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Sample records for highly reactive mono-methacrylates

  1. Simulations of highly reactive fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, L E; Manaa, M R; Reed, E J

    2005-07-21

    We report density functional molecular dynamics simulations to determine the early chemical events of hot (T = 3000 K) and dense (1.97 g/cm{sup 3}, V/V{sub 0} = 0.68) nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}). The first step in the decomposition process is an intermolecular proton abstraction mechanism that leads to the formation of CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}H and the aci ion H{sub 2}CNO{sub 2}{sup -}, in support of evidence from static high-pressure and shock experiments. An intramolecular hydrogen transfer that transforms nitromethane into the aci acid form, CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2}H, accompanies this event. This is the first confirmation of chemical reactivity with bond selectivity for an energetic material near the condition of fully reacted specimen. We also report the decomposition mechanism followed up to the formation of H{sub 2}O as the first stable product.

  2. On the Inclusion of Inorganic Chemical Reactivity in High School Chemistry: The Reactivity Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, E. K.

    1989-01-01

    Reports the function of the Reactivity Network which is to translate reactivity data from the primary literature into some 30 reviews for high school teachers and curriculum developers and to disseminate that information nationwide. Discusses a needs assessment done for the project. (MVL)

  3. Reactive Plasticizers for High Temperature Quinoxaline Thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    involves essentially two steps, consolidation of boardy prepreg into sheet stock and thermoforming the sheet stock into structural components. A...problem associated with the fabrication process is the high temperatures required in both the consolidation and thermoforming operations. High processing

  4. Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: combining simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Tomas; Vlcek, Jaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has recently been used for preparation of various oxide films with high application potential, such as TiO2, ZrO2, Ta2O5, HfO2, VO2. Using our patented method of pulsed reactive gas flow control with an optimized reactive gas inlet, we achieved significantly higher deposition rates compared to typical continuous dc magnetron depositions. We have developed a time-dependent model of the reactive HiPIMS. The model includes a depth-resolved description of the sputtered target (featuring sputtering, implantation and knock-on implantation processes) and a parametric description of the discharge plasma (dissociation of reactive gas, ionization and return of sputtered atoms and gas rarefaction). The model uses a combination of experimental and simulation data as input. We have calculated the composition of the target and substrate for several deposition conditions. The simulations predict a reduced compound coverage of the target in HiPIMS compared to the continuous dc sputtering regime which explains the increased deposition rate. The simulations show that an increased dissociation of oxygen in a HiPIMS discharge is beneficial to achieve stoichiometric films on the substrate at high deposition rates.

  5. The Hazards of Reactive Chemicals in High School Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlin, Peter

    Chemical reactivity is a major area of risk in high school laboratories. This paper reports on a study that has provided a research-based framework for risk management in Australian chemical education. The chemical practice model of risk management is considered with respect to kinetic factors; catalysts; concentrations and proportions;…

  6. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Highly Reactive Glycosyl Halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Kovács

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly reactive glycosyl chlorides and bromides have been analysed by a routine mass spectrometric method using electrospray ionization and lithium salt adduct-forming agents in anhydrous acetonitrile solution, providing salient lithiated molecular ions [M+Li]+, [2M+Li]+ etc. The role of other adduct-forming salts has also been evaluated. The lithium salt method is useful for accurate mass determination of these highly sensitive compounds.

  7. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas after treatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2000-07-01

    This patent application describes a method and apparatus of exhaust gas remediation that enhance the reactivity of the material catalysts found within catalytic converters of cars, trucks, and power stations.

  8. STUDY ON HIGH ACID LEACHING REACTIVE CALCINED KAOLIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Leaching experiments on metakaolin show that the final Al extraction ratio reached in a batch reaction is strikingly influenced by the inferior pore structure geometry of the metakaolin pellets. By calcining kaolin particles adhered in low humidity state,a variety of metakaolin pellet,inside which a large openings structure developed,has been prepared. The structure remarkably benefits leachant ion transference,so,the variety has high acid leaching reactivity,even coarse as the pellets are,its aluminum extracted ratio still has a linear relationship with leaching time,and the leaching kinetics is maintained zero order up to a significant conversion degree. A revised Pellet-Particle Model has been developed to interpret the structure influence on Al extraction ratio.

  9. The removal of reactive dyes using high-ash char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.F.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of reactive dyes on high-ash char was studied. Equilibrium data were obtained using the static method with controlled agitation at temperatures in the range of 30 to 60ºC. The Langmuir isotherm model was used to describe the equilibrium of adsorption, and the equilibrium parameters, R L, in the range of 0 to 1 indicate favorable adsorption. The amount of dye adsorbed increased as temperature increased from 30 to 40ºC, but above 40ºC the increase in temperature resulted in a decrease in the amount of dye adsorbed. The kinetic data presented are for controlled agitation at 50 rpm and constant temperature with dye concentrations in the range of 10 ppm to50 ppm. The film mass transfer coefficient, Kf, and the effective diffusivity inside the particle, De, were fitted to the experimental data. The results indicate that internal diffusion governs the adsorption rate.

  10. Highly reactive free radicals in electronic cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Reema; Durand, Erwann; Trushin, Neil; Prokopczyk, Bogdan; Foulds, Jonathan; Elias, Ryan J; Richie, John P

    2015-09-21

    Electronic cigarette (EC) usage has increased exponentially, but limited data are available on its potential harmful effects. We tested for the presence of reactive, short-lived free radicals in EC aerosols by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) using the spin-trap phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). Radicals were detected in aerosols from all ECs and eliquids tested (2.5 × 10(13) to 10.3 × 10(13) radicals per puff at 3.3 V) and from eliquid solvents propylene glycol and glycerol and from "dry puffing". These results demonstrate, for the first time, the production of highly oxidizing free radicals from ECs which may present a potential toxicological risk to EC users.

  11. Studies on high chemical reactivity of nano-NaH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yinheng; ZOU Yunling; JIN Dan; WU Qiang; LIU Tong; XU Jie

    2007-01-01

    A comparison between the initial reaction rates of nanometric and commercial Nail has been studied in four test reactions: 1) hydrogenolysis of chlorobenzene; 2) selec-tive reduction of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol; 3)metallation of dimethyl sulfoxide; and 4) catalytic hydroge-nation ofolefins. The experimental results indicate that when Nail is used as a chemical reagent in the first three reactions,the initial reaction rates of nano-NaH is 230, 120 and 110 times higher than those of the commercial ones respectively,and it is in agreement with the difference in specific surface areas between these two forms of Nail. When Nail is used as a catalyst component together with Cp2TiCl2 in the fourth reaction, catalyst with nano-NaH gives extremely high activity in the hydrogenation of olefins, while the one with commercial Nail gives no activity at all even ifa large amount of the commercial Nail is used to make the total surface area equivalent to that of nano-NaH. Thus, it is evident that although large specific surface area is important for nano-Nail to be used as a catalyst component, high surface energy with surface defects seems to be more important. The largespecific surface and the activated surface of nano-NaH withhigh surface energy should be the main factors for thei rextremely high chemical reactivity, while whether the former or the latter one plays a leading role depends on the type of reactions involved.

  12. Assessment of reactivity transient experiments with high burnup fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, O.; Yang, R.L.; Rashid, Y.R.; Montgomery, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    A few recent experiments aimed at determining the response of high-burnup LWR fuel during a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) have raised concerns that existing failure criteria may be inappropriate for such fuel. In particular, three experiments (SPERT CDC-859, NSRR HBO-1 and CABRI REP Na-1) appear to have resulted in fuel failures at only a fraction of the anticipated enthalpy levels. In evaluating the results of such RIA simulation experiments, however, it is necessary that the following two key considerations be taken into account: (1) Are the experiments representative of conditions that LWR fuel would experience during an in-reactor RIA event? (2) Is the fuel that is being utilized in the tests representative of the present (or anticipated) population of LWR fuel? Conducting experiments under conditions that can not occur in-reactor can trigger response modes that could not take place during in-reactor operation. Similarly, using unrepresentative fuel samples for the tests will produce failure information that is of limited relevance to commercial LWR fuel. This is particularly important for high-burnup fuel since the manner under which the test samples are base-irradiated prior to the test will impact the mechanical properties of the cladding and will therefore affect the RIA response. A good example of this effect can be seen in the results of the SPERT CDC-859 test and in the NSRR JM-4 and JM-5 tests. The conditions under which the fuel used for these tests was fabricated and/or base-irradiated prior to the RIA pulse resulted in the formation of multiple cladding defects in the form of hydride blisters. When this fuel was subjected to the RIA power pulse, it failed by developing multiple cracks that were closely correlated with the locations of the pre-existing hydride blisters. In the case of the JM tests, many of the cracks formed within the blisters themselves and did not propagate beyond the heavily hydrided regions.

  13. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HRMAS NMR) for Studies of Reactive Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance (HRMAS NMR) for Studies of Reactive Fabrics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911SR-11-C-0047 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...ECBC-TR-1326 HIGH RESOLUTION MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (HRMAS NMR) FOR STUDIES OF REACTIVE FABRICS David J. McGarvey...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT An analytical chemistry method is described for measuring the reactivity and permeation of

  14. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  15. Combustion Mode Design with High Efficiency and Low Emissions Controlled by Mixtures Stratification and Fuel Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixture stratification that have been conducted in the authors’ group, including the charge reactivity controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion, stratification controlled premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI combustion, and dual-fuel combustion concepts controlled by both fuel reactivity and mixture stratification. The review starts with the charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion, and the works on HCCI fuelled with both high cetane number fuels, such as DME and n-heptane, and high octane number fuels, such as methanol, natural gas, gasoline and mixtures of gasoline/alcohols, are reviewed and discussed. Since single fuel cannot meet the reactivity requirements under different loads to control the combustion process, the studies related to concentration stratification and dual-fuel charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion are then presented, which have been shown to have the potential to achieve effective combustion control. The efforts of using both mixture and thermal stratifications to achieve the auto-ignition and combustion control are also discussed. Thereafter, both charge reactivity and mixture stratification are then applied to control the combustion process. The potential and capability of thermal-atmosphere controlled compound combustion mode and dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI/highly premixed charge combustion (HPCC mode to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion are then presented and discussed. Based on these results and discussions, combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixtures stratification in the whole operating range is proposed.

  16. HIGH PREVALENCE OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS IN RUSSIA: OVERDIAGNOSIS OR REALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Balabanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis (ReA is one of the types of spondyloarthritis. According to the statistics reports by the Ministry of Health of Russia, the prevalence of ReA in 2013 was 42.8 per 100,000 adult population, 99, and 172.4 per 100,000 children aged 0–14 and 15–17 years, respectively. There is a wide scatter of ReA detection rates in both the federal districts and subjects of the Russian Federation, which may be associated with both the spread of sexually transmitted infections, asymptomatic trigger Chlamydia infection, and overdiagnosis of ReA.

  17. Deposition of highly textured AlN thin films by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Milena A. [Department of Solid State Electronics, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-752 21 Uppsala, Sweden and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Campinas, CEP 13.083-852 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Törndahl, Tobias; Katardjiev, Ilia; Kubart, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.kubart@angstrom.uu.se [Department of Solid State Electronics, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-752 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-03-15

    Aluminum nitride thin films were deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and pulsed direct-current on Si (100) and textured Mo substrates, where the same deposition conditions were used for both techniques. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The results show a pronounced improvement in the AlN crystalline texture for all films deposited by HiPIMS on Si. Already at room temperature, the HiPIMS films exhibited a strong preferred (002) orientation and at 400 °C, no contributions from other orientations were detected. Despite the low film thickness of only 200 nm, an ω-scan full width at half maximum value of 5.1° was achieved on Si. The results are attributed to the high ionization of sputtered material achieved in HiPIMS. On textured Mo, there was no significant difference between the deposition techniques.

  18. Mechanism of flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using the highly reactive absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; SUN Xiaojun; XU Peiyao; MA Shuangchen; WANG Lidong; LIU Feng

    2005-01-01

    Fly ash, industry-grade lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive were used to prepare the "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using the highly reactive absorbent in the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. Removal efficiencies of 94.5% for SO2 and 64.2% for NO were obtained respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, common highly reactive absorbent, "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The white flake layers were observed in the SEM images about surfaces of the common highly reactive absorbent and "Oxygen- riched" one, and the particle surfaces of the spent absorbent were porous. The content of calcium on surface was higher than that of the average in the highly reactive absorbent. The manganese compound additive dispersed uniformly on the surfaces of the "Oxygen- riched" highly reactive absorbent. There was a sulfur peak in the energy spectra pictures of the spent absorbent. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods, and the results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the absorbent except sulfur species, and SO2 and NO were removed by chemical absorption according to the experimental results of X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis. Sulfate being the main desulfurization products, nitrite was the main denitrification ones during the process, in which NO was oxidized rapidly to NO2 and absorbed by the chemical reaction.

  19. Development of chiral metal amides as highly reactive catalysts for asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloadditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Yoshimoto, Susumu; Dutton, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Highly efficient catalytic asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloadditions using a chiral copper amide are reported. Compared with the chiral CuOTf/Et3N system, the CuHMDS system showed higher reactivity, and the desired reactions proceeded in high yields and high selectivities with catalyst loadings as low as 0.01 mol %. PMID:27559396

  20. Comparison of C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in patients on hemodialysis

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    Imed Helal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is highly prevalent in patients on hemodialysis (HD, as evidenced by increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP. We compared CRP to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP to determine whether it has any clinical implications and prognostic significance in terms of mortality. CRP was measured using a standard immunoturbidometric assay on the COBAS; INTEGRA system and hs-CRP was measured using the Dade Behring on the Konelab Nephelometer in 50 patients on HD. CRP (≥6 mg/L and hs-CRP (≥3 mg/L levels were elevated in 30% and 54% of the patients, respectively. A significant correlation was noted between hs-CRP and CRP levels (r = 0.98, P <0.001. Deming regression analysis showed that the slope was near one (r = 0.90; 0.83-0.94 and that the intercept was small. Multivariate regression confirmed that age above 40 years (RR = 3.69, P = 0.027 and duration on HD greater than five years (RR = 3.71, P = 0.028 remained significant independent predictors of serum hs-CRP. Thirteen patients died during follow-up (26%. Multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that hs-CRP (RR = 1.062, P = 0.03 and CRP levels (RR = 1.057, P = 0.009 and age (RR = 1.078, P = 0.001 were the most powerful predictors of mortality. The CRP standard assay presents a reasonable alternative to the hs-CRP assay in patients on HD. The advantages of the CRP standard assay are its online and real-time availability as well as lower costs, particularly in developing countries.

  1. Comparison of C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Imed; Zerelli, Lilia; Krid, Madiha; ElYounsi, Fethi; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Zouari, Bechir; Adelmoula, Jaouida; Kheder, Adel

    2012-05-01

    Chronic inflammation is highly prevalent in patients on hemodialysis (HD), as evidenced by increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). We compared CRP to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) to determine whether it has any clinical implications and prognostic significance in terms of mortality. CRP was measured using a standard immunoturbidometric assay on the COBAS® INTEGRA system and hs-CRP was measured using the Dade Behring on the Konelab Nephelometer in 50 patients on HD. CRP (≥6 mg/L) and hs-CRP (≥3 mg/L) levels were elevated in 30% and 54% of the patients, respectively. A significant correlation was noted between hs-CRP and CRP levels (r = 0.98, P <0.001). Deming regression analysis showed that the slope was near one (r = 0.90; 0.83-0.94) and that the intercept was small. Multivariate regression confirmed that age above 40 years (RR = 3.69, P = 0.027) and duration on HD greater than five years (RR = 3.71, P = 0.028) remained significant independent predictors of serum hs-CRP. Thirteen patients died during follow-up (26%). Multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that hs-CRP (RR = 1.062, P = 0.03) and CRP levels (RR = 1.057, P = 0.009) and age (RR = 1.078, P = 0.001) were the most powerful predictors of mortality. The CRP standard assay presents a reasonable alternative to the hs-CRP assay in patients on HD. The advantages of the CRP standard assay are its online and real-time availability as well as lower costs, particularly in developing countries.

  2. Developing high-performance concrete incorporating highly-reactive rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Salas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present results of an investigation about the developing of a highperformance concrete (HPC using a highly reactive pozzolan made from chemically treated rice husk ash (ChRHA prepared by a chemical-thermal attack to the rice husk. This particular rice husk ash (RHA consists of 99% of silica, highly amorphous, white in color and of greater pozzolanic activity than the silica fume and another rice husk ash prepared with only by a thermal treatment. The results of the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of ChRHA are analyzed. In this study, the compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, resistance to carbonation, total charge-passed derived from rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT and modulus of elasticity of hardened concrete were determined in the laboratory. Test results indicate that it is possible to produce HPC with the incorporation the chemically treated RHA. The incorporation of the chemically treated rice husk ash into the concrete enhances the compressive strengthand the durability properties being comparable to the properties of high performance concretes with silica fume (SF made with the same replacement levels.

  3. Cognitive response to a cold pressor challenge in high and low blood pressure reactive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, L A; Larkin, K T; Knowlton, G E

    1991-01-01

    To examine the relationship between cognitive and cardiovascular reactions to a cold pressor challenge, 20 high and 20 low blood-pressure-reactive males were identified. Subjects were trained using a think-aloud procedure and asked to report their thoughts aloud during task presentation. In comparison to low-reactors, high-reactive subjects exhibited greater increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but not heart rate, in response to the task. High-reactive subjects reported fewer distracting self-statements than low-reactors during the task. No group differences in positive, neutral, or negative self-statements were observed. These findings corroborate the importance of distraction strategies in mediating acute cardiovascular reactions to stress.

  4. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. THE HIGH TEMPERATURE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF LI2O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, G.; Missimer, D.

    2009-11-13

    ) It is likely that some or all of the past high temperature phase behavior and vaporization experiments involving Li{sub 2}O(s) at temperatures above 1250 C have actually involved Li{sub 2}O(l). If these past measurements were actually measurements performed on Li{sub 2}O(l) instead of the solid, the thermochemical data for phases and species in the Li-O system will require reevaluation.

  6. Prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Binici, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI). DESIGN: In total, 678 healthy men and women aged 55 to 75 years with no history of cardiovascular disease or stroke were included...

  7. High-sensitive C-reactive protein is associated with reduced lung function in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F; Mikkelsen, D; Hancox, R J;

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inflammation has been associated with reduced lung function. However, data on the interrelationships between lung function and inflammation are sparse, and it is not clear if low-grade inflammation leads to reduced lung function. Associations between high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CR...

  8. The chemical and mechanical behaviors of polymer / reactive metal systems under high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yubin

    As one category of energetic materials, impact-initiated reactive materials are able to release a high amount of stored chemical energy under high strain rate impact loading, and are used extensively in civil and military applications. In general, polymers are introduced as binder materials to trap the reactive metal powders inside, and also act as an oxidizing agent for the metal ingredient. Since critical attention has been paid on the metal / metal reaction, only a few types of polymer / reactive metal interactions have been studied in the literature. With the higher requirement of materials resistant to different thermal and mechanical environments, the understanding and characterization of polymer / reactive metal interactions are in great demand. In this study, PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) 7A / Ti (Titanium) composites were studied under high strain rates by utilizing the Taylor impact and SHPB tests. Taylor impact tests with different impact velocities, sample dimensions and sample configurations were conducted on the composite, equipped with a high-speed camera for tracking transient images during the sudden process. SHPB and Instron tests were carried out to obtain the stress vs. strain curves of the composite under a wide range of strain rates, the result of which were also utilized for fitting the constitutive relations of the composite based on the modified Johnson-Cook strength model. Thermal analyses by DTA tests under different flow rates accompanied with XRD identification were conducted to study the reaction mechanism between PTFE 7A and Ti when only heat was provided. Numerical simulations on Taylor impact tests and microstructural deformations were also performed to validate the constitutive model built for the composite system, and to investigate the possible reaction mechanism between two components. The results obtained from the high strain rate tests, thermal analyses and numerical simulations were combined to provide a systematic study on

  9. Enhanced selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells following cyclophosphamide treatment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kawabata

    Full Text Available A major goal for the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with cytotoxic therapies is the induction of long-term remission. There is, however, a paucity of information concerning the effects of these therapies on the reconstituting B cell repertoire. Since there is recent evidence suggesting that B cell lymphopenia might attenuate negative selection of autoreactive B cells, we elected to investigate the effects of cyclophosphamide on the selection of the re-emerging B cell repertoire in wild type mice and transgenic mice that express the H chain of an anti-DNA antibody. The reconstituting B cell repertoire in wild type mice contained an increased frequency of DNA-reactive B cells; in heavy chain transgenic mice, the reconstituting repertoire was characterized by an increased frequency of mature, high affinity DNA-reactive B cells and the mice expressed increased levels of serum anti-DNA antibodies. This coincided with a significant increase in serum levels of BAFF. Treatment of transgene-expressing mice with a BAFF blocking agent or with DNase to reduce exposure to autoantigen limited the expansion of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells during B cell reconstitution. These studies suggest that during B cell reconstitution, not only is negative selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells impaired by increased BAFF, but also that B cells escaping negative selection are positively selected by autoantigen. There are significant implications for therapy.

  10. A high-fat meal increases cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakulj, Fabijana; Zernicke, Kristin; Bacon, Simon L; van Wielingen, Laura E; Key, Brenda L; West, Sheila G; Campbell, Tavis S

    2007-04-01

    The consumption of high levels of saturated fat over the course of several weeks may lead to exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity. The consumption of a single high-fat meal has been associated with a transient impairment of vascular function. In a randomized, repeated measures, crossover study we tested whether the consumption of a single high-fat meal by healthy, normotensive participants would affect cardiovascular reactivity when compared with an isocaloric, low-fat meal. Thirty healthy participants ate a high-fat (42 g) and a low-fat (1 g) meal on 2 separate occasions, and their cardiovascular response to 2 standard laboratory stressors was measured. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance were greater in participants following the consumption of the high-fat meal relative to the low-fat meal. The findings of the present study are consistent with the hypothesis that even a single high-fat meal may be associated with heightened cardiovascular reactivity to stress and offer insight into the pathways through which a high-fat diet may affect cardiovascular function.

  11. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Perrine Marie RUBY; Camille eBlochet; Jean-Baptiste eEichenlaub; Olivier eBertrand; Dominique eMorlet; Aurélie eBidet-Caulet

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic re...

  12. Antidepressant treatment differentially affects the phenotype of high and low stress reactive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surget, Alexandre; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Heinzmann, Jan-Michael; Knapman, Alana; McIlwrick, Silja; Westphal, Willy-Paul; Touma, Chadi; Belzung, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Modelling key endophenotypes can be a powerful approach to gain insight into mechanisms underlying the aetiology and pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on evidence of stress hormone system dysregulations in depression, the Stress Reactivity (SR) mouse model has been generated by a selective breeding approach for extremes in HPA axis reactivity, resulting in high (HR), intermediate (IR) and low (LR) reactive mice. The characterisation of their phenotypic alterations has highlighted many similarities of HR and LR mice with the melancholic and atypical depression, respectively. We therefore aimed to examine whether the antidepressant fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day i.p., 4-5 weeks) can ameliorate the phenotypic characteristics of HR and LR mice in neuroendocrine functions (HPA axis basal activity, stress reactivity, negative feedback), emotional reactivity/coping-strategy (open field, forced swim tests), spatial learning/memory (Morris water-maze) and hippocampal neurogenesis. Line differences in HPA axis reactivity were maintained under fluoxetine treatment. However, we observed fluoxetine effects on glucocorticoid-induced negative feedback, stress-coping behaviours, cognitive functions and neurogenesis. Specifically, our results revealed line-dependent consequences of fluoxetine treatment: (1) an amelioration of the 'melancholic-like' features of HR mice (reversing the negative feedback resistance, the hyperactive coping style and the memory deficits; increasing hippocampal neurogenesis); (2) an exacerbation of the phenotypic deviations of LR mice (increasing their pronounced negative feedback and passive coping style). Thus, these findings support the predictive validity of antidepressant treatment in the HR mouse line and emphasize the translational value of the SR mouse model for the development of therapeutic strategies based on endophenotype-driven classifications.

  13. Preparation of inhalable salbutamol sulphate using reactive high gravity controlled precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingting; Chiou, Herbert; Chan, Hak-Kim; Chen, Jian-Feng; Yun, Jimmy

    2008-02-01

    Reactive high gravity controlled precipitation (HGCP) was carried out to produce salbutamol sulphate (SS) particles suitable for inhalation. Aqueous solutions of free salbutamol base and sulphuric acid were mixed intensely inside a HGCP reactor to form the particles. Spray drying was employed to obtain dry powders. Physical properties of the powders were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis and dynamic water vapour sorption. Aerosol performance of the powders was measured using an Aeroliser connected to a multiple stage liquid impinger operating at 60 L/min. The results showed that the reactive HGCP powder, comprising primary SS sub-micron particles (approximately 100 nm in width and approximately 500 nm in length) packed into loose spherical agglomerates of about 2 microm in diameter, is of the same polymorphic form as the raw crystalline material, has a high specific surface area (24.7 +/- 0.1 m(2)/g), but a low moisture content (0.2%) and low moisture uptake (1.4% at RH 90%). The aerosol performance of the reactive HGCP powder is excellent, showing FPF(loaded) and FPF(emitted) of 76 +/- 5% and 83 +/- 7%, respectively, with low capsule and device retention. In conclusion, reactive HGCP followed by spray drying is suitable to produce stable crystalline powders of salbutamol with enhanced inhalation properties.

  14. Amino-terminated biphenylthiol self-assembled monolayers as highly reactive molecular templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerbroeker, N.; Waske, P.; Zharnikov, M., E-mail: Michael.Zharnikov@urz.uni-heidelberg.de

    2015-03-14

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with amino tail groups are of interest due to their ability of coupling further compounds. Such groups can be, in particular, created by electron irradiation of nitro- or nitrile-substituted aromatic SAMs, which provide a basis for chemical nanolithography and the fabrication of functionalized nanomembranes. An estimate of reactivity of the created amino groups requires a reference system of homogeneous, amino-terminated aromatic SAMs, which can also be used as a highly reactive molecular template. Here, we describe the synthesis of 4′-aminobiphenyl-4-thiol (ABPT) and SAMs prepared from this precursor on Au(111). The monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, which revealed that they are well defined, chemically uniform, densely packed, and highly ordered. To examine the influence of electron irradiation on the reactivity of the terminal amino groups, ABPT SAMs were exposed to low energy (50 eV) electrons up to a dose of 40 mC/cm{sup 2} and, subsequently, immersed in either trifluoroacetic, pentafluoropropionic, or heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Analysing the amount of the attached anhydride species made it possible to determine the percentage of reactive amino groups as well as the effect of steric hindrance upon the coupling reaction. The above results are compared with those obtained for the well-established nitro-substituted biphenylthiol monolayers.

  15. Amino-terminated biphenylthiol self-assembled monolayers as highly reactive molecular templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerbroeker, N; Waske, P; Zharnikov, M

    2015-03-14

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with amino tail groups are of interest due to their ability of coupling further compounds. Such groups can be, in particular, created by electron irradiation of nitro- or nitrile-substituted aromatic SAMs, which provide a basis for chemical nanolithography and the fabrication of functionalized nanomembranes. An estimate of reactivity of the created amino groups requires a reference system of homogeneous, amino-terminated aromatic SAMs, which can also be used as a highly reactive molecular template. Here, we describe the synthesis of 4'-aminobiphenyl-4-thiol (ABPT) and SAMs prepared from this precursor on Au(111). The monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, which revealed that they are well defined, chemically uniform, densely packed, and highly ordered. To examine the influence of electron irradiation on the reactivity of the terminal amino groups, ABPT SAMs were exposed to low energy (50 eV) electrons up to a dose of 40 mC/cm(2) and, subsequently, immersed in either trifluoroacetic, pentafluoropropionic, or heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Analysing the amount of the attached anhydride species made it possible to determine the percentage of reactive amino groups as well as the effect of steric hindrance upon the coupling reaction. The above results are compared with those obtained for the well-established nitro-substituted biphenylthiol monolayers.

  16. A manganese catalyst for highly reactive yet chemoselective intramolecular C(sp3)-H amination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradine, Shauna M.; Griffin, Jennifer R.; Zhao, Jinpeng; Petronico, Aaron L.; Miller, Shannon M.; Christina White, M.

    2015-12-01

    C-H bond oxidation reactions underscore the existing paradigm wherein high reactivity and high selectivity are inversely correlated. The development of catalysts capable of oxidizing strong aliphatic C(sp3)-H bonds while displaying chemoselectivity (that is, tolerance of more oxidizable functionality) remains an unsolved problem. Here, we describe a catalyst, manganese tert-butylphthalocyanine [Mn(tBuPc)], that is an outlier to the reactivity-selectivity paradigm. It is unique in its capacity to functionalize all types of C(sp3)-H bond intramolecularly, while displaying excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of π functionality. Mechanistic studies indicate that [Mn(tBuPc)] transfers bound nitrenes to C(sp3)-H bonds via a pathway that lies between concerted C-H insertion, observed with reactive noble metals such as rhodium, and stepwise radical C-H abstraction/rebound, as observed with chemoselective base metals such as iron. Rather than achieving a blending of effects, [Mn(tBuPc)] aminates even 1° aliphatic and propargylic C-H bonds, demonstrating reactivity and selectivity unusual for previously known catalysts.

  17. A manganese catalyst for highly reactive yet chemoselective intramolecular C(sp(3))-H amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradine, Shauna M; Griffin, Jennifer R; Zhao, Jinpeng; Petronico, Aaron L; Miller, Shannon M; Christina White, M

    2015-12-01

    C-H bond oxidation reactions underscore the existing paradigm wherein high reactivity and high selectivity are inversely correlated. The development of catalysts capable of oxidizing strong aliphatic C(sp(3))-H bonds while displaying chemoselectivity (that is, tolerance of more oxidizable functionality) remains an unsolved problem. Here, we describe a catalyst, manganese tert-butylphthalocyanine [Mn((t)BuPc)], that is an outlier to the reactivity-selectivity paradigm. It is unique in its capacity to functionalize all types of C(sp(3))-H bond intramolecularly, while displaying excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of π functionality. Mechanistic studies indicate that [Mn((t)BuPc)] transfers bound nitrenes to C(sp(3))-H bonds via a pathway that lies between concerted C-H insertion, observed with reactive noble metals such as rhodium, and stepwise radical C-H abstraction/rebound, as observed with chemoselective base metals such as iron. Rather than achieving a blending of effects, [Mn((t)BuPc)] aminates even 1° aliphatic and propargylic C-H bonds, demonstrating reactivity and selectivity unusual for previously known catalysts.

  18. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  19. High expression of CD26 accurately identifies human bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted MAIT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhat K; Wong, Emily B; Napier, Ruth J; Bishai, William R; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Kasprowicz, Victoria O; Lewinsohn, Deborah A; Lewinsohn, David M; Gold, Marielle C

    2015-07-01

    Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express the semi-invariant T-cell receptor TRAV1-2 and detect a range of bacteria and fungi through the MHC-like molecule MR1. However, knowledge of the function and phenotype of bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted TRAV1-2(+) MAIT cells from human blood is limited. We broadly characterized the function of MR1-restricted MAIT cells in response to bacteria-infected targets and defined a phenotypic panel to identify these cells in the circulation. We demonstrated that bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted T cells shared effector functions of cytolytic effector CD8(+) T cells. By analysing an extensive panel of phenotypic markers, we determined that CD26 and CD161 were most strongly associated with these T cells. Using FACS to sort phenotypically defined CD8(+) subsets we demonstrated that high expression of CD26 on CD8(+)  TRAV1-2(+) cells identified with high specificity and sensitivity, bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted T cells from human blood. CD161(hi) was also specific for but lacked sensitivity in identifying all bacteria-reactive MR1-restricted T cells, some of which were CD161(dim) . Using cell surface expression of CD8, TRAV1-2, and CD26(hi) in the absence of stimulation we confirm that bacteria-reactive T cells are lacking in the blood of individuals with active tuberculosis and are restored in the blood of individuals undergoing treatment for tuberculosis.

  20. Moving Overlapping Grids with Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Speed Reactive and Non-reactive Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshaw, W D; Schwendeman, D W

    2005-08-30

    We consider the solution of the reactive and non-reactive Euler equations on two-dimensional domains that evolve in time. The domains are discretized using moving overlapping grids. In a typical grid construction, boundary-fitted grids are used to represent moving boundaries, and these grids overlap with stationary background Cartesian grids. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to resolve fine-scale features in the flow such as shocks and detonations. Refinement grids are added to base-level grids according to an estimate of the error, and these refinement grids move with their corresponding base-level grids. The numerical approximation of the governing equations takes place in the parameter space of each component grid which is defined by a mapping from (fixed) parameter space to (moving) physical space. The mapped equations are solved numerically using a second-order extension of Godunov's method. The stiff source term in the reactive case is handled using a Runge-Kutta error-control scheme. We consider cases when the boundaries move according to a prescribed function of time and when the boundaries of embedded bodies move according to the surface stress exerted by the fluid. In the latter case, the Newton-Euler equations describe the motion of the center of mass of the each body and the rotation about it, and these equations are integrated numerically using a second-order predictor-corrector scheme. Numerical boundary conditions at slip walls are described, and numerical results are presented for both reactive and non-reactive flows in order to demonstrate the use and accuracy of the numerical approach.

  1. SOME ASPECTS OF THE REACTIVITY OF PULP INTENDED FOR HIGH-VISCOSITY VISCOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ostberg,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to reduce the consumption of C2S when preparing high-viscosity viscose by pre-treating two softwood pulps with enzymes prior to the viscose stages. Reactivity was evaluated in two ways, Fock´s test of the pulp and the gamma number of the viscose solution prior to regeneration. Whilst the reactivity of a pulp that had been subjected to enzyme pretreatment increased according to Fock´s test, it did not increase according to the gamma number. This unexpected difference between the two reactivity tests was investigated. It was concluded that Fock´s test measures the extent to which C2S reacts with a pulp sample during a standardized test, whereas the gamma number measures the resulting degree of xanthate substitution on the cellulose backbone. The gamma number was judged to be the more relevant of the two tests, since it reflects the dissolution ability of a pulp in the viscose preparation. A higher gamma number also means that the coagulation time in the spinning process is prolonged; this is beneficial, as it can be used to increase the tenacity of the viscose fibres. Measuring the reactivity according to Fock´s test, on the contrary, provides more dubious results, as the test has no undisputed correlation to the viscose preparation process.

  2. C-H bond activation by metal-superoxo species: what drives high reactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Azaj; Jayapal, Prabha; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2015-01-01

    Metal-superoxo species are ubiquitous in metalloenzymes and bioinorganic chemistry and are known for their high reactivity and their ability to activate inert C-H bonds. The comparative oxidative abilities of M-O2(.-) species (M = Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III), and Cu(II)) towards C-H bond activation reaction are presented. These superoxo species generated by oxygen activation are found to be aggressive oxidants compared to their high-valent metal-oxo counterparts generated by O⋅⋅⋅O bond cleavage. Our calculations illustrate the superior oxidative abilities of Fe(III)- and Mn(III)-superoxo species compared to the others and suggest that the reactivity may be correlated to the magnetic exchange parameter.

  3. Transient Formation and Reactivity of a High-Valent Nickel(IV) Oxido Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padamati, Sandeep K.; Angelone, Davide; Draksharapu, Apparao; Primi, Gloria; Martin, David J.; Tromp, Moniek; Swart, Marcel; Browne, Wesley R.

    2017-01-01

    A reactive high-valent dinuclear nickel(IV) oxido bridged complex is reported that can be formed at room temperature by reaction of [(L)2Ni(II)2(μ-X)3]X (X = Cl or Br) with NaOCl in methanol or acetonitrile (where L = 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane). The unusual Ni(IV) oxido species is

  4. Duty cycle control in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, R.; Treverrow, B.; Murdoch, B.; Xie, D.; Ross, A. E.; Partridge, J. G.; Falconer, I. S.; McCulloch, D. G.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Instabilities in reactive sputtering have technological consequences and have been attributed to the formation of a compound layer on the target surface (‘poisoning’). Here we demonstrate how the duty cycle of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) can be used to control the surface conditions of Hf and Nb targets. Variations in the time resolved target current characteristics as a function of duty cycle were attributed to gas rarefaction and to the degree of poisoning of the target surface. As the operation transitions from Ar driven sputtering to metal driven sputtering, the secondary electron emission changes and reduces the target current. The target surface transitions smoothly from a poisoned state at low duty cycles to a quasi-metallic state at high duty cycles. Appropriate selection of duty cycle increases the deposition rate, eliminates the need for active regulation of oxygen flow and enables stable reactive deposition of stoichiometric metal oxide films. A model is presented for the reactive HIPIMS process in which the target operates in a partially poisoned mode with different degrees of oxide layer distribution on its surface that depends on the duty cycle. Finally, we show that by tuning the pulse characteristics, the refractive indices of the metal oxides can be controlled without increasing the absorption coefficients, a result important for the fabrication of optical multilayer stacks.

  5. High Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Reactivity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Bladder Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yihuan; Zhang, Xin; Mo, Meile; Tan, Zhong; Huang, Lanshan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Chunqin; Wei, Fanglin; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Rongquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ki-67 is considered as one of prime biomarkers to reflect cell proliferation and immunohistochemical Ki-67 staining has been widely applied in clinical pathology. To solve the widespread controversy whether Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicts clinical prognosis of bladder carcinoma (BC), we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis by combining results from different literature. A comprehensive search was conducted in the Chinese databases of WanFang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP as well as English databases of PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Wiley online library. Independent studies linking Ki-67 to cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were included in our meta-analysis. With the cut-off values literature provided, hazard ratio (HR) values between the survival distributions were extracted and later combined with STATA 12.0. In total, 76 studies (n = 13,053 patients) were eligible for the meta-analysis. It was indicated in either univariate or multivariate analysis for survival that high Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicted poor prognosis. In the univariate analysis, the combined HR for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 2.588 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.623–4.127, P < 0.001), 2.697 (95%CI: 1.874–3.883, P < 0.001), 2.649 (95%CI: 1.632–4.300, P < 0.001), 3.506 (95%CI: 2.231–5.508, P < 0.001), and 1.792 (95%CI: 1.409–2.279, P < 0.001), respectively. The pooled HR of multivariate analysis for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 1.868 (95%CI: 1.343–2.597, P < 0.001), 2.626 (95%CI: 2.089–3.301, P < 0.001), 1.104 (95%CI: 1.008–1.209, P = 0.032), 1.518 (95%CI: 1.299–1.773, P < 0.001), and 1.294 (95%CI: 1.203–1.392, P < 0.001), respectively. Subgroup analysis of univariate analysis by origin showed that Ki-67 reactivity significantly

  6. Nanometer scale high-aspect-ratio trench etching at controllable angles using ballistic reactive ion etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cybart, Shane; Roediger, Peter; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wu, Stephen; Wong, Travis; Dynes, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We demonstrate a low pressure reactive ion etching process capable of patterning nanometer scale angled sidewalls and three dimensional structures in photoresist. At low pressure the plasma has a large dark space region where the etchant ions have very large highly-directional mean free paths. Mounting the sample entirely within this dark space allows for etching at angles relative to the cathode with minimal undercutting, resulting in high-aspect ratio nanometer scale angled features. By reversing the initial angle and performing a second etch we create three-dimensional mask profiles.

  7. Return of target material ions leads to a reduced hysteresis in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Stanislav; Čapek, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    A tendency to disappearing hysteresis in reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) has been reported previously without full physical explanation. An analytical model of reactive pulsed sputtering including HiPIMS is presented. The model combines a Berg-type model of reactive sputtering with the global HiPIMS model of Christie-Vlček. Both time and area averaging is used to describe the macroscopic steady state, especially the reactive gas balance in the reactor. The most important effect in the presented model is covering of reacted parts of target by the returning ionized metal, effectively lowering the target coverage by reaction product at a given partial pressure. The return probability of ionized sputtered metal has been selected as a parameter to quantify the degree of HiPIMS effects. The model explains the reasons for reduced hysteresis in HiPIMS. The critical pumping speed was up to a factor of 7 lower in reactive HiPIMS compared to the mid-frequency magnetron sputtering. The model predicts reduced hysteresis in HiPIMS due to less negative slope of metal flux to substrates and of reactive gas sorption as functions of reactive gas partial pressure. Higher deposition rate of reactive HiPIMS compared to standard reactive sputtering is predicted for some parameter combinations. Comparison of the model with experiment exhibits good qualitative and quantitative agreement for three material combinations, namely, Ti-O2, Al-O2, and Ti-N2.

  8. Analytical estimation of control rod shadowing effect for excess reactivity measurement of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masaaki; Yamashita, Kiyonobu; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Fujisaki, Shingo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tokuhara, Kazumi; Nakata, Tetsuo

    1998-05-01

    The control rod shadowing effect has been estimated analytically in application of the fuel addition method to excess reactivity measurement of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The movements of control rods in the procedure of the fuel addition method have been simulated in the analysis. The calculated excess reactivity obtained by the simulation depends on the combinations of measuring control rods and compensating control rods and varies from -10% to +50% in comparison with the excess reactivity calculated from the effective multiplication factor of the core where all control rods are fully withdrawn. The control rod shadowing effect is reduced by the use of plural number of measuring and compensation control rods because of the reduction in neutron flux deformation in the measuring procedure. As a result, following combinations of control rods are recommended; 1) Thirteen control rods of the center, first, and second rings will be used for the reactivity measurement. The reactivity of each control rod is measured by the use of the other twelve control rods for reactivity compensation. 2) Six control rods of the first ring will be used for the reactivity measurement. The reactivity of each control rod is measured by the use of the other five control rods for reactivity compensation. (author)

  9. High fluence laser irradiation induces reactive oxygen species generation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2006-09-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been used for therapies such as curing spinal cord injury, healing wound et al. Yet, the mechanism of LPLI remains unclear. Our previous study showed that low fluences laser irradiation induces human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) proliferation, but high fluences induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. In order to study the mechanism of apoptosis induced by high fluences LPLI further, we have measured the dynamics of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using H IIDCFDA fluorescence probes during this process. ASTC-a-1 cells apoptosis was induced by He-Ne laser irradiation at high fluence of 120J/cm2. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to perform fluorescence imaging. The results demonstrated that high fluence LPLI induced the increase of mitochondria ROS. Our studies contribute to clarify the biological mechanism of high fluence LPLI-induced cell apoptosis.

  10. Neither perceived job stress nor individual cardiovascular reactivity predict high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Jean Pierre; M'Pio, Ignasse; Quelin, Pierre; Rigaud, Jean-Pierre; Laville, Maurice; Ducher, Michel

    2003-12-01

    We have reported that high job strain was associated with a significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 4.5 mm Hg during the working hours, irrespective of BP reactivity to a stress test. We report the final results of the first 5-year follow-up study, which aimed to assess the respective influences of perception of professional strain and cardiovascular reactivity to a mental stress test on BP. A cohort of 292 healthy subjects (mean+/-SEM age, 38+/-1 years) was followed up for progression to hypertension outcome, which was defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or DBP >7 mm Hg or a DBP >95 mm Hg during follow-up. None of the subjects was lost to follow-up, and 209 subjects completed the study. The high-strain (HS) group, representing 20.9% of the subjects, was compared with the remaining subjects (non-high-strain [NHS]). Similarly, the subjects with the highest BP stress reactivity (HR; 20.9% of subjects) were compared with the remaining subjects (NHR). Progression to hypertension was reached by 93 subjects (31.8%). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates revealed that neither HS nor HR increased the incidence of progression to hypertension. End-of-follow-up 24-hour ambulatory BPs that were similar in HS and NHS (120+/-2 vs 120+/-1 mm Hg, respectively) and in HR and NHR (122+/-2 vs 120+/-1 mm Hg, respectively) confirmed our findings. Age, alcohol, salt diet, body mass index, and occupation did not interfere with our results. In conclusion, cardiovascular HR and HS do not appear to be major risk markers for future high BP in healthy, young adults.

  11. Reactive Processing and Co-Extrusion of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-28

    F materials. Green billets were prepared by cold isostatic pressing at 300 MPa. The green billets were then loaded into BN-coated graphite dies for...reactively formed ZrB2 in ZrB2-SiC batches had a mean particle size of -0 nm and a residual non-uniform strain compressive strain of-0.21% at the...studies. Initial studies used cylindrical pellets that were 10 mm in diameter and 3 mm high were formed by isostatic pressing at 300 MPa. For the

  12. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marianne; Sidoroff; Riitta; Karikoski; Taneli; Raivio; Erkki; Savilahti; Kaija-Leena; Kolho

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study whether high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(hs-CRP) measurement can aid the assessment of disease activity and glucocorticoid treatment in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease(IBD).METHODS:CRP levels were measured in 39 children with IBD undergoing colonoscopy [median age 12.8 years,Crohn's disease(CD) n=20],in 22 other children with IBD followed for acute response to glucocorticoids,and in 33 paediatric non-IBD patients.When standard CRP level was below detection limit(<5mg/L),hs-CRP was anal...

  13. Densification behavior of high Nb containing TiAl alloys through reactive hot pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhang Wang; Junpin Lin; Yuehui He; Yanli Wang; Guoliang Chen

    2007-01-01

    Densification behavior of high Nb containing TiAl alloys through reactive hot pressing was investigated. The results showed that the density of the sample hot pressed at 1400℃ could reach a near full density of 98.37%. However, the densification abnormality was observed at 1500℃. The diffusion of elemental Nb during microstructural evolution is an important aspect affecting densification,which will form pore nests. With the increase of hot pressing temperature, the diffusion of Nb becomes more adequate. HIP (Hot isostatic pressing) treatment can only decrease porosity to some extent, but cannot eliminate it completely.

  14. Respiratory allergies and skin test reactivity in high school students in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos Alonso, E; Fernández-Caldas, E; Seleznick, M J; Lockey, R F

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of skin test reactivity to 22 aeroallergens and of allergic respiratory diseases was determined in 501 high school students on the island of Tenerife, Spain. Two hundred seventy-seven students (55.2%) had at least one positive prick skin test (wheal > or = 2 mm). Two hundred sixteen students (43.1%) had symptoms of upper or lower respiratory tract allergies [24 (4.7%) had asthma with or without rhinitis and 192 (38.3%) seasonal or perennial rhinitis alone]. Two hundred eighty-five students (56.8%) were asymptomatic. One hundred per cent of the students with asthma, 87.5% of the students with rhinitis and 27.7% of the asymptomatic students had at least one positive skin test. The prevalence of positive skin tests was significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic students (p = 0.0001). One hundred seventy students (33.9%) had a family history of respiratory allergic diseases. The prevalence of positive skin tests among these students was significantly higher than in students without such history (p = 0.0001). Thus, there is a high prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases and skin test reactivity to aeroallergens among high school students in Tenerife. Significant correlations were found between family history, positive skin tests and respiratory allergic symptoms.

  15. Statistical model for combustion of high-metal magnesium-based hydro-reactive fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jian-Xin; Han Chao; Xia Zhi-Xun; Huang Li-Ya; Huang Xu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and analytically the combustion behavior of a high-metal magnesium-based hydro-reactive fuel under high temperature gaseous atmosphere.The fuel studied in this paper contains 73% magnesium powders.An experimental system is designed and experimeuts are carried out in both argon and water vapor atmospheres.It is found that the burning surface temperature of the fuel is higher in water vapor than that in argon and both of them are higher than the melting point of magnesium,which indicates the molten state of magnesium particles in the burning surface of the fuel.Based on physical considerations and experimental results,a mathematical one-dimensional model is formulated to describe the combustion behavior of the high-metal magnesium-based hydro-reactive fuel.The model enables the evaluation of the burning surface temperature,the burning rate and the flame standoff distance each as a function of chamber pressure and water vapor concentration.The results predicted by the model show that the burning rate and the surface temperature increase when the chamber pressure and the water vapor concentration increase,which are in agreement with the observed experimental trends.

  16. Evolution of sputtering target surface composition in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubart, T.; Aijaz, A.

    2017-05-01

    The interaction between pulsed plasmas and surfaces undergoing chemical changes complicates physics of reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS). In this study, we determine the dynamics of formation and removal of a compound on a titanium surface from the evolution of discharge characteristics in an argon atmosphere with nitrogen and oxygen. We show that the time response of a reactive process is dominated by surface processes. The thickness of the compound layer is several nm and its removal by sputtering requires ion fluence in the order of 1016 cm-2, much larger than the ion fluence in a single HiPIMS pulse. Formation of the nitride or oxide layer is significantly slower in HiPIMS than in dc sputtering under identical conditions. Further, we explain very high discharge currents in HiPIMS by the formation of a truly stoichiometric compound during the discharge off-time. The compound has a very high secondary electron emission coefficient and leads to a large increase in the discharge current upon target poisoning.

  17. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiaxing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

  18. Affective and neural reactivity to criticism in individuals high and low on perceived criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Jill M; Siegle, Greg; Gruber, Staci A

    2012-01-01

    People who have remitted from depression are at increased risk for relapse if they rate their relatives as being critical of them on a simple self-report measure of Perceived Criticism (PC). To explore neural mechanisms associated with this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine how people with different levels of PC responded to hearing criticism from their own mothers. To maximize variability in affective reactivity, depressed, recovered depressed, and healthy control participants (n = 33) were classified as high or low in PC based on a median split. They were then exposed to personally-relevant critical and praising comments from their mothers. Perceived Criticism levels were unrelated to depression status and to negative mood change after hearing criticism. However, compared to low PC participants, those who scored high on PC showed differential activation in a network of regions associated with emotion reactivity and regulation, including increased amygdala activity and decreased reactions in prefrontal regulatory regions when they heard criticism. This was not the case for praise. Criticism may be a risk factor for relapse because it helps to "train" pathways characteristic of depressive information processing. The Perceived Criticism measure may help identify people who are more susceptible to this vulnerability.

  19. Reactivity Accountability Attributed to Reflector Poisons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology to predict the reactivity impact as a function of outage time between cycles of 3He, 6Li, and other poisons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor s (HFIR) beryllium reflector. The reactivity worth at startup of the HFIR has been incorrectly predicted in the past after the reactor has been shut-down for long periods of time. The incorrect prediction was postulated to be due to the erroneous calculation of 3He buildup in the beryllium reflector. It is necessary to develop a better estimate of the start-of-cycle symmetric critical control element positions since if the estimated and actual symmetrical critical control element positions differ by more than $1.55 in reactivity (approximately one-half inch in control element startup position), HFIR is to be shutdown and a technical evaluation is performed to resolve the discrepancy prior to restart. 3He is generated and depleted during operation, but during an outage, the depletion of 3He ceases because it is a stable isotope. 3He is born from the radioactive decay of tritium, and thus the concentration of 3He increases during shutdown. SCALE, specifically the TRITON and CSAS5 control modules including the KENO V.A, COUPLE, and ORIGEN functional modules were utilized in this study. An equation relating the down time (td) to the change in symmetric control element position was generated and validated against measurements for approximately 40 HFIR operating cycles. The newly-derived correlation was shown to improve accuracy of predictions for long periods of down time.

  20. Surface Reactivity in Tropical Highly Weathered Soils and Implications for Rational Soil Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. MOREAU; J. PETARD

    2004-01-01

    Highly weathered soils are distributed in the humid and wet-dry tropics, as well as in the humid subtropics. As a result of strong weathering, these soils are characterized by low activity clays, which develop variable surface charge and related specific properties. Surface reactions regarding base exchange and soil acidification, heavy metal sorption and mobility, and phosphorus sorption and availability of the tropical highly weathered soils are reviewed in this paper.Factors controlling surface reactivity towards cations and anions, including ion exchange and specific adsorption processes, are discussed with consideration on practical implications for rational management of these soils. Organic matter content and pH value are major basic factors that should be controlled through appropriate agricultural practices, in order to optimise favorable effects of colloid surface properties on soil fertility and environmental quality.

  1. Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkings, Jon R; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Statham, Peter J; Tedstone, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Telling, Jon

    2014-05-21

    The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting.

  2. Cardiovascular Reactivity in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With High- or Low-Level Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Laboratory-Induced Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chiu, Chen-Huan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Su, Chien-Tien; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-03-01

    Depression increases the risk of adverse cardiac events. Cardiovascular reactivity is defined as the pattern of cardiovascular responses to mental stress. An altered pattern of cardiovascular reactivity is an indicator of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Because depression and adverse cardiac events may have a dose-dependent association, this study examined the differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with high depression levels and those with low depression levels. Moreover, autonomic nervous system regulation is a highly plausible biological mechanism for the pattern of cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. The association between cardiovascular reactivity and parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), an index for quantifying autonomic nervous system activity modulation, was thus examined. This study included 88 patients with MDD. HRV was measured before stress induction. The Stroop Color and Word Test and mirror star-tracing task were used to induce mental stress. We observed no significant association between depressive symptom level and any of the cardiovascular reactivity parameters. Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress was comparable between patients with MDD with high-level depressive symptoms and those with low-level depressive symptoms. After adjusting for confounding variables, the high-frequency domain of HRV was found to be an independent predictor of the magnitude of heart rate reactivity (β = -.33, p = .002). In conclusion, the magnitude of cardiovascular reactivity may be independent of depression severity in patients with MDD. The autonomic regulation of cardiovascular responses to mental stress primarily influences heart rate reactivity in patients with MDD.

  3. Association of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and dialysis adequacy with uremic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekmakan, Leila; Malekmakan, Alireza; Sayadi, Mehrab; Pakfetrat, Maryam; Sepaskhah, Mozhdeh; Roozbeh, Jamshid

    2015-09-01

    Uremic pruritus is a difficult symptom in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, and its patho-physiological mechanism remains unknown. To determine the relationship between pruritus and C-reactive protein as well as dialysis adequacy among the HD patients, we studied 241 chronic HD patients in Shiraz dialysis centers, Iran. The patients were selected by convenient sampling and the data were collected using a checklist, interview and lab tests. The mean age of our patients was 53.9 ± 16.3 years and 128 (53.1%) of them were male. There were 97 (40.2%) patients who complained of pruritus. A significant association was found between high-sensitive C-reactive protein and pruritus (P = 0.004). Also, a significant positive relationship was observed between pruritus and dialysis adequacy (P dialysis adequacy and pruritus. A better understanding of the factors implicated in the cause of uremic pruritus is essential in the development of more-effective treatments and improved quality of life in HD patients.

  4. Highly sensitive SnO2 sensor via reactive laser-induced transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla Papavlu, Alexandra; Mattle, Thomas; Temmel, Sandra; Lehmann, Ulrike; Hintennach, Andreas; Grisel, Alain; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Gas sensors based on tin oxide (SnO2) and palladium doped SnO2 (Pd:SnO2) active materials are fabricated by a laser printing method, i.e. reactive laser-induced forward transfer (rLIFT). Thin films from tin based metal-complex precursors are prepared by spin coating and then laser transferred with high resolution onto sensor structures. The devices fabricated by rLIFT exhibit low ppm sensitivity towards ethanol and methane as well as good stability with respect to air, moisture, and time. Promising results are obtained by applying rLIFT to transfer metal-complex precursors onto uncoated commercial gas sensors. We could show that rLIFT onto commercial sensors is possible if the sensor structures are reinforced prior to printing. The rLIFT fabricated sensors show up to 4 times higher sensitivities then the commercial sensors (with inkjet printed SnO2). In addition, the selectivity towards CH4 of the Pd:SnO2 sensors is significantly enhanced compared to the pure SnO2 sensors. Our results indicate that the reactive laser transfer technique applied here represents an important technical step for the realization of improved gas detection systems with wide-ranging applications in environmental and health monitoring control.

  5. A STUDY OF HIGH SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN UNSTABLE ANGINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unstable angina has a wide variability in its natural history, changing concepts of Pathophysiology, and newer approaches to its management strategies. So, unstable angina still has importance and prime interest in research work. Various ongoing research works has provided newer insights in pathophysiology of unstable angina syndrome and helps in recognition of clinical variability and unpredictability of it. C - reactive protein being the most sensitive acute phase reactant currently held. A recent previous study has estimated the levels and values of high-sensitivity C - reactive protein in both stable and unstable angina pectoris. Data provided by the study indicated need for further studies in this field. With all these facts, the present study is carried out to estimated Hs CRP levels as a marker of inflammation in patient of unstable angina. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out with the following Aims and Objectives. To estimate Hs-CRP levels as a marker of inflammation in patients of unstable angina. To compare Hs-CRP levels in cases of unstable angina, with Hs-CRP levels in patients of stable angina and in healthy age and sex matched controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out at Basaveshwar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga, MRMC Gulbarga. Approximate duration of study was 1 ½ year from June-2008 to November, 2010. OBSERVATION: Following are the conclusions drawn from the present study.

  6. Thermochemical process for seasonal storage of solar energy: characterization and modeling of a high-density reactive bed

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Benoit; Mazet, Nathalie; Mauran, Sylvain; Stitou, Driss; Jing XU

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on the characterization and modeling of a solid/gas thermochemical reaction between a porous reactive bed and moist air flowing through it. The aim is the optimization of both energy density and permeability of the reactive bed, in order to realize a high density thermochemical system for seasonal thermal storage for house heating application. Several samples with different implementation parameters (density, binder, diffuser, porous bed texture) hav...

  7. Advances in the MQDT approach of electron/molecular cation reactive collisions: High precision extensive calculations for applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motapon O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the stepwise multichannel quantum defect theory approach of electron/molecular cation reactive collisions have been applied to perform computations of cross sections and rate coefficients for dissociative recombination and electron-impact ro-vibrational transitions of H2+, BeH+ and their deuterated isotopomers. At very low energy, rovibronic interactions play a significant role in the dynamics, whereas at high energy, the dissociative excitation strongly competes with all other reactive processes.

  8. Gene Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TCR Confers Both High Avidity and Tumor Reactivity to Nonreactive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura A.; Heemskerk, Bianca; Powell, Daniel J.; Cohen, Cyrille J.; Morgan, Richard A.; Dudley, Mark E.; Robbins, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Cell-based antitumor immunity is driven by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells bearing TCR that recognize specific tumor-associated peptides bound to class I MHC molecules. Of several cellular proteins involved in T cell:target-cell interaction, the TCR determines specificity of binding; however, the relative amount of its contribution to cellular avidity remains unknown. To study the relationship between TCR affinity and cellular avidity, with the intent of identifying optimal TCR for gene therapy, we derived 24 MART-1:27–35 (MART-1) melanoma Ag-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) clones from the tumors of five patients. These MART-1-reactive clones displayed a wide variety of cellular avidities. α and β TCR genes were isolated from these clones, and TCR RNA was electroporated into the same non-MART-1-reactive allogeneic donor PBMC and TIL. TCR recipient cells gained the ability to recognize both MART-1 peptide and MART-1-expressing tumors in vitro, with avidities that closely corresponded to the original TCR clones (p = 0.018–0.0003). Clone DMF5, from a TIL infusion that mediated tumor regression clinically, showed the highest avidity against MART-1 expressing tumors in vitro, both endogenously in the TIL clone, and after RNA electroporation into donor T cells. Thus, we demonstrated that the TCR appeared to be the core determinant of MART-1 Ag-specific cellular avidity in these activated T cells and that nonreactive PBMC or TIL could be made tumor-reactive with a specific and predetermined avidity. We propose that inducing expression of this highly avid TCR in patient PBMC has the potential to induce tumor regression, as an “off-the-shelf” reagent for allogeneic melanoma patient gene therapy. PMID:17056587

  9. Relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and angiographical characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA En-zhi; HUANG Jun; MA Wen-zhu; YANG Zhi-jian; YUAN Biao; ZANG Xiao-ling; WANG Rong-hu; ZHU Tie-bing; WANG Lian-sheng; CHEN Bo; CAO Ke-jiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Arole for inflammation has become well established over the past decade or more in theories describing the atherosclerotic disease process.1,2 From a pathological viewpoint, all stages, ie, initiation, growth, and complication of the atherosclerotic plaque,3,4 might be considered to be an inflammatory response to injury. Several prospective studies 5-7 recently showed that plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, which are one of the markers of systemic inflammation, are a powerful predictor of future myocardial infarction and cardiac death among apparently healthy individuals. However, the association between the plasma hsCRP levels and the extent of coronary stenosis in subjects remains controversial. Some studies previously demon- strated such associations,8,9 whereas other could not found.10,11 Gensini's score assigns a severity score for a stenosed vessel depending on the degree of luminal narrowing and the importance of its location.12

  10. High-temperature thermal degradation of polyethylene from reactive molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J. Matthew D.; Moore, Nathan W.

