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Sample records for highly potent selective

  1. Discovery of Potent and Highly Selective A2B Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maatougui, Abdelaziz; Azuaje, Jhonny; González-Gómez, Manuel; Miguez, Gabriel; Crespo, Abel; Carbajales, Carlos; Escalante, Luz; García-Mera, Xerardo; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Sotelo, Eddy

    2016-03-10

    Three novel families of A2B adenosine receptor antagonists were identified in the context of the structural exploration of the 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one chemotype. The most appealing series contain imidazole, 1,2,4-triazole, or benzimidazole rings fused to the 2,3-positions of the parent diazinone core. The optimization process enabled identification of a highly potent (3.49 nM) A2B ligand that exhibits complete selectivity toward A1, A2A, and A3 receptors. The results of functional cAMP experiments confirmed the antagonistic behavior of representative ligands. The main SAR trends identified within the series were substantiated by a molecular modeling study based on a receptor-driven docking model constructed on the basis of the crystal structure of the human A2A receptor.

  2. High-throughput screening for potent and selective inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jeffrey; Michnoff, Carolyn H; Malmquist, Nicholas A; White, John; Roth, Michael G; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Phillips, Margaret A

    2005-06-10

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most serious and fatal malarial infections, and it has developed resistance to commonly employed chemotherapeutics. The de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis enzymes offer potential as targets for drug design, because, unlike the host, the parasite does not have pyrimidine salvage pathways. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the fourth reaction in this essential pathway. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is utilized as the oxidant. Potent and species-selective inhibitors of malarial DHODH were identified by high-throughput screening of a chemical library, which contained 220,000 drug-like molecules. These novel inhibitors represent a diverse range of chemical scaffolds, including a series of halogenated phenyl benzamide/naphthamides and urea-based compounds containing napthyl or quinolinyl substituents. Inhibitors in these classes with IC(50) values below 600 nm were purified by high pressure liquid chromatography, characterized by mass spectroscopy, and subjected to kinetic analysis against the parasite and human enzymes. The most active compound is a competitive inhibitor of CoQ with an IC(50) against malarial DHODH of 16 nm, and it is 12,500-fold less active against the human enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in the CoQ-binding site significantly reduced inhibitor potency. The structural basis for the species selective enzyme inhibition is explained by the variable amino acid sequence in this binding site, making DHODH a particularly strong candidate for the development of new anti-malarial compounds.

  3. Fragment-Based Discovery of 7-Azabenzimidazoles as Potent, Highly Selective, and Orally Active CDK4/6 Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Shin; Angove, Hayley; Brain, Christopher; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Cheng, Hong; Cheng, Robert; Chopra, Rajiv; Chung, Kristy; Congreve, Miles; Dagostin, Claudio; Davis, Deborah J.; Feltell, Ruth; Giraldes, John; Hiscock, Steven D.; Kim, Sunkyu; Kovats, Steven; Lagu, Bharat; Lewry, Kim; Loo, Alice; Lu, Yipin; Luzzio, Michael; Maniara, Wiesia; McMenamin, Rachel; Mortenson, Paul N.; Benning, Rajdeep; O' Reilly, Marc; Rees, David C.; Shen, Junqing; Smith, Troy; Wang, Yaping; Williams, Glyn; Woolford, Alison J. -A.; Wrona, Wojciech; Xu, Mei; Yang, Fan; Howard, Steven

    2012-06-14

    Herein, we describe the discovery of potent and highly selective inhibitors of both CDK4 and CDK6 via structure-guided optimization of a fragment-based screening hit. CDK6 X-ray crystallography and pharmacokinetic data steered efforts in identifying compound 6, which showed >1000-fold selectivity for CDK4 over CDKs 1 and 2 in an enzymatic assay. Furthermore, 6 demonstrated in vivo inhibition of pRb-phosphorylation and oral efficacy in a Jeko-1 mouse xenograft model.

  4. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  5. Structure-Based Design of Highly Selective and Potent G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibitors Based on Paroxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldschmidt, Helen V; Homan, Kristoff T; Cato, Marilyn C; Cruz-Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Cannavo, Alessandro; Wilson, Michael W; Song, Jianliang; Cheung, Joseph Y; Koch, Walter J; Tesmer, John J G; Larsen, Scott D

    2017-04-13

    In heart failure, the β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) become desensitized and uncoupled from heterotrimeric G proteins. This process is initiated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), some of which are upregulated in the failing heart, making them desirable therapeutic targets. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, was previously identified as a GRK2 inhibitor. Utilizing a structure-based drug design approach, we modified paroxetine to generate a small compound library. Included in this series is a highly potent and selective GRK2 inhibitor, 14as, with an IC50 of 30 nM against GRK2 and greater than 230-fold selectivity over other GRKs and kinases. Furthermore, 14as showed a 100-fold improvement in cardiomyocyte contractility assays over paroxetine and a plasma concentration higher than its IC50 for over 7 h. Three of these inhibitors, including 14as, were additionally crystallized in complex with GRK2 to give insights into the structural determinants of potency and selectivity of these inhibitors.

  6. Understanding the inhibitory effect of highly potent and selective archazolides binding to the vacuolar ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisigacker, Sandra; Latek, Dorota; Bockelmann, Svenja; Huss, Markus; Wieczorek, Helmut; Filipek, Slawomir; Gohlke, Holger; Menche, Dirk; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2012-08-27

    Vacuolar ATPases are a potential therapeutic target because of their involvement in a variety of severe diseases such as osteoporosis or cancer. Archazolide A (1) and related analogs have been previously identified as selective inhibitors of V-ATPases with potency down to the subnanomolar range. Herein we report on the determination of the ligand binding mode by a combination of molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical experiments, resulting in a sound model for the inhibitory mechanism of this class of putative anticancer agents. The binding site of archazolides was confirmed to be located in the equatorial region of the membrane-embedded V(O)-rotor, as recently proposed on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis. Quantification of the bioactivity of a series of archazolide derivatives, together with the docking-derived binding mode of archazolides to the V-ATPase, revealed favorable ligand profiles, which can guide the development of a simplified archazolide analog with potential therapeutic relevance.

  7. The Pharmacological Heterogeneity of Nepenthone Analogs in Conferring Highly Selective and Potent κ-Opioid Agonistic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Long, Jian-Dong; Qian, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Yu; Xu, Xue-Jun; Wang, Yu-Jun; Shen, Qing; Wang, Zuo-Neng; Yang, Xi-Cheng; Xiao, Li; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yu-Long; Chen, Yi-Yi; Xie, Qiong; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; Liu, Jing-Gen; Qiu, Zhui-Bai; Fu, Wei

    2017-04-19

    To develop novel analgesics with no side effects or less side effects than traditional opioids is highly demanded to treat opioid receptor mediated pain and addiction issues. Recently, κ-opioid receptor (KOR) has been established as an attractive target, although its selective agonists could bear heterogeneous pharmacological activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized two new series of nepenthone derivatives by inserting a spacer (carbonyl) between 6α,14α-endo-ethenylthebaine and the 7α-phenyl substitution of the skeleton and by substituting the 17-N-methyl group with a cyclopropylmethyl group. We performed in vitro tests (binding and functional assays) and molecular docking operations on our newly designed compounds. The results of wet-experimental measures and modeled binding structures demonstrate that these new compounds are selective KOR agonists with nanomolar level affinities. Compound 4 from these new derivatives showed the highest affinity (Ki = 0.4 ± 0.1 nM) and the highest selectivity (μ/κ = 339, δ/κ = 2034) toward KOR. The in vivo tests revealed that compound 4 is able to induce stronger (ED50 = 2.1 mg/kg) and much longer antinociceptive effect than that of the typical KOR agonist U50488H (ED50 = 4.4 mg/kg). Therefore, compound 4 can be used as a perfect lead compound for future design of potent analgesics acting through KOR.

  8. Identification of Highly Potent and Selective α-Glucosidase Inhibitors with Antiglycation Potential, Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Raza; Zaitoon Ilyas; Sajid Ali; Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad Younas Khokhar; Jamshed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    This study explored antidiabetic potential of eight known pure compounds, isolated from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum. Invitro studies of these compounds against α and β-glucosidases revealed them as very potent and selective inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Compound 7 (3-O-acetylursolic acid) was found to be the most potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase with 3.3±0.1µM IC 50 value which was many folds higher than standard inhibitor acarbose. Antiglycation studies of compounds showed that all com...

  9. AfroDb: a select highly potent and diverse natural product library from African medicinal plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Ntie-Kang

    Full Text Available Computer-aided drug design (CADD often involves virtual screening (VS of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We assess the bioactivity and "drug-likeness" of a relatively small but structurally diverse dataset (containing >1,000 compounds from African medicinal plants, which have been tested and proven a wide range of biological activities. The geographical regions of collection of the medicinal plants cover the entire continent of Africa, based on data from literature sources and information from traditional healers. For each isolated compound, the three dimensional (3D structure has been used to calculate physico-chemical properties used in the prediction of oral bioavailability on the basis of Lipinski's "Rule of Five". A comparative analysis has been carried out with the "drug-like", "lead-like", and "fragment-like" subsets, as well as with the Dictionary of Natural Products. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. Furthermore, descriptors related to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET have been used to predict the pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds within the dataset. Our results prove that drug discovery, beginning with natural products from the African flora, could be highly promising. The 3D structures are available and could be useful for virtual screening and natural product lead generation programs.

  10. Design and synthesis of a novel, achiral class of highly potent and selective, orally active neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Torsten; Bös, Michael; Stadler, Heinz; Schnider, Patrick; Hunkeler, Walter; Godel, Thierry; Galley, Guido; Ballard, Theresa M; Higgins, Guy A; Poli, Sonia M; Sleight, Andrew J

    2006-03-01

    The discovery of a novel, achiral pyridine class of potent and orally active neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonists is described. The evaluation of this class is briefly outlined, leading to the identification of netupitant 21 and befetupitant 29, two new proprietary chemical entities with high affinity and excellent CNS penetration.

  11. Identification of Highly Potent and Selective α-Glucosidase Inhibitors with Antiglycation Potential, Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Raza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored antidiabetic potential of eight known pure compounds, isolated from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum. Invitro studies of these compounds against α and β-glucosidases revealed them as very potent and selective inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Compound 7 (3-O-acetylursolic acid was found to be the most potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase with 3.3±0.1µM IC 50 value which was many folds higher than standard inhibitor acarbose. Antiglycation studies of compounds showed that all compounds were also very active antiglycation agents. The studied biological properties of these compounds suggest that they are therapeutically interesting and important tools for treatment of diabetes.

  12. Discovery of a potent and highly selective transforming growth factor β receptor-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) inhibitor by structure based drug design (SBDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Terushige; Ide, Mitsuaki; Morikami, Kenji; Irie, Machiko; Nakamura, Mitsuaki; Miura, Takaaki; Kamikawa, Takayuki; Nishihara, Masamichi; Kashiwagi, Hirotaka

    2016-09-15

    A novel thienopyrimidinone analog was discovered as a potent and highly selective TAK1 inhibitor using the SBDD approach. TAK1 plays a key role in inflammatory and immune signaling, so TAK1 is considered to be an attractive molecular target for the treatment of human diseases (inflammatory disease, cancer, etc.). After the hit compound had been obtained, our modifications successfully increased TAK1 inhibitory activity and solubility, but metabolic stability was still unsatisfactory. To improve metabolic stability, we conducted metabolic identification. Although the obtained metabolite was fortunately a potent TAK1 inhibitor, its kinase selectivity was low. Subsequently, to achieve high kinase selectivity, we used SBDD to follow two strategies: one targeting unique amino acid residues in TAK1, especially the combination of Ser111 and Asn114; the other decreasing the interaction with Tyr106 at the hinge position in TAK1. As expected, our designed compound showed an excellent kinase selectivity profile in both an in-house and a commercially available panel assay of over 420 kinases and also retained its potent TAK1 inhibitory activity (TAK1 IC50=11nM). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of the Highly Selective and Potent G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2) Inhibitor for the Potential Treatment of Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Tomohiro; Aramaki, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Toshitake; Fukumoto, Shoji; Toyoda, Yukio; Henta, Tsutomu; Hata, Akito; Ikeda, Shota; Kaneko, Manami; Hoffman, Isaac D; Sang, Bi-Ching; Zou, Hua; Kawamoto, Tetsuji

    2017-08-24

    A novel class of therapeutic drug candidates for heart failure, highly potent and selective GRK2 inhibitors, exhibit potentiation of β-adrenergic signaling in vitro studies. Hydrazone derivative 5 and 1,2,4-triazole derivative 24a were identified as hit compounds by HTS. New scaffold generation and SAR studies of all parts resulted in a 4-methyl-1,2,4-triazole derivative with an N-benzylcarboxamide moiety with highly potent activity toward GRK2 and selectivity over other kinases. In terms of subtype selectivity, these compounds showed enough selectivity against GRK1, 5, 6, and 7 with almost equipotent inhibition to GRK3. Our medicinal chemistry efforts led to the discovery of 115h (GRK2 IC50 = 18 nM), which was obtained the cocrystal structure with human GRK2 and an inhibitor of GRK2 that potentiates β-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-mediated cAMP accumulation and prevents internalization of βARs in β2AR-expressing HEK293 cells treated with isoproterenol. Therefore, 115h appears to be a novel class of therapeutic for heart failure treatment.

  14. Netupitant, a Potent and Highly Selective NK1 Receptor Antagonist, Alleviates Acetic Acid-Induced Bladder Overactivity in Anesthetized Guinea-Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Palea, Stefano; Guilloteau, V?ronique; Rekik, Mo?z; Lovati, Emanuela; Guerard, Marc; Guardia, Maria-Alba; Lluel, Philippe; Pietra, Claudio; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant) on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe). Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060) were studie...

  15. Discovery of a potent and selective free fatty acid receptor 1 agonist with low lipophilicity and high oral bioavailability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Urban, Christian

    2013-01-01

    reported the FFA1 agonist 3 (TUG-424). We here describe the continued structure-activity exploration and optimization of this compound series, leading to the discovery of the more potent agonist 40, a compound with low lipophilicity, excellent in vitro metabolic stability and permeability, complete oral...

  16. Discovery of potent, selective sulfonylfuran urea endothelial lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Krista B; Bury, Michael J; Cheung, Mui; Cichy-Knight, Maria A; Dowdell, Sarah E; Dunn, Allison K; Lee, Dennis; Lieby, Jeffrey A; Moore, Michael L; Scherzer, Daryl A; Sha, Deyou; Suarez, Dominic P; Murphy, Dennis J; Harpel, Mark R; Manas, Eric S; McNulty, Dean E; Annan, Roland S; Matico, Rosalie E; Schwartz, Benjamin K; Trill, John J; Sweitzer, Thomas D; Wang, Da-Yuan; Keller, Paul M; Krawiec, John A; Jaye, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) activity has been implicated in HDL catabolism, vascular inflammation, and atherogenesis, and inhibitors are therefore expected to be useful for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Sulfonylfuran urea 1 was identified in a high-throughput screening campaign as a potent and non-selective EL inhibitor. A lead optimization effort was undertaken to improve potency and selectivity, and modifications leading to improved LPL selectivity were identified. Radiolabeling studies were undertaken to establish the mechanism of action for these inhibitors, which were ultimately demonstrated to be irreversible inhibitors.

  17. ATP-Competitive Inhibitors of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Design and Synthesis of Highly Potent and Selective Pyrazolopyrimidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zask, Arie; Verheijen, Jeroen C.; Curran, Kevin; Kaplan, Joshua; Richard, David J.; Nowak, Pawel; Malwitz, David J.; Brooijmans, Natasja; Bard, Joel; Svenson, Kristine; Lucas, Judy; Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Hollander, Irwin; Gibbons, James J.; Abraham, Robert T.; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Mansour, Tarek S.; Yu, Ker; (Wyeth)

    2009-09-18

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central regulator of growth, survival, and metabolism, is a validated target for cancer therapy. Rapamycin and its analogues, allosteric inhibitors of mTOR, only partially inhibit one mTOR protein complex. ATP-competitive, global inhibitors of mTOR that have the potential for enhanced anticancer efficacy are described. Structural features leading to potency and selectivity were identified and refined leading to compounds with in vivo efficacy in tumor xenograft models.

  18. Potent and selective mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  19. A potent replicative delta-24 adenoviral vector driven by the promoter of human papillomavirus 16 that is highly selective for associated neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Cervantes-García, Daniel; Martínez-Dávila, Irma A; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Alemany-Bonastre, Ramón; Silva-Platas, Christian I; Lugo-Trampe, Angel; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Galván-Salazar, Héctor R; Coronel-Tene, Christian G; Sánchez-Santillán, Carlos F; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto

    2007-10-01

    Several human epithelial neoplasms are associated with high-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) such as cervical, anorectal, and other carcinomas. For some tumor types the current therapeutic tools are only palliative. Conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) are promising antineoplastic agents, which also can trigger confined antitumor effects. We constructed a series of CRAds driven by the upstream regulatory promoter region (URR) of an Asian-American variant of HPV-16, which contained different mutations at the E1A region (dl1015 and/or Delta24) and wild-type. All vectors were tested in vitro for viral replication and cytotoxicity. Viral DNA replication and E1A expression were also assessed by quantitative PCR. Finally, we confirmed the antitumoral efficacy of this vector in injected and non-injected xenotransplanted cervical tumors in a murine model for tumor regression and survival studies. A vector denominated Ad-URR/E1ADelta24 displayed a potent cytopathic effect associated with high selectivity for HPV+ cell lines. We found that the oncolytic effect of this CRAd was comparable to Ad-wt or Ad-Delta24, but this efficacy was significantly attenuated in HPV- cell lines, an effect that was contributed by the URR promoter. Ad-URR/E1ADelta24 was very effective to control tumor growth, in both, injected and non-injected tumors generated with two different HPV+ cell lines. CRAd Ad-URR/E1ADelta24 is a highly selective vector for HPV+ cell lines and tumors that preserves the oncolytic efficacy of Ad-wt and Ad-Delta24. Our preclinical data suggest that this vector may be useful and safe for the treatment of tumors induced by HPV, like cervical cancers. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Preclinical evaluation of AMG 900, a novel potent and highly selective pan-aurora kinase inhibitor with activity in taxane-resistant tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Marc; Bush, Tammy L; Chung, Grace; Ziegler, Beth; Eden, Patrick; McElroy, Patricia; Ross, Sandra; Cee, Victor J; Deak, Holly L; Hodous, Brian L; Nguyen, Hanh Nho; Olivieri, Philip R; Romero, Karina; Schenkel, Laurie B; Bak, Annette; Stanton, Mary; Dussault, Isabelle; Patel, Vinod F; Geuns-Meyer, Stephanie; Radinsky, Robert; Kendall, Richard L

    2010-12-01

    In mammalian cells, the aurora kinases (aurora-A, -B, and -C) play essential roles in regulating cell division. The expression of aurora-A and -B is elevated in a variety of human cancers and is associated with high proliferation rates and poor prognosis, making them attractive targets for anticancer therapy. AMG 900 is an orally bioavailable, potent, and highly selective pan-aurora kinase inhibitor that is active in taxane-resistant tumor cell lines. In tumor cells, AMG 900 inhibited autophosphorylation of aurora-A and -B as well as phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser(10), a proximal substrate of aurora-B. The predominant cellular response of tumor cells to AMG 900 treatment was aborted cell division without a prolonged mitotic arrest, which ultimately resulted in cell death. AMG 900 inhibited the proliferation of 26 tumor cell lines, including cell lines resistant to the antimitotic drug paclitaxel and to other aurora kinase inhibitors (AZD1152, MK-0457, and PHA-739358), at low nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, AMG 900 was active in an AZD1152-resistant HCT116 variant cell line that harbors an aurora-B mutation (W221L). Oral administration of AMG 900 blocked the phosphorylation of histone H3 in a dose-dependent manner and significantly inhibited the growth of HCT116 tumor xenografts. Importantly, AMG 900 was broadly active in multiple xenograft models, including 3 multidrug-resistant xenograft models, representing 5 tumor types. AMG 900 has entered clinical evaluation in adult patients with advanced cancers and has the potential to treat tumors refractory to anticancer drugs such as the taxanes.

  1. Identification of 3-amido-4-anilinoquinolines as potent and selective inhibitors of CSF-1R kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A; Balliet, Carrie L; Cook, Donald J; Davies, Audrey M; Gero, Thomas W; Omer, Charles A; Poondru, Srinivasu; Theoclitou, Maria-Elena; Tyurin, Boris; Zinda, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    3-amido-4-anilinoquinolines are potent and highly selective inhibitors of CSF-1R. Their synthesis and SAR is reported, along with initial efforts to optimize the physical properties and PK through modifications at the quinoline 6- and 7-positions.

  2. NETUPITANT, A POTENT AND HIGHLY SELECTIVE NK1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, ALLEVIATES ACETIC ACID-INDUCED BLADDER OVERACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED GUINEA-PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe. Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060 were studied in anesthetized guinea-pigs using two experimental models, the isovolumetric bladder contractions and a model of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of acetic acid (AA. Methods and Results. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 5 mL organ baths and isometric contractions to cumulative concentrations of SP-OME were recorded before and after incubation with increasing concentrations of netupitant. In anesthetized female guinea-pigs, reflex bladder activity was examined under isovolumetric conditions with the bladder distended with saline or during cystometry using intravesical infusion of acetic acid (AA. After a 30 min stabilization period, netupitant (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.v. or L-733,060 (3-10 mg/kg, i.v. were administered. In the detrusor muscle, netupitant produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (mean pKB = 9.24 of the responses to SP-OMe. Under isovolumetric conditions, netupitant or L-733,060 reduced bladder contraction frequency in a dose-dependent manner, but neither drug changed bladder contraction amplitude. In the AA model, netupitant dose-dependently increased intercontraction interval (ICI but had no effect on the amplitude of micturition (AM. L-733,060 dose-dependently increased ICI also but this effect was paralleled by a significant reduction of AM. Conclusion. Netupitant decreases the frequency of reflex bladder contractions without altering their amplitude, suggesting that this drug targets the afferent limb of the

  3. Netupitant, a Potent and Highly Selective NK1 Receptor Antagonist, Alleviates Acetic Acid-Induced Bladder Overactivity in Anesthetized Guinea-Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palea, Stefano; Guilloteau, Véronique; Rekik, Moéz; Lovati, Emanuela; Guerard, Marc; Guardia, Maria-Alba; Lluel, Philippe; Pietra, Claudio; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tachykinins potently contract the isolated urinary bladder from a number of animal species and play an important role in the regulation of the micturition reflex. On the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder we examined the effects of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist (netupitant) on the contractions induced by a selective NK1 receptor agonist, SP-methylester (SP-OMe). Moreover, the effects of netupitant and another selective NK1 antagonist (L-733,060) were studied in anesthetized guinea-pigs using two experimental models, the isovolumetric bladder contractions and a model of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of acetic acid (AA). Methods and Results. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 5 mL organ baths and isometric contractions to cumulative concentrations of SP-OME were recorded before and after incubation with increasing concentrations of netupitant. In anesthetized female guinea-pigs, reflex bladder activity was examined under isovolumetric conditions with the bladder distended with saline or during cystometry using intravesical infusion of AA. After a 30 min stabilization period, netupitant (0.1-3 mg/kg, i.v.) or L-733,060 (3-10 mg/kg, i.v.) were administered. In the detrusor muscle, netupitant produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (mean pKB = 9.24) of the responses to SP-OMe. Under isovolumetric conditions, netupitant or L-733,060 reduced bladder contraction frequency in a dose-dependent manner, but neither drug changed bladder contraction amplitude. In the AA model, netupitant dose-dependently increased intercontraction interval (ICI) but had no effect on the amplitude of micturition (AM). L-733,060 dose-dependently increased ICI also but this effect was paralleled by a significant reduction of AM. Conclusion. Netupitant decreases the frequency of reflex bladder contractions without altering their amplitude, suggesting that this drug targets the afferent limb of the micturition reflex circuit

  4. Highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Yoshiko; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2011-01-05

    We introduce a highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces omiyaensis (SOT), which belongs to the trypsin family. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT was examined using in vitro assays and was compared with those of known fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, and nattokinase. Compared to other enzymes, SOT showed remarkably higher hydrolytic activity toward mimic peptides of fibrin and plasminogen. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT is about 18-fold higher than that of plasmin, and is comparable to that of t-PA by fibrin plate assays. Furthermore, SOT had some plasminogen activator-like activity. Results show that SOT and nattokinase have very different fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic modes, engendering significant synergetic effects of SOT and nattokinase on fibrinolysis. These results suggest that SOT presents important possibilities for application in the therapy of thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Discovery of a potent and selective GPR120 agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimpukade, Bharat; Hudson, Brian D; Hovgaard, Christine Kiel

    2012-01-01

    GPR120 is a receptor of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids reported to mediate GLP-1 secretion, insulin sensitization, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects and is therefore emerging as a new potential target for treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. Further investigation...... is however hindered by the lack of suitable receptor modulators. Screening of FFA1 ligands provided a lead with moderate activity on GPR120 and moderate selectivity over FFA1. Optimization led to the discovery of the first potent and selective GPR120 agonist....

