and the work of the electronics support group. High energy physics computer experience is also discussed. 158 refs

  19. High Performance Platinum Group Metal Free Membrane Electrode Assemblies through Control of Interfacial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton Energy Systems, Wallingford, CT (United States); Capuano, Christopher [Proton Energy Systems, Wallingford, CT (United States); Atanassov, Plamen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mukerjee, Sanjeev [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Hickner, Michael [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    The quantitative goal of this project was to produce a high-performance anion exchange membrane water electrolyzer (AEM-WE) completely free of platinum group metals (PGMs), which could operate for at least 500 hours with less than 50 microV/hour degradation, at 500 mA/cm2. To achieve this goal, work focused on the optimization of electrocatalyst conductivity, with dispersion and utilization in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) improved through refinement of deposition techniques. Critical factors were also explored with significant work undertaken by Northeastern University to further understand catalyst-membrane-ionomer interfaces and how they differ from liquid electrolyte. Water management and optimal cell operational parameters were established through the design, fabrication, and test of a new test station at Proton specific for AEM evaluation. Additionally, AEM material stability and robustness at high potentials and gas evolution conditions were advanced at Penn State.

  20. Documentation for The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) data archived at NCEI (NCEI Accession 0123222)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) is an international open group for SST data producers, users, and scientists. It brings together...