    Thermal degradation of polyethylene is studied under extremely high-rate temperature ramp rates from 1014 to 1010 K/s in isochoric, condensed phases. The molecular evolution and macroscopic state variables are extracted as a function of density from reactive molecular dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF potential. These results are used to parameterize a kinetic rate model for the dissociation and coalescence of hydrocarbons as a function of temperature, temperature ramp rate, and density. The results are contrasted to first-order random-scission macrokinetic models often assumed for pyrolysis of linear polyethylene under ambient conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  11. No relationship between lung function and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Mads; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Siersted, Hans Christian; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-10-01

      Several studies on adults have indicated that lower spirometric lung function may be associated with increased systemic inflammation, but no studies have investigated if this association is already present in adolescence.   We explored the temporal relationship between changes in lung function and concentrations of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) in a population-based cohort study at ages 14 and 20 years using a high-sensitivity CRP assay.   CRP measurements were performed in a total of 420 subjects at mean age of 13.9 years. Of these, 262 subjects (62%) participated in the follow-up investigation at mean age of 20.1 years.   Levels of log-CRP at age 14 were not significantly associated with forced expiratory volume (FEV(1) ) or FEV(1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio at age 20, nor with the change in FEV(1) , FVC or FEV(1) /FVC ratio between 14 and 20 years after controlling for body mass index (BMI), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), asthma, smoking, sex, and height at 14 years, and change in height between 14 and 20 years. Sex, BMI, AHR, ECP and change in height between 14 and 20 years were identified as independent factors associated with the change in FEV(1) , FVC and FEV(1) /FVC ratio in adolescence.   We did not find an association between CRP levels at age 14 and change in lung function by age 20; whereas, sex, change in height, BMI, AHR and ECP were associated with lung function change in adolescence. Our findings indicate that systemic inflammation is of less importance for change in lung function in adolescence. Please cite this paper as: Nybo M, Hansen HS, Siersted HC and Rasmussen F. No relationship between lung function and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in adolescence. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Effects of Biomass Feedstock on the Yield and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, Peter

    This study investigated the effect of feedstock on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Woody and herbaceous biomass were pyrolyzed at high heating rates and temperatures of 1250 and 1400°C in a drop tube furnace. The collected solid residues were structurally characterized by electron...... microscopy techniques, X-ray diffraction and N2-adsorption. The reactivity of soot was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the reactivity of soot, generated at 1400°C was higher than that at 1250°C for all biomass types. Wood and wheat straw soot demonstrated differences...... with respect to the alkali content, particle size and nanostructure. Potassium was incorporated in the soot matrix and to a significant extent influenced the soot reactivity. The particle size distribution of pinewood soot produced at 1250°C was in the range from 27.2 to 263 nm which was broader compared...

  13. Consensus and future directions on the definition of high on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, Laurent; Tantry, Udaya S; Marcucci, Rossella; Blindt, Ruediger; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Becker, Richard; Bhatt, Deepak L; Cattaneo, Marco; Collet, Jean Philippe; Cuisset, Thomas; Gachet, Christian; Montalescot, Gilles; Jennings, Lisa K; Kereiakes, Dean; Sibbing, Dirk; Trenk, Dietmar; Van Werkum, Jochem W; Paganelli, Franck; Price, Matthew J; Waksman, Ron; Gurbel, Paul A

    2010-09-14

    The addition of clopidogrel to aspirin treatment reduces ischemic events in a wide range of patients with cardiovascular disease. However, recurrent ischemic event occurrence during dual antiplatelet therapy, including stent thrombosis, remains a major concern. Platelet function measurements during clopidogrel treatment demonstrated a variable and overall modest level of P2Y(12) inhibition. High on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was observed in selected patients. Multiple studies have now demonstrated a clear association between high on-treatment platelet reactivity to ADP measured by multiple methods and adverse clinical event occurrence. However, the routine measurement of platelet reactivity has not been widely implemented and recommended in the guidelines. Reasons for the latter include: 1) a lack of consensus on the optimal method to quantify high on-treatment platelet reactivity and the cutoff value associated with clinical risk; and 2) limited data to support that alteration of therapy based on platelet function measurements actually improves outcomes. This review provides a consensus opinion on the definition of high on-treatment platelet reactivity to ADP based on various methods reported in the literature and proposes how this measurement may be used in the future care of patients. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gamma glutamyltransferase levels and its association with high sensitive C-reactive protein in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Mehmet Yunus; Esen, Özlem Batukan; Bulut, Mustafa; Karapinar, Hekim; Kaya, Zekeriya; Akcakoyun, Mustafa; Kargin, Ramazan; Aung, Soe Moe; Alızade, Elnur; Pala, Selcuk; Esen, Ali Metin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elevated Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level is independently correlated with conditions associatedwith increased atherosclerosis, such as obesity, elevated serum cholesterol, high blood pressure and myocardial infarction. It is also demonstrated that serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction and cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease. Although the relationship between gamma-glutamyltransferase and coronary artery disease has been reported, not many studies have shown the relationship between changes ofgamma-glutamyltransferase in acute coronary syndromes and a well established coronary risk factor high sensitive C-reactive protein. (hs-CRP). Aims: In this study, how gamma-glutamyltransferase levels changed in acute coronary syndromes and its relationship with high sensitive C-reactive protein if any were studied. Patients & Methods: This trial was carried out at Kosuyolu Cardiovascular Training and Research Hospital and Van Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Turkey. 219 patients (177 males and 42 females) presenting with acute coronary syndrome, and 51 control subjects between September 2007 and September 2008 were included in the study. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, high sensitive C-reactive protein, serum lipoprotein levels and troponin I were determined. Results: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were higher in acute coronary syndrome patients compared to control. There was also correlation between gamma-glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels. Conclusion: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were higher in acute coronary syndrome patients. In subgroup analyses, the higher difference with Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and ST elevation myocardial infarction groups than unstable angina oectoris group proposes a relationship between gamma-glutamyltransferase and severity

  15. Gamma glutamyltransferase levels and its association with high sensitive C-reactive protein in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yunus Emiroglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT level is independently correlated with conditions associatedwith increased atherosclerosis, such as obesity, elevated serum cholesterol, high blood pressure and myocardial infarction. It is also demonstrated that serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction and cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease. Although the relationship between gamma-glutamyltransferase and coronary artery disease has been reported, not many studies have shown the relationship between changes ofgamma-glutamyltransferase in acute coronary syndromes and a well established coronary risk factor high sensitive C-reactive protein. (hs-CRP. Aims: In this study, how gamma-glutamyltransferase levels changed in acute coronary syndromes and its relationship with high sensitive C-reactive protein if any were studied. Patients & Methods:This trial was carried out at Kosuyolu Cardiovascular Training and Research Hospital and Van Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Turkey. 219 patients (177 males and 42 females presenting with acute coronary syndrome, and 51 control subjects between September 2007 and September 2008 were included in the study. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, high sensitive C-reactive protein, serum lipoprotein levels and troponin I were determined. Results: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were higher in acute coronary syndrome patients compared to control. There was also correlation between gamma-glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels. Conclusion: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were higher in acute coronary syndrome patients. In subgroup analyses, the higher difference with Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and ST elevation myocardial infarction groups than unstable angina oectoris group proposes a relationship between gamma

  16. Gamma glutamyltransferase levels and its association with high sensitive C-reactive protein in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yunus Emiroglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT level is independently correlated with conditions associatedwith increased atherosclerosis, such as obesity, elevated serum cholesterol, high blood pressure and myocardial infarction. It is also demonstrated that serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction and cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease. Although the relationship between gamma-glutamyltransferase and coronary artery disease has been reported, not many studies have shown the relationship between changes ofgamma-glutamyltransferase in acute coronary syndromes and a well established coronary risk factor high sensitive C-reactive protein. (hs-CRP. Aims: In this study, how gamma-glutamyltransferase levels changed in acute coronary syndromes and its relationship with high sensitive C-reactive protein if any were studied. Patients & Methods: This trial was carried out at Kosuyolu Cardiovascular Training and Research Hospital and Van Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Turkey. 219 patients (177 males and 42 females presenting with acute coronary syndrome, and 51 control subjects between September 2007 and September 2008 were included in the study. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, high sensitive C-reactive protein, serum lipoprotein levels and troponin I were determined. Results: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were higher in acute coronary syndrome patients compared to control. There was also correlation between gamma-glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels. Conclusion: Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were higher in acute coronary syndrome patients. In subgroup analyses, the higher difference with Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and ST elevation myocardial infarction groups than unstable angina oectoris group proposes a relationship between gamma

  17. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and risk of sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry E Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional C-reactive protein assays have been used to detect or guide the treatment of acute sepsis. The objective of this study was to determine the association between elevated baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and the risk of future sepsis events. METHODS: We studied data from 30,239 community dwelling, black and white individuals, age ≥45 years old enrolled in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS cohort. Baseline hsCRP and participant characteristics were determined at the start of the study. We identified sepsis events through review of hospital records. Elevated hsCRP was defined as values >3.0 mg/L. Using Cox regression, we determined the association between elevated hsCRP and first sepsis event, adjusting for sociodemographic factors (age, sex, race, region, education, income, health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol use, chronic medical conditions (coronary artery disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease and statin use. RESULTS: Over the mean observation time of 5.7 years (IQR 4.5-7.1, 974 individuals experienced a sepsis event, and 11,447 (37.9% had elevated baseline hsCRP (>3.0 mg/L. Elevated baseline hsCRP was independently associated with subsequent sepsis (adjusted HR 1.56; 95% CI 1.36-1.79, adjusted for sociodemographics, health behaviors, chronic medical conditions and statin use. CONCLUSION: Elevated baseline hsCRP was associated with increased risk of future sepsis events. hsCRP may help to identify individuals at increased risk for sepsis.

  18. High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, A; Åström, M; Bergbäck, B; Elert, M; Höglund, L O; Kleja, D B

    2016-07-01

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment.

  19. High-frequency behavior of FeN thin films fabricated by using reactive sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tae-Jong; Lee, Joonsik; Kim, Ki Hyeon; Kim, Dong Ho

    2016-08-01

    We used ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and its relationship with the static magnetic properties to investigate the high-frequency behavior of FeN thin films prepared by using reactive sputtering. The FMR was observed in the frequency range from 2 to 18 GHz in the FeN films fabricated at a proper nitrogen flow rate (NFR). In those FeN thin films, a decrease in the saturation magnetization and a corresponding decrease of the FMR frequency were observed as the NFR was increased during the deposition. The external field dependences of the FMR frequencies fit the Kittel formula well, and the Landé g-factors determined from the fit were found to be very close to the free electron value. The high-field damping parameters were almost insensitive to the NFR. However, the lowfield damping parameters exhibited a high sensitivity to the NFR very similar to the dependence of the hard-axis coercivity on the NFR, suggesting that extrinsic material properties, such as impurities and defect structures, could be important in deciding the low-field damping behavior.

  20. [Cardiovascular reactivity to emotional texts in subjects with low and high level of psychoticism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, N E; Davydov, D M

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the results of comparative study of groups of subjects with low and high level of psychoticism. Heart rate, heart rate responses to inspiratory and expiratory Valsalva maneuvers, and blood pressure were measured before and after presentation of the texts with validated negative content in groups of subjects with low and high psychoticism scores. It was hypothesized that subjects with high level of psychoticism would be less engaged in the processing of negative contents of the texts and their physiological reactivity (physiological resources submitted for support of cognitive processing) would be less pronounced compared to subjects with low level of psychoticism. Significant main effect of psychoticism was obtained for changes in heart rate to expiratory Valsalva maneuver after presentations of the texts. Significant interaction effects of gender and psychoticism were obtained for systolic blood pressure. Other cardiovascular variables were not sensitive to the level of psychoticism. These effects of psychoticism were independent of other individual traits, such as neuroticism, extraversion, lie (social desirability), anger, trait anxiety and depression.

  1. High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Events after ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniel Rios Pinto; Ramos, Adriane Monserrat; Vieira, Pedro Lima; Menti, Eduardo; Bordin, Odemir Luiz; de Souza, Priscilla Azambuja Lopes; de Quadros, Alexandre Schaan; Portal, Vera Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains controversial. Objective To investigate the potential association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and an increased risk of MACE such as death, heart failure, reinfarction, and new revascularization in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods This prospective cohort study included 300 individuals aged >18 years who were diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention at a tertiary health center. An instrument evaluating clinical variables and the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk scores was used. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was determined by nephelometry. The patients were followed-up during hospitalization and up to 30 days after infarction for the occurrence of MACE. Student's t, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and logistic regression tests were used for statistical analyses. P values of ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The mean age was 59.76 years, and 69.3% of patients were male. No statistically significant association was observed between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and recurrent MACE (p = 0.11). However, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was independently associated with 30-day mortality when adjusted for TIMI [odds ratio (OR), 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.51; p = 0.005] and GRACE (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.49; p = 0.007) risk scores. Conclusion Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was not predictive of combined major cardiovascular events within 30 days after ST-elevation myocardial infarction in patients who underwent primary angioplasty and stent

  2. High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Events after ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Daniel Rios Pinto; Ramos, Adriane Monserrat; Vieira, Pedro Lima; Menti, Eduardo; Bordin, Odemir Luiz Jr.; Souza, Priscilla Azambuja Lopes de; Quadros, Alexandre Schaan de; Portal, Vera Lúcia, E-mail: veraportal.pesquisa@gmail.com [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia - Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    The association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains controversial. To investigate the potential association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and an increased risk of MACE such as death, heart failure, reinfarction, and new revascularization in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. This prospective cohort study included 300 individuals aged >18 years who were diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention at a tertiary health center. An instrument evaluating clinical variables and the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk scores was used. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was determined by nephelometry. The patients were followed-up during hospitalization and up to 30 days after infarction for the occurrence of MACE. Student's t, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and logistic regression tests were used for statistical analyses. P values of ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age was 59.76 years, and 69.3% of patients were male. No statistically significant association was observed between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and recurrent MACE (p = 0.11). However, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was independently associated with 30-day mortality when adjusted for TIMI [odds ratio (OR), 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.51; p = 0.005] and GRACE (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.49; p = 0.007) risk scores. Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was not predictive of combined major cardiovascular events within 30 days after ST-elevation myocardial infarction in patients who underwent primary angioplasty and stent implantation, it was an independent predictor

  3. High precision during food recruitment of experienced (reactivated) foragers in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana (Apidae, Meliponini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Nieh, James C.; Hénaut, Yann; Cruz, Leopoldo; Vandame, Rémy

    Several studies have examined the existence of recruitment communication mechanisms in stingless bees. However, the spatial accuracy of location-specific recruitment has not been examined. Moreover, the location-specific recruitment of reactivated foragers, i.e., foragers that have previously experienced the same food source at a different location and time, has not been explicitly examined. However, such foragers may also play a significant role in colony foraging, particularly in small colonies. Here we report that reactivated Scaptotrigona mexicana foragers can recruit with high precision to a specific food location. The recruitment precision of reactivated foragers was evaluated by placing control feeders to the left and the right of the training feeder (direction-precision tests) and between the nest and the training feeder and beyond it (distance-precision tests). Reactivated foragers arrived at the correct location with high precision: 98.44% arrived at the training feeder in the direction trials (five-feeder fan-shaped array, accuracy of at least +/-6° of azimuth at 50 m from the nest), and 88.62% arrived at the training feeder in the distance trials (five-feeder linear array, accuracy of at least +/-5 m or +/-10% at 50 m from the nest). Thus, S. mexicana reactivated foragers can find the indicated food source at a specific distance and direction with high precision, higher than that shown by honeybees, Apis mellifera, which do not communicate food location at such close distances to the nest.

  4. Combined AFM nano-machining and reactive ion etching to fabricate high aspect ratio structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Tang, Zirong

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a new combined method of sub-micron high aspect ratio structure fabrication is developed which can be used for production of nano imprint template. The process includes atomic force microscope (AFM) scratch nano-machining and reactive ion etching (RIE) fabrication. First, 40 nm aluminum film was deposited on the silicon substrate by magnetron sputtering, and then sub-micron grooves were fabricated on the aluminum film by nano scratch using AFM diamond tip. As aluminum film is a good mask for etching silicon, high aspect ratio structures were finally fabricated by RIE process. The fabricated structures were studied by SEM, which shows that the grooves are about 400 nm in width and 5 microm in depth. To obtain sub-micron scale groove structures on the aluminum film, experiments of nanomachining on aluminum films under various machining conditions were conducted. The depths of the grooves fabricated using different scratch loads were also studied by the AFM. The result shows that the material properties of the film/substrate are elastic-plastic following nearly a bilinear law with isotropic strain hardening. Combined AFM nanomachining and RIE process provides a relative lower cost nano fabrication technique than traditional e-beam lithography, and it has a good prospect in nano imprint template fabrication.

  5. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on Structural Transformation and Reactivity of Herbaceous Biomasses at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husks was carried out in an entrained-flow reactor (EFR) and compared with the results from the wire-mesh reactor (WMR) in terms of the char yield at high-temperatures (1000-1500°C) to study the effect of heating rate, final temperature, ash content and part......Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husks was carried out in an entrained-flow reactor (EFR) and compared with the results from the wire-mesh reactor (WMR) in terms of the char yield at high-temperatures (1000-1500°C) to study the effect of heating rate, final temperature, ash content...... and particle size on the char yield. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), N-adsorption (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis (CAMSIZER XT), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (29Si NMR; 13C NMR) and electron spinning resonance spectroscopy (ESR) were conducted to investigate the effect...... of organic and inorganic matter on the char structural transformations. The results indicate no influence of the free radicals on char reactivity and burnout. The formation of free radicals in fast pyrolysis is related to the differences in the ash composition, namely presence of K+ ions in the wheat straw...

  6. Association of serum uric acid with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, A; Ostovar, A; Vahdat, K; Rezaei, P; Darabi, H; Moshtaghi, D; Nabipour, I

    2017-02-01

    To explore the independent correlation between serum uric acid and low-grade inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) in postmenopausal women. A total of 378 healthy Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected in a population-based study. Circulating hs-CRP levels were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an enzymatic calorimetric method was used to measure serum levels of uric acid. Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between uric acid and hs-CRP levels. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum levels of uric acid and log-transformed circulating hs-CRP (r = 0.25, p uric acid levels (β = 0.20, p uric acid levels (odds ratio =1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.96). Higher serum uric acid levels were positively and independently associated with circulating hs-CRP in healthy postmenopausal women.

  7. Reactive transport modelling of a high-pH infiltration test in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M. Carme; Soler, Josep M.; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Mäder, Urs K.

    2017-06-01

    A laboratory-scale tracer test was carried out to characterize the transport properties of concrete from the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at El Cabril (Spain). A hyperalkaline solution (K-Ca-OH, pH = 13.2) was injected into a concrete sample under a high entry pressure in order to perform the experiment within a reasonable time span, obtaining a decrease of permeability by a factor of 1000. The concentrations of the tracers, major elements (Ca2+, SO4 2 - , K+ and Na+) and pH were measured at the outlet of the concrete sample. A reactive transport model was built based on a double porosity conceptual model, which considers diffusion between a mobile zone, where water can flow, and an immobile zone without any advective transport. The numerical model assumed that all reactions took place in the immobile zone. The cement paste consists of C-S-H gel, portlandite, ettringite, calcite and gypsum, together with residual alite and belite. Two different models were compared, one with portlandite in equilibrium (high initial surface area) and another one with portlandite reaction controlled by kinetics (low initial surface area). Overall the results show dissolution of alite, belite, gypsum, quartz, C-S-H gel and ettringite and precipitation of portlandite and calcite. Permeability could have decreased due to mineral precipitation.

  8. Nanoporous Hybrid Electrolytes for High-Energy Batteries Based on Reactive Metal Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-01-06

    Successful strategies for stabilizing electrodeposition of reactive metals, including lithium, sodium, and aluminum are a requirement for safe, high-energy electrochemical storage technologies that utilize these metals as anodes. Unstable deposition produces high-surface area dendritic structures at the anode/electrolyte interface, which causes premature cell failure by complex physical and chemical processes that have presented formidable barriers to progress. Here, it is reported that hybrid electrolytes created by infusing conventional liquid electrolytes into nanoporous membranes provide exceptional ability to stabilize Li. Electrochemical cells based on γ-Al2O3 ceramics with pore diameters below a cut-off value above 200 nm exhibit long-term stability even at a current density of 3 mA cm−2. The effect is not limited to ceramics; similar large enhancements in stability are observed for polypropylene membranes with less monodisperse pores below 450 nm. These findings are critically assessed using theories for ion rectification and electrodeposition reactions in porous solids and show that the source of stable electrodeposition in nanoporous electrolytes is fundamental.

  9. SYNTHESIS OF HIGHLY REACTIVE POLYISOBUTYLENES WITH BF3·CYCLOHEXANOL INITIATING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai-bao Zhang; Yi-xian Wu; Peng Zhou; Guan-ying Wu; Wan-tai Yang; Ding-sheng Yu

    2011-01-01

    The selective cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB) initiated by a BF3·cyclohexanol (CL) complex was carried out from the mixed C4 fraction feed containing the 4C saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons at -20℃. The effects of CL concentration, BF3 concentration, solvent for preparing BF3·CL complex and polymerization time on the chemical structure of end groups, number-average molecular weight (Mn) and molecular weight distribution (MWD, Mw/Mn) of the resulting polymers were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the BF3·CL complex initiating system exhibited an extremely high selectivity toward the cationic polymerization of IB in the mixed C4 fraction feed and low molecular weight (Mn = 900-3600) polyisobutylenes (PIBs) with large proportion of exo-double bond end groups were obtained. The exo-double bond content in PIB chain ends increased by increasing CL concentration or by decreasing solvent polarity in initiating system, BF3 concentration and polymerization time. The Mn and MWD of the resulting PIBs were dependent on the concentrations of CL and BF3. Highly reactive PIBs with around 90 mol% of exo-double bonds were successfully synthesized by the selective polymerization of IB from the mixed C4 fraction feed, providing a potentially practical process for its simplicity and low costs.

  10. High density plasma reactive ion etching of Ru thin films using non-corrosive gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Su Min; Garay, Adrian Adalberto; Lee, Wan In; Chung, Chee Won, E-mail: cwchung@inha.ac.kr

    2015-07-31

    Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICPRIE) of Ru thin films patterned with TiN hard masks was investigated using a CH{sub 3}OH/Ar gas mixture. As the CH{sub 3}OH concentration in CH{sub 3}OH/Ar increased, the etch rates of Ru thin films and TiN hard masks decreased. However, the etch selectivity of Ru films on TiN hard masks increased and the etch slope of Ru film improved at 25% CH{sub 3}OH/Ar. With increasing ICP radiofrequency power and direct current bias voltage and decreasing process pressure, the etch rates of Ru films increased, and the etch profiles were enhanced without redeposition on the sidewall. Optical emission spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to analyze the plasma and surface chemistry. Based on these results, Ru thin films were oxidized to RuO{sub 2} and RuO{sub 3} compounds that were removed by sputtering of ions and the etching of Ru thin films followed a physical sputtering with the assistance of chemical reaction. - Highlights: • Etching of Ru films in CH{sub 3}OH/Ar was investigated. • High selectivity and etch profile with high degree of anisotropy were obtained. • XPS analysis was examined to identify the etch chemistry. • During etching Ru was oxidized to RuO{sub 2} and RuO{sub 3} can be easily sputtered off.

  11. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity and apnea test in symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić-Prokin Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR represents an autoregulatory response of the arterial trunks on the specific vasoactive stimuli, most commonly CO2. Objective. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare VMR in high-grade symptomatic (SCAS and asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACAS, using the apnea test to evaluate the hemodynamic status. Methods. The study included 50 patients who were hospitalized at the neurology and vascular surgery departments as part of preparation for carotid endarterectomy. We evaluated VMR by calculating the breath holding index (BHI in 34 patients with SCAS and 16 patients with ACAS, with isolated high-grade carotid stenosis. We evaluated the impact of risk factors and collateral circulation on BHI, as well as the correlation between the degree of carotid stenosis and BHI. Results. A pathological BHI was more frequent in the SCAS group (p<0.01. There was no difference in the range of BHI values between the groups, both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Only male gender was associated with pathological BHI in both groups (p<0.05. Collateral circulation did not exist in over 60% of all subjects. We confirmed a negative correlation between the degree of carotid stenosis and BHI. Conclusion. SCAS and ACAS patients present with different hemodynamics. While ACAS patients have stable hemodynamics, combination of hemodynamic and thromboembolic effects is characteristic of SCAS patients.

  12. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work completed on the X-PREX facility under NEUP Project 11- 3172. This project seeks to demonstrate the viability of pebble fuel handling and reactivity control for fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs). The research results also improve the understanding of pebble motion in helium-cooled reactors, as well as the general, fundamental understanding of low-velocity granular flows. Successful use of pebble fuels in with salt coolants would bring major benefits for high-temperature reactor technology. Pebble fuels enable on-line refueling and operation with low excess reactivity, and thus simpler reactivity control and improved fuel utilization. If fixed fuel designs are used, the power density of salt- cooled reactors is limited to 10 MW/m3 to obtain adequate duration between refueling, but pebble fuels allow power densities in the range of 20 to 30 MW/m3. This can be compared to the typical modular helium reactor power density of 5 MW/m3. Pebble fuels also permit radial zoning in annular cores and use of thorium or graphite pebble blankets to reduce neutron fluences to outer radial reflectors and increase total power production. Combined with high power conversion efficiency, compact low-pressure primary and containment systems, and unique safety characteristics including very large thermal margins (>500°C) to fuel damage during transients and accidents, salt-cooled pebble fuel cores offer the potential to meet the major goals of the Advanced Reactor Concepts Development program to provide electricity at lower cost than light water reactors with improved safety and system performance.This report presents the facility description, experimental results, and supporting simulation methods of the new X-Ray Pebble Recirculation Experiment (X-PREX), which is now operational and being used to collect data on the behavior of slow dense granular flows relevant to pebble bed reactor core designs. The X

  13. Effects of attachment-based interventions on maternal sensitivity and infant attachment: differential susceptibility of highly reactive infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velderman, Mariska Klein; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2006-06-01

    The current intervention study aimed at breaking the potential intergenerational cycle of insecure attachment. The authors randomly assigned 81 first-time mothers to one of two intervention groups or a control group. The interventions involved four home visits when the infants were between 7 and 10 months old. The first intervention, VIPP, consisted of video-feedback and brochures to enhance sensitive parenting. The second intervention, VIPP-R, involved additional discussions of mothers' childhood attachment experiences in relation to their current caregiving. After the intervention, intervention mothers were more sensitive than control mothers. The interventions were most effective for highly reactive children and their mothers, providing experimental support for Belsky's (1997) hypothesis of highly reactive versus less reactive children's evolutionary based differential susceptibility to rearing influences.

  14. Application of LC-high-resolution MS with 'intelligent' data mining tools for screening reactive drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuguang; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2012-03-01

    Biotransformation of chemically stable compounds to reactive metabolites that can bind covalently to macromolecules (such as proteins and DNA) is considered an undesirable property of drug candidates. Due to the possible link, which has not yet been conclusively demonstrated, between reactive metabolites and adverse drug reactions, screening for metabolic activation of lead compounds through in vitro chemical trapping experiments has become an integral part of the drug discovery process in many laboratories. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in the application of high-resolution MS. These advances facilitated the development of accurate-mass-based data mining tools for high-throughput screening of reactive drug metabolites in drug discovery.

  15. Bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and healthy individuals: demonstration with high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G. E-mail: gerd.schueller@univie.ac.at; Neumann, K.; Helbich, T.; Riemer, H.; Backfrieder, W.; Sertl, K.; Herold, C.J

    2004-11-01

    Objective: High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to assess the extent of bronchial reactivity after inhalative bronchoprovocation and dilation in hyperresponsive patients and healthy subjects. Patients and methods: Patients with mild intermittent asthma, 15 with a >20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}+) in PaO{sub 2}, 12 with a <20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}-) in PaO{sub 2} after provocation, and eight healthy humans were included in the study. Changes in cross-sectional area in a total of 1256 bronchi and in bronchial wall area (792 bronchi) were evaluated after histamine-triggered bronchoprovocation and salbutamol-induced bronchodilation at high lung volumes (FVC 80%). Data were compared with the results of pulmonary function tests (FEV{sub 1}, PaO{sub 2}, PaCO{sub 2}). Results: In all groups, a significant decrease in bronchial cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and a significant increase in bronchial wall area (P<0.001) were observed subsequent to bronchoprovocation. After bronchodilation, the increase in cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and the further increase in airway wall area (P<0.01) were significant in all groups. In PC{sub 20}+ and PC{sub 20}- asthmatics, significant differences (P<0.05) in PaO{sub 2}, >10 mmHg between baseline and provocation were observed. In healthy persons, the PaO{sub 2} decrease was <10 mmHg (P>0.05). After histamine provocation, the decrease in FEV{sub 1} was measured in the PC{sub 20}+ group, whereas a <20% FEV{sub 1} decrease was found in the PC{sub 20}- and the control groups, respectively. No significant correlations were observed between radiological data and the results of pulmonary function tests. Conclusions: HRCT demonstrated bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and, unexpectedly, in healthy subjects. The applied pulmonary function tests failed to characterize bronchial reactions in the healthy subjects. Based on these results, HRCT is a useful tool by which

  16. Highly reactive {001} facets of TiO2-based composites: synthesis, formation mechanism and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Wee-Jun; Tan, Lling-Lling; Chai, Siang-Piao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2014-02-21

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides due to its extraordinary surface, electronic and catalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and massive recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic and photovoltaic efficiency. Therefore, increasing research attention is now being directed towards engineering the surface structure of TiO2 at the most fundamental and atomic level namely morphological control of {001} facets in the range of microscale and nanoscale to fine-tune its physicochemical properties, which could ultimately lead to the optimization of its selectivity and reactivity. The synthesis of {001}-faceted TiO2 is currently one of the most active interdisciplinary research areas and demonstrations of catalytic enhancement are abundant. Modifications such as metal and non-metal doping have also been extensively studied to extend its band gap to the visible light region. This steady progress has demonstrated that TiO2-based composites with {001} facets are playing and will continue to play an indispensable role in the environmental remediation and in the search for clean and renewable energy technologies. This review encompasses the state-of-the-art research activities and latest advancements in the design of highly reactive {001} facet-dominated TiO2via various strategies, including hydrothermal/solvothermal, high temperature gas phase reactions and non-hydrolytic alcoholysis methods. The stabilization of {001} facets using fluorine-containing species and fluorine-free capping agents is also critically discussed in this review. To overcome the large band gap of TiO2 and rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, modifications are carried out to manipulate its electronic band structure, including transition metal doping, noble metal doping, non-metal doping and incorporating graphene as a two-dimensional (2D) catalyst support. The advancements made in these aspects are

  17. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Marie RUBY

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption, creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF. These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG. We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject’s hearing level. Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.4 ± 1.1 dream recalls per week and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.1 using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects’ quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200ms during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs 14 ± 4 min. As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in

  18. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Perrine; Blochet, Camille; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG). We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names) during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject's hearing level). Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.42 ± 0.25 SEM, dream recalls per week) and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.02) using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200 ms) during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 4 min). As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in high and

  19. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Perrine; Blochet, Camille; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG). We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names) during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject's hearing level). Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.42 ± 0.25 SEM, dream recalls per week) and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.02) using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000–1200 ms) during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 4 min). As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in high

  20. Uric acid and high-residual platelet reactivity in patients treated with clopidogrel or ticagrelor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, L; Verdoia, M; Pergolini, P; Nardin, M; Rolla, R; Marino, P; Bellomo, G; Suryapranata, H; De Luca, G

    2016-04-01

    High residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) is still an important challenge, despite the advent of new potent ADP-antagonists. Therefore it is of extreme importance to identify factors that can influence platelet activation. Serum uric acid (SUA) has been largely addressed in the past as a possible risk factor for coronary artery disease, with a possible association with platelets hyperreactivity. So far no studies have assessed the role of serum uric acid on the response to dual antiplatelet therapy. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of uric acid levels on platelet function in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel or ticagrelor. We scheduled for platelet function assessment at 30-90 days post-discharge patients treated with DAPT (ASA + clopidogrel or ticagrelor) for an ACS or elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Platelet function was assessed by whole blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate(®)-Roche Diagnostics AG), HRPR was considered for ASPI test >862 AU(∗)min (for ASA) and ADP test values ≥417 AU* min (for ADP-antagonists). We included a total of 493 patients (262 were on ASA and clopidogrel and 231 on ASA and ticagrelor). Patients were divided according to quartiles of serum uric acid levels measured at the time of platelet aggregation assessment (Group 1 6.9, n = 122). Patients with higher uric acid levels were older, more often smokers, with history of hypertension and previous coronary artery bypass surgery and renal failure and were more often on therapy with diuretics at admission. Patients with higher SUA had higher triglycerides and fibrinogen. Uric acid levels did not influence ASPI, COL, TRAP and ADP tests. High residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) was observed in 1.5% of patients treated with ASA, with no difference according to SUA quartiles (p = 0.60), confirmed at multivariate analysis after correction for baseline confounders (adjusted OR[95%CI] = 1.05 [0.44-2.52], p = 0

  1. High sensitivity C-reactive protein in airline pilots with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Rodríguez, César; Medina-Font, Juan

    2012-05-01

    Airline pilots belong to a relatively high-income, healthy population, with sedentary behavior during their flight activity, who often eat unsuitable meals. We assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in a population of airline pilot in order to study a possible relationship between the hs-CRP and MS. MS was established according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. hs-CRP was classified into three categories: Low 3 mg x L(-1). The prevalence of MS was 14.8%. The hs-CRP level in the population studied was 1.68 +/- 1.79 mg x L(-1). hs-CRP significantly increased with age. The pilots with MS presented significantly higher hs-CRP levels (median = 1.9 with an interquartile range (IQR) = 2.5 mg x L(-1)) than the pilots without MS (median = 0.9 and IQR = 1.275 mg x L(-1)). MS significantly increased in the groups with high hs-CRP in comparison with pilots with intermediate hs-CRP levels and with those with low hs-CRP levels. A similar association was found between the levels of hs-CRP and the prevalence of MS in the three age groups. The levels of hs-CRP increased in pilots as they presented greater numbers of MS diagnostic criteria. hs-CRP rises significantly in pilots of increasing age, in pilots with MS as compared to those without the syndrome, and in pilots as they present greater numbers of MS diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of MS increased among the groups with higher levels of hs-CRP.

  2. Reactive electrophilic OI--species evidenced in high-performance Ir-oxohydroxide water oxidation electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massué, Cyriac; Pfeifer, Verena; Van Gastel, Maurice; Noack, Johannes; Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Cap, Sebastien; Schlögl, Robert

    2017-09-21

    Although quasi-amorphous Ir-oxohydroxides have repeatedly been identified as superior oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts, an exact description of the performance relevant species has so far remained a challenge. In this context, we report on the characterization of hydrothermally prepared IrIII/IV oxohydroxides exhibiting exceptional OER-performance. It was found that holes in the O2p states of IrIII/IV-oxohydroxides result in reactive OI--species identified by characteristic NEXAFS-features. A prototypical titration reaction based on CO as a probe molecule shows that these OI--species are highly susceptible to nucleophilic attack at room temperature. Similarly to pre-activated oxygen involved in the biological OER in Photosystem II, the electrophilic OI--species evidenced in IrIII/IV-oxohydroxides are suggested to be precursors to species involved in the O-O bond formation during electrocatalytic OER. CO-titration also highlights a link between OER-performance and the surface/sub-surface mobility of OI--species. The superior electrocatalytic properties of IrIII/IV-oxohydroxides are thus explained by their ability to accommodate pre-activated electrophilic OI--species able to migrate within the lattice. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Mechanochemical treatment of Serbian kaolin clay to obtain high reactive pozzolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanochemical treatment of Serbian kaolin clay was carried out in a planetary ball mill using two different milling media, hardened steel or zirconia vials and balls. The samples obtained with various milling times were characterized by the particle size laser diffraction (PSLD, X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DTA/TGA and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR analyses. Mechanochemical treatment induced amorphization of the kaolinite phase accompanied by dehydroxylation. It was found that for the given milling parameters, amorphization mainly took place in the milling period up to 15 min, and was completed after about 30 min of milling for both milling media used. The pozzolanic activities were determined by the Chapelle method. Milling in the hardened steel milling medium had no significant influence on pozzolanic activity, even though there was accumulated iron contamination. For both milling media, pozzolanic activity of 0.79 was obtained for the samples milled for 15 min and it remained almost unchanged with prolonged milling. The determined pozzolanic activity values are close to these of commercial metakaolinite or metakaolinite obtained by the calcination of the same clay, therefore, indicating possibility for obtaining high reactive pozzolana by mechanochemical treatment of Serbian kaoline clay. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36017 and 45001

  4. Formation of High Temperature Compounds in W-C-B System by Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Grabis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The formation of high temperature composites in W-C-Bsystem from fine-grained powders in dependence on the ratio of components byusing reactive spark plasma sintering was studied. The mixture of W2Cand C nanoparticles was used as tungsten and carbon precursors. The W2Cand carbon mixture with different ratio of components was prepared by reductionof WO3 in presence of CH4 in nitrogen inductively coupledplasma. The specific surface area of the mixture was in the range of 36–42 m2/gin dependence on the content of carbon. The W2C and carbon particleswere mixed mechanically with amorphous boron and densified using the sparkplasma sintering technique at 1500–1700 oC and pressure of 30 MPafor 4 minutes. The sintered bodies contained WB2 and B4Cphases. The ratio of phase depends on the content of the components in the rawmixture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7352

  5. Perspective: Is there a hysteresis during reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijckmans, K.; Moens, F.; Depla, D.

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses a few mechanisms that can assist to answer the title question. The initial approach is to use an established model for DC magnetron sputter deposition, i.e., RSD2013. Based on this model, the impact on the hysteresis behaviour of some typical HiPIMS conditions is investigated. From this first study, it becomes clear that the probability to observe hysteresis is much lower as compared to DC magnetron sputtering. The high current pulses cannot explain the hysteresis reduction. Total pressure and material choice make the abrupt changes less pronounced, but the implantation of ionized metal atoms that return to the target seems to be the major cause. To further substantiate these results, the analytical reactive sputtering model is coupled with a published global plasma model. The effect of metal ion implantation is confirmed. Another suggested mechanism, i.e., gas rarefaction, can be ruled out to explain the hysteresis reduction. But perhaps the major conclusion is that at present, there are too little experimental data available to make fully sound conclusions.

  6. Molecular dynamics calculation of thermophysical properties for a highly reactive liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H P; Luo, B C; Wei, B

    2008-10-01

    In order to further understand the physical characteristics of liquid silicon, the thermophysical properties are required over a broad temperature range. However, its high reactivity brings about great difficulties in the experimental measurement. Here we report the thermophysical properties by molecular dynamics calculation, including density, specific heat, diffusion coefficient, and surface tension. The calculation is performed with a system consisting of 64,000 atoms, and employing the Stillinger-Weber (SW) potential model and the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential model. The results show that the density increases as a quadratic function of undercooling, and the value calculated by SW potential model is only 2-4 % smaller than the reported experimental data. The specific heat is obtained to be 30.95 J mol;{-1}K;{-1} by SW potential model and 32.50 J mol;{-1}K;{-1} by MEAM potential model, both of which are constants in the corresponding ranges of temperature. The self-diffusion coefficient is exponentially dependent on the temperature and consistent with the Arrhenius equation. The surface tension increases linearly with the rise of undercooling and agrees well with the reported experimental results. This work provides reasonable data in much wider temperature range, especially for the undercooled metastable state.

  7. Interleukin-6 and highly sensitive C-reactive protein in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kasenda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is a major health concern. Oobesity is due to an expansion of adipose tissue mass. This tissue produces pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6. IL-6 is considered to be the chief stimulator of the production of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP in the liver. Both molecules are responsible for the chronic low-grade inflammatory state in obese individuals. Objective To assess a correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP in obese adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2011 in Manado. Subjects were obese and normal body mass index (BMI teens aged 13-18 years. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels were measured to rule out liver impairment. IL-6 and hsCRP levels were also measured. Data was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and linear regression to test for correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP levels. Results There was a strongly positive correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP levels in obese adolescents (r=0.79 with P<0.001. IL-6 and hsCRP levels were not significantly associated in subjects with normal BMI. Conclusions There was a strongly positive correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP levels in obese adolescents, suggestive of an ongoing, chronic, low-grade inflammatory state.

  8. MASS PRODUCTION OF NANOPARTICLES BY HIGH GRAVITY REACTIVE PRECIPITATION TECHNOLOGY WITH LOW COST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng Chen; Lei Shao

    2003-01-01

    Mass production of nanoparticles at low cost has attracted much attention from industrial and academic circles. In this paper, a novel method, the high gravity reactive precipitation (HGRP) technology, of manufacturing CaCO3 nanoparticles, presently scaled-up to an annual capacity of 10,000 tons, is presented. This paper describes the process principle, the process design and experiments on the syntheses of 15-30 nm CaCO3, 30-50 nm SiO2,20-30 nm TiO2, 20-60 nm ZnO, 20-30 nm ZnS, 30 nm SrCO3, 40-70 nm BaTiO3, stick-like nano BaCO3 as well as nano-fibrillar aluminum hydroxide measuring 1-10 nm in diameter and 50-300 nm in length, using liquid-liquid,gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid reactant systems. The advantage of using the HGRP technology is illustrated by comparison to conventional methods.

  9. Sleep disturbances in highly stress reactive mice: Modeling endophenotypes of major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landgraf Rainer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal mechanisms underlying affective disorders such as major depression (MD are still poorly understood. By selectively breeding mice for high (HR, intermediate (IR, or low (LR reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis, we recently established a new genetic animal model of extremes in stress reactivity (SR. Studies characterizing this SR mouse model on the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological levels revealed several similarities with key endophenotypes observed in MD patients. HR mice were shown to have changes in rhythmicity and sleep measures such as rapid eye movement sleep (REMS and non-REM sleep (NREMS as well as in slow wave activity, indicative of reduced sleep efficacy and increased REMS. In the present study we were interested in how far a detailed spectral analysis of several electroencephalogram (EEG parameters, including relevant frequency bands, could reveal further alterations of sleep architecture in this animal model. Eight adult males of each of the three breeding lines were equipped with epidural EEG and intramuscular electromyogram (EMG electrodes. After recovery, EEG and EMG recordings were performed for two days. Results Differences in the amount of REMS and wakefulness and in the number of transitions between vigilance states were found in HR mice, when compared with IR and LR animals. Increased frequencies of transitions from NREMS to REMS and from REMS to wakefulness in HR animals were robust across the light-dark cycle. Detailed statistical analyses of spectral EEG parameters showed that especially during NREMS the power of the theta (6-9 Hz, alpha (10-15 Hz and eta (16-22.75 Hz bands was significantly different between the three breeding lines. Well defined distributions of significant power differences could be assigned to different times during the light and the dark phase. Especially during NREMS, group differences were robust and could be continuously monitored

  10. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  11. The Complementary Role of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in the Diagnosis and Severity Assessment of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Mohammad Reza; Javanbakht, Maryam; Shayegan, Mohammad Reza; Kianoush, Sina; Omid, Fatemeh; Hojati, Maryam; Meshkat, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a beneficial diagnostic test for the evaluation of inflammatory response. Extremely low levels of CRP can be detected using high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) test. A considerable body of evidence has demonstrated that inflammatory response has an important role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we evaluated…

  12. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts target organ damage in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Nie, Hai; He, Hongbo

    2007-01-01

    with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1082 consecutive patients of Chinese origin were screened for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and target organ damage, including cardiac hypertrophy......Observational studies established high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a risk factor for cardiovascular events in the general population. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between target organ damage and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in a cohort of Chinese patients......, carotid intima-media thickness, and renal impairment, were investigated. The median (25th and 75th percentiles) of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in 619 patients with metabolic syndrome was 2.42 mg/L (0.75 and 3.66 mg/L) compared with 1.13 mg/L (0.51 and 2.46 mg/L) among 463 control subjects (P

  13. Evidence for greater cue reactivity among low-dependent vs. high-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2010-07-01

    Cue reactivity paradigms are well-established laboratory procedures used to examine subjective craving in response to substance-related cues. For smokers, the relationship between nicotine dependence and cue reactivity has not been clearly established. The main aim of the present study was to further examine this relationship. Participants (N=90) were between the ages 18-40 and smoked > or =10 cigarettes per day. Average nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND) at baseline was 4.9 (SD=2.1). Participants completed four cue reactivity sessions consisting of two in vivo cues (smoking and neutral) and two affective imagery cues (stressful and relaxed), all counterbalanced. Craving in response to cues was assessed following each cue exposure using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-B). Differential cue reactivity was operationally defined as the difference in QSU scores between the smoking and neutral cues, and between the stressful and relaxed cues. Nicotine dependence was significantly and negatively associated with differential cue reactivity scores in regard to hedonic craving (QSU factor 1) for both in vivo and imagery cues, such that those who had low FTND scores demonstrated greater differential cue reactivity than those with higher FTND scores (beta=-.082; p=.037; beta=-.101; p=.023, respectively). Similar trends were found for the Total QSU and for negative reinforcement craving (QSU factor 2), but did not reach statistical significance. Under partially sated conditions, less dependent smokers may be more differentially cue reactive to smoking cues as compared to heavily dependent smokers. These findings offer methodological and interpretative implications for cue reactivity studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence for greater cue reactivity among low dependent vs. high dependent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms are well-established laboratory procedures used to examine subjective craving in response to substance-related cues. For smokers, the relationship between nicotine dependence and cue reactivity has not been clearly established. The main aim of the present study was to further examine this relationship. Methods Participants (N=90) were between the ages 18–40 and smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day. Average nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND) at baseline was 4.9 (SD=2.1). Participants completed four cue reactivity sessions consisting of two in vivo cues (smoking, neutral) and two affective imagery cues (stressful, relaxed), all counterbalanced. Craving in response to cues was assessed following each cue exposure using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges—Brief (QSU-B). Differential cue reactivity was operationally defined as the difference in QSU scores between the smoking and neutral cues, and between the stressful and relaxed cues. Results Nicotine dependence was significantly and negatively associated with differential cue reactivity scores in regards to hedonic craving (QSU factor 1) for both in vivo and imagery cues, such that those who had low FTND scores demonstrated greater differential cue reactivity than those with higher FTND scores (β = −.082; p = .037; β = −.101; p = .023, respectively). Similar trends were found for the total QSU and for negative reinforcement craving (QSU factor 2), but did not reach statistical significance. Discussion Under partially sated conditions, less dependent smokers may be more differentially cue reactive to smoking cues as compared to heavily dependent smokers. These findings offer methodological and interpretative implications for cue reactivity studies. PMID:20206451

  15. Peptide reactivity assay using spectrophotometric method for high-throughput screening of skin sensitization potential of chemical haptens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun Hyeok; An, Susun; Shin, Kyeho; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2013-02-01

    Haptens must react with cellular proteins to be recognized by antigen presenting cells. Therefore, monitoring reactivity of chemicals with peptide/protein has been considered an in vitro skin sensitization testing method. The reactivity of peptides with chemicals (peptide reactivity) has usually been monitored by chromatographic methods like HPLC or LC/MS, which are robust tools for monitoring common chemical reactions but are rather expensive and time consuming. Here, we examined the possibility of using spectrophotometric methods to monitor peptide reactivity. Two synthetic peptides, Ac-RWAACAA and Ac-RWAAKAA, were reacted with 48 chemicals (34 sensitizers and 14 non-sensitizers). Peptide reactivity was measured by monitoring unreacted peptides with UV-Vis spectrophotometer using 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid as a detection reagent for the free thiol group of cysteine-containing peptide or fluorometer using fluorescamine™ as a detection reagent for the free amine group of lysine-containing peptide. Chemicals were categorized as sensitizers when they induced more than 10% depletion of cysteine-containing peptide or 20% depletion of lysine-containing peptide. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of this method were 82.4%, 85.7%, and 83.3%, respectively. These results demonstrate that spectrophotometric methods can be easy, fast, and high-throughput screening tools for the prediction of the skin sensitization potential of chemical haptens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Domain of Reactivity for High-Valent Dinuclear [M(μ-O)2 M'] Complexes in Oxidation Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Xenia; Yao, Shenglai; Farquhar, Erik R; Szilvási, Tibor; Kuhlmann, Uwe; Hildebrandt, Peter; Driess, Matthias; Ray, Kallol

    2017-01-02

    The strikingly different reactivity of a series of homo- and heterodinuclear [(M(III) )(μ-O)2 (M(III) )'](2+) (M=Ni; M'=Fe, Co, Ni and M=M'=Co) complexes with β-diketiminate ligands in electrophilic and nucleophilic oxidation reactions is reported, and can be correlated to the spectroscopic features of the [(M(III) )(μ-O)2 (M(III) )'](2+) core. In particular, the unprecedented nucleophilic reactivity of the symmetric [Ni(III) (μ-O)2 Ni(III) ](2+) complex and the decay of the asymmetric [Ni(III) (μ-O)2 Co(III) ](2+) core through aromatic hydroxylation reactions represent a new domain for high-valent bis(μ-oxido)dimetal reactivity.

  17. Angra 1 high burnup fuel behaviour under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.b, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The 16x16 NGF (Next Generation Fuel) fuel assembly, comprising of highly corrosive-resistant ZIRLO clad fuel rods, been replacing the current 16x16 Standard (16STD) fuel assembly in the Angra 1, a pressurized water reactor, with a net output of 626 MWe. The 16x16 NGF fuel assemblies are designed for a peak rod average burnup of up to 75 GWd/MTU, thus improving fuel utilization and reducing spent fuel storage issues. A design basis accident, the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA), became a concern for a further increase in burnup as the simulated RIA tests revealed a lower enthalpy threshold for fuel failure. Two fuel performance codes, FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN, were used to predict high burnup behavior of Angra 1, during an RIA. The maximum average linear fuel rating used was 17.62 KW/m. The FRAPCON 3.4 code was applied to simulate the steady-state performance of the 16 NGF fuel rods up to a burnup of 55 GWd/MTU. With FRAPTRAN-1.4 the fuel behavior was simulated for an RIA power pulse of 4.5 ms (FHWH), and enthalpy peak of 130 Cal/g. With FRAPCON-3.4, the corrosion and hydrogen pickup characteristics of the advanced ZIRLO clad fuel rods were added to the code by modifying the actual corrosion model for Zircaloy-4 through the multiplication of empirical factors, which were appropriate to each alloy, and by means of reducing the current hydrogen pickup fraction. (author)

  18. Synthesis of Self-Assembled Multifunctional Nanocomposite Catalysts with Highly Stabilized Reactivity and Magnetic Recyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xu; Cheng, Gong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a multifunctional Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite catalyst with highly stabilized reactivity and magnetic recyclability was synthesized by a self-assembled method. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a thin layer of the SiO2 to obtain a negatively charged surface. Then positively charged poly(ethyleneimine) polymer (PEI) was self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2 by electrostatic interaction. Next, negatively charged glutathione capped gold nanoparticles (GSH-AuNPs) were electrostatically self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI. After that, silver was grown on the surface of the nanocomposite due to the reduction of the dopamine in the alkaline solution. An about 5 nm thick layer of polydopamine (PDA) was observed to form the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was carefully characterized by the SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD and so on. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite shows a high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 48.9 emu/g, which allows it to be attracted rapidly to a magnet. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was used to catalyze the reduction of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) to p-aminophenol (4-AP) as a model system. The reaction kinetic constant k was measured to be about 0.56 min‑1 (R2 = 0.974). Furthermore, the as-prepared catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for 8 times, which didn’t show much decrease of the catalytic capability.

  19. Correlations of health behaviors and factors with high sensitivity C-reactive protein in diabetic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hong HOU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlations of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors with the level of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP in diabetic population. Methods A cross-sectional method was used in present study. Seven thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine workers with diabetes were recruited who participated in the 2006-2007 Kailuan health examination without history of cerebral and myocardial infarction and without data incompleted. All the information was obtained from the unified questionnaire and measurement of blood biochemistry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effects of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors on the level of hsCRP. Results The hsCRP concentrations decreased with the increasing numbers of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors, the medians of hsCRP concentrations were 1.16mg/L, 1.11mg/L, 0.90mg/L and 0.76mg/L in 0-1, 2, 3 and 4-6 ideal cardiovascular health groups, respectively (P<0.01. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjustment by age, gender, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, the risk of hsCRP level exceeding 3mg/L in the subjects having 3 and 4-6 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors was 0.60 times (95%CI 0.50-0.72 and 0.45 times (95%CI 0.34-0.61, respectively, than those having 0-1 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors. Conclusion The hsCRP concentrations decreased with increasing numbers of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors; the risk of hsCRP exceeding 3mg/L can be reduced by ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.013

  20. Influence of age on reactivity to diverse emotional challenges in low- and high-anxiety rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C; Gomes, Margareth Z; Brandão, Marcus L

    2011-02-01

    Studies have revealed that the extent of reactivity of high-anxiety rats to diverse challenges is different than low-anxiety rats and have provided important insights into the psychopathology of anxiety. Various factors intervene to allow defensive mechanisms to react to diverse threatening challenges, including ontogeny and the nature of the emotional challenge (e.g., conditioned vs. unconditioned). The present study investigated the extent to which a particular type of fear extrapolates to other emotional responses to diverse threatening challenges. Groups of 30- and 60-day-old rats were assigned to low freezing behavior (LFB) and high freezing behavior (HFB) groups using the contextual fear conditioning paradigm and subjected to either the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) test, novelty-induced ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) or elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests. At 30 days of age, HFB rats exhibited greater FPS than LFB rats. In contrast, prior selection of HFB and LFB did not affect the performance of 30-day-old animals in the EPM and novelty-induced USVs. Sixty-day-old animals exhibited a performance deficit in all three tests. These data suggest that the performance of young rats in animal models of anxiety parallels their selection as LFB and HFB in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. However, the increased fear-like behavior exhibited by the 60-day-old HFB rats may elicit performance deficits in conditioned and unconditioned fear tests. These results suggest that the interaction between hyperanxiety and age may cause a performance deficit despite the animals' increased fear-like behavior when facing emotional challenges, thus resembling psychiatric patients in many respects. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does high reactive nitrogen input from the atmosphere decrease the carbon sink strength of a peatland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, Christian; Zöll, Undine; Hurkuck, Miriam; Schrader, Frederik; Kutsch, Werner

    2017-04-01

    Mid-latitude peatlands are often exposed to high atmospheric nitrogen deposition when located in close vicinity to agricultural land. As the impacts of altered deposition rates on nitrogen-limited ecosystems are poorly understood, we investigated the surface-atmosphere exchange of several nitrogen and carbon compounds using multiple high-resolution measurement techniques and modeling. Our study site was a protected semi-natural bog ecosystem. Local wind regime and land use in the adjacent area clearly regulated whether total reactive nitrogen (ΣNr) concentrations were ammonia (NH3) or NOx-dominated. Eddy-covariance measurements of NH3 and ΣNr revealed concentration, temperature and surface wetness-dependent deposition rates. Intermittent periods of NH3 and ΣNr emission likely attributed to surface water re-emission and soil efflux, respectively, were found, thereby indicating nitrogen oversaturation in this originally N-limited ecosystem. Annual dry plus wet deposition resulted in 20 to 25 kg N ha-1 depending on method and model used, which translated into a four- to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load. As the bog site had likely been exposed to the observed atmospheric nitrogen burden over several decades, a shift in grass species' composition towards a higher number of nitrophilous plants was already visible. Three years of CO2 eddy flux measurements showed that the site was a small net sink in the range of 33 to 268 g CO2 m-2 yr-1. Methane emissions of 32 g CO2-eq were found to partly offset the sequestered carbon through CO2. Our study indicates that the sink strength of the peatland has likely been decreased through elevated N deposition over the past decades. It also demonstrates the applicability of novel micrometeorological measurement techniques in biogeochemical sciences and stresses the importance of monitoring long-term changes in vulnerable ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure and climate change.

  2. Subsurface Multiphase Flow and Multicomponent Reactive Transport Modeling using High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Lu, Chuan

    2007-08-01

    Numerical modeling has become a critical tool to the Department of Energy for evaluating the environmental impact of alternative energy sources and remediation strategies for legacy waste sites. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical complexity of many sites overwhelms the capabilities of even most “state of the art” groundwater models. Of particular concern are the representation of highly-heterogeneous stratified rock/soil layers in the subsurface and the biological and geochemical interactions of chemical species within multiple fluid phases. Clearly, there is a need for higher-resolution modeling (i.e. more spatial, temporal, and chemical degrees of freedom) and increasingly mechanistic descriptions of subsurface physicochemical processes. We present research being performed in the development of PFLOTRAN, a parallel multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model. Written in Fortran90, PFLOTRAN is founded upon PETSc data structures and solvers and has exhibited impressive strong scalability on up to 4000 processors on the ORNL Cray XT3. We are employing PFLOTRAN in the simulation of uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area, a contaminated site of major concern to the Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and other government agencies where overly-simplistic historical modeling erroneously predicted decade removal times for uranium by ambient groundwater flow. By leveraging the billions of degrees of freedom available through high-performance computation using tens of thousands of processors, we can better characterize the release of uranium into groundwater and its subsequent transport to the Columbia River, and thereby better understand and evaluate the effectiveness of various proposed remediation strategies.

  3. Influence of nitrogen admixture to argon on the ion energy distribution in reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breilmann, W.; Maszl, C.; Hecimovic, A.; von Keudell, A.

    2017-04-01

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of metals is of paramount importance for the deposition of various oxides, nitrides and carbides. The addition of a reactive gas such as nitrogen to an argon HiPIMS plasma with a metal target allows the formation of the corresponding metal nitride on the substrate. The addition of a reactive gas introduces new dynamics into the plasma process, such as hysteresis, target poisoning and the rarefaction of two different plasma gases. We investigate the dynamics for the deposition of chromium nitride by a reactive HiPIMS plasma using energy- and time-resolved ion mass spectrometry, fast camera measurements and temporal and spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy. It is shown that the addition of nitrogen to the argon plasma gas significantly changes the appearance of the localized ionization zones, the so-called spokes, in HiPIMS plasmas. In addition, a very strong modulation of the metal ion flux within each HiPIMS pulse is observed, with the metal ion flux being strongly suppressed and the nitrogen molecular ion flux being strongly enhanced in the high current phase of the pulse. This behavior is explained by a stronger return effect of the sputtered metal ions in the dense plasma above the racetrack. This is best observed in a pure nitrogen plasma, because the ionization zones are mostly confined, implying a very high local plasma density and consequently also an efficient scattering process.

  4. A high precision method for quantitative measurements of reactive oxygen species in frozen biopsies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Berg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR technique using the spin probe cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH was introduced as a versatile method for high precision quantification of reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide radical in frozen biological samples such as cell suspensions, blood or biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Loss of measurement precision and accuracy due to variations in sample size and shape were minimized by assembling the sample in a well-defined volume. Measurement was carried out at low temperature (150 K using a nitrogen flow Dewar. The signal intensity was measured from the EPR 1st derivative amplitude, and related to a sample, 3-carboxy-proxyl (CP• with known spin concentration. RESULTS: The absolute spin concentration could be quantified with a precision and accuracy better than ±10 µM (k = 1. The spin concentration of samples stored at -80°C could be reproduced after 6 months of storage well within the same error estimate. CONCLUSION: The absolute spin concentration in wet biological samples such as biopsies, water solutions and cell cultures could be quantified with higher precision and accuracy than normally achievable using common techniques such as flat cells, tissue cells and various capillary tubes. In addition; biological samples could be collected and stored for future incubation with spin probe, and also further stored up to at least six months before EPR analysis, without loss of signal intensity. This opens for the possibility to store and transport incubated biological samples with known accuracy of the spin concentration over time.