  6. SAH derived potent and selective EZH2 inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Pei-Pei; Huang, Buwen; Zehnder, Luke; Tatlock, John; Bingham, Patrick; Krivacic, Cody; Gajiwala, Ketan; Diehl, Wade; Yu, Xiu; Maegley, Karen A.

    2015-04-01

    A series of novel enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) inhibitors was designed based on the chemical structure of the histone methyltransferase (HMT) inhibitor SAH (S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine). These nucleoside-based EZH2 inhibitors blocked the methylation of nucleosomes at H3K27 in biochemical assays employing both WT PRC2 complex as well as a Y641N mutant PRC2 complex. The most potent compound, 27, displayed IC50’s against both complexes of 270 nM and 70 nM, respectively. To our knowledge, compound 27 is the most potent SAH-derived inhibitor of the EZH2 PRC2 complex yet identified. This compound also displayed improved potency, lipophilic efficiency (LipE), and selectivity profile against other lysine methyltransferases compared with SAH.

  7. The discovery of potent and selective kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibitors for the treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, John; Beaufils, Benjamin; Binnie, Margaret; Bouillot, Anne; Denis, Alexis A; Hann, Michael M; Haslam, Carl P; Holmes, Duncan S; Hutchinson, Jon P; Kranz, Michael; McBride, Andrew; Mirguet, Olivier; Mole, Damian J; Mowat, Christopher G; Pal, Sandeep; Rowland, Paul; Trottet, Lionel; Uings, Iain J; Walker, Ann L; Webster, Scott P

    2017-05-01

    A series of potent, competitive and highly selective kynurenine monooxygenase inhibitors have been discovered via a substrate-based approach for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. The lead compound demonstrated good cellular potency and clear pharmacodynamic activity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel 3-carboxy- and 3-phosphonopyrazoline amino acids as potent and selective NMDA receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; Pinto, Andrea; Tamborini, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    identified two highly potent and selective competitive NMDA receptor antagonists, (5S,alphaR)-1 and (5S,alphaR)-4, which exhibit good in vitro neuroprotective activity and in vivo anticonvulsant activity by i.p. administration, suggesting that these molecules may have potential use as therapeutic agents....

  9. Structure-Guided, Single-Point Modifications in the Phosphinic Dipeptide Structure Yield Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neutral Aminopeptidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassiliou, Stamatia; Węglarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, Łukasz; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Nocek, Bogusław; Mulligan, Rory; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur

    2014-10-09

    Seven crystal structures of alanyl aminopeptidase from Neisseria meningitides (the etiological agent of meningitis, NmAPN) complexed with organophosphorus compounds were resolved to determine the optimal inhibitor-enzyme interactions. The enantiomeric phosphonic acid analogs of Leu and hPhe, which correspond to the P1 amino acid residues of well-processed substrates, were used to assess the impact of the absolute configuration and the stereospecific hydrogen bond network formed between the aminophosphonate polar head and the active site residues on the binding affinity. For the hPhe analog, an imperfect stereochemical complementarity could be overcome by incorporating an appropriate P1 side chain. The constitution of P1'-extended structures was rationally designed and the lead, phosphinic dipeptide hPhePψ[CH2]Phe, was modified in a single position. Introducing a heteroatom/heteroatom-based fragment to either the P1 or P1' residue required new synthetic pathways. The compounds in the refined structure were low nanomolar and subnanomolar inhibitors of N. meningitides, porcine and human APNs, and the reference leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The unnatural phosphinic dipeptide analogs exhibited a high affinity for monozinc APNs associated with a reasonable selectivity versus dizinc LAP. Another set of crystal structures containing the NmAPN dipeptide ligand were used to verify and to confirm the predicted binding modes; furthermore, novel contacts, which were promising for inhibitor development, were identified, including a π-π stacking interaction between a pyridine ring and Tyr372.

  10. Skepinone-L, a Novel Potent and Highly Selective Inhibitor of p38 MAP Kinase, Effectively Impairs Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Borst

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Platelets are critically important for primary haemostasis and the major players in thrombotic vascular occlusion. Platelets are activated by agonists, such as thrombin and collagen-related peptide as well as second-wave mediators including thromboxane A2 via different intracellular signaling pathways resulting in degranulation, aggregation and thrombus formation. Platelet activation is paralleled by phosphorylation and activation of p38 MAPK. The limited specificity of hitherto known p38 MAPK inhibitors precluded safe conclusions on the precise role of p38 MAPK in the regulation of platelet function. The present study examined the impact of Skepinone-L, a novel and highly selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK, on platelet activation and thrombus formation. Methods: Experiments were performed in freshly isolated human platelets. Protein phosphorylation was quantified by Western blotting, thromboxane B2 synthesis by enzyme immunoassay, ATP release by ChronoLume luciferin assay, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by Fura-2 fluorescence-measurements, platelet aggregation by a light transmissions measurement and in vitro thrombus formation by a flow chamber. Results: Skepinone-L (1 μM virtually abrogated the phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK substrate Hsp27 following stimulation with CRP (1 μg/ml, thrombin (5 mU/ml or thromboxane A2 analogue U-46619 (1 μM. Furthermore, Skepinone-L significantly blunted activation-dependent platelet secretion and aggregation following threshold concentrations of CRP, thrombin and thromboxane A2 analogue U-46619. Skepinone-L did not impair platelet Ca2+ signaling but prevented agonist-induced thromboxane A2 synthesis through abrogation of p38 MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of platelet cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2. Skepinone-L further markedly blunted thrombus formation under low (500-s and high (1700-s arterial shear rates. Conclusions: The present study discloses

  11. Discovery of highly potent and selective small molecule ADAMTS-5 inhibitors that inhibit human cartilage degradation via encoded library technology (ELT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongfeng; O'Keefe, Heather; Davie, Christopher P; Lind, Kenneth E; Acharya, Raksha A; Franklin, G Joseph; Larkin, Jonathan; Matico, Rosalie; Neeb, Michael; Thompson, Monique M; Lohr, Thomas; Gross, Jeffrey W; Centrella, Paolo A; O'Donovan, Gary K; Bedard, Katie L Sargent; van Vloten, Kurt; Mataruse, Sibongile; Skinner, Steven R; Belyanskaya, Svetlana L; Carpenter, Tiffany Y; Shearer, Todd W; Clark, Matthew A; Cuozzo, John W; Arico-Muendel, Christopher C; Morgan, Barry A

    2012-08-23

    The metalloprotease ADAMTS-5 is considered a potential target for the treatment of osteoarthritis. To identify selective inhibitors of ADAMTS-5, we employed encoded library technology (ELT), which enables affinity selection of small molecule binders from complex mixtures by DNA tagging. Selection of ADAMTS-5 against a four-billion member ELT library led to a novel inhibitor scaffold not containing a classical zinc-binding functionality. One exemplar, (R)-N-((1-(4-(but-3-en-1-ylamino)-6-(((2-(thiophen-2-yl)thiazol-4-yl)methyl)amino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)methyl)-4-propylbenzenesulfonamide (8), inhibited ADAMTS-5 with IC(50) = 30 nM, showing >50-fold selectivity against ADAMTS-4 and >1000-fold selectivity against ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-13, MMP-13, and TACE. Extensive SAR studies showed that potency and physicochemical properties of the scaffold could be further improved. Furthermore, in a human osteoarthritis cartilage explant study, compounds 8 and 15f inhibited aggrecanase-mediated (374)ARGS neoepitope release from aggrecan and glycosaminoglycan in response to IL-1β/OSM stimulation. This study provides the first small molecule evidence for the critical role of ADAMTS-5 in human cartilage degradation.

  12. Enthalpy-Based Screening of Focused Combinatorial Libraries for the Identification of Potent and Selective Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Carlo; Udompholkul, Parima; Barile, Elisa; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2017-12-15

    In modern drug discovery, the ability of biophysical methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy or surface plasmon resonance, to detect and characterize ligand-protein interactions accurately and unambiguously makes these approaches preferred versus conventional biochemical high-throughput screening of large collections of compounds. Nonetheless, ligand screening strategies that address simultaneously potency and selectivity have not yet been fully developed. In this work, we propose a novel method for screening large collections of combinatorial libraries using enthalpy measurements as a primary screening technique. We demonstrate that selecting binders that are driven by enthalpy (ΔH) results in agents that are not only potent but also more selective for a given target. This general and novel approach, we termed ΔH screening of fPOS (enthalpy screening of focused positional scanning library), combines the principles of focused combinatorial chemistry with rapid calorimetry measurements to efficiently identify potent and selective inhibitors.

  13. Highly Potent Antibacterial Organometallic Peptide Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albada, Bauke; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2017-10-17

    Resistance of pathogenic bacteria against currently marketed antibiotics is again increasing. To meet the societal need for effective cures, scientists are faced with the challenge of developing more potent but equally bacteria-specific drugs. Currently, most efforts are directed toward the modification of existing antibiotics, but ideally, compounds with a new mode of action are required. In this Account, we detail our findings in the area of novel metal-based antibiotics. Our strategy is based on the modification of simple antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with organometallic agents, resulting in organometallic AMPs (OM-AMPs). Since bacteria have most likely never encountered these synthetically prepared unnatural organometallic agents, we anticipated that such agents could well become potentiating players in the antibiotics arena. Moreover, exploiting some of the particular properties of metal complexes should also help to elucidate the mode of action of small cationic AMPs, the molecular details of which have remained elusive despite intensive efforts. Using standard Fmoc/tBu-based solid-phase peptide synthesis approaches, we have prepared various organometallic-peptide conjugates with covalently linked group 8 and 9 metallocenes (ferrocene, ruthenocene, osmocene, and cobaltocenium). As a starting point we took the (RW)3 antibacterial hexapeptide lead structure. After modifying the peptide sequence (generations 1 and 2), changing the nature and position of the organometallic group (generation 3), and optimizing the amino acid chirality (generation 5), we identified several organometallic antibacterial peptides that are currently among the most active synthetic AMPs (synAMPs) that have ever been prepared. Through these rational and systematic optimizations, we were able to increase the antibacterial activity of a short non-organometallic synAMP 18-fold to submicromolar activity, rivaling the activity of vancomycin (often the drug of last resort) against methicillin

  14. Identification of highly selective and potent orexin receptor 1 antagonists derived from a dual orexin receptor 1/2 antagonist based on the structural framework of pyrazoylethylbenzamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamura, Aya; Nozawa, Dai; Araki, Yuko; Tamura, Yunoshin; Tokura, Seiken; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Tokumaru, Yuichi; Kakihara, Sora; Aoki, Takeshi; Ohtake, Norikazu

    2017-10-15

    The design, synthesis, and structure activity relationships of the novel class of pyrazolylethylbenzamide orexin receptor 1-selective antagonists are described. Further derivatization of the prototype dual orexin receptor 1/2 antagonist lead (1) by installing a (S)-methyl group into the ethyl linker moiety between the pyrazole ring and benzamide resulted in an increase of the antagonist potency against orexin receptor 1/2 receptors. Optimization of the benzamide and pyrazole parts of compounds 2 and 9b led to the identification of N-ethyl-5-fluoro-N-{(2S)-1-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]propan-2-yl}-2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzamide (24), which exhibited excellent antagonistic activity against orexin receptor 1 with an IC50 of 2.01nM and a 265-fold selectivity for orexin receptor 1 over orexin receptor 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward the Validation of Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase: Discovery, Optimization of Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors, and Preliminary Biology Insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touré, B. Barry; Giraldes, John; Smith, Troy; Sprague, Elizabeth R.; Wang, Yaping; Mathieu, Simon; Chen, Zhuoliang; Mishina, Yuji; Feng, Yun; Yan-Neale, Yan; Shakya, Subarna; Chen, Dongshu; Meyer, Matthew; Puleo, David; Brazell, J. Tres; Straub, Christopher; Sage, David; Wright, Kirk; Yuan, Yanqiu; Chen, Xin; Duca, Jose; Kim, Sean; Tian, Li; Martin, Eric; Hurov, Kristen; Shao, Wenlin

    2016-05-26

    MELK kinase has been implicated in playing an important role in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies suggested that MELK is involved in the regulation of cell cycle and its genetic depletion leads to growth inhibition in a subset of high MELK-expressing basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of novel MELK inhibitors 8a and 8b that recapitulate the cellular effects observed by short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated MELK knockdown in cellular models. We also discovered a novel fluorine-induced hydrophobic collapse that locked the ligand in its bioactive conformation and led to a 20-fold gain in potency. These novel pharmacological inhibitors achieved high exposure in vivo and were well tolerated, which may allow further in vivo evaluation.

  16. Structures of Potent Selective Peptide Mimetics Bound to Carboxypeptidase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, M.; Buckman, B.; Bryant, J.; Chang, Z.; Chu, K.; Emayan, K.; Hrvatin, P.; Islam, I.; Morser, J.; Sukovich, D.; West, C.; Yuan, S.; Whitlow, M.

    2009-05-11

    This article reports the crystal structures of inhibitors of the functional form of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa). In vivo experiments indicate that selective inhibitors of TAFIa would be useful in the treatment of heart attacks. Since TAFIa rapidly degrades in solution, the homologous protein porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (pp-CpB) was used in these crystallography studies. Both TAFIa and pp-CpB are zinc-based exopeptidases that are specific for basic residues. The final development candidate, BX 528, is a potent inhibitor of TAFIa (2 nM) and has almost no measurable effect on the major selectivity target, carboxypeptidase N. BX 528 was designed to mimic the tripeptide Phe-Val-Lys. A sulfonamide replaces the Phe-Val amide bond and a phosphinate connects the Val and Lys groups. The phosphinate also chelates the active-site zinc. The electrostatic interactions with the protein mimic those of the natural substrate. The primary amine in BX 528 forms a salt bridge to Asp255 at the base of the S1 pocket. The carboxylic acid interacts with Arg145 and the sulfonamide is hydrogen bonded to Arg71. Isopropyl and phenyl groups replace the side chains of Val and Phe, respectively. A series of structures are presented here that illustrate the evolution of BX 528 from thiol-based inhibitors that mimic a free C-terminal arginine. The first step in development was the replacement of the thiol with a phosphinate. This caused a precipitous drop in binding affinity. Potency was reclaimed by extending the inhibitors into the downstream binding sites for the natural substrate.

  17. Triazolopyrimidine-based dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors with potent and selective activity against the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Margaret A.; Gujjar, Ramesh; Malmquist, Nicholas A.; White, John; El Mazouni, Farah; Baldwin, Jeffrey; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.

    2008-01-01

    A Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitor that is potent (KI = 15 nM) and species-selective (>5,000-fold over the human enzyme) was identified by high-throughput screening. The substituted triazolopyrimidine and its structural analogs were produced by an inexpensive three-step synthesis and the series showed good association between PfDHODH inhibition and parasite toxicity. This study has identified the first nanomolar PfDHODH inhibitor with potent antimalarial ...

  18. Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors for G9a-Like Protein (GLP) Lysine Methyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Yan; Li, Fengling; Babault, Nicolas; Dong, Aiping; Zeng, Hong; Wu, Hong; Chen, Xin; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Brown, Peter J.; Liu, Jing; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2017-02-14

    G9a-like protein (GLP) and G9a are highly homologous protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) sharing approximately 80% sequence identity in their catalytic domains. GLP and G9a form a heterodimer complex and catalyze mono- and dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and nonhistone substrates. Although they are closely related, GLP and G9a possess distinct physiological and pathophysiological functions. Thus, GLP or G9a selective small-molecule inhibitors are useful tools to dissect their distinct biological functions. We previously reported potent and selective G9a/GLP dual inhibitors including UNC0638 and UNC0642. Here we report the discovery of potent and selective GLP inhibitors including 4 (MS0124) and 18 (MS012), which are >30-fold and 140-fold selective for GLP over G9a and other methyltransferases, respectively. The cocrystal structures of GLP and G9a in the complex with either 4 or 18 displayed virtually identical binding modes and interactions, highlighting the challenges in structure-based design of selective inhibitors for either enzyme.

  19. Structure-Activity Relationships of Pentacyclic Triterpenoids as Potent and Selective Inhibitors against Human Carboxylesterase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Zou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1, one of the most important serine hydrolases distributed in liver and adipocytes, plays key roles in endobiotic homeostasis and xenobiotic metabolism. This study aimed to find potent and selective inhibitors against hCE1 from phytochemicals and their derivatives. To this end, a series of natural triterpenoids were collected and their inhibitory effects against human carboxylesterases (hCEs were assayed using D-Luciferin methyl ester (DME and 6,8-dichloro-9,9-dimethyl-7-oxo-7,9-dihydroacridin-2-yl benzoate (DDAB as specific optical substrate for hCE1, and hCE2, respectively. Following screening of a series of natural triterpenoids, oleanolic acid (OA, and ursolic acid (UA were found with strong inhibitory effects on hCE1 and relative high selectivity over hCE2. In order to get the highly selective and potent inhibitors of hCE1, a series of OA and UA derivatives were synthesized from OA and UA by chemical modifications including oxidation, reduction, esterification, and amidation. The inhibitory effects of these derivatives on hCEs were assayed and the structure-activity relationships of tested triterpenoids as hCE1 inhibitors were carefully investigated. The results demonstrated that the carbonyl group at the C-28 site is essential for hCE1 inhibition, the modifications of OA or UA at this site including esters, amides and alcohols are unbeneficial for hCE1 inhibition. In contrast, the structural modifications on OA and UA at other sites, such as converting the C-3 hydroxy group to 3-O-β-carboxypropionyl (compounds 20 and 22, led to a dramatically increase of the inhibitory effects against hCE1 and very high selectivity over hCE2. 3D-QSAR analysis of all tested triterpenoids including OA and UA derivatives provide new insights into the fine relationships linking between the inhibitory effects on hCE1 and the steric-electrostatic properties of triterpenoids. Furthermore, both inhibition kinetic analyses and docking

  20. Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors for ADAMTS-4 through DNA-Encoded Library Technology (ELT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yun; O'Keefe, Heather; DeLorey, Jennifer L; Israel, David I; Messer, Jeffrey A; Chiu, Cynthia H; Skinner, Steven R; Matico, Rosalie E; Murray-Thompson, Monique F; Li, Fan; Clark, Matthew A; Cuozzo, John W; Arico-Muendel, Christopher; Morgan, Barry A

    2015-08-13

    The aggrecan degrading metalloprotease ADAMTS-4 has been identified as a novel therapeutic target for osteoarthritis. Here, we use DNA-encoded Library Technology (ELT) to identify novel ADAMTS-4 inhibitors from a DNA-encoded triazine library by affinity selection. Structure-activity relationship studies based on the selection information led to the identification of potent and highly selective inhibitors. For example, 4-(((4-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)-6-(((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)amino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino)methyl)-N-ethyl-N-(m-tolyl)benzamide has IC50 of 10 nM against ADAMTS-4, with >1000-fold selectivity over ADAMT-5, MMP-13, TACE, and ADAMTS-13. These inhibitors have no obvious zinc ligand functionality.

  1. A concise total synthesis of (R)-fluoxetine, a potent and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Angelo de; Lapis, Alexandre Augusto M.; Pilli, Ronaldo A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: pilli@iqm.unicamp.br

    2005-05-15

    (R)-Fluoxetine, potent and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been synthesized in six steps, 50% overall yield and 99% ee from benzaldehyde via catalytic asymmetric allylation with Maruoka's catalyst. (author)

  2. 3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines: A Novel Class of Potent, Selective, and Orally Active GlyT1 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Emmanuel; Alberati, Daniela; Alvarez-Sanchez, Ruben; Brom, Virginie; Burner, Serge; Fischer, Holger; Hauser, Nicole; Kolczewski, Sabine; Lengyel, Judith; Mory, Roland; Saladin, Christian; Schulz-Gasch, Tanja; Stalder, Henri

    2014-04-10

    3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. The structure-activity relationship, which was developed, led to the identification of highly potent compounds exhibiting excellent selectivity against the GlyT2 isoform, drug-like properties, and in vivo activity after oral administration.

  3. Potent Body Weight-Lowering Effect of a Neuromedin U Receptor 2-selective PEGylated Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu-Yamaki, Yoko; Nishizawa, Naoki; Kaisho, Tomoko; Nagai, Hiroaki; Mochida, Taisuke; Asakawa, Tomoko; Inooka, Hiroshi; Dote, Katsuko; Fujita, Hisashi; Matsumiya, Kouta; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Takekawa, Shiro; Asami, Taiji

    2017-07-27

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide that mediates a variety of physiological functions via its receptors, NMUR1 and NMUR2. Recently, there has been an increased focus on NMU as a promising treatment option for diabetes and obesity. A short form of NMU (NMU-8) has potent agonist activity for both receptors but is metabolically unstable. Therefore, we designed and synthesized NMU-8 analogues modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG; molecular weight, 20 kDa; PEG20k) via a linker. 3-(2-Naphthyl)alanine substitution at position 19 increased NMUR2 selectivity of NMU-8 analogues with retention of high agonist activity. Compound 37, an NMUR2-selective PEG20k analogue containing piperazin-1-ylacetyl linker, exhibited a potent body weight-lowering effect with concomitant inhibition of food intake in a dose-dependent manner (body weight loss of 12.4% at 30 nmol/kg) by once-daily repeated dosing for 2 weeks in mice with diet-induced obesity.