  5. A Manganese Catalyst for Highly Reactive Yet Chemoselective Intramolecular C(sp3)—H Amination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradine, Shauna M.; Griffin, Jennifer R.; Zhao, Jinpeng; Petronico, Aaron L.; Miller, Shannon M.; White, M. Christina

    2016-01-01

    C—H bond oxidation reactions underscore the existing paradigm wherein high reactivity and high selectivity are inversely correlated. The development of catalysts capable of oxidizing strong aliphatic C(sp3)—H bonds while displaying chemoselectivity (i.e. tolerance of more oxidizable functionality) remains an unsolved problem. Herein, we describe a catalyst, manganese tert-butylphthalocyanine [Mn(tBuPc)], that is an outlier to the reactivity-selectivity paradigm. It is unique in its capacity to functionalize all types of C(sp3)—H bonds intramolecularly, while displaying excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of π-functionality. Mechanistic studies indicate that [Mn(tBuPc)] transfers bound nitrenes to C(sp3)—H bonds via a pathway that lies between concerted C—H insertion, observed with reactive noble metals (e.g. rhodium), and stepwise radical C—H abstraction/rebound, observed with chemoselective base metals (e.g. iron). Rather than achieving a blending of effects, [Mn(tBuPc)] aminates even 1° aliphatic and propargylic C—H bonds, reactivity and selectivity unusual for previously known catalysts. PMID:26587714

  6. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and cardfiac resynchronization therapy in patients with advanced heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi CAI; Wei HUA; Li-Gang DING; Jing WANG; Ke-Ping CHEN; Xin-Wei YANG; Zhi-Min LIU; Shu ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Background The data on the prognostic values of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in patients with advanced symp-tomatic heart failure (HF) receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce. The aim of present study was to investigate the association of serum hsCRP levels with left ventricle reverse remodeling after six months of CRT as well as long-term outcome. Methods A total of 232 CRT patients were included. The assessment of hsCRP values, clinical status and echocardiographic data were performed at baseline and after six months of CRT. Long-term follow-up included all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for HF. Results During the mean follow-up periods of 31.3 ± 31.5 months, elevated hsCRP (>3 mg/L) prior to CRT was associated with a significant 2.39-fold increase (P=0.006) in the risk of death or HF hospitalizations. At 6-month follow-up, patients who responded to CRT showed significant reductions or maintained low in hsCRP levels (–0.5 ± 4.1 mg/L reduction) compared with non-responders (1.7 ± 6.1 mg/L increase, P=0.018). Com-pared with patients in whom 6-month hsCRP levels were reduced or remained low, patients in whom 6-month hsCRP levels were increased or maintained high experienced a significantly higher risk of subsequent death or HF hospitalizations (Log-rank P<0.001). The echocardio-graphic improvement was also better among patients in whom 6-month hsCRP levels were reduced or remained low compared to those in whom 6-month hsCRP levels were raised or maintained high. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that measurement of baseline and follow-up hsCRP levels may be useful as prognostic markers for timely potential risk stratification and subsequent appropriate treatment strategies in patients with advanced HF undergoing CRT.

  7. Reactive ion exchange synthesis of high pure nano-CeO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shao-min; FENG Ying-chun; WEN Yang; JIANG Yu-ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reactive ion exchange synthesis method of nano-CeO2 with positive cerium preexchanged ion exchange resin as precursor and (NH4)2CO3 as precipitant.The resultant precipitate was dried at 100 ℃ for 12 h and then was calcined at 500 K in air.The effects of ion exchange temperature and reaction time on the diameter of CeO2 particle were discussed.The TEM images show that the samples prepared with one step reactive ion exchange method are composed of nano-club with the length about 300 nm.

  8. Comparison of Reactive and Non-Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering Routes for the Fabrication of Monolithic and Composite Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Orrù

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A wider utilization of ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC materials strongly depends on the availability of efficient techniques for their fabrication as dense bodies. Based on recent results reported in the literature, it is possible to state that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS technology offers a useful contribution in this direction. Along these lines, the use of two different SPS-based processing routes for the preparation of massive UHTCs is examined in this work. One method, the so-called reactive SPS (R-SPS, consists of the synthesis and densification of the material in a single step. Alternatively, the ceramic powders are first synthesized by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS and then sintered by SPS. The obtained results evidenced that R-SPS method is preferable for the preparation of dense monolithic products, while the sintering of SHS powders requires relatively milder conditions when considering binary composites. The different kinetic mechanisms involved during R-SPS of the monolithic and composite systems, i.e., combustion-like or gradual solid-diffusion, respectively, provides a possible explanation. An important role is also played by the SHS process, particularly for the preparation of composite powders, since stronger interfaces are established between the ceramic constituents formed in situ, thus favoring diffusion processes during the subsequent SPS step.

  9. Mg-aminoclay as stabilizer for synthesizing highly stable and reactive nZVI for decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Lee, Young-Chul; Mines, Paul D.

    Despite the large surface area and superior reactivity of nZVI, its limited stability is a major obstacle for in situ subsurface remediation. In this study, Mg-aminoclay (MgAC) was applied for the first time as a stabilizer in nZVI synthesis. With increased doses of Mg-aminoclay, nZVI particle gr...

  10. Effect of Fast Pyrolysis Conditions on Structural Transformation and Reactivity of Herbaceous Biomasses at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker D.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    of organic and inorganic matter on the char structural transformations. The results indicate no influence of the free radicals on char reactivity and burnout. The formation of free radicals in fast pyrolysis is related to the differences in the ash composition, namely presence of K+ ions in the wheat straw...

  11. Removal of nitric oxide by the highly reactive anatase TiO2 (001) surface: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenwen; Tian, Feng Hui; Wang, Xiaobin; Zhao, Linghuan; Wang, Yun; Fu, Aiping; Yuan, Shuping; Chu, Tianshu; Xia, Linhua; Yu, Jimmy C; Duan, Yunbo

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, density functional theory (DFT) calculation was employed to study the adsorption of nitric oxide (NO) on the highly reactive anatase TiO2 (001) surface. For comparison, the adsorption of NO on the (101) surface was also considered. Different from the physical adsorption on the (101) surface, NO molecules are found to chemisorb on the TiO2 (001) surface. The twofold coordinate oxygen atoms (O2c) on the anatase (001) surface are the active sites. Where NO is oxidized into a nitrite species (NO2(-)) trapping efficiently on the surface, with one of the surface Ti5c-O2c bonds adjacent to the adsorption site broken. Our results, therefore, supply a theoretical guidance to remove NO pollutants using highly reactive anatase TiO2 (001) facets.

  12. Predictors of high on-aspirin platelet reactivity in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J W; Liu, W W; McCaffrey, Timothy A; He, X Q; Liang, W Y; Chen, X H; Feng, X R; Fu, Sidney W; Liu, M L

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have illustrated the link between high on-aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) with increasing thrombotic risks. The aim of our study was to investigate relative risk factors of HAPR in elderly patients with coronary artery disease. Elderly, hospitalized coronary artery disease patients on regular aspirin treatment were enrolled from January 2014 to September 2016. Medical records of each patient were collected, including demographic information, cardiovascular risk factors, concomitant drugs and routine biological parameters. Arachidonic acid (AA, 0.5 mg/mL) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 5 µmol/L) induced platelet aggregation were measured via light transmission assay (LTA) to evaluate antiplatelet responses, referred as LTA-AA and LTA-ADP. A total of 275 elderly patients were included, with mean age of 77.2±8.1 years, and males accounted for 81.8%. HAPR was defined as LTA-AA in the upper quartile of the enrolled population. HAPR patients tended to have lower renal function (P=0.052). Higher serum uric acid (SUA) level, as well as lower platelet count, hemoglobin and hematocrit were observed in HAPR patients, with a higher proportion of diuretics use (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that SUA (OR: 1.004, 95% CI: 1.000-1.007, P=0.048), platelet count (OR: 0.994, 95% CI: 0.989-1.000, P=0.045), hematocrit (OR: 0.921, 95% CI: 0.864-0.981, P=0.011) and concomitant P2Y12 receptor inhibitors use (OR: 1.965, 95% CI: 1.075-3.592, P=0.028) were correlated with HAPR. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated an inverse association of LTA-AA with hematocrit (r=-0.234, P<0.001), hemoglobin (r=-0.209, P<0.001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.132, P=0.031). SUA, platelet count, hematocrit and P2Y12 receptor inhibitors use were independently correlated with HAPR. These parameters might provide novel therapeutic targets for optimizing antiplatelet therapy.

  13. Pareto optimal calibration of highly nonlinear reactive transport groundwater models using particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, A. J.; Prommer, H.; Welter, D.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater management and remediation requires the implementation of numerical models in order to evaluate the potential anthropogenic impacts on aquifer systems. In many situations, the numerical model must, not only be able to simulate groundwater flow and transport, but also geochemical and biological processes. Each process being simulated carries with it a set of parameters that must be identified, along with differing potential sources of model-structure error. Various data types are often collected in the field and then used to calibrate the numerical model; however, these data types can represent very different processes and can subsequently be sensitive to the model parameters in extremely complex ways. Therefore, developing an appropriate weighting strategy to address the contributions of each data type to the overall least-squares objective function is not straightforward. This is further compounded by the presence of potential sources of model-structure errors that manifest themselves differently for each observation data type. Finally, reactive transport models are highly nonlinear, which can lead to convergence failure for algorithms operating on the assumption of local linearity. In this study, we propose a variation of the popular, particle swarm optimization algorithm to address trade-offs associated with the calibration of one data type over another. This method removes the need to specify weights between observation groups and instead, produces a multi-dimensional Pareto front that illustrates the trade-offs between data types. We use the PEST++ run manager, along with the standard PEST input/output structure, to implement parallel programming across multiple desktop computers using TCP/IP communications. This allows for very large swarms of particles without the need of a supercomputing facility. The method was applied to a case study in which modeling was used to gain insight into the mobilization of arsenic at a deepwell injection site

  14. Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javad Abbasian; Armin Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Rachid B. Slimane

    2005-06-01

    The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes. A total of sixty two (62) different sorbents were prepared in this project. The sorbents were prepared either by various sol-gel techniques (22 formulations) or modification of dolomite (40 formulations). The sorbents were prepared in the form of pellets and in granular forms. The solgel based sorbents had very high physical strength, relatively high surface area, and very low average pore diameter. The magnesium content of the sorbents was estimated to be 4-6 % w/w. To improve the reactivity of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2}, The sorbents were impregnated with potassium salts. The potassium content of the sorbents was about 5%. The dolomite-based sorbents were prepared by calcination of dolomite at various temperature and calcination environment (CO{sub 2} partial pressure and moisture). Potassium carbonate was added to the half-calcined dolomite through wet impregnation method. The estimated potassium content of the impregnated sorbents was in the range of 1-6% w/w. In general, the modified dolomite sorbents have significantly higher magnesium content, larger pore diameter and lower surface area, resulting in significantly higher reactivity compared to the sol-gel sorbents. The reactivities of a number of sorbents toward CO{sub 2} were determined in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit. The results indicated that at the low CO{sub 2} partial pressures (i.e., 1 atm), the reactivities of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2} are very low. At elevated pressures (i.e., CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 10 bar) the maximum conversion of MgO obtained with the sol-gel based sorbents was about 5%, which corresponds to a maximum CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of less than 1%. The overall capacity of modified dolomite sorbents were at least one order of magnitude

  15. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels predict survival and are related to haemodynamics in alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian; Andersen, Ove; Krag, Aleksander;

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation may be implicated in the haemodynamic deterioration and in the development of complications in patients with cirrhosis. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker of low-grade inflammation, and predicts outcomes in patients at risk of ischaemic heart disease....... Proinflammatory cytokines reflect immune activation and have been found to be elevated in cirrhosis. We investigated a possible association between markers of inflammation and splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics, complications and survival in patients with cirrhosis....

  16. Mechanical properties and spalling at elevated temperature of high performance concrete made with reactive and waste inert powders

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Msheer Hasan; Dinkha, Youkhanna Zayia; James H. Haido

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the efficiency of waste glass powder was investigated in enhancing the mechanical properties of concrete at high temperature. Chemical composition of this powder reveals that it plays good role as effective inert very fine material in concrete strength improvement. Conventional reactive pozzolanic powder of silica fume was used also in present work to show the degradation degree in concrete strength under firing in comparison to concrete made with waste glass powder. The expe...

  17. Process stabilization by peak current regulation in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T.; Villamayor, M.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and cost effective approach to stabilize the sputtering process in the transition zone during reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is proposed. The method is based on real-time monitoring and control of the discharge current waveforms. To stabilize the process conditions at a given set point, a feedback control system was implemented that automatically regulates the pulse frequency, and thereby the average sputtering power, to maintain a constant maximum discharge current. In the present study, the variation of the pulse current waveforms over a wide range of reactive gas flows and pulse frequencies during a reactive HiPIMS process of Hf-N in an Ar-N2 atmosphere illustrates that the discharge current waveform is a an excellent indicator of the process conditions. Activating the reactive HiPIMS peak current regulation, stable process conditions were maintained when varying the N2 flow from 2.1 to 3.5 sccm by an automatic adjustment of the pulse frequency from 600 Hz to 1150 Hz and consequently an increase of the average power from 110 to 270 W. Hf-N films deposited using peak current regulation exhibited a stable stoichiometry, a nearly constant power-normalized deposition rate, and a polycrystalline cubic phase Hf-N with (1 1 1)-preferred orientation over the entire reactive gas flow range investigated. The physical reasons for the change in the current pulse waveform for different process conditions are discussed in some detail.

  18. Relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and obesity / metabolic syndrome in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between highsensitivity C-reactive protein(hsC RP)and obesity/metabolic syndrome(MetS)related factors in children.Methods 403 children aged 10-14 and born in Beijing were involved in this study.Height,weight,waist circumference,fat mass percentage(Fat%),blood pressure(BP),hsC RP,triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol

  19. High reactive oxygen species in fibrotic and nonfibrotic skin of patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourji, Khalil; Meyer, Alain; Chatelus, Emmanuel; Pincemail, Joël; Pigatto, Erika; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Singh, François; Charlier, Corinne; Geny, Bernard; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Punzi, Leonardo; Cozzi, Franco; Sibilia, Jean

    2015-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystemic connective tissue disease characterized by progressive fibrosis affecting skin and internal organs. Despite serious efforts to unveil the pathogenic mechanisms of SSc, they are still unclear. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in affected patients have been shown, and ROS are suggested to play a role in fibrosis pathogenesis. In this study we evaluate ROS levels in nonfibrotic and fibrotic skin of patients with SSc and we compare them with those obtained from healthy controls. We enrolled nine SSc patients fulfilling the EULAR/ACR classification criteria and seven healthy controls. Patients included four men and five women with mean age of 46 ± 10 years. Controls were matched by sex and age. All patients were affected by the diffuse cutaneous form of SSc and the ANA pattern anti-Scl70. Mean disease duration was 7.5 ± 5 years. Skin involvement was evaluated by modified Rodnan skin score. Skin samples (4-mm punch biopsy) were taken from fibrotic skin and nonfibrotic skin of patients and from healthy controls as well. To detect ROS, specimens were analyzed immediately after sampling by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Blood samples were drawn from all patients and controls to assess oxidative stress biomarkers. ROS levels (expressed as median and range, in nmol/L/min/mg of dry weight) were 24.7 (10.9-47.0) in fibrotic skin, 18.7 (7.3-34.0) in nonfibrotic skin, and 7.7 (3.5-13.6) in healthy control skin. ROS levels in fibrotic and nonfibrotic skin of SSc patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p = 0.002 and p = 0.009, respectively). ROS levels in fibrotic skin were raised in comparison to nonfibrotic skin, when samples related to each patient were compared (p = 0.01). ROS levels in fibrotic skin were correlated with forced vital capacity (r = -0.75, p = 0.02) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.70, p = 0.04). All other clinical and lab parameters showed no

  20. In situ visualisation and characterisation of the capacity of highly reactive minerals to preserve soil organic matter (SOM) in colloids at submicron scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Hao, Jialong; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; Mei, Xinlan; He, Xinhua; Yu, Guanghui

    2015-11-01

    Mineral-organo associations (MOAs) are a mixture of identifiable biopolymers associated with highly reactive minerals and microorganisms. However, the in situ characterization and correlation between soil organic matter (SOM) and highly reactive Al and Fe minerals are still unclear for the lack of technologies, particularly in the long-term agricultural soil colloids at submicron scale. We combined several novel techniques, including nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to characterise the capacity of highly reactive Al and Fe minerals to preserve SOM in Ferralic Cambisol in south China. Our results demonstrated that: (1) highly reactive minerals were strongly related to SOM preservation, while SOM had a more significant line correlation with the highly reactive Al minerals than the highly reactive Fe minerals, according to the regions of interest correlation analyses using NanoSIMS; (2) allophane and ferrihydrite were the potential mineral species to determine the SOM preservation capability, which was evaluated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fe K-edge XANES spectroscopy techniques; and (3) soil organic biopolymers with dominant compounds, such as proteins, polysaccharides and lipids, were distributed at the rough and clustered surface of MOAs with high chemical and spatial heterogeneity according to the CLSM observation. Our results also promoted the understanding of the roles played by the highly reactive Al and Fe minerals in the spatial distribution of soil organic biopolymers and SOM sequestration.

  1. Comparison of high temperature chars of wheat straw and rice husk with respect to chemistry, morphology and reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of wheat straw and rice husk was carried out in an entrained flow reactor at hightemperatures(1000e1500) C. The collected char was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, N2-adsorption,scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis with CAMSIZER XT, 29Si and 13C solid......-statenuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis to investigate the effect ofinorganic matter on the char morphology and oxygen reactivity. The silicon compounds were dispersedthroughout the turbostratic structure of rice husk char in an amorphous phase with a low meltingtemperature (z730 C......), which led to the formation of a glassy char shell, resulting in a preserved particlesize and shape of chars. The high alkali content in the wheat straw resulted in higher char reactivity,whereas the lower silicon content caused variations in the char shape from cylindrical to near...

  2. Experimental study of dynamic mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete under high-strain-rate impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete subjected to compressive impacts with high strain rates ranging from 10 to 1.1×102 s-1 were investigated by means of SHPB (split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar) tests of the cylindrical specimens with five different steel fiber volumetric fractions.The properties of wave stress transmission,failure,strength,and energy consumption of RPC with varied fiber volumes and impact strain rates were analyzed.The influences of impact strain rates and fiber volumes on those properties were characterized as well.The general forms of the dynamic stress-strain relationships of RPC were modeled based on the experimental data.The investigations indicate that for the plain RPC the stress response is greater than the strain response,showing strong brittle performance.The RPC with a certain volume of fibers sustains higher strain rate impact and exhibits better deformability as compared with the plain RPC.With a constant fiber fraction,the peak compressive strength,corresponding peak strain and the residual strain of the fiber-reinforced RPC rise by varying amounts when the impact strain rate increases,with the residual strain demonstrating the greatest increment.Elevating the fiber content makes trivial contribution to improving the residual deformability of RPC when the impact strain rate is constant.The tests also show that the fiber content affects the peak compressive strength and the peak deformability of RPC in a different manner.With a constant impact strain rate and the fiber fraction less than 1.75%,the peak compressive strength rises with an increasing fiber volume.The peak compressive strength tends to decrease as the fiber volume exceeds 1.75%.The corresponding peak strain,however,incessantly rises with the increasing fiber volume.The total energy Edisp that RPC consumed during the period from the beginning of impacts to the time of residual strains elevates with the fiber volume increment as long as the fiber

  3. High temperature reactive ion etching of iridium thin films with aluminum mask in CF4/O2/Ar plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pin Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive ion etching (RIE technology for iridium with CF4/O2/Ar gas mixtures and aluminum mask at high temperatures up to 350 °C was developed. The influence of various process parameters such as gas mixing ratio and substrate temperature on the etch rate was studied in order to find optimal process conditions. The surface of the samples after etching was found to be clean under SEM inspection. It was also shown that the etch rate of iridium could be enhanced at higher process temperature and, at the same time, very high etching selectivity between aluminum etching mask and iridium could be achieved.

  4. Changes of serum high sensitive C-reactive protein in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Du; Yan Ren; Ying Li

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), which regards as a high sensitive mark of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, can provide a lot of valuable information for the treatment and prognosis of cerebrovascular disease.OBJECTIVE: To observe the differences of blood glucose, lipid, homocysteine and previous disease history among patients with acute cerebral infarction at various levels of hs-CRP and compare changes of hs-CRP of patients with various degrees ofneurologic impairment.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Shenzhou Hospital, Shenyang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 102 patients with acute cerebral infarction were selected from Department of Neurology, Shenzhou Hospital of Shenyang Medical College from February 2005 to September 2006,including 55 males and 47 females aged from 55 to 86 years. All accepted patients met the diagnostic criteria of cerebral infarction established by the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting and were diagnosed with CT or MRI examination. All patients provided the confirmed consent. Based on clinical criteria of neurologic impairment established by the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting, patients were randomly divided into mild group (0- 15 points, n =46), moderate group (16- 30points, n =38) and severe group (31 - 45 points, n =18). In addition, based on hs-CRP level within 72 hours,patients were divided into normal group (hs-CRP ≤ 3 mg/L, n =53) and increasing group (hs-CRP > 3 mg/L,n =49).METHODS: ① 2 mL venous blood was selected from hospitalized patients in the next morning to separate serum. Quantitative measurement of hs-CRP was dealt with Latex Enhnced Turbidimetric Immunoassay (LETIA). ② Fasting venous blood was colleted from hospitalized patients in the next morning to measure numeration of white blood cells, fibrinogen, blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high density lipoprotein

  5. Enhancing CaP biomimetic growth on TiO2 cuboids nanoparticles via highly reactive facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; Verdinelli, Valeria; Hassan, Natalia; Pieroni, Olga; Messina, Paula V

    2013-02-19

    Pure decahedral anatase TiO(2) particles with high content of reactive {001} facets were obtained from titanium(IV) tetrachloride (TiCl(4)) using a microemulsions droplet system at specific conditions as chemical microreactor. The product was systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy (FE-SEM, TEM), N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence studies. The obtained cuboids around 90 nm in size have a uniform and dense surface morphology with a BET specific surface area of 11.91 m(2) g(-1) and a band gap energy (3.18 eV) slightly inferior to the anatase dominated by the less-reactive {101} surface (3.20 eV). The presence of reactive facets on titania anatase favors the biomimetic growth of amorphous tricalcium phosphate after the first day of immersion in simulated human plasma. The results presented here can facilitate and improve the integration of anchored implants and enhance the biological responses to the soft tissues.

  6. Evaluation of high sensitivity C-reactive protein assay in cerebrospinal fluid on the Dimension RxL analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Ćorić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low sensitivity and specificity in traditional laboratory tests became insufficient for accurate diagnostics and initiation of proper treatment of patients infected with bacterial meningitis. High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP may be an appropriate supplement for rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The subject of our investigation was the determination of C- reactive protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF duringacute bacterial meningitis.Methods: HsCRP was analysed by a sensitive immunoturbidimetric assay using the Dimension RxL analyser (Siemens. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of C-reactive protein have been measured in 20 patients(age range,1 to 50 years presenting with acute bacterial meningitis and also in a non-infected, non-inflamed control group (n=25.Results: The accuracy and precision of the method proved to be satisfactory. Repeatability of serial sampling for hsCRP described by coefficient of variation were CV=2.1-4.5%. This assay hsCRP in cerebrospinal fluid demonstrates adequate performance characteristics for routine clinical use. Elevated levels of CRP were found in 95% patients with bacterial meningitis. The mean CRP value in 25 uninfected control group was 0.25 mg/L (range 0.10-0.55. The mean CRP for patients with bacterial meningitis was 21.4 mg/L (range 0.40-100.Conclusions: A sensitive assay for CRP in CSF would be an useful adjunct to conventional investigation of acute infective meningitis.

  7. Photochemical partitioning of the reactive nitrogen and chlorine reservoirs in the high-latitude stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Fahey, D. W.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Solomon, S.; Anderson, D. E.; Loewenstein, M.; Proffitt, M. H.; Margitan, J. J.; Chan, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    The correlated set of measurements in the lower stratosphere from polar missions of the NASA ER-2 is used to derive partitioning of the major components of the reactive nitrogen and inorganic chlorine reservoirs. The results provide a consistent method for comparing distributions, and hence the controlling processes, between different areas of the near-polar regions. Clear evidence of the effects of heterogeneous processes in the atmosphere is found. Values for NO2, ClONO2, N2O5, and Cl2O2 are derived in a simplified steady-state model based on in situ NO, ClO, O3, temperature, and pressure measurements, laboratory-measured reaction rates; and modeled photodissociation rates. Values for the reservoir totals are independently derived from measurements of N2O, organic chlorine, and total reactive nitrogen. The relative abundances of the measured and derived species within the reservoirs are calculated, and the longer-lived species HCl and HNO3 are estimated as the residuals of their respective reservoirs.

  8. Model for high rate gas flows in deformable and reactive porous beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, A M

    1985-01-08

    This report presents the development of a one dimensional planar Lagrange hydrodynamic computer model which describes the processes preceding detonation. The model treats gas flow, deflagration, and compaction in a porous bed of reactive material. The early part of deflagration to detonation experiment with porous HMX is simulated. Sensitivity of the simulation calculation to ignition and burn rate parameters is illustrated and discussed. The effects of changing the mean particle size of the porous material are investigated. There is widespread interest in runaway reaction hazards that may be associated with porosity in propellant and explosive materials. Experimentally, such reactions are initiated and observed in long, thick walled hollow tubes, filled with a granular porous bed of reactive material. We will present comparisons with an experiment on porous HMX to illustrate details of the model and to point out what we believe are important features of the observed phenomenon. A geometric finite element cell is devised that allows gas to flow through a compacting matrix. The experimental simulation considers the DDT process from initial squib burn through the onset of general matrix deflagration (convective burning), to the development of a fully dense compaction wave. While this simulation did not calculate turnover to detonation, it did illustrate that the transition occurred as soon as the compaction wave became fully dense. It is shown that deflagration and gas permeation lags compaction at the time of transition. This suggests that the actual transition involves an additional compaction dependent process. 18 references, 20 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Scale-up of the production of highly reactive biogenic magnetite nanoparticles using Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J M; Muhamadali, H; Coker, V S; Cooper, J; Lloyd, J R

    2015-06-06

    Although there are numerous examples of large-scale commercial microbial synthesis routes for organic bioproducts, few studies have addressed the obvious potential for microbial systems to produce inorganic functional biomaterials at scale. Here we address this by focusing on the production of nanoscale biomagnetite particles by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, which was scaled up successfully from laboratory- to pilot plant-scale production, while maintaining the surface reactivity and magnetic properties which make this material well suited to commercial exploitation. At the largest scale tested, the bacterium was grown in a 50 l bioreactor, harvested and then inoculated into a buffer solution containing Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide and an electron donor and mediator, which promoted the formation of magnetite in under 24 h. This procedure was capable of producing up to 120 g of biomagnetite. The particle size distribution was maintained between 10 and 15 nm during scale-up of this second step from 10 ml to 10 l, with conserved magnetic properties and surface reactivity; the latter demonstrated by the reduction of Cr(VI). The process presented provides an environmentally benign route to magnetite production and serves as an alternative to harsher synthetic techniques, with the clear potential to be used to produce kilogram to tonne quantities.

  10. Modeling psychotic and cognitive symptoms of affective disorders: Disrupted latent inhibition and reversal learning deficits in highly stress reactive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapman, A; Heinzmann, J-M; Holsboer, F; Landgraf, R; Touma, C

    2010-09-01

    Increased stress reactivity has repeatedly been reported in patients suffering from psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and major depression. These disorders also have other symptoms in common, such as cognitive deficits and psychotic-like behavior. We have therefore investigated if increased stress reactivity is associated with these phenotypic endpoints in an animal model of affective disorders. The stress reactivity mouse model used in this study consists of three CD-1-derived mouse lines, that have been selectively bred for high (HR), intermediate (IR) or low (LR) stress reactivity. Male mice from these three breeding lines were subjected to a reversal learning task and latent inhibition (Li) was assessed using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Furthermore, as the dopaminergic system is involved in both Li and reversal learning, the dopamine 1 receptor (D1R), dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA expression levels were assessed in relevant brain areas of these animals. The results demonstrate that HR mice show perseveration in the reversal learning task and have disrupted Li. Furthermore, compared to LR mice, HR mice have decreased D2R mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area, as well as decreased D1R mRNA levels in the cingulate cortex, and an increased expression of D2R mRNA in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the HR mice display cognitive deficits associated with psychotic-like behavior, similar to those observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia and major depression and could be utilized in the search for better treatment strategies for these symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  11. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Fidaleo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted, the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1. These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.

  12. Mechanism and Experimental Observability of Global Switching Between Reactive and Nonreactive Coordinates at High Total Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Hiroshi; Toda, Mikito; Takahashi, Masahiko; Kono, Hirohiko; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2015-08-01

    We present a mechanism of global reaction coordinate switching, namely, a phenomenon in which the reaction coordinate dynamically switches to another coordinate as the total energy of the system increases. The mechanism is based on global changes in the underlying phase space geometry caused by a switching of dominant unstable modes from the original reactive mode to another nonreactive mode in systems with more than 2 degrees of freedom. We demonstrate an experimental observability to detect a reaction coordinate switching in an ionization reaction of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields. For this reaction, the reaction coordinate is a coordinate along which electrons escape and its switching changes the escaping direction from the direction of the electric field to that of the magnetic field and, thus, the switching can be detected experimentally by measuring the angle-resolved momentum distribution of escaping electrons.

  13. High-throughput spectrophotometric assay of reactive oxygen species in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ikue; Morishita, Yukari; Imai, Kazue; Nakamura, Masakazu; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2007-07-10

    The derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (D-ROM) test has been developed to determine the amount of oxygen-centered free radicals in a blood sample as a marker of oxidative stress. This study aims to improve the D-ROM test and develop an automated assay system by use of a clinical chemistry analyzer. Five microliters of serum was added to 1 well of a 96-well microtiter plate for a total 240microl of reaction solution containing alkylamine and metals. This was followed by automatic mixing, incubation and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as a color development at 505nm using a spectrophotometer with catalytic capability for transition metals. This assay system was used to measure serum levels of ROS in cigarette smokers and never-smokers, by way of example. The levels of serum ROS determined by this system correlate with the amounts of free radicals and peroxides, which reacted with various molecules in the body and formed stable metabolites. This test can use frozen sera as well as fresh ones. The inter- and intra-deviation of this system was within 5% and showed consistent linearity in the range between 4 and 500mg/l of hydrogen peroxides. Serum ROS levels among smokers increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (36.5% increment per pack per day; P<0.0001). This assay system will be a simple, inexpensive, and reliable tool for assessing oxidative stress in human populations. Our preliminary results on cigarette smoking imply that this assay system has potential for application in various epidemiological and clinical settings.

  14. High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Ankle Brachial Index in a Finnish Cardiovascular Risk Population

    OpenAIRE

    Syvänen, K.; P Korhonen; Jaatinen, P.; Vahlberg, T; P. Aarnio

    2011-01-01

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has been previously linked to different forms of vascular disease. However, some studies have not found any relationship between hsCRP and atherosclerosis. Also, studies investigating correlation between hsCRP and ankle brachial index (ABI) are scarce. We studied hsCRP in a cardiovascular risk population with a special interest in correlation between hsCRP and ABI. All men and women aged 45 to 70 years from a rural town Harjavalta, Finland were invi...

  15. Totem:. a Highly Parallel Chip for Triggering Applications with Inductive Learning Based on the Reactive Tabu Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzellotti, G.; Battiti, R.; Lazzizzera, I.; Soncini, G.; Zorat, A.; Sartori, A.; Tecchiolli, G.; Lee, P.

    The training of a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier is considered as a Combinatorial Optimization task and solved using the Reactive Tabu Search (RTS) method. RTS needs only forward passes (no derivatives) and does not require high precision network parameters. TOTEM, a special-purpose VLSI chip, was developed to take advantage of the limited memory and processing requirements of RTS: the final system effects a very close match between hardware and training algorithm. The RTS algorithm and the design of TOTEM are discussed, together with the operational characteristics of the VLSI chip and some preliminary training and generalization tests on triggering tasks.

  16. The influence of high energy milling and sintering parameters on reactive sintered (Ti, Mo)C–Ni cermets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jõeleht, Marek, E-mail: marek.joeleht@ttu.ee [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Pirso, Jüri; Juhani, Kristjan [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Viljus, Mart; Traksmaa, Rainer [Materials Research Centre, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • High energy milling and reactive sintering was used to produce (Ti, Mo)C–Ni cermets. • A linear relationship between milling time and oxygen contamination was observed. • TiC grain cores were visible with shorter milling durations. • Optimal milling time was found to be 6 h. • Mechanical properties above 1500 HV10 and 1.1 GPa were obtained. - Abstract: Reactive sintering was used to produce titanium carbide cermets with molybdenum as an alloying element and nickel for binder. High energy attritor mill was used to mill the same composition of Ti, C, Ni and Mo powders with different durations. High energy milling significantly reduces the temperatures at which a series of reactions occurs between metal and carbon during the heating. A two-step sintering cycle was used with vacuum and argon gas isostatic pressure as sintering atmospheres. Dense (Ti, Mo)C–17 wt%Ni cermets were obtained with mechanical properties above 1500 HV10 and 1.1 GPa. The optimum milling duration was found to be 6 h of milling with the available attritor. The powders were investigated with SEM, XRD and by oxygen/nitrogen analysis. The materials were characterised by density, Vicker’s hardness and transverse rupture strength were studied.

  17. Preparation of reactive macroporous polymeric beads for high-performance liquid chromatography applications: Polymerization, surface modification and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi-Chun

    Several stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based on synthetic polymers with controlled pore structures and surface chemistries have been prepared and characterized. The first part of the research is focused on the control of pore structure of reactive beads prepared from functional monomers such as 2,3-epoxypropyl vinylbenzyl ether and 2,3-epoxypropyl vinylbenzyl ether with divinylbenzene used as a crosslinker. Due to a relatively large difference in polarities of these two functional monomers, a new porogenic system had to be developed for the preparation of monodisperse beads from 2,3-epoxypropyl vinylbenzyl ether. In contrast, polymerization conditions similar to those used for the preparation of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) beads can be used for the systems involving chloromethylstyrene and divinylbenzene. An extensive study of the effects of various polymerization parameters on the properties of these reactive beads was carried out in order to achieve fine control over the degree of functionalization and pore structure. The second part of the research is focused on the surface modification of reactive beads prepared in the previous study for the HPLC separation of enantiomers. The performance of our chiral stationary phases (CSP) with brush-type selectors was comparable to the best silica-based chiral separation media. As a part of this study, polymeric CSPs with different linkages, tethers, loading levels, and backbone structures were prepared and characterized. Another series of CSPs were prepared from beads functionalized with a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer tether. A high coupling efficiency with the chiral selector was characteristic of the polymer support modified with dendrimers, and these dendritic supports demonstrated the substantial contribution of linkers with multiple functionalities originating from a single surface site to the selectivity and efficiency of the polymer based separation media.

  18. An ionization region model of the reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Lundin, D.; Brenning, N.; Raadu, M. A.; Huo, Chunqing; Minea, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    A new reactive ionization region model (R-IRM) is developed to describe the reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge with a titanium target. It is then applied to study the temporal behavior of the discharge plasma parameters such as electron density, the neutral and ion composition, the ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor, the oxygen dissociation fraction, and the composition of the discharge current. We study and compare the discharge properties when the discharge is operated in the two well established operating modes, the metal mode and the poisoned mode. Experimentally, it is found that in the metal mode the discharge current waveform displays a typical non-reactive evolution, while in the poisoned mode the discharge current waveform becomes distinctly triangular and the current increases significantly. Using the R-IRM we explore the current increase and find that when the discharge is operated in the metal mode Ar+ and Ti+ -ions contribute most significantly (roughly equal amounts) to the discharge current while in the poisoned mode the Ar+ -ions contribute most significantly to the discharge current and the contribution of O+ -ions, Ti+ -ions, and secondary electron emission is much smaller. Furthermore, we find that recycling of atoms coming from the target, that are subsequently ionized, is required for the current generation in both modes of operation. From the R-IRM results it is found that in the metal mode self-sputter recycling dominates and in the poisoned mode working gas recycling dominates. We also show that working gas recycling can lead to very high discharge currents but never to a runaway. It is concluded that the dominating type of recycling determines the discharge current waveform.

  19. Evaluation of a High-Throughput Peptide Reactivity Format Assay for Assessment of the Skin Sensitization Potential of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin Lin; Lam, Ai-Leen; Smith, Maree T.; Ghassabian, Sussan

    2016-01-01

    The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate, and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium, and high concentrations) and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme, and non-sensitizers) with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF), cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA), and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA) containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7%) and glass (47.3%) vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further highlight

  20. High pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and loss of high avidity cross-reactive cytotoxic T-cells during the course of secondary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the most important human diseases transmitted by an arthropod vector and the incidence of dengue virus infection has been increasing - over half the world's population now live in areas at risk of infection. Most infections are asymptomatic, but a subset of patients experience a potentially fatal shock syndrome characterised by plasma leakage. Severe forms of dengue are epidemiologically associated with repeated infection by more than one of the four dengue virus serotypes. Generally attributed to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement, recent observations indicate that T-cells may also influence disease phenotype. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL showing high level cross reactivity between dengue serotypes could be expanded from blood samples taken during the acute phase of secondary dengue infection. These could not be detected in convalescence when only CTL populations demonstrating significant serotype specificity were identified. Dengue cross-reactive CTL clones derived from these patients were of higher avidity than serotype-specific clones and produced much higher levels of both type 1 and certain type 2 cytokines, many previously implicated in dengue pathogenesis. CONCLUSION: Dengue serotype cross-reactive CTL clones showing high avidity for antigen produce higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than serotype-specific clones. That such cells cannot be expanded from convalescent samples suggests that they may be depleted, perhaps as a consequence of activation-induced cell death. Such high avidity cross-reactive memory CTL may produce inflammatory cytokines during the course of secondary infection, contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular leak. These cells appear to be subsequently deleted leaving a more serotype-specific memory CTL pool. Further studies are needed to relate these cellular observations to disease phenotype in a large group of patients. If

  1. Efficient generation of cavitation bubbles and reactive oxygen species using triggered high-intensity focused ultrasound sequence for sonodynamic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Sonodynamic treatment is a method of treating cancer using reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cavitation bubbles in collaboration with a sonosensitizer at a target tissue. In this treatment method, both localized ROS generation and ROS generation with high efficiency are important. In this study, a triggered high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) sequence, which consists of a short, extremely high intensity pulse immediately followed by a long, moderate-intensity burst, was employed for the efficient generation of ROS. In experiments, a solution sealed in a chamber was exposed to a triggered HIFU sequence. Then, the distribution of generated ROS was observed by the luminol reaction, and the amount of generated ROS was quantified using KI method. As a result, the localized ROS generation was demonstrated by light emission from the luminol reaction. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the triggered HIFU sequence has higher efficiency of ROS generation by both the KI method and the luminol reaction emission.

  2. Dynamic behaviors of various volume rate steel-fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete after high temperature burnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Baojun; Wang, Liwen; Yang, Zhenqi; Chi, Runqiang

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic strain-stress curves of reactive powder concrete under high strain rate (10/s-100/s) were determined by improved split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. A plumbum pulse shaper was used to ensure the symmetrical stress in the specimens before fracture and avoid the fluctuation of test data due to input shaky stress pulse. A time modified method was induced for data processing in order to get accurate SHPB results. The results of experiment showed after high temperature burnt, different volume rate (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) steel-fiber reinforced reactive power concrete had the same changing tendency of residual mechanics behaviors, e.g. after 400 centigrade burnt, the residual compression strength was about 70% of material strength without burnt under 100/s. After 800 centigrade burnt, the compression strength is about 30% under 100/s while the deformation ability increased. At meanwhile, steel fiber had improved the mechanism of reinforcing effect and toughening effect of concrete material after burnt. With increasing of steel fiber volume rate, dynamic residual behavior of samples was improved. Microcosmic characteristics and energy absorption were induced for explaining the experiment results.

  3. Determination of aldehydes and ketones with high atmospheric reactivity on diesel exhaust using a biofuel from animal fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, R.; Monedero, E.; Guillén-Flores, J.

    2011-05-01

    Biodiesel from animal fats appears as an alternative for conventional diesel in automotive consumption. Animal fats are classified into three categories, although only one of them can be used for biodiesel production, according to regulation. Due to its novelty, researchers testing animal-fat biodiesel on diesel engines focus only on regulated emissions. In this paper, the experiments carried out analyze carbonyl compounds emissions, due to its highly atmospheric reactivity, to complete the characterization of the total emissions in this kind of biofuel. Two fuels, a reference petro-diesel and a pure animal-fat biodiesel, were tested in a 4-cylinder, direct injection, diesel engine Nissan Euro 5 M1D-Bk. Samples were collected in 4 different operating modes and 3 points along the exhaust line. The analyses of samples were made in a high performance liquid chromatography, following the method recommended by the CARB to analyze air quality. Results show, on the one hand, a significant rise in carbonyl emissions, almost three times at the mode with highest hydrocarbon emissions, when biodiesel is used. On the other hand, on average, a reduction of 90% of carbonyl emissions when exhaust gases go through the different post-treatment systems installed. Despite this reduction, specific reactivity does not decrease substantially.

  4. High-on-Aspirin Residual Platelet Reactivity Evaluated Using the Multiplate® Point-of-Care Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean Alina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of aspirin non-responsiveness using whole blood multiple electrode aggregometry and to investigate the role of different clinical and laboratory variables associated with the lack of response. Methods: The present study included 116 aspirin treated patients presented with acute coronary syndromes or stroke. Response to aspirin was assessed by impedance aggregometry using arachidonic acid as agonist, in a final concentration of 0.5 mM (ASPI test. Results: In our data set 81% (n=94 were responders and 19% (n=22 non-responders showing high-on-aspirin platelet reactivity. Correlation analysis showed that the ward of admittance, low-density lipoproteins (LDL, concomitant antibiotic treatment, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, history of myocardial infarction as well as PCI performed on Cardiology patients have different degrees of association with aspirin response. Conclusion: Concomitant treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor inhibitors, history of myocardial infarction and Cardiology ward admittance significantly increased the chance of responding to aspirin treatment whereas antibiotic therapy and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol seemed to increase the risk of high-on-aspirin residual platelet reactivity.

  5. Effects of fluxing agents on gasification reactivity and gas composition of high ash fusion temperature coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Na-based fluxing agent Na2O (NBFA and a composite fluxing agent (mixture of CaO and Fe2O3 with mass ratio of 3:1, CFA for short were used to decrease the ash fusion temperature of the Dongshan and Xishan coal from Shanxi of China and make these coal meet the requirements of the specific gasification process. The main constituents of the fluxing agents used in this study can play a catalyst role in coal gasification. So it is necessary to understand the effect of fluxing agents on coal gasification reactivity and gas composition. The results showed that the ash fusion temperature of the two coal used decreased to the lowest point due to the eutectic phenomenon when 5 wt% of CFA or NBFA was added. Simultaneously, the gas molar ratio of H2/CO changed when CFA was added. A key application was thus found where the gas molar ratio of H2/CO can be adjusted by controlling the fluxing agent amount to meet the synthetic requirements for different chemical products.

  6. Development of durable and reactive regenerable sorbents for high temperature flue gas desulphurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Abbasian, J.; Khalili, N.R.; Slimane, R.B.; Ho, K.K. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    One of the emerging technologies for combined SO{sub 2} and NOx removal from flue gases is the copper oxide process, which is based on the use of a regenerable sorbent. Sorbent properties such as SO{sub 2} sorption capacity, reactivity, crush strength, and long-term durability have significant impact on the overall process cost. In this study, a number of sorbents were prepared by using various modifications of the sol-gel techniques. Compared to the commercially available sorbent used for evaluation of the process, sorbents prepared by wet impregnation of sol-gel alumina exhibited comparable sulphur capacity and about seven times higher crush strength, while those prepared by incorporation of copper in the sol resulted in three times higher sulphur capacity and 55% higher crush strength. Significant improvement in long-term durability was also achieved with these sorbents. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that these new sorbents have the potential to reduce the projected levelized process cost down to 3.17 mil/kWh, which is lower than the cost of current SO{sub 2} emission allowance. 46 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Application of Tin(II Chloride Catalyst for High FFA Jatropha Oil Esterification in Continuous Reactive Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of heterogeneous solid acid catalysts in biodiesel production has become popular and gained significant attention over the last few years. It is since these types of catalysts hold the benefits in terms of easy separation from the product, reusability of the catalyst, high selectivity of the reaction. They are also considered sustainable and powerful particularly in organic synthesis. This work studied the use of tin(II chloride as solid Lewis acid catalyst to promote the esterification reaction of high Free Fatty Acid (FFA jatropha oil in continuous reactive distillation column. To obtain the optimum condition, the influences of reaction time, molar ratio of the reactant, and catalyst were investigated. It was revealed that the optimum condition was achieved at the molar ratio of methanol to FFA at 1:60, catalyst concentration of 5%, and reaction temperature of 60°C with the reaction conversion of 90%. This result was significantly superior to the identical reaction performed using batch reactor. The esterification of high FFA jatropha oil using reactive distillation in the presence of tin(II chloride provided higher conversion than that of Amberlyst-15 heterogeneous catalyst and was comparable to that of homogenous sulfuric acid catalyst, which showed 30 and 94.71% conversion, respectively. The esterification reaction of high FFA jatropha oil was subsequently followed by transesterification reaction for the completion of the biodiesel production. Transesterification was carried out at 60 °C, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 1:6, NaOH catalyst of 1%, and reaction time of one hour. The jatropha biodiesel product resulted from this two steps process could satisfy the ASTM and Indonesian biodiesel standard in terms of ester content (97.79 %, density, and viscosity. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 4th February 2016; Accepted: 4th February 2016 How to Cite: Kusumaningtyas

  8. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  9. Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of high oxidation state silver fluorides and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucier, George Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This thesis has been largely concerned with defining the oxidizing power of Ag(III) and Ag(II) in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) solution. Emphasis was on cationic species, since in a cation the electronegativity of a given oxidation state is greatest. Cationic Ag(III) solv has a short half life at ordinary temperatures, oxidizing the solvent to elemental fluorine with formation of Ag(II). Salts of such a cation have not yet been preparable, but solutions which must contain such a species have proved to be effective and powerful oxidizers. In presence of PtF6-, RuF6-, or RhF6-, Ag(III) solv effectively oxidizes the anions to release the neutral hexafluorides. Such reactivity ranks cationic Ag(III) as the most powerfully oxidizing chemical agent known as far. Unlike its trivalent relative Ag (II) solv is thermodynamically stable in acid aHF. Nevertheless, it oxidizes IrF6- to IrF6 at room temperature, placing its oxidizing potential not more than 2 eV below that of cationic Ag(III). Range of Ag2+ (MF6-2 salts attainable in aHF has been explored. An anion must be stable with respect to electron loss to Ag2+. The anion must also be a poor F- donor; otherwise, either AgF+ salts or AgF2 are generated.

  10. High C-Reactive Protein Predicts Delirium Incidence, Duration, and Feature Severity After Major Noncardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha M; Dillon, Simon T; Inouye, Sharon K; Ngo, Long H; Fong, Tamara G; Jones, Richard N; Travison, Thomas G; Schmitt, Eva M; Alsop, David C; Freedman, Steven D; Arnold, Steven E; Metzger, Eran D; Libermann, Towia A; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2017-08-01

    To examine associations between the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) measured preoperatively and on postoperative day 2 (POD2) and delirium incidence, duration, and feature severity. Prospective cohort study. Two academic medical centers. Adults aged 70 and older undergoing major noncardiac surgery (N = 560). Plasma CRP was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Delirium was assessed from Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) interviews and chart review. Delirium duration was measured according to number of hospital days with delirium. Delirium feature severity was defined as the sum of CAM-Severity (CAM-S) scores on all postoperative hospital days. Generalized linear models were used to examine independent associations between CRP (preoperatively and POD2 separately) and delirium incidence, duration, and feature severity; prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS, >5 days); and discharge disposition. Postoperative delirium occurred in 24% of participants, 12% had 2 or more delirium days, and the mean ± standard deviation sum CAM-S was 9.3 ± 11.4. After adjusting for age, sex, surgery type, anesthesia route, medical comorbidities, and postoperative infectious complications, participants with preoperative CRP of 3 mg/L or greater had a risk of delirium that was 1.5 times as great (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-2.1) as that of those with CRP less than 3 mg/L, 0.4 more delirium days (P delirium (3.6 CAM-S points higher, P delirium (95% CI = 1.0-2.4) as those in the lowest quartile (≤127.53 mg/L), had 0.2 more delirium days (P delirium (4.5 CAM-S points higher, P delirium incidence, duration, and feature severity. CRP may be useful to identify individuals who are at risk of developing delirium. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers.

  12. High-Resolution and Time-Resolved Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Studies of Adsorbate Bonding and Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lee James

    1988-12-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the quantized vibrations of atoms and molecules adsorbed on single crystal surfaces has emerged as one of the most powerful probes of the structure, adsorption sites and reaction paths of adsorbates. This thesis explores EELS as a probe of the structure of adsorbed hydrogen on Pt(111) and Rh(100), and the structure of both CO and H coadsorbed on Rh(100). It also describes aspects of the development of a custom time-resolved EEL (TREEL) spectrometer and the application of the spectrometer to the study of the kinetics of the decomposition of methanol (CH_3 OH) and formaldehyde (H_2CO) on Ni(110) and Rh(100). In studies of H/Pt(111) and H/Rh(100) it was determined that the extended nature of the single crystal surface complicates quantitative analysis of the vibrational spectra. The nearest-neighbor central force constant model, commonly used to estimate bonding geometries, is qualitatively incorrect for both surfaces. The study of H/Rh(100) also established that local models of the potential anharmonicity are of limited utility due to the different dispersion of the fundamental and overtone losses. Adsorbate-adsorbate interactions can significantly affect adsorbate structure and reactivity. For the system of CO adsorbed on H precovered Rh(100), a strong CO-H repulsion results in a series of ordered H and CO lattices, each associated with a distinct H desorption behavior. One of the structures consists of bridge bound H and CO, each species binding to a site different from that preferred when adsorbed alone. Time-resolved EELS studies of the decomposition of methanol on Ni(110) and Rh(100) found the reaction follows the same pathway: a metastable methoxy species is formed, by cleavage of the OH bond, which subsequently decomposes to CO and H. The removal of the first methoxy hydrogen is the rate limiting step in the decomposition. The high reactivity of the 'CH_2O' product of the methoxy CH bond scission is supported by the

  13. CTL responses of high functional avidity and broad variant cross-reactivity are associated with HIV control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mothe

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses targeting specific HIV proteins, in particular Gag, have been associated with relative control of viral replication in vivo. However, Gag-specific CTL can also be detected in individuals who do not control the virus and it remains thus unclear how Gag-specific CTL may mediate the beneficial effects in some individuals but not in others. Here, we used a 10mer peptide set spanning HIV Gag-p24 to determine immunogen-specific T-cell responses and to assess functional properties including functional avidity and cross-reactivity in 25 HIV-1 controllers and 25 non-controllers without protective HLA class I alleles. Our data challenge the common belief that Gag-specific T cell responses dominate the virus-specific immunity exclusively in HIV-1 controllers as both groups mounted responses of comparable breadths and magnitudes against the p24 sequence. However, responses in controllers reacted to lower antigen concentrations and recognized more epitope variants than responses in non-controllers. These cross-sectional data, largely independent of particular HLA genetics and generated using direct ex-vivo samples thus identify T cell responses of high functional avidity and with broad variant reactivity as potential functional immune correlates of relative HIV control.

  14. A high throughput screen identifies Nefopam as targeting cell proliferation in β-catenin driven neoplastic and reactive fibroproliferative disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Poon

    Full Text Available Fibroproliferative disorders include neoplastic and reactive processes (e.g. desmoid tumor and hypertrophic scars. They are characterized by activation of β-catenin signaling, and effective pharmacologic approaches are lacking. Here we undertook a high throughput screen using human desmoid tumor cell cultures to identify agents that would inhibit cell viability in tumor cells but not normal fibroblasts. Agents were then tested in additional cell cultures for an effect on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and β-catenin protein level. Ultimately they were tested in Apc1638N mice, which develop desmoid tumors, as well as in wild type mice subjected to full thickness skin wounds. The screen identified Neofopam, as an agent that inhibited cell numbers to 42% of baseline in cell cultures from β-catenin driven fibroproliferative disorders. Nefopam decreased cell proliferation and β-catenin protein level to 50% of baseline in these same cell cultures. The half maximal effective concentration in-vitro was 0.5 uM and there was a plateau in the effect after 48 hours of treatment. Nefopam caused a 45% decline in tumor number, 33% decline in tumor volume, and a 40% decline in scar size when tested in mice. There was also a 50% decline in β-catenin level in-vivo. Nefopam targets β-catenin protein level in mesenchymal cells in-vitro and in-vivo, and may be an effective therapy for neoplastic and reactive processes driven by β-catenin mediated signaling.

  15. Assessment of pulmonary airway reactivity using high resolution CT after administration of bronchodilator in patients with bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Song, In Sup; Kim, Dae Soon; Choi, Youn Sun; Kim, Kun Sang; Choi, Byoung Whui [College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the pulmonary airway reactivity in asthmatic patients directly and noninvasively by using high-resolution CT(HRCT). 130 bronchial luminal areas were measured by HRCT in 16 asthmatic patients before and after inhalation of bronchodilator (Salbutamol sulfate). The change of bronchial luminal area on HRCT was analyzed and correlated with the change of forced expiratory volume in 1 second(FEV1) on pulmonary function test in each patient. The mean percentage of increase in luminal areas of the 130 bronchi after bronchodilator inhalation was 95.4% {+-} 103.3%. The group with the smallest luminal areas (lesser than 1.35 mm{sup 2}) was more sensitively increased in area than the group with the largest areas (equal or larger than 3.72 mm{sup 2}); 183.5% versus 63.5%. The mean percentage of increase in FEV1 was 21.7% and there was no statistically significant correlation between the increased degrees of luminal areas and that of FEV1 (r= -0.04). We can measure the bronchial luminal area directly and noninvasively with HRCT and can also estimate the degree of airway reactivity in asthmatic patient by measuring of the changes of bronchial luminal areas after administration of bronchodilator.

  16. Structures, bonding and reactivity of iron and manganese high-valent metal-oxo complexes: A computational investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhawana Pandey; Azaj Ansari; Nidhi Vyas; Gopalan Rajaraman

    2015-02-01

    Iron and manganese ions with terminal oxo and hydroxo ligands are discovered as key intermediates in several synthetic and biochemical catalytic cycles. Since many of these species possess vigorous catalytic abilities, they are extremely transient in nature and experiments which probe the structure and bonding on such elusive species are still rare. We present here comprehensive computational studies on eight iron and manganese oxo and hydroxo (FeIII/IV/V-O, FeIII-OH and MnIII/IV/V-O, MnIII-OH) species using dispersion corrected (B3LYP-D2) density functional method. By computing all the possible spin states for these eight species, we set out to determine the ground state S value of these species; and later on employing MO analysis, we have analysed the bonding aspects which contribute to the high reactivity of these species. Direct structural comparison to iron and manganese-oxo species are made and the observed similarity and differences among them are attributed to the intricate metal–oxygen bonding. By thoroughly probing the bonding in all these species, their reactivity towards common chemical reactions such as C–H activation and oxygen atom transfer are discussed.

  17. Reactive Programming in Java

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.

  18. Toughness and characterization of reactive powder concrete with ultra-high strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A number of three-point bending and fracture tests of 200 MPa-level reactive powder concrete (RPC) with the various fiber contents have been conducted to probe the nature and characteristics of tough- ness of RPC200. The contribution of the embedded fibers to improving the crack-resistant capacity, energy absorption capacity and toughness with various deformation mechanisms has been analyzed. Taking account of that the first-crack deformation, peak-load deformation and their improvement varied with the fiber contents and that the deformation mechanism affected differently the performance at the first crack and the peak load, we took the peak-load deformation of plain RPC200 as the reference de- formation to measure the toughness of fibered RPC200. Two toughness indices T2(n?1)(n) and FT2(n?1)(n) have been formulated based on P-δ responses and P-CMOD responses. The indices quantify the tough- ness of RPC200 with the various deformation mechanisms relative to perfectly elastoplastic materials by setting the toughness level 2(n?1) as the initial reference. It is shown that the toughness index T2(n?1)(n) reflects the function of fibers to improve the toughness of RPC with the deformation throughout specimens, but overestimates the contribution to enhancing the toughness in post-peak periods. It underestimates, on other hands, the contribution to improving the toughness in the period from the first crack to the peak load. In contrast, the toughness index FT2(n?1)(n) properly presents the capability that fibers absorb energy and constrain crack propagation in the matrix when the deformation is con- centrated on the open crack. The proposed index unveils the contribution of fibers to toughening RPC200 both in the period from the first-crack to the peak load and in the period of post peak. This characterization method not only reveals the nature of toughness but also levels the toughness of RPC200. It could provide a way to establish an objective toughness

  19. Multi-Directional Sprint Training Improves Change-Of-Direction Speed and Reactive Agility in Young Highly Trained Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Dennis-Peter; Zinner, Christoph; Düking, Peter; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a repeated sprint training with multi-directional change-of-direction (COD) movements (RSmulti) compared to repeated shuttle sprints (RSS) on variables related to COD speed and reactive agility. Nineteen highly-trained male U15 soccer players were assigned into two groups performing either RSmulti or RSS. For both groups, each training session involved 20 repeated 15 s sprints interspersed with 30 s recovery. With RSmulti the COD movements were randomized and performed in response to a visual stimulus, while the RSS involved predefined 180° COD movements. Before and following the six training sessions, performance in the Illinois agility test (IAT), COD speed in response to a visual stimulus, 20 m linear sprint time and vertical jumping height were assessed. Both groups improved their performance in the IAT (p sprint time (P=0.73, ES = 0.07; p = 0.14, ES = 0.28) or vertical jumping height (p = 0.46, ES = 0.11; p = 0.29, ES = 0.12) for the RSmulti and RSS, respectively. In conclusion, performance in the IAT improved with the RSmulti as well as RSS. With the RSmulti however, the COD movements are performed in response to a visual stimulus, which may result in specific adaptations that improve COD speed and reactive agility in young highly trained soccer players. Key points During soccer, the players perform repeated sprints involving multi-directional COD movements, while most of these turns and twists are not pre-planned but executed in response to an external stimulus, such as ball movement, several interacting opponents and changing game situations. Both groups improved performance in the IAT. With the RSmulti on the Speedcourt however, the COD movements are performed in response to a visual stimulus, which may result in specific adaptations that improve COD speed and reactive agility. The Speedcourt could serve as a valuable method to design and individualize specific conditioning drills for young highly

  20. Zerumbone protects INS-1 rat pancreatic beta cells from high glucose-induced apoptosis through generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyin; Zou, Shibo; Cui, Zhengjun; Guo, Pengfei; Meng, Qingnan; Shi, Xun; Gao, Ya; Yang, Gaoyuan; Han, Zhaofeng

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of zerumbone, a natural sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, on high glucose-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic β cells. INS-1 rat pancreatic β cells were treated with 33 mM glucose with or without different concentrations of zerumbone and cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the action of zerumbone was examined. Notably, zerumbone significantly (P in a concentration-dependent fashion up to 60 μM of zerumbone. Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining analysis showed that zerumbone impaired the apoptotic response of high glucose-treated INS-1 cells, which was coupled with a significant decline in cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9. Pretreatment with the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine abrogated the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK induced by high glucose. Zerumbone significantly (P in high glucose-treated INS-1 cells. Pharmacological activation of p38 and JNK with anisomycin reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of zerumbone. Additionally, simultaneous inhibition of p38 and JNK significantly (P in high glucose-treated INS-1 cells. In conclusion, zerumbone confers protection against high glucose-induced apoptosis of INS-1 pancreatic β cells, largely through interfering with ROS production and p38 and JNK activation. Zerumbone may have potential therapeutic effects against hyperglycemia-induced β cell damage in diabetes.

  1. Apolipoprotein A-II Influences Apolipoprotein E-Linked Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Women with High Levels of HDL Cholesterol and C-Reactive Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsetti, James P.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Sparks, Charles E.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects) and high (designated as

  2. Comparison of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A levels before and after treatment for subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgir, Oktay; Bilgir, Ferda; Topcuoglu, Tuba; Calan, Mehmet; Calan, Ozlem

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to show the effect of propylthiouracil treatment on sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels on subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism. After checking sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels of 35 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism, each was given 50 mg tablets of propylthiouracil three times daily. After 3 months, sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels were then compared to the levels before treatment. Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and sCD40L levels were normal in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients compared to the healthy controls, fetuin-A levels were statistically significantly higher (*p = 0.022). After treatment, fetuin-A levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism patients decreased statistically significantly compared to the levels before treatment (**p = 0.026). sCD40L and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels did not have a statistically significant difference compared to the control group and post-propylthiouracil treatment. In subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, high fetuin-A levels before propylthiouracil treatment and decreases in these levels after treatment in cases with subclinical hyperthyroidism indicated the possibility of preventing long-term cardiac complications with propylthiouracil treatment.

  3. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li Hu

    Full Text Available Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD, stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200 detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and homocysteine was estimated at 500 m altitude, 3650 m altitude, 3 day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m, and 1 month after coming back to the 500 m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m. P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction.

  4. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sheng Li; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Zhi Qiang; Zhao, Heng Li; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200) detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homocysteine was estimated at 500m altitude, 3650m altitude, 3day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400m), and 1 month after coming back to the 500m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400m). P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26731740

  5. Evaluation of a high-throughput peptide reactivity format assay for assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium and high concentrations and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme and non-sensitizers with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF, cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7% and glass (47.3% vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further

  6. SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Process parameters influencing the residual coating stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Hänninen, T.; Wissting, J.; Hultman, L.; Goebbels, N.; Santana, A.; Tobler, M.; Högberg, H.

    2017-05-01

    The residual coating stress and its control is of key importance for the performance and reliability of silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. This study explores the most important deposition process parameters to tailor the residual coating stress and hence improve the adhesion of SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS). Reactive sputter deposition and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial deposition chamber equipped with pure Si targets in N2/Ar ambient. Reactive HiPIMS processes using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0 and 0.28-0.3 were studied with time averaged positive ion mass spectrometry. The coatings were deposited to thicknesses of 2 μm on Si(001) and to 5 μm on polished CoCrMo disks. The residual stress of the X-ray amorphous coatings was determined from the curvature of the Si substrates as obtained by X-ray diffraction. The coatings were further characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation in order to study their elemental composition, morphology, and hardness, respectively. The adhesion of the 5 μm thick coatings deposited on CoCrMo disks was assessed using the Rockwell C test. The deposition of SiNx coatings by rHiPIMS using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0.28 yield dense and hard SiNx coatings with Si/N ratios <1. The compressive residual stress of up to 2.1 GPa can be reduced to 0.2 GPa using a comparatively high deposition pressure of 600 mPa, substrate temperatures below 200 °C, low pulse energies of <2.5 Ws, and moderate negative bias voltages of up to 100 V. These process parameters resulted in excellent coating adhesion (ISO 0, HF1) and a low surface roughness of 14 nm for coatings deposited on CoCrMo.

  7. Mechanical properties and spalling at elevated temperature of high performance concrete made with reactive and waste inert powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msheer Hasan Ali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the efficiency of waste glass powder was investigated in enhancing the mechanical properties of concrete at high temperature. Chemical composition of this powder reveals that it plays good role as effective inert very fine material in concrete strength improvement. Conventional reactive pozzolanic powder of silica fume was used also in present work to show the degradation degree in concrete strength under firing in comparison to concrete made with waste glass powder. The experimental program was comprised of tests for examining fire resistance and mechanical properties of high strength concrete (HSC after firing. Fifty-six concrete cylinders and prisms were manufactured for measuring their compressive and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity and stress-strain behavior at high temperature. Failure modes were considered also for the specimens after fire exposure. Results demonstrate the great role of waste glass powder in conserving residual strength at high temperature. Accordingly, it is proved that the HSC made with waste glass powder has strength at high temperature more than that for concrete fabricated by silica fume.

  8. The teaching of empathy for high school and college students: testing Rogerian methods with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, S L; Nadeau, M S; Walsh, L K; Reynolds, M; Galea, J; Marz, K

    1994-01-01

    The teachability of empathy is discussed with particular regard to developmental issues. One hundred and four high school and college students were administered Davis's (1980) Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) both before and after a standard course of Rogerian-based peer facilitation skills training. The IRI offers four independent subscales which measure the cognitive and affective components of empathy. Statistically significant findings indicate greater developmental readiness for learning empathic communication in the college sample, particularly for subscales measuring Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking. A group of untrained college students taking a course in behavioral psychology showed no progress on any IRI subscales. Although college females began with higher empathy scores, both genders were equally teachable. Implications for prevention and counseling readiness are discussed, along with suggestions for future research.

  9. Time resolved measurement of film growth during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschker, Felix; Benedikt, Jan; Maszl, Christian; von Keudell, Achim

    2013-01-01

    The growth rate during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride is measured with a temporal resolution of up to 25 us using a rotating shutter concept. According to that concept a 200 um slit is rotated in front of the substrate synchronous with the HIPIMS pulses. Thereby, the growth flux is laterally distributed over the substrate. By measuring the resulting deposition profile with profilometry and with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the temporal variation of the titanium and nitrogen growth flux per pulse is deduced. The analysis reveals that film growth occurs mainly during a HIPIMS pulse, with the growth rate following the HIPIMS phases ignition, current rise, gas rarefaction, plateau and afterglow. The growth fluxes of titanium and nitrogen follow slightly different behaviors with titanium dominating at the beginning of the HIPIMS pulse and nitrogen at the end of the pulse. This is explained by the gas rarefaction effect resulting in a dense initial metal plasma and...

  10. SiNx Coatings Deposited by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Process Parameters Influencing the Nitrogen Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susann; Hänninen, Tuomas; Goyenola, Cecilia; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Goebbels, Nico; Tobler, Markus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-08-10

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS) was used to deposit silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. The SiNx growth and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial coater, using Si targets and N2 as reactive gas. The effects of different N2-to-Ar flow ratios between 0 and 0.3, pulse frequencies, target power settings, and substrate temperatures on the discharge and the N content of SiNx coatings were investigated. Plasma ion mass spectrometry shows high amounts of ionized isotopes during the initial part of the pulse for discharges with low N2-to-Ar flow ratios of <0.16, while signals from ionized molecules rise with the N2-to-Ar flow ratio at the pulse end and during pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of 2-3 eV for nonreactive discharges and 5.0-6.6 eV for discharges in transition mode. The SiNx coatings were characterized with respect to their composition, chemical bond structure, density, and mechanical properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The SiNx deposition processes and coating properties are mainly influenced by the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and thus by the N content in the SiNx films and to a lower extent by the HiPIMS frequencies and power settings as well as substrate temperatures. Increasing N2-to-Ar flow ratios lead to decreasing growth rates, while the N content, coating densities, residual stresses, and the hardness increase. These experimental findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations of precursor species present during rHiPIMS.

  11. Poor sleep quality potentiates stress-induced cytokine reactivity in postmenopausal women with high visceral abdominal adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S; Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a key behavioral risk factor for chronic medical conditions observed at high rates among overweight and obese individuals. Systemic inflammation, including that induced by stress, may serve as a common biological mechanism linking sleep, adiposity, and disease risk. To investigate these relationships, 48 postmenopausal women (mean age=61.8) completed a standardized laboratory stress task during which time blood was collected at baseline and 30, 50 and 90+ min after stressor onset to assess circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-6/IL-10 ratio. Self-reported global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) while adiposity was estimated by body mass index. Sagittal diameter was obtained in clinic to estimate visceral abdominal adiposity. Multi-level growth curve models revealed that poorer self-reported sleep quality was associated with greater stress-induced increases in IL-6/IL-10 ratio. In terms of adiposity, higher sagittal diameter, but not BMI, was associated with greater IL-6 reactivity (p's<0.05). Further, associations between sleep quality and cytokine reactivity varied as a function of sagittal diameter. Among poor sleepers (1 SD above mean of PSQI score), stress-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio were significantly steeper in those with high visceral adiposity (1 SD above the mean of sagittal diameter) compared to those with low visceral adiposity (1 SD below the mean of sagittal diameter). In sum, poorer sleep quality and greater visceral adiposity, separately and especially in combination, are associated with greater stress-related increases in systemic inflammation. This research may help elucidate the complex link between sleep, obesity and inflammatory disease risk.

  12. Increased diuresis, renal vascular reactivity, and blood pressure levels in young rats fed high sodium, moderately high fructose, or their association: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Rita de Cássia Vilhena A F; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    Excessive intakes of sodium or fructose have been described as risk factors for hypertension. We hypothesized that even a moderately high fructose diet (6% fructose), either alone or in combination with high sodium (4% NaCl), may impair diuresis and renal and systemic vascular reactivity, contributing to the onset of high blood pressure in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed chow containing 4% NaCl (HS), 6% fructose (MHF), or both 4% NaCl and 6% fructose (HSMHF) for 6 weeks and had their diuresis, plasma creatinine, vascular reactivity of perfused kidneys and systemic arterial pressure evaluated. We found no differences in augmented diuresis among animals given HS, MHF, or HSMHF diets. After 6 weeks both the HS and HSMHF groups had increased weight in their left kidneys, but only the HSMHF group showed augmented plasma creatinine. The effects of phenylephrine on renal vascular perfusion pressure were similarly enhanced in kidneys from the HS, MHF, and HSMHF groups, but not on the systemic arterial pressure. Although when evaluated in anesthetized rats, only the HSMHF group presented augmented blood pressure, evaluation in conscious animals revealed that both the MHF and HSMHF diets, but not the HS alone, were able to induce tachycardia and hypertension. In conclusion, a MHF diet containing 6% fructose was enough to render the renal vascular bed hyperreactive to phenylephrine and to induce both hypertension and tachycardia. The combination of 6% fructose with 4% NaCl led to plasma accumulation of creatinine and accelerated the development of tachycardia.

  13. Cardiovascular reactivity and prediction of the high blood pressure in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of strategies to reduce the prevalence of high blood pressure is an important challenge for all countries, populations, and governments. For this reason, the search of method in the prediction of the high blood pressure is an appropriate way, and a very important objective to get. Objetive: This study expects to show that cardiovascular hyperreactivity determined by the sustained weight test is a predictor of the high blood pressure independently from other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: A five year cohort study was carried out (from 1998 to 2003 in which two groups were created. The 1st one with CHR (n = 41 and the 2nd one with (n= 127 of cardiovascular normoreactivity (CNR. Variables such as cardiovascular hyperreactivity high blood pressure, obesity, family history of high blood pressure, body mass index rate, smoking habit, salt consumption and alcohol consumption. An evaluation of the HBP risk was performed in each group, and the values of incidence of high blood pressure in each of them were compared. The chi square test was used as a statistic method. The stratified analysis and the determination of relative risk with a confidence interval of the 95 percent. The statistical significance was 95%. Results: The incidence of hypertension in the cohort of HRC was of 34,15/100 people and in the CNR of 10,24/100 people chi square = 13,3 GL= 1 P= 0,007, on the other hand, when we made adjustments according to different cardiovascular risk markers to determine the relationship between hypertension and hyperreactivity, it was observed that the relationship exists in spite of the risk marks mentioned before. Conclusions: The individuals whit HRC determined by the SWT have a risk to develop higher significant sustained hypertension then the cardiovascular normorreactivos ones this is an evidence that this method is useful to predict HBP.

  14. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): From ``green'' plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity (high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)), PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems.

  15. A carbon needle microelectrode decorated with TiO₂ nanosheets dominated by reactive facets as a highly electrocatalytic sensing element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Qi; Hua, Zulin; Qin, Caidie; Qin, Qin

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a highly efficient electrocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanosheets with reactive (001) facets grown on a carbon needle microelectrode (TiO2-CNE). This microelectrode is prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. Scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize as-prepared TiO2-CNE. These methods confirm that the surface area-to-volume ratio and electron transfer rate of TiO2-CNE are considerably greater than those of the bare electrode. In addition, the amperometric response for acetaminophen (AP) oxidation is remarkably facilitated by 13.9 times at the TiO2-CNE by the enlarged surface area-to-volume ratio, as well as the exposure of high-energy (001) facets. Furthermore, the constructed electrochemical sensor displays excellent analytical performance for AP detection over a range of 0.002-100.0 μM, with a detection limit of 0.83 nM (S/N=3). The electrode was applied for the in vitro determination of AP in fish blood 30 min after injection in the abdominal cavity. Consequently, the present approach shows feasibility and great potential in constructing highly sensitive and low-consumption miniaturized electrochemical sensors in the field of biological applications.

  16. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): from "green" plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity [high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)], PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems.

  17. High levels of vitamin D in relation to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-min; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ai-guo; Chu, Zhao-xue; Wu, Qing; Li, Hui; Ge, Jin-fang; Dong, Yi; Zhu, Peng

    2015-08-30

    There is growing evidence on the novel role of vitamin D in reducing inflammation. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia, and high levels of vitamin D may be linked to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated CRP. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia and 93 family-matched controls were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Plasma concentrations of CRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured using commercial kits. Information about demographic characteristics and clinic data were obtained by interviews or medical records. Mean levels of CRP and 25(OH)D were 43.3% higher and 26.7% lower for patients compared to controls, respectively. 25(OH)D were inversely associated with CRP in the patients, but not in the controls. The proportions of patients significantly increased with increasing quartiles of CRP, while significantly decreased with increasing quartiles of 25(OH)D. Among individuals with high CRP, participants with high 25(OH)D have significantly lower proportion (adjusted OR =0.217, 95% CI 0.063, 0.751) of schizophrenia compared to those with low 25(OH)D. The evidence suggested that high levels of vitamin D may be linked to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated CRP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide: From green plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgio eKfoury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide (PLA is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity (high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET, high impact poly(styrene (HIPS and poly(propylene (PP, PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application.This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive blending PLA-based systems.

  19. Anomalous high reactivity of formyl and acetone ketyl radicals with uracil and its derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindakumar, C. T.; Jacob, T. A.; Mohan, H.; Mahal, H. S.; Mukherjee, T.; Mittal, J. P.

    1998-05-01

    CO2·- and ( CH3) 2·COH radicals apparently react with uracil and its derivatives, containing two carbonyl groups, with high rate constants ( k=10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1). Various mechanistic aspects of such reactions have been probed. The effect of pH and buffer concentration on the initial formation of absorbance points to some keto-enol tautomerism-type fast-reaction between OH - and the substrate, followed by a slower relaxation to the original equilibrium. The radical anions of these compounds react with methyl viologen mainly via an electron transfer reaction with a high rate constant value (4-9)×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1.

  20. High burnup fuel behavior related to fission gas effects under reactivity initiated accidents (RIA) conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, F.

    1997-09-01

    Specific aspects of irradiated fuel result from the increasing retention of gaseous and volatile fission products with burnup, which, under overpower conditions, can lead to solid fuel pressurization and swelling causing severe PCMI (pellet clad mechanical interaction). In order to assess the reliability of high burnup fuel under RIAs, experimental programs have been initiated which have provided important data concerning the transient fission gas behavior and the clad loading mechanisms. The importance of the rim zone is demonstrated based on three experiments resulting in clad failure at low enthalpy, which are explained by energetic considerations. High gas release in non-failure tests with low energy deposition underlines the importance of grain boundary and porosity gas. Measured final releases are strongly correlated to the microstructure evolution, depending on energy deposition, pulse width, initial and refabricated fuel rod design. Observed helium release can also increase internal pressure and gives hints to the gas behavior understanding.

  1. Reactive Fusion Welding for Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composite Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    INTRODUCTION Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is ceramic material belonging to the group of materials known as ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs), where UHTCs...expended during the diffusion of C from the graphite spacer. This occurs as the enthalpy of fusion (Hf) and mixing (Hmix) are expected to be positive...ZrB2 Ceramics ( Contributed Oral Presentation) Authors: Derek King, Greg E. Hilmas, and William G. Fahrenholtz Plasma arc welding was used to join

  2. Influence of a reactive element oxide coating on the high temperature oxidation of chromia-former alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, S.; Bonnet, G.; Colson, J. C.; Larpin, J. P.

    1998-10-01

    MOCVD technique was used to deposit Nd2O3 coatings on two chromia-formers alloys. Oxidation experiments were performed at 1000 circC under air at atmospheric pressure on uncoated alloys and Nd2O3-coated alloys. The beneficial effects generally ascribed to the reactive elements were confirmed: the oxidation rates were decreased and the adherence of the oxide scales was drastically improved. The reactive element was located at the top of the oxide scale after oxidation. X-ray diffraction measurements identified NdCrO3 as the phase containing the reactive element. This work is compared to a previous study [1] concerning the influence of Nd2O3 on the high temperature oxidation behaviour of a Ti-containing chromia-former alloy in the oxide scale of which a complex phase close to CeTi21O38 was characterized. La technique MOCVD a été utilisée afin de préparer des revêtements de Nd2O3 sur deux alliages chromino-formeurs. Des expériences d'oxydation ont été réalisées à 1000 circC sous air à la pression atmosphérique sur les alliages non revêtus et revêtus de Nd2O3. Les effets bénéfiques généralement attribués aux éléments réactifs ont été confirmés : les vitesses d'oxydation ont été diminuées et l'adhérence des couches d'oxyde a été fortement améliorée. L'élément réactif a été localisé au sommet de la couche d'oxyde. Des analyses par diffraction des rayons X ont permis d'identifier NdCrO3 comme étant la phase contenant l'élément réactif. Ce travail a été comparé avec une étude précédente [1] concernant le comportement en oxydation à haute température d'un acier chromino-formeur contenant du Ti et pour lequel une phase complexe proche de CeTi{21}O{38} avait été caractérisée.

  3. Melting Alpine glaciers enrich high-elevation lakes with reactive nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saros, Jasmine E; Rose, Kevin C; Clow, David W; Stephens, Verlin C; Nurse, Andrea B; Arnett, Heather A; Stone, Jeffery R; Williamson, Craig E; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2010-07-01

    Alpine glaciers have receded substantially over the last century in many regions of the world. Resulting changes in glacial runoff not only affect the hydrological cycle, but can also alter the physical (i.e., turbidity from glacial flour) and biogeochemical properties of downstream ecosystems. Here we compare nutrient concentrations, transparency gradients, algal biomass, and fossil diatom species richness in two sets of high-elevation lakes: those fed by snowpack melt alone (SF lakes) and those fed by both glacial and snowpack meltwaters (GSF lakes). We found that nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations in the GSF lakes were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in SF lakes. Although nitrogen (N) limitation is common in alpine lakes, algal biomass was lower in highly N-enriched GSF lakes than in the N-poor SF lakes. Contrary to expectations, GSF lakes were more transparent than SF lakes to ultraviolet and equally transparent to photosynthetically active radiation. Sediment diatom assemblages had lower taxonomic richness in the GSF lakes, a feature that has persisted over the last century. Our results demonstrate that the presence of glaciers on alpine watersheds more strongly influences NO(3)(-)concentrations in high-elevation lake ecosystems than any other geomorphic or biogeographic characteristic.

  4. C-reactive protein and its relation to high blood pressure in overweight or obese children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Juliana Andreia F.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.; Cardoso, Anajás da Silva; Gonzaga, Nathalia Costa; Ramos, Alessandra Teixeira; Ramos, André Luiz C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and high blood pressure (BP) in overweight or obese children and adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 184 overweight or obese children and adolescents aged from two to 18 years old, from April, 2009 to April, 2010. The classification of nutritional status used the body mass index (BMI). Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention curve, individuals were classified as: overweight (BMI between the 85th-95th percentiles), obesity (BMI between 95th-97th percentiles) and severe obesity (BMI >97th percentile). Abnormal values were considered for systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic (DBP) if ≥90th percentile of the BP curve recommended for children and adolescents in the V Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension, for waist circumference (WC) if ≥90th percentile of the curve established by the National Cholesterol Education Program, and for high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) if >3mg/dL. To evaluate the association of inadequate values of CRP and the studied groups, chi-square test and analysis of variance were applied, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the evaluated sample, 66.3% were female, 63.5%, non-white, 64.1% had severe obesity, 78.3% had altered WC and 70.6% presented high BP. There was a significant association of CRP high levels with altered WC and BMI ≥97th percentile. In adolescents, high CRP was related to high SBP. CRP mean values were higher in individuals with elevated SBP. CONCLUSIONS Inadequate values of hs-CRP were associated with severe obesity and high SBP in the studied population. These markers can be used to identify children and adolescents at higher risk for developing atherosclerosis. PMID:24142315

  5. C-reactive protein and its relation to high blood pressure in overweight or obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andreia F. Noronha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP and high blood pressure (BP in overweight or obese children and adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 184 overweight or obese children and adolescents aged from two to 18 years old, from April, 2009 to April, 2010. The classification of nutritional status used the body mass index (BMI. Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention curve, individuals were classified as: overweight (BMI between the 85th-95th percentiles, obesity (BMI between 95th-97th percentiles and severe obesity (BMI >97th percentile. Abnormal values were considered for systolic BP (SBP and/or diastolic (DBP if ≥90th percentile of the BP curve recommended for children and adolescents in the V Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension, for waist circumference (WC if ≥90th percentile of the curve established by the National Cholesterol Education Program, and for high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP if >3mg/dL. To evaluate the association of inadequate values of CRP and the studied groups, chi-square test and analysis of variance were applied, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the evaluated sample, 66.3% were female, 63.5%, non-white, 64.1% had severe obesity, 78.3% had altered WC and 70.6% presented high BP. There was a significant association of CRP high levels with altered WC and BMI ≥97th percentile. In adolescents, high CRP was related to high SBP. CRP mean values were higher in individuals with elevated SBP. CONCLUSIONS Inadequate values of hs-CRP were associated with severe obesity and high SBP in the studied population. These markers can be used to identify children and adolescents at higher risk for developing atherosclerosis.

  6. Association between serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein and inflammation activity in chronic gastritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Asghar; Moradkhani, Atefeh; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Jafari Heirdarlo, Ali; Abangah, Ghobad; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis is an important premalignant lesion and recent studies suggested a production of inflammatory cytokine-like C-reactive protein during gastritis. This study aimed to determine any relationship between high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and inflammation activity among patients with gastritis. Demographic and clinical variables of participants were collected by a validated questionnaire. Using histology of the gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori status was investigated and serum concentrations of hs-CRP were measured among dyspeptic patients. Correlation between hs-CRP serum levels and inflammation activities was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. The relation between active inflammation and other variables was evaluated by logic link function model. Totally 239 patients (56.6% female) were analysed. The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe inflammation activities was 66.5%, 23.8% and 9.6% respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among men and women were 2.85 ± 2.84 mg/dl and 2.80 ± 4.80 mg/dl (p = 0.047) respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among patients with H. pylori infection, gland atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia were 2.83 ± 3.80 mg/dl, 3.52 ± 5.1 mg/dl, 2.22 ± 2.3 mg/dl and 5.3 ± 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Relationship between hs-CRP and inflammation activities (p gastritis, elevated hs-CRP levels may be considered as a predictive marker of changes in gastric mucosa and a promising therapeutic target for patients with gastritis.

  7. The correlation between highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels and erectile function among men with late-onset hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Ijima, Masashi; Nohara, Takahiro; Narimoto, Kazutaka; Izumi, Koji; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the correlation between highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and erectile function, and assessed the clinical role of hs-CRP levels in men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) syndrome. For 77 participants, we assessed Sexual Health Inventory for men (SHIM) score, Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) score and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). We also evaluated free testosterone (FT), hs-CRP, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, waist size and blood pressure. We attempted to identify parameters correlated with SHIM score and to determine the factors affecting cardiovascular risk based on hs-CRP levels. A Spearman rank correlation test revealed that age, AMS score, IPSS and hs-CRP levels were significantly correlated with SHIM score. Age-adjusted analysis revealed that hs-CRP and IPSS were the independent factors affecting SHIM score (r= -0.304 and -0.322, respectively). Seventeen patients belonged to the moderate to high risk group for cardiovascular disease, whereas the remaining 60 belonged to the low risk group. Age, FT value and SHIM score showed significant differences between the two groups. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that SHIM score was an independent factor affecting cardiovascular risk (OR: 0.796; 95%CI: 0.637-0.995).

  8. Commutability of the CRM 470 C-reactive protein value in the Dade Behring N High Sensitivity CRP assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A Myron; Ledue, Thomas B; Collins, Marilyn F

    2003-02-01

    Certified Reference Material 470 (CRM 470) demonstrates commutability with both the manufacturer's calibrator and with dilutions of serum pools in the Dade Behring N High Sensitivity assay for C-reactive protein (CRP). Both regression and back calibration show similar nonlinearity for all materials, largely due to the method of calibration curve fitting used in this assay. Significant differences in values among the currently available commercial assays can be largely overcome by using appropriate calibration curve fitting and the recommended value transfer protocol, which includes a minimum of two assay runs on each of at least 3 separate days, with weight correction of all reconstitutions and dilutions. An initial weight-corrected dilution should be made each day because of the relatively high level of CRP in CRM 470. In our opinion, the degree of nonlinearity, imprecision, and differences in values in currently available assays renders the use of fixed clinical decision cut-points questionable for high-sensitivity CRP. An alternative approach is suggested.

  9. Boiler startup under conditions of convective heating of the highly reactive coal dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuikov, A. V.; Kulagin, V. A.; Baranova, M. P.; Glushkov, D. O.

    2016-12-01

    Experimental research of conditions and characteristics of ignition of the pulverized coal (with a particle size of approximately 80 μm) of different-type brown coals (1B, 2B, and 3B) during convective heating by a heated airflow (at a temperature of 425-600°C and velocity of 1-5 m/s) is carried out. The use of low-inertia thermocouples, a high-speed video camera, and dedicated software has made it possible to determine the minimum oxidizer parameters needed for coal dust ignition, and the approximation dependences of a main characteristic of the process under study―ignition delay time―on the air temperature. Results of experimental studies provide a basis for developing an optimal scheme of the boiler startup without heavy oil, which differs from the known schemes by the relatively low energy consumption for fuel-burning initiation. By example of the BKZ 75-39FB boiler, the economic usefulness of applying the boiler startup without heavy oil is shown. This scheme can be implemented using the proposed ignition burner that functions as a part of the direct system of pulverized-fuel preparation.

  10. Facile synthesis of polyaniline nanotubes using reactive oxide templates for high energy density pseudocapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A remarkable energy density of 84 W h kg(cell) -1 and a power density of 182 kW kg(cell) -1 have been achieved for full-cell pseudocapacitors using conducting polymer nanotubes (polyaniline) as electrode materials and ionic liquid as electrolytes. The polyaniline nanotubes were synthesized by a one-step in situ chemical polymerization process utilizing MnO2 nanotubes as sacrificial templates. The polyaniline-nanotube pseudocapacitors exhibit much better electrochemical performance than the polyaniline-nanofiber pseudocapacitors in both acidic aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes. Importantly, the incorporation of ionic liquid with polyaniline-nanotubes has drastically improved the energy storage capacity of the PAni-nanotube pseudocapacitors by a factor of ∼5 times compared to that of the PAni-nanotube pseudocapacitors in the acidic aqueous electrolyte. Furthermore, even after 10000 cycles, the PAni-nanotube pseudocapacitors in the ionic liquid electrolyte maintain sufficient high energy density and can light LEDs for several minutes, with only 30 s quick charge. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Highly luminescent half-lantern cyclometalated platinum(II) complex: synthesis, structure, luminescence studies, and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Violeta; Forniés, Juan; Casas, José Ma; Martín, Antonio; López, José A; Larraz, Carmen; Borja, Pilar; Ovejero, Carmen; Tordera, Daniel; Bolink, Henk

    2012-03-19

    The half-lantern compound [{Pt(bzq)(μ-C(7)H(4)NS(2)-κN,S)}(2)]·Me(2)CO (1) was obtained by reaction of equimolar amounts of potassium 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate (KC(7)H(4)NS(2)) and [Pt(bzq)(NCMe)(2)]ClO(4). The Pt(II)···Pt(II) separation in the neutral complex [{Pt(bzq)(μ-C(7)H(4)NS(2)-κN,S)}(2)] is 2.910 (2) Å, this being among the shortest observed in half-lantern divalent platinum complexes. Within the complex, the benzo[h]quinoline (bzq) groups lie in close proximity with most C···C distances being between 3.3 and 3.7 Å, which is indicative of significant π-π interactions. The reaction of 1 with halogens X(2) (X(2) = Cl(2), Br(2), or I(2)) proceeds with a two-electron oxidation to give the corresponding dihalodiplatinum(III) complexes [{Pt(bzq)(μ-C(7)H(4)NS(2)-κN,S)X}(2)] (X = Cl 2, Br 3, I 4). Their X-ray structures confirm the retention of the half-lantern structure and the coordination mode of the bzq and the bridging ligand μ-C(7)H(4)NS(2)-κN,S. The Pt-Pt distances (Pt-Pt = 2.6420(3) Å 2, 2.6435(4) Å 3, 2.6690(3) Å 4) are shorter than that in 1 because of the Pt-Pt bond formation. Time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies performed on 1 show a formal bond order of 0 between the metal atoms, with the 6p(z) contribution diminishing the antibonding character of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and being responsible for an attractive intermetallic interaction. A shortening of the Pt-Pt distance from 2.959 Å in the ground state S(0) to 2.760 Å in the optimized first excited state (T(1)) is consistent with an increase in the Pt-Pt bond order to 0.5. In agreement with TD-DFT calculations, the intense, structureless, red emission of 1 in the solid state and in solution can be mainly attributed to triplet metal-metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MMLCT) [dσ*(Pt-Pt) → π*(bzq)] excited states. The high quantum yields of this emission measured in toluene (44%) and solid state (62%) at room temperature indicate

  12. Reactivity and burnability of cement raw materials witt high manganese content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been verified that high manganese content in raw mixes causes alters the mineralogical composition of clinkers. New phases like 2 CaO.Mn02 and Ca2AIMnO5 are developed and C3A formation can be inhibited. Manganese is a flux similar to iron in the traditional raw mixes. The presence of manganese will modify the expressions of the lime saturation factor (LSF, silica modulus (Ms and aluminum modulus (Mf. This has as consequence an increase of the proportion of interstitial phase in the obtained clinkers.

    Se ha comprobado que contenidos elevados de manganeso en el crudo provoca una modificación significativa en la composición mineralógica del clinker. Se desarrollan las fases no tradicionales 2 CaO.Mn02 y Ca2AIMnO5 , y se puede llegar, incluso, a inhibir la formación de alumínate tricálcico. El manganeso tiene un comportamiento fundente muy similar al jugado por el hierro en los crudos tradicionales, por lo que la incorporación de óxidos de manganeso al crudo produce una alteración significativa en los módulos tradicionales (LSF, Ms y Mf. Esto tiene como consecuencia inmediata un gran incremento en la proporción de fase intersticial en los clínkeres producidos.

  13. Diurnal variability and biogeochemical reactivity of mercury species in an extreme high-altitude lake ecosystem of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanoca, L; Amouroux, D; Monperrus, M; Tessier, E; Goni, M; Guyoneaud, R; Acha, D; Gassie, C; Audry, S; Garcia, M E; Quintanilla, J; Point, D

    2016-04-01

    Methylation and demethylation represent major transformation pathways regulating the net production of methylmercury (MMHg). Very few studies have documented Hg reactivity and transformation in extreme high-altitude lake ecosystems. Mercury (Hg) species concentrations (IHg, MMHg, Hg°, and DMHg) and in situ Hg methylation (M) and MMHg demethylation (D) potentials were determined in water, sediment, floating organic aggregates, and periphyton compartments of a shallow productive Lake of the Bolivian Altiplano (Uru Uru Lake, 3686 m). Samples were collected during late dry season (October 2010) and late wet season (May 2011) at a north (NS) and a south (SS) site of the lake, respectively. Mercury species concentrations exhibited significant diurnal variability as influenced by the strong diurnal biogeochemical gradients. Particularly high methylated mercury concentrations (0.2 to 4.5 ng L(-1) for MMHgT) were determined in the water column evidencing important Hg methylation in this ecosystem. Methylation and D potentials range were, respectively, <0.1-16.5 and <0.2-68.3 % day(-1) and were highly variable among compartments of the lake, but always higher during the dry season. Net Hg M indicates that the influence of urban and mining effluent (NS) promotes MMHg production in both water (up to 0.45 ng MMHg L(-1) day(-1)) and sediment compartments (2.0 to 19.7 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)). While the sediment compartment appears to represent a major source of MMHg in this shallow ecosystem, floating organic aggregates (dry season, SS) and Totora's periphyton (wet season, NS) were found to act as a significant source (5.8 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)) and a sink (-2.1 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)) of MMHg, respectively. This work demonstrates that high-altitude productive lake ecosystems can promote MMHg formation in various compartments supporting recent observations of high Hg contents in fish and water birds.

  14. The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of high oxidation state nickel fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, L.C. [Univ. of Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1997-12-01

    The research described in this thesis has mainly addressed the challenge of the synthesis of thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides, which cannot be made by traditional thermal methods. A low-temperature approach towards the synthesis of such transition metal fluorides exploits the greater thermodynamic stability of high oxidation states in anions and involves the use of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) as a solvent. The general method consists of combining an aHF soluble starting material (e.g., K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6}) with a Lewis fluoroacid (e.g., BF{sub 3}), which precipitates a neutral polymeric solid state fluoride: 2 K{sup +} + NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} + BF{sub 3} {r_arrow} NiF{sub 4} + 2 BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} + 2 K{sup +}. At room temperature, this reaction yields a different structural phase, with composition K{sub x}NiF{sub 3} (x {approx} 0.18). This material has a pseudo-hexagonal tungsten bronze structure (H{sub 0}-K{sub x}NiF{sub 3}), and is an ionic conductor, probably due to K{sup +} ions hosted in the lattice channels. R-NiF{sub 3} is capable of fluorinating a wide range of inorganic and organic substrates. These reactions have probably shed light on the mechanism of the Simons Electrochemical Fluorination (ECF) Process, an important industrial method of fluorinating organic compounds. It has long been speculated that NiF{sub 3} plays a role in the ECF process, which uses nickel electrodes in aHF solvent. K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} also fluorinates organic compounds in aHF, but interestingly, yields different fluorinated products. The reduction of R-NiF{sub 3} and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} during fluorination reactions yields NiF{sub 2}. A method has been developed to regenerate NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} from NiF{sub 2}.

  15. The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of high oxidation state nickel fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, L.C. [Univ. of Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1997-12-01

    The research described in this thesis has mainly addressed the challenge of the synthesis of thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides, which cannot be made by traditional thermal methods. A low-temperature approach towards the synthesis of such transition metal fluorides exploits the greater thermodynamic stability of high oxidation states in anions and involves the use of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) as a solvent. The general method consists of combining an aHF soluble starting material (e.g., K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6}) with a Lewis fluoroacid (e.g., BF{sub 3}), which precipitates a neutral polymeric solid state fluoride: 2 K{sup +} + NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} + BF{sub 3} {r_arrow} NiF{sub 4} + 2 BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} + 2 K{sup +}. At room temperature, this reaction yields a different structural phase, with composition K{sub x}NiF{sub 3} (x {approx} 0.18). This material has a pseudo-hexagonal tungsten bronze structure (H{sub 0}-K{sub x}NiF{sub 3}), and is an ionic conductor, probably due to K{sup +} ions hosted in the lattice channels. R-NiF{sub 3} is capable of fluorinating a wide range of inorganic and organic substrates. These reactions have probably shed light on the mechanism of the Simons Electrochemical Fluorination (ECF) Process, an important industrial method of fluorinating organic compounds. It has long been speculated that NiF{sub 3} plays a role in the ECF process, which uses nickel electrodes in aHF solvent. K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} also fluorinates organic compounds in aHF, but interestingly, yields different fluorinated products. The reduction of R-NiF{sub 3} and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} during fluorination reactions yields NiF{sub 2}. A method has been developed to regenerate NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} from NiF{sub 2}.

  16. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haibo; Freudenberg, Norman; Nie, Man; van de Krol, Roel; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger) exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  17. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  18. Automation of high-frequency sampling of environmental waters for reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K.; Wood, T.; Fung, I.; Fong, M.

    2011-12-01

    Trace metals, particularly iron and manganese, play a critical role in some ecosystems as a limiting factor to determine primary productivity, in geochemistry, especially redox chemistry as important electron donors and acceptors, and in aquatic environments as carriers of contaminant transport. Dynamics of trace metals are closely related to various hydrologic events such as rainfall. Storm flow triggers dramatic changes of both dissolved and particulate trace metals concentrations and affects other important environmental parameters linked to trace metal behavior such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). To improve our understanding of behaviors of trace metals and underlying processes, water chemistry information must be collected for an adequately long period of time at higher frequency than conventional manual sampling (e.g. weekly, biweekly). In this study, we developed an automated sampling system to document the dynamics of trace metals, focusing on Fe and Mn, and DOC for a multiple-year high-frequency geochemistry time series in a small catchment, called Rivendell located at Angelo Coast Range Reserve, California. We are sampling ground and streamwater using the automated sampling system in daily-frequency and the condition of the site is substantially variable from season to season. The ranges of pH of ground and streamwater are pH 5 - 7 and pH 7.8 - 8.3, respectively. DOC is usually sub-ppm, but during rain events, it increases by an order of magnitude. The automated sampling system focuses on two aspects- 1) a modified design of sampler to improve sample integrity for trace metals and DOC and 2) remote controlling system to update sampling volume and timing according to hydrological conditions. To maintain sample integrity, the developed method employed gravity filtering using large volume syringes (140mL) and syringe filters connected to a set of polypropylene bottles and a borosilicate bottle via Teflon tubing. Without filtration, in a few days, the

  19. Signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years: Effects of institutional care history and high-quality foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2017-05-01

    Two disorders of attachment have been consistently identified in some young children following severe deprivation in early life: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder. However, less is known about whether signs of these disorders persist into adolescence. We examined signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years in 111 children who were abandoned at or shortly after birth and subsequently randomized to care as usual or to high-quality foster care, as well as in 50 comparison children who were never institutionalized. Consistent with expectations, those who experienced institutional care in early life had more signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years than children never institutionalized. In addition, using a conservative intent-to-treat approach, those children randomized to foster care had significantly fewer signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder than those randomized to care as usual. Analyses within the ever institutionalized group revealed no effects of the age of placement into foster care, but number of caregiving disruptions experienced and the percentage of the child's life spent in institutional care were significant predictors of signs of attachment disorders assessed in early adolescence. These findings indicate that adverse caregiving environments in early life have enduring effects on signs of attachment disorders, and provide further evidence that high-quality caregiving interventions are associated with reductions in both reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder.

  20. Screening and characterization of reactive compounds with in vitro peptide-trapping and liquid chromatography/high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong; Chupak, Louis S; Philip, Thomas; Johnson, Benjamin M; Gentles, Robert; Drexler, Dieter M

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes a novel methodology for the detection of reactive compounds using in vitro peptide-trapping and liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Compounds that contain electrophilic groups can covalently bind to nucleophilic moieties in proteins and form adducts. Such adducts are thought to be associated with drug-mediated toxicity and therefore represent potential liabilities in drug discovery programs. In addition, reactive compounds identified in biological screening can be associated with data that can be misinterpreted if the reactive nature of the compound is not appreciated. In this work, to facilitate the triage of hits from high-throughput screening (HTS), a novel assay was developed to monitor the formation of covalent peptide adducts by compounds suspected to be chemically reactive. The assay consists of in vitro incubations of test compounds (under conditions of physiological pH) with synthetically prepared peptides presenting a variety of nucleophilic moieties such as cysteine, lysine, histidine, arginine, serine, and tyrosine. Reaction mixtures were analyzed using full-scan LC-HRMS, the data were interrogated using postacquisition data mining, and modified amino acids were identified by subsequent LC-HRMS/mass spectrometry. The study demonstrated that in vitro nucleophilic peptide trapping followed by LC-HRMS analysis is a useful approach for screening of intrinsically reactive compounds identified from HTS exercises, which are then removed from follow-up processes, thus obviating the generation of data from biochemical activity assays.

  1. Growth and high rate reactive ion etching of epitaxially grown barium hexaferrite films on single crystal silicon carbide substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaohui

    G, and ferromagnetic resonance peak-to-peak derivative linewidth at 53 GHz of 96 Oe. This combination of properties qualifies these films for microwave device applications. This marks the first growth of a microwave ferrite on SiC substrates and offers a new approach in the design and development of mu-wave and mm-wave monolithic integrated circuits. In part two, high-rate reactive ion etching using CHF3/SF6 gas mixtures was successfully demonstrated on BaM films, resulting in high aspect profile features of less than 50 nm in lateral dimension. These demonstrations enable the future integration of ferrites into MIC devices and technologies.

  2. C-reactive protein and the MASCC risk index identify high-risk patients with febrile neutropenia and hematologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combariza, Juan F; Lombana, Milton; Pino, Luis E; Arango, Marcos

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the prognostic usefulness of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) risk score in association with the value of C-reactive protein (CRP) to identify high-risk patients with febrile neutropenia and hematologic neoplasms. A retrospective cohort study in which the MASCC score and the CRP values were used to assess the mortality risk at 30 days among patients with febrile neutropenia and hematologic malignancies was performed. Two hundred thiry-seven patients with febrile neutropenia were analyzed; the mortality rate within 30 days was 9 %. High-risk patients according to the MASCC score were significantly more likely to experience adverse outcomes, such as being transferred to the intensive care unit (RR 3.55; CI 95 % 2.73-6.62, p risk group identified by the MASCC score (HR 3.0; CI 95 % 1.12-13.54, p = 0.032) and the mean levels of CRP (HR 17; CI 95 % 2.21-136.48, p = 0.007) and survival. The survival rate within 30 days was 100 % for the patients with a low-risk MASCC score and a mean CRP less than 15 mg/dL. This rate was only 64 % for high-risk patients with a mean CRP greater than 15 mg/dL. The MASCC risk score combined with the mean CRP value successfully identifies patients with febrile neutropenia and hematological malignancies and a high risk of death.

  3. High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein Levels in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Subtypes: A study from a Tertiary Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Ray Chaudhuri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is a heterogeneous disease with several risk factors. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a marker for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Recent studies have shown that high hsCRP level is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. The objective of our study was to investigate the association of high hsCRP(> 3 mg/L levels with ischemic stroke and its subtypes in Indian patients.Methods: We recruited 210 consecutive acute stroke patients and 150 age and sex matched controls. Stroke patients were admitted within 72 hours of onset, at Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, India. The study period was from January 2011 to December 2012. All patients underwent tests as per standard protocol for stroke workup. Serum hsCRP level was assessed in all stroke patients and controls on the day of admission.Results: The mean hsCRP was significantly higher in stroke patients (3.8 ± 2.5 than controls (1.8 ± 1.5 (P < 0.001. High hsCRP had higher frequency in stroke patients 130 (61.9% compared to controls 10 (6.6%, P < 0.001. High hsCRP level was more prevalent in the stroke subtypes of cardioembolic stroke (83.3% and large artery atherosclerosis (72%. High hsCRP level was significantly associated with hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.001, age(P = 0.01, and mortality (0.04. After adjustment of regression analysis it was observed that high level hsCRP is independently associated with acute ischemic stroke (Odds 4.5; 95% CI: 2.5-12.2; especially the stroke subtypes of cardioembolic stroke, (odds ratio 3.4, 95% CI: 1.9-10.5 and large artery atherosclerosis (odds ratio 2.1, 95% CI: 1.5-3.8.Conclusion: High hsCRP level is strongly associated with and an independent predictor of acute ischemic stroke. The association was found in all ischemic stroke subtypes.

  4. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies of epitaxial ZnO nanorods grown by reactive sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, R.; Appani, Shravan K.; Major, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    Vertically aligned and highly c-axis oriented ZnO nanorods were epitaxially grown on c-sapphire by dc reactive sputtering of zinc target in argon-oxygen atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy shows that substrate temperature critically controls the morphology of sputtered ZnO films, eventually causing the formation of laterally oriented ZnO nanorods at higher temperatures (700 °C-750 °C), as confirmed by ϕ-scan measurements. High resolution X-ray diffraction was used to obtain the micro-structural parameters of ZnO columnar films/nanorods from Williamson-Hall plots of ω and ω-2θ scans, and rocking curves of asymmetric reflections. These results show that epitaxially grown ZnO nanorods exhibit substantially superior micro-structural parameters, namely, tilt (0.4°), twist (0.5°), and micro-strain (4 × 10-4), compared to columnar ZnO films grown at 500 °C-600 °C. The reciprocal space maps of (0002), (0004), (" separators="| 10 1 ¯ 1 ), (" separators="| 10 1 ¯ 4 ) , and ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) planes of ZnO nanorods were carried out to obtain the lattice parameters of epitaxial ZnO nanorods and calculate lattice strain (9 × 10-4, for both "a" and "c"), which indicates the absence of biaxial strain. Room temperature photoluminescence of epitaxial ZnO nanorods shows a strong near-band-edge emission along with negligible defect emission, owing to their high crystalline quality and micro-structural parameters.

  5. High sensitivity C-reactive protein distribution in the elderly: the Bambuí Cohort Study, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assunção, L.G.S. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Eloi-Santos, S.M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Propedêutica Complementar, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, S.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem Aplicada, Escola de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima-Costa, M.F. [Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Social, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vidigal, P.G. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Departamento de Propedêutica Complementar, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-28

    The measurement of the serum concentration of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) provides a useful marker in clinical practice. However, the distribution of CRP is not available for all age and population groups. This study assessed the distribution of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) by gender and age in 1470 elderly individuals from a Brazilian community that participates in the Bambuí Cohort Study. Blood samples were collected after 12 h of fasting and serum samples were stored at -70°C. Measurements were made with a commercial hs-CRP immunonephelometric instrument. More than 50% of the results were above 3.0 mg/L for both genders. Mean hs-CRP was higher in women (3.62 ± 2.58 mg/L) than in men (3.03 ± 2.50 mg/L). This difference was observed for all ages, except for the over-80 age group. This is the first population-based study to describe hs-CRP values in Latin American elderly subjects. Our results indicate that significant gender differences exist in the distribution of hs-CRP, and suggest that gender-specific cut-off points for hs-CRP would be necessary for the prediction of cardiovascular risks.

  6. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise-induced changes in subjects suspected of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Carlsen, Christian Malchau

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. We wanted to investigate the effects of exercise on high-sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) in subjects who were suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Blood samples were obtained before......, 5 minutes after, and 20 hours after an exercise test in 155 subjects who were suspected of CAD. Coronary anatomy was evaluated by computed tomography coronary angiography and/or coronary angiography. RESULTS: Median baseline hs-CRP was higher in subjects with ≥50% coronary artery lumen diameter...... stenosis (n=41), compared with non-CAD-subjects (n=114), 2.93 mg/L (interquartile range 1.03-5.06 mg/L) and 1.30 mg/L (interquartile range 0.76-2.74 mg/L), respectively, P=0.007. In multivariate analyses testing conventional risk factors, hs-CRP proved borderline significant, odds ratio =2.32, P=0...

  7. Using highly sensitive C-reactive protein measurement to diagnose MODY in a family with suspected type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Rachel E J; Jones, Jackie; McDonald, Timothy J; Smith, Rebecca; Shepherd, Maggie H; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2012-07-11

    The authors report an adolescent who was found to have diabetes on routine blood testing. The initial diagnosis was type 2 diabetes because she was obese, did not have type 1 diabetes antibodies and both parents had diabetes. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was low in the proband and her father (≤0.1 mg/l) indicating that type 2 diabetes was unlikely, and that hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α-maturity onset diabetes of the young (HNF1A-MODY) was the most likely diagnosis. Following a genetic diagnosis of HNF1A-MODY in the proband and her father, both patients were treated with gliclazide, with improvement in HbA1c. This case highlights the challenges of making a correct diagnosis of MODY in young onset diabetes. The authors report the first case where hsCRP, an easily available biomarker, has been used on an individual level to determine appropriate genetic testing of MODY in a family whose main differential diagnosis was familial type 2 diabetes.

  8. High sensitivity C-reactive protein distribution in the elderly: the Bambuí Cohort Study, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.S. Assunção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the serum concentration of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP provides a useful marker in clinical practice. However, the distribution of CRP is not available for all age and population groups. This study assessed the distribution of high sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP by gender and age in 1470 elderly individuals from a Brazilian community that participates in the Bambuí Cohort Study. Blood samples were collected after 12 h of fasting and serum samples were stored at -70°C. Measurements were made with a commercial hs-CRP immunonephelometric instrument. More than 50% of the results were above 3.0 mg/L for both genders. Mean hs-CRP was higher in women (3.62 ± 2.58 mg/L than in men (3.03 ± 2.50 mg/L. This difference was observed for all ages, except for the over-80 age group. This is the first population-based study to describe hs-CRP values in Latin American elderly subjects. Our results indicate that significant gender differences exist in the distribution of hs-CRP, and suggest that gender-specific cut-off points for hs-CRP would be necessary for the prediction of cardiovascular risks.

  9. Gender and the active smoking and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein relation in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Ha, Chi; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burrows, Sally; Oddy, Wendy H; Hands, Beth; Mori, Trevor A

    2014-04-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), smoking, and oral contraceptive (OC) use are associated with CVD risk in adults. This study examines the effect of smoking on high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels, and the interactive effects of sex and OC use on this relationship in an adolescent cohort. A total of 1,050 adolescents (mean age 17 ± 0.25 years) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study had anthropometric, lifestyle, and metabolic measures recorded. The association between smoking status and log-transformed hs-CRP was analyzed using multivariable Tobit linear regression models, with adjustment for adiposity, lifestyle, and early-life confounders. A three-level variable (girls not using OCs, girls using OCs, and boys) was employed to assess the interactive effects of sex, OC use, and smoking. Smoking associated with higher hs-CRP levels in girls not using OCs (b = 0.571; P = 0.001), but not in girls using OCs (b = -0.117; P = 0.598) or in boys (b = 0.183; P = 0.2). OC use in nonsmoking girls was the strongest factor associated with higher hs-CRP levels (b = 1.189; P smoking on hs-CRP levels in girls not using OCs compared with boys. The findings may explain why CVD risk conferred by smoking is higher in women than in men.

  10. Multiwalled carbon nanotube/TiO2 nanocomposite as a highly active photocatalyst for photodegradation of Reactive Black 5 dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid; Tong Ling Tan; Chin Wei Lai; Emy Marlina Samsudin

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite UV‐visible light‐responsive multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanophotocatalyst was successfully synthesized by a modified sol‐gel method using titanium isopropoxide and functionalized MWCNTs as the starting precursors. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 and the nanohybrid material was investigated through the photodegradation of Reactive Black 5 dye under ultraviolet light irradiation. X‐ray diffraction analysis indicated that anatase phase was obtained for both the pure TiO2 and the MWCNT/TiO2 composite, while Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of MWCNTs in the composite. Field emission scanning elec‐tron microscopy revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles with an individual diameter of about 10–20 nm were coated on the surface of the MWCNTs. The specific surface areas of the samples were found to be 80 and 181 m2/g for the pure TiO2 and MWCNT/TiO2, respectively. As a result, MWCNT/TiO2 showed better photocatalytic performance than pure TiO2 because the high surface area of MWCNTs enabled them to function as good electron acceptors for the retardation of electron‐hole pair recombination.

  11. Highly functionalized organic nitrates in the southeast United States: Contribution to secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; Lee, Lance; Romer, Paul; Cohen, Ronald C.; Iyer, Siddharth; Kurtén, Theo; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga Lee; Guo, Hongyu; Weber, Rodney J.; Wild, Robert J.; Brown, Steven S.; Koss, Abigail; de Gouw, Joost; Olson, Kevin; Goldstein, Allen H.; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; McAvey, Kevin; Shepson, Paul B.; Starn, Tim; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S.; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Miller, David O.; Brune, William; Schobesberger, Siegfried; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Speciated particle-phase organic nitrates (pONs) were quantified using online chemical ionization MS during June and July of 2013 in rural Alabama as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study. A large fraction of pONs is highly functionalized, possessing between six and eight oxygen atoms within each carbon number group, and is not the common first generation alkyl nitrates previously reported. Using calibrations for isoprene hydroxynitrates and the measured molecular compositions, we estimate that pONs account for 3% and 8% of total submicrometer organic aerosol mass, on average, during the day and night, respectively. Each of the isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived groups exhibited a strong diel trend consistent with the emission patterns of likely biogenic hydrocarbon precursors. An observationally constrained diel box model can replicate the observed pON assuming that pONs (i) are produced in the gas phase and rapidly establish gas–particle equilibrium and (ii) have a short particle-phase lifetime (∼2–4 h). Such dynamic behavior has significant implications for the production and phase partitioning of pONs, organic aerosol mass, and reactive nitrogen speciation in a forested environment. PMID:26811465

  12. Identification of highly reactive cysteine residues at less exposed positions in the Fab constant region for site-specific conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yasuhisa; Muramoto, Takashige; Nagatomo, Kazutaka; Shinmi, Daisuke; Honma, Emiko; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Motoo

    2015-06-17

    Engineered cysteine residues are currently used for the site-specific conjugation of antibody-drug conjugates (ADC). In general, positions on the protein surface have been selected for substituting a cysteine as a conjugation site; however, less exposed positions (with less than 20% of accessible surface area [ASA]) have not yet been evaluated. In this study, we engineered original cysteine positional variants of a Fab fragment, with less than 20% of ASA, and evaluated their thiol reactivities through conjugation with various kinds of payloads. As a result, we have identified three original cysteine positional variants (heavy chain: Hc-A140C, light chain: Lc-Q124C and Lc-L201C), which exhibited similar monomer content, thermal stability, and antigen binding affinity in comparison to the wild-type Fab. In addition, the presence of cysteine in these positions made it possible for the Fab variants to react with variable-sized molecules with high efficiency. The favorable physical properties of the cysteine positional variants selected in our study suggest that less exposed positions, with less than 20% of ASA, provide an alternative for creating conjugation sites.

  13. Traffic exposure in a population with high prevalence type 2 diabetes - Do medications influence concentrations of C-reactive protein?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioux, Christine L., E-mail: christine.rioux@tufts.edu [Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Tucker, Katherine L. [Department of Health Science, Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Brugge, Doug [Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Gute, David M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Mwamburi, Mkaya [Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and particulate air pollution are associated with inflammatory dysregulation. We assessed the modifying effects of diabetes medications on the association of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, and traffic exposure in adults with T2D (n = 379). CRP concentrations were significantly positively associated with residence {<=}100 m of a roadway, >100 m and {<=}200 m of a roadway and increased traffic density for individuals using insulin. For individuals using oral hypoglycemic medications (OHAs), CRP was significantly negatively associated with residence >100 m - {<=}200 m of a roadway and multiple roadway exposure in an interaction model. Among people with diabetes, individuals on insulin appear to be most vulnerable to the effects of traffic exposure. Disease severity among insulin users may promote the pro-inflammatory response to traffic exposure, though diabetes medications may also modify the response. Possible anti-inflammatory effects of OHAs with traffic exposure merit further evaluation. - Highlights: >We examine traffic exposure in a population with high rates of Type 2 Diabetes. >Differences in CRP were evaluated by traffic levels, medication use and type. >Those on insulin had significantly higher CRP with traffic exposure. >Interaction models demonstrated lower CRP with traffic exposure and OHA use. >Diabetes medications may modify the response to traffic exposure. - Among people with diabetes, individuals on insulin appear to be most vulnerable to the effects of traffic exposure. Diabetes medications may modify the response to traffic.

  14. Highly functionalized organic nitrates in the southeast United States: Contribution to secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ben H; Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; Lee, Lance; Romer, Paul; Cohen, Ronald C; Iyer, Siddharth; Kurtén, Theo; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga Lee; Guo, Hongyu; Weber, Rodney J; Wild, Robert J; Brown, Steven S; Koss, Abigail; de Gouw, Joost; Olson, Kevin; Goldstein, Allen H; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; McAvey, Kevin; Shepson, Paul B; Starn, Tim; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E; Miller, David O; Brune, William; Schobesberger, Siegfried; D'Ambro, Emma L; Thornton, Joel A

    2016-02-09

    Speciated particle-phase organic nitrates (pONs) were quantified using online chemical ionization MS during June and July of 2013 in rural Alabama as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study. A large fraction of pONs is highly functionalized, possessing between six and eight oxygen atoms within each carbon number group, and is not the common first generation alkyl nitrates previously reported. Using calibrations for isoprene hydroxynitrates and the measured molecular compositions, we estimate that pONs account for 3% and 8% of total submicrometer organic aerosol mass, on average, during the day and night, respectively. Each of the isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived groups exhibited a strong diel trend consistent with the emission patterns of likely biogenic hydrocarbon precursors. An observationally constrained diel box model can replicate the observed pON assuming that pONs (i) are produced in the gas phase and rapidly establish gas-particle equilibrium and (ii) have a short particle-phase lifetime (∼2-4 h). Such dynamic behavior has significant implications for the production and phase partitioning of pONs, organic aerosol mass, and reactive nitrogen speciation in a forested environment.

  15. A travel time-based approach to model kinetic sorption in highly heterogeneous porous media via reactive hydrofacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Michael; Grathwohl, Peter; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a semianalytical model for the transport of solutes being subject to sorption in porous aquifers. We couple a travel time-based model of advective transport with a spherical diffusion model of kinetic sorption in nonuniform material mixtures. The model is formulated in the Laplace domain and transformed to the time domain by numerical inversion. By this, three-dimensional transport of solutes undergoing mass transfer between aqueous and solid phases can be simulated very efficiently. The model addresses both hydraulic and reactive heterogeneity of porous aquifers by means of hydrofacies, which function as homogeneous but nonuniform subunits. The total exposure time to each of these subunits controls the magnitude of sorption effects, whereas the particular sequence of facies through which the solute passes is irrelevant. We apply the model to simulate the transport of phenanthrene in a fluvio-glacial aquifer, for which the hydrofacies distribution is known at high resolution, the lithological composition of each facies has been analyzed, and sorption properties of the lithological components are available. Taking the fully resolved hydrofacies model as reference, we evaluate different approximations referring to lower information levels, reflecting shortcomings in typical modeling projects. The most important feature for a good description of both the main breakthrough and tailing of phenanthrene is the nonuniformity of the porous medium. While spatial heterogeneity of chemical properties might be neglected without introducing a large error, an approximation of the facies' composition in terms of a uniform substitute material considerably compromises the quality of the modeling result.

  16. High Power Neutral Point Clamped (NPC Multilevel UPFC with DC Link Switch for Effective Control of Real & Reactive Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sanjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-voltage and power capability of multilevel converters better used for unified power-flow controller (UPFC applications. The three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC converter allows back-to-back connection as the UPFC shunt and series converters than other multilevel topologies. In place of the pulse width-modulated (PWM multilevel control schemes, constant dc-link voltage and balanced voltages in the NPC multilevel dc capacitors is necessary for UPFCs. The proposed work provides three main contributions to increase the performance of the system of multilevel UPFCs as this can be operated in STATCOM, SSSC and exactly in the UPFC mode with the double balancing of dc capacitor voltages under line faults, overall enhancing the UPFC ride-through capability. NPC series and shunt converters keep the dc-link voltage steady. Transients are the causes of fault in power system, Power System Stabilizer (PSS and Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR are used to stabilize the response. The voltage regulator and current controller plays important roll to generate control pulses for VSC. A MATLAB simulation has been carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed model for UPFC in achieving transient stability with real and reactive power control.

  17. Low vigorous physical activity is associated with increased adrenocortical reactivity to psychosocial stress in students with high stress perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Ludyga, Sebastian; Mücke, Manuel; Colledge, Flora; Brand, Serge; Pühse, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The pathways by which physical activity impacts on participants' health are still not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to go beyond existing research by combining methods from survey-based and experimental stress research, and by examining whether the potential of vigorous physical activity (VPA) to attenuate physiological and psychological stress responses is moderated by participants' subjective stress perception. The sample consisted of 42 undergraduate students (M=21.2±2.2 years, 52% women). Participants self-reported their stress and wore an accelerometer device for seven consecutive days. To examine differences in the adrenocortical, autonomic and psychological stress reactivity, salivary free cortisol, heart rate, state anxiety, mood and calmness were assessed prior to, during and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The cut-offs of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) were used to distinguish between students below/above current VPA recommendations. High levels of perceived stress combined with VPA levels below the ACSM's standards (strategy to increase physiological and psychological stress resilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High concentrations and dry deposition of reactive nitrogen species at two sites in the North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.L.; Tang, A.H.; Liu, X.J.; Fangmeier, A.; Goulding, K.T.W.; Zhang, F.S. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2009-11-15

    Atmospheric concentrations of major reactive nitrogen (N{sub r}) species were quantified using passive samplers, denuders, and particulate samplers at Dongbeiwang and Quzhou, North China Plain (NCP) in a two-year study. Average concentrations of NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, pNH{sub 4}{sup +} and pNO{sub 3}{sup -} were 12.0, 12.9, 0.6, 10.3, and 4.7 {mu} g N m{sup -3} across the two sites, showing different seasonal patterns of these N, species. For example, the highest NH{sub 3} concentration occurred in summer while NO{sub 2} concentrations were greater in winter, both of which reflected impacts of N fertilization (summer) and coal-fueled home heating (winter). Based on measured N{sub r} concentrations and their deposition velocities taken from the literature, annual N dry deposition was up to 55 kg N ha{sup -1}. Such high concentrations and deposition rates of N{sub r} species in the NCP indicate very serious air pollution from anthropogenic sources and significant atmospheric N input to crops.