  4. Small molecule amides as potent ROR-γ selective modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Pasha M; El-Gendy, Bahaa El-Dien M; Kumar, Naresh; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben; Lin, Li; Ruiz, Claudia H; Cameron, Michael D; Griffin, Patrick R; Kamenecka, Theodore M

    2013-01-15

    The structure-activity relationship study of a diphenylpropanamide series of ROR-γ selective modulators is reported. Compounds were screened using chimeric receptor Gal4 DNA-binding domain (DBD)-NR ligand binding domain cotransfection assay in a two-step format. Three different regions of the scaffold were modified to assess the effects on repression of ROR-γ transcriptional activity and potency. The lead compound 1 exhibits modest mouse pharmacokinetics and an acceptable in vitro profile which makes it a suitable in vivo probe to interrogate the functions of ROR-γ in animal models of disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discovery and characterization of a potent and selective inhibitor of Aedes aegypti inward rectifier potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Raphemot

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, which are transmitted by infected female mosquitoes, affect nearly half of the world's population. The emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations is reducing the effectiveness of conventional insecticides and threatening current vector control strategies, which has created an urgent need to identify new molecular targets against which novel classes of insecticides can be developed. We previously demonstrated that small molecule inhibitors of mammalian Kir channels represent promising chemicals for new mosquitocide development. In this study, high-throughput screening of approximately 30,000 chemically diverse small-molecules was employed to discover potent and selective inhibitors of Aedes aegypti Kir1 (AeKir1 channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Of 283 confirmed screening 'hits', the small-molecule inhibitor VU625 was selected for lead optimization and in vivo studies based on its potency and selectivity toward AeKir1, and tractability for medicinal chemistry. In patch clamp electrophysiology experiments of HEK293 cells, VU625 inhibits AeKir1 with an IC50 value of 96.8 nM, making VU625 the most potent inhibitor of AeKir1 described to date. Furthermore, electrophysiology experiments in Xenopus oocytes revealed that VU625 is a weak inhibitor of AeKir2B. Surprisingly, injection of VU625 failed to elicit significant effects on mosquito behavior, urine excretion, or survival. However, when co-injected with probenecid, VU625 inhibited the excretory capacity of mosquitoes and was toxic, suggesting that the compound is a substrate of organic anion and/or ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. The dose-toxicity relationship of VU625 (when co-injected with probenecid is biphasic, which is consistent with the molecule inhibiting both AeKir1 and AeKir2B with different potencies. This study demonstrates proof-of-concept that potent and highly selective inhibitors of mosquito

  6. High Cytotoxic Activity of Phosphonium Salts and Their Complementary Selectivity towards HeLa and K562 Cancer Cells: Identification of Tri-n-butyl-n-hexadecylphosphonium bromide as a Highly Potent Anti-HeLa Phosphonium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachowska, Barbara; Kazmierczak-Baranska, Julia; Cieslak, Marcin; Nawrot, Barbara; Szczęsna, Dorota; Skalik, Joanna; Bałczewski, Piotr

    2012-02-01

    Quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts have been screened for their toxic effect on HeLa and K562 cancer cell lines, as well as on normal HUVEC cells. Tri-n-butyl-n-hexadecylphosphonium bromide, the first phosphonium salt with a halogen anion tested against HeLa cells, was 12 times more potent (IC50 phosphonium salt to be evaluated in HeLa cells. However, it was inactive against K562 cells (24 and 48 h). According to a caspase-3/7 assay, its toxicity has not been connected with the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, triphenylalkylphosphonium iodides with shorter C1-5 alkyl chains were inactive against HeLa cells but very active against K562 cells (IC50=6-10 μm after 48 h). Phosphonium cations with halide counterions proved to be more potent than those with (CF3SO2)2N(-) as the anion, as in the anticancer agent NSC 747251, or other anions in molecules with similar alkyl chain lengths. On the other hand, a series of ammonium salts containing a short methylthiomethyl or methoxymethyl side chain revealed low cytotoxicity (IC50 >500 μm after 24 and 48 h) against both HeLa and K562 cancer cell lines as well as normal HUVEC cells, showing that the nontoxic N(+)CH2YMe (Y=S, O) structural motif in ammonium salts could be suitable for further optimization and development, especially in transfection experiments.

  7. Triazolopyrimidine-based dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors with potent and selective activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret A; Gujjar, Ramesh; Malmquist, Nicholas A; White, John; El Mazouni, Farah; Baldwin, Jeffrey; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2008-06-26

    A Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase ( PfDHODH) inhibitor that is potent ( KI = 15 nM) and species-selective (>5000-fold over the human enzyme) was identified by high-throughput screening. The substituted triazolopyrimidine and its structural analogues were produced by an inexpensive three-step synthesis, and the series showed good association between PfDHODH inhibition and parasite toxicity. This study has identified the first nanomolar PfDHODH inhibitor with potent antimalarial activity in whole cells (EC50 = 79 nM).

  8. Discovery of novel acetanilide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tatsuya; Onda, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Matsui, Tetsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2009-06-01

    In the search for potent and selective human beta3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists as potential drugs for the treatment of obesity and noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, a novel series of acetanilide-based analogues were prepared and their biological activities were evaluated at the human beta3-, beta2-, and beta1-ARs. Among these compounds, 2-pyridylacetanilide (2f), pyrimidin-2-ylacetanilide (2u), and pyrazin-2-ylacetanilide (2v) derivatives exhibited potent agonistic activity at the beta3-AR with functional selectivity over the beta1- and beta2-ARs. In particular, compound 2u was found to be the most potent and selective beta3-AR agonist with an EC(50) value of 0.11 microM and no agonistic activity for either the beta1- or beta2-AR. In addition, 2f, 2u, and 2v showed significant hypoglycemic activity in a rodent diabetic model.

  9. Highly potent silver-organoalkoxysilane antimicrobial porous nanomembrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sirajo; Liu, Yuanfeng; Wu, Yiguang; Li, Guangtao; Ding, Jiabo; Xiong, Runsong; Chen, Jinchun

    2013-04-01

    We used a simple electrospinning technique to fabricate a highly potent silver-organoalkoxysilane antimicrobial composite from AgNO3-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)/tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution. Spectroscopic and microscopic analyses of the composite showed that the fibers contain an organoalkoxysilane `skeleton,' 0.18 molecules/nm2 surface amino groups, and highly dispersed and uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles (5 nm in size). Incorporation of organoalkoxysilanes is highly beneficial to the antimicrobial mat as (1) amino groups of APTMS are adhesive and biocidal to microorganisms, (2) polycondensation of APTMS and TEOS increases the membrane's surface area by forming silicon bonds that stabilize fibers and form a composite mat with membranous structure and high porosity, and (3) the organoalkoxysilanes are also instrumental to the synthesis of the very small-sized and highly dispersed silver metal particles in the fiber mat. Antimicrobial property of the composite was evaluated by disk diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC), kinetic, and extended use assays on bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Brucella suis), a fungus (Aspergillus niger), and the Newcastle disease virus. The membrane shows quick and sustained broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Only 0.3 mg of fibers is required to achieve MIC against all the test organisms. Bacteria are inhibited within 30 min of contact, and the fibers can be used repeatedly. The composite is silver efficient and environment friendly, and its membranous structure is suitable for many practical applications as in air filters, antimicrobial linen, coatings, bioadhesives, and biofilms.

  10. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Selective 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase-1 (PDK1) Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Jesus R.; Becker, Christopher J.; Blackledge, Charles W.; Duquenne, Celine; Feng, Yanhong; Grant, Seth W.; Heerding, Dirk; Li, William H.; Miller, William H.; Romeril, Stuart P.; Scherzer, Daryl; Shu, Arthur; Bobko, Mark A.; Chadderton, Antony R.; Dumble, Melissa; Gardiner, Christine M.; Gilbert, Seth; Liu, Qi; Rabindran, Sridhar K.; Sudakin, Valery; Xiang, Hong; Brady, Pat G.; Campobasso, Nino; Ward, Paris; Axten, Jeffrey M. (GSKPA)

    2014-10-02

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1(PDK1) is a master regulator of the AGC family of kinases and an integral component of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. As this pathway is among the most commonly deregulated across all cancers, a selective inhibitor of PDK1 might have utility as an anticancer agent. Herein we describe our lead optimization of compound 1 toward highly potent and selective PDK1 inhibitors via a structure-based design strategy. The most potent and selective inhibitors demonstrated submicromolar activity as measured by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates as well as antiproliferative activity against a subset of AML cell lines. In addition, reduction of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates was demonstrated in vivo in mice bearing OCl-AML2 xenografts. These observations demonstrate the utility of these molecules as tools to further delineate the biology of PDK1 and the potential pharmacological uses of a PDK1 inhibitor.

  11. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of piperidinylpyrrolopyridine derivatives as potent and selective H1 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonquerna, Silvia; Miralpeix, Montse; Pagès, Lluís; Puig, Carles; Cardús, Arantxa; Antón, Francisca; Vilella, Dolors; Aparici, Mónica; Prieto, José; Warrellow, Graham; Beleta, Jorge; Ryder, Hamish

    2005-02-15

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of piperidinylpyrrolopyridines as potent and selective H(1) antagonists are discussed. It was found that the nature of the acid chain bonded to piperidine was a key feature for maintaining both the duration of action in vivo and lack of sedative properties.

  12. ABT-199, a potent and selective BCL-2 inhibitor, achieves antitumor activity while sparing platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souers, Andrew J; Leverson, Joel D; Boghaert, Erwin R; Ackler, Scott L; Catron, Nathaniel D; Chen, Jun; Dayton, Brian D; Ding, Hong; Enschede, Sari H; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Huang, David C S; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Jin, Sha; Khaw, Seong Lin; Kovar, Peter J; Lam, Lloyd T; Lee, Jackie; Maecker, Heather L; Marsh, Kennan C; Mason, Kylie D; Mitten, Michael J; Nimmer, Paul M; Oleksijew, Anatol; Park, Chang H; Park, Cheol-Min; Phillips, Darren C; Roberts, Andrew W; Sampath, Deepak; Seymour, John F; Smith, Morey L; Sullivan, Gerard M; Tahir, Stephen K; Tse, Chris; Wendt, Michael D; Xiao, Yu; Xue, John C; Zhang, Haichao; Humerickhouse, Rod A; Rosenberg, Saul H; Elmore, Steven W

    2013-02-01

    Proteins in the B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family are key regulators of the apoptotic process. This family comprises proapoptotic and prosurvival proteins, and shifting the balance toward the latter is an established mechanism whereby cancer cells evade apoptosis. The therapeutic potential of directly inhibiting prosurvival proteins was unveiled with the development of navitoclax, a selective inhibitor of both BCL-2 and BCL-2-like 1 (BCL-X(L)), which has shown clinical efficacy in some BCL-2-dependent hematological cancers. However, concomitant on-target thrombocytopenia caused by BCL-X(L) inhibition limits the efficacy achievable with this agent. Here we report the re-engineering of navitoclax to create a highly potent, orally bioavailable and BCL-2-selective inhibitor, ABT-199. This compound inhibits the growth of BCL-2-dependent tumors in vivo and spares human platelets. A single dose of ABT-199 in three patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia resulted in tumor lysis within 24 h. These data indicate that selective pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2 shows promise for the treatment of BCL-2-dependent hematological cancers.

  13. Optimization of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as potent and selective ABHD6 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendra Z; Nevalainen, Tapio J; Savinainen, Juha R; Adams, Yahaya; Laitinen, Tuomo; Runyon, Robert S; Vaara, Miia; Ahenkorah, Stephen; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Gynther, Mikko; Aaltonen, Niina; Joharapurkar, Amit A; Jain, Mukul R; Haka, Abigail S; Maxfield, Frederick R; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Parkkari, Teija

    2015-02-01

    At present, inhibitors of α/β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) are viewed as a promising approach to treat inflammation and metabolic disorders. This article describes the development of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as ABHD6 inhibitors. Altogether, 34 compounds were synthesized, and their inhibitory activity was tested using lysates of HEK293 cells transiently expressing human ABHD6 (hABHD6). Among the compound series, 4-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl cyclooctyl(methyl)carbamate (JZP-430) potently and irreversibly inhibited hABHD6 (IC50 =44 nM) and showed ∼230-fold selectivity over fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), the main off-targets of related compounds. Additionally, activity-based protein profiling indicated that JZP-430 displays good selectivity among the serine hydrolases of the mouse brain membrane proteome. JZP-430 has been identified as a highly selective, irreversible inhibitor of hABHD6, which may provide a novel approach in the treatment of obesity and type II diabetes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Substituted imidazopyridazines are potent and selective inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (PfCDPK1)

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Timothy M.; Osborne, Simon A.; Bouloc, Nathalie; Large, Jonathan M.; Wallace, Claire; Birchall, Kristian; Ansell, Keith H.; Jones, Hayley M.; Taylor, Debra; Clough, Barbara; Green, Judith L.; Holder, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    A series of imidazopyridazines which are potent inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (PfCDPK1) was identified from a high-throughput screen against the isolated enzyme. Subsequent exploration of the SAR and optimisation has yielded leading members which show promising in vitro anti-parasite activity along with good in vitro ADME and selectivity against human kinases. Initial in vivo testing has revealed good oral bioavailability in a mouse PK study and modest...

  15. Fragment-Based Discovery of Potent and Selective DDR1/2 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher W; Berdini, Valerio; Buck, Ildiko M; Carr, Maria E; Cleasby, Anne; Coyle, Joseph E; Curry, Jayne E; Day, James E H; Day, Phillip J; Hearn, Keisha; Iqbal, Aman; Lee, Lydia Y W; Martins, Vanessa; Mortenson, Paul N; Munck, Joanne M; Page, Lee W; Patel, Sahil; Roomans, Susan; Smith, Kirsten; Tamanini, Emiliano; Saxty, Gordon

    2015-07-09

    The DDR1 and DDR2 receptor tyrosine kinases are activated by extracellular collagen and have been implicated in a number of human diseases including cancer. We performed a fragment-based screen against DDR1 and identified fragments that bound either at the hinge or in the back pocket associated with the DFG-out conformation of the kinase. Modeling based on crystal structures of potent kinase inhibitors facilitated the "back-to-front" design of potent DDR1/2 inhibitors that incorporated one of the DFG-out fragments. Further optimization led to low nanomolar, orally bioavailable inhibitors that were selective for DDR1 and DDR2. The inhibitors were shown to potently inhibit DDR2 activity in cells but in contrast to unselective inhibitors such as dasatinib, they did not inhibit proliferation of mutant DDR2 lung SCC cell lines.

  16. Extracts from Annona Muricata L. and Annona Reticulata L. (Annonaceae) Potently and Selectively Inhibit Plasmodium Falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamthe, Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha; Fokou, Patrick Valere Tsouh; Mbouna, Cedric Derick Jiatsa; Keumoe, Rodrigue; Ndjakou, Bruno Lenta; Djouonzo, Paul Toukam; Mfopa, Alvine Ngoutane; Legac, Jennifer; Tsabang, Nole; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to screen extracts from Annona muricata and Annona reticulata in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum. Crude ethanolic extracts, methylene chloride fractions, aqueous fractions, subfractions and isolated compounds (stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, lichexanthone, gallic acid and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) were tested for cytotoxicity on erythrocytes and Human Foreskin Fibroblasts cells and against the W2 strain of P. falciparum in culture. Results indicated that none of the extracts was cytotoxic at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL. Most of the extracts, fractions and subfractions inhibited the growth of P. falciparum with IC50 values ranging from 0.07 to 3.46 µg/mL. The most potent was the subfraction 30 from A. muricata stem bark (IC50 = 0.07 µg/mL) with a selectivity index of ˃ 142. Subfraction 3 from A. muricata root also exhibited very good activity (IC50 = 0.09 µg/mL) with a high selectivity index (SI ˃ 111). Amongst the isolated compounds, only gallic acid showed activity with IC50 of 3.32 µg/mL and SI > 10. These results support traditional claims for A. muricata and A. reticulata in the treatment of malaria. Given their limited cytotoxicity profile, their extracts qualify as promising starting points for antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:28930201

  17. Discovery of 3-arylpropionic acids as potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) with high selectivity against all other known S1P receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Huo, Pei; Doherty, George; Toth, Lesile; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Quackenbush, Elizabeth; Wickham, Alexandra; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2006-07-15

    A series of 3-arylpropionic acids were synthesized as S1P1 receptor agonists. Structure-activity relationship studies on the pendant phenyl ring revealed several structural features offering selectivity of S1P1 binding against S1P2-5. These highly selective S1P1 agonists induced peripheral blood lymphocyte lowering in mice and one of them was found to be efficacious in a rat skin transplantation model, supporting that S1P1 agonism is primarily responsible for the immunosuppressive efficacy observed in preclinical animal models.

  18. Design and Discovery of 2-Arylquinazolin-4-ones as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Tankyrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathubhai, Amit; Wood, Pauline J; Lloyd, Matthew D; Thompson, Andrew S; Threadgill, Michael D

    2013-12-12

    Tankyrases (TNKSs) are poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs) that are overexpressed in several clinical cancers. They regulate elongation of telomeres, regulate the Wnt system, and are essential for the function of the mitotic spindle. A set of 2-arylquinazolin-4-ones has been designed and identified as potent and selective TNKS inhibitors, some being more potent and selective than the lead inhibitor XAV939, with IC50 = 3 nM vs. TNKS-2. Methyl was preferred at the 8-position and modest bulk at the 4-position of the 2-phenyl group; electronic effects and H-bonding were irrelevant, but charge in the 4'-substituent must be avoided. Molecular modeling facilitated initial design of the compounds and rationalization of the SAR of binding into the nicotinamide-binding site of the target enzymes. These compounds have potential for further development into anticancer drugs.

  19. Identification and Structure-Activity Relationships of Diarylhydrazides as Novel Potent and Selective Human Enterovirus Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin; Sun, Ningyuan; Wu, Haoming; Guo, Deyin; Tien, Po; Dong, Chune; Wu, Shuwen; Zhou, Hai-Bing

    2016-03-10

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) plays an important role in hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In this study, a series of diarylhydrazide analogues was synthesized, and the systematic exploration of SAR led to potent enterovirus inhibitors, of which compound 15 exhibits significant improvements in inhibition potency with an EC50 value of 0.02 μM against EV71. It is very interesting that this class of diarylhydrazides exhibits activities against a series of human enteroviruses at the picomolar level, including EV71 and Coxsackieviruses B1 (CVB1), CVB2, CVB3, CVB4, CVB5, and CVB6 (EC50 as low as 0.5 nM). Compared with the reference antienterovirus drug 1 (enviroxime) and known inhibitor 5 (WIN 51711), the four highly selective compounds 15, 27, 41 and 47 inhibited EV71 replication with EC50 values of 0.17-0.02 μM and SI values in a range of 978.4-12338. A preliminary mechanistic study indicated that VP1 might be the target site for this type of compound.

  20. Biochemical characterization and structure determination of a potent, selective antibody inhibitor of human MMP9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Todd C; Greenstein, Andrew E; Hung, Magdeleine; Liclican, Albert; Velasquez, Maile; Villaseñor, Armando G; Wang, Ruth; Wong, Melanie H; Liu, Xiaohong; Papalia, Giuseppe A; Schultz, Brian E; Sakowicz, Roman; Smith, Victoria; Kwon, Hyock Joo

    2017-04-21

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is a member of a large family of proteases that are secreted as inactive zymogens. It is a key regulator of the extracellular matrix, involved in the degradation of various extracellular matrix proteins. MMP9 plays a pathological role in a variety of inflammatory and oncology disorders and has long been considered an attractive therapeutic target. GS-5745, a potent, highly selective humanized monoclonal antibody inhibitor of MMP9, has shown promise in treating ulcerative colitis and gastric cancer. Here we describe the crystal structure of GS-5745·MMP9 complex and biochemical studies to elucidate the mechanism of inhibition of MMP9 by GS-5745. GS-5745 binds MMP9 distal to the active site, near the junction between the prodomain and catalytic domain, and inhibits MMP9 by two mechanisms. Binding to pro-MMP9 prevents MMP9 activation, whereas binding to active MMP9 allosterically inhibits activity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinones: A new class of potent, selective, and orally active p38 MAP kinase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devadas, Balekudru; Selness, Shaun R.; Xing, Li; Madsen, Heather M.; Marrufo, Laura D.; Shieh, Huey; Messing, Dean M.; Yang, Jerry Z.; Morgan, Heidi M.; Anderson, Gary D.; Webb, Elizabeth G.; Zhang, Jian; Devraj, Rajesh V.; Monahan, Joseph B. (Pfizer)

    2012-02-28

    A novel series of highly potent and selective p38 MAP kinase inhibitors was developed originating from a substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinone scaffold. SAR studies coupled with in vivo evaluations in rat arthritis model culminated in the identification of 10 with excellent oral efficacy. Compound 10 exhibited a significantly enhanced dissolution rate compared to 1, translating to a high oral bioavailability (>90%) in rat. In animal studies 10 inhibited LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} in a dose-dependent manner and demonstrated robust efficacy comparable to dexamethasone in a rat streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model.

  2. Identification and characterization of a potent and selective inhibitor of human urate transporter 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Chen, Jiasheng; Dong, Shuai; Li, Haixin; Cao, Ying; Tian, Yuanxin; Fu, Weimin; Zhou, Pingzheng; Xi, Baomin; Pang, Jianxin

    2017-05-06

    Selective inhibitors of human urate transporter 1 (hURAT1) are considered to be effective treatment for hyperuricemia and gout, which can reduce the reabsorption of more than 90% of uric acid in the proximal tubule of the kidney. We aimed to design and synthesize a more potent hURAT1 based on the structure of Lesinurad (LU), which was reported to lower uric acid levels with IC50 value of hURAT1 (about 60μM). A cell model was conducted and characterized via Real-time qRCR and Western blot. We synthesized and identified a new midazole analogue of LU. Cells stably-expressing hURAT1 or human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) were used in the [(14)C] urate or 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF) uptake assays to test the activities of the newly synthesized compound. The uric acid lowering effects of LU and LUM and their effects on urea nitrogen and creatinine in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats were analyzed. The [(14)C] Urate uptake assay using hURAT1 stably transfected MDCK cells indicated that LUM was more potent than LU against hURAT1, with IC50 values of 3.22μM and 65.47μM, respectively. LU and LUM also effectively suppressed hOAT1-mediated 6-CF uptake, and the IC50 hURAT1/IC50 hOAT1 of LU and LUM was1.49 and 0.35 respectively, indicating a better selectivity for LUM than LU. In vivo, LUM-Na (40mg/kg) showed more potent activity in reducing serum uric acid levels in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats, compared to similar doses of LU-Na. LUM was demonstrated to be as potent a uricosuric drug as LU. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  3. Salvinorin A: A potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous κ opioid selective agonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Bryan L.; Baner, Karen; Westkaemper, Richard; Siebert, Daniel; Rice, Kenner C.; Steinberg, SeAnna; Ernsberger, Paul; Rothman, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    Salvia divinorum, whose main active ingredient is the neoclerodane diterpene Salvinorin A, is a hallucinogenic plant in the mint family that has been used in traditional spiritual practices for its psychoactive properties by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico. More recently, S. divinorum extracts and Salvinorin A have become more widely used in the U.S. as legal hallucinogens. We discovered that Salvinorin A potently and selectively inhibited 3H-bremazocine binding to cloned κ opioid receptors. Salvinorin A had no significant activity against a battery of 50 receptors, transporters, and ion channels and showed a distinctive profile compared with the prototypic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide. Functional studies demonstrated that Salvinorin A is a potent κ opioid agonist at cloned κ opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells and at native κ opioid receptors expressed in guinea pig brain. Importantly, Salvinorin A had no actions at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor, the principal molecular target responsible for the actions of classical hallucinogens. Salvinorin A thus represents, to our knowledge, the first naturally occurring nonnitrogenous opioid-receptor subtype-selective agonist. Because Salvinorin A is a psychotomimetic selective for κ opioid receptors, κ opioid-selective antagonists may represent novel psychotherapeutic compounds for diseases manifested by perceptual distortions (e.g., schizophrenia, dementia, and bipolar disorders). Additionally, these results suggest that κ opioid receptors play a prominent role in the modulation of human perception. PMID:12192085

  4. Structural Basis for the Potent and Selective Inhibition of Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Alexander M. [Amgen Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Zhao, Huilin [Amgen Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Huang, Xin [Amgen Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) and its closest homologue CK1δ are key regulators of diverse cellular processes. We report two crystal structures of PF4800567, a potent and selective inhibitor of CK1ε, bound to the kinase domains of human CK1ε and CK1δ as well as one apo CK1ε crystal structure. These structures provide a molecular basis for the strong and specific inhibitor interactions with CK1ε and suggest clues for further development of CK1δ inhibitors.

  5. Radiosynthesis and characterisation of a potent and selective GPR139 agonist radioligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhne, Sebastiaan; Nøhr, Anne Cathrine; Marek, AleŠ

    2016-01-01

    Compound 1 is a selective and potent agonist of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR139 (EC50 = 39 nM). In this study, we describe the synthesis, radiolabelling and in vitro evaluation of [3H]-1 for the characterisation of GPR139 and its spatial expression in the brain using autoradiography. Two...... to discriminate [3H]-1 binding to wildtype mice brains from GPR139 knockout mice brains and total binding from non-specific binding in CHO-k1 cells stably expressing human GPR139 receptor. Based on these experiments we conclude that [3H]-1 is not a suitable radioligand for the characterisation of GPR139....

  6. Discovery of LAS101057: A Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious A2B Adenosine Receptor Antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Paul; Esteve, Cristina; González, Jacob; Fonquerna, Silvia; Aiguadé, Josep; Carranco, Inés; Doménech, Teresa; Aparici, Mònica; Miralpeix, Montserrat; Albertí, Joan; Córdoba, Mónica; Fernández, Raquel; Pont, Mercè; Godessart, Núria; Prats, Neus; Loza, María Isabel; Cadavid, María Isabel; Nueda, Arsenio; Vidal, Bernat

    2011-03-10

    The structure-activity relationships for a series of pyrazine-based A2B adenosine receptor antagonists are described. From this work, LAS101057 (17), a potent, selective, and orally efficacious A2B receptor antagonist, was identified as a clinical development candidate. LAS101057 inhibits agonist-induced IL-6 production in human fibroblasts and is active in an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse model after oral administration, reducing airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, Th2 cytokine production, and OVA-specific IgE levels.

  7. TU-572, a potent and selective CD45 inhibitor, suppresses IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and murine contact hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, T; Takahashi, A; Manaka, A; Sato, M; Osada, H

    2001-12-01

    CD45, receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) are essential components of signaling through both the T cell receptor and the B cell antigen receptor. However, the functional significance of CD45 in the signaling pathway through the high-affinity immunoglobulin (Ig) E receptor has not yet been established. In this study, we demonstrate that the potent CD45 inhibitor negatively regulates IgE-dependent anaphylaxis and contact hypersensitivity reactions. We have previously found that TU-572, 2-[(4-methylthiopyridin-2-yl)methylsulfinyl]-5-isopropoxybenzimidazole, had a potent and selective inhibitory effect against PTPase activity of CD45. Using a CD45 inhibitor, we examined in vitro and in vivo IgE-mediated responses. TU-572 potently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and mouse systemic anaphylaxis reaction using monoclonal anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE and DNP-BSA. TU-572 also suppressed the immediate-type hypersensitivity response induced by repeated epicutaneous application of trinitrochlorobenzene in BALB/c mice. These findings revealed that the PTPase activity of CD45 played a critical role in signal transduction of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis in vitro and in vivo. PTPase inhibitors such as TU-572 are useful in the treatment of allergic diseases. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. GNE-886: A Potent and Selective Inhibitor of the Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region Candidate 2 Bromodomain (CECR2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Terry D; Audia, James E; Bellon, Steve; Burdick, Daniel J; Bommi-Reddy, Archana; Côté, Alexandre; Cummings, Richard T; Duplessis, Martin; Flynn, E Megan; Hewitt, Michael; Huang, Hon-Ren; Jayaram, Hariharan; Jiang, Ying; Joshi, Shivangi; Kiefer, James R; Murray, Jeremy; Nasveschuk, Christopher G; Neiss, Arianne; Pardo, Eneida; Romero, F Anthony; Sandy, Peter; Sims, Robert J; Tang, Yong; Taylor, Alexander M; Tsui, Vickie; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shumei; Wang, Yongyun; Xu, Zhaowu; Zawadzke, Laura; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Albrecht, Brian K; Magnuson, Steven R; Cochran, Andrea G

    2017-07-13

    The biological function of bromodomains, epigenetic readers of acetylated lysine residues, remains largely unknown. Herein we report our efforts to discover a potent and selective inhibitor of the bromodomain of cat eye syndrome chromosome region candidate 2 (CECR2). Screening of our internal medicinal chemistry collection led to the identification of a pyrrolopyridone chemical lead, and subsequent structure-based drug design led to a potent and selective CECR2 bromodomain inhibitor (GNE-886) suitable for use as an in vitro tool compound.

  9. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Potent and Selective Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Yong; Fuerst, Rita; Knapinska, Anna M; Taylor, Alexander B; Smith, Lyndsay; Cao, Xiaohang; Hart, P John; Fields, Gregg B; Roush, William R

    2017-07-13

    We describe the use of comparative structural analysis and structure-guided molecular design to develop potent and selective inhibitors (10d and (S)-17b) of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13). We applied a three-step process, starting with a comparative analysis of the X-ray crystallographic structure of compound 5 in complex with MMP-13 with published structures of known MMP-13·inhibitor complexes followed by molecular design and synthesis of potent but nonselective zinc-chelating MMP inhibitors (e.g., 10a and 10b). After demonstrating that the pharmacophores of the chelating inhibitors (S)-10a, (R)-10a, and 10b were binding within the MMP-13 active site, the Zn 2+ chelating unit was replaced with nonchelating polar residues that bridged over the Zn 2+ binding site and reached into a solvent accessible area. After two rounds of structural optimization, these design approaches led to small molecule MMP-13 inhibitors 10d and (S)-17b, which bind within the substrate-binding site of MMP-13 and surround the catalytically active Zn 2+ ion without chelating to the metal. These compounds exhibit at least 500-fold selectivity versus other MMPs.

  10. Highly Potent Cell-Permeable and Impermeable NanoLuc Luciferase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joel R; Hall, Mary P; Zimprich, Chad A; Robers, Matthew B; Duellman, Sarah J; Machleidt, Thomas; Rodriguez, Jacquelynn; Zhou, Wenhui

    2017-04-21

    Novel engineered NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase being smaller, brighter, and superior to traditional firefly (Fluc) or Renilla (Rluc) provides a great opportunity for the development of numerous biological, biomedical, clinical, and food and environmental safety applications. This new platform created an urgent need for Nluc inhibitors that could allow selective bioluminescent suppression and multiplexing compatibility with existing luminescence or fluorescence assays. Starting from thienopyrrole carboxylate 1, a hit from a 42 000 PubChem compound library with a low micromolar IC50 against Nluc, we derivatized four different structural fragments to discover a family of potent, single digit nanomolar, cell permeable inhibitors. Further elaboration revealed a channel that allowed access to the external Nluc surface, resulting in a series of highly potent cell impermeable Nluc inhibitors with negatively charged groups likely extending to the protein surface. The permeability was evaluated by comparing EC50 shifts calculated from both live and lysed cells expressing Nluc cytosolically. Luminescence imaging further confirmed that cell permeable compounds inhibit both intracellular and extracellular Nluc, whereas less permeable compounds differentially inhibit extracellular Nluc and Nluc on the cell surface. The compounds displayed little to no toxicity to cells and high luciferase specificity, showing no activity against firefly luciferase or even the closely related NanoBit system. Looking forward, the structural motifs used to gain access to the Nluc surface can also be appended with other functional groups, and therefore interesting opportunities for developing assays based on relief-of-inhibition can be envisioned.

  11. Optimization of 1,2,5-Thiadiazole Carbamates as Potent and Selective ABHD6 Inhibitors #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendra Z.; Nevalainen, Tapio J.; Savinainen, Juha R.; Adams, Yahaya; Laitinen, Tuomo; Runyon, Robert S.; Vaara, Miia; Ahenkorah, Stephen; Kaczor, Agnieszka A.; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Gynther, Mikko; Aaltonen, Niina; Joharapurkar, Amit A.; Jain, Mukul R.; Haka, Abigail S.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Laitinen, Jarmo T.; Parkkari, Teija

    2015-01-01

    At present, inhibitors of α/β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) are viewed as a promising approach to treat inflammation and metabolic disorders. This article describes the optimization of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as ABHD6 inhibitors. Altogether, 34 compounds were synthesized and their inhibitory activity was tested using lysates of HEK293 cells transiently expressing human ABHD6 (hABHD6). Among the compound series, 4-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl cyclooctyl(methyl)carbamate (JZP-430, 55) potently and irreversibly inhibited hABHD6 (IC50 44 nM) and showed good selectivity (∼230 fold) over fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), the main off-targets of related compounds. Additionally, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) indicated that compound 55 (JZP-430) displayed good selectivity among the serine hydrolases of mouse brain membrane proteome. PMID:25504894

  12. Highly Substituted Cyclopentane-CMP Conjugates as Potent Sialyltransferase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenming; Niu, Youhong; Xiong, De-Cai; Cao, Xiaoping; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2015-10-22

    Sialylconjugates on cell surfaces are involved in many biological events such as cellular recognition, signal transduction, and immune response. It has been reported that aberrant sialylation at the nonreducing end of glycoconjugates and overexpression of sialyltransferases (STs) in cells are correlated with the malignance, invasion, and metastasis of tumors. Therefore, inhibitors of STs would provide valuable leads for the discovery of antitumor drugs. On the basis of the transition state of the enzyme-catalyzed sialylation reaction, we proposed that the cyclopentane skeleton in its two puckered conformations might mimic the planar structure of the donor (CMP-Neu5Ac) in the transition state. A series of cyclopentane-containing compounds were designed and synthesized by coupling different cyclopentane α-hydroxyphosphonates with cytidine phosphoramidite. Their inhibitory activities against recombinant human ST6Gal-I were assayed, and a potent inhibitor 48l with a Ki of 0.028 ± 0.006 μM was identified. The results show that the cyclopentanoid-type compounds could become a new type of sialyltransferase inhibitors as biological probes or drug leads.

  13. Pyrazole compound BPR1P0034 with potent and selective anti-influenza virus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Jiann-Yih

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. More recently, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus that is spreading via human-to-human transmission has become a serious public concern. Although vaccination is the primary strategy for preventing infections, influenza antiviral drugs play an important role in a comprehensive approach to controlling illness and transmission. In addition, a search for influenza-inhibiting drugs is particularly important in the face of high rate of emergence of influenza strains resistant to several existing influenza antivirals. Methods We searched for novel anti-influenza inhibitors using a cell-based neutralization (inhibition of virus-induced cytopathic effect assay. After screening 20,800 randomly selected compounds from a library from ChemDiv, Inc., we found that BPR1P0034 has sub-micromolar antiviral activity. The compound was resynthesized in five steps by conventional chemical techniques. Lead optimization and a structure-activity analysis were used to improve potency. Time-of-addition assay was performed to target an event in the virus life cycle. Results The 50% effective inhibitory concentration (IC50 of BPR1P0034 was 0.42 ± 0.11 μM, when measured with a plaque reduction assay. Viral protein and RNA synthesis of A/WSN/33 (H1N1 was inhibited by BPR1P0034 and the virus-induced cytopathic effects were thus significantly reduced. BPR1P0034 exhibited broad inhibition spectrum for influenza viruses but showed no antiviral effect for enteroviruses and echovirus 9. In a time-of-addition assay, in which the compound was added at different stages along the viral replication cycle (such as at adsorption or after adsorption, its antiviral activity was more efficient in cells treated with the test compound between 0 and 2 h, right after viral infection, implying that an early step of viral replication might be the target of the compound. These results suggest

  14. Sansanmycin natural product analogues as potent and selective anti-mycobacterials that inhibit lipid I biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh T.; Watson, Emma E.; Pujari, Venugopal; Conroy, Trent; Dowman, Luke J.; Giltrap, Andrew M.; Pang, Angel; Wong, Weng Ruh; Linington, Roger G.; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Saunders, Jessica; Charman, Susan A.; West, Nicholas P.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Tod, Julie; Dowson, Christopher G.; Roper, David I.; Crick, Dean C.; Britton, Warwick J.; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for enormous global morbidity and mortality, and current treatment regimens rely on the use of drugs that have been in use for more than 40 years. Owing to widespread resistance to these therapies, new drugs are desperately needed to control the TB disease burden. Herein, we describe the rapid synthesis of analogues of the sansanmycin uridylpeptide natural products that represent promising new TB drug leads. The compounds exhibit potent and selective inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, both in vitro and intracellularly. The natural product analogues are nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of lipid I in mycobacteria. This work lays the foundation for the development of uridylpeptide natural product analogues as new TB drug candidates that operate through the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  15. Potent and selective N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)thiourea-based GPR55 agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrjölä, Sari; Parkkari, Teija; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Laitinen, Tuomo; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Kokkola, Tarja; Adusei-Mensah, Frank; Savinainen, Juha R; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Poso, Antti; Alexander, Amy; Penman, June; Stott, Lisa; Anskat, Marie; Irving, Andrew J; Nevalainen, Tapio J

    2016-01-01

    To date, many known G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) ligands are those identified among the cannabinoids. In order to further study the function of GPR55, new potent and selective ligands are needed. In this study, we utilized the screening results from PubChem bioassay AID 1961 which reports the results of Image-based HTS for Selective Agonists of GPR55. Three compounds, CID1792579, CID1252842 and CID1011163, were further evaluated and used as a starting point to create a series of nanomolar potency GPR55 agonists with N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)thiourea scaffold. The GPR55 activity of the compounds were screened by using a commercial β-arrestin PathHunter assay and the potential compounds were further evaluated by using a recombinant HEK cell line exhibiting GPR55-mediated effects on calcium signalling. The designed compounds were not active when tested against various endocannabinoid targets (CB1R, CB2R, FAAH, MGL, ABHD6 and ABHD12), indicating compounds' selectivity for the GPR55. Finally, structure-activity relationships of these compounds were explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The pharmacology of TD-8954, a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist with gastrointestinal prokinetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Beattie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of TD-8954, a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist. TD-8954 had high affinity (pKi = 9.4 for human recombinant 5-HT4(c (h5-HT4(c receptors, and selectivity (> 2,000-fold over all other 5-HT receptors and non-5-HT receptors, ion channels, enzymes and transporters tested (n = 78. TD-8954 produced an elevation of cAMP in HEK-293 cells expressing the h5-HT4(c receptor (pEC50 = 9.3, and contracted the guinea pig colonic longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus (LMMP preparation (pEC50 = 8.6. TD-8954 had moderate intrinsic activity (IA in the in vitro assays. In conscious guinea pigs, subcutaneous (s.c. administration of TD 8954 (0.03 - 3 mg/kg increased the colonic transit of carmine red dye, reducing the time taken for its excretion. Following intraduodenal (i.d. dosing to anesthetized rats, TD 8954 (0.03 - 10 mg/kg evoked a dose-dependent relaxation of the esophagus. Following oral administration to conscious dogs, TD 8954 (10 and 30 µg/kg produced an increase in contractility of the antrum, duodenum and jejunum. In a single ascending oral dose study in healthy human subjects, TD-8954 (0.1 - 20 mg increased bowel movement frequency and reduced the time to first stool. It is concluded that TD-8954 is a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist in vitro, with robust in vivo stimulatory activity in the gastrointestinal (GI tract of guinea pigs, rats, dogs and humans. TD-8954 may have clinical utility in patients with disorders of reduced GI motility.

  17. In silico design and bioevaluation of selective benzotriazepine BRD4 inhibitors with potent antiosteoclastogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Vishwa; Wang, Binglin; Koot, Dwayne; Kasonga, Abe; Stander, Xiao Xing; Coetzee, Magdalena; Stander, Andre

    2017-07-01

    The bromodomain (BRD) and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein family bind to acetylated histones on lysine residues and act as epigenetic readers. Recently, the role of this protein family in bone loss has been gaining attention. Earlier studies have reported that benzotriazepine (Bzt) derivatives could be effective inhibitors of BET proteins. In this study, using in silico tools we designed three Bzt analogs (W49, W51, and W52). By docking, molecular simulations, and chemiluminescent Alpha Screen binding assay, we show that the studied analogs were selective at inhibiting BRD4 when compared to BRD2. Furthermore, we tested the effectiveness of these analogs on osteoclast formation and function. Among the examined analogs, Bzt-W49 and Bzt-W52 were found to be the most potent inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis without cytotoxicity in murine RAW264.7 osteoclast progenitors. Both the compounds also inhibited osteoclast formation without affecting cell viability in human CD14+ monocytes. Moreover, owing to attenuated osteoclastogenesis, actin ring formation and bone resorptive function of osteoclasts were severely perturbed. In conclusion, these results suggest that the novel BRD4-selective Bzt analogs designed in this study could be explored further for developing therapeutics against bone loss diseases characterized by excessive osteoclast activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. 7-Chloroarctinone-b as a new selective PPARy antagonist potently blocks adipocyte differentiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yong-tao LI Li LI Jing CHEN Tian-cen HU Jin HUANG Yue-wei GUO Hua-liang JIANG Xu SHEN

    2009-01-01

    .... In order to develop potent lead compounds for obesity treatment, we screened a natural product library for novel PPARy antagonists with inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation. Methods...

  19. Phenylamino-pyrimidine (PAP) derivatives: a new class of potent and selective inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, J; Caravatti, G; Mett, H; Meyer, T; Müller, M; Lydon, N B; Fabbro, D

    1996-07-01

    Phenylamino-pyrimidines represent a novel class of inhibitors of the protein kinase C with a high degree of selectivity versus other serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. Steady state kinetic analysis of N-(3-[1-imidazolyl]-phenyl-4-(3-pyridyl)-2-pyrimidinamine (5), which showed potent inhibitory activity, revealed competitive kinetics relative to ATP. The adjacent H-bond acceptor of the pyrimidine moiety next to an H-bond donor of the phenylamine was found to be crucial for inhibitory activity. N-(3-Nitro-phenyl)-4-(3-pyridyl)-2-pyrimidinamine (7) preferentially inhibited PKC-alpha (IC50 = 0.79 microM) and not the other subtypes tested. The inhibition constants of PKC-alpha and the antiproliferative effect on T24 human bladder carcinoma cells showed a qualitative correlation, although with some exceptions.

  20. Selective and potent inhibitory effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on U46619-induced contraction in rat aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kyosuke; Chino, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Tomoya; Obara, Keisuke; Miyauchi, Seiji; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on blood vessel contractions induced by various constrictor stimulants were investigated in the rat thoracic aorta. The inhibitory effects of DHA were also compared with those of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and linoleic acid (LA). DHA exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the sustained contractions induced by U46619, a TXA2 mimetic. This inhibitory effect of DHA was not affected by removal of the endothelium or by treatment with either indomethacin or Nω-nitro-l-arginine. DHA also significantly diminished PGF2α-induced contraction but did not show any appreciable inhibitory effects on the contractions to both phenylephrine (PE) and high-KCl. Similarly, EPA exhibited significant inhibitory effects against the contractions induced by both U46619 and PGF2α without substantially affecting either PE- or high-KCl-induced contractions. However, both DHA and EPA generated more potent inhibitions against contractions induced by U46619 than those by PGF2α. In contrast, LA did not show significant inhibitory effects against any contractions, including those induced by U46619. The present findings suggest that DHA and EPA elicit more selective inhibition against blood vessel contractions that are mediated through stimulation of prostanoid receptors than those through α-adrenoceptor stimulation or membrane depolarization. Although DHA and EPA have similar inhibitory potencies against prostanoid receptor-mediated contractions, they had a more potent inhibition against TXA2 receptor (TP receptor)-mediated contractions than against PGF2α receptor (FP receptor)-mediated responses. Selective inhibition by either DHA or EPA of prostanoid receptor-mediated blood vessel contractions may partly underlie the mechanisms by which these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exert their circulatory-protective effects. PMID:24304639

  1. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-29

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Discovery of highly potent, selective, covalent inhibitors of JAK3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempson, James; Ovalle, Damaso; Guo, Junqing; Wrobleski, Stephen T.; Lin, Shuqun; Spergel, Steven H.; Duan, James J. -W.; Jiang, Bin; Lu, Zhonghui; Das, Jagabandhu; Yang, Bingwei V.; Hynes, John; Wu, Hong; Tokarski, John; Sack, John S.; Khan, Javed; Schieven, Gary; Blatt, Yuval; Chaudhry, Charu; Salter-Cid, Luisa M.; Fura, Aberra; Barrish, Joel C.; Carter, Percy H.; Pitts, William J.

    2017-10-01

    A useful and novel set of tool molecules have been identified which bind irreversibly to the JAK3 active site cysteine residue. The design was based on crystal structure information and a comparative study of several electrophilic warheads.

  3. Effect of a novel selective and potent phosphinic peptide inhibitor of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 on neurotensin-induced analgesia and neuronal inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Bruno; Jiracek, Jirì; Noble, Florence; Loog, Mart; Roques, Bernard; Dive, Vincent; Vincent, Jean-Pierre; Checler, Frédéric

    1997-01-01

    We have examined a series of novel phosphinic peptides as putative potent and selective inhibitors of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. The most selective inhibitor, Pro-Phe-Ψ(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 displayed a Ki value of 12 nM towards endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 and was 5540 fold less potent on its related peptidase endopeptidase 3.4.24.15. Furthermore, this inhibitor was 12.5 less potent on angiotensin-converting enzyme and was unable to block endopeptidase 3.4.24.11, aminopeptidases B and M, dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV and proline endopeptidase. The effect of Pro-Phe-Ψ(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2, in vitro and in vivo, on neurotensin metabolism in the central nervous system was examined. Pro-Phe-Ψ(PO2CHH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 dose-dependently inhibited the formation of neurotensin 1-10 and concomittantly protected neurotensin from degradation by primary cultured neurones from mouse embryos. Intracerebroventricular administration of Pro-Phe-Ψ(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 significantly potentiated the neurotensin-induced antinociception of mice in the hot plate test. Altogether, our study has established Pro-Phe-Ψ(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 as a fully selective and highly potent inhibitor of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 and demonstrates, for the first time, the contribution of this enzyme in the central metabolism of neurotensin. PMID:9208137

  4. A Substructure Combination Strategy To Create Potent and Selective Transthyretin Kinetic Stabilizers That Prevent Amyloidogenesis and Cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sungwook; Reixach, Natlia; Connelly, Stephen; Johnson, Steven M.; Wilson, Ian A.; Kelly, Jeffery W. (Scripps)

    2010-08-13

    Transthyretin aggregation-associated proteotoxicity appears to cause several human amyloid diseases. Rate-limiting tetramer dissociation and monomer misfolding of transthyretin (TTR) occur before its aggregation into cross-{beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils. Small molecule binding to and preferential stabilization of the tetrameric state of TTR over the dissociative transition state raises the kinetic barrier for dissociation, imposing kinetic stabilization on TTR and preventing aggregation. This is an effective strategy to halt neurodegeneration associated with polyneuropathy, according to recent placebo-controlled clinical trial results. In three recent papers, we systematically ranked possibilities for the three substructures composing a typical TTR kinetic stabilizer, using fibril inhibition potency and plasma TTR binding selectivity data. Herein, we have successfully employed a substructure combination strategy to use these data to develop potent and selective TTR kinetic stabilizers that rescue cells from the cytotoxic effects of TTR amyloidogenesis. Of the 92 stilbene and dihydrostilbene analogues synthesized, nearly all potently inhibit TTR fibril formation. Seventeen of these exhibit a binding stoichiometry of >1.5 of a maximum of 2 to plasma TTR, while displaying minimal binding to the thyroid hormone receptor (<20%). Six analogues were definitively categorized as kinetic stabilizers by evaluating dissociation time-courses. High-resolution TTR-(kinetic stabilizer)2 crystal structures (1.31-1.70 {angstrom}) confirmed the anticipated binding orientation of the 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl substructure and revealed a strong preference of the isosteric 3,5-dibromo-4-aminophenyl substructure to bind to the inner thyroxine binding pocket of TTR.