  19. Whole grains are associated with serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Mumford, Sunni L; Rovner, Alisha J; Zhang, Cuilin; Chen, Liwei; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2010-09-01

    In premenopausal women, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of negative reproductive outcomes. Whole grain consumption has been associated with lower CRP concentrations in older women; however, less is known about this relationship in younger women. We investigated whether whole grain intake was associated with serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations in young women. BioCycle was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University of Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, which followed 259 healthy women aged 18-44 y for Whole grain intake was estimated by 24-h recalls whole grain food. Whole grain intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP concentrations after adjusting for age, race, BMI, illness, and antiinflammatory drug use. Consumers of between 0 and 1 serving/d of whole grains had, on average, 11.5% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) and consumers of >or= 1 serving/d had 12.3% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) compared with nonconsumers. Women who consumed >or= 1 serving/d of whole grain had a lower probability of having moderate (P = 0.008) or elevated (P = 0.001) hs-CRP according to the AHA criteria compared with nonconsumers. Given that elevated concentrations of hs-CRP have been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes and pregnancy complications, interventions targeting whole grain consumption may have the potential to improve health status among young women.

  20. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is only weakly related to cardiovascular damage after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Christensen, Marina K; Hansen, Tine W;

    2006-01-01

    The independent prognostic value of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has been questioned, and consequently we decided to investigate whether hsCRP was associated with subclinical cardiovascular (CV) damage independently of traditional CV risk factors....

  1. Biological variation and reference intervals for circulating osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H P; Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Monitoring inflammatory diseases and osteoclastogenesis with osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (total sRANKL) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has recently attracted increased interest. The purpose...

  2. Allogeneic HLA-A*02-Restricted WT1-Specific T Cells from Mismatched Donors Are Highly Reactive but Show Off-Target Promiscuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falkenburg, Willem J. J.; Melenhorst, J. Joseph; van de Meent, Marian; Kester, Michel G. D.; Hombrink, Pleun; Heemskerk, Mirjam H. M.; Hagedoorn, Renate S.; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Falkenburg, J. H. Frederik; Barrett, A. John; Jedema, Inge

    2011-01-01

    T cells recognizing tumor-associated Ags such as Wilms tumor protein (WT1) are thought to exert potent antitumor reactivity. However, no consistent high-avidity T cell responses have been demonstrated in vaccination studies with WT1 as target in cancer immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to inv

  3. Interleukin 6 Is a Stronger Predictor of Clinical Events Than High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein or D-Dimer During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin 6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and D-dimer levels are linked to adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but the strength of their associations with different clinical end points warrants investigation. METHODS: Participants...

  4. A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes reduces high C-reactive protein levels and identifies metabolic predictors of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss reduced elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese individuals with diabetes and identified metabolic and fitness predictors of hs-CRP change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Look A...

  5. Multi-Wave Prospective Examination of the Stress-Reactivity Extension of Response Styles Theory of Depression in High-Risk Children and Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Sheshko, Dana M.; Fishman, Michael B.; Stolow, Darren

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested the stress-reactivity extension of response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema "Journal of Abnormal Psychology" 100:569-582, 1991) in a sample of high-risk children and early adolescents from a vulnerability-stress perspective using a multi-wave longitudinal design. In addition, we examined whether obtained…

  6. Allogeneic HLA-A*02-Restricted WT1-Specific T Cells from Mismatched Donors Are Highly Reactive but Show Off-Target Promiscuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falkenburg, Willem J. J.; Melenhorst, J. Joseph; van de Meent, Marian; Kester, Michel G. D.; Hombrink, Pleun; Heemskerk, Mirjam H. M.; Hagedoorn, Renate S.; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Falkenburg, J. H. Frederik; Barrett, A. John; Jedema, Inge

    2011-01-01

    T cells recognizing tumor-associated Ags such as Wilms tumor protein (WT1) are thought to exert potent antitumor reactivity. However, no consistent high-avidity T cell responses have been demonstrated in vaccination studies with WT1 as target in cancer immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to inv

  7. Effects of several types of biomass fuels on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot from fast pyrolysis at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the effect of biomass origin on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Soot was produced from wood and herbaceous biomass pyrolysis at high heating rates and at temperatures of 1250 and 1400 °C in a drop tube furnace. The structure of solid residues was characterized...... demonstrated differences in alkali content, particle size and nanostructure. Potassium was incorporated in the soot matrix and significantly influenced soot reactivity. Pinewood soot particles produced at 1250 °C had a broader particle size range (27.2–263 nm) compared to beechwood soot (33.2–102 nm) and wheat...

  8. Hubungan Kadar High Sensitivity- C Reactive Protein (Hs-Crp) Dengan Volume Infark Dan Outcome Fungsional Pada Pasien Stroke Iskemik Akut

    OpenAIRE

    Aritonang, Minar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : C-reactive protein is the acute phase protein and a well known marker of inflamation. The high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein assay is being increasingly used as a marker for stroke risk assessment, and as a marker for prognostication of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between hs-CRP level with infarct volume and functional outcome in acute ishemic stroke patients. Methods : We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35-acute ischemic ...

  9. Synthesis of highly reactive polyisobutylene catalyzed by EtAlCl 2/Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether soluble complex in hexanes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rajeev Ananda

    2014-03-25

    The polymerization of isobutylene (IB) to yield highly reactive polyisobutylene (HR PIB) with high exo-olefin content using GaCl3 or FeCl3·diisopropyl ether complexes has been previously reported.1 In an effort to further improve polymerization rates and exo-olefin content, we have studied ethylaluminum dichloride (EADC) complexes with diisopropyl ether, 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether (CEEE), and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (CEE) as catalysts in conjunction with tert-butyl chloride as initiator in hexanes at different temperatures. All three complexes were readily soluble in hexanes. Polymerization, however, was only observed with CEE. At 0 °C polymerization was complete in 5 min at [t-BuCl] = [EADC·CEE] = 10 mM and resulted in PIB with ∼70% exo-olefin content. Studies on complexation using ATR FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that at 1:1 stoichiometry a small amount of EADC remains uncomplexed. By employing an excess of CEE, exo-olefin contents increased up to 90%, while polymerization rates decreased only slightly. With decreasing temperature, polymerization rates decreased while molecular weights as well as exo-olefin contents increased, suggesting that isomerization has a higher activation energy than β-proton abstraction. Density functional theory (DFT) studies on the Lewis acid·ether binding energies indicated a trend consistent with the polymerization results. The polymerization mechanism proposed previously for Lewis acid·ether complexes1 adequately explains all the findings. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and endothelial function in Chilean patients with history of Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzutzky, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Talesnik, Eduardo; Godoy, Iván; Kraus, Jonathan; Hoyos, Rodrigo; Arnaiz, Pilar; Acevedo, Mónica

    2008-07-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) produces endothelial inflammation, which may lead to dilatation and aneurysms of coronary and peripheral arteries. Previous studies have suggested that these patients can present endothelial dysfunction that can predispose to coronary vascular events late after KD. The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk profile and endothelial function of Chilean children with history of KD. In a prospective case-control study, 11 patients with history of KD (age 10.6 +/- 2.0 years, interval from initial episode 8.1 +/- 3.6 years) and 11 healthy, age-, gender-, and BMI z score-matched controls were evaluated with blood pressure (BP), a fasting lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery (FMD). One KD patient (9.1%) had persistent coronary aneurysms. There was a significant difference of mean and log-transformed concentrations of hsCRP between case and control groups (2.3 +/- 3.0 vs 0.5 +/- 0.3 mg/l, P = 0.045). None of the patients with elevated hsCRP had persistent coronary arterial lesions. No difference was found in systolic BP z score between the case and control groups. Diastolic BP z score was significantly higher in cases than controls (P = 0.039). There were no significant differences of FMD between cases and controls. Mean fasting total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides in cases were normal, with no significant difference vs controls. This study shows that Chilean children with history of KD have increased levels of hsCRP, possibly reflecting persistent low-grade inflammation. The prognostic value of hsCRP in KD patients deserves further investigation.

  11. High sensitive C-reactive protein-Effective tool in determining postoperative recovery in lumbar disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Narayan Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is common in medical practice to see patients having persistent pain and radiculopathy even after undergoing discectomy surgery. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins are produced at the site of disc herniation and are now considered responsible for the pain perceived by the patient. This study has used high sensitive C-reactive protein (HSCRP assay for predicting inflammation around the nerve roots on very same principle, which has used HSCRP for predicting coronary artery diseases in current clinical practice. Thus, purpose of this study is to test whether HSCRP can stand as an objective tool to predict postoperative recovery in patients undergoing lumbar discectomy. That is, to study association between preoperative HSCRP blood level and postoperative recovery with the help of modified Oswestry Back Disability Score. Materials and Methods: A study group consisting of 50 cases of established lumbar disc disease and control group of 50 normal subjects, matched with the study group. Both the study and control groups were subjected to detailed evaluation with the help of modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Scale both pre and postoperatively at 3 months, 6 months and 1-year. The preoperative blood samples were analyzed to assess the HSCRP concentration. All the cases underwent surgery over a period of 1-year by the same surgeon. Results: The level of HSCRP in the study group was between 0.050- and 0.710 mg/dL and in the control group, 0.005-0.020 mg/dL. There was highly significant positive correlation between preoperative HSCRP level and postoperative score at P 10 points, while those with HSCRP level in the range of 0.470 ± 0.163 mg/dL, showed poor recovery (score improved < 10 points. Conclusion: HSCRP will serve as a good supplementary prognostic marker for operative decision making in borderline and troublesome cases of lumbar disc disease.

  12. High REDOX RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1 Levels Result in Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Arabidopsis thaliana Shoots and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Johnson, Joy Michal; Hieno, Ayaka; Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Godfrey, Rinesh; Obokata, Junichi; Sherameti, Irena; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Böhmer, Frank-D; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Redox Responsive Transcription Factor1 (RRTF1) in Arabidopsis is rapidly and transiently upregulated by H2O2, as well as biotic- and abiotic-induced redox signals. RRTF1 is highly conserved in angiosperms, but its physiological role remains elusive. Here we show that inactivation of RRTF1 restricts and overexpression promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in response to stress. Transgenic lines overexpressing RRTF1 are impaired in root and shoot development, light sensitive, and susceptible to Alternaria brassicae infection. These symptoms are diminished by the beneficial root endophyte Piriformospora indica, which reduces ROS accumulation locally in roots and systemically in shoots, and by antioxidants and ROS inhibitors that scavenge ROS. More than 800 genes were detected in mature leaves and seedlings of transgenic lines overexpressing RRTF1; ∼ 40% of them have stress-, redox-, ROS-regulated-, ROS-scavenging-, defense-, cell death- and senescence-related functions. Bioinformatic analyses and in vitro DNA binding assays demonstrate that RRTF1 binds to GCC-box-like sequences in the promoter of RRTF1-responsive genes. Upregulation of RRTF1 by stress stimuli and H2O2 requires WRKY18/40/60. RRTF1 is co-regulated with the phylogenetically related RAP2.6, which contains a GCC-box-like sequence in its promoter, but transgenic lines overexpressing RAP2.6 do not accumulate higher ROS levels. RRTF1 also stimulates systemic ROS accumulation in distal non-stressed leaves. We conclude that the elevated levels of the highly conserved RRTF1 induce ROS accumulation in response to ROS and ROS-producing abiotic and biotic stress signals.

  13. High titers of anti-HBs prevent rituximab-related viral reactivation in resolved hepatitis B patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yuri; Yu, Su Jong; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, is associated with an increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for rituximab-related HBV reactivation in resolved hepatitis B patients, defined as HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive, and undetectable HBV DNA. Among 840 consecutive patients with CD20-positive B-cell lymphoma who received rituximab-based chemotherapy from 2003 through 2014 at Seoul National University Hospital, 732 patients were excluded because either anti-HBc was not assessed or they were HBsAg-seropositive. This retrospective study included 108 resolved hepatitis B patients. During a median 33.5-month follow-up period, eight cases of HBV reactivation occurred only among the patients with low anti-HBs titers (anti-HBs titers were the protective factors for HBV reactivation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.90 and 0.95, respectively). Among those who did not receive antiviral prophylaxis, patients with high baseline anti-HBs (≥100 mIU/ml) experienced significantly lower risk of HBV reactivation (HR, 0.49; P = 0.006) than the patients with low baseline anti-HBs (anti-HBs titer at baseline and antiviral prophylaxis prevented HBV reactivation, suggesting antiviral prophylaxis should be considered according to baseline anti-HBs titer. Meticulous follow-up for ALT and HBV DNA without antiviral prophylaxis might be possible for the patients with high baseline anti-HBs (≥100 mIU/ml).

  14. Reactive Hypoglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) that occurs while fasting. Signs and symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia may include ... and very important. It's also important to include physical activity in your daily routine. Your doctor can help ...

  15. Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Erken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  16. High Residual Collagen-Induced Platelet Reactivity Predicts Development of Restenosis in the Superficial Femoral Artery After Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Claudicant Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.gary@medunigraz.at [Medical University of Graz, Division of Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine (Austria); Prüller, Florian, E-mail: florian.prueller@klinikum-graz.at; Raggam, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.raggam@klinikum-graz.at [Medical University of Graz, Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics (Austria); Mahla, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.mahla@medunigraz.at [Medical University of Graz, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Austria); Eller, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.eller@medunigraz.at; Hafner, Franz, E-mail: franz.hafner@klinikum-graz.at; Brodmann, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.brodmann@medunigraz.at [Medical University of Graz, Division of Angiology, Department of Internal Medicine (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeAlthough platelet reactivity is routinely inhibited with aspirin after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries, the restenosis rate in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is high. Interaction of activated platelets and the endothelium in the region of intervention could be one reason for this as collagen in the subendothelium activates platelets.Materials and MethodsA prospective study evaluating on-site platelet reactivity during PTA and its influence on the development of restenosis with a total of 30 patients scheduled for PTA of the SFA. Arterial blood was taken from the PTA site after SFA; platelet function was evaluated with light transmission aggregometry. After 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, duplex sonography was performed and the restenosis rate evaluated.ResultsEight out of 30 patients developed a hemodynamically relevant restenosis (>50 % lumen narrowing) in the PTA region during the 24-month follow-up period. High residual collagen-induced platelet reactivity defined as AUC >30 was a significant predictor for the development of restenosis [adjusted odds ratio 11.8 (9.4, 14.2); P = .04].ConclusionsHigh residual collagen-induced platelet reactivity at the interventional site predicts development of restenosis after PTA of the SFA. Platelet function testing may be useful for identifying patients at risk.

  17. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mamalis

    Full Text Available Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease.The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed.High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR. For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2.High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched

  18. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalis, Andrew; Koo, Eugene; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Murphy, William; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL) is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease. The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS) free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed. High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR). For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2. High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched controls

  19. A rapid one-step kinetics-based immunoassay procedure for the highly-sensitive detection of C-reactive protein

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Sandeep Kumar Vashist, Gregor Czilwik, Thomas van Oordt, Felix von Stetten, Roland Zengerle, E. Marion Schneider & John H.T. Luong ### Abstract A rapid one-step kinetics-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) procedure has been developed for highly-sensitive detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in less than 30 min. With minimal process steps, the procedure is highly simplified and cost-effective. The analysis only involves sequentially the formation of a san...

  20. An adaptive sparse-grid high-order stochastic collocation method for Bayesian inference in groundwater reactive transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guannan [ORNL; Webster, Clayton G [ORNL; Gunzburger, Max D [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    Although Bayesian analysis has become vital to the quantification of prediction uncertainty in groundwater modeling, its application has been hindered due to the computational cost associated with numerous model executions needed for exploring the posterior probability density function (PPDF) of model parameters. This is particularly the case when the PPDF is estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. In this study, we develop a new approach that improves computational efficiency of Bayesian inference by constructing a surrogate system based on an adaptive sparse-grid high-order stochastic collocation (aSG-hSC) method. Unlike previous works using first-order hierarchical basis, we utilize a compactly supported higher-order hierar- chical basis to construct the surrogate system, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of computational simulations required. In addition, we use hierarchical surplus as an error indi- cator to determine adaptive sparse grids. This allows local refinement in the uncertain domain and/or anisotropic detection with respect to the random model parameters, which further improves computational efficiency. Finally, we incorporate a global optimization technique and propose an iterative algorithm for building the surrogate system for the PPDF with multiple significant modes. Once the surrogate system is determined, the PPDF can be evaluated by sampling the surrogate system directly with very little computational cost. The developed method is evaluated first using a simple analytical density function with multiple modes and then using two synthetic groundwater reactive transport models. The groundwater models represent different levels of complexity; the first example involves coupled linear reactions and the second example simulates nonlinear ura- nium surface complexation. The results show that the aSG-hSC is an effective and efficient tool for Bayesian inference in groundwater modeling in comparison with conventional

  1. Investigating the Effect of Inflammation on Atrial Fibrillation Occurrence by Measuring Highly Sensitive C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hassanzadeh Delui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmias that cardiologists and internists encounter. The goal of this article is to clarify an overview of the evidence linking inflammation to AF existence, which may highlight the effect of some pharmacological agents that have genuine potential to reduce the clinical burden of AF by modulating inflammatory pathways. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, 50 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF with different etiologies and 50 patients with sinus rhythm and similar bases were selected. Sampling for highly sensitive c-reactive (hs-CRP was done on the patients presenting with AF to the Ghaem hospital between October 2006 and June 2007. Results: Mean age of the patients was 62 years with maximum of 90 and minimum of 36 and standard deviation of 13.80. The most frequent age group was 71-80years. Fifty-four percent of patients were male and 46% were female. Mean serum hs-CRP levels in AF patients with hypertension (HTN ,Ischemic heart disease(IHD, Valvular heart disease (VHD, HTN+IHD and hyperthyroidism were 8.10, 9.40, 8.68, 10.16 and 5.98 mg/Lit; respectively. There was significant difference between hs-CRP levels in hypertensive patients in the two groups (P=0.010. Similar results were observed in IHD patients, VHD patients and HTN+IHD patients in two groups (P=0.015, P=0.037, P=0.000. Conclusion: In addition to some risk factors like baseline cardiac diseases, aging, thyrotoxicosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and cardiac surgery, there also appears to be consistent links between hs-CRP, a marker of inflammation, and the pathogenesis of AF.

  2. The Corellation between leptin and highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels in obese children aged 9-15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Warouw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a low level and chronic inflammatory condition predominantly affecting white adipose tissue, where macrophage infiltration is found. Leptin is one of many molecules relating obesity to cardiovascular disease. Leptin can increase cytokine production in macrophages and monocytes, and increase oxidative stress on endothelial cells. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, in turn, may trigger the release of C-reactive protein. Objective To examine the correlation between leptin and hsCRP in obese children aged 9.15 years. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in Manado from May to December 2009, on elementary and junior high school children. Subjects were obese children aged 9-15 years, with nutritional status determined by Body Mass Index and converted into z-score. Physical examination, blood pressure, and blood examinations for fasting blood sugar (FBS, lipid profile, leptin, and hsCRP were performed. Data were analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. Results The mean leptin level in obese children was 34,009.2 pg/L (SD 18,224.79, higher than that of the control, 7,760.9 pg/L (51 8,85955 (P < 0.0001. The mean hsCRP level in obese children was 3.6 mg/L (SD 3.60, higher than that of the control, 0.7 mg/L (SD 1.32 (P < 0.0001. There was a significant positive correlation between leptin and hsCRP levels in obese children (r = 0.355, P < 0.0001. Conclusions There is significant positive correlation between leptin and hsCRP levels in obese children aged 9.15 years. Increased leptin and hsCRP levels indicate a low degree of chronic inflammation. Thus, intervention is needed to decrease the body weight of obese children. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:47-51].

  3. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Sales, Allan Robson Kluser [Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Fisiologia do Exercício - Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da, E-mail: anobrega@id.uff.br [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p{sub sex} < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  4. A photoreducible copper(II)-tren complex of practical value: generation of a highly reactive click catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, Lydie; Lambert, Romain; Scarpantonio, Luca; McClenaghan, Nathan D; Lastécouères, Dominique; Vincent, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-25

    A detailed study on the photoreduction of the copper(II) precatalyst 1 to generate a highly reactive cuprous species for the copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction is presented. For the photoactive catalyst described herein, the activation is driven by a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process harnessing a benzophenone-like ketoprofenate chromophore as a photosensitizer, which is equally the counterion. The solvent is shown to play a major role in the Cu(II) to Cu(I) reduction process as the final electron source, and the influence of the solvent nature on the photoreduction efficiency has been studied. Particular attention was paid to the use of water as a potential solvent, aqueous media being particularly appealing for CuAAC processes. The ability to solubilize the copper-tren complexes in water through the formation of inclusion complexes with β-CDs is demonstrated. Data is also provided on the fate of the copper(I)-tren catalytic species when reacting with O2, O2 being used to switch off the catalysis. These data show that partial oxidation of the secondary benzylamine groups of the ligand to benzylimines occurs. Preliminary results show that when prolonged irradiation times are employed a Cu(I) to Cu(0) over-reduction process takes place, leading to the formation of copper nanoparticles (NPs). Finally, the main objective of this work being the development of photoactivable catalysts of practical value for the CuAAC, the catalytic, photolatent, and recycling properties of 1 in water and organic solvents are reported.

  5. Trap states induced by reactive ion etching in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Zhao, Sheng-Lei; Mi, Min-Han; Hou, Bin; Yang, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hao, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Frequency-dependent conductance measurements were carried out to investigate the trap states induced by reactive ion etching in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) quantitatively. For the non-recessed HEMT, the trap state density decreases from 2.48 × 1013 cm-2·eV-1 at an energy of 0.29 eV to 2.79 × 1012 cm-2·eV-1 at ET = 0.33 eV. In contrast, the trap state density of 2.38 × 1013-1.10 × 1014 cm-2·eV-1 is located at ET in a range of 0.30-0.33 eV for the recessed HEMT. Thus, lots of trap states with shallow energy levels are induced by the gate recess etching. The induced shallow trap states can be changed into deep trap states by 350 °C annealing process. As a result, there are two different types of trap sates, fast and slow, in the annealed HEMT. The parameters of the annealed HEMT are ET = 0.29-0.31 eV and DT = 8.16 × 1012-5.58 × 1013 cm-2·eV-1 for the fast trap states, and ET = 0.37-0.45 eV and DT = 1.84 × 1013 - 8.50 × 1013 cm-2·eV-1 for the slow trap states. The gate leakage currents are changed by the etching and following annealing process, and this change can be explained by the analysis of the trap states. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61334002 and 61106106).

  6. Relationships of High-sensitive C-reactive Protein and P-wave Dispersion in Lone Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hui Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current evidence links atrial fibrillation (AF to the inflammation. Inflammatory indexes such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP have been related to the development and persistence of AF. However, the role of inflammation in the atrial electrophysiological remodeling indexed by P-wave dispersion (P d remains unclear. Methods: The study consisted of 71 patients with lone paroxysmal AF (AF group and 71 age- and gender-matched controls of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia without history of AF (control group. Electrocardiography, P d , hs-CRP, and other clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding age, gender, hyperlipidemia, etc. Compared to controls, left atrial diameter (44 ± 7 vs 39 ± 7 mm, P d (49 ± 13 vs 26 ± 8 ms, and hs-CRP (2.17 [1.46-2.89] vs 1.12 [0.74-1.41] mg/L were increased (P < 0.05, respectively. Linear regression identified hs-CRP as an independent correlation of P d level both in the total population and the AF group (r = 0.464 and 0.313; P < 0.001, respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed hs-CRP as an independent determinant of AF (odds ratio [OR] =15.430, 95% confidence interval: 6.031-39.476: P <0.001. Further adjusted for P d , both P d and hs-CRP were independent predictors for AF, but the OR for hs-CRP in predicting AF has been attenuated from 15.430 to 6.246. Conclusions: In lone AF, P d and plasma hs-CRP concentration are inter-associated and related to AF. The interaction between hs-CRP and AF may be mediated by P d , suggesting an important role of inflammation in the atrial electrophysiological remodeling predisposing to AF.

  7. Reactive transport model of growth and methane production by high-temperature methanogens in hydrothermal regions of the subseafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L. C.; Algar, C. K.; Topçuoğlu, B. D.; Fortunato, C. S.; Larson, B. I.; Proskurowski, G. K.; Butterfield, D. A.; Vallino, J. J.; Huber, J. A.; Holden, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogens are keystone high-temperature autotrophs in deep-sea hydrothermal vents and tracers of habitability and biogeochemical activity in the hydrothermally active subseafloor. At Axial Seamount, nearly all thermophilic methanogens are Methanothermococcus and Methanocaldococcus species, making this site amenable to modeling through pure culture laboratory experiments coupled with field studies. Based on field microcosm incubations with 1.2 mM, 20 μM, or no hydrogen, the growth of methanogens at 55°C and 80°C is limited primarily by temperature and hydrogen availability, with ammonium amendment showing no consistent effect on total methane output. The Arrhenius constants for methane production by Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (optimum 82°C) and Methanothermococcus thermolithotrophicus (optimum 65°C) were determined in pure culture bottle experiments. The Monod constants for hydrogen concentration were measured by growing both organisms in a 2-liter chemostat at two dilution rates; 55°C, 65°C and 82°C; and variable hydrogen concentrations. M. jannaschii showed higher ks and Vmax constants than M. thermolithotrophicus. In the field, hydrogen and methane concentrations in hydrothermal end-member and low-temperature diffuse fluids were measured, and the concentrations of methanogens that grow at 55°C and 80°C in diffuse fluids were determined using most-probable-number estimates. Methane concentration anomalies in diffuse fluids relative to end-member hydrothermal concentrations and methanogen cell concentrations are being used to constrain a 1-D reactive transport model using the laboratory-determined Arrhenius and Monod constants for methane production by these organisms. By varying flow path length and subseafloor cell concentrations in the model, our goal is to determine solutions for the potential depth of the subseafloor biosphere coupled with the amount of methanogenic biomass it contains.

  8. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pacheco Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. Objective: To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. Methods One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors, MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p 0.05. The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01. Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (psex < 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  9. Post-surgical highly sensitive C-reactive protein and prognosis in early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibau, Ariadna; Ennis, Marguerite; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity, associated with inflammation, has been linked to poor prognosis in breast cancer. Research investigating the potential role of C-reactive protein (CRP), an obesity-associated systemic marker of inflammation, as a mediator of adverse prognostic effects of obesity has yielded inconsistent results. We examined the association of highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) with obesity-related factors and breast cancer outcome. A cohort of 535 non-diabetic women diagnosed with T1-3, N0-1, M0 breast cancer, was assembled between 1989 and 1996 and followed prospectively. Circulating levels of hsCRP were analyzed on blood obtained postoperatively, prior to systemic therapy, in 501 women. Correlations and prognostic associations were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r) and Cox models. hsCRP was significantly correlated with body mass index (r = 0.60), insulin (r = 0.44), leptin (r = 0.54), and lipids, but not T or N stage, grade or estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor. At a median follow-up of 12 years, hsCRP was not associated with distant disease-free survival or overall survival in univariable [Q4 vs. Q1 hazard ratio (HR) 1.03, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.69-1.52, P = 0.9 and HR 1.27, 95 % CI 0.86-1.86, P = 0.24, respectively] or multivariable [Q4 vs Q1 HR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.66-1.59, P = 0.93 and HR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.76-1.81, P = 0.48 respectively] analyses. hsCRP was associated with age, comorbidities, and the insulin resistance syndrome but not with breast cancer outcome.

  10. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP level and biochemical parameters for prehypertension and prediabetes diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttana Sudjaroen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Coronary atherosclerosis still presents one of the main causes of death. Efficacious prevention should focus on the early control of cardiovascular risk factors, including lipid profiles, which are unable early detect in subclinical cases. High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP can prove to be an early cardiac risk predictor. Aims: 1 To compare hs-CRP levels between healthy volunteer with normal blood pressure and those with prehypertension, and 2 to use hs-CRP levels along with other risks to be a cardiac risk predictor. Setting and Design: This was a cross-sectional study for 6 months′ duration from January to June 2013 at Kudjab Hospital located in Udon Thani province, Thailand. Materials and Methods: Forty (40 healthy volunteers with prehypertension and 40 volunteers with normal blood pressure were included in the study. Both groups were similar in age range and sex. Twelve-hour (12-h fasting blood samples were collected from all the participants. Serum was assayed for hs-CRP and lipid profile. Results: All of parameters were statistically significant difference (P < 000.1. The hs-CRP level (6.27 ± 7.8 mg/L was elevated in the prehypertension group. The relative risk of hs-CRP for prehypertension was 6.3 with the odds ratio of 15.48, whereas the relative risk of lipid profiles for prehypertension prediction was only 1.28, with the odds ratio of 1.67. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 11.0 using the unpaired t-test for comparing demographic data and blood parameters and risk prediction of hs-CRP and lipid profiles were calculated by relative risk with odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI]. Conclusions: Hs-CRP is an early cardiac risk predictor even with normal lipid profile, and can help measure additional risk especially subclinical people such as prehypertension.

  11. Trap states induced by reactive ion etching in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗俊; 赵胜雷; 宓珉瀚; 侯斌; 杨晓蕾; 张进成; 马晓华; 郝跃

    2015-01-01

    Frequency-dependent conductance measurements were carried out to investigate the trap states induced by reactive ion etching in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) quantitatively. For the non-recessed HEMT, the trap state density decreases from 2.48 × 1013 cm−2·eV−1 at an energy of 0.29 eV to 2.79 × 1012 cm−2·eV−1 at ET=0.33 eV. In contrast, the trap state density of 2.38 × 1013–1.10 × 1014 cm−2·eV−1 is located at ET in a range of 0.30–0.33 eV for the recessed HEMT. Thus, lots of trap states with shallow energy levels are induced by the gate recess etching. The induced shallow trap states can be changed into deep trap states by 350 ◦C annealing process. As a result, there are two different types of trap sates, fast and slow, in the annealed HEMT. The parameters of the annealed HEMT are ET=0.29–0.31 eV and DT=8.16 × 1012–5.58 × 1013 cm−2·eV−1 for the fast trap states, and ET=0.37–0.45 eV and DT=1.84 × 1013–8.50 × 1013 cm−2·eV−1 for the slow trap states. The gate leakage currents are changed by the etching and following annealing process, and this change can be explained by the analysis of the trap states.

  12. High sensitive C-reactive protein as a systemic inflammatory marker and LDH-3 isoenzyme in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillawar, Anup N; Bardapurkar, J S; Bardapurkar, S J

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, mainly due to tobacco smoke. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are mandatory to diagnose COPD which shows irreversible airway obstruction. This study was aimed at understanding the behavior of biochemical parameters such as high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in COPD. Cytoplasmic cellular enzymes, such as LDH in the extracellular space, although of no further metabolic function in this space, are of benefit because they serve as indicators suggestive of disturbances of the cellular integrity induced by pathological conditions. The lung pattern is characterized by proportional increases in isoenzymes 3, 4, and 5. Hs-CRP indicates low grade of systemic inflammation. Total (n = 45) patients of COPD (diagnosed on PFTs) were included. We followed the guidelines laid by the institute ethical committee. Investigations performed on the serum were the serum for hs-CRP, LDH isoenzymes on agarose gel electrophoresis. The results obtained showed that the value of hs-CRP was 4.6 ± 0.42 mg/L. The isoenzymes pattern was characterized by an increase in LDH-3 and LDH-4 fractions. This is evident even in those patients with normal LDH (n = 13) levels. This study states that there is a moderate positive correlation in between CRP and LDH-3 (r = 0.33; P = 0.01). Raised LDH-3 levels do not correlate with FEV(1) % (forced expiratory volume in first second) predicted. Moreover, it associates positively with hs-CRP and smoking status and negatively with body mass index. This underlines the potential of these parameters to complement the present system of staging which is solely based upon FEV(1) % predicted.

  13. Pre-diagnostic high-sensitive C-reactive protein and breast cancer risk, recurrence, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, H; Thune, I; Lofterød, T; Mortensen, E S; Eggen, A E; Risberg, T; Wist, E A; Flote, V G; Furberg, A-S; Wilsgaard, T; Akslen, L A; McTiernan, A

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation may initiate and promote breast cancer development, and be associated with elevated circulating levels of inflammation markers. A total of eight 130 initially healthy women, participated in the population-based Tromsø study (1994-2008). Pre-diagnostic high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was assessed. During 14.6 years of follow-up, a total of 192 women developed invasive breast cancer. These cases were followed for additional 7.2 years. Detailed medical records were obtained. We observed an overall positive dose-response relationship between pre-diagnostic hs-CRP and breast cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.06, 95 % CI 1.01-1.11). Postmenopausal women with above median levels of hs-CRP (>1.2 mg/l) had a 1.42 (95 % CI 1.01-2.00) higher breast cancer risk compared to postmenopausal women with hs-CRP below median. Postmenopausal women, who were hormone replacement therapy non-users, and were in the middle tertile (0.8-1.9 mg/l), or highest tertile of hs-CRP (>1.9 mg/l), had a 2.31 (95 % CI 1.31-4.03) and 2.08 (95 % CI 1.16-3.76) higher breast cancer risk, respectively, compared with women in the lowest tertile. For each unit increase in pre-diagnostic hs-CRP levels (mg/l), we observed an 18 % increase in disease-free interval (95 % CI 0.70-0.97), and a 22 % reduction in overall mortality (95 % CI 0.62-0.98). Our study supports a positive association between pre-diagnostic hs-CRP and breast cancer risk. In contrast, increased pre-diagnostic hs-CRP was associated with improved overall mortality, but our findings are based on a small sample size, and should be interpreted with caution.

  14. Optical properties and structure of HfO{sub 2} thin films grown by high pressure reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, F L [Departamento de Electronica y TecnologIa de Computadoras, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus Universitario Muralla del Mar, E-30202 Cartagena (Spain); Toledano-Luque, M [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); GandIa, J J [Departamento de EnergIa, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Carabe, J [Departamento de EnergIa, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Bohne, W [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung SF4, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Roehrich, J [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung SF4, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Strub, E [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung SF4, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Martil, I [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-09-07

    Thin films of hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) have been grown by high pressure reactive sputtering on transparent quartz substrates (UV-grade silica) and silicon wafers. Deposition conditions were adjusted to obtain polycrystalline as well as amorphous films. Optical properties of the films deposited on the silica substrates were investigated by transmittance and reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared range. A numerical analysis method that takes into account the different surface roughness of the polycrystalline and amorphous films was applied to calculate the optical constants (refractive index and absorption coefficient). Amorphous films were found to have a higher refractive index and a lower transparency than polycrystalline films. This is attributed to a higher density of the amorphous samples, which was confirmed by atomic density measurements performed by heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis. The absorption coefficient gave an excellent fit to the Tauc law (indirect gap), which allowed a band gap value of 5.54 eV to be obtained. The structure of the films (amorphous or polycrystalline) was found to have no significant influence on the nature of the band gap. The Tauc plots also give information about the structure of the films, because the slope of the plot (the Tauc parameter) is related to the degree of order in the bond network. The amorphous samples had a larger value of the Tauc parameter, i.e. more order than the polycrystalline samples. This is indicative of a uniform bond network with percolation of the bond chains, in contrast to the randomly oriented polycrystalline grains separated by grain boundaries.

  15. High sensitive C-reactive protein as a systemic inflammatory marker and LDH-3 isoenzyme in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup N Nillawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease, mainly due to tobacco smoke. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs are mandatory to diagnose COPD which shows irreversible airway obstruction. This study was aimed at understanding the behavior of biochemical parameters such as high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes in COPD. Cytoplasmic cellular enzymes, such as LDH in the extracellular space, although of no further metabolic function in this space, are of benefit because they serve as indicators suggestive of disturbances of the cellular integrity induced by pathological conditions. The lung pattern is characterized by proportional increases in isoenzymes 3, 4, and 5. Hs-CRP indicates low grade of systemic inflammation. Materials and Methods: Total (n = 45 patients of COPD (diagnosed on PFTs were included. We followed the guidelines laid by the institute ethical committee. Investigations performed on the serum were the serum for hs-CRP, LDH isoenzymes on agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: The results obtained showed that the value of hs-CRP was 4.6 ΁ 0.42 mg/L. The isoenzymes pattern was characterized by an increase in LDH-3 and LDH-4 fractions. This is evident even in those patients with normal LDH (n = 13 levels. Interpretation and Conclusion: This study states that there is a moderate positive correlation in between CRP and LDH-3 (r = 0.33; P = 0.01. Raised LDH-3 levels do not correlate with FEV 1 % (forced expiratory volume in first second predicted. Moreover, it associates positively with hs-CRP and smoking status and negatively with body mass index. This underlines the potential of these parameters to complement the present system of staging which is solely based upon FEV 1 % predicted.

  16. Application of non-thermal plasma reactor for degradation and detoxification of high concentrations of dye Reactive Black 5 in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojčinović Biljana P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation and detoxification efficiency of high concentrations of commercially available reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 solution (40, 80, 200, 500, 1000 mg L-1, were studied. Advanced oxidation processes in water falling film based dielectric barrier discharge as a non-thermal plasma reactor were used. For the first time, this reactor was used for the treatment of high concentrations of organic pollutants such as reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 in water. Solution of the dye is treated by plasma as thin water solution film that is constantly regenerated. Basically, the reactor works as a continuous flow reactor and the electrical discharge itself takes place at the gas-liquid interphase. The dye solution was recirculated through the reactor with an applied energy density of 0-374 kJ L-1. Decolorization efficiency (% was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometric technique. Samples were taken after every recirculation (~ 22 kJ L-1 and decolorization percent was measured after 5 min and 24 h of plasma treatment. The efficiency of degradation (i.e. mineralization and possible degradation products were also tracked by determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD and by ion chromatography (IC. Initial toxicity and toxicity of solutions after the treatment were studied with Artemia salina test organisms. Efficiency of decolorization decreased with the increase of the dye concentration. Complete decolorization, high mineralization and non-toxicity of the solution (<10 % were acomplished after plasma treatment using energy density of 242 kJ L-1, while the initial concentrations of Reactive Black 5 were 40 and 80 mg L-1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172030 i br. 171034

  17. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  18. High-Temperature and High-Pressure Pyrolysis of Hexadecane: Molecular Dynamic Simulation Based on Reactive Force Field (ReaxFF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuojun; Sun, Weizhen; Zhao, Ling

    2017-03-07

    As important products of heavy oil pyrolysis, heavier components such as gasoline and diesel supply the vast majority of energy demand through combustion, and lighter components such as ethylene and propylene are the main sources of industrial chemicals and plastic products. In this work, pyrolysis of hexadecane, as the model compound, was studied by reactive force field (ReaxFF) molecular simulation at high temperatures and high pressures. It was confirmed by unimolecular simulations that there exist eight different initial mechanisms all starting with C-C bond dissociation. The biradical mechanism was verified, through which the pyrolysis process can be accomplished within a shorter time. The enthalpy of reaction was calculated by the QM method, which was well consistent with ReaxFF calculation results. Multimolecular simulations showed that there is a strong dependency relationship between products distribution and temperature, as well as that between reaction rates and temperature. The optimal condition for ethylene formation in our work is 11.6 MPa and 2000 K, whereas it is best for hydrogen formation at conditions of 11.6 MPa and 3500 K. Kinetic analysis was performed with the activation energy of 113.03 kJ/mol and pre-exponential factor of 4.55 × 10(12), and it is in good agreement with previous work.

  19. Combination of Fibrinogen and High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein Measurements is Potential in Identification of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djanggan Sargowo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of cardiovascular diseases with high morbidity and mortality rates. Novel biomarkers that can detect accurately acute coronary syndrome (ACS at early stage, are necessary to improve current strategies and/or to identify subjects who are at risk. Fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP roles in inflammation process could be potential for ACS early detection. This study was conducted to evaluate measurements of fibrinogen and hs-CRP on ACS. METHODS: An analytic observational study with cross sectional approach was conducted on patients with Troponin I positive. After signing informed consent, anamnesis and complete blood count were conducted. Besides that, liver function, renal function, and blood glucose tests were conducted as well. Samples of selected subjects were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Troponin I, fibrinogen and hs-CRP. Then statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: There were 76 subjects in each ACS and non-ACS groups. ACS group showed significant higher levels of both fibrinogen and hs-CRP compared to Non-ACS group (p=0.000. Among evaluated risk factors, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.003 and hypertension (p=0.000 were significantly higher in ACS group than in non-ACS group. Among evaluated clinical factors, blood glucose (p=0.001 and age (p=0.000 were significantly higher in ACS group than in non-ACS group. Combination of fibrinogen and hs-CRP measurements showed the highest sensitivity (75.00%, specificity (80.26%, accuracy (77.63%, positive predictive value (79.19% and negative predictive value (76.25%. CONCLUSIONS: Since fibrinogen and hs-CRP were increased in ACS group and combination of fibrinogen and hs-CRP measurements showed the highest sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, we suggest that combination of fibrinogen and hs-CRP measurements could give added value to

  20. Memory CD8+ T cells from naturally acquired primary dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Heather; Burns, Lynne; Woda, Marcia; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Endy, Timothy P; Stephens, Henry A F; Green, Sharone; Rothman, Alan L; Mathew, Anuja

    2011-01-01

    Cross-reactive memory T cells induced by primary infection with one of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) are hypothesized to have an immunopathological function in secondary heterologous DENV infection. To define the T-cell response to heterologous serotypes, we isolated HLA-A(*)1101-restricted epitope-specific CD8(+) T-cell lines from primary DENV-immune donors. Cell lines exhibited marked cross-reactivity toward peptide variants representing the four DENV serotypes in tetramer binding and functional assays. Many clones responded similarly to homologous and heterologous serotypes with striking cross-reactivity between the DENV-1 and DENV-3 epitope variants. In vitro-stimulated T-cell lines consistently revealed a hierarchical induction of MIP-1β>degranulation>tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)>interferon-γ (IFNγ), which depended on the concentration of agonistic peptide. Phosphoflow assays showed peptide dose-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which correlated with cytolysis, degranulation, and induction of TNFα and IFNγ, but not MIP-1β production. This is the first study to show significant DENV serotype-cross-reactivity of CD8(+) T cells after naturally acquired primary infection. We also show qualitatively different T-cell receptor signaling after stimulation with homologous and heterologous peptides. Our data support a model whereby the order of sequential DENV infections influences the immune response to secondary heterologous DENV infection, contributing to varying disease outcomes.

  1. A Highly Tilted Binding Mode by a Self-Reactive T Cell Receptor Results in Altered Engagement of Peptide and MHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Sethi; D Schubert; A Anders; A Heroux; D Bonsor; C Thomas; E Sundberg; J Pyrdol; K Wucherpfennig

    2011-12-31

    Self-reactive T cells that escape elimination in the thymus can cause autoimmune pathology, and it is therefore important to understand the structural mechanisms of self-antigen recognition. We report the crystal structure of a T cell receptor (TCR) from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that engages its self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand in an unusual manner. The TCR is bound in a highly tilted orientation that prevents interaction of the TCR-{alpha} chain with the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. In this structure, only a single germline-encoded TCR loop engages the MHC protein, whereas in most other TCR-pMHC structures all four germline-encoded TCR loops bind to the MHC helices. The tilted binding mode also prevents peptide contacts by the short complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3{beta} loop, and interactions that contribute to peptide side chain specificity are focused on the CDR3{alpha} loop. This structure is the first example in which only a single germline-encoded TCR loop contacts the MHC helices. Furthermore, the reduced interaction surface with the peptide may facilitate TCR cross-reactivity. The structural alterations in the trimolecular complex are distinct from previously characterized self-reactive TCRs, indicating that there are multiple unusual ways for self-reactive TCRs to bind their pMHC ligand.

  2. A highly tilted binding mode by a self-reactive T cell receptor results in altered engagement of peptide and MHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, D.K.; Heroux, A.; Schubert, D. A.; Anders, A.-K.; Bonsor, D. A.; Thomas, C. P.; Sundberg, E. J.; Pyrdol, J.; Wucherpfennig, K. W.

    2011-01-17

    Self-reactive T cells that escape elimination in the thymus can cause autoimmune pathology, and it is therefore important to understand the structural mechanisms of self-antigen recognition. We report the crystal structure of a T cell receptor (TCR) from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that engages its self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand in an unusual manner. The TCR is bound in a highly tilted orientation that prevents interaction of the TCR-{alpha} chain with the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. In this structure, only a single germline-encoded TCR loop engages the MHC protein, whereas in most other TCR-pMHC structures all four germline-encoded TCR loops bind to the MHC helices. The tilted binding mode also prevents peptide contacts by the short complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3{beta} loop, and interactions that contribute to peptide side chain specificity are focused on the CDR3{alpha} loop. This structure is the first example in which only a single germline-encoded TCR loop contacts the MHC helices. Furthermore, the reduced interaction surface with the peptide may facilitate TCR cross-reactivity. The structural alterations in the trimolecular complex are distinct from previously characterized self-reactive TCRs, indicating that there are multiple unusual ways for self-reactive TCRs to bind their pMHC ligand.

  3. High plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) is related to low paraoxonase-I (PON-I) activity independently of high leptin and low adiponectin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; Sluiter, Wim J.; Voorbij, Hieronymus A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is increased, whereas the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory enzyme, paraoxonase-I, is decreased. Both high CRP and low paraoxonase-I activity may predict cardiovascular disease. It is unkn

  4. Summertime distribution of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species in the northern high-latitude atmosphere of eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Gregory, G. L.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of key reactive nitrogen species (NO, NO2, HNO3, PAN, PPN, NO3(-), NO(y)), C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, acetone, O3, chemical tracers (C2Cl4, CO), and important meteorological parameters were performed over eastern Canada during July to August 1990 at altitudes between 0 and 6 km as part of an Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE3B). In the free troposphere, PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species constituting a major fraction of NO(y) and was significantly more abundant than NO(x) and HNO3. PAN and O3 were well correlated both in their fine and gross structures. Compared to data previously collected in the Arctic/subarctic atmosphere over Alaska (ABLE3A), the lower troposphere (0-4 km) over eastern Canada was found to contain larger reactive nitrogen and anthropogenic tracer concentrations. At higher altitudes (4-6 km) the atmospheric composition was in many ways similar to what was seen over Alaska and supports the view that a large-scale reservoir of PAN (and NO(y)) is present in the upper troposphere over the entire Arctic/subarctic region. The reactive nitrogen budget based on missions conducted from the North Bay site (missions 2-10) showed a small shortfall, whereas the budget for data collected from the Goose Bay operation (missions 11-19) showed essential balance. It is calculated that 15-20 ppt of the observed NO(x) may find its source from the available PAN reservoir. Meteorological considerations as well as relationships between reactive nitrogen and tracer species suggest that the atmosphere over eastern Canada during summer is greatly influenced by forest fires and transported industrial pollution.

  5. Exploring the Chemical Reactivity between Carbon Dioxide and Three Transition Metals (Au, Pt, and Re) at High-Pressure, High-Temperature Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Pérez, David; McGuire, Chris; Makhluf, Adam; Kavner, Abby; Chuliá-Jordán, Raquel; Pellicer-Porres, Julio; Martinez-García, Domingo; Doran, Andrew; Kunz, Martin; Rodríguez-Hernández, Plácida; Muñoz, Alfonso

    2016-10-06

    The role of carbon dioxide, CO2, as oxidizing agent at high pressures and temperatures is evaluated by studying its chemical reactivity with three transition metals: Au, Pt, and Re. We report systematic X-ray diffraction measurements up to 48 GPa and 2400 K using synchrotron radiation and laser-heating diamond-anvil cells. No evidence of reaction was found in Au and Pt samples in this pressure-temperature range. In the Re + CO2 system, however, a strongly-driven redox reaction occurs at P > 8 GPa and T > 1500 K, and orthorhombic β-ReO2 is formed. This rhenium oxide phase is stable at least up to 48 GPa and 2400 K and was recovered at ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopy data confirm graphite as a reaction product. Ab-initio total-energy structural and compressibility data of the β-ReO2 phase shows an excellent agreement with experiments, altogether accurately confirming CO2 reduction P-T conditions in the presence of rhenium metal and the β-ReO2 equation of state.

  6. Highly functionalized organic nitrates in the southeast United States: Contribution to secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ben H.; Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; Lee, Lance; Romer, Paul; Cohen, Ronald C.; Iyer, Siddharth; Kurtén, Theo; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga Lee; Guo, Hongyu; Weber, Rodney J.; Wild, Robert J.; Brown, Steven S.; Koss, Abigail; de Gouw, Joost; Olson, Kevin; Goldstein, Allen H.; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; McAvey, Kevin; Shepson, Paul B.; Starn, Tim; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S.; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Miller, David O.; Brune, William; Schobesberger, Siegfried; D' Ambro, Emma L.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-01-25

    and Aerosol Study (SOAS). We compare these speciated measurements to total unspeciated particulate organic nitrate measured by three independent methods, and analyze using a zero-dimensional box model the diel cycles of individual components to elucidate differential source and sink terms. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes appear to dominate the ON sources during SOAS. We show that the molecular compositions that dominate the particle-phase are significantly more oxygenated than the most abundant gas-phase counterparts, consistent with volatility and solubility driven partitioning requirements. However, the detailed mechanisms by which most of these ON arise are not yet clear. These speciated measurements put a strong constraint on the extent to which ON directly contribute to SOA in regions with high biogenic hydrocarbon emissions, and illustrate that the fate of particulate ON can have significant implications for SOA and the reactive nitrogen budget.

  7. Simulating reactive nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and ozone in California during ARCTAS-CARB 2008 with high wildfire activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenxia; Kulkarni, Sarika; Zhao, Zhan; Kaduwela, Ajith P.; Avise, Jeremy C.; DaMassa, John A.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Wennberg, Paul; Dibb, Jack E.; Huey, Greg; Wisthaler, Armin; Jimenez, Jose L.; Cubison, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    Predictions of O3, CO, total NOy and individual NOy species (NO, NO2, HNO3, PAN, alkyl nitrates and aerosol nitrate) from a fine resolution regional air quality modeling system for the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and San Joaquin Valley Air Basin (SJVAB) of California are presented and evaluated for the 2008 ARCTAS-CARB campaign. The measurements of the chemical compounds from the fire plumes during the field campaign allow for the evaluation of the model's ability to simulate fire-influenced air masses as well. In general, the model successfully simulated the broad spatial distribution of chemical compounds in both air basins as well as the variation within the basins. Using inventories that reflect 2008 emissions levels, the model performed well in simulating NOx (NO + NO2) in SoCAB. Therefore, the under prediction of O3 over these areas is more likely caused by uncertainties with the VOC emissions, chemistry, or discrepancies in the meteorology. The model did not capture the relatively high levels of O3, and some reactive nitrogen species that were measured off shore of the SoCAB, indicating potential missing sources or the transport from on shore to off shore was not successfully captured. In SJVAB, the model had good performance in simulating different chemical compounds in the Fresno and Arvin areas. However, enhanced concentrations of O3, NOx, HNO3 and PAN near dairy farms were significantly underestimated in the model. Negative biases also exist for O3 and HNO3 near oil fields, suggesting larger uncertainties associated with these emission sources. While the model simulated the total NOy mixing ratios reasonably well, the prediction for partitioning between individual compounds showed larger uncertainties in the model simulation. Although the fire emissions inventory was updated to include the latest emissions estimates and speciation profiles, our model shows limited improvement in simulating the enhancement of O3, CO, and PAN under fire impact as

  8. Relationships of High-sensitive C-reactive Protein and P-wave Dispersion in Lone Atrial Fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hui Zheng; Yan Yao; Ling-Min Wu; Kui-Jun Zhang; Shu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Current evidence links atrial fibrillation (AF) to the inflammation.Inflammatory indexes such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) have been related to the development and persistence of AF.However,the role of inflammation in the atrial electrophysiological remodeling indexed by P-wave dispersion (Pd) remains unclear.Methods:The study consisted of 71 patients with lone paroxysmal AF (AF group) and 71 age-and gender-matched controls of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia without history of AF (control group).Electrocardiography,Pd,hs-CRP,and other clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups.Results:There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding age,gender,hyperlipidemia,etc.Compared to controls,left atrial diameter (44 ± 7 vs 39 ± 7 mm),Pd (49 ± 13 vs 26 ± 8 ms),and hs-CRP (2.17 [1.46-2.89] vs 1.12 [0.74-1.41] mg/L) were increased (P < 0.05),respectively.Linear regression identified hs-CRP as an independent correlation of Pd level both in the total population and the AF group (r =0.464 and 0.313;P < 0.001,respectively).Multiple logistic regression revealed hs-CRP as an independent determinant of AF (odds ratio [OR] =15.430,95% confidence interval:6.031-39.476:P <0.001).Further adjusted for Pd,both Pd and hs-CRP were independent predictors for AF,but the OR for hs-CRP in predicting AF has been attenuated from 15.430 to 6.246.Conclusions:In lone AF,Pd and plasma hs-CRP concentration are inter-associated and related to AF.The interaction between hs-CRP and AF may be mediated by Pd,suggesting an important role of inflammation in the atrial electrophysiological remodeling predisposing to AF.

  9. Change in High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels Following Initiation of Efavirenz-Based Antiretroviral Regimens in HIV-Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Zheng, Yu; Gulick, Roy M.; Meyer, William A.; Tashima, Karen T.; Bastow, Barbara; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2011-01-01

    Elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, increased HIV disease progression, and death in HIV-infected patients. Use of abacavir has been reported to increase CVD risk. We assessed the effect of virologically suppressive efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy on high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) levels over a 96-week period with particular attention to the effect of gender and abacavir use. Banked sera from entry and week 96 visit...

  10. What Do Very Low Plasma Concentrations of High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Mean among Healthy Middle-aged Koreans?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Gul; Cho, Baik-Hwan; Chae, Soo-Wan; Park, Tae-Sun; Kim, Dal-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic low-grade inflammation (SLGI), as assessed by measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), is a strong independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although individuals with hs-CRP ≤ 1 mg/L have been defined as being at low risk according to AHA/CDC guidelines, the value of very low hs-CRP levels (

  11. A comparison of osteoprotegerin with adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a marker for insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with low adiponectin and elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been shown to be elevated in type 2 diabetes, but whether it reflects underlying IR is unclear. We aimed to compare the ability of serum OPG with adiponectin and hsCRP to act as a marker for IR in individuals with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance.

  12. Association between Resting Heart Rate and Inflammatory Markers (White Blood Cell Count and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein) in Healthy Korean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo-Chul; Seo, Inho; Kim, Shin-Hye; Lee, Yong-Jae; Ahn, Song Vogue

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and an elevated resting heart rate underlies the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation. We hypothesized an association between resting heart rate and subclinical inflammation. Resting heart rate was recorded at baseline in the KoGES-ARIRANG (Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population) cohort study, and was then divided into quartiles. Subclinical inflammation was measured by white blood cell count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. We used progressively adjusted regression models with terms for muscle mass, body fat proportion, and adiponectin in the fully adjusted models. We examined inflammatory markers as both continuous and categorical variables, using the clinical cut point of the highest quartile of white blood cell count (≥7,900/mm(3)) and ≥3 mg/dL for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Participants had a mean age of 56.3±8.1 years and a mean resting heart rate of 71.4±10.7 beats/min; 39.1% were men. In a fully adjusted model, an increased resting heart rate was significantly associated with a higher white blood cell count and higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in both continuous (P for trend heart rate is associated with a higher level of subclinical inflammation among healthy Korean people.

  13. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  14. Observation of a periodic runaway in the reactive Ar/O{sub 2} high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayestehaminzadeh, Seyedmohammad, E-mail: ses30@hi.is, E-mail: shayesteh@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Arnalds, Unnar B.; Magnusson, Rögnvaldur L.; Olafsson, Sveinn [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the observation of a periodic runaway of plasma to a higher density for the reactive discharge of the target material (Ti) with moderate sputter yield. Variable emission of secondary electrons, for the alternating transition of the target from metal mode to oxide mode, is understood to be the main reason for the runaway occurring periodically. Increasing the pulsing frequency can bring the target back to a metal (or suboxide) mode, and eliminate the periodic transition of the target. Therefore, a pulsing frequency interval is defined for the reactive Ar/O{sub 2} discharge in order to sustain the plasma in a runaway-free mode without exceeding the maximum power that the magnetron can tolerate.

  15. High sensitive and high temporal and spatial resolved image of reactive species in atmospheric pressure surface discharge reactor by laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Feng, Chun-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-05-01

    The current paucity of spatial and temporal characterization of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) concentration has been a major hurdle to the advancement and clinical translation of low temperature atmospheric plasmas. In this study, an advanced laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed to be an effective antibacterial surface discharge reactor for the diagnosis of RONS, where the highest spatial and temporal resolution of the LIF system has been achieved to ˜100 μm scale and ˜20 ns scale, respectively. Measurements on an oxidative OH radical have been carried out as typical RONS for the benchmark of the whole LIF system, where absolute number density calibration has been performed on the basis of the laser Rayleigh scattering method. Requirements for pixel resolved spatial distribution and outer plasma region detection become challenging tasks due to the low RONS concentration (˜ppb level) and strong interference, especially the discharge induced emission and pulsed laser induced stray light. In order to design the highly sensitive LIF system, a self-developed fluorescence telescope, the optimization of high precision synchronization among a tunable pulsed laser, a surface discharge generator, intensified Charge Coupled Device (iCCD) camera, and an oscilloscope have been performed. Moreover, an image BOXCAR approach has been developed to remarkably improve the sensitivity of the whole LIF system by optimizing spatial and temporal gating functions via both hardware and software, which has been integrated into our automatic control and data acquisition system on the LabVIEW platform. In addition, a reciprocation averaging measurement has been applied to verify the accuracy of the whole LIF detecting system, indicating the relative standard deviation of ˜3%.

  16. Chemical reactivity of CVC and CVD SiC with UO{sub 2} at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Chinthaka M., E-mail: silvagw@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Voit, Stewart L. [Fusion and Materials for Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Snead, Lance L. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Two types of silicon carbide (SiC) synthesized using two different vapor deposition processes were embedded in UO{sub 2} pellets and evaluated for their potential chemical reaction with UO{sub 2}. While minor reactivity between chemical-vapor-composited (CVC) SiC and UO{sub 2} was observed at comparatively low temperatures of 1100 and 1300 °C, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) SiC did not show any such reactivity. However, both CVD and CVC SiCs showed some reaction with UO{sub 2} at a higher temperature (1500 °C). Elemental maps supported by phase maps obtained using electron backscatter diffraction indicated that CVC SiC was more reactive than CVD SiC at 1500 °C. Furthermore, this investigation indicated the formation of uranium carbides and uranium silicide chemical phases such as UC, USi{sub 2}, and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as a result of SiC reaction with UO{sub 2}.

  17. High-throughput Characterization of HIV-1 Reservoir Reactivation Using a Single-Cell-in-Droplet PCR Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Yucha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of latent viral reservoirs is on the forefront of HIV-1 eradication research. However, it is unknown if latency reversing agents (LRAs increase the level of viral transcription from cells producing HIV RNA or harboring transcriptionally-inactive (latent infection. We therefore developed a microfluidic single-cell-in-droplet (scdPCR assay to directly measure the number of CD4+ T cells that produce unspliced (usRNA and multiply spliced (msRNA following ex vivo latency reversal with either an histone deacetylase inhibitor (romidepsin or T cell receptor (TCR stimulation. Detection of HIV-1 transcriptional activity can also be performed on hundreds of thousands of CD4+ T-cells in a single experiment. The scdPCR method was then applied to CD4+ T cells obtained from HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Overall, our results suggest that effects of LRAs on HIV-1 reactivation may be heterogeneous—increasing transcription from active cells in some cases and increasing the number of transcriptionally active cells in others. Genomic DNA and human mRNA isolated from HIV-1 reactivated cells could also be detected and quantified from individual cells. As a result, our assay has the potential to provide needed insight into various reservoir eradication strategies.