  5. Clotrimazole is a selective and potent inhibitor of rat cytochrome P450 3A subfamily-related testosterone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, V K; Mishin, V M; Thomas, P E

    2001-06-01

    In this study, clotrimazole (CTZ) and ketoconazole (KTZ) were evaluated for their inhibition of testosterone metabolism catalyzed by rat hepatic microsomes differentially expressing certain cytochrome P450 enzymes. The objective was to compare the inhibitory potencies using hepatic microsomes from adult female rats treated with dexamethasone (F-DEX) and hepatic microsomes from vehicle-treated adult male rats (M-VEH), which are known to contain high levels of isozymes CYP3A1 (3A23) and 3A2, respectively. The results demonstrate that CTZ is a very potent and selective inhibitor of the 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone, a CYP3A-mediated reaction, in all rat metabolic systems tested. The IC(50) value was 9.7 nM in F-DEX, and 6.7 nM in M-VEH for CTZ. The in vitro inhibitory potency for CTZ significantly exceeds the same parameters for KTZ, a well established specific inhibitor of human CYP3A-mediated reactions. It was found that the IC(50) values of KTZ in F-DEX and M-VEH were 69 and 780 nM, respectively. These values for KTZ are 10-fold and 100-fold higher, respectively, than for CTZ. CTZ, at the concentration that inhibits 90% and more of CYP3A-mediated reactions (40 nM), has less than a 10% inhibitory effect on the activities of other rat liver enzymes, such as CYP1A1, -1A2, -2A1, -2B1, -2B2, -2C11, and -2E1. In summary, CTZ is a more potent and selective inhibitor of all CYP3A-mediated reactions than KTZ in rat hepatic microsomes.

  6. Stereochemistry and molecular pharmacology of (S)-thio-ATPA, a new potent and selective GluR5 agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensbøl, T B; Jensen, H S; Nielsen, B

    2001-01-01

    )-Glu) receptors (EC(50)=14 microM), comparable in potency with ATPA (EC(50)=34 microM). Recent findings, that (S)-ATPA is a potent (EC(50)=0.48 microM) and selective agonist at homomerically expressed ionotropic GluR5, prompted us to resolve thio-ATPA using chiral chromatography and pharmacologically characterize...

  7. An artemisinin-derived dimer has highly potent anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV and anti-cancer activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran He

    Full Text Available We recently reported that two artemisinin-derived dimers (dimer primary alcohol 606 and dimer sulfone 4-carbamate 832-4 are significantly more potent in inhibiting human cytomegalovirus (CMV replication than artemisinin-derived monomers. In our continued evaluation of the activities of artemisinins in CMV inhibition, twelve artemisinin-derived dimers and five artemisinin-derived monomers were used. Dimers as a group were found to be potent inhibitors of CMV replication. Comparison of CMV inhibition and the slope parameter of dimers and monomers suggest that dimers are distinct in their anti-CMV activities. A deoxy dimer (574, lacking the endoperoxide bridge, did not have any effect on CMV replication, suggesting a role for the endoperoxide bridge in CMV inhibition. Differences in anti-CMV activity were observed among three structural analogs of dimer sulfone 4-carbamate 832-4 indicating that the exact placement and oxidation state of the sulfur atom may contribute to its anti-CMV activity. Of all tested dimers, artemisinin-derived diphenyl phosphate dimer 838 proved to be the most potent inhibitor of CMV replication, with a selectivity index of approximately 1500, compared to our previously reported dimer sulfone 4-carbamate 832-4 with a selectivity index of about 900. Diphenyl phosphate dimer 838 was highly active against a Ganciclovir-resistant CMV strain and was also the most active dimer in inhibition of cancer cell growth. Thus, diphenyl phosphate dimer 838 may represent a lead for development of a highly potent and safe anti-CMV compound.

  8. 1592U89, a novel carbocyclic nucleoside analog with potent, selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Daluge, S M; Good, S S; Faletto, M B; Miller, W. H.; St Clair, M H; Boone, L R; Tisdale, M; Parry, N R; Reardon, J E; Dornsife, R E; Averett, D R; Krenitsky, T A

    1997-01-01

    1592U89, (-)-(1S,4R)-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-cyclo pentene-1-methanol, is a carbocyclic nucleoside with a unique biological profile giving potent, selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. 1592U89 was selected after evaluation of a wide variety of analogs containing a cyclopentene substitution for the 2'-deoxyriboside of natural deoxynucleosides, optimizing in vitro anti-HIV potency, oral bioavailability, and central nervous system (CNS) penetration....

  9. Design and synthesis of novel, potent and selective hypoxanthine analogs as adenosine A1 receptor antagonists and their biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Summon; Ramdas, Vidya; Barawkar, Dinesh A; Waman, Yogesh B; Prasad, Neela; Madadi, Santosh Kumar; Shejul, Yogesh D; Bonagiri, Rajesh; Basu, Sujay; Menon, Suraj; Reddy, Srinivasa B; Chaturvedi, Sandhya; Chennamaneni, Srinivas Rao; Bedse, Gaurav; Thakare, Rhishikesh; Gundu, Jayasagar; Chaudhary, Sumit; De, Siddhartha; Meru, Ashwinkumar V; Palle, Venkata; Chugh, Anita; Mookhtiar, Kasim A

    2017-03-15

    Multipronged approach was used to synthesize a library of diverse C-8 cyclopentyl hypoxanthine analogs from a common intermediate III. Several potent and selective compounds were identified and evaluated for pharmacokinetic (PK) properties in Wistar rats. One of the compounds 14 with acceptable PK parameters was selected for testing in in vivo primary acute diuresis model. The compound demonstrated significant diuretic activity in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. KMI-358 and KMI-370, highly potent and small-sized BACE1 inhibitors containing phenylnorstatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tooru; Shuto, Daisuke; Kasai, Soko; Liu, Ping; Hidaka, Koushi; Hamada, Takashi; Hayashi, Yoshio; Hattori, Chinatsu; Asai, Masashi; Kitazume, Shinobu; Saido, Takaomi C; Ishiura, Shoichi; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2004-03-22

    Recently, we reported a novel substrate-based octapeptide BACE1 inhibitor KMI-008 containing hydroxymethylcarbonyl (HMC) isostere as a transition-state mimic. Using KMI-008 as a lead compound, a small-sized and highly potent BACE1 inhibitor KMI-370 (IC(50)=3.4 nM) was designed and synthesized.

  11. Highly fluorescent peptide nanoribbon impregnated with Sn-porphyrin as a potent DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayil, Sreenivasan Koliyat; Lee, Jooran; Yoon, Minjoong

    2013-05-01

    Highly fluorescent and thermo-stable peptide nanoribbons (PNRs) were fabricated by solvothermal self-assembly of a single peptide (D,D-diphenyl alanine peptides) with Sn-porphyrin (trans-dihydroxo[5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-tolyl)porphyrinato] Sn(IV) (SnTTP(OH)2)). The structural characterization of the as-prepared nanoribbons was performed by transmitting electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, indicating that the lipophilic Sn-porphyrins are impregnated into the porous surface formed in the process of nanoribbon formation through intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the peptide main chains. Consequently the Sn-porphyrin-impregnated peptide nanoribbons (Sn-porphyrin-PNRs) exhibited typical UV-visible absorption spectrum of the monomer porphyrin with a red shifted Q-band, and their fluorescence quantum yield was observed to be enhanced compared to that of free Sn-porphyrin. Interestingly the fluorescence intensity and lifetimes of Sn-porphyrin-PNRs were selectively affected upon interaction with nucleotide base sequences of DNA while those of free Sn-porphyrins were not affected by binding with any of the DNA studied, indicating that DNA-induced changes in the fluorescence properties of Sn-porphyrin-PNRs are due to interaction between DNA and the PNR scaffold. These results imply that Sn-porphyrin-PNR will be useful as a potent fluorescent protein analogue and as a biocompatible DNA sensor.

  12. Discovery and Biological Evaluation of Potent and Selective N-Methylene Saccharin-Derived Inhibitors for Rhomboid Intramembrane Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Parul; Jumpertz, Thorsten; Mikles, David C; Tichá, Anežka; Nguyen, Minh T N; Verhelst, Steven; Hubalek, Martin; Johnson, Darren C; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Ogorek, Isabella; Pietrzik, Claus U; Strisovsky, Kvido; Schmidt, Boris; Weggen, Sascha

    2017-12-26

    Rhomboids are intramembrane serine proteases and belong to the group of structurally and biochemically most comprehensively characterized membrane proteins. They are highly conserved and ubiquitously distributed in all kingdoms of life and function in a wide range of biological processes, including epidermal growth factor signaling, mitochondrial dynamics, and apoptosis. Importantly, rhomboids have been associated with multiple diseases, including Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes, and malaria. However, despite a thorough understanding of many structural and functional aspects of rhomboids, potent and selective inhibitors of these intramembrane proteases are still not available. In this study, we describe the computer-based rational design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel N-methylene saccharin-based rhomboid protease inhibitors. Saccharin inhibitors displayed inhibitory potency in the submicromolar range, effectiveness against rhomboids both in vitro and in live Escherichia coli cells, and substantially improved selectivity against human serine hydrolases compared to those of previously known rhomboid inhibitors. Consequently, N-methylene saccharins are promising new templates for the development of rhomboid inhibitors, providing novel tools for probing rhomboid functions in physiology and disease.

  13. Identification of dipeptidyl nitriles as potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin B through structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, P D; Clark, K L; Tommasi, R A; Cowen, S D; McQuire, L W; Farley, D L; van Duzer, J H; Goldberg, R L; Zhou, H; Du, Z; Fitt, J J; Coppa, D E; Fang, Z; Macchia, W; Zhu, L; Capparelli, M P; Goldstein, R; Wigg, A M; Doughty, J R; Bohacek, R S; Knap, A K

    2001-12-20

    Cathepsin B is a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases and has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases, including arthritis and cancer. As part of an effort to identify potent, reversible inhibitors of this protease, we examined a series of dipeptidyl nitriles, starting with the previously reported Cbz-Phe-NH-CH(2)CN (19, IC(50) = 62 microM). High-resolution X-ray crystallographic data and molecular modeling were used to optimize the P(1), P(2), and P(3) substituents of this template. Cathepsin B is unique in its class in that it contains a carboxylate recognition site in the S(2)' pocket of the active site. Inhibitor potency and selectivity were enhanced by tethering a carboxylate functionality from the carbon alpha to the nitrile to interact with this region of the enzyme. This resulted in the identification of compound 10, a 7 nM inhibitor of cathepsin B, with excellent selectivity over other cysteine cathepsins.

  14. Tetrahydro-2-naphthyl and 2-Indanyl Triazolopyrimidines Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Display Potent and Selective Antimalarial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, Karen L; Coteron, Jose M; Marco, Maria; de Las Heras, Laura; White, John; El Mazouni, Farah; Tomchick, Diana R; Manjalanagara, Krishne; Rudra, Kakali Rani; Chen, Gong; Morizzi, Julia; Ryan, Eileen; Kaminsky, Werner; Leroy, Didier; Martínez-Martínez, María Santos; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Bazaga, Santiago Ferrer; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Waterson, David; Burrows, Jeremy N; Matthews, Dave; Charman, Susan A; Phillips, Margaret A; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2016-06-09

    Malaria persists as one of the most devastating global infectious diseases. The pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) has been identified as a new malaria drug target, and a triazolopyrimidine-based DHODH inhibitor 1 (DSM265) is in clinical development. We sought to identify compounds with higher potency against Plasmodium DHODH while showing greater selectivity toward animal DHODHs. Herein we describe a series of novel triazolopyrimidines wherein the p-SF5-aniline was replaced with substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl or 2-indanyl amines. These compounds showed strong species selectivity, and several highly potent tetrahydro-2-naphthyl derivatives were identified. Compounds with halogen substitutions displayed sustained plasma levels after oral dosing in rodents leading to efficacy in the P. falciparum SCID mouse malaria model. These data suggest that tetrahydro-2-naphthyl derivatives have the potential to be efficacious for the treatment of malaria, but due to higher metabolic clearance than 1, they most likely would need to be part of a multidose regimen.

  15. Discovery of Aryl Aminoquinazoline Pyridones as Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Essa; Tasker, Andrew; White, Ryan D.; Kunz, Roxanne K.; Human, Jason; Chen, Ning; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Novak, Perry; Itano, Andrea; Zhang, Xuxia; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Tudor, Yanyan; Plant, Matthew; Flynn, Shaun; Xu, Yang; Meagher, Kristin L.; Whittington, Douglas A.; Ng, Gordon Y. (Amgen)

    2008-12-09

    Inhibition of c-Kit has the potential to treat mast cell associated fibrotic diseases. We report the discovery of several aminoquinazoline pyridones that are potent inhibitors of c-Kit with greater than 200-fold selectivity against KDR, p38, Lck, and Src. In vivo efficacy of pyridone 16 by dose-dependent inhibition of histamine release was demonstrated in a rodent pharmacodynamic model of mast cell activation.

  16. Functional characterization of CFI-402257, a potent and selective Mps1/TTK kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jacqueline M; Wei, Xin; Fletcher, Graham C; Kiarash, Reza; Brokx, Richard; Hodgson, Richard; Beletskaya, Irina; Bray, Mark R; Mak, Tak W

    2017-03-21

    Loss of cell-cycle control is a hallmark of human cancer. Cell-cycle checkpoints are essential for maintaining genome integrity and balanced growth and division. They are specifically deregulated in cancer cells and contain regulators that represent potential therapeutic targets. Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1; also known as TTK protein kinase) is a core component of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a genome-surveillance mechanism that is important for cell survival, and has emerged as a candidate target for anticancer therapy. Here, we report the cellular and antitumor effects of CFI-402257, a potent (Mps1 Ki = 0.09 ± 0.02 nM; cellular Mps1 EC50 = 6.5 ± 0.5 nM), highly selective, and orally active small-molecule inhibitor of Mps1 that was identified through a drug-discovery program. Human cancer cells treated with CFI-402257 exhibit effects consistent with Mps1 kinase inhibition, specifically SAC inactivation, leading to chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy, and ultimately cell death. Oral administration of CFI-402257 in monotherapy or in combination with an anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody in mouse models of human cancer results in inhibition of tumor growth at doses that are well-tolerated. Our findings provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of CFI-402257 in patients with solid tumors.

  17. Application of Structure-Based Design and Parallel Chemistry to Identify a Potent, Selective, and Brain Penetrant Phosphodiesterase 2A Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Christopher J; Arnold, Eric P; Boyden, Tracey L; Chang, Cheng; Chappie, Thomas A; Fennell, Kimberly F; Forman, Michael D; Hajos, Mihaly; Harms, John F; Hoffman, William E; Humphrey, John M; Kang, Zhijun; Kleiman, Robin J; Kormos, Bethany L; Lee, Che-Wah; Lu, Jiemin; Maklad, Noha; McDowell, Laura; Mente, Scot; O'Connor, Rebecca E; Pandit, Jayvardhan; Piotrowski, Mary; Schmidt, Anne W; Schmidt, Christopher J; Ueno, Hirokazu; Verhoest, Patrick R; Yang, Edward X

    2017-07-13

    Phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) inhibitors have been reported to demonstrate in vivo activity in preclinical models of cognition. To more fully explore the biology of PDE2A inhibition, we sought to identify potent PDE2A inhibitors with improved brain penetration as compared to current literature compounds. Applying estimated human dose calculations while simultaneously leveraging synthetically enabled chemistry and structure-based drug design has resulted in a highly potent, selective, brain penetrant compound 71 (PF-05085727) that effects in vivo biochemical changes commensurate with PDE2A inhibition along with behavioral and electrophysiological reversal of the effects of NMDA antagonists in rodents. This data supports the ability of PDE2A inhibitors to potentiate NMDA signaling and their further development for clinical cognition indications.

  18. Potent and Selective Amidopyrazole Inhibitors of IRAK4 That Are Efficacious in a Rodent Model of Inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, William T.; Tan, Zheng; Ho, Ginny; Paliwal, Sunil; Li, Guoqing; Seganish, W. Michael; Tulshian, Deen; Tata, James; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Sondey, Christopher; Bian, Hong; Bober, Loretta; Jackson, James; Garlisi, Charles G.; Devito, Kristine; Fossetta, James; Lundell, Daniel; Niu, Xiaoda (Merck)

    2015-06-11

    IRAK4 is a critical upstream kinase in the IL-1R/TLR signaling pathway. Inhibition of IRAK4 is hypothesized to be beneficial in the treatment of autoimmune related disorders. A screening campaign identified a pyrazole class of IRAK4 inhibitors that were determined by X-ray crystallography to exhibit an unusual binding mode. SAR efforts focused on the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor with good aqueous solubility and rodent pharmacokinetics. Pyrazole C-3 piperidines were well tolerated, with N-sulfonyl analogues generally having good rodent oral exposure but poor solubility. N-Alkyl piperidines exhibited excellent solubility and reduced exposure. Pyrazoles possessing N-1 pyridine and fluorophenyl substituents were among the most active. Piperazine 32 was a potent enzyme inhibitor with good cellular activity. Compound 32 reduced the in vivo production of proinflammatory cytokines and was orally efficacious in a mouse antibody induced arthritis disease model of inflammation.

  19. Identification of a Potent and Selective Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Antagonist from Auxarthron reticulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsebai, Mahmoud Fahmi; Rempel, Viktor; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Kehraus, Stefan; Müller, Christa E; König, Gabriele M

    2011-11-10

    The fungus Auxarthron reticulatum derived from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis produced the diketopiperazine alkaloid amauromine (1) and the quinolinone methyl-penicinoline (2). Compound 2 is identical to the reported methyl-marinamide, whose structure is herewith revised. In radioligand binding studies at human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors recombinantly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, amauromine (1) was found to exhibit high affinity and selectivity for the CB1 receptor (K i = 178 nM). The compound was shown to be a neutral CB1 antagonist with a K b value of 66.6 nM determined in cAMP assays. Compound 2 exhibited only weak or no effects at CB receptors. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 is the first fungal natural product that shows affinity for cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Because of its high antagonistic potency and selectivity, it may have potential for use as a drug and/or serve as a lead structure for drug development.

  20. In vivo pharmacological characterisation of bilastine, a potent and selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcóstegui, Reyes; Labeaga, Luis; Innerárity, Ana; Berisa, Agustín; Orjales, Aurelio

    2006-01-01

    We set out to establish the in vivo histamine H(1) receptor antagonistic (antihistaminic) and antiallergic properties of bilastine. In vivo antihistaminic activity experiments consisted of measurement of: inhibition of increase in capillary permeability and reduction in microvascular extravasation and bronchospasm in rats and guinea pigs induced by histamine and other inflammatory mediators; and protection against lethality induced by histamine and other inflammatory mediators in rats. In vivo antiallergic activity experiments consisted of measurement of passive and active cutaneous anaphylactic reactions as well as type III and type IV allergic reactions in sensitised rodents. In the in vivo antihistaminic activity experiments, bilastine was shown to have a positive effect, similar to that of cetirizine and more potent than that of fexofenadine. The results of the in vivo antiallergic activity experiments showed that the properties of bilastine in this setting are similar to those observed for cetirizine and superior to fexofenadine in the model of passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. When active cutaneous anaphylactic reaction experiments were conducted, bilastine showed significant activity, less potent than that observed with cetirizine but superior to that of fexofenadine. Evaluation of the type III allergic reaction showed that of the antihistamines only bilastine was able to inhibit oedema in sensitised mice, although its effect in this respect was much less potent than that observed with dexamethasone. In terms of the type IV allergic reaction, neither bilastine, cetirizine nor fexofenadine significantly modified the effect caused by oxazolone. The results of our in vivo preclinical studies corroborate those obtained from previously conducted in vitro experiments of bilastine, and provide evidence that bilastine possesses antihistaminic as well as antiallergic properties, with similar potency to cetirizine and superior potency to fexofenadine.

  1. Thiazolidine derivatives as potent and selective inhibitors of the PIM kinase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Carole J R; Brennan, Méabh B; Byrne, Simon; Davies, Stephen G; Durbin, Matthew; Fedorov, Oleg; Huber, Kilian V M; Jones, Alan M; Knapp, Stefan; Liu, Gu; Nadali, Anna; Quevedo, Camilo E; Russell, Angela J; Walker, Roderick G; Westwood, Robert; Wynne, Graham M

    2017-05-01

    The PIM family of serine/threonine kinases have become an attractive target for anti-cancer drug development, particularly for certain hematological malignancies. Here, we describe the discovery of a series of inhibitors of the PIM kinase family using a high throughput screening strategy. Through a combination of molecular modeling and optimization studies, the intrinsic potencies and molecular properties of this series of compounds was significantly improved. An excellent pan-PIM isoform inhibition profile was observed across the series, while optimized examples show good selectivity over other kinases. Two PIM-expressing leukemic cancer cell lines, MV4-11 and K562, were employed to evaluate the in vitro anti-proliferative effects of selected inhibitors. Encouraging activities were observed for many examples, with the best example (44) giving an IC50 of 0.75μM against the K562 cell line. These data provide a promising starting point for further development of this series as a new cancer therapy through PIM kinase inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of [4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl] amines and ethers as potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarbrick, Martin E; Beswick, Paul J; Gleave, Robert J; Green, Richard H; Bingham, Sharon; Bountra, Chas; Carter, Malcolm C; Chambers, Laura J; Chessell, Iain P; Clayton, Nick M; Collins, Sue D; Corfield, John A; Hartley, C David; Kleanthous, Savvas; Lambeth, Paul F; Lucas, Fiona S; Mathews, Neil; Naylor, Alan; Page, Lee W; Payne, Jeremy J; Pegg, Neil A; Price, Helen S; Skidmore, John; Stevens, Alexander J; Stocker, Richard; Stratton, Sharon C; Stuart, Alastair J; Wiseman, Joanne O

    2009-08-01

    A novel series of [4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyrimidine-based cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, which have a different arrangement of substituents compared to the more common 1,2-diarylheterocycle based molecules, have been discovered. For example, 2-(butyloxy)-4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine (47), a member of the 2-pyrimidinyl ether series, has been shown to be a potent and selective inhibitor with a favourable pharmacokinetic profile, high brain penetration and good efficacy in rat models of hypersensitivity.

  3. Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of indolylsulfonamide amines as potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna V S; Bandyala, Thrinath Reddy; Reballi, Veena; Konda, Jagadishu Babu; Daulatabad, Anand V; Khagga, Mukkanti

    2015-02-01

    A series of N'-[3-(indole-1-sulfonyl) aryl]-N,N-dimethyl ethane-1,2-diamines and N'-[3-(indole-1-sulfonyl) aryl]-N,N-dimethyl propane-1,3-diamines was designed and synthesized as 5-HT6 receptor ligands. These compounds, when screened in a functional reporter gene-based assay, displayed potent antagonistic activity with Kb values in the range of 1.8-60 nM. The lead compound 9y has shown good ADME surrogate properties, acceptable pharmacokinetic profile and is active in animal models of cognition like novel object recognition test and Morris water maze. It was selected for detailed profiling.

  4. Discovery of Novel Tricyclic Heterocycles as Potent and Selective DPP-4 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Lian; Hao, Jinsong; Domalski, Martin; Burnett, Duane A.; Pissarnitski, Dmitri; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Stamford, Andrew; Scapin, Giovanna; Gao, Ying-Duo; Soriano, Aileen; Kelly, Terri M.; Yao, Zuliang; Powles, Mary Ann; Chen, Shiying; Mei, Hong; Hwa, Joyce (Merck)

    2016-05-12

    In our efforts to develop second generation DPP-4 inhibitors, we endeavored to identify distinct structures with long-acting (once weekly) potential. Taking advantage of X-ray cocrystal structures of sitagliptin and other DPP-4 inhibitors, such as alogliptin and linagliptin bound to DPP-4, and aided by molecular modeling, we designed several series of heterocyclic compounds as initial targets. During their synthesis, an unexpected chemical transformation provided a novel tricyclic scaffold that was beyond our original design. Capitalizing on this serendipitous discovery, we have elaborated this scaffold into a very potent and selective DPP-4 inhibitor lead series, as highlighted by compound 17c.

  5. Screening and selection of most potent diazotrophic cyanobacterial isolate exhibiting natural tolerance to rice field herbicides for exploitation as biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Datta, Pallavi

    2006-01-01

    Periodic applications of heavy dosages of herbicides in modern rice-agriculture are a necessary evil for obtaining high crop productivity. Such herbicides are not only detrimental to weeds but biofertilizer strains of diazotrophic cyanobacteria also. It is therefore, essential to screen and select such biofertilizer strains of diazotrophic cyanobacteria exhibiting natural tolerance to common rice-field herbicides that can be further improved by mutational techniques to make biofertilizer technology a viable one. Therefore, efforts have been made to screen five dominant diazotrophic cyanobacterial forms e.g. filamentous heterocystous Nostoc punctiforme , Nostoc calcicola , Anabaena variabilis and unicellular Gloeocapsa sp. and Aphanocapsa sp. along with standard laboratory strain Nostoc muscorum ISU against increasing concentrations (0-100 mg l(-1) of four commercial grade common rice-field herbicides i.e. Arozin, Butachlor, Alachlor and 2,4-D under diazotrophic growth conditions. The lethal and IGC(50) concentrations for all four herbicides tested were found highest for A. variabilis as compared to other test cyanobacteria. The lowest reduction in chlorophyll a content, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, and N(2)-fixation was found in A. variabilis as compared to other rice field isolates and standard laboratory strain N. muscorum ISU. On the basis of prolong survival potential and lowest reductions in vital metabolic activities tested at IGC(50) concentration of four herbicides, it is concluded that A. variabilis is the most potent and promising cyanobacterial isolate as compared with other forms. This could be further improved by mutational techniques for exploitation as most potential and viable biofertilizer strain.

  6. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  7. Hyphenated 3D-QSAR statistical model-scaffold hopping analysis for the identification of potentially potent and selective sigma-2 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floresta, Giuseppe; Rescifina, Antonio; Marrazzo, Agostino; Dichiara, Maria; Pistarà, Venerando; Pittalà, Valeria; Prezzavento, Orazio; Amata, Emanuele

    2017-10-20

    A 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model for predicting the σ2 receptor affinity has been constructed with the aim of providing a useful tool for the identification, design, and optimization of novel σ2 receptor ligands. The model has been built using a set of 500 selective σ2 receptor ligands recovered from the sigma-2 receptor selective ligand database (S2RSLDB) and developed with the software Forge. The present model showed high statistical quality as confirmed by its robust predictive potential and satisfactory descriptive capability. The drawn up 3D map allows for a prompt visual comprehension of the electrostatic, hydrophobic, and shaping features underlying σ2 receptor ligands interaction. A theoretic approach for the generation of new lead compounds with optimized σ2 receptor affinity has been performed by means of scaffold hopping analysis. Obtained results further confirmed the validity of our model being some of the identified moieties have already been successfully employed in the development of potent σ2 receptor ligands. For the first time is herein reported a 3D-QSAR model which includes a number of chemically diverse σ2 receptor ligands and well accounts for the individual ligands affinities. These features will ensure prospectively advantageous applications to speed up the identification of new potent and selective σ2 receptor ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Selectivity Profiling and Biological Activity of Novel β-Carbolines as Potent and Selective DYRK1 Kinase Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rüben

    Full Text Available DYRK1A is a pleiotropic protein kinase with diverse functions in cellular regulation, including cell cycle control, neuronal differentiation, and synaptic transmission. Enhanced activity and overexpression of DYRK1A have been linked to altered brain development and function in Down syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The β-carboline alkaloid harmine is a high affinity inhibitor of DYRK1A but suffers from the drawback of inhibiting monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A with even higher potency. Here we characterized a series of novel harmine analogs with minimal or absent MAO-A inhibitory activity. We identified several inhibitors with submicromolar potencies for DYRK1A and selectivity for DYRK1A and DYRK1B over the related kinases DYRK2 and HIPK2. An optimized inhibitor, AnnH75, inhibited CLK1, CLK4, and haspin/GSG2 as the only off-targets in a panel of 300 protein kinases. In cellular assays, AnnH75 dose-dependently reduced the phosphorylation of three known DYRK1A substrates (SF3B1, SEPT4, and tau without negative effects on cell viability. AnnH75 inhibited the cotranslational tyrosine autophosphorylation of DYRK1A and threonine phosphorylation of an exogenous substrate protein with similar potency. In conclusion, we have characterized an optimized β-carboline inhibitor as a highly selective chemical probe that complies with desirable properties of drug-like molecules and is suitable to interrogate the function of DYRK1A in biological studies.

  9. Meroterpenoid Chrodrimanins Are Selective and Potent Blockers of Insect GABA-Gated Chloride Channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available Meroterpenoid chrodrimanins, produced from Talaromyces sp. YO-2, are known to paralyze silkworm (Bombyx mori larvae, but their target is unknown. We have investigated the actions of chrodrimanin B on ligand-gated ion channels of silkworm larval neurons using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B had no effect on membrane currents when tested alone at 1 μM. However, it completely blocked the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-induced current and showed less pronounced actions on acetylcholine- and L-glutamate-induced currents, when delivered at 1 μM for 1 min prior to co-application with transmitter GABA. Thus, chrodrimanins were also tested on a wild-type isoform of the B. mori GABA receptor (GABAR RDL using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B attenuated the peak current amplitude of the GABA response of RDL with an IC50 of 1.66 nM. The order of the GABAR-blocking potency of chrodrimanins B > D > A was in accordance with their reported insecticidal potency. Chrodrimanin B had no open channel blocking action when tested at 3 nM on the GABA response of RDL. Co-application with 3 nM chrodrimanin B shifted the GABA concentration response curve to a higher concentration and further increase of chrodrimanin B concentration to 10 nM; it reduced maximum current amplitude of the GABA response, pointing to a high-affinity competitive action and a lower affinity non-competitive action. The A282S;T286V double mutation of RDL, which impairs the actions of fipronil, hardly affected the blocking action of chrodrimanin B, indicating a binding site of chrodrimanin B distinct from that of fipronil. Chrodrimanin B showed approximately 1,000-fold lower blocking action on human α1β2γ2 GABAR compared to RDL and thus is a selective blocker of insect GABARs.

  10. Discovery of highly potent renin inhibitors potentially interacting with the S3' subsite of renin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Wen, Xiaoan; Chen, Yan-yan; Shi, Chen; Gao, Chengzhe; Wu, Yong; Wang, Li-jun; Yang, Xiu-hong; Sun, Hongbin

    2015-10-20

    To exploit the S3' subsite of renin active site for renin inhibitor design, 42 aliskiren derivatives with modified P2' portion were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. Some highly potent renin inhibitors (IC₅₀ < 3 nM) were identified, among which compounds 38 (IC₅₀ = 0.9 nM) and 39 (IC₅₀ = 0.7 nM) were over 2.5-fold more potent than aliskiren (IC₅₀ = 2.3 nM). SAR analysis indicated that incorporation of polar hydrophilic moieties into the P2' portion of renin inhibitors generally enhanced the potency. Consistently with this, molecular modeling study revealed that the triazole part of 39 could provide additional interactions to the S3' subsite of renin active site. Moreover, in vivo evaluation in the double transgenic mouse hypertension model demonstrated that 39 produced greater reduction of the mean arterial blood pressure than ariskiren at the doses of 17.0 and 34.0 μmol/kg, respectively. Taken together, the S3' subsite of renin active site merits further consideration for renin inhibitor design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  12. Potent Heterogeneous Catalyst for Low Temperature Selective Oxidation of Cyclohexanol by Molecular Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon ur Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum supported on zirconium dioxide catalyst was prepared by standard method and characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, BET surface area and pore size analyzer, and FT-IR. The catalyst was screened for its catalytic activity in a model reaction, selective oxidation of cyclohexanol. The only one major product, cyclohexanone 31%, with 99.8% selectivity was obtained. Experimental data was analyzed through different kinetic models and we deduced that the reaction follows Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The apparent activation energy for the model reaction was calculated as 45 kJ/mole. The catalyst was regenerated several times with same efficiency.

  13. Cyclohexanedione Herbicides Are Selective and Potent Inhibitors of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase from Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, A R; Felts, J M

    1988-04-01

    Biochemical studies of plant species susceptible to the cyclohexanedione herbicides, alloxydim, sethoxydim, and clethodim, have demonstrated that these selective grass herbicides inhibit acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, the second enzyme common to both fatty acid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. The K(i)s for the cyclohexanediones tested ranged from 0.02 to 1.95 micromolar, depending on the species. The enzyme isolated from broadleaf plants was much less sensitive to inhibition by these herbicides (K(i)s from 53 micromolar to 2.2 millimolar). These results may explain the mechanism of action of these herbicides and their selectivity for monocotyledonous species.

  14. ACET is a highly potent and specific kainate receptor antagonist: Characterisation and effects on hippocampal mossy fibre function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Sheila L.; Clarke, Vernon R. J.; Alushin, Gregory M.; Sherwood, John L.; Nisticò, Robert; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Ogden, Ann M.; Bleakman, David; Doherty, Andrew J.; Lodge, David; Mayer, Mark L.; Fitzjohn, Stephen M.; Jane, David E.; Collingridge, Graham L.

    2009-01-01

    Kainate receptors (KARs) are involved in both NMDA receptor-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic facilitation at mossy fibre synapses in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. However, the identity of the KAR subtypes involved remains controversial. Here we used a highly potent and selective GluK1 (formerly GluR5) antagonist (ACET) to elucidate roles of GluK1-containing KARs in these synaptic processes. We confirmed that ACET is an extremely potent GluK1 antagonist, with a Kb value of 1.4 ± 0.2 nM. In contrast, ACET was ineffective at GluK2 (formerly GluR6) receptors at all concentrations tested (up to 100 μM) and had no effect at GluK3 (formerly GluR7) when tested at 1 μM. The X-ray crystal structure of ACET bound to the ligand binding core of GluK1 was similar to the UBP310-GluK1 complex. In the CA1 region of hippocampal slices, ACET was effective at blocking the depression of both fEPSPs and monosynaptically-evoked GABAergic transmission induced by ATPA, a GluK1 selective agonist. In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, ACET blocked the induction of NMDA receptor-independent mossy fibre LTP. To directly investigate the role of pre-synaptic GluK1-containing KARs we combined patch-clamp electrophysiology and 2-photon microscopy to image Ca2+ dynamics in individual giant mossy fibre boutons. ACET consistently reduced short-term facilitation of pre-synaptic calcium transients induced by 5 action potentials evoked at 20-25 Hz. Taken together our data provide further evidence for a physiological role of GluK1-containing KARs in synaptic facilitation and LTP induction at mossy fibre-CA3 synapses. PMID:18789344

  15. High-speed helicopter rotor noise - Shock waves as a potent source of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang; Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problem of high speed rotor noise prediction. In particular, we propose that from the point of view of the acoustic analogy, shocks around rotating blades are sources of sound. We show that, although for a wing at uniform steady rectilinear motion with shocks the volume quadrupole and shock sources cancel in the far field to the order of 1/r, this cannot happen for rotating blades. In this case, some cancellation between volume quadrupoles and shock sources occurs, yet the remaining shock noise contribution is still potent. A formula for shock noise prediction is presented based on mapping the deformable shock surface to a time independent region. The resulting equation is similar to Formulation 1A of Langley. Shock noise prediction for a hovering model rotor for which experimental noise data exist is presented. The comparison of measured and predicted acoustic data shows good agreement.

  16. Hydrophilic, Potent, and Selective 7-Substituted 2-Aminoquinolines as Improved Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensa, Anthony V; Cinelli, Maris A; Li, Huiying; Chreifi, Georges; Mukherjee, Paramita; Roman, Linda J; Martásek, Pavel; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B

    2017-08-24

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a target for development of antineurodegenerative agents. Most nNOS inhibitors mimic l-arginine and have poor bioavailability. 2-Aminoquinolines showed promise as bioavailable nNOS inhibitors but suffered from low human nNOS inhibition, low selectivity versus human eNOS, and significant binding to other CNS targets. We aimed to improve human nNOS potency and selectivity and reduce off-target binding by (a) truncating the original scaffold or (b) introducing a hydrophilic group to interrupt the lipophilic, promiscuous pharmacophore and promote interaction with human nNOS-specific His342. We synthesized both truncated and polar 2-aminoquinoline derivatives and assayed them against recombinant NOS enzymes. Although aniline and pyridine derivatives interact with His342, benzonitriles conferred the best rat and human nNOS inhibition. Both introduction of a hydrophobic substituent next to the cyano group and aminoquinoline methylation considerably improved isoform selectivity. Most importantly, these modifications preserved Caco-2 permeability and reduced off-target CNS binding.

  17. Alkyl substituted 2'-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone chelators with potent and selective anti-neoplastic activity: novel ligands that limit methemoglobin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Christian; Jansson, Patric J; Gutierrez, Elaine; Bernhardt, Paul V; Richardson, Des R; Kalinowski, Danuta S

    2013-01-10

    Thiosemicarbazone chelators, including the 2'-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazones (BpT) class, show marked potential as anticancer agents. Importantly, 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) has been investigated in >20 phase I and II clinical trials. However, side effects associated with 3-AP administration include methemoglobinemia. Considering this problem, novel BpT analogues were designed bearing hydrophobic, electron-donating substituents at the para position of the phenyl group (RBpT). Their Fe(III/II) redox potentials were all within the range accessible to cellular oxidants and reductants, suggesting they can redox cycle. These RBpT ligands exhibited potent and selective antiproliferative activity, which was comparable or exceeded their BpT counterparts. Major findings include that methemoglobin formation mediated by the lipophilic t-BuBpT series was significantly (p thiosemicarbazones.

  18. Oxalate as a potent and selective inhibitor of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf NADPH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczkowski, L A; Randall, D D; Edwards, G E

    1991-01-01

    Purified spinach (Spinacia oleracea) NADPH-preferring hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR-2) was potently and selectively inhibited by oxalate, an end product of metabolism in plants. Both hydroxypyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent rates of the HPR-2 enzyme were affected. Oxalate acted as an uncompetitive inhibitor of the enzyme, with Ki values of 7 and 36 microM for the NADPH/hydroxypyruvate and NADPH/glyoxylate pairs of reactants respectively. Oxalate, at millimolar levels, caused less than 10% inhibition of purified spinach NADH-preferring HPR (HPR-1) and had no effect on purified spinach NADPH-preferring glyoxylate-specific reductase (GR-1). The inhibition of spinach HPR-2 by oxalate is by far the strongest for any known inhibitor of leaf HPR and GR activities. In photosynthetic tissues, oxalate could potentially act as a primary regulator of extraperoxisomal metabolism of hydroxypyruvate and glyoxylate. PMID:2039466

  19. Design and synthesis of labeled analogs of PhTX-56, a potent and selective AMPA receptor antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine F; Vogensen, Stine B; Jensen, Lars S

    2005-01-01

    acetylcholine receptors. Polyamine toxins are used for the characterization of subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors, the Ca2+-permeable AMPA and kainate receptors. A derivative of the native polyamine toxin, philanthotoxin-56 (PhTX-56), has recently been shown to be an exceptionally potent and selective...... antagonist of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. PhTX-56 and its labeled derivatives are promising tools for structure-function studies of the ion channel of the AMPA receptor. We now describe the design and synthesis of 3H-, 13C-, and 15N-labeled derivatives of PhTX-56 for molecular level studies of AMPA....... These analogs can provide detailed information on the ligand-receptor interaction. In conclusion, synthesis of labeled derivatives of PhTX-56 provides important tools for future studies of the pore-forming region of AMPA receptors....

  20. Evaluation of AMG 076, a potent and selective MCHR1 antagonist, in rodent and primate obesity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Alykhan S; Luo, Jian; Liang, Lingming; Mihalic, Jeffrey T; Chen, Xiaoqi; Tang, Liang; Li, Leping; Jaen, Juan; Chen, Jin-Long; Dai, Kang

    2013-10-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) regulates food intake through activation of the receptor, MCHR1. We have identified AMG 076 as an orally bioavailable potent and selective small molecule antagonist of MCHR1. In mouse models of obesity, AMG 076 caused a reduction in body weight gain in wild-type (MCHR1+/+) but not in knockout (MCHR1-/-) mice. The body weight reduction was associated with decreases in food intake and increases in energy expenditure. Importantly, we show that these MCHR1-dependent effects of AMG 076 were also reflected in improved metabolic phenotypes, increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Preliminary data on effects of AMG 076 in obese cynomolgus monkeys are also presented.

  1. Discovery and structure-activity relationship of potent and selective covalent inhibitors of transglutaminase 2 for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Michael E; Andersen, Ole A; Barker, John J; Brooks, Mark A; Cheng, Robert K Y; Toogood-Johnson, Ian; Courtney, Stephen M; Brookfield, Frederick A; Yarnold, Christopher J; Marston, Richard W; Johnson, Peter D; Johnsen, Siw F; Palfrey, Jordan J; Vaidya, Darshan; Erfan, Sayeh; Ichihara, Osamu; Felicetti, Brunella; Palan, Shilpa; Pedret-Dunn, Anna; Schaertl, Sabine; Sternberger, Ina; Ebneth, Andreas; Scheel, Andreas; Winkler, Dirk; Toledo-Sherman, Leticia; Beconi, Maria; Macdonald, Douglas; Muñoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Dominguez, Celia; Wityak, John

    2012-02-09

    Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein primarily known for its calcium-dependent enzymatic protein cross-linking activity via isopeptide bond formation between glutamine and lysine residues. TG2 overexpression and activity have been found to be associated with Huntington's disease (HD); specifically, TG2 is up-regulated in the brains of HD patients and in animal models of the disease. Interestingly, genetic deletion of TG2 in two different HD mouse models, R6/1 and R6/2, results in improved phenotypes including a reduction in neuronal death and prolonged survival. Starting with phenylacrylamide screening hit 7d, we describe the SAR of this series leading to potent and selective TG2 inhibitors. The suitability of the compounds as in vitro tools to elucidate the biology of TG2 was demonstrated through mode of inhibition studies, characterization of druglike properties, and inhibition profiles in a cell lysate assay.

  2. Potent and Selective Covalent Quinazoline Inhibitors of KRAS G12C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Mei; Lu, Jia; Li, Lianbo; Feru, Frederic; Quan, Chunshan; Gero, Thomas W.; Ficarro, Scott B.; Xiong, Yuan; Ambrogio, Chiara; Paranal, Raymond M.; Catalano, Marco; Shao, Jay; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Marto, Jarrod A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Jänne, Pasi A.; Scott, David A.; Westover, Kenneth D.; Gray, Nathanael S. (DFCI); (UTSMC); (Harvard-Med); (NYUSM)

    2017-08-01

    Targeted covalent small molecules have shown promise for cancers driven by KRAS G12C. Allosteric compounds that access an inducible pocket formed by movement of a dynamic structural element in KRAS, switch II, have been reported, but these compounds require further optimization to enable their advancement into clinical development. We demonstrate that covalent quinazoline-based switch II pocket (SIIP) compounds effectively suppress GTP loading of KRAS G12C, MAPK phosphorylation, and the growth of cancer cells harboring G12C. Notably we find that adding an amide substituent to the quinazoline scaffold allows additional interactions with KRAS G12C, and remarkably increases the labeling efficiency, potency, and selectivity of KRAS G12C inhibitors. Structural studies using X-ray crystallography reveal a new conformation of SIIP and key interactions made by substituents located at the quinazoline 2-, 4-, and 7-positions. Optimized lead compounds in the quinazoline series selectively inhibit KRAS G12C-dependent signaling and cancer cell growth at sub-micromolar concentrations.

  3. The X-ray structure of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase bound to a potent and selective N-phenylbenzamide inhibitor reveals novel binding-site interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Matthews, David; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Phillips, Margaret A

    2015-05-01

    Plasmodium species are protozoan parasites that are the causative agent of malaria. Malaria is a devastating disease, and its treatment and control have been hampered by the propensity of the parasite to become drug-resistant. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) has been identified as a promising new target for the development of antimalarial agents. Here, the X-ray structure of P. falciparum DHODH bound to a potent and selective N-phenylbenzamide-based inhibitor (DSM59) is described at 2.3 Å resolution. The structure elucidates novel binding-site interactions and shows how conformational flexibility of the enzyme leads to the ability to bind diverse chemical structures with high affinity. This information provides new insight into the design of high-affinity DHODH inhibitors for the treatment of malaria.

  4. Cannabis and creativity: highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Mikael A; Hazekamp, Arno; Colzato, Lorenza S; van Steenbergen, Henk; van der Wee, Nic J A; Durieux, Jeffrey; Manai, Meriem; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis users often claim that cannabis has the potential to enhance their creativity. Research suggests that aspects of creative performance might be improved when intoxicated with cannabis; however, the evidence is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of cannabis on creativity. We examined the effects of administering a low (5.5 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) or high (22 mg THC) dose of vaporized cannabis vs. placebo on creativity tasks tapping into divergent (Alternate Uses Task) and convergent (Remote Associates Task) thinking, in a population of regular cannabis users. The study used a randomized, double-blind, between-groups design. Participants in the high-dose group (n = 18) displayed significantly worse performance on the divergent thinking task, compared to individuals in both the low-dose (n = 18) and placebo (n = 18) groups. The findings suggest that cannabis with low potency does not have any impact on creativity, while highly potent cannabis actually impairs divergent thinking.

  5. Novel, highly potent systemic glucokinase activators for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayi; Lin, Songnian; Myers, Robert W; Addona, George; Berger, Joel P; Campbell, Brian; Chen, Hsuan-Shen; Chen, Zhesheng; Eiermann, George J; Elowe, Nadine H; Farrer, Brian T; Feng, Wen; Fu, Qinghong; Kats-Kagan, Roman; Kavana, Michael; Malkani, Sunita; McMasters, Daniel R; Mitra, Kaushik; Pachanski, Michele J; Tong, Xinchun; Trujillo, Maria E; Xu, Libo; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Fengqi; Zhang, Rui; Parmee, Emma R

    2017-05-01

    Glucokinase (GK, hexokinase IV) is a unique hexokinase that plays a central role in mammalian glucose homeostasis. Glucose phosphorylation by GK in the pancreatic β-cell is the rate-limiting step that controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Similarly, GK-mediated glucose phosphorylation in hepatocytes plays a major role in increasing hepatic glucose uptake and metabolism and possibly lowering hepatic glucose output. Small molecule GK activators (GKAs) have been identified that increase enzyme activity by binding to an allosteric site. GKAs offer a novel approach for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and as such have garnered much attention. We now report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel series of 2,5,6-trisubstituted indole derivatives that act as highly potent GKAs. Among them, Compound 1 was found to possess high in vitro potency, excellent physicochemical properties, and good pharmacokinetic profile in rodents. Oral administration of Compound 1 at doses as low as 0.03mg/kg led to robust blood glucose lowering efficacy in 3week high fat diet-fed mice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Peripheral but crucial: a hydrophobic pocket (Tyr(706), Leu(337), and Met(336)) for potent and selective inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fengtian; Li, Huiying; Fang, Jianguo; Roman, Linda J; Martásek, Pavel; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B

    2010-11-01

    Selective inhibition of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) over endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has become a promising strategy for the discovery of new therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. However, because of the high sequence homology of different isozymes in the substrate binding pocket, developing inhibitors with both potency and excellent isoform selectivity remains a challenging problem. Herein, we report the evaluation of a recently discovered peripheral hydrophobic pocket (Tyr(706), Leu(337), and Met(336)) that opens up upon inhibitor binding and its potential in designing potent and selective nNOS inhibitors using three compounds, 2a, 2b, and 3. Crystal structure results show that inhibitors 2a and 3 adopted the same binding mode as lead compound 1. We also found that hydrophobic interactions between the 4-methyl group of the aminopyridine ring of these compounds with the side chain of Met(336), as well as the π-π stacking interaction between the pyridinyl motif and the side chain of Tyr(706) are important for the high potency and selectivity of these nNOS inhibitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of carbon-11 labelled prazosin, a potent and selective. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenoreceptor antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrin, E.; Crouzel, C.; Luthra, S.K.; Pike, V.W.