  18. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  19. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Reactivity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Bladder Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis with 13,053 Patients Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yihuan; Zhang, Xin; Mo, Meile; Tan, Zhong; Huang, Lanshan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Chunqin; Wei, Fanglin; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Rongquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Ki-67 is considered as one of prime biomarkers to reflect cell proliferation and immunohistochemical Ki-67 staining has been widely applied in clinical pathology. To solve the widespread controversy whether Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicts clinical prognosis of bladder carcinoma (BC), we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis by combining results from different literature. A comprehensive search was conducted in the Chinese databases of WanFang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP as well as English databases of PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Wiley online library. Independent studies linking Ki-67 to cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were included in our meta-analysis. With the cut-off values literature provided, hazard ratio (HR) values between the survival distributions were extracted and later combined with STATA 12.0. In total, 76 studies (n = 13,053 patients) were eligible for the meta-analysis. It was indicated in either univariate or multivariate analysis for survival that high Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicted poor prognosis. In the univariate analysis, the combined HR for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 2.588 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.623-4.127, P < 0.001), 2.697 (95%CI: 1.874-3.883, P < 0.001), 2.649 (95%CI: 1.632-4.300, P < 0.001), 3.506 (95%CI: 2.231-5.508, P < 0.001), and 1.792 (95%CI: 1.409-2.279, P < 0.001), respectively. The pooled HR of multivariate analysis for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 1.868 (95%CI: 1.343-2.597, P < 0.001), 2.626 (95%CI: 2.089-3.301, P < 0.001), 1.104 (95%CI: 1.008-1.209, P = 0.032), 1.518 (95%CI: 1.299-1.773, P < 0.001), and 1.294 (95%CI: 1.203-1.392, P < 0.001), respectively. Subgroup analysis of univariate analysis by origin showed that Ki-67 reactivity significantly correlated with all 5

  1. BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1) is a highly specific marker for differentiating mesothelioma from reactive mesothelial proliferations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigognetti, Marta; Lonardi, Silvia; Fisogni, Simona; Balzarini, Piera; Pellegrini, Vilma; Tironi, Andrea; Bercich, Luisa; Bugatti, Mattia; Rossi, Giulio; Murer, Bruno; Barbareschi, Mattia; Giuliani, Silvia; Cavazza, Alberto; Marchetti, Gianpietro; Vermi, William; Facchetti, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    The distinction between malignant mesothelioma and reactive mesothelial proliferation can be challenging both on histology and cytology. Recently, variants of the BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) gene resulting in nuclear protein loss were reported in hereditary and sporadic mesothelioma. Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the utility of BAP1 expression in the differential diagnosis between mesothelioma and other mesothelial proliferations on a large series of biopsies that included 212 mesotheliomas, 12 benign mesothelial tumors, and 42 reactive mesothelial proliferations. BAP1 stain was also performed in 70 cytological samples (45 mesotheliomas and 25 reactive mesothelial proliferations). BAP1 was expressed in all benign mesothelial tumors, whereas 139/212 (66%) mesotheliomas were BAP1 negative, especially in epithelioid/biphasic compared with sarcomatoid/desmoplastic subtypes (69% vs 15%). BAP1 loss was homogeneous in neoplastic cells except for two epithelioid mesotheliomas showing tumor heterogeneity. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, BAP1 protein loss was paralleled by homozygous deletion of the BAP1 locus in the vast majority of BAP1-negative tumors (31/41, 76%), whereas 9/10 BAP1-positive mesotheliomas were normal. In biopsies interpreted as reactive mesothelial proliferation BAP1 loss was 100% predictive of malignancy, as all 6 cases subsequently developed BAP1-negative mesothelioma, whereas only 3/36 (8%) BAP1-positive cases progressed to mesothelioma. On cytology/cell blocks, benign mesothelial cells were invariably positive for BAP1, whereas 64% of mesotheliomas showed loss of protein; all 6 cases showing BAP1 negativity were associated with histological diagnosis of BAP1-negative mesothelioma. BAP1 stain also showed utility in the differential of mesothelioma from most common pleural and peritoneal mimickers, such as lung and ovary carcinomas, with specificity and sensitivity of 99/70% and 100/70%, respectively. Our results show that BAP1

  2. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Haibo Gong; Norman Freudenberg; Man Nie; Roel van de Krol; Klaus Ellmer

    2016-01-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 fil...

  3. Synthesis, chemical reactivity as Michael acceptors, and biological potency of monocyclic cyanoenones, novel and highly potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Suqing; Santosh Laxmi, Y R; David, Emilie; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Shiavoni, Katherine H; Ren, Yanqing; Zheng, Ying; Trevino, Isaac; Bumeister, Ronald; Ojima, Iwao; Wigley, W Christian; Bliska, James B; Mierke, Dale F; Honda, Tadashi

    2012-05-24

    Novel monocyclic cyanoenones examined to date display unique features regarding chemical reactivity as Michael acceptors and biological potency. Remarkably, in some biological assays, the simple structure is more potent than pentacyclic triterpenoids (e.g., CDDO and bardoxolone methyl) and tricycles (e.g., TBE-31). Among monocyclic cyanoenones, 1 is a highly reactive Michael acceptor with thiol nucleophiles. Furthermore, an important feature of 1 is that its Michael addition is reversible. For the inhibition of NO production, 1 shows the highest potency. Notably, its potency is about three times higher than CDDO, whose methyl ester (bardoxolone methyl) is presently in phase III clinical trials. For the induction of NQO1, 1 also demonstrated the highest potency. These results suggest that the reactivity of these Michael acceptors is closely related to their biological potency. Interestingly, in LPS-stimulated macrophages, 1 causes apoptosis and inhibits secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β with potencies that are higher than those of bardoxolone methyl and TBE-31.

  4. The Effect of Moderate-intensity Aerobic Training on Serum Levels of Cystatin C with High Sensitivity, C-reactive Protein and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khorramjah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The risk of cardiovascular disease in women increases after menopause. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise at moderate intensity levels of cystatin C  and some cardiovascular risk factors in inactive postmenopausal women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 sedentary postmenopausal women (50-65 years were  randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=14 and control group (n=10 groups. The experimental groups performed an aerobic training with 65 to 75% of maximum heart rate , 3 days per week for 10 weeks. Body fat percentage and serum levels of cystatine C with high sensitivity, C-reactive protein, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, cholesterol and blood pressure were measured at baseline and after training. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance test.   Results: No significant difference was seen  after performing aerobic training on serum levels of cystatin C (p=0.761, C-reactive protein with high sensitivity (p=0.378, triglyceride (p=0.48   , high-density lipoprotein (p=0.54, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.86, cholesterol (p=0.67, percent body fat (p=0.57 between the two groups. There was no significant difference between control and experimental groups in the variable maximal oxygen uptake (p = 0.035 and systolic blood pressure (p =0.04. Conclusion: It seems that short-term aerobic training have no effet on serum levels of cystatin c and some moderate-intensity cardiovascular risk factors like reactive protein C, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, lipoprotein help disabled density and blood pressure in  in inactive postmenopausal women.

  5. What Is Reactive Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 69 KB November 2014 What is Reactive Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Information About Reactive Arthritis and Other Related Conditions What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set ...

  6. Interactive chemical reactivity exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Moritz P; Vaucher, Alain C; Bosson, Maël; Redon, Stéphane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the samson programming environment. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Interactive Chemical Reactivity Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Haag, Moritz P; Bosson, Mael; Redon, Stephane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force-feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the Samson programming environment.

  8. A buoyantly-driven shutdown rod concept for passive reactivity control of a Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We develop a novel buoyantly-driven shutdown rod concept for a FHR. • Shutdown rod system can be actively or passively activated during transients. • Response of the rod was computationally simulated and experimentally validated. • Initial results indicate rod could provide effective transient reactivity control. -- Abstract: This paper presents a novel buoyantly-driven shutdown rod concept for use in Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs). The baseline design considered here is a 900 MWth modular version of the FHR class called the Pebble Bed Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) that uses pebble fuel. Due to the high volumetric heat capacity of the primary coolant, the FHRs operate with a high power density core with a similar average coolant temperature as in modular helium reactors. The reactivity control system for the baseline PB-AHTR uses a novel buoyantly-driven shutdown rod system that can be actively or passively activated during reactor transients. In addition to a traditional active insertion mechanism, the new shutdown rod system is designed to also operate passively, fulfilling the role of a reserve shutdown system. The physical response of the shutdown rod was simulated both computationally and experimentally, using scaling arguments where applicable, with an emphasis on key phenomena identified by a preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) study. This paper presents results from both the pre-predicted simulation and experimental validation efforts.

  9. Association between Resting Heart Rate and Inflammatory Markers (White Blood Cell Count and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein) in Healthy Korean People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo-Chul; Seo, Inho; Kim, Shin-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Background Inflammation is an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and an elevated resting heart rate underlies the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation. We hypothesized an association between resting heart rate and subclinical inflammation. Methods Resting heart rate was recorded at baseline in the KoGES-ARIRANG (Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population) cohort study, and was then divided into quartiles. Subclinical inflammation was measured by white blood cell count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. We used progressively adjusted regression models with terms for muscle mass, body fat proportion, and adiponectin in the fully adjusted models. We examined inflammatory markers as both continuous and categorical variables, using the clinical cut point of the highest quartile of white blood cell count (≥7,900/mm3) and ≥3 mg/dL for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Results Participants had a mean age of 56.3±8.1 years and a mean resting heart rate of 71.4±10.7 beats/min; 39.1% were men. In a fully adjusted model, an increased resting heart rate was significantly associated with a higher white blood cell count and higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in both continuous (P for trend <0.001) and categorical (P for trend <0.001) models. Conclusion An increased resting heart rate is associated with a higher level of subclinical inflammation among healthy Korean people.

  10. High Concentrations of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 Detected in Serum from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Can Be Explained by Non-Specific Antibody Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoveichuk, Elena; Ruge, Toralph; Nilsson, Solveig; Södergren, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is suggested to be a master regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism. Our aim was to study whether the previously reported high levels of ANGPTL4 detected in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by ELISA was due to any specific molecular form of this protein (oligomers, monomers or fragments). ANGPTL4 levels were first determined in serum from 68 RA patients and 43 age and sex matched control subjects and the mean values differed by a factor of 5.0. Then, ANGPTL4 was analyzed after size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of serum samples. With serum from one of the RA patients with high levels of ANGPTL4, the dominant reactivity was found in fractions corresponding to high-molecular weight proteins. In addition, a minor peak of reactivity eluting late from the column was found both in the patient and in controls. By the use of HeteroBlock®, and by careful selection of antibodies, we documented non-specific reactions for ANGPTL4 in 39% of samples from the RA patients, most likely due to cross-reactivity of the antibodies with rheumatoid factor (RF). The corresponding figure for control subjects was 6.3%. After corrections for non-specific reactions, the mean level of ANGPTL4 in serum from RA patients was still significantly higher than in control individuals (mean levels were 101±62 and 67±39 ng/ml respectively, P = 0.02). We re-analyzed samples from our previously published studies on ANGPL4 levels in patients on hemodialysis and patients with diabetes type 2. These samples did not show false positive reactions. The levels of ANGPTL4 were comparable to those detected previously. PMID:28107351

  11. A binding-site barrier affects imaging efficiency of high affinity amyloid-reactive peptide radiotracers in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Wall

    Full Text Available Amyloid is a complex pathology associated with a growing number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and myeloma. The distribution and extent of amyloid deposition in body organs establishes the prognosis and can define treatment options; therefore, determining the amyloid load by using non-invasive molecular imaging is clinically important. We have identified a heparin-binding peptide designated p5 that, when radioiodinated, was capable of selectively imaging systemic visceral AA amyloidosis in a murine model of the disease. The p5 peptide was posited to bind effectively to amyloid deposits, relative to similarly charged polybasic heparin-reactive peptides, because it adopted a polar α helix secondary structure. We have now synthesized a variant, p5R, in which the 8 lysine amino acids of p5 have been replaced with arginine residues predisposing the peptide toward the α helical conformation in an effort to enhance the reactivity of the peptide with the amyloid substrate. The p5R peptide had higher affinity for amyloid and visualized AA amyloid in mice by using SPECT/CT imaging; however, the microdistribution, as evidenced in micro-autoradiographs, was dramatically altered relative to the p5 peptide due to its increased affinity and a resultant "binding site barrier" effect. These data suggest that radioiodinated peptide p5R may be optimal for the in vivo detection of discreet, perivascular amyloid, as found in the brain and pancreatic vasculature, by using molecular imaging techniques; however, peptide p5, due to its increased penetration, may yield more quantitative imaging of expansive tissue amyloid deposits.

  12. Investigating the influence of subsurface heterogeneity on chemical weathering in the critical zone using high resolution reactive transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S.; Rajaram, H.

    2014-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ) represents a major life-sustaining realm of the terrestrial surface. The processes controlling the development and transformation of the CZ are important to continued health of the planet as human influence continues to grow. The CZ encompasses the shallow subsurface, a region of reaction, unsaturated flow, and transport. Chemical weathering in the subsurface is one of the important processes involved in the formation and functioning of the CZ. We present two case studies of reactive transport modeling to investigate the influence of subsurface heterogeneity and unsaturated flow on chemical weathering processes in the CZ. The model is implemented using the reactive transport code PFLOTRAN. Heterogeneity in subsurface flow is represented using multiple realizations of conductive fracture networks in a hillslope cross-section. The first case study is motivated by observations at the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BCCZO) including extensive hydrologic and geochemical datasets. The simulations show that fractures greatly enhance weathering as compared to a homogeneous porous medium. Simulations of north-facing slope hydrology with prolonged snowmelt pulses also increases weathering rates, showing the importance of slope aspect on weathering intensity. Recent work elucidates deteriorating water quality caused by climate change in the CZ of watersheds where acid rock drainage (ARD) occurs. The more complex reactions of ARD require a customized kinetic reaction module with PFLOTRAN. The second case study explores the mechanisms by which changes in hydrologic forcing, air and ground temperatures, and water table elevations influence ARD. For instance, unreacted pyrite exposed by a water table drop was shown to produce a 125% increase in annual pyrite oxidization rate, which provides one explanation for increased ARD.

  13. Sharp high-aspect-ratio AFM tips fabricated by a combination of deep reactive ion etching and focused ion beam techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, David; Villanueva, Guillermo; Plaza, Jose Antonio; Mills, Christopher A; Samitier, Josep; Errachid, Abdelhamid

    2010-01-01

    The shape and dimensions of an atomic force microscope tip are crucial factors to obtain high resolution images at the nanoscale. When measuring samples with narrow trenches, inclined sidewalls near 90 degrees or nanoscaled structures, standard silicon atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips do not provide satisfactory results. We have combined deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and focused ion beam (FIB) lithography techniques in order to produce probes with sharp rocket-shaped silicon AFM tips for high resolution imaging. The cantilevers were shaped and the bulk micromachining was performed using the same DRIE equipment. To improve the tip aspect ratio we used FIB nanolithography technique. The tips were tested on narrow silicon trenches and over biological samples showing a better resolution when compared with standard AFM tips, which enables nanocharacterization and nanometrology of high-aspect-ratio structures and nanoscaled biological elements to be completed, and provides an alternative to commercial high aspect ratio AFM tips.

  14. Highly oriented δ-Bi2O3 thin films stable at room temperature synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunca Popa, P.; Sønderby, S.; Kerdsongpanya, S.;

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis by reactive magnetron sputtering and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented thin films of δ–Bi2O3. This phase is obtained at a substrate temperature of 150–200 °C in a narrow window of O2/Ar ratio in the sputtering gas (18%–20%). Transmission electron microsc...... microscopy and x-ray diffraction reveal a polycrystalline columnar structure with (111) texture. The films are stable from room temperature up to 250 °C in vacuum and 350 °C in ambient air. © 2013 American Institute of Physics...

  15. Highly photocatalytic activity of novel Fe-MIL-88B/GO nanocomposite in the degradation of reactive dye from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tuan A.; Le, Giang H.; Vu, Hoa T.; Nguyen, Kien T.; Quan, Trang T. T.; Nguyen, Quang K.; Tran, Hoa T. K.; Dang, Phuong T.; Vu, Loi D.; Lee, Gun D.

    2017-03-01

    An Fe-MIL-88B/graphene oxide (GO) composite was successfully synthesized by the hydrofluoric acid (HF) free-solvothermal method. The sample was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). BET shows that Fe-MIL-88B/GO is of a mesoporous structure, while XRD and XPS results reveal that besides the Fe-MIL-88B phase, a new α-FeOOH phase in the novel Fe-MIL-88B/GO composite is formed. The as-prepared Fe-MIL-88B/GO nanocomposite was used to test the photocatalytic degradation of reactive dye (reactive red-RR195) from aqueous solution. This novel metal-organic framework (MOF)/GO composite exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity. Thus, after 25 min of reaction under simulated sunlight irradiation, removal efficiency reached 98%. Moreover, this composite still maintained high photocatalytic activity after three cycles of reaction runs, indicating its high stability and reusability. This opens a new application potential for MOF/GO as a highly efficient photo-Fenton catalyst.

  16. Formation and High Reactivity of the anti-Dioxo Form of High-Spin μ-Oxodioxodiiron(IV) as the Active Species That Cleaves Strong C-H Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Masahito; Ishiga, Shin; Tsuji, Tomokazu; Sakurai, Katsutoshi; Hitomi, Yutaka; Shiota, Yoshihito; Sajith, P K; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-04-18

    Recently, it was shown that μ-oxo-μ-peroxodiiron(III) is converted to high-spin μ-oxodioxodiiron(IV) through O-O bond scission. Herein, the formation and high reactivity of the anti-dioxo form of high-spin μ-oxodioxodiiron(IV) as the active oxidant are demonstrated on the basis of resonance Raman and electronic-absorption spectral changes, detailed kinetic studies, DFT calculations, activation parameters, kinetic isotope effects (KIE), and catalytic oxidation of alkanes. Decay of μ-oxodioxodiiron(IV) was greatly accelerated on addition of substrate. The reactivity order of substrates is toluenecumenereaction with toluene/[D8 ]toluene is 95 at -30 °C, which the largest in diiron systems reported so far. The present diiron complex efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of various alkanes with H2 O2 .

  17. High-sensitive C-reactive protein level and oxidative stress-related status in former athletes in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, E; Zilmer, K; Kullisaar, T; Kairane, C; Pulges, A; Zilmer, M

    2003-12-01

    To analyze systemic and cellular oxidative stress-related indices as well as C-reactive protein level in former top-level athletes in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 53 former male athletes and 25 sedentary controls (age range: 39-59 years). We measured anthropometric factors (BMI, fat percentage, WHR), resting blood pressure (SBP, DBP), serum cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidized LDL-C (oxLDL), diene conjugates (DC), glutathione redox status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and leisure-time physical activity. Physically active former athletes had significantly lower mean overweight (BMI, fat percentage, WHR), better spectrum of atherogenesis indicators (CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio) and lower oxidative stress (oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC) values than sedentary ex-athletes. No significant differences in these variables were found between the sedentary ex-athletes and control group. Significant associations were found between physical activity (METs), SBP, DBP, hypertension, CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio, oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC and hsCRP. A physically active lifestyle is related to a lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile including a substantially lower systemic and cellular oxidative stress status as well as C-reactive protein level in middle-aged men. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. High speed railway RPC- 130 reactive powder concrete material application%严寒地区高速铁路RPC-130活性粉末混凝土材料应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常青

    2014-01-01

    高速铁路电缆槽盖板采用RPC-130活性粉末混凝土,活性粉末混凝土是高技术、高成本混凝土,它具有的高强度、高耐久性、高耐候性等特点,优于任何混凝土。通过对活性粉末混凝土配合比优化,调整活性粉末混凝土材料构成,使活性粉末混凝土用料大众化、工艺简单化、成本经济化,对活性粉末混凝土材料推广和应用具有十分重要意义。%High-speed rail cable slot cover the RPC-130 reactive powder concrete,reactive powder concrete is high technology,high cost of concrete,it has the characteristics such as high strength,high durability, high weather resistance,better than any concrete.Through the optimization of reactive powder concrete mixture ratio,and adjustment of reactive powder concrete materials,make the popularization of reactive powder concrete materials,process simplification, cost economization,will be popularized and applied to the reactive powder concrete material has very important significance.

  19. The correlation between high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein level and the Extent of Coronary Lesion and Cardiac Systolic Function in Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftah Suryadipradja

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the mean value of high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP, association between plasma level of hs-CRP with extent of disease and systolic function. A cross sectional study had been conducted to 106 coronary artery disease patients (90 stable angina pectoris, 11 unstable angina pectoris and 5 acute myocardial infarction. Plasma quantitative level of hs-CRP with cor angiography to determine extent of disease and ejection fraction were measured. The mean of hs-CRP levels in patients with SVD were 5,5 ± 7,6 mg/L, DVD were 6,6 ± 21,7 mg/L and TVD were 5,5 ± 8,0 mg/L and p=0,056, respectively. There were no significant association between hs- CRP levels with extent of disease. Systolic function had negative correlation with levels of hs-CRP (p=0,015, r=-0,235. This study showed that plasma level of hs-CRP cannot reflect the extent of disease, and it had negative correlation with systolic function. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 201-6 Keywords: high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, extent of disease, systolic function, coronary artery diseases.

  20. Virtual Screening SNP-Polymorphisms of Genes Determining the High Level of General Non-Specific Reactivity of Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Shatyr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a bioinformatic search using resources of NCBI PubMed Central, PDB, KEGG, and SNP authors have developed a database of genes associated with phenotypic manifestations of general non-specific reactivity level (GNRL. Out of 164 genes primarily relevant by search criteria for a detailed analysis there are selected 23 genes, divided into four groups: genes associated with the synthesis and reception of neurotransmitters (1; genes associated with membrane transport of electrolytes (2; genes associated with the synthesis of interleukins (3; and genes associated with certain metabolic response (4. After studying the SNP-polymorphisms annotations in the database NCBI-SNP, 10 genes and 20 SNP- polymorphisms were identified as the most likely candidates for the potential formation of phenotypic manifestations for GNRL. Further analysis of the degree of influence the conformational variability of amino acid chains in forming the secondary structure of proteins on their likely functional properties allows to select as promising the next 6 SNP: rs1851048 and rs 6777055 in the cacna2d3 gene, encoding the voltage gated Ca2+ channels; rs2562456 in znf-ld gene of zinc-containing transcriptional regulator of DNA methylation; rs6923492 and rs362962 in grm1 gene of metabotropic glutamate receptor; and rs6314 in htr2a gene, coding for serotonin receptor type 2A

  1. Thermally reactive Thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole based copolymers for high photochemical stability in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    New thermally reactive copolymers based on dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (DTZ) and silolodithiophene (SDT) have been synthesized and explored in bulk heterojunction solar cells as mixtures with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In thin films the polymers had optical band gaps...... in the range of 1.64-1.80 eV. For solubility the polymers have incorporated alkyl groups on the SDT unit and thermally removable ester groups on the DTZ unit that can be eliminated around 200 °C for improved photochemical stability in thin films. The bulkiness of the alkyl chains on the SDT unit proved...... to be very significant in terms of photovoltaic performance of the polymer:PCBM solar cells. Polymers based on 4,4-dihexyl-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene reached power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.45% but changing the alkyl groups to more bulky ethylhexyl chains reduced the PCE to 1.17%. More...

  2. Chemical Reactivity Dynamics and Quantum Chaos in Highly Excited Hydrogen Atoms in an External Field: A Quantum Potential Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Maiti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Dynamical behavior of chemical reactivity indices like electronegativity, hardness, polarizability, electrophilicity and nucleophilicity indices is studied within a quantum fluid density functional framework for the interactions of a hydrogen atom in its ground electronic state (n = 1 and an excited electronic state (n = 20 with monochromatic and bichromatic laser pulses. Time dependent analogues of various electronic structure principles like the principles of electronegativity equalization, maximum hardness, minimum polarizability and maximum entropy have been found to be operative. Insights into the variation of intensities of the generated higher order harmonics on the color of the external laser field are obtained. The quantum signature of chaos in hydrogen atom has been studied using a quantum theory of motion and quantum fluid dynamics. A hydrogen atom in the electronic ground state (n = 1 and in an excited electronic state ( n = 20 behaves differently when placed in external oscillating monochromatic and bichromatic electric fields. Temporal evolutions of Shannon entropy, quantum Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov – Sinai entropy defined in terms of the distance between two initially close Bohmian trajectories for these two cases show marked differences. It appears that a larger uncertainty product and a smaller hardness value signal a chaotic behavior.

  3. The Effect of Prophylactic Lamivudine plus Adefovir Therapy Compared with Lamivudine Alone in Preventing Hepatitis B Reactivation in Lymphoma Patients with High Baseline HBV DNA during Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Chen, Jie; Wu, Shaoxu; Geng, Qirong; Huang, Huiqiang; Lin, Tongyu; Jiang, Wenqi; Xia, Zhongjun; Duan, Huaxin; Rao, Huilan; Yao, Mengfei; Hu, Liyang

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic antiviral therapy is essential for lymphoma patients with high baseline HBV DNA who undergo cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, there are limited data on the optimal options. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of prophylactic lamivudine (LAM) with lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil (LAM+ADV) in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in lymphoma with, pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 86 lymphoma patients with baseline HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml during chemotherapy and received LAM or LAM+ADV as prophylaxis between January 1, 2008 and November 30, 2014 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, China. Sixty-five patients received LAM and 21 received LAM+ADV. The rate was significantly lower in the LAM+ADV group compared with the LAM group for HBV reactivation (23.8% vs 55.4%; p = 0.012), while no difference was observed between the two groups in patients for HBV-related hepatitis (21.3% vs 33.3%; p   =  0.349), and chemotherapy disruption (10.9% vs 19.0%; p = 0.337). In a multivariate analysis of factors associated with HBV reactivation in these patients, LAM+ADV treatment and HBeAg negative were the independent protective factors. Therefore, LAM+ADV should be considered for antiviral prophylaxis in lymphoma patients with pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. Further study is warranted to confirm these findings.

  4. Generation of highly reactive oxygen species by co-adsorption of oxygen and water on metal-supported MgO(100) thinfilms

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Zhenjun

    2015-01-01

    The formation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) on metal oxide surfaces have attracted considerable interest due to their diverse applications. In this work, we have performed densi-ty-functional theory calculations to investigate the co-adsorption of oxygen and water on ul-trathin MgO(100) films deposited on Mo(100) substrate. We reveal that the molecular oxygen can be stepwise decomposed completely with the assistance of water. Consequently, a series of highly ROS including superoxide, hydroperoxide, hydroxyl and single oxygen adatom are formed on Mo(100) supported MgO(100) thinfilms. The reaction barriers accompanied by the generation of ROS are reported, and the influence of the thickness of MgO(100) films is also discussed. The most promising routes to produce these fascinating species provide valuable information to understand the importance of synergistic effect, namely the substrate, the co-adorbed species, and the film thickness, in multiphase catalyst design.

  5. Soluble CD163, adiponectin, C-reactive protein and progression of dysglycaemia in individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deichgræber, Pia; Witte, Daniel R; Møller, Holger J

    2016-01-01

    for baseline waist circumference and smoking. Adjustment for CRP did not change the associations for sCD163 or adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings indicate that mechanisms related to inflammation, including macrophage activation and adipocyte metabolism, may play a role in changes in glucose......AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to investigate the association between the macrophage-activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in glycaemia, insulin resistance and insulin secretion in individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS......: This prospective study included 1014 individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in the Danish arm of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch study of Intensive Treatment In PeOple with ScreeN-detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION-Europe trial) baseline examination in 2001-2006 and follow...

  6. A study of the oxygen dynamics in a reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge using an ionization region model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, D.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Brenning, N.; Raadu, M. A.; Minea, T. M.

    2017-05-01

    The oxygen dynamics in a reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been studied using a new reactive ionization region model. The aim has been to identify the dominating physical and chemical reactions in the plasma and on the surfaces of the reactor affecting the oxygen plasma chemistry. We explore the temporal evolution of the density of the ground state oxygen molecule O 2 ( X 1 Σg - ) , the singlet metastable oxygen molecules O 2 ( a 1 Δ g ) and O 2 ( b 1 Σ g ) , the oxygen atom in the ground state O(3P), the metastable oxygen atom O(1D), the positive ions O2 + and O+, and the negative ion O-. We furthermore investigate the reaction rates for the gain and loss of these species. The density of atomic oxygen increases significantly as we move from the metal mode to the transition mode, and finally into the compound (poisoned) mode. The main gain rate responsible for the increase is sputtering of atomic oxygen from the oxidized target. Both in the poisoned mode and in the transition mode, sputtering makes up more than 80% of the total gain rate for atomic oxygen. We also investigate the possibility of depositing stoichiometric TiO2 in the transition mode.

  7. 大掺量矿物细粉掺和料活性粉末混凝土高温性能%High Temperature Performance of High Volume Fine Mineral Mixture of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟红; 宋少民

    2012-01-01

    This paper researches the burst properties of high temperature and compressive strength after heating of high volume fine mineral mixture of reactive powder concrete. Results show that with the decrease of the water-cement ratio, the burst temperature of the specimen decreases and the burst probability increases. The initial time and temperature of high-temperature burst decrease with increasing amount of fine mineral mixture. Polypropylene fiber can effectively improve the anti-burst performance of reactive powder concrete. Reactive powder concrete after 200 ℃ heating can increase the compressive strength. In addition, adding polypropylene fiber can improve the compressive strength of reactive powder concrete and residual strength ratio in the range of 200 ℃.%研究了大掺量矿物细粉活性粉末混凝土高温爆裂性能和高温后的抗压强度.结果表明,试件的爆裂温度随着水胶比的减小而降低,爆裂几率随水胶比的降低而增大;高温爆裂的初始时间和温度随矿物细粉掺和料掺量增多而降低;聚丙烯纤维能有效地改善活性粉末混凝土抗爆裂性能;活性粉末混凝土经200屯高温后的抗压强度有所增加,且聚丙烯纤维的加入可使活性粉末混凝土抗压强度和200℃范围内残余强度率有一定幅度提高.

  8. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  9. Specific photosynthetic rate enhancement by cyanobacteria coated onto paper enables engineering of highly reactive cellular biocomposite "leaves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Oscar I; Mooney, Charles B; Flickinger, Michael C

    2014-10-01

    We describe a latex wet coalescence extrusive coating method that produces up to 10-fold specific photosynthetic rate enhancements by nitrate-limited non-growing cyanobacteria deposited onto paper, hydrated and placed in the gas-phase of small tube photobioreactors. These plant leaf-like biocomposites were used to study the tolerance of cyanobacteria strains to illumination and temperature using a solar simulator. We report sustained CO2 absorption and O2 production for 500 h by hydrated gas-phase paper coatings of non-growing Synechococcus PCC7002, Synechocystis PCC6803, Synechocystis PCC6308, and Anabaena PCC7120. Nitrate-starved cyanobacteria immobilized on the paper surface by the latex binder did not grow out of the coatings into the bulk liquid. The average CO2 consumption rate in Synechococcus coatings is 5.67 mmol m(-2)  h(-1) which is remarkably close to the rate reported in the literature for Arabidopsis thaliana leaves under similar experimental conditions (18 mmol m(-2)  h(-1) ). We observed average ratios of oxygen production to carbon dioxide consumption (photosynthetic quotient, PQ) between 1.3 and 1.4, which may indicate a strong dependence on nitrate assimilation during growth and was used to develop a non-growth media formulation for intrinsic kinetics studies. Photosynthetic intensification factors (PIF) (O2 production by nitrate-limited cyanobacteria in latex coatings/O2 produced by nitrate-limited cell suspensions) in cyanobacteria biocomposites prepared from wet cell pellets concentrated 100- to 300-fold show 7-10 times higher specific reactivity compared to cells in suspension under identical nitrate-limited non-growth conditions. This is the first report of changes of cyanobacteria tolerance to temperature and light intensities after deposition as a thin coating on a porous matrix, which has important implications for gas-phase photobioreactor design using porous composite materials. Cryo-fracture SEM and confocal microscopy

  10. Association of asthma with serum IgE and skin test reactivity to allergens among children living at high altitude. Tickling the dragon's breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporik, R; Ingram, J M; Price, W; Sussman, J H; Honsinger, R W; Platts-Mills, T A

    1995-05-01

    Asthma in children and young adults is strongly associated with immediate hypersensitivity to indoor allergens, notably those derived from the house dust mite. In addition, outdoor air pollution is considered to aggravate existing asthma. We investigated the prevalence of asthma and the pattern of allergen sensitization in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution. A total of 567 children aged between 12 and 14 attending Los Alamos Middle School, NM (altitude 7,200 feet) were screened using a respiratory questionnaire; 120 children (53 control children) underwent allergen skin testing and serum IgE measurement, and their bronchial reactivity to histamine was measured. Dust was collected from 111 homes and the level of indoor mite and cat allergen measured. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high (13%), and from the detailed testing it was estimated that 6.3% of the children had asthma (defined as symptomatic bronchial reactivity). Children with asthma had elevated IgE, 367 (179 to 755) versus 38 (23 to 61), and predominant sensitization to cat, 68 versus 20% (p < 0.001). A high number of households (77%) had a pet cat or dog. The concentration of mite allergen was very low (mean 0.18 micrograms Der p milligrams sieved house dust), whereas that of cat allergen was high in homes with a cat (80.8 micrograms Fel d milligrams) but also in homes with no cat (3.2 micrograms Fel d milligrams). The results show that in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution, asthma was still a major cause of morbidity among schoolchildren.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Dynamin-related protein inhibitor downregulates reactive oxygen species levels to indirectly suppress high glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitijiang, Alimujiang; Zhuang, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaofei; Li, Yong, E-mail: 11211220031@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-03-18

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a pathogenic mechanism common in diabetic vascular complications and is a putatively important therapeutic target. This study investigated multiple levels of biology, including cellular and organellar changes, as well as perturbations in protein synthesis and morphology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was utilized to assess the effect of mitochondrial dynamic changes and reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels on high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The data demonstrated that the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and downregulation of ROS levels both effectively inhibited the high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Downregulation of ROS levels played a more direct role and ROS levels were also regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Increased ROS levels induced excessive mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein (Drp 1), while Mdivi-1 suppressed the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS levels, thus inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission under high-glucose conditions. This study is the first to propose that mitochondrial dynamic changes and ROS levels interact with each other and regulate high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding provides novel ideas in understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling and intervention. - Highlights: • Mdivi-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation by lowering ROS level in high-glucose condition. • ROS may be able to induce mitochondrial fission through Drp1 regulation. • Mdivi-1 can suppress the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS.

  12. Visible-light active thin-film WO3 photocatalyst with controlled high-rate deposition by low-damage reactive-gas-flow sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Oka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A process based on reactive gas flow sputtering (GFS for depositing visible-light active photocatalytic WO3 films at high deposition rates and with high film quality was successfully demonstrated. The deposition rate for this process was over 10 times higher than that achieved by the conventional sputtering process and the process was highly stable. Furthermore, Pt nanoparticle-loaded WO3 films deposited by the GFS process exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than those deposited by conventional sputtering, where the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the extent of decomposition of CH3CHO under visible light irradiation. The decomposition time for 60 ppm of CH3CHO was 7.5 times more rapid on the films deposited by the GFS process than on the films deposited by the conventional process. During GFS deposition, there are no high-energy particles bombarding the growing film surface, whereas the bombardment of the surface with high-energy particles is a key feature of conventional sputtering. Hence, the WO3 films deposited by GFS should be of higher quality, with fewer structural defects, which would lead to a decrease in the number of centers for electron-hole recombination and to the efficient use of photogenerated holes for the decomposition of CH3CHO.

  13. Cardiovascular risk prediction by N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide and high sensitivity C-reactive protein is affected by age and sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.H.; Hansen, T.W.; Christensen, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) predict cardiovascular events in a general population aged 41, 51, 61 or 71 years. This study investigated...... factors, UACR, hsCRP and Nt-proBNP. The composite cardiovascular endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death and non-fatal stroke or myocardial infarction was assessed after 9.5 years. RESULTS: In Cox regression analyses predicting CEP, the effects of log(hsCRP) and log(Nt-proBNP) were modulated by sex (P ....3-2.2; P proBNP)/SD predicted CEP in 61 plus 71-year-old women (HR 1.74; 1.2-2.5; P pro...

  14. Application of a Coated Film Catalyst Layer Model to a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Low Catalyst Loading Produced by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Myles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model is presented that correlates to previously obtained experimental overpotential data for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC. The goal is to reinforce the understanding of the performance of the cell from a modeling perspective. The HT-PEMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs were constructed utilizing an 85 wt. % phosphoric acid doped Advent TPS® membranes for the electrolyte and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs manufactured by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT. MEAs with varying ratios of PTFE binder to carbon support material (I/C ratio were manufactured and their performance at various operating temperatures was recorded. The semi-empirical model derivation was based on the coated film catalyst layer approach and was calibrated to the experimental data by a least squares method. The behavior of important physical parameters as a function of I/C ratio and operating temperature were explored.

  15. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor-Based Biosensor for the Detection of C-Reactive Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Ho; Bae, Myunghan; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Son, Dong Hyeok; Won, Chul-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, Shin-Won

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, we propose an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT)-based biosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) using a null-balancing circuit. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly. The output voltage of the proposed biosensor was varied by antigen-antibody interactions on the gate surface due to CRP charges. The AlGaN/GaN HFET-based biosensor with null-balancing circuit applied shows that CRP can be detected in a wide range of concentrations, varying from 10 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out to verify the immobilization of self-assembled monolayer with Au on the gated region.

  16. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor-Based Biosensor for the Detection of C-Reactive Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Ho Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT-based biosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP using a null-balancing circuit. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly. The output voltage of the proposed biosensor was varied by antigen-antibody interactions on the gate surface due to CRP charges. The AlGaN/GaN HFET-based biosensor with null-balancing circuit applied shows that CRP can be detected in a wide range of concentrations, varying from 10 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out to verify the immobilization of self-assembled monolayer with Au on the gated region.

  17. Current status of high on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients with coronary or peripheral arterial disease:Mechanisms,evaluation and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stavros Spiliopoulos; Georgios Pastromas

    2015-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin or clopidogrel or both is the standard care for patients with proven coronary or peripheral arterial disease,especially those undergoing endovascular revascularization procedures. However,despite the administration of the antiplatelet regiments,some patients still experience recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events. So far,it is well documented by several studies that in vitro response of platelets may be extremely variable. Poor antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel or high on-treatment platelet reactivity(HTPR) is under investigation by numerous recent studies. This review article focuses on methods used for the ex vivo evaluation of HTPR,as well as on the possible underlying mechanisms and the clinical consequences of this entity. Alternative therapeutic options and future directions are also addressed.

  18. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is in contrast to high-sensitive C-reactive-protein associated with coronary artery calcifications in healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between two markers of low-grade inflammation; soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score detected by cardiac...... computed tomography (CT) scan. DESIGN: A cross sectional study of 1126 randomly sampled middle-aged men and women. METHODS: CAC score was measured by a non-contrast cardiac CT scan and total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated using the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). Plasma...... samples were analysed for suPAR and hs-CRP. The association of suPAR and hs-CRP to CAC was evaluated by logistic regression analyses adjusting for categorised SCORE. The additive effect of suPAR to SCORE was evaluated by comparing area under curve (AUC) and net reclassification improvement (NRI). RESULTS...

  19. The Prognostic Impact of High On-Treatment Platelet Reactivity with Aspirin or ADP Receptor Antagonists: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio D’Ascenzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Negative results of recent randomized clinical trials testing the hypothesis of target therapy for patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HOPR have questioned its independent impact on clinical outcomes. 26 studies with 28.178 patients were included, with a median age of 66.8 (64–68 and 22.7% (22.4–27.8, of female gender. After a median follow-up of 1 year (0.1–1, cardiac adverse events occurred in 8.3% (3–11; all results are reported as median and interquartile range of patients. Pooling all studies together, on-treatment platelet reactivity significantly increased the risk of adverse events (OR 1.33 [1.09, 1.64], I2=0%. However, a sensitivity analysis showed that HOPR did not increase the risk of adverse events for patients with ACS, AMI, or stable angina as well as patients resistant to aspirin, ADP antagonists, or both. For all studies, publication bias was formally evident; after adjusting for this, HOPR did not significantly increase adverse cardiac events (OR 1.1 : 0.89–1.22, I2 0%. Conclusions. After adjusting for clinical confounders (like risk factors and clinical presentation and for relevant publication bias, HOPR was not an independent prognostic indicator in unselected patients with both stable and unstable coronary disease for an adverse cardiac event. The clinical importance of HOPR for high-risk populations remains to be assessed.

  20. High-Density Peptide Microarray Analysis of IgG Autoantibody Reactivities in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Michael; Fitzner, Brit; Wendt, Matthias; Lorenz, Peter; Flechtner, Kristin; Steinbeck, Felix; Schröder, Ina; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Zettl, Uwe Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis and oligoclonal IgG bands in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the antigen specificities remain enigmatic. Our study is the first investigating the autoantibody repertoire in paired serum and CSF samples from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), and other neurological diseases by the use of high-density peptide microarrays. Protein sequences of 45 presumed MS autoantigens (e.g.MOG, MBP, and MAG) were represented on the microarrays by overlapping 15mer peptides. IgG reactivities were screened against a total of 3991 peptides, including also selected viral epitopes. The measured antibody reactivities were highly individual but correlated for matched serum and CSF samples. We found 54 peptides to be recognized significantly more often by serum or CSF antibodies from MS patients compared with controls (pvalues <0.05). The results for RRMS and PPMS clearly overlapped. However, PPMS patients presented a broader peptide-antibody signature. The highest signals were detected for a peptide mapping to a region of the Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA1 (amino acids 392-411), which is homologous to the N-terminal part of human crystallin alpha-B. Our data confirmed several known MS-associated antigens and epitopes, and they delivered additional potential linear epitopes, which await further validation. The peripheral and intrathecal humoral immune response in MS is polyspecific and includes antibodies that are also found in serum of patients with other diseases. Further studies are required to assess the pathogenic relevance of autoreactive and anti-EBNA1 antibodies as well as their combinatorial value as biomarkers for MS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. High-Density Peptide Microarray Analysis of IgG Autoantibody Reactivities in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Multiple Sclerosis Patients*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Michael; Fitzner, Brit; Wendt, Matthias; Lorenz, Peter; Flechtner, Kristin; Steinbeck, Felix; Schröder, Ina; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Zettl, Uwe Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis and oligoclonal IgG bands in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the antigen specificities remain enigmatic. Our study is the first investigating the autoantibody repertoire in paired serum and CSF samples from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), and other neurological diseases by the use of high-density peptide microarrays. Protein sequences of 45 presumed MS autoantigens (e.g. MOG, MBP, and MAG) were represented on the microarrays by overlapping 15mer peptides. IgG reactivities were screened against a total of 3991 peptides, including also selected viral epitopes. The measured antibody reactivities were highly individual but correlated for matched serum and CSF samples. We found 54 peptides to be recognized significantly more often by serum or CSF antibodies from MS patients compared with controls (p values <0.05). The results for RRMS and PPMS clearly overlapped. However, PPMS patients presented a broader peptide-antibody signature. The highest signals were detected for a peptide mapping to a region of the Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA1 (amino acids 392–411), which is homologous to the N-terminal part of human crystallin alpha-B. Our data confirmed several known MS-associated antigens and epitopes, and they delivered additional potential linear epitopes, which await further validation. The peripheral and intrathecal humoral immune response in MS is polyspecific and includes antibodies that are also found in serum of patients with other diseases. Further studies are required to assess the pathogenic relevance of autoreactive and anti-EBNA1 antibodies as well as their combinatorial value as biomarkers for MS. PMID:26831522

  2. The high reactivity of peroxiredoxin 2 with H(2)O(2) is not reflected in its reaction with other oxidants and thiol reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Alexander V; Low, Felicia M; Paton, Louise N; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Hampton, Mark B; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2007-04-20

    Peroxiredoxin 2 is a member of the mammalian peroxiredoxin family of thiol proteins that is important in antioxidant defense and redox signaling. We have examined its reactivity with various biological oxidants, in order to assess its ability to act as a direct physiological target for these species. Human erythrocyte peroxiredoxin 2 was oxidized stoichiometrically to its disulfide-bonded homodimer by hydrogen peroxide, as monitored electrophoretically under nonreducing conditions. The protein was highly susceptible to oxidation by adventitious peroxide, which could be prevented by treating buffers with low concentrations of catalase. However, this did not protect peroxiredoxin 2 against oxidation by added H(2)O(2). Experiments measuring inhibition of dimerization indicated that at pH 7.4 catalase and peroxiredoxin 2 react with hydrogen peroxide at comparable rates. A rate constant of 1.3 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) for the peroxiredoxin reaction was obtained from competition kinetic studies with horseradish peroxidase. This is 100-fold faster than is generally assumed. It is sufficiently high for peroxiredoxin to be a favored cellular target for hydrogen peroxide, even in competition with catalase or glutathione peroxidase. Reactions of t-butyl and cumene hydroperoxides with peroxiredoxin were also fast, but amino acid chloramines reacted much more slowly. This contrasts with other thiol compounds that react many times faster with chloramines than with hydrogen peroxide. The alkylating agent iodoacetamide also reacted extremely slowly with peroxiredoxin 2. These results demonstrate that peroxiredoxin 2 has a tertiary structure that facilitates reaction of the active site thiol with hydrogen peroxide while restricting its reactivity with other thiol reagents.

  3. Levafix CA高日晒活性三原色轧染适用性测试%Suitability test for Levafix CA high light trichromatic reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李偲

    2014-01-01

    通过分析Levafix CA高日晒活性中浅色三原色的渗透性、比移值、耐盐碱性、配伍性等性能,采用轧染工艺多次染色做效果对比,最后对轧染色布进行牢度测试,结果表明:Levafix CA高日晒活性三原色具有良好的渗透性、配伍性,对盐碱上染影响一致,同步上色性、染色稳定性好,色布日晒牢度达到5级以上,汗光牢度达到4级以上,且其他色牢度不会降低,适合轧染染拼色。%The permeability, Rf value, saline-alkaline resistance and compatibility of Levafix CA high light reactive dyes in mid-light primary colors were analyzed. The effect of multi-dyeing via pad dyeing process was compared. The fastness of pad-dyed fabrics was finally tested. Results showed that Levafix CA high light trichromatic reactive dyes exhibit good permeability, compatibility, synchronous coloring and dyeing stability, and its influences on saline and alkaline dyeing is consistent. It was suitable for color matching by pad dyeing, for the light fastness and perspiration-light fastness reached above 5 grade and 4 grade respectively and other fastnesses did not decrease.

  4. [REACTIVE CHANGES IN SPINAL CORD MOTONEURONS AFTER SCIATIC NERVE INJURY AFTER HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROSURGICAL INSTRUMENT APPLICATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, A; Chaikovsky, Yu; Sokurenko, L; Likhodiievskyi, V; Neverovskyi, A

    2016-02-01

    A new experimental model for tissues connection at peripheral nerve injury site in form of tissues welding was designed. In current study we investigated motoneuron state 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks after peripheral nerve injury and surgical repair with high-frequency electrosurgical technology. Spinal cord sections was stained by Nissl method and observed with light microscopy. We found that postoperative period in animals from experimental groups characterized by qualitative changes in neurons from spinal motor centers that can be interpreted as compensatory processes as response to alteration. In animals from group with high-frequency electrosurgical technology usage stabilization processes passes more quickly comparatively to animals with epineural sutures. High-frequency electrosurgical technology usage provides less harmful effects on motoneurons than epineural suturing.

  5. A Highly Reactive Seven-Coordinate Osmium(V) Oxo Complex: [Os(V)(O)(qpy)(pic)Cl](2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Ng, Siu-Mui; Lam, William W Y; Yiu, Shek-Man; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2016-01-04

    Seven-coordinate ruthenium oxo species have been proposed as active intermediates in catalytic water oxidation by a number of highly active ruthenium catalysts, however such species have yet to be isolated. Reported herein is the first example of a seven-coordinate group 8 metal-oxo species, [Os(V)(O)(qpy)(pic)Cl](2+) (qpy = 2,2':6',2'':6'',2'''-quaterpyridine, pic = 4-picoline). The X-ray crystal structure of this complex shows that it has a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal geometry with an Os=O distance of 1.7375 Å. This oxo species undergoes facile O-atom and H-atom-transfer reactions with various organic substrates. Notably it can abstract H atoms from alkylaromatics with C-H bond dissociation energy as high as 90 kcal mol(-1). This work suggests that highly active oxidants may be designed based on group 8 seven-coordinate metal oxo species.

  6. Biomass to fuels : Upgrading of flash pyrolysis oil by reactive distillation using a high boiling alcohol and acid catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, F.H.; Melian Cabrera, I.V.; Manurung, R.M.; Heeres, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    We here report our studies on the upgrading of flash pyrolysis oil using an improved alcohol treatment method. The method consists of treating pyrolysis oil with a high boiling alcohol like n-butanol in the presence of a (solid) acid catalyst at 323-353 K under reduced pressure (<10 kPa). Using this

  7. Propolis, a Constituent of Honey, Inhibits the Development of Sugar Cataracts and High-Glucose-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in Rat Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppei Shibata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigated the effects of oral propolis on the progression of galactose-induced sugar cataracts in rats and the in vitro effects of propolis on high-glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell death in cultured rat lens cells (RLECs. Methods. Galactose-fed rats and RLECs cultured in high glucose (55 mM medium were treated with propolis or vehicle control. Relative lens opacity was assessed by densitometry and changes in lens morphology by histochemical analysis. Intracellular ROS levels and cell viability were measured. Results. Oral administration of propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of cataract in 15% and 25% of galactose-fed rats, respectively. RLECs cultured with high glucose showed a significant increase in ROS expression with reduced cell viability. Treatment of these RLECs with 5 and 50 μg/mL propolis cultured significantly reduced ROS levels and increased cell viability, indicating that the antioxidant activity of propolis protected cells against ROS-induced damage. Conclusion. Propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of sugar cataract in rats and mitigated high-glucose-induced ROS production and cell death. These effects may be associated with the ability of propolis to inhibit hyperglycemia-evoked oxidative or osmotic stress-induced cellular insults.

  8. Propolis, a Constituent of Honey, Inhibits the Development of Sugar Cataracts and High-Glucose-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in Rat Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Teppei; Shibata, Shinsuke; Shibata, Naoko; Kiyokawa, Etsuko; Singh, Dhirendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the effects of oral propolis on the progression of galactose-induced sugar cataracts in rats and the in vitro effects of propolis on high-glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in cultured rat lens cells (RLECs). Methods. Galactose-fed rats and RLECs cultured in high glucose (55 mM) medium were treated with propolis or vehicle control. Relative lens opacity was assessed by densitometry and changes in lens morphology by histochemical analysis. Intracellular ROS levels and cell viability were measured. Results. Oral administration of propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of cataract in 15% and 25% of galactose-fed rats, respectively. RLECs cultured with high glucose showed a significant increase in ROS expression with reduced cell viability. Treatment of these RLECs with 5 and 50 μg/mL propolis cultured significantly reduced ROS levels and increased cell viability, indicating that the antioxidant activity of propolis protected cells against ROS-induced damage. Conclusion. Propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of sugar cataract in rats and mitigated high-glucose-induced ROS production and cell death. These effects may be associated with the ability of propolis to inhibit hyperglycemia-evoked oxidative or osmotic stress-induced cellular insults. PMID:27242920

  9. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): from “green” plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity [high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)], PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems. PMID:24790960

  10. PSI's 1kW imaging furnace-A tool for high-temperature chemical reactivity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesdon, C.; Alxneit, I.; Tschudi, H.R.; Wuillemin, D.; Brunner, Y.; Winkel, L.; Sturzenegger, M. [Laboratory for High-Temperature Solar Technology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Petrasch, J. [Professorship for Renewable Energy Carriers, ETHZ Zentrum, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-10-15

    A new experiment has been installed to conduct studies at temperatures as high as 2500K on chemical reactions that involve solids or melts and the release of condensable gases. The sample is radiatively heated by a 1kW xenon short arc lamp placed in the upper focus of a vertically oriented ellipsoid of revolution. The optimal optical configuration has been determined by a Monte-Carlo Ray tracing method. Several methods to machine the reflector have been evaluated by experimentally determining the optical quality of the surface of plane test pieces. In the imaging furnace the sample is placed on a water-cooled support and heated by the concentrated radiation. This arrangement allows for fast heating and impedes the reaction of the sample with crucible material. A remotely controlled hammer allows for freezing the high-temperature composition of the sample by a fast quench. Thus, the sample can be later analyzed by conventional methods such as XRD or TEM. To allow for measurements under defined atmospheres and to protect the ellipsoidal reflector from liberated condensable products, the entire sample stage is enclosed by a hemispherical glass dome. The dome itself is protected from condensable compounds by a laminar flow of inert gas. Experiments with an incense cone at the place of the sample to visualize the gas flow showed that a steady layer of inert gas protects the dome from smoke, if the inert gas flow is properly adjusted. Measured peak flux densities clearly exceed 500Wcm{sup -2} required to access temperatures of at least 2500K. Decomposition experiments on copper sulfides confirmed the operation of the furnace. In the near future flash assisted multi-wavelength pyrometry (FAMP) will be implemented to measure sample temperatures online. Though the imaging furnace was developed to study the decomposition of metal sulfides it is obviously suited to conduct high-temperature studies on most materials relevant for high-temperature solar technology. (author)

  11. Platelet hyperaggregability in high-fat fed rats: A role for intraplatelet reactive-oxygen species production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Priscila F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiposity greatly increases the risk of atherothrombotic events, a pathological condition where a chronic state of oxidative stress is reported to play a major role. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of (NO-soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC signaling pathway in the platelet dysfunction from high fat-fed (HFF rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed for 10 weeks with standard chow (SCD or high-fat diet (HFD. ADP (10 μM- and thrombin (100 mU/ml-induced washed platelet aggregation were evaluated. Measurement of intracellular levels of ROS levels was carried out using flow cytometry. Cyclic GMP levels were evaluated using ELISA kits. Results High-fat fed rats exhibited significant increases in body weight, epididymal fat, fasting glucose levels and glucose intolerance compared with SCD group. Platelet aggregation induced by ADP (n = 8 and thrombin from HFD rats (n = 8 were significantly greater (P n = 6. N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 1 mM and PEG-catalase (1000 U/ml fully prevented the increased ROS production and platelet hyperaggregability in HFD group. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10 μM and SNAP (10 μM, as well as the NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator BAY 41-2272 (10 μM inhibited the platelet aggregation in HFD group with lower efficacy (P P n = 4. Conclusions Metabolic abnormalities as consequence of HFD cause platelet hyperaggregability involving enhanced intraplatelet ROS production and decreased NO bioavailability that appear to be accompanied by potential defects in the prosthetic haem group of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

  12. Serum levels of high sensitivity C-Reactive protein and its association with lipidemic status in Bangladeshi healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rehnuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic diseases are affecting human health all over the world. These chronic disease states are associated with high sensitive CRP. The present study aims to measure hsCRP and lipid levels in a group of healthy adults to work out the normal hsCRP levels and explore its relationship to lipidemic and anthropometric variables.Materials and Methods: A total of 149 adults, age 30-60 yrs, healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Vital statistics were taken along with measurement of blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and hsCRP levels. Data were analyzed using statistical Package for Social Program (SPSS for Windows version 10.Results: Mean (±SD hsCRP was 2.46±1.89 (mg/l with a cut off value of 3mg/l. Of the total 149 subjects 102 (66.4% and 47 (31.5% subjects had hsCRP level below and above the cutoff respectively. Triglyceride was significantly higher (p=0.033 and HDL was lower in subjects with high hsCRP. Total cholesterol and LDL was almost similar in both groups. Binary logistic regression showed significant negative association between hsCRP and HDLc (p=0.029 and but the model excluding HDL-c showed significant positive association (p=0.03 with triglyceride.Conclusion: About one-third of healthy Bangladeshi adults may have chronic subclinical inflammation and thus may have a risk of cardiovascular disorders. More than one-third healthy Bangladeshi adults have one or more type of dyslipidemia and the subclinical chronic inflammation in healthy Bangladeshi adults has a positive association with their serum triglyceride and negative association with their HDL-cholesterol levels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11591 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 644-648

  13. Diffusion behavior of Nb element in high Nb containing TiAl Alloys by reactive hot pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanhang; LIN Junpin; HE Yuehui; WANG Yanli; CHEN Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion behavior of Nb in elemental powder metallurgy high Nb containing TiAl alloys was investigated. The results show that Nb element dissolves into the matrix by diffusion. Pore nests are formed in situ after Nb diffusion. With the increase in hot pressing temperature, the diffusion of Nb will be more sufficient, and the microstructure is more homogeneous. Nb element diffuses completely at 1400℃. Meanwhile, compression deformation and agglomeration phenomena of pores are observed in some pore nests. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment can only efficiently decrease but not eliminate porosity completely.

  14. Apolipoprotein B/A-I and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios both predict cardiovascular events in the general population independently of nonlipid risk factors, albuminuria and C-reactive protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, P.J.W.H.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Hillege, J. L.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B/A-I ratios predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The extent to which these associations are modified by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and albuminuria is largely

  15. 具有高比表面积的稻壳灰的制备及其化学活性的研究%Study on Preparation of Rice Husk Ash with High Specific Surface Area and Its Chemical Reactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆革; 林清宇; 童张法; S.Sugita

    2004-01-01

    Preparation of rice husk ash with high specific surface area and chemical reactivity of the product are reported in this paper. The amorphous rice husk ash with high specific surface area of 311 m2·g-1 was produced by heating acid treated rice husk at 700℃ for 4 h. The isotherms of rice husk ash are similar in shape to type Ⅱof Brunaner's classification with mesopores being predominant. The rice husk ash has a high chemical reactivity,especially that pretreated with acid. This chemical reactivity depends on ashing temperature and pretreatment conditions. There is an exponential relation between the specific surface area of rice husk ash and the change in the conductivity of saturated Ca(OH)2 solution with rice husk ash, from which the specific surface area can be known according to the conductivity change.

  16. Performance evaluation of reactive direct current unbalanced magnetron sputter deposited nanostructured TiN coated high-speed steel drill bits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish C Barshilia; K S Rajam

    2007-12-01

    The stainless steels, in general, are considered to be difficult-to-machine materials. In order to machine these materials the surface of the tool is generally coated with physical vapour deposition (PVD) hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), etc. The adhesion is of vital importance for the performance of tools coated with PVD coatings. Proper surface treatments (in situ and ex situ) are required to achieve highly adherent PVD coatings on tools. We have deposited nanostructured TiN coatings on high-speed steel (HSS) drill bits and mild steel substrates using an indigenously built semi-industrial fourcathode reactive direct current (d.c.) unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Various treatments have been given to the substrates for improved adhesion of the TiN coatings. The process parameters have been optimized to achieve highly adherent thick good quality TiN coatings. These coatings have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy techniques. The performance of the coated HSS drill bits is evaluated by drilling a 13 mm thick 304 stainless steel plate under wet conditions. The results show significant improvement in the performance of the TiN coated HSS drill bits.

  17. Single-step, rapid low-temperature synthesis of Si quantum dots embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix in high-density reactive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Qijin [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Xu Shuyan [Plasma Sources and Applications Centre, NIE, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk 637616 (Singapore); Ostrikov, Kostya, E-mail: Kostya.Ostrikov@csiro.au [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia) and School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    A simple, effective and innovative approach based on low-pressure, thermally nonequilibrium, high-density inductively coupled plasmas is proposed to rapidly synthesize Si quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an amorphous SiC (a-SiC) matrix at a low substrate temperature and without any commonly used hydrogen dilution. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that uniform crystalline Si QDs with a size of 3-4 nm embedded in the silicon-rich (carbon content up to 10.7at.%) a-SiC matrix can be formed from the reactive mixture of silane and methane gases, with high growth rates of {approx}1.27-2.34 nm s{sup -1} and at a low substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. The achievement of the high-rate growth of Si QDs embedded in the a-SiC without any commonly used hydrogen dilution is discussed based on the unique properties of the inductively coupled plasma-based process. This work is particularly important for the development of the all-Si tandem cell-based third generation photovoltaic solar cells.