    1988-02-01

    The ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoreceptor antagonist, Prazosin : 2-(4-(2-furoyl) piperazin-1-yl)-4-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, has been labelled with carbon-11 for in vivo studies of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoreceptors using positron emission tomography. The preparation of (2-/sup 11/C) furoyl chloride, from cyclotron-produced (/sup 11/C) carbon dioxide, and its reaction with the secondary amine, 2-(piperazin-1-yl)-4-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, provides a fast (35 min) route to carbon-11 labelled prazosin in high radiochemical yield (30-40%, decay-corrected) with high specific activity (26-37 GBq..mu..mol, 0.7-1.0 Ci..mu..mol).

  8. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Erica N; Song, Jiangli; Kishore Kumar, G D; Odutola, Samuel O; Chavarria, Gustavo E; Charlton-Sevcik, Amanda K; Strecker, Tracy E; Barnes, Ashleigh L; Sudhan, Dhivya R; Wittenborn, Thomas R; Siemann, Dietmar W; Horsman, Michael R; Chaplin, David J; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G

    2015-11-01

    Upregulation of cathepsin L in a variety of tumors and its ability to promote cancer cell invasion and migration through degradation of the extracellular matrix suggest that cathepsin L is a promising biological target for the development of anti-metastatic agents. Based on encouraging results from studies on benzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin inhibitors, a series of fourteen benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cathepsins L and B. Thiosemicarbazone inhibitors 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone 1, 1,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene thiosemicarbazone 8, and 1,3-bis(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-bromobenzene thiosemicarbazone 32 displayed the greatest potency against cathepsin L with low IC50 values of 9.9 nM, 14.4 nM, and 8.1 nM, respectively. The benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues evaluated were selective in their inhibition of cathepsin L compared to cathepsin B. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 32 inhibited invasion through Matrigel of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by 70% at 10 μM. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 8 significantly inhibited the invasive potential of PC-3ML prostate cancer cells by 92% at 5 μM. The most active cathepsin L inhibitors from this benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone series (1, 8, and 32) displayed low cytotoxicity toward normal primary cells [in this case human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)]. In an initial in vivo study, 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) was well-tolerated in a CDF1 mouse model bearing an implanted C3H mammary carcinoma, and showed efficacy in tumor growth delay. Low cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell invasion, and in vivo tolerability are desirable characteristics for anti-metastatic agents functioning through an inhibition of cathepsin L. Active members of this structurally diverse group of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin L inhibitors show promise as potential anti-metastatic, pre

  9. Exploration of aroyl/heteroaroyl iminothiazolines featuring 2,4,5-trichlorophenyl moiety as a new class of potent, selective, and in vitro efficacious glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Madiha; Zaib, Sumera; Amjad, Sayyeda Tayyeba; Khan, Imtiaz; Ibrar, Aliya; Saeed, Aamer; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-10-01

    A series of iminothiazolines (4a-j) featuring 2,4,5-trichlorophenyl moiety and aroyl/heteroaroyl substituents has been prepared from readily accessible thioureas. In-vitro screening against glucosidase enzymes showed highly specific inhibition of α-glucosidase with a marked dependence of the potency upon the nature of the aroyl/heteroaroyl substituents. The most potent representatives, bearing ortho-tolyl and bulky naphthyl groups displayed the highest inhibitory potential with IC50 value of 0.15±0.01µM compared to standard drug acarbose (IC50=38.2±0.12µM). Several other derivatives (4c, 4d, 4i and 4j) were also significantly powerful and selective inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Binding interactions of potent compounds 4b, 4c, 4h and 4i with α-glucosidase were explored by molecular docking simulation. These results clearly identified a new class of structural leads which can be further investigated for the development of promising α-glucosidase inhibitors for the prevention of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 1592U89, a novel carbocyclic nucleoside analog with potent, selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daluge, S M; Good, S S; Faletto, M B; Miller, W H; St Clair, M H; Boone, L R; Tisdale, M; Parry, N R; Reardon, J E; Dornsife, R E; Averett, D R; Krenitsky, T A

    1997-05-01

    1592U89, (-)-(1S,4R)-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-cyclo pentene-1-methanol, is a carbocyclic nucleoside with a unique biological profile giving potent, selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. 1592U89 was selected after evaluation of a wide variety of analogs containing a cyclopentene substitution for the 2'-deoxyriboside of natural deoxynucleosides, optimizing in vitro anti-HIV potency, oral bioavailability, and central nervous system (CNS) penetration. 1592U89 was equivalent in potency to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) in human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cultures against clinical isolates of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) from antiretroviral drug-naive patients (average 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.26 microM for 1592U89 and 0.23 microM for AZT). 1592U89 showed minimal cross-resistance (approximately twofold) with AZT and other approved HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. 1592U89 was synergistic in combination with AZT, the nonnucleoside RT inhibitor nevirapine, and the protease inhibitor 141W94 in MT4 cells against HIV-1 (IIIB). 1592U89 was anabolized intracellularly to its 5'-monophosphate in CD4+ CEM cells and in PBLs, but the di- and triphosphates of 1592U89 were not detected. The only triphosphate found in cells incubated with 1592U89 was that of the guanine analog (-)-carbovir (CBV). However, the in vivo pharmacokinetic, distribution, and toxicological profiles of 1592U89 were distinct from and improved over those of CBV, probably because CBV itself was not appreciably formed from 1592U89 in cells or animals (<2%). The 5'-triphosphate of CBV was a potent, selective inhibitor of HIV-1 RT, with Ki values for DNA polymerases (alpha, beta, gamma, and epsilon which were 90-, 2,900-, 1,200-, and 1,900-fold greater, respectively, than for RT (Ki, 21 nM). 1592U89 was relatively nontoxic to human bone marrow progenitors erythroid burst-forming unit and granulocyte-macrophage CFU (IC50s, 110 microM) and human

  11. N-Arylsulfonyl-α-amino carboxamides are potent and selective inhibitors of the chemokine receptor CCR10 that show efficacy in the murine DNFB model of contact hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardane, Asitha; Caviness, Gary; Choi, Younggi; Cogan, Derek; Gao, Amy; Goldberg, Daniel; Heim-Riether, Alexander; Jeanfavre, Debra; Klein, Elliott; Kowalski, Jennifer A; Mao, Wang; Miller, Craig; Moss, Neil; Ramsden, Philip; Raymond, Ernest; Skow, Donna; Smith-Keenan, Lana; Snow, Roger J; Wu, Frank; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Yu, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Compound 1 ((4-amino-3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-4-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-1-oxobutane-2-sulfonamido) was discovered to be a 690nM antagonist of human CCR10 Ca2+ flux. Optimization delivered (2R)-4-(2-cyanopyrrol-1-yl)-S-(1H-indol-4-yl)-1-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-1-oxobutane-2-sulfonamido (eut-22) that is 300 fold more potent a CCR10 antagonist than 1 and eliminates potential toxicity, mutagenicity, and drug-drug-interaction liabilities often associated with nitroaryls and anilines. eut-22 is highly selective over other GPCR's, including a number of other chemokine receptors. Finally, eut-22 is efficacious in the murine DNFB model of contact hypersensitivity. The efficacy of this compound provides further evidence for the role of CCR10 in dermatological inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Discovery of 3-(3-(4-(1-Aminocyclobutyl)phenyl)-5-phenyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-2-amine (ARQ 092): An Orally Bioavailable, Selective, and Potent Allosteric AKT Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-Marc; Eathiraj, Sudharshan; Vensel, David; Liu, Yanbin; Bull, Cathy O; Cornell-Kennon, Susan; Iimura, Shin; Kelleher, Eugene W; Kizer, Darin E; Koerner, Steffi; Makhija, Sapna; Matsuda, Akihisa; Moussa, Magdi; Namdev, Nivedita; Savage, Ronald E; Szwaya, Jeff; Volckova, Erika; Westlund, Neil; Wu, Hui; Schwartz, Brian

    2016-07-14

    The work in this paper describes the optimization of the 3-(3-phenyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-2-amine chemical series as potent, selective allosteric inhibitors of AKT kinases, leading to the discovery of ARQ 092 (21a). The cocrystal structure of compound 21a bound to full-length AKT1 confirmed the allosteric mode of inhibition of this chemical class and the role of the cyclobutylamine moiety. Compound 21a demonstrated high enzymatic potency against AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3, as well as potent cellular inhibition of AKT activation and the phosphorylation of the downstream target PRAS40. Compound 21a also served as a potent inhibitor of the AKT1-E17K mutant protein and inhibited tumor growth in a human xenograft mouse model of endometrial adenocarcinoma.

  13. Characterization of potent and selective iodonium-class inhibitors of NADPH oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiamo; Risbood, Prabhakar; Kane, Charles T; Hossain, Md Tafazzal; Anderson, Larry; Hill, Kimberly; Monks, Anne; Wu, Yongzhong; Antony, Smitha; Juhasz, Agnes; Liu, Han; Jiang, Guojian; Harris, Erik; Roy, Krishnendu; Meitzler, Jennifer L; Konaté, Mariam; Doroshow, James H

    2017-11-01

    The NADPH oxidases (NOXs) play a recognized role in the development and progression of inflammation-associated disorders, as well as cancer. To date, several NOX inhibitors have been developed, through either high throughput screening or targeted disruption of NOX interaction partners, although only a few have reached clinical trials. To improve the efficacy and bioavailability of the iodonium class NOX inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), we synthesized 36 analogs of DPI, focusing on improved solubility and functionalization. The inhibitory activity of the analogs was interrogated through cell viability and clonogenic studies with a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) that depends on NOX for its proliferative potential. Lack of altered cellular respiration at relevant iodonium analog concentrations was also demonstrated. Additionally, inhibition of ROS generation was evaluated with a luminescence assay for superoxide, or by Amplex Red® assay for H2O2 production, in cell models expressing specific NOX isoforms. DPI and four analogs (NSCs 740104, 751140, 734428, 737392) strongly inhibited HT-29 cell growth and ROS production with nanomolar potency in a concentration-dependent manner. NSC 737392 and 734428, which both feature nitro functional groups at the meta position, had >10-fold higher activity against ROS production by cells that overexpress dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) than the other compounds examined (IC50≈200-400nM). Based on these results, we synthesized and tested NSC 780521 with optimized potency against DUOX2. Iodonium analogs with anticancer activity, including the first generation of targeted agents with improved specificity against DUOX2, may provide a novel therapeutic approach to NOX-driven tumors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. New huprine derivatives functionalized at position 9 as highly potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Cyril; Foucault, Richard; Gillon, Emilie; Bohn, Pierre; Nachon, Florian; Jean, Ludovic; Renard, Pierre-Yves

    2011-05-02

    A series of 24 huprine derivatives diversely functionalized at position 9 have been synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against human recombinant acetylcholinesterase (AChE). These derivatives were prepared in one to five steps from huprine 1 bearing an ester function at position 9. Ten analogues (1, 2, 6-9, 13-15, and 23) are active in the low nanomolar range (IC(50) <5 nM), very close to the parent compound huprine X. Compounds 2, 6, and 7 show a very good selectivity for AChE, with AChE inhibitory activities 700-1160-fold higher than those for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The inhibitory potency of these compounds decreases with the steric bulk of the substituents at position 9. According to docking simulations, small substituents fit into the acyl-binding pocket, whereas the larger ones stick out of the active site gorge of AChE. Determination of the kinetic parameters of three of the most potent huprines (2, 6, and 7) showed that most of the difference in K(D) is accounted by a decrease in k(on) , which is correlated to the increase of the substituent size. A first in vivo evaluation has been performed in mice for the most active compound 2 (IC(50) =1.1 nM) and showed a rather weak toxicity (LD(50) =40 mg kg(-1) ) and an ability to cross the blood-brain barrier with doses above 15 mg kg(-1). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A novel highly potent therapeutic antibody neutralizes multiple human chemokines and mimics viral immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalley-Kim, Michelle L; Hess, Bruce W; Kelly, Ryan L; Krostag, Anne-Rachel F; Lustig, Kurt H; Marken, John S; Ovendale, Pamela J; Posey, Aaron R; Smolak, Pamela J; Taylor, Janelle D L; Wood, C L; Bienvenue, David L; Probst, Peter; Salmon, Ruth A; Allison, Daniel S; Foy, Teresa M; Raport, Carol J

    2012-01-01

    Chemokines play a key role in leukocyte recruitment during inflammation and are implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of autoimmune diseases. As such, inhibiting chemokine signaling has been of keen interest for the development of therapeutic agents. This endeavor, however, has been hampered due to complexities in the chemokine system. Many chemokines have been shown to signal through multiple receptors and, conversely, most chemokine receptors bind to more than one chemokine. One approach to overcoming this complexity is to develop a single therapeutic agent that binds and inactivates multiple chemokines, similar to an immune evasion strategy utilized by a number of viruses. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a novel therapeutic antibody that targets a subset of human CC chemokines, specifically CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, involved in chronic inflammatory diseases. Using a sequential immunization approach, followed by humanization and phage display affinity maturation, a therapeutic antibody was developed that displays high binding affinity towards the three targeted chemokines. In vitro, this antibody potently inhibits chemotaxis and chemokine-mediated signaling through CCR1 and CCR5, primary chemokine receptors for the targeted chemokines. Furthermore, we have demonstrated in vivo efficacy of the antibody in a SCID-hu mouse model of skin leukocyte migration, thus confirming its potential as a novel therapeutic chemokine antagonist. We anticipate that this antibody will have broad therapeutic utility in the treatment of a number of autoimmune diseases due to its ability to simultaneously neutralize multiple chemokines implicated in disease pathogenesis.

  16. Highly potent antimicrobial modified peptides derived from the Acinetobacter baumannii phage endolysin LysAB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shih-Yi; You, Ren-In; Lai, Meng-Jiun; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Chen, Li-Kuang; Chang, Kai-Chih

    2017-09-13

    The increase in the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) strains is a serious public health concern. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a possible solution to this problem. In this study, we examined whether AMPs could be derived from phage endolysins. We synthesized four AMPs based on an amphipathic helical region in the C-terminus of endolysin LysAB2 encoded by the A. baumannii phage ΦAB2. These peptides showed potent antibacterial activity against A. baumannii (minimum inhibitory concentration, 4-64 μM), including some MDR and colistin-resistant A. baumannii. Of the four peptides, LysAB2 P3, with modifications that increased its net positive charge and decreased its hydrophobicity, showed high antibacterial activity against A. baumannii but little haemolytic and no cytotoxic activity against normal eukaryotic cells. The results of electron microscopy experiments and a fluorescein isothiocyanate staining assay indicated that this peptide killed A. baumannii through membrane permeabilization. Moreover, in a mouse intraperitoneal infection model, at 4 h after the bacterial injection, LysAB2 P3 decreased the bacterial load by 13-fold in ascites and 27-fold in blood. Additionally, LysAB2 P3 rescued sixty percent of mice heavily infected with A. baumannii from lethal bacteremia. Our results confirmed that bacteriophage endolysins are a promising resource for developing effective AMPs.

  17. Production of highly potent recombinant siRNAs in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linfeng; Lieberman, Judy

    2013-12-01

    We recently invented a method to produce highly potent siRNAs in Escherichia coli, based on the serendipitous discovery that ectopic expression of p19, a plant viral siRNA-binding protein, stabilizes otherwise unstable bacterial siRNAs, which we named pro-siRNAs for prokaryotic siRNAs. We present a detailed protocol describing how to produce pro-siRNAs for efficiently knocking down any gene, beginning with the design of a pro-siRNA expression plasmid and ending with siRNA purification. This protocol uses one plasmid to co-express a recombinant His-tagged p19 protein and a long hairpin RNA containing sense and antisense sequences of the target gene. pro-siRNAs are isolated and purified using nickel beads and HPLC, using methods used to produce recombinant proteins. Once a pro-siRNA plasmid is obtained, production of purified pro-siRNAs takes a few days. The pro-siRNA technique provides a reliable and renewable source of siRNAs, and it can be implemented in any laboratory whose members are skilled in routine molecular biology techniques.

  18. Fluoroethoxy-1,4-diphenethylpiperidine and piperazine derivatives: Potent and selective inhibitors of [3H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankosky, Emily R; Joolakanti, Shyam R; Nickell, Justin R; Janganati, Venumadhav; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2017-12-15

    A small library of fluoroethoxy-1,4-diphenethyl piperidine and fluoroethoxy-1,4-diphenethyl piperazine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT), [3H]serotonin (5-HT) uptake at the serotonin transporter (SERT), and [3H]dofetilide binding at the human-ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel. The majority of the compounds exhibited potent inhibition of [3H]DA uptake at VMAT2, Ki changes in the nanomolar range (Ki = 0.014-0.073 µM). Compound 15d exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 0.014 µM) at VMAT2, and had 160-, 5-, and 60-fold greater selectivity for VMAT2 vs. DAT, SERT and hERG, respectively. Compound 15b exhibited the greatest selectivity (>60-fold) for VMAT2 relative to all the other targets evaluated, and 15b had high affinity for VMAT2 (Ki = 0.073 µM). Compound 15b was considered the lead compound from this analog series due to its high affinity and selectivity for VMAT2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Discovery of a Flexible Triazolylbutanoic Acid as a Highly Potent Uric Acid Transporter 1 (URAT1) Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    He Tian; Wei Liu; Zhixing Zhou; Qian Shang; Yuqiang Liu; Yafei Xie; Changying Liu; Weiren Xu; Lida Tang; Jianwu Wang; Guilong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In order to systematically explore and understand the structure–activity relationship (SAR) of a lesinurad-based hit (1c) derived from the replacement of the S atom in lesinurad with CH2, 18 compounds (1a–1r) were designed, synthesized and subjected to in vitro URAT1 inhibitory assay. The SAR exploration led to the discovery of a highly potent flexible URAT1 inhibitor, 1q, which was 31-fold more potent than parent lesinurad (IC50 = 0.23 μM against human URAT1 for 1q vs 7.18 μM for lesinurad)....

  20. Discovery of a Flexible Triazolylbutanoic Acid as a Highly Potent Uric Acid Transporter 1 (URAT1 Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Tian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to systematically explore and understand the structure–activity relationship (SAR of a lesinurad-based hit (1c derived from the replacement of the S atom in lesinurad with CH2, 18 compounds (1a–1r were designed, synthesized and subjected to in vitro URAT1 inhibitory assay. The SAR exploration led to the discovery of a highly potent flexible URAT1 inhibitor, 1q, which was 31-fold more potent than parent lesinurad (IC50 = 0.23 μM against human URAT1 for 1q vs 7.18 μM for lesinurad. The present study discovered a flexible molecular scaffold, as represented by 1q, which might serve as a promising prototype scaffold for further development of potent URAT1 inhibitors, and also demonstrated that the S atom in lesinurad was not indispensable for its URAT1 inhibitory activity.

  1. Discovery of a Flexible Triazolylbutanoic Acid as a Highly Potent Uric Acid Transporter 1 (URAT1) Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Zhixing; Shang, Qian; Liu, Yuqiang; Xie, Yafei; Liu, Changying; Xu, Weiren; Tang, Lida; Wang, Jianwu; Zhao, Guilong

    2016-11-16

    In order to systematically explore and understand the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a lesinurad-based hit (1c) derived from the replacement of the S atom in lesinurad with CH₂, 18 compounds (1a-1r) were designed, synthesized and subjected to in vitro URAT1 inhibitory assay. The SAR exploration led to the discovery of a highly potent flexible URAT1 inhibitor, 1q, which was 31-fold more potent than parent lesinurad (IC50 = 0.23 μM against human URAT1 for 1q vs 7.18 μM for lesinurad). The present study discovered a flexible molecular scaffold, as represented by 1q, which might serve as a promising prototype scaffold for further development of potent URAT1 inhibitors, and also demonstrated that the S atom in lesinurad was not indispensable for its URAT1 inhibitory activity.

  2. TS-071 is a novel, potent and selective renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor with anti-hyperglycaemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Uchida, S; Kitano, K; Fukuhara, N; Okumura-Kitajima, L; Gunji, E; Kozakai, A; Tomoike, H; Kojima, N; Asami, J; Toyoda, H; Arai, M; Takahashi, T; Takahashi, K

    2011-09-01

    The renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) plays an important role in the reuptake of filtered glucose in the proximal tubule and therefore may be an attractive target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study characterizes the pharmacological profile of TS-071 ((1S)-1,5-anhydro-1-[5-(4-ethoxybenzyl)-2-methoxy-4-methylphenyl]-1-thio-D-glucitol hydrate), a novel SGLT2 inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of glucose uptake by TS-071 was studied in CHO-K1 cells stably expressing either human SGLT1 or SGLT2. Single oral dosing studies were performed in rats, mice and dogs to assess the abilities of TS-071 to increase urinary glucose excretion and to lower plasma glucose levels. TS-071 inhibited SGLT2 activity in a concentration-dependent manner and was a potent and highly selective inhibitor of SGLT2. Orally administered TS-071 increased urinary glucose excretion in Zucker fatty rats and beagle dogs at doses of 0.3 and 0.03 mg·kg(-1) respectively. TS-071 improved glucose tolerance in Zucker fatty rats without stimulating insulin secretion and reduced hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and db/db mice at a dose of 0.3 mg·kg(-1). These data indicate that TS-071 is a potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitor that improves glucose levels in rodent models of type 1 and 2 diabetes and may be useful for the treatment for diabetes mellitus. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Positively charged retinoids are potent and selective inhibitors of the trans-cis isomerization in the retinoid (visual) cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczak, Marcin; Kuksa, Vladimir; Maeda, Tadao; Moise, Alexander R; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2005-06-07

    In vertebrate retinal photoreceptors, photoisomerization of opsin-bound visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal triggers phototransduction events. Regeneration of the chromophore is a critical step in restoring photoreceptors to their dark-adapted state. This regeneration process, called the retinoid cycle, takes place in the photoreceptor outer segments and in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). We have suggested that the regeneration of the chromophore might occur through a retinyl carbocation intermediate. Here, we provide evidence that isomerization is inhibited by positively charged retinoids, which could act as transition state analogs of the isomerization process. We demonstrate that retinylamine (Ret-NH2) potently and selectively inhibits the isomerization step of the retinoid cycle in vitro and in vivo. Ret-NH2 binds a protein(s) in the RPE microsomes, but it does not bind RPE65, a protein implicated in the isomerization reaction. Although Ret-NH2 inhibits the regeneration of visual chromophore in rods and, in turn, severely attenuates rod responses, it has a much smaller effect on cone function in mice. Ret-NH2 interacts only at micromolar concentrations with retinoic acid receptor, does not activate retinoid-X receptor, and is not a substrate for CYP26s, the retinoic acid-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes. Ret-NH2 can be a significant investigational tool to study the mechanism of regeneration of visual chromophore.

  4. High-level semi-synthetic production of the potent antimalarial artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddon, C J; Westfall, P J; Pitera, D J; Benjamin, K; Fisher, K; McPhee, D; Leavell, M D; Tai, A; Main, A; Eng, D; Polichuk, D R; Teoh, K H; Reed, D W; Treynor, T; Lenihan, J; Fleck, M; Bajad, S; Dang, G; Dengrove, D; Diola, D; Dorin, G; Ellens, K W; Fickes, S; Galazzo, J; Gaucher, S P; Geistlinger, T; Henry, R; Hepp, M; Horning, T; Iqbal, T; Jiang, H; Kizer, L; Lieu, B; Melis, D; Moss, N; Regentin, R; Secrest, S; Tsuruta, H; Vazquez, R; Westblade, L F; Xu, L; Yu, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, L; Lievense, J; Covello, P S; Keasling, J D; Reiling, K K; Renninger, N S; Newman, J D

    2013-04-25

    In 2010 there were more than 200 million cases of malaria, and at least 655,000 deaths. The World Health Organization has recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene endoperoxide with potent antimalarial properties, produced by the plant Artemisia annua. However, the supply of plant-derived artemisinin is unstable, resulting in shortages and price fluctuations, complicating production planning by ACT manufacturers. A stable source of affordable artemisinin is required. Here we use synthetic biology to develop strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) for high-yielding biological production of artemisinic acid, a precursor of artemisinin. Previous attempts to produce commercially relevant concentrations of artemisinic acid were unsuccessful, allowing production of only 1.6 grams per litre of artemisinic acid. Here we demonstrate the complete biosynthetic pathway, including the discovery of a plant dehydrogenase and a second cytochrome that provide an efficient biosynthetic route to artemisinic acid, with fermentation titres of 25 grams per litre of artemisinic acid. Furthermore, we have developed a practical, efficient and scalable chemical process for the conversion of artemisinic acid to artemisinin using a chemical source of singlet oxygen, thus avoiding the need for specialized photochemical equipment. The strains and processes described here form the basis of a viable industrial process for the production of semi-synthetic artemisinin to stabilize the supply of artemisinin for derivatization into active pharmaceutical ingredients (for example, artesunate) for incorporation into ACTs. Because all intellectual property rights have been provided free of charge, this technology has the potential to increase provision of first-line antimalarial treatments to the developing world at a reduced average annual price.