  18. High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein is Related to Central Obesity and the Number of Metabolic Syndrome Components in Jamaican Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nadia R.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Bennett, Franklyn I.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Younger-Coleman, Novie O. M.; Jackson, Maria D.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen E.; Wilks, Rainford J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has been shown to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints and is associated with CVD risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. This study evaluated the association between hsCRP and CVD risk factors among Afro-Caribbean young adults in Jamaica. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Jamaica 1986 Birth Cohort Study. Data were collected between 2005 and 2007 when participants were 18–20 years old. All participants completed an interviewer administered questionnaire and had anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements performed. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose, lipids, and hsCRP. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with high hsCRP. Results: Analyses included 342 men and 404 women with mean age 18.8 ± 0.6 years. Approximately 15% of the participants had high risk hsCRP (>3 mg/L), with a higher prevalence among women (20 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). The prevalence of elevated hsCRP increased with body mass index category, high waist circumference (WC), high triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein, and lower parental education among women, but only for high WC and lower parental education among men. In logistic regression models controlling for sex and parental education, high WC was associated with significantly higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.8–12.9, p < 0.001). In a similar model, high hsCRP was also associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components. Compared to participants with no metabolic syndrome component, having one metabolic syndrome component was associated with a twofold higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.8, p = 0.005), while having three components was associated with a 14-fold higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 13.5, 95% CI 2.4–76.0, p < 0.001). Conclusion: High hsCRP is common among Jamaican young adults and is strongly

  19. Features of cerebral vascular reactivity in patients with different clinical course of a high degree of myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Shkrebets

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine the state rate parameters of cerebral and ocular vessels in patients with glaucoma combined with myopia of high degree.Methods: the study involved 3 groups of patients aged 16-32 years: 1st — 30 patients (60 eyes — with a stationary myopia of 6.5 to 9.0 D and normal intraocular pressure (IOP; 2nd — 23 patients (46 eyes — with a high degree of progressive myopia and glaucoma with normalized intraocular pressure during instillation Azopt included 2 subgroups: subgroup A — 14 patients (28 eyes — with ischemic variant of glaucoma; subgroup B — 9 patients (18 eyes — with dyscirculatory variant of glaucoma; 3rd group (control — 10 somatically healthy individuals of similar age. Following a standard ophthalmic examination techniques, as well as color Doppler mapping of the main arteries of the brain and the eyeball on the unit Acuson 128 HR/10 (USA and hypocapnic (with O2 and hypercapnic (CO2 probe.Results: In subgroup 2A patients showed significant (p <0.05 decrease in Vs in the central retinal artery and short posterior cili- ary arteries respectively 38.0% and 32.8% and increase the resistance index (RI of vessels in 21.8% and 22.6%, increase Vs in the middle cerebral artery (MCA at 11.5% and RI by 11.8% compared to the patients the third and first groups, with а hypocapnic test Vs in the MCA decreased by 35.4%, and increased with hypercapnic test for 23.0%; of the subgroup B in central retinal vein to 33.9% and 19.6%, lower Vs and RI in the vertebral artery (VA by 20,0% and 9,1% respectively, with a hypercapnic test Vs in the MCA increased by 32.2%, and decreased during hypocapnic sample at 26.0%.Conclusion: the predominance of the ability of MCA to vasoconstriction combined with reduced blood flow in central retinal artery and short posterior ciliary arteries and cause ischemica variant of glaucoma, slowing blood flow in the vertebrobasilar basin combined with a reduction of venous outflow of the of the

  20. Pd-PEPPSI-IHept(Cl) : A General-Purpose, Highly Reactive Catalyst for the Selective Coupling of Secondary Alkyl Organozincs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Bruce; Chandrasoma, Nalin; Mitchell, David; Rodriguez, Michael J; Organ, Michael G

    2016-10-01

    Dichloro[1,3-bis(2,6-di-4-heptylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene](3-chloropyridyl)palladium(II) (Pd-PEPPSI-IHept(Cl) ), a new, very bulky yet flexible Pd-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex has been evaluated in the cross-coupling of secondary alkylzinc reactants with a wide variety of oxidative addition partners in high yields and excellent selectivity. The desired, direct reductive elimination branched products were obtained with no sign of migratory insertion across electron-rich and electron-poor aromatics and all forms of heteroaromatics (five and six membered). Impressively, there is no impact of substituents at the site of reductive elimination (i.e., ortho or even di-ortho), which has not yet been demonstrated by another catalyst system to date.

  1. High sensitivity C-reactive protein is related to central obesity and the number of metabolic syndrome components in Jamaican young adults

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    Nadia R Bennett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigh-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP has been shown to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD endpoints and is associated with CVD risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. This study evaluated the association between hsCRP and CVD risk factors among Afro-Caribbean young adults in Jamaica. MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Jamaica 1986 Birth Cohort Study. Data were collected between 2005 and 2007 when participants were 18-20 years old. All participants completed an interviewer administered questionnaire and had anthropometric and blood pressure (BP measurements performed. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose, lipids and hsCRP. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with high hsCRP.ResultsAnalyses included 342 men and 404 women with mean age 18.8 ± 0.6 years. Approximately 15% of the participants had high risk hsCRP (>3 mg/L, with a higher prevalence among women (20% vs. 9%; p<0.001. The prevalence of elevated hsCRP increased with BMI category, high waist circumference (WC, high triglycerides, low HDL, and lower parental education among women, but only for high WC and lower parental education among men. In logistic regression models controlling for sex and parental education, high WC was associated with significantly higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 7.8, 95%CI 4.8-12.9, p<0.001. In a similar model high hsCRP was also associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components. Compared to participants with no metabolic syndrome component, having one metabolic syndrome component was associated with a two-fold higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.3-3.8, p=0.005, while having three components was associated with a fourteen-fold higher odds of high hsCRP (OR 13.5, 95%CI 2.4-76.0, p<0.001. ConclusionHigh hsCRP is common among Jamaican young adults and is strongly associated with central obesity and the number of metabolic syndrome

  2. Resting Serum Concentration of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) in Sportsmen and Untrained Male Adults.

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    Niyi-Odumosu, F A; Bello, O A; Biliaminu, S A; Owoyele, B V; Abu, T O; Dominic, O L

    2017-03-06

    There is an inverse relationship between regular physical activity and concentration of serum inflammatory markers, with variations in resting CRP in trained and untrained subjects. The effect of acute and prolonged exercises has been studied on inflammatory markers with dearth of information and controversies on the resting serum values of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). Therefore, this study sought to identify and compare variations that occur in serum levels of high sensitivity CRP in groups of sportsmen (6) and physically active untrained subjects. Eighty-one healthy male participants made up of 21 untrained (control), 10 footballers, 10 athletes, 10 karates, 10 volleyballers, 10 basketballers, and 10 baseballers voluntarily participated in the study. Participants rested while in sitting position for about 30 minutes during which blood pressures and heart rates were taken. 5 mls of venous blood was withdrawn from the antecubital vein of the participants (aseptically) between 7:00 and 10:00 am into lithium heparin bottles following an overnight fast. The supernatant was decanted and centrifuged at 3000 rpm, serum was collected and stored at -20ºC prior to biochemical assay which was done with the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for hs-CRP. Differences in the means within the sporting groups were analysed using one-way ANOVA while the difference between the trained sportsmen and untrained young adults was analysed using the independent T-test. Statistical significance was set at p hs-CRP (µg/ml) was 1.0±0.2 in the untrained, 2.6±0.7 in footballers, 3.6±2.1 in track athletes, 2.4±0.5 in basketballers, 2.2±0.5 in volleyballers, 2.4±1.3 in baseballers, and 1.7±0.5 in karate respectively. There was no significant difference in the resting hs-CRP amongst the sporting groups, and in the sportsmen and untrained group. Resting serum levels of hs-CRP falls within normal range, and varies insignificantly in groups of sports, and in sportsmen

  3. Efficacy of Clopidrogel on Reperfusion and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    Mehmet Akbulut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of clopidogrel on reperfusion and inflammatory process in STEMI. A total of 175 STEMI patients with similar clinical characteristics were included to this study. One was the standard pharmacological reperfusion therapy group (group 1, n : 90, who received 300 mg aspirin, 70 U/kg bolus, and 12 U/kg/hr continuous infusion of unfractioned heparin and accelerated t-PA. Clopidogrel 450 mg loading and 75 mg/d thereafter was added to standard reperfusion therapy in the other group (group 2, n : 85. The ST-segment resolution, CK-MB, and high-sensitive CRP (hs-CRP parameters were measured. Complete ST resolution was observed in 32 patients (36.8% in group 1 and 53 patients (63.8% in group 2 (<.001. Also in the first 24 hours, the CK-MB levels of patients in group 1 were significantly higher than those of group 2 (=.001. The hs-CRP values were greater in group 1 than group 2 at 48th hour (gruop 1: 9.4±0.1 mg/L, group 2: 3.7±1.4 mg/L; =.000. We concluded that adding clopidogrel to standard treatment in STEMI patients provided early reperfusion and suppression of inflammatory response.

  4. Enhancing Saccharomyces cerevisiae reactive oxygen species and ethanol stress tolerance for high-level production of protopanoxadiol.

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    Zhao, Fanglong; Du, Yanhui; Bai, Peng; Liu, Jingjing; Lu, Wenyu; Yuan, Yingjin

    2017-03-01

    Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is an active compound in Panax ginseng. Recently, an optimized PPD synthesis pathway contained a ROS releasing step (a P450-type PPD synthase, PPDS) was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here reported a synergistic effect of PPDS-CPR (CPR, cytochrome P450 reductase) uncoupling and ethanol stress on ROS releasing, which reduced cells viability. To build a robust strain, a cell wall integrity associated gene SSD1 was high-expressed to improve ethanol tolerance, and ROS level decreased for 24.7%. Then, regulating the expression of an oxidative stress regulation gene YBP1 decreased 75.2% of ROS releasing, and improved cells viability from 71.3±1.3% to 88.3±1.4% at 84h. Increased cells viability enables yeast to produce more PPD through feeding additional ethanol. In 5L fermenter, PPD production of W3a-ssPy reached to 4.25±0.18g/L (19.48±0.28mg/L/OD600), which is the highest yield reported so far. This work makes the industrial production of PPD possible by microbial fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mg2FeH6-based nanocomposites with high capacity of hydrogen storage processed by reactive milling

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    Alexandre Augusto Cesario Asselli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The compound Mg2FeH6 was synthesized from a 2Mg-Fe mixture in a single process through high-energy ball milling under hydrogen atmosphere at room temperature. The complex hydride was prepared from Mg powder and granulated or powdered Fe using a planetary mill. The phase evolution during different milling times was performed by X-rays diffraction technique. The dehydrogenation behavior of the hydride was investigated through simultaneous thermal analyses of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometer. The use of powdered iron as starting material promoted conversion to complex hydride at shorter milling times than when granulated iron was used, nevertheless, after 24 hours of milling the 2Mg-Fe (powdered or granulated mixtures presented similar dehydrogenation behavior. The hydrogen absorption during milling was on average 3.2 wt. (%, however, changing the proportions of the reagents to 3Mg-Fe a Mg2FeH6-MgH2 based nanocomposite with higher density of hydrogen (5.2 wt. (% was obtained.

  6. [Prognostic value of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in assessing intrahospital outcome of unstable angina].

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    Ben Halima, Afef; Kammoun, Ikram; Sdiri, Wissem; Bachraoui, Kaouther; Chine, Samira; Zoaoui, Walid; Châabène, Olfa; Gargouri, Sami; Keskes, Hend; Lefi, Abdellatif; Ben Ammar, Slim; Boujnah, M Rachid; Kachboura, Salem

    2003-01-01

    Inflammation has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of unstable angina. CRP has been demonstrated to be a reliable marker of prognosis is unstable angina. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of CRP in assessing short outcome of unstable angina. Our study is a prospective double blinded one. We measured CRP in 33 consecutive patients admitted for unstable angina at the 24th and 48th hour. The mean age is 60 years (30 to 84 years). There were 22 men and 11 women. 8 patients were included in class I of Braunwald classification, 5 were in class II and 20 in class III. 14 patients presented cardiac events. The CRP mean value was significantly higher among these patients (12 mg/l vs 5 mg/l, p or = 3 mg/l have a higher risk of developing complications (66% vs 13%, p = 0.002). Elevation of CRP predicted poor outcome of intrahospital evolution with a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity 68%, a positive and negative predictive values of 66% and 86%. The CRP in our preliminary study is an independent risk factor of early outcome of unstable angina. In association with clinical scores and other cardiac markers will lead to a better identification of high risk patients.

  7. C反应蛋白与放疗皮肤反应相关性研究%Clinical study of correlation between serum levels of C-reactive protein/high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and radiation dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 陈火明; 张瑞娟; 安娟; 李治桦; 段文博; 林小华

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation between serum levels of C - reactive protein( CRP )/high - sensitivity C - reactive protein( hs - CRP ) and radiation dermatitis. Methods: One hundred and three patients with carcinoma were included. Stereotactic radiotherapy ( SRT ) was applied for 22 patients and radiation therapy ( RT ) for 81 patients. Weekly, radiation dermatitis was assessed according to EORTC( European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer )criteria and serum CRP/hs - CRP were tested. Results: The mean serum levels of CRP ( 54. 6 ±10.9 vs 17.3 ±2.5, P=0.004)/hs-CRP( 10. 4 ± 1. 9 vs 5. 6 ±0. 6, P =0.017) for SRT - treating patients were significantly higher than those treated with RT. In terms of radiation dermatitis, none was seen for SRT - trea - ting patients. For RT - treating patients, grade 0 dermatitis was seen in 2 patients, grade I in 25, grade II in 29, grade Ⅲ in 19 and grade Ⅳ in 6. The mean serum levels of CRP/hs - CRP were escalated with the severity of radiation dermatitis ( CRP: correlation coefficient 0.48, P <0. 001; hs - CRP: correlation coefficient 0. 25, P = 0. 05 ). And patients with grade 3/4 dermatitis had significantly higher mean serum level of CRP than those with grade 2 or lower dermatitis ( 33. 5 ±5. 9 vs 10. 1 ±1.8, P =0. 001 ). However, for hs - CRP, the difference was not significant ( 7. 5 ± 1. 2 vs 4. 9 ± 0. 7 , P = 0. 06 ). Conclusion: Serum level of CRP/hs - CRP increased after radiation. They had positive correlation with the severity of radiation dermatitis in RT - treating patients. Serum level of CRP was significantly higher in patients with grade 3/4 dermatitis than those with grade 2 or lower dermatitis. However, no such correlation was found in SRT - treating patients.%目的:探讨C反应蛋白(CRP)和超敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)与放疗皮肤反应之间的相关性.方法:观察103例接受放疗的恶性肿瘤患者的皮肤反应,同时每周检测患者血清中CRP和hs-CRP

  8. The value of time-averaged serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in prediction of mortality and dropout in peritoneal dialysis patients

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    Liu SH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shou-Hsuan Liu,1–3,* Chao-Yu Chen,1,* Yi-Jung Li,1,2 Hsin-Hsu Wu,1,2 Chan-Yu Lin,1 Yung-Chang Chen,1 Ming-Yang Chang,1 Hsiang-Hao Hsu,1 Cheng-Lung Ku,2,3 Ya-Chung Tian1 1Kidney Research Center, Department of Nephrology, Lin-Kou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Department of Medicine, 2Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, 3Laboratory of Human Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: C-reactive protein (CRP is a useful biomarker for prediction of long-term outcomes in patients undergoing chronic dialysis. This observational cohort study evaluated whether the time-averaged serum high-sensitivity CRP (HS-CRP level was a better predictor of clinical outcomes than a single HS-CRP level in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD. Patients and methods: We classified 335 patients into three tertiles according to the time-averaged serum HS-CRP level and followed up regularly from January 2010 to December 2014. Clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular events, infection episodes, newly developed malignancy, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS, dropout (death plus conversion to hemodialysis, and mortality were assessed. Results: During a 5-year follow-up, 164 patients (49.0% ceased PD; this included 52 patient deaths (15.5%, 100 patients (29.9% who converted to hemodialysis, and 12 patients (3.6% who received a kidney transplantation. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and log-rank test revealed a significantly worse survival accumulation in patients with high time-average HS-CRP levels. A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that a higher time-averaged serum HS-CRP level, older age, and the occurrence of cardiovascular events were independent mortality predictors. A higher time-averaged serum HS-CRP level, the occurrence of cardiovascular events, infection episodes, and EPS were

  9. Apolipoprotein A-II influences apolipoprotein E-linked cardiovascular disease risk in women with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein.

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    James P Corsetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects and high (designated as HR2 subjects levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. To assess whether apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II plays a role in apoE-associated risk in the two female groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Outcome event mapping, a graphical data exploratory tool; Cox proportional hazards multivariable regression; and curve-fitting modeling were used to examine apoA-II influence on apoE-associated risk focusing on HDL particles with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I without apoA-II (LpA-I and HDL particles with both apoA-I and apoA-II (LpA-I:A-II. Results of outcome mappings as a function of apoE levels and the ratio of apoA-II to apoA-I revealed within each of the two populations, a high-risk subgroup characterized in each situation by high levels of apoE and additionally: in HR1, by a low value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio; and in HR2, by a moderate value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio. Furthermore, derived estimates of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II levels revealed for high-risk versus remaining subjects: in HR1, higher levels of LpA-I and lower levels of LpA-I:A-II; and in HR2 the reverse, lower levels of LpA-I and higher levels of LpA-I:A-II. Results of multivariable risk modeling as a function of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II (dichotomized as highest quartile versus combined three lower quartiles revealed association of risk only for high levels of LpA-I:A-II in the HR2 subgroup (hazard ratio 5.31, 95% CI 1.12-25.17, p = 0.036. Furthermore, high LpA-I:A-II levels interacted with high apoE levels in establishing subgroup risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that apoA-II plays a significant role in apoE-associated risk of incident CVD in women with high levels of HDL-C and CRP.

  10. Sex difference in the association of metabolic syndrome with high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a Taiwanese population

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    Lin Wen-Yuan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sex differences have been reported for associations between components of metabolic syndrome and inflammation, the question of whether there is an effect modification by sex in the association between inflammation and metabolic syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare associations of high sensitivity C-creative protein (hs-CRP with metabolic syndrome and its components between men and women. Methods A total of 1,305 subjects aged 40 years and over were recruited in 2004 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The biochemical indices, such as hs-CRP, fasting glucose levels, lipid profiles, urinary albumin, urinary creatinine and anthropometric indices, were measured. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the American Heart Association and the National Heart, lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI definition. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and hs-CRP was examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results After adjustment for age and lifestyle factors including smoking, and alcohol intake, elevated concentrations of hs-CRP showed a stronger association with metabolic syndrome in women (odds ratio comparing tertile extremes 4.80 [95% CI: 3.31-6.97] than in men (2.30 [1.65-3.21]. The p value for the sex interaction was 0.002. All components were more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in women than in men, and all sex interactions were significant except for hypertension. Conclusions Our data suggest that inflammatory processes may be of particular importance in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in women.

  11. Ruthenium-modified zinc oxide, a highly active vis-photocatalyst: the nature and reactivity of photoactive centres.

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    Bloh, Jonathan Z; Dillert, Ralf; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2014-03-28

    We recently reported a highly active photocatalyst, ruthenium-modified zinc oxide, which was found to be able to utilise the red part of the visible light spectrum for photocatalytic reactions [Bloh et al., Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 2012, 19, 3688-3695]. However, the origin and mechanism of the observed activity as well as the nature of the photoactive centres are still unknown. Herein, we expand on that by reporting a series of experiments specifically designed to unravel the mechanism of the visible light induced photocatalytic reactions. The absolute potentials of the valence and the conduction band edge are identified by the combined use of electrochemical impedance and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The conduction band electron and the valence band hole activity are assessed through a novel approach tracing their signature oxidative species, i.e., hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Oxygen reduction currents are measured at different potentials to investigate the role of molecular oxygen as an electron scavenger as well as the underlying reduction pathways. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity of the samples is verified using another (ISO standard) degradation test, the gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide. The experimental results reveal that the employed synthetic route yields a unique mixture of ruthenium(VI)-doped zinc oxide and ruthenium(VI) oxide particles with both forms of the ruthenium playing their own independent role in the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity. The ruthenium ions acting as dopants enable a better charge separation as well as the absorption of red light resulting in the direct promotion of electrons from the Ru(VI)-species to the conduction band. Both, the conduction band electrons and the thus formed Ru(VII) subsequently participate in the degradation of the pollutant molecules. The ruthenium dioxide particles, on the other hand, act as catalysts increasing the efficiency of the reaction by

  12. Adiponectin and highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels in obese children aged 9 to 15 years

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    Frecillia Regina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is a widespread and growing problem associated with health problems such problem associated with health problems such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade chronic inflammatory state, reflected by decreased adiponectin and increased highly sensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP levels, may play a role in metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Objective To assess and compare adiponectin and hsCRP levels in obese and normal weight children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled study in Manado from May to July 2010. Subjects were selected from obese, but otherwise healthy childrenaged 9-15 years. Control subjects were schoolmates with normal body mass index (BMI. We performed physical examinations, measured blood pressure, weight and height, and calculated BMI for all subjects. After an overnight fast, all subjects were tested for fasting blood glucose, adiponectin and hsCRP levels. Results The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was 3.6 ug/mL (SD 1.43, lower than that of the normoweight group, 4.8 ug/mL (SD 1.67 P < 0.0001. the mean hsCRP level in the obese group was 3.3 mg/L (SD 1.39 (P < 0.0001. There was no inverse correlation between adiponectin and hsCRP levels in obese group (r = 0.048, P = 0.362. Conclusions Lower adiponectin and higher hsCRP levels in the obese group is consistent with a low-grade chronic inflammatory further evaluation. Early intervention is needed to reduce body weight in obese children. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:7-11].

  13. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secreting Cell Function as well as Production of Inflammatory Reactive Oxygen Species Is Differently Regulated by Glycated Serum and High Levels of Glucose

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    Alessandra Puddu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an intestinal hormone contributing to glucose homeostasis, is synthesized by proglucagon and secreted from intestinal neuroendocrine cells in response to nutrients. GLP-1 secretion is impaired in type 2 diabetes patients. Here, we aimed at investigating whether diabetic toxic products (glycated serum (GS or high levels of glucose (HG may affect viability, function, and insulin sensitivity of the GLP-1 secreting cell line GLUTag. Cells were cultured for 5 days in presence or absence of different dilutions of GS or HG. GS and HG (alone or in combination increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and upregulated proglucagon mRNA expression as compared to control medium. Only HG increased total production and release of active GLP-1, while GS alone abrogated secretion of active GLP-1. HG-mediated effects were associated with the increased cell content of the prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, while GS alone downregulated this enzyme. HG upregulated Glucokinase (GK and downregulated SYNTHAXIN-1. GS abrogated SYNTHAXIN-1 and SNAP-25. Finally, high doses of GS alone or in combination with HG reduced insulin-mediated IRS-1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, we showed that GS and HG might regulate different pathways of GLP-1 production in diabetes, directly altering the function of neuroendocrine cells secreting this hormone.

  14. CdS quantum dots as fluorescence probes for the sensitive and selective detection of highly reactive HSe- ions in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Liu; Zhao, Yi-Bing

    2007-06-01

    Water-soluble cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) capped by mercaptoacetic acid were synthesized by aqueous-phase arrested precipitation, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, spectrofluorometry, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The prepared luminescent water-soluble CdS QDs were evaluated as fluorescence probes for the detection of highly reactive hydrogen selenide ions (HSe(-) ions). The quenching of the fluorescence emission of CdS QDs with the addition of HSe(-) ions is due to the elimination of the S(2-) vacancies which are luminescence centers. Quantitative analysis based on chemical interaction between HSe(-) ions and the surface of CdS QDs is very simple, easy to develop, and has demonstrated very high sensitivity and selectivity features. The effect of foreign ions (common anions and biologically relevant cations) on the fluorescence of the CdS QDs was examined to evaluate the selectivity. Only Cu(2+) and S(2-) ions exhibit significant effects on the fluorescence of CdS QDs. With the developed method, we are able to determine the concentration of HSe(-) ions in the range from 0.10 to 4.80 micromol L(-1), and the limit of detection is 0.087 micromol L(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to monitor the obtained HSe(-) ions from the reaction of glutathione with selenite. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on fluorescence analysis of HSe(-) ions in aqueous solution.

  15. Achievement of specified lipid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels with two statins in Chinese patients with hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cheng; Hu, Miao; Wu, Yong-Jian; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-09-13

    Statins reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. Rosuvastatin 10 mg daily appears to be more potent in reducing LDL-C than simvastatin 40 mg, but the relative effect of these two statin doses on hsCRP is unknown. Chinese hyperlipidaemic patients with high cardiovascular risk or familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) were treated with rosuvastatin 10 mg and simvastatin 40 mg daily in an open-label crossover study. Lipid profiles were measured off treatment and after at least 4 weeks treatment with each of the two statins and hsCRP levels were measured on treatment with both statins. Both treatments were well tolerated in 247 patients (age 55.7 ± 11.1 years; 100 male; 140 with FH) with good treatment compliance. There were statistically significant differences (P 0.05) were not significantly different. The lipid target (LDL-C 0.05). A significantly greater proportion of patients achieved LDL-C targets with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 40 mg in Chinese patients with hypercholesterolaemia, but there was no significant difference in achieving hsCRP target levels with the two statins.

  16. Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration

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    H. Fuchs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent field campaigns, hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations that were measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF were up to a factor of ten larger than predicted by current chemical models for conditions of high OH reactivity and low NO concentration. These discrepancies, which were observed in forests and urban-influenced rural environments, are so far not entirely understood. In summer 2011, a series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, in order to investigate the photochemical degradation of isoprene, methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK, methacrolein (MACR and aromatic compounds by OH. Conditions were similar to those experienced during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta (PRD, China, in 2006, where a large difference between OH measurements and model predictions was found. During experiments in SAPHIR, OH was simultaneously detected by two independent instruments: LIF and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS. Because DOAS is an inherently calibration-free technique, DOAS measurements are regarded as a reference standard. The comparison of the two techniques was used to investigate potential artifacts in the LIF measurements for PRD-like conditions of OH reactivities of 10 to 30 s−1 and NO mixing ratios of 0.1 to 0.3 ppbv. The analysis of twenty experiment days shows good agreement. The linear regression of the combined data set (averaged to the DOAS time resolution, 2495 data points yields a slope of 1.02 ± 0.01 with an intercept of (0.10 ± 0.03 × 106 cm−3 and a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. This indicates that the sensitivity of the LIF instrument is well-defined by its calibration procedure. No hints for artifacts are observed for isoprene, MACR, and different aromatic compounds. LIF measurements were approximately 30–40% (median larger than those by DOAS after MVK (20 ppbv and

  17. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-W.; McKeen, S. A.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Trainer, M.; Richter, A.; Angevine, W. M.; Atlas, E.; Bianco, L.; Boersma, K. F.; Brioude, J.; Burrows, J. P.; de Gouw, J.; Fried, A.; Gleason, J.; Hilboll, A.; Mellqvist, J.; Peischl, J.; Richter, D.; Rivera, C.; Ryerson, T.; Te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Walega, J.; Warneke, C.; Weibring, P.; Williams, E.

    2011-11-01

    Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005), in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50%-70% higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60% higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly reactive VOC emissions

  18. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ryerson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005, in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50%–70% higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60% higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly

  19. Evaluations of NOx and highly reactive VOC emission inventories in Texas and their implications for ozone plume simulations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ryerson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite and aircraft observations made during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS detected strong urban, industrial and power plant plumes in Texas. We simulated these plumes using the Weather Research and Forecasting – Chemistry (WRF-Chem model with input from the US EPA's 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI-2005, in order to evaluate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the cities of Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. We compared the model results with satellite retrievals of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 columns and airborne in-situ observations of several trace gases including NOx and a number of VOCs. The model and satellite NO2 columns agree well for regions with large power plants and for urban areas that are dominated by mobile sources, such as Dallas. However, in Houston, where significant mobile, industrial, and in-port marine vessel sources contribute to NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns are approximately 50 %–70 % higher than the satellite columns. Similar conclusions are drawn from comparisons of the model results with the TexAQS 2006 aircraft observations in Dallas and Houston. For Dallas plumes, the model-simulated NO2 showed good agreement with the aircraft observations. In contrast, the model-simulated NO2 is ~60 % higher than the aircraft observations in the Houston plumes. Further analysis indicates that the NEI-2005 NOx emissions over the Houston Ship Channel area are overestimated while the urban Houston NOx emissions are reasonably represented. The comparisons of model and aircraft observations confirm that highly reactive VOC emissions originating from industrial sources in Houston are underestimated in NEI-2005. The update of VOC emissions based on Solar Occultation Flux measurements during the field campaign leads to improved model simulations of ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. Reducing NOx emissions in the Houston Ship Channel and increasing highly

  20. Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H.; Dorn, H.-P.; Bachner, M.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Gomm, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Nehr, S.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2012-07-01

    During recent field campaigns, hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations that were measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were up to a factor of ten larger than predicted by current chemical models for conditions of high OH reactivity and low NO concentration. These discrepancies, which were observed in forests and urban-influenced rural environments, are so far not entirely understood. In summer 2011, a series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, in order to investigate the photochemical degradation of isoprene, methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein (MACR) and aromatic compounds by OH. Conditions were similar to those experienced during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, in 2006, where a large difference between OH measurements and model predictions was found. During experiments in SAPHIR, OH was simultaneously detected by two independent instruments: LIF and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Because DOAS is an inherently calibration-free technique, DOAS measurements are regarded as a reference standard. The comparison of the two techniques was used to investigate potential artifacts in the LIF measurements for PRD-like conditions of OH reactivities of 10 to 30 s-1 and NO mixing ratios of 0.1 to 0.3 ppbv. The analysis of twenty experiment days shows good agreement. The linear regression of the combined data set (averaged to the DOAS time resolution, 2495 data points) yields a slope of 1.02 ± 0.01 with an intercept of (0.10 ± 0.03) × 106 cm-3 and a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. This indicates that the sensitivity of the LIF instrument is well-defined by its calibration procedure. No hints for artifacts are observed for isoprene, MACR, and different aromatic compounds. LIF measurements were approximately 30-40% (median) larger than those by DOAS after MVK (20 ppbv) and toluene (90 ppbv) had been added. However, this discrepancy has a

  1. Potential application of highly reactive Fe(0)/Fe3O4 composites for the reduction of Cr(VI) environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Coelho, Flávia; Ardisson, José Domingos; Moura, Flávia C C; Lago, Rochel M; Murad, Enver; Fabris, José Domingos

    2008-03-01

    We describe the use of highly reactive Fe(0)/Fe3O4 composites for the reduction of Cr(VI) species in aqueous medium. The composites were prepared by simple mechanical alloying of metallic iron and magnetite in different proportions, i.e. Fe(0) 25, 50, 75 and 90wt%. While after 3h of reaction pure Fe(0) and pure Fe3O4 showed only a low reduction efficiency of 15% and 25% Cr(VI) conversion, respectively, the composites, in particular Fe(0)(25wt%)/Fe3O4, showed a remarkable activity with ca. 65% Cr(VI) conversion. Kinetic experiments showed a high reaction rate during the first 3h, which subsequently decreased strongly, probably due to a pH increase from 6 to 8. Experiments with composites based on Fe(0)/alpha-Fe2O3, Fe(0)/gamma-Fe2O3 and Fe(0)/FeOOH showed very low activities, suggesting that Fe(oct)2+ in the magnetite structure plays an important role in the reaction. Scanning and high resolution electron microscopies and Mössbauer spectra (transmission and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy) indicated that the mechanical alloying process promotes a strong interaction and interface between the metallic and oxide phases, with the Fe(0) particles completely covered by Fe3O4 particles. The high efficiency of the composite Fe(0)/Fe3O4 for Cr(VI) reduction is discussed in terms of a special mechanism where an electron is transferred from Fe(0) to magnetite to reduce Fe(oct)3+ to Fe(oct)2+, which is active for Cr(VI) reduction.

  2. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein and male gender are independently related to the severity of coronary disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and an acute coronary event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.C. Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with metabolic syndrome are at high-risk for development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to examine the major determinants of coronary disease severity, including those coronary risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, during the early period after an acute coronary episode. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory markers, especially highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, are related to coronary atherosclerosis, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Subjects of both genders aged 30 to 75 years (N = 116 were prospectively included if they had suffered a recent acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris requiring hospitalization and if they had metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III. Patients were submitted to a coronary angiography and the burden of atherosclerosis was estimated by the Gensini score. The severity of coronary disease was correlated (Spearman’s or Pearson’s coefficient with gender (r = 0.291, P = 0.008, age (r = 0.218, P = 0.048, hsCRP (r = 0.256, P = 0.020, ApoB/ApoA ratio (r = 0.233, P = 0.041, and carotid intima-media thickness (r = 0.236, P = 0.041. After multiple linear regression, only male gender (P = 0.046 and hsCRP (P = 0.012 remained independently associated with the Gensini score. In this high-risk population, male gender and high levels of hsCRP, two variables that can be easily obtained, were associated with more extensive coronary disease, identifying patients with the highest potential of developing new coronary events.

  3. Reactive bromine chemistry in Mt. Etna's volcanic plume: the influence of total Br, high temperature processing, aerosol loading and plume-air mixing

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    T. J. Roberts

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic emissions present a source of reactive halogens to the troposphere, through rapid plume chemistry that converts the emitted HBr to more reactive forms such as BrO. The nature of this process is poorly quantified, yet is of interest to understand volcanic impacts on the troposphere, and infer volcanic activity from volcanic gas measurements (i.e. BrO / SO2 ratios. Recent observations from Etna report an initial increase and subsequent plateau or decline in BrO / SO2 ratios with distance downwind. We present daytime PlumeChem model simulations that reproduce and explain the reported trend in BrO / SO2 at Etna including the initial rise and subsequent plateau. Through suites of model simulations we also investigate the influences of volcanic aerosol loading, bromine emission, and plume-air mixing rate on the downwind plume chemistry. Emitted volcanic HBr is converted into reactive bromine by autocatalytic bromine chemistry cycles whose onset is accelerated by the model high-temperature initialisation. These rapid chemistry cycles also impact the reactive bromine speciation through inter-conversion of Br, Br2, BrO, BrONO2, BrCl, HOBr. Formation of BrNO2 is also discussed. We predict a new evolution of Br-speciation in the plume, with BrO, Br2, Br and HBr as the main plume species in the near downwind plume whilst BrO, and HOBr are present in significant quantities further downwind (where BrONO2 and BrCl also make up a minor fraction. The initial rise in BrO / SO2 occurs as ozone is entrained into the plume whose reaction with Br promotes net formation of BrO. Aerosol has a modest impact on BrO / SO2 near-downwind (2 occurs as entrainment of oxidants HO2 and NO2 promotes net formation of HOBr and BrONO2, whilst the plume dispersion dilutes volcanic aerosol so slows the heterogeneous loss rates of these species. A higher volcanic aerosol loading enhances BrO / SO2 in the (> 6 km downwind plume. Simulations assuming low/medium and high Etna

  4. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  5. Combination of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and homocysteine may predict an increased risk of coronary artery disease in Korean population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHO Doo-Yeoun; KIM Kyu-Nam; KIM Kwang-Min; LEE Duck-Joo; KIM Bom-Taeck

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of emerging biomarkers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP),homocysteine and fibrinogen with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is still uncertain in Asian population including Koreans and little is known about the combined effect of biomarkers on the risk of CAD.Methods A total of 10 650 subjects (6538 men and 4112 women) were enrolled in this study.A 10-year CAD risk was calculated using Framingham risk score modified by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ (ATP Ⅲ ) and levels of circulating hs-CRP,homocysteine and fibrinogen were measured using validated assays.Results The 10-year CAD risk gradually augmented with increase in the circulating levels of hs-CRP,homocysteine and fibrinogen.For the highest quartile of hs-CRP,odds ratio (OR) of high-risk for CAD (10-year risk ≥20%) compared with the lowest quartile was 3.97 (95% C/:2.51-6.29).For homocysteine and fibrinogen,ORs in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile were 5.10 (95% Cl:3.05-8.53,P <0.001) and 1.46 (95% Cl:0.69-3.11,P=0.325),respectively.OR of high-risk for CAD in both the highest quartile of hs-CRP and homocysteine was 9.05 (95% CI:5.30-15.45) compared with the below median of hs-CRP and homocysteine.Conclusions The present study demonstrated that hs-CRP and homocysteine are well associated with the 10-year CAD risk estimated using NCEP ATP Ⅲ in Koreans and combination of hs-CRP and homocysteine can have strong synergyin predicting the development of CAD.

  6. A high intake of dietary fiber influences C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, but not glucose and lipid metabolism, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson-Persson, Anna; Ulmius, Matilda; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Karhu, Toni; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Onning, Gunilla

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how a diet high in dietary fiber, with several fiber sources included, modulates glucose and lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response in humans. Subjects (n = 25) aged 58.6 (1.1) years (mean and SD) with a BMI of 26.6 (0.5) kg/m(2) and a total cholesterol (TC) of 5.8 (0.1) mmol/L (mean and SEM) were given a high fiber (HF) and low fiber (LF) diet, in a randomized controlled 5-week crossover intervention, separated by a 3-week washout. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products; one bread roll, one ready meal, and two beverages consumed daily. Equivalent food products, without added fibers, were provided in the LF diet. Total dietary fiber intake was 48.0 g and 30.2 g per day for the HF and LF diet, respectively. Significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed between the diets (P = 0.017) and a significant reduction in fibrinogen within the HF diet (P = 0.044). There were no significant effects in other measured circulating cytokines or in glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Our study suggests that a 5-week high dietary fiber intake of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber might reduce the low-grade inflammatory response measured as CRP which could, together with reduced fibrinogen, help to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Paul D.; Barzi, Federica; Cass, Alan; Hughes, Jaquelyne T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years) on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months) from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9) years. 1244 (79.3%) were Indigenous. 44.2% (n = 693) were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1) versus 57.4 (15.2), p < 0.001]) and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35) versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5), p < 0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37) versus 28% (20–38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation. PMID:28243472

  8. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandawana William Majoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9 years. 1244 (79.3% were Indigenous. 44.2% (n=693 were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1 versus 57.4 (15.2, p<0.001] and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35 versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5, p<0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522 versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0, p<0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37 versus 28% (20–38, p=0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2=0.11, p<0.001, no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p<0.001, and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p<0.001, Indigenous ethnicity (p<0.001, urea reduction ratio (p=0.001, and gender (p<0.001 after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation.

  9. High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Complements Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus Deoxyribonucleic Acid Prognostication in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Large-Scale Retrospective and Prospective Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lin-Quan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Chao-Feng [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Information Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Lu [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lai, Xiao-Ping; He, Yun; Xu, Yun-Xiu-Xiu; Hu, Dong-Peng; Wen, Shi-Hua; Peng, Yu-Tuan [ZhongShan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Wen-Hui [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Huai; Guo, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Ting [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jing [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Jing-Ping [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); and others

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of combining the assessment of circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with that of Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV DNA) in the pretherapy prognostication of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: Three independent cohorts of NPC patients (training set of n=3113, internal validation set of n=1556, and prospective validation set of n=1668) were studied. Determinants of disease-free survival, distant metastasis–free survival, and overall survival were assessed by multivariate analysis. Hazard ratios and survival probabilities of the patient groups, segregated by clinical stage (T1-2N0-1M0, T3-4N0-1M0, T1-2N2-3M0, and T3-4N2-3M0) and EBV DNA load (low or high) alone, and also according to hs-CRP level (low or high), were compared. Results: Elevated hs-CRP and EBV DNA levels were significantly correlated with poor disease-free survival, distant metastasis–free survival, and overall survival in both the training and validation sets. Associations were similar and remained significant after excluding patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and chronic hepatitis B. Patients with advanced-stage disease were segregated by high EBV DNA levels and high hs-CRP level into a poorest-risk group, and participants with either high EBV DNA but low hs-CRP level or high hs-CRP but low EBV DNA values had poorer survival compared with the bottom values for both biomarkers. These findings demonstrate a significant improvement in the prognostic ability of conventional advanced NPC staging. Conclusion: Baseline plasma EBV DNA and serum hs-CRP levels were significantly correlated with survival in NPC patients. The combined interpretation of EBV DNA with hs-CRP levels led to refinement of the risks for the patient subsets, with improved risk discrimination in patients with advanced-stage disease.

  10. Serologic cross-reactivity among humans and birds infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 viruses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Ma, Chi; Liu, Zhonghua; He, Wei

    2011-03-30

    To study immunogenicity and serologic cross-reactivity of hemagglutinins (HAs) among humans and birds infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, four representative H5N1 HA genes from humans and birds infected with distinct genetic clusters of H5N1 viruses in China were cloned, and several H5N1 infected human serum and H5N1 positive bird serum samples were used. Recombinant HA proteins were generated for ELISA assays and pseudotype viruses containing HAs were produced for neutralization assays and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. We found significant differences among clades compared to species in binding, neutralization and HI activity of H5N1 strains isolated from birds. While significant differences were observed among species in H5N1 isolated from humans, investigation of H5N1 infected human and avian sera provided evidence that the pressure from nAb may be a driving force for positive selection. Therefore, improved anti-viral nAb therapies could block avian influenza transmission in humans.

  11. Coronary Plaque Characteristics Assessed by 256-Slice Coronary CT Angiography and Association with High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Symptomatic Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinling Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding plaque distribution, composition, and the association with inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coronary plaque subtypes and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. Coronary CTA were performed in 98 symptomatic DM2 patients and 107 non-DM2 patients using a 256-slice CT. The extent and types of plaque as well as luminal narrowing were evaluated. Patients with DM2 were more likely to have significant stenosis (>50% with calcified plaques in at least one coronary segment (p<0.01; the prevalence rates of diffuse calcified plaques in the DM2 and non-DM2 groups were 31.6% and 4.7%, respectively (p<0.01. Plasma hs-CRP levels in DM2 with calcified plaques were higher compared with values obtained for the non-DM2 group (p<0.01. In conclusion, combination of coronary CTA and hs-CRP might improve risk stratification in symptomatic DM2 patients.

  12. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  13. Conformational changes at the highly reactive cystein and lysine regions of skeletal muscle myosin induced by formation of transition state analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, S; Homma, K; Ohki, T

    1998-09-01

    Myosin forms stable ternary complexes with Mg2+-ADP and phosphate analogues of aluminum fluoride (AlF4-), beryllium fluoride (BeFn), and scandium fluoride (ScFn). These complexes are distinct from each other and may mimic different transient states in the ATPase cycle [Maruta et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 7093-7100]. Regions of skeletal muscle myosin containing the highly reactive residues Cys 707 (SH1), Cys 697 (SH2), and lysine 83 (RLR) dramatically alter their local conformation when myosin hydrolyzes ATP, and these changes may reflect formation of a series of transient intermediates during ATP hydrolysis. We used the fluorescent probes 4-fluoro-7-sulfamoylbezofurazan, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, and trinitrobenzene-sulfonate, which bind to SH1, SH2, and RLR, respectively, to examine differences in local conformations within myosin.ADP.phosphate analogue (BeFn, Vi, AlF4-, and ScFn) complexes. It was observed that the ternary complexes had SH1 conformations similar to those seen on S-1 in the presence of ATP. In contrast, local conformations in the SH2 and RLR regions of S-1.ADP.BeFn were different from those in corresponding regions of S-1.ADP.AlF4- or ScFn. These results suggest that SH1 and SH2 move distinctly during ATP hydrolysis and that the local conformations of the SH2 and RLR regions more sensitively reflect different transient states.

  14. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  15. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the evaluation of niflumic acid cross-reactivity of two commercial immunoassays for cannabinoids in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatsi, Leda; Pouliopoulos, Athanasios; Papadaki, Antonia; Samanidou, Victoria; Tsoukali, Heleni

    2010-05-01

    Niflumic acid is a nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug widely prescribed in Greece. We recently noticed that this drug cross-reacts for cannabinoids in a kinetic interaction of microparticles in a solution (KIMS) immunoassay method but does not in an enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) immunoassay method. The objective of the study was to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatographic method in order to evaluate niflumic acid cross-reactivity in two commercial immunoassays for cannabinoids in urine, both in niflumic acid standards as well as in urine specimens obtained from subjects receiving niflumic acid. Urine niflumic acid standards were prepared in drug-free urine at 13 concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 1000 microg/mL. The standards gave presumptive positive cannabinoids results when analyzed by the KIMS immunoassay method when the concentration was above 2.5 microg/mL. None of the prepared standards gave a false-positive cannabinoid result when analyzed by the EMIT immunoassay method. By applying a 50 ng/mL cutoff for cannabinoids in these assays, all 55 urine specimens collected from the 5 subjects who participated gave negative results by the EMIT and false-positive results by the KIMS immunoassay method. It is concluded that KIMS is more prone to cross-reactions by niflumic acid compared to EMIT. Therefore, all positive screening tests for cannabinoids obtained by KIMS should be confirmed by another technique.

  16. Direct atomic-level observation and chemical analysis of ZnSe synthesized by in situ high-throughput reactive fiber drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chong; Jia, Xiaoting; Wei, Lei; Stolyarov, Alexander M; Shapira, Ofer; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel

    2013-03-13

    We demonstrate a high-throughput method for synthesizing zinc selenide (ZnSe) in situ during fiber drawing. Central to this method is a thermally activated chemical reaction occurring across multiple interfaces between alternately layered elemental zinc- (Zn-) and selenium- (Se-) rich films embedded in a preform and drawn into meters of fiber at a temperature well below the melting temperature of either Zn or ZnSe. By depositing 50 nm thick layers of Zn interleaved between 1 μm thick Se layers, a controlled breakup of the Zn sheet is achieved, thereby enabling a complete and controlled chemical reaction. The thermodynamics and kinetics of this synthesis process are studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, and the in-fiber compound is analyzed by a multiplicity of materials characterization tools, including transmission electron microscopy, Raman microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, all resulting in unambiguous identification of ZnSe as the compound produced from the reactive fiber draw. Furthermore, we characterize the in-fiber ZnSe/Se97S3 heterojunction to demonstrate the prospect of ZnSe-based fiber optoelectronic devices. The ability to synthesize new compounds during fiber drawing at nanometer scale precision and to characterize them at the atomic-level extends the architecture and materials selection compatible with multimaterial fiber drawing, thus paving the way toward more complex and sophisticated functionality.

  17. Effects of febuxostat on insulin resistance and expression of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with primary gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Juan; Li, Yanchun; Yuan, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yuewu

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of febuxostat on IR and the expression of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with primary gout. Forty-two cases of primary gout patients without uric acid-lowering therapy were included in this study. After a physical examination, 20 age- and sex-matched patients were included as normal controls. The levels of fasting insulin (INS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and hs-CRP were determined. IR was assessed using the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Gout patients had higher levels of UA, INS, HOMA-IR, and hs-CRP than normal controls (P treatments, UA and hs-CRP concentrations were significantly lower than baseline (P treatment with febuxostat but declined significantly after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. Importantly, hs-CRP values positively correlated with those of HOMA-IR (r = 0.353, P = 0.018) and INS (r = 0.426, P = 0.034). Our findings confirm that IR exists in gout patients and implicate that febuxostat can effectively control the level of serum UA and increase insulin sensitivity in primary gout patients.

  18. Preparation and characterization of uniform nanosized cephradine by combination of reactive precipitation and liquid anti-solvent precipitation under high gravity environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Shen, Zhigang; Yang, Yan; Chen, Jianfeng

    2005-09-14

    In this work, a novel direct method, which was combined with reactive precipitation and liquid anti-solvent precipitation under high gravity environment, had been developed to prepare nanosized cephradine with narrow particle size distribution. Compared with commercial crude cephradine, the prepared cephradine showed a significant decrease in particle size, a significant increase in the specific surface area and shorter dissolving time when used for injection. The characteristic particle size was between 200-400 nm. The specific surface area increased from 2.95 to 10.87 m2/g after micronization. When the amount of L-arginin decreased from 0.25 to 0.18 g, the mixture of nanosized cephradine and L-arginine could still dissolve in 1 min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the physical characteristics and molecular states remained unchanged after the recrystallization process. This method had potential application in industrial fields because of its low cost, efficient processing and the ease of scaling-up.

  19. Increased concentrations of C-reactive protein but not high-mobility group box 1 in dogs with naturally occurring sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, I; Wernersson, S; Ambrosen, A; Kindahl, H; Södersten, F; Wang, L; Hagman, R

    2013-11-15

    Sepsis is difficult to diagnose and remains a common mortality cause worldwide in both humans and animals. The uterine infection pyometra causes sepsis in more than half of affected dogs and therefore allows the natural physiological development of sepsis to be studied. To find a sepsis-specific biochemical marker that could be combined with conventional clinical criteria for a more robust and quick diagnosis of sepsis, we measured systemic concentrations of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in 23 healthy control dogs and in 27 dogs with pyometra, 74% of which had sepsis. We also measured concentrations of the major acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) and an indicator for endotoxaemia, prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGM) to assess the relative contribution of HMGB1 to the detection of systemic inflammation and endotoxaemia. We found that HMGB1 concentrations, in line with concentrations of CRP and PGM, were significantly increased in dogs with pyometra, and that concentrations of CRP, but not HMGB1, were significantly higher in dogs with sepsis compared to dogs without sepsis. Although serum HMGB1 did not differ between dogs with or without sepsis and was not correlated with either CRP or PGM concentrations, HMGB1 was correlated with the total white blood cell counts, suggesting an independent regulation and involvement in inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Diagnostic Efficiency of Lipoprotein (a, Homocysteine, High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein and Fibrinogen in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Dundar Yenilmez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Backround: To evaluate the diagnostic value of major and other risk factors as lipoprotein (Lp (a, homocysteine (Hcy, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and fibrinogen in CAD patients. Methods: A total of 223 subjects (118 patients and 105 controls were included in the study according to their coronary angiographic results. Lipoprotein (a, Hcy, hs-CRP and fibrinogen levels were measured using immunoturbidometric, florescent polarization immunoassay and nefelometric methods, respectively. Fasting glucose and lipid parameters, except low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, are determined by enzymatic colorimetric methods and the LDL-C levels were calculated by the Fridewald formula. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that when the biochemical variables in placed in a model, the most important variables were Lp (a, Hcy, hs-CRP and fibrinogen. We showed that each unit of Lp (a, Hcy, hs-CRP and fibrinogen increases the risk of CAD 1.029, 1.177, 1.027 and 1.013 fold, respectively. Among these, fibrinogen level was the most sensitive and efficient parameter in prediction of CAD. Conclusion: Although Lp (a, Hcy, hs-CRP and fibrinogen are independent risk factors for CAD, fibrinogen was the most important one. Fibrinogen can be used as a reliable risk factor for CAD in clinical practice. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 559-566

  1. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2017-08-24

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  2. In adipose tissue, increased mitochondrial emission of reactive oxygen species is important for short-term high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialunga, Sabina; Ludzki, Alison; Root-McCaig, Jared; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-05-01

    Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) induces insulin resistance in white adipose tissue (WAT) within 1 week. However, little is known about the initiating events. One potential mechanism that has remained largely unexplored is excessive mitochondrial emission of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine the role of mitochondrial ROS emissions at the onset of insulin resistance, wild-type (WT) mice were placed on an HFD for 1 week. WAT insulin sensitivity and inflammation were assessed by western blot. In addition, we optimised/validated a method to determine ROS emissions in permeabilised WAT. An HFD for 1 week resulted in impaired insulin signalling, increased c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and an increase in oxidative stress. These changes were associated with an increase in fatty-acid-mediated mitochondrial ROS emissions without any change in mitochondrial respiration/content. To determine that mitochondrial ROS causes insulin resistance, we used transgenic mice that express human catalase in mitochondria (MCAT) as a model of upregulated mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme capacity. MCAT mice displayed attenuated mitochondrial ROS emission, preserved insulin signalling and no inflammatory response following an HFD. Findings from this study suggest that elevated mitochondrial ROS emission contributes to HFD-induced WAT insulin resistance.

  3. Brown adipose tissue mitochondria oxidizing fatty acids generate high levels of reactive oxygen species irrespective of the uncoupling protein-1 activity state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Peter; Wojtczak, Lech

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria from brown adipose tissue (BATM) have a high enzymatic capacity for fatty acid oxidation and therefore are an ideal model to examine the sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during fatty acid oxidation. ROS generation by BATM (isolated from 3-week-old rats) was measured during acylcarnitine oxidation as release of H(2)O(2) into the medium and as inactivation of the matrix enzyme aconitase. The following results were obtained: (1) BATM release large amounts of H(2)O(2) in the coupled as well as in the uncoupled states, several times more than skeletal muscle mitochondria. (2) H(2)O(2) release is especially large with acylcarnitines of medium-chain fatty acids (e.g. octanoylcarnitine). (3) Reverse electron transport does not contribute in a significant extent to the overall ROS generation. (4) Despite the large release of H(2)O(2), the ROS-sensitive matrix enzyme aconitase is not inactivated during acylcarnitine oxidation. (5) In contrast to acylcarnitines, oxidation of α-glycerophosphate by BATM is characterized by large H(2)O(2) release and a pronounced aconitase inactivation. We hypothesize that acylcarnitine-supported ROS generation in BATM may be mainly associated with acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and electron transferring flavoprotein-ubiquinone reductase rather than with complexes of the respiratory chain.

  4. Highly oriented NdFeB nanocrystalline magnets from partially recombined compacts with ultrafine grain size by reactive deformation under low pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余云萍; 李军; 刘颖; 王仁全; 郑青; 连利仙

    2015-01-01

    The partially recombined compacts with ultrafine grain size were taken advantage of preparing anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with full density and homogenous microstructure and texture by reactive deformation under low pressure. Because of the ul-trafine grain size of the precursors, the partially recombined phases could quickly achieve recombination. The results suggested that the newly recombined Nd2Fe14B grains with fine grain size could undergo deformation immediately during the desorp-tion-recombination reaction, and then an obvious anisotropy and uniform alignment would be obtained. The magnetic properties, (BH)max=214 kJ/m3,Br= 1.26 T,Hcj=463 kA/m, were obtained after being treated for 5 min at 820 ºC in high vacuum under low pres-sure less than 26 MPa. Microstructures of the magnets were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. Magnetic measurements were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) with the maximum field of 2.88 T. Accurate phase contents were measured by a Mossbauer spectrometer.

  5. Association between the AGTR1 polymorphism +1166A>C and serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, Petra; Henningsson, Susanne; Olsson, Marie; Baghaei, Fariba; Rosmond, Roland; Holm, Göran; Eriksson, Elias; Ekman, Agneta

    2009-01-08

    Genetic factors have been shown to influence high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, however, which genes that are involved in this process remains to be clarified. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is of importance for the regulation of inflammation, and blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AGTR1) influences hsCRP levels. These findings prompted us to investigate whether a polymorphism in the AGTR1 gene may influence hsCRP levels. Additionally, a polymorphism in the CRP gene that has previously been shown to influence hsCRP levels was genotyped. Serum levels of hsCRP were measured in 270 42-year-old women recruited from the population registry. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed: +1166A>C and +1444C>T of the AGTR1 and CRP gene, respectively. The A allele of the AGTR1 polymorphism +1166A>C was dose-dependently associated with higher hsCRP levels (p=0.014, adjusted for confounding factors and multiple comparisons). hsCRP levels were not significantly influenced by the CRP +1444C>T genotype; however, an interaction between the two studied polymorphisms with respect to hsCRP levels was observed (p=0.018). The significant association between the AGTR1 polymorphism and hsCRP levels, which appears to be independent of anthropometric and metabolic traits, is yet another indication of a direct influence of RAS on inflammation.

  6. High sensitivity C reactive protein as a prognostic marker in patients with mild to moderate aortic valve stenosis during lipid-lowering treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyme, Adam; Asferg, Camilla; Nielsen, Olav W

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prognostic importance of high-sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) in patients with mild to moderate aortic valve stenosis during placebo or simvastatin/ezetimibe treatment in Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1620 SEAS patients, we...... measured lipids and hsCRP at baseline and after 1 year of treatment and registered during 4 years of follow-up major cardiovascular events (MCE) composed of ischaemic cardiovascular events (ICE) and aortic valve-related events (AVE). Simvastatin/ezetimibe reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.......49 (2.94 to 4.15) to 1.32 (1.02 to 1.69) vs 3.46 (2.92 to 4.08) to 3.34 (2.81 to 3.92) mmol/L) and hsCRP (2.1 (0.9 to 4.1) to 1.2 (0.6 to 2.4) vs 2.2 (0.9 to 4.9) to 1.8 (0.85 to 4.35) mg/L, all panalysis adjusting...

  7. Predictive value of mid-trimester amniotic fluid high-sensitive C-reactive protein, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Sedigheh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is surprisingly common with placental dysfunction occurring in about 3% of pregnancies and despite advances in obstetric care, FGR remains a major problem in developed countries. Aim: The purpose of this study is to find out the predictive value of amniotic fluid high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH for FGR. Materials and Methods: This prospective strategy of this study has been conducted on pregnant women who underwent genetic amniocentesis between 15th and 20th weeks of gestation. All patients were followed up on until delivery. Patients with abnormal karyotype and iatrogenic preterm delivery for fetal and maternal indications were excluded. The samples were immediately sent to laboratory for cytogenetic and biochemical examination. Non-parametric tests and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis were used for statistical purpose. Results: A significant correlation between incremental amniotic fluid alpha fetoprotein (αFPr and LDH levels and FGR at gestational weeks 15th-20th was found out. We also found an optimum cut-off value> 140 IU/L for the amniotic fluid LDH concentration with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 82.4% for the prediction of FGR. Conclusion: Once the LDH value is confirmed, it could serve as a prediction factor for FGR at the time of genetic amniocentesis at gestational weeks 15-20.

  8. Immunization of rabbits with highly purified, soluble, trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein induces a vigorous B cell response and broadly cross-reactive neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V Quinnan

    Full Text Available Previously we described induction of cross-reactive HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits using a soluble HIV-1 gp140 envelope glycoprotein (Env in an adjuvant containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL and QS21 (AS02A. Here, we compared different forms of the same HIV-1 strain R2 Env for antigenic and biophysical characteristics, and in rabbits characterized the extent of B cell induction for specific antibody expression and secretion and neutralizing responses. The forms of this Env that were produced in and purified from stably transformed 293T cells included a primarily dimeric gp140, a trimeric gp140 appended to a GCN4 trimerization domain (gp140-GCN4, gp140-GCN4 with a 15 amino acid flexible linker between the gp120 and gp41 ectodomain (gp140-GCN4-L, also trimeric, and a gp140 with the flexible linker purified from cell culture supernatants as either dimer (gp140-L(D or monomer (gp140-L(M. Multimeric states of the Env proteins were assessed by native gel electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation. The different forms of gp140 bound broadly cross-reactive neutralizing (BCN human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs similarly in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays. All Envs bound CD4i mAbs in the presence and absence of sCD4, as reported for the R2 Env. Weak neutralization of some strains of HIV-1 was seen after two additional doses in AS02A. Rabbits that were given a seventh dose of gp140-GCN4-L developed BCN responses that were weak to moderate, similar to our previous report. The specificity of these responses did not appear similar to that of any of the known BCN human mAbs. Induction of spleen B cell and plasma cells producing immunoglobulins that bound trimeric gp140-GCN4-L was vigorous, based on ELISpot and flow cytometry analyses. The results demonstrate that highly purified gp140-GCN4-L trimer in adjuvant elicits BCN responses in rabbits accompanied by vigorous B cell induction.

  9. Interleukin-1 Blockade With Canakinumab to Improve Exercise Capacity in Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure and Elevated High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (Hs-CRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Prior Acute Myocardial Infarction; Evidence of Systemic Inflammation (C Reactive Protein Plasma >2 mg/l); Reduced Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction (<50%); Symptoms of Heart Failure (NYHA Class II-III)

  10. Identifying high-affinity aptamer ligands with defined cross-reactivity using high-throughput guided systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Agata; Brenneman, Randall; Hoinka, Jan; Sant, David; Cardone, Marco; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Przytycka, Teresa M; Berezhnoy, Alexey

    2015-07-13

    Oligonucleotide aptamers represent a novel platform for creating ligands with desired specificity, and they offer many potentially significant advantages over monoclonal antibodies in terms of feasibility, cost, and clinical applicability. However, the isolation of high-affinity aptamer ligands from random oligonucleotide pools has been challenging. Although high-throughput sequencing (HTS) promises to significantly facilitate systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) analysis, the enormous datasets generated in the process pose new challenges for identifying those rare, high-affinity aptamers present in a given pool. We show that emulsion PCR preserves library diversity, preventing the loss of rare high-affinity aptamers that are difficult to amplify. We also demonstrate the importance of using reference targets to eliminate binding candidates with reduced specificity. Using a combination of bioinformatics and functional analyses, we show that the rate of amplification is more predictive than prevalence with respect to binding affinity and that the mutational landscape within a cluster of related aptamers can guide the identification of high-affinity aptamer ligands. Finally, we demonstrate the power of this selection process for identifying cross-species aptamers that can bind human receptors and cross-react with their murine orthologs.

  11. Rosuvastatin for primary prevention among individuals with elevated high-sensitivity c-reactive protein and 5% to 10% and 10% to 20% 10-year risk. Implications of the Justification for Use of Statins in Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridker, Paul M; Macfadyen, Jean G; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2010-01-01

    Recent primary prevention guidelines issued in Canada endorse the use of statin therapy among individuals at "intermediate risk" who have elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). However, trial data directly addressing whether this recommendation defines a patient populatio...

  12. Prognostic significance of the Centers for Disease Control/American Heart Association high-sensitivity C-reactive protein cut points for cardiovascular and other outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabatine, Marc S.; Morrow, David A.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Warnica, J. Wayne; Domanski, Michael J.; Hsia, Judith; Gersh, Bernard J.; Rifai, Nader; Ridker, Paul M.; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Braunwald, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Background-Data supporting the prognostic significance of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are derived largely from individuals with no overt coronary artery disease or from patients with acute coronary syndromes. In contrast, the ability of hs-CRP to predict outcomes in patients with st

  13. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration in individuals without a history of cardiovascular disease: a report from a large Persian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bajestani, Seyyed Mr; Tayefi, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Heidari-Bakavoli, Ali R; Moohebati, Mohsen; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mr; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Ferns, Gordon Aa; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is defined by a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with a heightened inflammatory state. A raised serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, is also known to associate with cardiovascular risk. We have investigated the relationship between the presence of metabolic syndrome and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration in a large representative Persian population cohort without a history of cardiovascular disease. Methods The MASHAD study population cohort comprised 9778 subjects, who were recruited from the city of Mashhad, Iran, between 2007 and 2008. Several cardiovascular risk factors were measured in this population without cardiovascular disease. Individuals were categorized into quartiles of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration: first quartile - 0.72 (0.59-0.85) (median [range]) mg/L, second quartile - 1.30 (1.14-1.4) mg/L, third quartile - 2.29 (1.92-2.81) mg/L and fourth quartile - 6.63 (4.61-11.95) mg/L, respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in each quartile was determined using either International Diabetes Federation or Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest in the fourth quartile for serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (1220 subjects [50.0%]), and significantly higher than that in the first quartile (reference group) (634 subjects [25.9%]) ( P history of cardiovascular disease in our Persian cohort.

  14. Circulating levels of osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis randomized to etanercept alone or in combination with methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H.; Sørensen, Steen; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether circulating levels of osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (total sRANKL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) change in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during...

  15. Rosuvastatin for primary prevention among individuals with elevated high-sensitivity c-reactive protein and 5% to 10% and 10% to 20% 10-year risk. Implications of the Justification for Use of Statins in Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridker, P.M.; MacFadyen, J.G.; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2010-01-01

    Recent primary prevention guidelines issued in Canada endorse the use of statin therapy among individuals at "intermediate risk" who have elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). However, trial data directly addressing whether this recommendation defines a patient population...... in which statin therapy is effective have not previously been published....

  16. Synthesis and novel reactivity of halomethyldimethylsulfonium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu; Fletcher; Dolbier Jr WR

    2000-06-02

    Iodomethyl-, chloromethyl-, and fluoromethyldimethylsulfonium salts, 4b-d, have been synthesized and are observed to be highly reactive molecules that exhibit extraordinary diversity with respect to the nature of their reactivity, undergoing facile direct substitution (S(N)2) reactions, but also being highly susceptible to electron-transfer reactions. Cyclic voltametry experiments indicated that the iodomethyldimethylsulfonium compound, 4b, is a potent electron acceptor, even surpassing the reactivity of perfluoro-n-alkyl iodides in that capacity. The iodo- and chloromethyldimethylsulfonium salts, 4b,c, as well as the analogous iodomethyltrimethylammonium salt, 3a, are shown to be reactive SET acceptors.

  17. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  18. Reactive perforating collagenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Mukesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.

  19. Synthesis of grafted phosphorylcholine polymer layers as specific recognition ligands for C-reactive protein focused on grafting density and thickness to achieve highly sensitive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, Yuri; Kitayama, Yukiya; Itakura, Akiko N; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-04-21

    We studied the effects of layer thickness and grafting density of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) thin layers as specific ligands for the highly sensitive binding of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMPC layer thickness was controlled by surface-initiated activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). PMPC grafting density was controlled by utilizing mixed self-assembled monolayers with different incorporation ratios of the bis[2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)undecyl] disulfide ATRP initiator, as modulated by altering the feed molar ratio with (11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the modified surfaces. PMPC grafting densities were estimated from polymer thickness and the molecular weight obtained from sacrificial initiator during surface-initiated AGET ATRP. The effects of thickness and grafting density of the obtained PMPC layers on CRP binding performance were investigated using surface plasmon resonance employing a 10 mM Tris-HCl running buffer containing 140 mM NaCl and 2 mM CaCl2 (pH 7.4). Furthermore, the non-specific binding properties of the obtained layers were investigated using human serum albumin (HSA) as a reference protein. The PMPC layer which has 4.6 nm of thickness and 1.27 chains per nm(2) of grafting density showed highly sensitive CRP detection (limit of detection: 4.4 ng mL(-1)) with low non-specific HSA adsorption, which was improved 10 times than our previous report of 50 ng mL(-1).

  20. The value of time-averaged serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in prediction of mortality and dropout in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Chen, Chao-Yu; Li, Yi-Jung; Wu, Hsin-Hsu; Lin, Chan-Yu; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Ku, Cheng-Lung; Tian, Ya-Chung

    2017-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a useful biomarker for prediction of long-term outcomes in patients undergoing chronic dialysis. This observational cohort study evaluated whether the time-averaged serum high-sensitivity CRP (HS-CRP) level was a better predictor of clinical outcomes than a single HS-CRP level in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). We classified 335 patients into three tertiles according to the time-averaged serum HS-CRP level and followed up regularly from January 2010 to December 2014. Clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular events, infection episodes, newly developed malignancy, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), dropout (death plus conversion to hemodialysis), and mortality were assessed. During a 5-year follow-up, 164 patients (49.0%) ceased PD; this included 52 patient deaths (15.5%), 100 patients (29.9%) who converted to hemodialysis, and 12 patients (3.6%) who received a kidney transplantation. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test revealed a significantly worse survival accumulation in patients with high time-average HS-CRP levels. A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that a higher time-averaged serum HS-CRP level, older age, and the occurrence of cardiovascular events were independent mortality predictors. A higher time-averaged serum HS-CRP level, the occurrence of cardiovascular events, infection episodes, and EPS were important predictors of dropout. The receiver operating characteristic analysis verified that the value of the time-average HS-CRP level in predicting the 5-year mortality and dropout was superior to a single serum baseline HS-CRP level. This study shows that the time-averaged serum HS-CRP level is a better marker than a single baseline measurement in predicting the 5-year mortality and dropout in PD patients.

  1. Effect of Walnut Consumption on Serum Lipid Profiles, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Nitric Oxide in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantarian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the major causes of death worldwide. There is a direct relationship between increased levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoproteins (LDL, high density lipoproteins (HDL, nitric oxide (NO, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and the CAD. Walnut may reduce these factors and consequently decrease the risk of CAD. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of walnut consumption on TG, LDL, cholesterol, HDL, NO, and hs-CRP in patients with CAD and healthy people. Patients and Methods In this randomized crossover clinical trial, 70 patients with CAD were divided into two groups: case and control groups. The patients were given 40 g walnuts daily for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the TG, LDL, cholesterol, HDL, NO and hs-CRP levels were measured. The experiment was also carried out on healthy people (3 groups with normal range of lipid. The LDL, HDL, cholesterol, and hs-CRP levels were measured using commercially available kits. The nitric oxide level was measured using the Griess reaction method. Results The cholesterol and LDL levels decreased significantly from 202.43 to 187.46 and 123.80 to 108.63 mmol/L (7.9% and 13.9 %, respectively in healthy subjects after the treatment (P < 0.01. In the experimental group, there was no significant difference in cholesterol (P = 0.110 and LDL levels (P = 0.176 before and after the treatment. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in other parameters between the two groups. Conclusions The walnut consumption did not affect cholesterol levels in patients with CAD; however, it might be administered as an agent for reducing the cholesterol, which is one of the risk factors associated with CAD.

  2. Circulating miR-145 is associated with plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lihua; Hao, Fang; Wang, Weihua; Qu, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Stroke is a major cerebrovascular disease threatening human health and life with high morbidity, disability and mortality. We aimed to find effective biomarkers for the early diagnosis on stroke. Nine previously reported stroke-associated miRNAs (miR-21, miR-23a, miR-29b, miR-124, miR-145, miR-210, miR-221, miR-223 and miR-483-5p) were measured by quantitative real time-PCR, and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), the pro-inflammation markers in brain injury, were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 146 acute ischemic stroke patients and 96 healthy blood donors. We found that serum miR-145 was significantly increased within 24 h after stroke onset and serum miR-23a and miR-221 were decreased in patients. Moreover, serum miR-145 was strong positively correlated with plasma hs-CRP and moderate positively correlated with serum IL-6. Meanwhile, serum miR-23a and miR-221 were moderate negatively correlated with plasma hs-CRP but not serum IL-6. Importantly, the combination of hs-CRP and serum miR-145 gained a better sensitivity/spectivity for prediction of acute ischemia stroke (area under receiver operating characteristic curve from 0.794 to 0.896). Conclusively, our preliminary findings indicate that serum miR-145 upregulated in acute ischemic stroke might be a new biomarker for acute ischemia stroke evaluation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. TINGGINYA KONSENTRASI HIGH SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN SEBAGAI RISIKO KEJADIAN PENYAKIT ARTERI PERIFER PADA PENDERITA DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2 LANJUT USIA

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    Tuty Kuswardhani RA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pada orang lanjut usia (Lansia yang menderita diabetes melitus (DM tipe 2, tingginya konsentrasi penanda inflamasi sistemik High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP, dapat memprediksi kejadian penyakit kardiovaskular dan stroke. Tidak diketahui apakah tingginya konsentrasi hs-CRP juga berhubungan dengan terjadinya Penyakit Arteri Perifer (PAP pada DM tipe 2 lansia. Dengan menggunakan rancangan penelitian kasus kontrol untuk mengukur konsentrasi hs-CRP pada pasien DM tipe 2 lansia yang berobat di Poliklinik Geriatri RSUP Sanglah Denpasar dan terjadinya PAP/ Penyakit Arteri Perifer (nilai Ankle Brachial Index ??0.90 atau non PAP. Subjek di eksklusi apabila pasien (pria maupun wanita menderita penyakit ginjal kronis (serum kreatinin >3 mg/dl dan menderita kondisi-kondisi yang berpotensi mempengaruhi konsentrasi hs-CRP contohnya penyakit autoimun, infark miocardium, keganasan dan juga infeksi akut (konsentrasi hs-CRP >10mg/L. Variabel confounding adalah profil lipid (High Density Lipoprotein (HDL, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol, hipertensi dan obesitas sentral. Subjek yang dimasukkan dalam kelompok kasus dan kontrol telah melalui proses matching (berdasarkan umur dan jenis kelamin. Terdapat 24 kasus dan 21 kontrol yang memenuhi kriteria tersebut. Tidak ditemukan adanya perbedaan rerata pada karakteristik kelompok kasus dan kontrol berdasarkan umur (p=.185 dan jenis kelamin (p=.183. hubungan antara tingginya konsentrasi hs-CRP (cut off point 1 mg/l sebagai faktor risiko terjadinya PAP pada DM lansia tidak signifikan (OR=2.000, Pvalue=.205. Hal ini diperkirakan karena kuantitas sampel yang didapat tidak mencukupi kriteria dari analisis statistik atau mungkin hubungan itu sendiri terlalu lemah. Bukti tingginya konsentrasi hs-CRP dapat memprediksi risiko terjadinya PAP pada DM tipe 2 lansia pada penelitian ini belum terbukti perlu dilakukan penelitian lanjutan dengan sampel yang lebih banyak.

  4. Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome in non-affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian J; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, and is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Schizophrenia is also associated with increased inflammation, including aberrant blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. Fifty-nine inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychotic disorders and 22 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and anthropometric measures were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis and the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher total WBC counts, monocytes, and hsCRP levels than patients without the metabolic syndrome (p≤0.04 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, after controlling for potential confounding effects of age, race, sex, age at first hospitalization for psychosis, parental history of diabetes, smoking, and psychotropic medications, total WBC count, monocytes, and hsCRP were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome in patients (p≤0.04 for each). hsCRP was also a significant predictor of increased waist circumference and triglycerides in patients (p≤0.05 for each). Our findings suggest that measurement of total and differential WBC counts and hsCRP blood levels may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and metabolic disturbance in these patients.

  5. Correlations between the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus: the CALLISTO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Suk Min; Baek, Sang Hong; Jeon, Hui Kyung; Kang, Seok-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Hyung Seop; Rha, Seung Woon; Park, Jong Seon; Seong, In Whan; Ahn, Young Keun; Yoon, Jung Han; Cha, Tae Joon

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean adults. We reviewed 1,561 patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus with hsCRP levels measured within the past year. Four cardiovascular risk groups were determined: low (risk), moderate (2 risk), high (10-20%) and very high (>20%) risk, according to the number of risk factors and the Framingham/NCEP ATP III risk score. The correlations between the hsCRP level and cardiovascular risk factors (age, smoking, hypertension, lipid profiles and familial history of premature coronary heart disease) were investigated. The mean and median hsCRP (mg/L) levels were 1.32 ± 9.69 and 0.29 (range: 0.01-7.48), respectively. Men had a higher median level of hsCRP than women (plevels of hs CRP significantly increased from the low to the very high risk group (0.15, 0.23, 0.27 and 0.47, respectively) and were significantly correlated with age, the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index (BMI), the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio, the LDL-C/total cholesterol (TC) ratio, the HDL-C/TC ratio, the HDL-C/triglyceride (TG) ratio and the TC/TG ratio. Neither smoking, the LDL-C level nor the TG level affected the hsCRP level. In a multivariate regression analysis, age, the HDL-C level, the LDL-C/TC ratio and BMI were found to be independently correlated with the hsCRP level. There is a significant relationship between the degree of cardiovascular risk and the hsCRP level in Korean adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Assessing the hsCRP levels may thus provide additive value in predicting cardiovascular risks.

  6. Monadic Functional Reactive Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, A.J. van der; Shan, C

    2013-01-01

    Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a monadic computatio

  7. High Frequencies of Anti-Host Reactive CD8+ T Cells Ignore Non-Hematopoietic Antigen after Bone Marrow Transplantation in a Murine Model

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    Asmae Gassa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graft versus host disease (GvHD occurs in 20% of cases with patients having an MHC I matched bone marrow transplantation (BMT. Mechanisms causing this disease remain to be studied. Methods: Here we used a CD8+ T cell transgenic mouse line (P14/CD45.1+ and transgenic DEE mice bearing ubiquitously the glycoprotein 33-41 (GP33 antigen derived from the major lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV epitope to study mechanisms of tolerance in anti-host reactive CD8+ T cells after BMT. Results: We found that anti-host reactive CD8+ T cells (P14 T cells were not negatively selected in the thymus and that they were present in wild type (WT recipient mice as well as in DEE recipient mice. Anti-host reactive CD8+ T cells ignored the GP33 antigen expressed ubiquitously by host cells but they could be activated ex vivo via LCMV-infection. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS induced transient cell damage in DEE mice bearing anti-host reactive CD8+ T cells after BMT, suggesting that induction of host inflammatory response could break antigen ignorance. Introducing the GP33 antigen into BM cells led to deletion of anti-host reactive CD8+ T cells. Conclusion: We found that after BMT anti-host reactive CD8+ T cells ignored host antigen in recipients and that they were only deleted when host antigen was present in hematopoietic cells. Moreover, LPS-induced immune activation contributed to induction of alloreactivity of anti-host reactive CD8+ T cells after BMT.

  8. Green chemical engineering aspects of reactive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Michael F; Huss, Robert S; Doherty, Michael F

    2003-12-01

    Reactive or catalytic distillation technology combines chemical synthesis steps with separations by distillation. This combination can lead to intensified, high-efficiency process systems with significant green engineering attributes. New applications and understanding have prompted growth in the use of reactive distillation for a variety of chemical syntheses, especially esterifications and etherifications involving oxygenated hydrocarbons. We describe several applications and the potential and tradeoffs for reactive distillation technology in the context of green engineering principles.

  9. Proline 107 Is a Major Determinant in Maintaining the Structure of the Distal Pocket and Reactivity of the High-Spin Heme of MauG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Manliang; Jensen, Lyndal M.R.; Yukl, Erik T.; Wei, Xiaoxi; Liu, Aimin; Wilmot, Carrie M.; Davidson, Victor L. (Central Florida); (GSU); (Tougaloo); (UMM)

    2012-05-09

    The diheme enzyme MauG catalyzes a six-electron oxidation required for posttranslational modification of a precursor of methylamine dehydrogenase (preMADH) to complete the biosynthesis of its protein-derived tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor. Crystallographic studies had shown that Pro107, which resides in the distal pocket of the high-spin heme of MauG, changes conformation upon binding of CO or NO to the heme iron. In this study, Pro107 was converted to Cys, Val, and Ser by site-directed mutagenesis. The structures of each of these MauG mutant proteins in complex with preMADH were determined, as were their physical and catalytic properties. P107C MauG was inactive, and the crystal structure revealed that Cys107 had been oxidatively modified to a sulfinic acid. Mass spectrometry revealed that this modification was present prior to crystallization. P107V MauG exhibited spectroscopic and catalytic properties that were similar to those of wild-type MauG, but P107V MauG was more susceptible to oxidative damage. The P107S mutation caused a structural change that resulted in the five-coordinate high-spin heme being converted to a six-coordinate heme with a distal axial ligand provided by Glu113. EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopy revealed this heme remained high-spin but with greatly increased rhombicity as compared to that of the axial signal of wild-type MauG. P107S MauG was resistant to reduction by dithionite and reaction with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and unable to catalyze TTQ biosynthesis. These results show that the presence of Pro107 is critical in maintaining the proper structure of the distal heme pocket of the high-spin heme of MauG, allowing exogenous ligands to bind and directing the reactivity of the heme-activated oxygen during catalysis, thus minimizing the oxidation of other residues of MauG.

  10. The Effect of Resistance Training on Levels of Interlukine-6 and High-Sensitivity C - reactive protein in Older-Aged Women

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    Zahra Mardanpour Shahrekordi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is associated with elevated levels of some proinflammatory factors and exercise is a non-invasive intervention to improve immune function among older adults .The aim of the study was to compare resistance training effects on interlukine-6 (IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in older-aged women. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental and forty healthy females were selected and randomly assigned to one of four groups: strength after endurance training (endurance + strength (E + S, n = 9, strength prior to endurance training (strength + endurance (S + E, n = 10, interval resistance-endurance training (Int, n = 12, and control (n = 9 groups. The training program was performed for eight weeks, three times per week. Human TNF-α and IL-6 sandwich ELISA Kit were used. Within-group differences were analyzed using a paired samples t-test and between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The intra-session order had not significantly influence on the adaptive response of waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.55, IL-6 (p = 0.55 and hs-CRP (p = 0.55 throughout the study. However, significant differences were shown following combined training between the S + E, E + S and Int groups for Vo2 max (p = 0.029, body mass (p = 0.016 and BMI (p = 0.023 when comparing pre and posttests. Conclusion: This study confirmed that adaptations to a combination of endurance and resistance training appear to be independent of whether resistance training occurs prior to or following endurance training.

  11. Prediction value of the ratio of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and prealbumin on acute myocardial infarction complicated with acute heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Yun Zu; Shuang Wang; Feng-Lan Yang; Bao-Gui Chen; Ming-Zhe Ma

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To through counting serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), prealbumin (PAB) and the ratio of the two to analyze its predictive value on acute myocardial infarction complicated with postoperative acute heart failure.Methods: 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction patients treated in our hospital from January 2013 to January 2015 were selected as research objects. Serum PAB and hs-CRP values on the next day of admission as well as after PCI surgery were recorded respectively. Then PAB data change before and after surgery, PAB and hs-CRP change with or without postoperative cardiovascular events (heart failure) as well as the value of the ratio of hs-CRP and PAB on prediction of acute myocardial infarction complicated with acute heart failure was compared.Results:Postoperative PAB in 100 cases of myocardial infarction patients increased from (0.19±0.05) to (0.24±0.06), and the differences had statistical significance; 40 cases had postoperative cardiovascular events (heart failure), incidence being 40%; PAB in patients without postoperative cardiovascular events (heart failure) increased significantly, hs-CRP decreased significantly, and the differences had statistical significance; Logistic regression univariate analysis showed that acute myocardial infarction complicated with heart failure was associated with diabetes, PAB, hs-CRP and In (hs-CRP/PAB), and multivariate analysis showed that it was associated with In (hs-CRP/PAB). Conclusion:hs-CRP in patients with acute myocardial infarction increases, PAB decreases, postoperative PAB increases relatively, hs-CRP and PAB data shows different degrees of change with or without postoperative cardiovascular (heart failure), and In (hs-CRP/PAB) is associated with acute myocardial infarction complicated with heart failure and can be used as its prediction index.

  12. High on treatment platelet reactivity against aspirin by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs--pharmacological mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, T; Saxena, A; Schrör, K

    2013-05-01

    Inhibition of platelet function by aspirin results from irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. While sufficient inhibition is obtained at antiplatelet doses (75-325 mg/day) in most (≥95%) treated patients, the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and subsequent cardiovascular risk reduction is much less in clinical settings and disease-dependent. Several reasons for this "high on treatment platelet reactivity" are known. This paper reviews the evidence for an interaction between aspirin and other COX inhibitors, namely non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Numerous experimental studies demonstrated a pharmacodynamic interaction between aspirin and NSAIDs. This likely occurs within the hydrophobic substrate channel of platelet COX-1 and might be explained by molecular competition between inhibitor drugs and substrate (arachidonic acid) at overlapping binding sites. This interaction is found with some compounds, notably ibuprofen and dipyrone (metamizole), but not with others, such as diclofenac and acetaminophen (paracetamol). Hence, this interaction is not a class effect of NSAIDs and/or non-steroidal analgesics but rather due to specific structural requirements which still remain to be defined. In vivo studies on healthy subjects and patients tend to confirm this type of interaction as well as large differences between NSAIDs and non-steroidal analgesics, respectively. These interactions may be clinically relevant and may increase the cardiovascular risk in long-term treatment for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention in patients with chronic inflammation, such as rheumatoid arthritis. These patients have an elevated risk for myocardial infarctions and may require chronic antiplatelet treatment by aspirin in addition to treatment of inflammatory pain.

  13. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a favorable prognostic factor and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein level in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

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    Pei-Dong Chi

    Full Text Available Although the alterations of lipid profile in lung cancer have been documented, the prognostic value of serum HDL-C level and its correlation with inflammation in NSCLC remain unknown.Levels of preoperative serum lipid concentrations (including HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TG and the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein level (CRP were retrospectively analyzed in 228 patients with NSCLC and in 300 healthy controls. The serum lipid levels in these two populations were compared. Univariate and multivariate cox hazards analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic value of serum lipid levels in NSCLC. The correlation between CRP and lipid profile were also analyzed.Compared with those in normal controls, the serum HDL-C, LDL-C, and TC levels were statistically decreased and the TG levels were significantly increased in 228 NSCLC patients. The patients with decreased levels of HDL-C had significantly lower 5-year survival rates than those with normal HDL-C, not only in the whole NSCLC cohort but also in the subgroups stratified according to the disease T, N classifications, and metastasis, whereas the other lipid components were not independent prognostic factors for NSCLC. Of the lipid components, a lower HDL-C level was observed more often in patients with a high CRP level than in those with a normal CRP level. Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that the HDL-C level presented a negative correlation with the CRP level (r = -0.360, p<0.001.A decreased level of preoperative HDL-C was found to be associated with poor survival in patients with NSCLC. Serum HDL-C level may be a clinical prognosis factor for NSCLC patients. In addition, a negative correlation was present between the levels of HDL-C and CRP, the well-known inflammation biomarker.

  14. Comparison of acute versus convalescent stage high-sensitivity C-Reactive protein level in predicting clinical outcome after acute ischemic stroke and impact of erythropoietin

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    Yeh Kuo-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim Currently, no data on the optimal time point after acute ischemic stroke (IS at which high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP level is most predictive of unfavorable outcome. We tested the hypothesis that hs-CRP levels during both acute (48 h after IS and convalescent (21 days after IS phases are equally important in predicting 90-day clinical outcome after acute IS. We further evaluated the impact of erythropoietin (EPO, an anti-inflammatory agent, on level of hs-CRP after acute IS. Methods Totally 160 patients were prospectively randomized to receive either EPO therapy (group 1, n = 80 (5,000 IU each time, subcutaneously at 48 h and 72 h after acute IS, or placebo (group 2, n = 80. Serum level of hs-CRP was determined using ELISA at 48 h and on day 21 after IS and once in 60 healthy volunteers. Results Serum level of hs-CRP was substantially higher in all patients with IS than in healthy controls at 48 h and day 21 after IS (all p 0.5. Multivariate analysis showed that hs-CRP levels (at 48 h and day 21 were independently predictive of 90-day major adverse neurological event (MANE (defined as recurrent stroke, NIHSS≥8, or death (all p Conclusion EPO therapy which was independently predictive of freedom from 90-day MANE did not alter the crucial role of hs-CRP levels measured at 48 h and 21-day in predicting unfavorable clinical outcome after IS.

  15. Influence of berberine combining with atorvastatin on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein in patients with acute ischemic stroke

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    Fei-qi ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the influence of berberine combining with atorvastatin on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP in patients with acute ischemic stroke.  Methods Ischemic stroke patients (N = 55 were randomized into 3 groups: atorvastatin 20 mg/d (N = 28, atorvastatin 40 mg/d (N = 11 and berberine 0.40 g three times a day + atorvastatin 20 mg/d (combined treatment, N = 16. They were treated for 3 months. The expression changes of serum hs-CRP and A-FABP before and after treatment were compared among 3 groups.  Results There were significant decreases between before and 3 months after treatment on the expression of hs-CRP and A-FABP in 3 groups (P = 0.023, 0.000. After treatment, both the expression of hs-CRP and A-FABP significantly decreased, and the decreases were (1.69 ± 2.29 and (281.43 ± 311.05 mg/L in atorvastatin 20 mg/d group, (7.81 ± 12.48 and (321.59 ± 289.35 mg/L in atorvastatin 40 mg/d group, and (2.16 ± 3.34 and (376.55 ± 249.72 mg/L in combined treatment group. However, there was no significant difference among 3 groups (P > 0.05, for all, and there was no correlation between drugs and observation time points (P > 0.05, for all.  Conclusions The effect of berberine combined with atorvastatin on hs-CRP and A-FABP is similar to atorvastation (40 mg/d therapy. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.010

  16. Involvement of reactive oxygen species and high-voltage-activated calcium currents in nanoparticle zinc oxide-induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jingxia [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China); Yao Yang [Tianjin First Central Hospital (China); Liu Shichang [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China); Zhang Tao [Nankai University, College of Life Science (China); Ren Guogang [University of Hertfordshire, Science and Technology Research Institute (United Kingdom); Yang Zhuo, E-mail: zhuoyang@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China)

    2012-11-15

    This study was to determine the possible neurotoxicity and mechanisms underlying the effects of nano-ZnO with sizes of 20-80 nm on central nervous system (CNS). The cytotoxicity of nano-ZnO was investigated in PC12 cells. The viability of cells was observed by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for cells was evaluated by a fluorometry assay. The apoptosis of cells was detected and analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, effects of nano-ZnO on the properties of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium currents were studied in acutely isolated rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results of MTT assay showed that nano-ZnO (10{sup -4} g/mL) caused a significant decrease in cell viability (P < 0.05). Nano-ZnO induced intracellular accumulation of ROS and the apoptosis of PC12 cells with the increasing concentration of nano-ZnO in flow cytometric assay (P < 0.05). Further results of electrophysiological recording indicated that 10{sup -4} g/mL nano-ZnO first altered the current-voltage curve and the peak amplitudes of HVA calcium currents at 10 min of the recording, and the peak current amplitudes were increased significantly at the end of 30 min (P < 0.05). All these results suggested that the increase of intracellular ROS was one of potential mechanisms of cellular apoptosis induced by nano-ZnO. Nano-ZnO could cause the elevation of cytosolic calcium levels by enhancement of HVA calcium currents, which would increase the generation of intracellular ROS, and consequently promote the neuronal apoptosis.

  17. Reactive sputtering of δ-ZrH{sub 2} thin films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Högberg, Hans, E-mail: hans.hogberg@liu.se; Tengdelius, Lina; Eriksson, Fredrik; Broitman, Esteban; Lu, Jun; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Samuelsson, Mattias [Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-582 16 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Reactive sputtering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a Zr target in Ar/H{sub 2} plasmas was employed to deposit Zr-H films on Si(100) substrates, and with H content up to 61 at. % and O contents typically below 0.2 at. % as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a chemical shift of ∼0.7 eV to higher binding energies for the Zr-H films compared to pure Zr films, consistent with a charge transfer from Zr to H in a zirconium hydride. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are single-phase δ-ZrH{sub 2} (CaF{sub 2} type structure) at H content >∼55 at. % and pole figure measurements give a 111 preferred orientation for these films. Scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show a glasslike microstructure for the HiPIMS films, while the DCMS films are columnar. Nanoindentation yield hardness values of 5.5–7 GPa for the δ-ZrH{sub 2} films that is slightly harder than the ∼5 GPa determined for Zr films and with coefficients of friction in the range of 0.12–0.18 to compare with the range of 0.4–0.6 obtained for Zr films. Wear resistance testing show that phase-pure δ-ZrH{sub 2} films deposited by HiPIMS exhibit up to 50 times lower wear rate compared to those containing a secondary Zr phase. Four-point probe measurements give resistivity values in the range of ∼100–120 μΩ cm for the δ-ZrH{sub 2} films, which is slightly higher compared to Zr films with values in the range 70–80 μΩ cm.

  18. Low-loss interference filter arrays made by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) for high-performance multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broßmann, Jan; Best, Thorsten; Bauer, Thomas; Jakobs, Stefan; Eisenhammer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Optical remote sensing of the earth from air and space typically utilizes several channels in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Thin-film optical interference filters, mostly of narrow bandpass type, are applied to select these channels. The filters are arranged in filter wheels, arrays of discrete stripe filters mounted in frames, or patterned arrays on a monolithic substrate. Such multi-channel filter assemblies can be mounted close to the detector, which allows a compact and lightweight camera design. Recent progress in image resolution and sensor sensitivity requires improvements of the optical filter performance. Higher demands placed on blocking in the UV and NIR and in between the spectral channels, in-band transmission and filter edge steepness as well as scattering lead to more complex filter coatings with thicknesses in the range of 10 - 25μm. Technological limits of the conventionally used ion-assisted evaporation process (IAD) can be overcome only by more precise and higher-energetic coating technologies like plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) in combination with optical broadband monitoring. Optics Balzers has developed a photolithographic patterning process for coating thicknesses up to 15μm that is fully compatible with the advanced PARMS coating technology. This provides the possibility of depositing multiple complex high-performance filters on a monolithic substrate. We present an overview of the performance of recently developed filters with improved spectral performance designed for both monolithic filter-arrays and stripe filters mounted in frames. The pros and cons as well as the resulting limits of the filter designs for both configurations are discussed.

  19. Relationship between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and modified TOAST classification as well as OCSP subtypes in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-jun CHANG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP level and modified TOAST classification as well as OCSP subtypes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Serum hs-CRP was measured in 240 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 120 normal controls. All patients were classified according to modified TOAST classification and OCSP criteria. Serum hs-CRP levels in acute ischemic stroke group were significantly higher than those in normal control group [(13.68 ± 6.92 mg/L vs (3.98 ± 0.76 mg/L; t = 6.922, P = 0.002]. Among modified TOAST subtypes, the highest serum hs-CRP level was in cardioembolism (CE group [(16.82 ± 6.16 mg/L], followed by arterothrombosis (AT group [(15.17 ± 5.68 mg/L], stroke of undetermined etiology (SUD group [(10.06 ± 3.89 mg/L] and small artery disease (SAD group [(9.86 ± 3.75 mg/L, P = 0.027]. Among OCSP subtypes, the highest serum hs-CRP level was in total anterior circulation infarct (TACI group [(17.02 ± 6.98 mg/L], followed by posterior circulation infarct (POCI group [(15.91 ± 7.12 mg/L], partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI group [(12.83 ± 4.95 mg/L] and lacunar infarct (LACI group [(10.61 ± 5.73 mg/L, P = 0.005]. Serum hs-CRP levels are various in different modified TOAST and OCSP subtypes, which may reflect etiological and pathophysiological diversity of acute ischemic stroke, guide clinical treatment and help to predict prognosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.013

  20. C-reactive protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome in the Japanese general population: a longitudinal cohort study.

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    Yoshifumi Saisho

    Full Text Available AIMS: To clarify predictive values of C-reactive protein (CRP and high-molecular-weight (HMW adiponectin for development of metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of Japanese workers who had participated in an annual health checkup in 2007 and 2011. A total of 750 subjects (558 men and 192 women, age 46±8 years who had not met the criteria of metabolic syndrome and whose CRP and HMW-adiponectin levels had been measured in 2007 were enrolled in this study. Associations between CRP, HMW-adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome after 4 years were assessed by logistic regression analysis and their predictive values were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: Among 750 subjects, 61 (8.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III criteria and 53 (7.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO in 2011. Although CRP and HMW-adiponectin were both significantly correlated with development of metabolic syndrome, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HMW-adiponectin but not CRP was associated with metabolic syndrome independently of BMI or waist circumference. Adding these biomarkers to BMI or waist circumference did not improve the predictive value for metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the traditional markers of adiposity such as BMI or waist circumference remain superior markers for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to CRP, HMW-adiponectin, or the combination of both among the Japanese population.

  1. Soluble CD163, adiponectin, C-reactive protein and progression of dysglycaemia in individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the ADDITION-PRO cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichgræber, Pia; Witte, Daniel R; Møller, Holger J; Skriver, Mette V; Richelsen, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Marit E; Johansen, Nanna B; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between the macrophage-activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in glycaemia, insulin resistance and insulin secretion in individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This prospective study included 1014 individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in the Danish arm of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch study of Intensive Treatment In PeOple with ScreeN-detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION-Europe trial) baseline examination in 2001-2006 and follow-up examination (ADDITION-Progression [ADDITION-PRO]) in 2009-2011. Baseline serum samples were analysed for sCD163, adiponectin and CRP. The associations between sCD163, adiponectin and CRP per doubling of concentration, and changes per year in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, 2 h glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were assessed using a mixed-effects model. A doubling of sCD163 concentration was positively associated with changes in HOMA-β (β = 1.160 per year, 95% CI 0.345, 1.975) as well as a doubling of CRP concentration (β = 0.410 per year, 95% CI 0.051, 0.769) after adjustment for age and sex. A doubling of adiponectin was inversely associated with changes in 2 h glucose (β =-0.063 per year, 95% CI -0.111, -0.014), HOMA-IR (β =-0.038 per year, 95% CI -0.060, -0.015) and HOMA-β (β =-1.028 per year, 95% CI -1.635, -0.421) after adjustment for age and sex. The associations were robust to adjustment for baseline waist circumference and smoking. Adjustment for CRP did not change the associations for sCD163 or adiponectin. Our findings indicate that mechanisms related to inflammation, including macrophage activation and adipocyte metabolism, may play a role in changes in glucose homeostasis in individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (hsCRP IN YOUNG ADULTS: RELATION TO AEROBIC CAPACITY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

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    K. Mazurek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atheromatosis develops as a result of a chronic inflammatory process of the arteries. Inflammatory biomarkers, particularly high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, positively correlate with atheromatosis risk factors and can be used to estimate and predict the risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hsCRP concentration and BMI, body composition, classical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, energy expenditure for physical activity (WEE and  ·VO2max. 166 volunteers (78 women and 88 men were included in the examinations. Their mean age was 20.2±0.9 years. Health condition was described by the following variables: smoking, WEE,  ·VO2max, body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lipid profile, hsCRP, glucose and insulin concentration, and insulin resistance. Between the subgroups created on the basis of hsCRP concentration, in quartiles 1 to 3 and quartile 4, a comparative analysis was carried out. 79.5�0of women and 69.3�0of men had hsCRP values within the references ranges. Moderately high values were found in 14.1�0of women and 22.7�0of men and high in 6.4�0and 7.9�20respectively. Mean values of BMI, FFM, WHR, WEE,  ·VO2max, glucose and triglyceride concentration, and TC/HDL index were significantly lower, while FM and HDL were significantly higher, in women than in men. In the quartile 4 subgroup compared to the quartile 1-3 subgroup, we found significantly lower HDL concentration and a tendency for higher values of BMI (p=0.06 and TC (p=0.07 as well as higher percentages of smoking among men. In young, physically active, healthy persons, serum concentration of hsCRP is not related to physical activity or  ·VO2max.

  3. Surface Reactivity of Quasicrystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Cynthia J.

    1997-03-01

    A fundamental knowledge and understanding of the reactivity of quasicrystalline materials is of great interest because of certain practical properties these materials possess, namely low coefficients of friction and oxidation resistance. A recent "hierarchical cluster" model proposed by Janot(C. Janot Phys. Rev. B 56 (1996) 181.) predicts that quasicrystal surfaces should be intrinsically inert and rough, and is useful in explaining their interesting properties. Surface structure and preparation may play a role in the applicability of this model. In this talk, we examine these factors and present experimental measurements of the surface reactivity of some Al-based quasicrystalline materials under ultra-high vacuum conditions (less than 2 x 10-10 Torr). To gain an understanding of what properties are unique to quasicrystals, we make comparisons with the surface reactivity of crystalline alloys of similar composition and pure, crystalline aluminum. note number.

  4. 代谢综合征患者超敏C反应蛋白与尿微量白蛋白关系研究%Association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and microalbuminuria in metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑虹; 米树华; 杨红霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨代谢综合征(metabolic syndrome,MS)患者血清超敏C反应蛋白及尿微量白蛋白水平变化及二者之间的关系.方法:MS患者138例(MS组)和非MS患者95例(对照组),MS组根据尿白蛋白排泄率将MS患者分为正常蛋白尿组、微量白蛋白尿组和临床蛋白尿组,检测各组超敏C反应蛋白水平,并进行比较.结果:MS组血清超敏C反应蛋白及尿微量白蛋白水平较对照组明显升高;超敏c反应蛋白水平随尿白蛋白排泄率增高而增高.结论:MS患者血清超敏C反应蛋白及尿微量白蛋白水平明显升高,二者存在一定相关性.%Objective To explore the association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and microalbuminuria in metabolic syndrome. Methods A total of 138 patients with metabolic syndrome were divided into normal proteinuria group, microalbuminuria group and clinical proteinuria group according to urinary albumin excretory rate. All these 138 patients and another 95 patients without metabolic syndrome (control group) were determined and compared the high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. Results The serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and microalbuminuria in metabolic syndrome patients were obviously higher than those in control group (P<0.01). The high sensitivity C-reactivity protein level increased with the increase of urinary albumin excretory rate.Conclusion The levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and microalbuminuria increase in the patients with metabolic syndrome. The high sensitivity C-reactive protein is correlated with microalbuminuria in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  5. The diagnostic value of tumor abnormal protein and high sensitivity C reactive protein in screening for endometrial cancer with endometrial thickness less than 8 mm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Li; Ruiqin Yue; Dongrui Qin; Yanqing Wang; Xinling Zhou; Xinyong Jing; Chuanzhong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to combine tumor abnormal protein (TAP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level detection to diagnose endometrial cancer in patients with endometrial thickness less than 8 mm, and to provide a reference for clinical screening and diagnosis. Methods Clinical data from 19 cases of endometrial cancer, diagnosed on the basis of pathological find-ings, were col ected from September 2014 to December 2015. The inclusion criteria were as fol ows: the patients were first diagnosed with endometrial thickness less than 8 mm and were al in menopause. Peri-menopausal patients (n = 26) with uterine fibroids seen during the same period were selected as a control group. Serum TAP and hs-CRP levels of the patients in the two groups were simultaneously determined on admission. Results We found that both TAP and hs-CRP levels in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group [(182.95 ± 72.14) μm2 vs. (133.19 ± 55.18) μm2, P = 0.019; (7.52 ± 19.03) mg/L vs. (1.66 ± 2.31) mg/L, P = 0.136]. The sensitivity of TAP for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer was 73.68%, the specificity was 69.23%, and the Youden index was 0.4291. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of hs-CRP was 15.79% and 100%, respectively, and the Youden index was 0.1579. After plotting the receiver operating characteristics curves, the optimal cut-of value for TAP in diagnosing endometrial cancer was found to be 160.662 μm2 and that for hs-CRP was 1.07 mg/L. Conclusion For patients suspected of having endometrial cancer with endometrial thickness less than 8 mm, combined detection of TAP and hs-CRP levels can be used as a screening tool and can provide new ideas regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  6. EFFECTS OF SIMVASTAIN COMBINED WITH OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS ON HIGH SENSITIVE C-REACTIVE PROTEIN,LIPIDEMIA,AND FIBRINOLYSIS IN PATIENTS WITH MIXED DYSLIPIDEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Hong; Zhi-min Xu; Bao-sen Pang; Liang Cui; Yu Wei; Wen-jing Guo; Yan-ling Mao; Xin-chun Yang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of simvastatin combined with omega-3 fatty acids on high sensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP), lipidemia, and fibrinolysis in coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHD risk equivalent patients with mixed dyslipidemia.Methods A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled and parallel group trial was conducted. Patients with CHD and CHD risk equivalents with mixed dyslipidemia were treated with 10 or 20 mg simvastatin for 6-12 weeks. Following with the treatment of patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-ch) reaching goal level (< 100 mg/dL) or close to the goal (< 130 mg/dL), while triglyceride (TG) ≥ 200 mg/dL and < 500 mg/dL, was combined with omega-3fatty acids (3 g/d) or a placebo for 2 months. The effects of the treatment on HsCRP, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-ch, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-ch), TG, lipoprotein (a) [LP (a)], apolipoprotein Al (apoAl), apolipoprotein B (apoB),plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were investigated. Forty patients finished the study with each group consisting of twenty patients.Results (1) There were significant reductions of HsCRP, TG, TC, and TC/HDL-ch, which decreased by 2.16 ± 2.77mg/L (38.5%), 94.0± 65.4 mg/dL (31.1%), 13.3 ± 22.3 mg/dL (6.3%), 0.78 ± 1.60 respectively in the omega-3 fatty acids group (P < 0.01, < 0.001, < 0.05, < 0.05) compared to the baseline. HsCRP and triglyceride reduction were more significant in omega-3 fatty acids group compared to the placebo group (P= 0.021 and 0.011 respectively). (2) In the omega-3 fatty acids group, the values and percentage of TG reduction had a significantly positive relation with HsCRP reduction (r = 0.51and 0.45, P=0.021 and 0.047 respectively).Conclusion In CHD and CHD risk equivalent patients with mixed dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia's therapeutic effect using simvastatin and omega-3 fatty acids may result from not only the combination of lipid adjustment

  7. High-sensitivity c-reactive protein and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels are synergistically associated with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling persons

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    Takayama Shuzo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events. Increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels are associated with MetS and its components. Changes in gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT levels in response to oxidative stress are also associated with MetS, and the levels could be modulated by hsCRP. Methods From a single community, we recruited 822 men (mean age, 61 ± 14 years and 1,097 women (63 ± 12 years during their annual health examination. We investigated whether increased hsCRP and GGT levels are synergistically associated with MetS and insulin resistance evaluated by Homeostasis of model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Results Of these subjects, 141 men (17.2% and 170 women (15.5% had MetS. Participants with MetS had a higher hsCRP and GGT level than those without MetS in both genders, and the HOMA-IR increased significantly in correlation with an increase in hsCRP and GGT. In men, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval for MetS across tertiles of hsCRP and GGT were 1.00, 1.69 (1.01-2.80, and 2.13 (1.29-3.52, and 1.00, 3.26 (1.84-5.78 and 6.11 (3.30-11.3, respectively. In women, the respective corresponding values were 1.00, 1.54 (0.92-2.60, and 3.08 (1.88-5.06, and 1.00, 1.70 (1.04-2.79 and 2.67 (1.66-4.30. The interaction between increased hsCRP and GGT was a significant and independent determinant for MetS and insulin resistance in both genders. Conclusions These results suggested that higher CRP and GGT levels were synergistically associated with MetS and insulin resistance, independently of other confounding factor in the general population.

  8. Utility of the combination of serum highly-sensitive C-reactive protein level at discharge and a risk index in predicting readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD,

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    Chun Chang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frequent readmissions for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD are an independent risk factor for increased mortality and use of health-care resources. Disease severity and C-reactive protein (CRP level are validated predictors of long-term prognosis in such patients. This study investigated the utility of combining serum CRP level with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD exacerbation risk classification for predicting readmission for AECOPD. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients hospitalized for AECOPD at Peking University Third Hospital, in Beijing, China. We assessed patient age; gender; smoking status and history (pack-years; lung function; AECOPD frequency during the last year; quality of life; GOLD risk category (A-D; D indicating the greatest risk; and serum level of high-sensitivity CRP at discharge (hsCRP-D. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 135 patients. Of those, 71 (52.6% were readmitted at least once during the 12-month follow-up period. The median (interquartile time to readmission was 78 days (42-178 days. Multivariate analysis revealed that serum hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD category D were independent predictors of readmission (hazard ratio = 3.486; 95% CI: 1.968-6.175; p < 0.001 and hazard ratio = 2.201; 95% CI: 1.342-3.610; p = 0.002, respectively. The ordering of the factor combinations by cumulative readmission risk, from highest to lowest, was as follows: hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C. CONCLUSIONS: Serum hsCRP-D and GOLD classification are independent predictors of readmission for AECOPD, and their predictive value increases when they are used in combination.

  9. "Poor man's risk factor": correlation between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and socio-economic class in patients of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Rishi; Puri, Aniket; Makhija, Aman; Singhal, A; Ahuja, A; Mukerjee, S; Dwivedi, S K; Narain, V S; Saran, R K; Puri, V K

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation has been proposed as one of the factors responsible for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) at present is the strongest marker of inflammation. We did a study to assess the correlation of hs-CRP with socio-economic status (SES) in patients of CAD presenting as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Baseline hs-CRP of 490 patients of ACS was estimated by turbidimetric immunoassay. Patients were stratified by levels of hs-CRP into low (3 mg/L) groups and in tertiles of 0-0.39 mg/L, 0.4-1.1 mg/L and >1.1 mg/L, respectively. Classification of patient into upper (21.4%), middle (45.37 percent) and lower (33.3%) SES was based on Kuppuswami Index which includes education, income and profession. Presence or absence of traditional risk factors for CAD diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking was recorded in each patient. Mean levels of hs-CRP in lower, middle and upper SES were 2.3 +/- 2.1 mg/L, 0.8 +/- 1.7 mg/L and 1.2 +/- 1.5 mg/L, respectively. hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in low SES compared with both upper SES (p = 0.033) and middle SES (p = 0.001). Prevalence of more than one traditional CAD risk factors was seen in 13.5%, 37.5% and 67.67 percent; in patient of lower, middle and upper SES. It was observed that multiple risk factors had a linear correlation with increasing SES. Of the four traditional risk factors of CAD, smoking was the only factor which was significantly higher in lower SES (73%) as compared to middle (51.67 percent;) and upper (39.4%) SES. We found that 62.3%, 20.8% and 26.5% patients of low, middle and upper SES had hs-CRP values in the highest tertile. Median value of the Framingham risk score in low, middle and upper SES as 11, 14 and 18, respectively. We observed that at each category of Framingham risk, low SES had higher hs-CRP. We conclude from our study that patient of lower SES have significantly higher levels of hs-CRP despite the fact that they have

  10. Identification of Scedosporium boydii catalase A1 gene, a reactive oxygen species detoxification factor highly expressed in response to oxidative stress and phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara; Staerck, Cindy; d'Almeida, Sènan M; Marot, Agnès; Delneste, Yves; Calenda, Alphonse; Tabiasco, Julie; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Fleury, Maxime J J

    2015-12-01

    Scedosporium boydii is an opportunistic filamentous fungus which may be responsible for a large variety of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. This fungus belongs to the Scedosporium apiospermum species complex which usually ranks second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Species of the S. apiospermum complex are able to chronically colonize the CF airways suggesting pathogenic mechanisms allowing persistence and growth of these fungi in the respiratory tract. Few putative virulence factors have been purified and characterized so far in the S. apiospermum complex including a cytosolic Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a monofunctional catalase (catalase A1). Upon microbial infection, host phagocytes release reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, as part of the antimicrobial response. Catalases are known to protect pathogens against ROS by degradation of the hydrogen peroxide. Here, we identified the S. boydii catalase A1 gene (CATA1) and investigated its expression in response to the environmental conditions encountered in the CF airways and to the oxidative stress. Results showed that S. boydii CATA1 gene expression is not affected by hypoxia, hypercapnia or pH changes. In contrast, CATA1 gene was overexpressed in response to a chemically induced oxidative stress with a relative gene expression 37-fold higher in the presence of 250 μM H(2)O(2), 20-fold higher with 250 μM menadione and 5-fold higher with 2 mM paraquat. Moreover, S. boydii CATA1 gene expression progressively increased upon exposure to activated THP-1-derived macrophages, reaching a maximum after 12 h (26 fold). Activated HL60-derived neutrophils and activated human peripheral blood neutrophils more rapidly induced S. boydii CATA1 gene overexpression, a maximum gene expression level being reached at 75 min (17 fold) and 60 min (15 fold), respectively. In contrast expression of the gene

  11. Amidinatogermylene derivatives of ruthenium carbonyl: new insights into the reactivity of [Ru3(CO)12] with two-electron-donor reagents of high basicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, Lucía; Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Polo, Diego

    2015-03-16

    The reactivity of ruthenium carbonyl with amidinatogermylenes of the type Ge(R2bzam)(t)Bu (R2bzam = N,N'-disubstituted benzamidinate) was studied for R = (t)Bu (1tBu) and (i)Pr (1iPr). The mono-, bi-, and/or trinuclear derivatives [Ru(1R)(CO)4], [Ru(1R)2(CO)3], [Ru2(1iPr)(CO)7], [Ru3(1tBu)(CO)11], [Ru3(1tBu)2(CO)10], and [Ru3(1R)3(CO)9] (R = (t)Bu, (i)Pr) were isolated in yields that depend upon the reactant ratio and the reaction temperature. The experimental data are consistent with the proposal that, at room temperature, the trinuclear complexes [Ru3(CO)12], [Ru3(1R)(CO)11], and [Ru3(1R)2(CO)10] form an adduct with the germylene 1R that may evolve through two different reaction pathways, (a) releasing a CO ligand (thus leading to the corresponding trinuclear CO-substituted product) and/or (b) cleaving the cluster framework (thus leading to mononuclear germylene-containing products). At 90 °C, additional processes are also possible, such as the reactions of 1R with [Ru(1R)(CO)4] or [Ru3(1R)3(CO)9], which both give [Ru(1R)2(CO)3], or the reactions of [Ru(1tBu)(CO)4] and [Ru(1iPr)(CO)4] with [Ru3(CO)12], which give [Ru3(1tBu)(CO)11] and [Ru2(1iPr)(CO)7], respectively. This wide reaction panorama helps rationalize previously reported outcomes of reactions of [Ru3(CO)12] with other reagents of high basicity, such as trialkylphosphines or N-heterocyclic carbenes, including results for which no satisfactory explanation has been hitherto provided.

  12. 高温后活性粉末混凝土微观结构分析%Microstructure analysis of reactive powder concrete after exposed to high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海艳; 王英; 解恒燕; 郑文忠

    2012-01-01

    试验分析了高温后活性粉末混凝土(RPC)的外观、质量损失和抗压强度随温度的变化情况;利用扫描电镜(SEM)研究了经历不同高温后的RPC微观结构变化和物相组成.结果表明:经历温度低于400oС时,水泥水化反应和火山灰反应互相促进,RPC微观结构得到改善,抗压强度较常温时有所提高;经历温度为400~800oС时,C-S-H凝胶由连续块状变为尺寸较小的分散相,钢纤维与基体粘结界面处的裂纹逐渐形成并扩展,聚丙烯纤维融化后的孔道加剧了RPC的内部缺陷,RPC微观结构不断恶化,抗压强度逐渐降低.%The appearance, mass loss and cube compressive strength of reactive powder concrete (RPC) after exposed to different temperatures were introduced, and its microstructure and phase com position were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique after exposed to high temperatures. The results show that, after exposed to less than 400 ℃, the cement hydration and the pozzolanic reaction promotes each other, which improves the microstructure of RPC so the compressive strength of RPC has increased compared with that of unheated; when exposed to 400-800 ℃, with the temperature elevated the C S H gel shifts from continuous block like form to dispersed phase, and the cracks at the bonding interface of steel fiber and the matrix come into being and expand gradually. The melting channels of polypropylene fibers exacerbate the internal defects of RPC, so the micro- structure of RPC deteriorates constantly and the compressive strength decreases gradually.

  13. Evaluation of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis patients with anemia by estimating hematological parameters and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels

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    S V V S Musalaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal tissues mount an immune inflammatory response to bacteria and their products. Certain inflammatory cytokines produced during periodontal inflammation increase the production of acute phase proteins like high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and can depress erythropoietin production leading to the development of anemia. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on red blood cell (RBC parameters and hs-CRP in chronic periodontitis patients with anemia. Materials and Methods: This is a longitudinal, interventional study with 6-month follow-up. A total of 30 subjects with anemia and chronic periodontitis with age group of 33-55 years were selected by screening hemoglobin (Hb levels and examining periodontal findings. The clinical parameters plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL were recorded at baseline. Laboratory blood investigations were performed to evaluate RBC count, Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and red cell indices, hs-CRP at baseline. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy was performed for all patients. Patients were recalled after 6 months. The clinical and hematological parameters were re-evaluated to analyze the changes after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results: The results showed that there was a significant increase in Hb levels, RBC count and PCV from baseline to 6 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. There is significant decrease in levels of ESR and hs-CRP levels after nonsurgical periodontal therapy indicating resolution of periodontal inflammation. There is a significant decrease in PPD, scores of PI and GI and significant increase in CAL gain. Minimal changes in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and MCH concentration indicated that the lower values of red cell parameters are not due to any vitamin and mineral deficiencies

  14. Correlation analysis between the carotid artery ather osclerosis severity of patients with lacunar infarct and the level of serum uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

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    WANG Shu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, clinical practice shows that the number of patients with cerebral infarction increases year by year in young and middle-aged adults with unclear causes. This paper aims to investigate the correlation between the level of serum uric acid (UA, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and the degree of carotid atherosclerosis by detecting the level of UA, hsCRP and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in young and middle-aged patients with lacunar infarct. Methods By using Holland Philips HT-11 color Doppler ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus with linear type probe and 7.50MHz frequency, IMT of end-diastolic distal and bifurcation of arteria carotis communis and proximal internal carotid artery were measured respectively on 186 patients with definitely diagnosed lacunar infarct. As a result, average values were taken as the IMT values. IMT < 1.00 mm was regarded as negative result and 1.00 mm ≤IMT < 1.20 mm was thickening of carotid artery intima. Carotid artery plaque formation was regarded with echo structure existing in the lumen or abnormal blood flow deficits into the lumen, or local IMT ≥1.20 mm at vertical and horizontal scan. At the same time, the levels of UA and hsCRP were detected, and correlation analysis was made between them and IMT. Results The values of UA, hsCRP and IMT in the case group were higher than that in the control group (P = 0.000. The differences among the case subgroups including IMT thickening group, plaque formation group and IMT normal group were statistically significant (P < 0.01, for all. There was linear correlation between the levels of UA, hsCRP and IMT ( r = 0.923, P = 0.000; r = 0.955, P = 0.008. Conclusion UA and hsCRP involve in the formation of atherosclerosis plaque and play an important role in the first-onset lacunar infarct patients without hypertension and other risk factors.

  15. High residual platelet reactivity during dual antiplatelet therapy, found by optical aggregometry and the rate of atherothrombotic complications after coronary artery stenting in patients with ischemic heart disease in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    N. F. Puchinyan; N. V. Furman; P. V. Dolotovskaya; L. L. Malinova

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the prevalence of high residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) during the dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel by optical aggregometry in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in clinical practice, as well as to determine its value for the prediction of clinical course and outcome of disease.Material and methods. Patients after PTCA and during DAT were included into the study....

  16. Clomiphene Citrate Treatment Cycle Outcomes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients Based on Basal High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Serkan; Yumuşak, Omer Hamid; Ozyer, Sebnem; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Erel, Merve; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim; Erkaya, Salim; Tasci, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is highly associated with an ovulatory infertility, features of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Serum concentrations of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese PCOS patients at baseline, suggesting a relationship between elevated hs-CRP levels and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether cycle day 3 hs-CRP levels before clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment would predict cycle outcomes in women with PCOS. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 84 infertile women with PCOS who were treated with CC at Zekai Tahir Burak Women’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. Based on the exclusion criteria, cycle outcomes of remaining 66 infertile women with PCOS treated with CC were analyzed. The hs-CRP levels and insulin resistance indexes were evaluated on day 3 of the CC treatment cycle. The primary outcome measures were number of preovulatory follicles measuring≥17 mm and pregnancy rates. Results The mean ± SD age of the patients was 24.0 ± 3.8 years (range 18-36). The mean ± SD body mass index (BMI) of the patients was 25.7 ± 4.9 (range 17-43). Fifty patients developed dominant follicle (75%) and 5 patients established clinical pregnancy during the study (clinical pregnancy rate: 7%). The mean ± SD baseline hs-CRP, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) values of the patients with and without dominant follicle generation during treatment cycle were 6.42 ± 7.05 and 4.41 ± 2.95 (P=0.27), 11.61 ± 6.94 and 10.95 ± 5.65 (P=0.73), 2.68 ± 1.79 and 2.41 ± 1.30 (P=0.58), respectively. The mean ± SD baseline hs-CRP, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values of the patients with and without clinical pregnancy establishment following treatment cycle were 6.30 ± 2.56 and 5.90 ± 6.57 (P=0.89), 11

  17. Clomiphene Citrate Treatment Cycle Outcomes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients Based on Basal High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kahyaoglu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is highly associated with an ovulatory infertility, features of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Serum concentrations of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese PCOS patients at baseline, suggesting a relationship between elevated hs-CRP levels and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether cycle day 3 hs-CRP levels before clomiphene citrate (CC treatment would predict cycle outcomes in women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 84 infertile women with PCOS who were treated with CC at Zekai Tahir Burak Women’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. Based on the exclusion criteria, cycle outcomes of remaining 66 infertile women with PCOS treated with CC were analyzed. The hs-CRP levels and insulin resistance indexes were evaluated on day 3 of the CC treatment cycle. The primary outcome measures were number of preovulatory follicles measuring≥17 mm and pregnancy rates. Results: The mean ± SD age of the patients was 24.0 ± 3.8 years (range 18-36. The mean ± SD body mass index (BMI of the patients was 25.7 ± 4.9 (range 17-43. Fifty patients developed dominant follicle (75% and 5 patients established clinical pregnancy during the study (clinical pregnancy rate: 7%. The mean ± SD baseline hs-CRP, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR values of the patients with and without dominant follicle generation during treatment cycle were 6.42 ± 7.05 and 4.41 ± 2.95 (P=0.27, 11.61 ± 6.94 and 10.95 ± 5.65 (P=0.73, 2.68 ± 1.79 and 2.41 ± 1.30 (P=0.58, respectively. The mean ± SD baseline hs-CRP, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values of the patients with and without clinical pregnancy establishment following treatment cycle were 6.30 ± 2.56 and 5.90 ± 6

  18. High sensitive C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and urine albumin excretion rate in Chinese coronary artery disease patients with different glucose tolerance status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin levels and urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) are probably associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the three markers in coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects with different glucose tolerance status in a Chinese population and further explore the levels of the three markers in these subjects and the possible association of these markers with CAD risk factors and the severity of CAD as well. Methods A total of 242 subjects with angiographically documented CAD were recruited, and then assigned to three groups: the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) + CAD group, including 100 CAD patients with NGT; the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) + CAD group, 40 CAD patients with IGT; the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) + CAD group, 102 CAD patients with T2DM. Serum hs-CRP, adipon