  5. Synthesis and SAR of 1-acetanilide-4-aminopyrazole-substituted quinazolines: selective inhibitors of Aurora B kinase with potent anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kevin M; Mortlock, Andrew A; Heron, Nicola M; Jung, Frédéric H; Hill, George B; Pasquet, Georges; Brady, Madeleine C; Green, Stephen; Heaton, Simon P; Kearney, Sarah; Keen, Nicholas J; Odedra, Rajesh; Wedge, Stephen R; Wilkinson, Robert W

    2008-03-15

    A new class of 1-acetanilide-4-aminopyrazole-substituted quinazoline Aurora kinase inhibitors has been discovered possessing highly potent cellular activity. Continuous infusion into athymic mice bearing SW620 tumors of the soluble phosphate derivative 2 led to dose-proportional exposure of the des-phosphate compound 8 with a high-unbound fraction. The combination of potent cell activity and high free-drug exposure led to pharmacodynamic changes in the tumor at low doses, indicative of Aurora B-kinase inhibition and a reduction in tumor volume.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of the inhibitory activity of the four stereoisomers of the potent and selective human γ-glutamyl transpeptidase inhibitor GGsTop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Bunta; Tabuchi, Yukiko; Wada, Kei; Hiratake, Jun

    2017-11-01

    2-Amino-4-{[3-(carboxymethyl)phenoxy](methoxy)phosphoryl}butanoic acid (GGsTop) is a potent, highly selective, nontoxic, and irreversible inhibitor of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). GGsTop has been widely used in academic and medicinal research, and also as an active ingredient (Nahlsgen) in commercial anti-aging cosmetics. GGsTop consists of four stereoisomers due to the presence of two stereogenic centers, i.e., the α-carbon atom of the glutamate mimic (l/d) and the phosphorus atom (RP/SP). In this study, each stereoisomer of GGsTop was synthesized stereoselectively and their inhibitory activity against human GGT was evaluated. The l- and d-configurations of each stereoisomer were determined by a combination of a chiral pool synthesis and chiral HPLC analysis. The synthesis of the four stereoisomers of GGsTop used chiral synthetic precursors that were separated by chiral HPLC on a preparative scale. With respect to the configuration of the α-carbon atom of the glutamate mimic, the l-isomer (kon=174M-1s-1) was ca. 8-fold more potent than the d-isomer (kon=21.5M-1s-1). In contrast, the configuration of the phosphorus atom is critical for GGT inhibitory activity. Based on a molecular modeling approach, the absolute configuration of the phosphorus atom of the active GGsTop isomers was postulated to be SP. The SP-isomers inhibited human GGT (kon=21.5-174M-1s-1), while the RP-isomers were inactive even at concentrations of 0.1mM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of highly potent melanogenesis inhibitor by in vitro, in vivo and computational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Q

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Qamar Abbas,1 Zaman Ashraf,2 Mubashir Hassan,1 Humaira Nadeem,3 Muhammad Latif,4 Samina Afzal,5 Sung-Yum Seo1 1Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, 3Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Center for Genetics and Inherited Diseases, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakria University, Multan, Pakistan Abstract: The present work describes the synthesis of few hydroxylated amide derivatives as melanogenesis inhibitors. In vitro, in vivo and computational studies proved that compound 6d is a highly potent melanogenesis inhibitor compared to standard kojic acid. The title amides 4a–e and 6a–e were synthesized following simple reaction routes with excellent yields. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but compound 6d showed excellent activity (IC50 0.15 µM compared to standard kojic acid (IC50 16.69 µM. Lineweaver–Burk plots were used for the determination of kinetic mechanism, and it was found that compounds 4c and 6d showed non-competitive inhibition while 6a and 6b showed mixed-type inhibition. The kinetic mechanism further revealed that compound 6d formed irreversible complex with the target enzyme tyrosinase. The Ki values determined for compounds 4c, 6a, 6b and 6d are 0.188, 0.84, 2.20 and 0.217 µM respectively. Results of human tyrosinase inhibitory activity in A375 human melanoma cells showed that compound 6d exhibited 91.9% inhibitory activity at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. In vivo cytotoxicity evaluation of compound 6d in zebrafish embryos showed that it is non-toxic to zebrafish. Melanin depigmentation assay performed in zebrafish indicated that compound 6d possessed greater potential in decreasing melanin contents

  8. Oxime Ethers of (E)-11-Isonitrosostrychnine as Highly Potent Glycine Receptor Antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Mandour, Yasmine M; Sarukhanyan, Edita

    2016-01-01

    A series of (E)-11-isonitrosostrychnine oxime ethers, 2-aminostrychnine, (strychnine-2-yl)propionamide, 18-oxostrychnine, and N-propylstrychnine bromide were synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors in a functional fluorescence-based and a whole-cell patch......-clamp assay and in [(3)H]strychnine binding studies. 2-Aminostrychnine and the methyl, allyl, and propargyl oxime ethers were the most potent α1 and α1β antagonists in the series, displaying IC50 values similar to those of strychnine at the two receptors. Docking experiments to the strychnine binding site...... of the crystal structure of the α3 glycine receptor indicated the same orientation of the strychnine core for all analogues. For the most potent oxime ethers, the ether substituent was accommodated in a lipophilic receptor binding pocket. The findings identify the oxime hydroxy group as a suitable attachment...

  9. Synthesis of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Aldo-Keto Reductase 1B10 and Their Efficacy against Proliferation, Metastasis, and Cisplatin Resistance of Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoshi; Xia, Shuang; Suyama, Miho; Morikawa, Yoshifumi; Oguri, Hiroaki; Hu, Dawei; Ao, Yoshinori; Takahara, Satoyuki; Horino, Yoshikazu; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Yurie; Gouda, Hiroaki; Hara, Akira; Kuwata, Kazuo; Toyooka, Naoki; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Ikari, Akira

    2017-10-26

    Aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10) is overexpressed in several extraintestinal cancers, particularly in non-small-cell lung cancer, where AKR1B10 is a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. Selective AKR1B10 inhibitors are required because compounds should not inhibit the highly related aldose reductase that is involved in monosaccharide and prostaglandin metabolism. Currently, 7-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenylimino)-2H-chromene-3-carboxylic acid benzylamide (HMPC) is known to be the most potent competitive inhibitor of AKR1B10, but it is nonselective. In this study, derivatives of HMPC were synthesized by removing the 4-methoxyphenylimino moiety and replacing the benzylamide with phenylpropylamide. Among them, 4c and 4e showed higher AKR1B10 inhibitory potency (IC50 4.2 and 3.5 nM, respectively) and selectivity than HMPC. The treatments with the two compounds significantly suppressed not only migration, proliferation, and metastasis of lung cancer A549 cells but also metastatic and invasive potentials of cisplatin-resistant A549 cells.

  10. Extracts fromAnnona MuricataL. andAnnona ReticulataL. (Annonaceae) Potently and Selectively InhibitPlasmodium Falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamthe, Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha; Fokou, Patrick Valere Tsouh; Mbouna, Cedric Derick Jiatsa; Keumoe, Rodrigue; Ndjakou, Bruno Lenta; Djouonzo, Paul Toukam; Mfopa, Alvine Ngoutane; Legac, Jennifer; Tsabang, Nole; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-04-30

    The aim of this work was to screen extracts from Annona muricata and Annona reticulata in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum . Crude ethanolic extracts, methylene chloride fractions, aqueous fractions, subfractions and isolated compounds (stigmasterol-3- O -β-d-glucopyranoside, lichexanthone, gallic acid and β-sitosterol-3- O -β-d-glucopyranoside) were tested for cytotoxicity on erythrocytes and Human Foreskin Fibroblasts cells and against the W2 strain of P. falciparum in culture. Results indicated that none of the extracts was cytotoxic at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL. Most of the extracts, fractions and subfractions inhibited the growth of P. falciparum with IC 50 values ranging from 0.07 to 3.46 µg/mL. The most potent was the subfraction 30 from A. muricata stem bark (IC 50 = 0.07 µg/mL) with a selectivity index of ˃ 142. Subfraction 3 from A. muricata root also exhibited very good activity (IC 50 = 0.09 µg/mL) with a high selectivity index (SI ˃ 111). Amongst the isolated compounds, only gallic acid showed activity with IC 50 of 3.32 µg/mL and SI > 10. These results support traditional claims for A. muricata and A. reticulata in the treatment of malaria. Given their limited cytotoxicity profile, their extracts qualify as promising starting points for antimalarial drug discovery.

  11. Epistatic mutations in PUMA BH3 drive an alternate binding mode to potently and selectively inhibit anti-apoptotic Bfl-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenson, Justin M.; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Grant, Robert A.; Letai, Anthony; Keating, Amy E. (DFCI); (MIT)

    2017-06-08

    Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins contributes to cancer progression and confers resistance to chemotherapy. Small molecules that target Bcl-2 are used in the clinic to treat leukemia, but tight and selective inhibitors are not available for Bcl-2 paralog Bfl-1. Guided by computational analysis, we designed variants of the native BH3 motif PUMA that are > 150-fold selective for Bfl-1 binding. The designed peptides potently trigger disruption of the mitochondrial outer membrane in cells dependent on Bfl-1, but not in cells dependent on other anti-apoptotic homologs. High-resolution crystal structures show that designed peptide FS2 binds Bfl-1 in a shifted geometry, relative to PUMA and other binding partners, due to a set of epistatic mutations. FS2 modified with an electrophile reacts with a cysteine near the peptide-binding groove to augment specificity. Designed Bfl-1 binders provide reagents for cellular profiling and leads for developing enhanced and cell-permeable peptide or small-molecule inhibitors.

  12. Synthesis of ent-BE-43547A1 reveals a potent hypoxia-selective anticancer agent and uncovers the biosynthetic origin of the APD-CLD natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Nikolaj L.; Jacobsen, Kristian M.; Keiding, Ulrik B.; Weibel, Esben T.; Christiansen, Bjørn; Vosegaard, Thomas; Bjerring, Morten; Jensen, Frank; Johannsen, Mogens; Tørring, Thomas; Poulsen, Thomas B.

    2017-03-01

    Tumour hypoxia is speculated to be a key driver of therapeutic resistance and metastatic dissemination. Consequently, the discovery of new potent agents that selectively target the hypoxic cell population may reveal new and untapped antitumour mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the BE-43547 subclass of the APD-CLD (amidopentadienoate-containing cyclolipodepsipeptides) natural products possesses highly hypoxia-selective growth-inhibitory activity against pancreatic cancer cells. To enable this discovery, we have developed the first synthesis of the BE-43547-macrocyclic scaffold in 16 steps (longest linear sequence), which also allowed access to the full panel of relative stereoisomers and ultimately to the assignment of stereochemical configuration. Discrepancies between the spectroscopic signatures of the synthetic compounds with that originally reported for the BE-43547 members stimulated us to re-isolate the natural product from a BE-43547-producing microorganism during which we elucidated the biosynthetic gene clusters for the BE-43547 family as well as for all other known APD-CLDs. Our studies underline the exciting possibilities for the further development of the anticancer activities of these natural products.

  13. Potent and selective antisense oligonucleotides targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the Huntington disease gene / allele-specific silencing of mutant huntingtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jeffrey B; Warby, Simon C; Southwell, Amber L; Doty, Crystal N; Greenlee, Sarah; Skotte, Niels; Hung, Gene; Bennett, C Frank; Freier, Susan M; Hayden, Michael R

    2011-12-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG-expansion in the huntingtin gene (HTT) that results in a toxic gain of function in the mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT). Reducing the expression of mHTT is therefore an attractive therapy for HD. However, wild-type HTT protein is essential for development and has critical roles in maintaining neuronal health. Therapies for HD that reduce wild-type HTT may therefore generate unintended negative consequences. We have identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targets in the human HD population for the disease-specific targeting of the HTT gene. Using primary cells from patients with HD and the transgenic YAC18 and BACHD mouse lines, we developed antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) molecules that potently and selectively silence mHTT at both exonic and intronic SNP sites. Modification of these ASOs with S-constrained-ethyl (cET) motifs significantly improves potency while maintaining allele selectively in vitro. The developed ASO is potent and selective for mHTT in vivo after delivery to the mouse brain. We demonstrate that potent and selective allele-specific knockdown of the mHTT protein can be achieved at therapeutically relevant SNP sites using ASOs in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Structure-activity relationships for a series of bis(phenylalkyl)amines: potent subtype-selective inhibitors of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiz, A P; Whittemore, E R; Zhou, Z L; Huang, J C; Drewe, J A; Chen, J C; Cai, S X; Weber, E; Woodward, R M; Keana, J F

    1998-08-27

    A series of bis(phenylalkyl)amines, structural analogues of ifenprodil and nylidrin, were synthesized and tested for antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Potency and subunit selectivity were assayed by electrical recordings in Xenopus oocytes expressing three binary combinations of cloned rat NMDA receptor subunits: NR1A expressed in combination with either NR2A, NR2B, or NR2C. The bis(phenylalkyl)amines were selective antagonists of NR1A/2B receptors. Assayed under steady-state conditions, the most potent of these, N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-5-phenylpentylamine hydrochloride (20), has an IC50 value of 8 nM and >1000-fold selectivity with respect to NR1A/2A and NR1A/2C receptors. The structure-activity relationship of the bis(phenylalkyl)amine series indicates that the piperidine ring and alkyl chain substitutions common to NR2B-selective antagonists such as ifenprodil, CP 101,606, and Ro 25-6981 are not necessary to generate potent and selective ligands. The primary determinants of potency are the phenolic OH group, acting as a hydrogen bond donor, the distance between the two rings, and an electrostatic interaction between the receptor and the basic nitrogen atom. This study provides a framework for designing structurally novel NR2B-selective antagonists which may be useful for treatment of a variety of neurological disorders.

  15. Discovery and structure-based design of 4,6-diaminonicotinamides as potent and selective IRAK4 inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhide, Rajeev S.; Keon, Alec; Weigelt, Carolyn; Sack, John S.; Schmidt, Robert J.; Lin, Shuqun; Xiao, Hai-Yun; Spergel, Steven H.; Kempson, James; Pitts, William J.; Carman, Julie; Poss, Michael A.

    2017-11-01

    The identification of small molecule inhibitors of IRAK4 for the treatment of autoimmune diseases has been an area of intense research. We discovered novel 4,6-diaminonicotinamides which potently inhibit IRAK4. Optimization efforts were aided by X-ray crystal structures of inhibitors bound to IRAK4. Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies led to the identification of compound 29 which exhibited sub-micromolar potency in a LTA stimulated cellular assay.

  16. Identification of a potent and selective free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) agonist with favorable physicochemical and in vitro ADME properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Urban, Christian; Grundmann, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1, also known as GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ß-cells and is recognized as an interesting new target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Several series of selective FFA1 agonists are already known. Most of these are derived ......, a selective FFA1 agonist with potent activity on recombinant human FFA1 receptors and on the rat insulinoma cell line INS-1E, optimal lipophilicity and excellent in vitro permeability and metabolic stability....

  17. Antimicrobial and anti-Quorum Sensing activities of selected medicinal plants of Ethiopia: Implication for development of potent antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Ketema; Tariku, Yinebeb; Gebreyesus, Fisseha; Zerihun, Shibru; Mohammed, Ali; Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Schmitz, Ruth A; Mulat, Mulugeta

    2016-07-11

    Traditional medicinal plants have been used as an alternative medicine in many parts of the world, including Ethiopia. There are many documented scientific reports on antimicrobial activities of the same. To our knowledge, however, there is no report on the anti-Quorum Sensing (Quorum Quenching, QQ) potential of traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants. As many of the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria depend on Quorum Sensing (QS) systems to coordinate their virulence expression, interference with QS could be a novel approach to control bacterial infections. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate selected medicinal plants from Ethiopia for their antimicrobial activities against bacterial and fungal pathogens; and to assess the interference of these plant extracts with QS of bacteria. Antimicrobial activities of plant extracts (oil, resins and crude extracts) were evaluated following standard agar diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of potent extracts were determined using 96 well micro-titer plates and optical densities were measured using an ELISA Microplate reader. Interference with Quorum Sensing activities of extracts was determined using the recently established E. coli based reporter strain AI1-QQ.1 and signaling molecule N-(ß-ketocaproyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). Petroleum ether extract of seed of Nigella sativa exhibited the highest activity against both the laboratory isolated Bacillus cereus [inhibition zone (IZ), 44 ± 0.31 mm] and B. cereus ATCC 10987 (IZ, 40 ± 2.33 mm). Similarly, oil extract from mature ripe fruit husk of Aframomum corrorima and mature unripe fruit of A. corrorima revealed promising activities against Candida albicans ATCC 90028 (IZ, 35 ± 1.52 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus DSM 346 (IZ, 25 ± 1.32 mm), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of oil extract from husk of A. corrorima and petroleum ether extract of seed of N. sativa were significantly higher than that of

  18. Hydroxytriazole derivatives as potent and selective aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) inhibitors discovered by bioisosteric scaffold hopping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippione, Agnese C; Giraudo, Alessandro; Bonanni, Davide; Carnovale, Irene M; Marini, Elisabetta; Cena, Clara; Costale, Annalisa; Zonari, Daniele; Pors, Klaus; Sadiq, Maria; Boschi, Donatella; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Lolli, Marco L

    2017-10-20

    The aldo-keto reductase 1C3 isoform (AKR1C3) plays a vital role in the biosynthesis of androgens, making this enzyme an attractive target for castration-resistant prostate cancer therapy. Although AKR1C3 is a promising drug target, no AKR1C3-targeted agent has to date been approved for clinical use. Flufenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is known to potently inhibit AKR1C3 in a non-selective manner as COX off-target effects are also observed. To diminish off-target effects, we have applied a scaffold hopping strategy replacing the benzoic acid moiety of flufenamic acid with an acidic hydroxyazolecarbonylic scaffold. In particular, differently N-substituted hydroxylated triazoles were designed to simultaneously interact with both subpockets 1 and 2 in the active site of AKR1C3, larger for AKR1C3 than other AKR1Cs isoforms. Through computational design and iterative rounds of synthesis and biological evaluation, novel compounds are reported, sharing high selectivity (up to 230-fold) for AKR1C3 over 1C2 isoform and minimal COX1 and COX2 off-target inhibition. A docking study of compound 8, the most interesting compound of the series, suggested that its methoxybenzyl substitution has the ability to fit inside subpocket 2, being involved in π-π staking interaction with Trp227 (partial overlapping) and in a T-shape π-π staking with Trp86. This compound was also shown to diminish testosterone production in the AKR1C3-expressing 22RV1 prostate cancer cell line while synergistic effect was observed when 8 was administered in combination with abiraterone or enzalutamide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Discovery of 2-(4-sulfonamidophenyl)-indole 3-carboxamides as potent and selective inhibitors with broad hepatitis C virus genotype activity targeting HCV NS4B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nanjing; Turpoff, Anthony; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Song; Liu, Yalei; Almstead, Neil; Njoroge, F George; Gu, Zhengxian; Graci, Jason; Jung, Stephen P; Pichardo, John; Colacino, Joseph; Lahser, Fred; Ingravallo, Paul; Weetall, Marla; Nomeir, Amin; Karp, Gary M

    2016-01-15

    A novel series of 2-(4-sulfonamidophenyl)-indole 3-carboxamides was identified and optimized for activity against the HCV genotype 1b replicon resulting in compounds with potent and selective activity. Further evaluation of this series demonstrated potent activity across HCV genotypes 1a, 2a and 3a. Compound 4z had reduced activity against HCV genotype 1b replicons containing single mutations in the NS4B coding sequence (F98C and V105M) indicating that NS4B is the target. This novel series of 2-(4-sulfonamidophenyl)-indole 3-carboxamides serves as a promising starting point for a pan-genotype HCV discovery program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Lipopeptide HIV-1/2 Fusion Inhibitor with Highly Potent In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo Antiviral Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Huihui; Xue, Jing; Xiong, Shengwen; Cong, Zhe; Ding, Xiaohui; Zhu, Yuanmei; Liu, Zixuan; Chen, Ting; Feng, Yifan; He, Lei; Guo, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Zhou, Yusen; Qin, Chuan; He, Yuxian

    2017-06-01

    Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusogenic protein gp41 are potent viral entry inhibitors, and currently, enfuvirtide (T-20) is the only one approved for clinical use; however, emerging drug resistance largely limits its efficacy. In this study, we generated a novel lipopeptide inhibitor, named LP-19, by integrating multiple design strategies, including an N-terminal M-T hook structure, an HIV-2 sequence, intrahelical salt bridges, and a membrane-anchoring lipid tail. LP-19 showed stable binding affinity and highly potent, broad, and long-lasting antiviral activity. In in vitro studies, LP-19 efficiently inhibited HIV-1-, HIV-2-, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-mediated cell fusion, viral entry, and infection, and it was highly active against diverse subtypes of primary HIV-1 isolates and inhibitor-resistant mutants. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that LP-19 exhibited dramatically increased anti-HIV activity and an extended half-life in rhesus macaques. In short-term monotherapy, LP-19 reduced viral loads to undetectable levels in acutely and chronically simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected monkeys. Therefore, this study offers an ideal HIV-1/2 fusion inhibitor for clinical development and emphasizes the importance of the viral fusion step as a drug target.IMPORTANCE The peptide drug T-20 is the only viral fusion inhibitor in the clinic, which is used for combination therapy of HIV-1 infection; however, it requires a high dosage and easily induces drug resistance, calling for a new drug with significantly improved pharmaceutical profiles. Here, we have developed a short-lipopeptide-based fusion inhibitor, termed LP-19, which mainly targets the conserved gp41 pocket site and shows highly potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1, HIV-2, and even SIV isolates. LP-19 exhibits dramatically increased antiviral activity and an extended half-life in rhesus macaques, and

  1. Highly potent anti-leishmanial derivatives of hederagenin, a triperpenoid from Sapindus saponaria L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Diego; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antonio J; de Almeida, Raquel M; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Ferreira, Sebastião R

    2016-11-29

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTDs), endemic in 88 countries that affect more than 12 million people. Current drugs are limited due to their toxicity, development of biological resistance, length of treatment and high cost. Thus, the search for new effective and less toxic treatments is an urgent need. In this study, we report the synthesis of 3 new amide derivatives of hederagenin (22-24) with yields between 70% and 90%, along with 57 other derivatives of hederagenin (1-21, 25-60) carrying different groups at C-28 previously reported by our group, and the results of their in vitro ability to inhibit the growth of Leishmania infantum. Some derivatives (3, 4, 44, 49 and 52), showed activity at micromolar level and low toxicity against BGM and HepG2 cells. Moreover, the ability of hederagenin derivatives 3 (IC 50  = 9.7 μM), 4 (12 μM), 44 (11 μM) and 49 (2 μM), to prevent proliferation of intracellular amastigote forms of L. infantum and their higher selectivity index and low toxicity compared to commercial positive drug control of choice (potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate) (IC 50  = 80 μM, SI = 0.1), make these compounds promising candidates for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and Enantiomeric Separation of a Novel Spiroketal Derivative: A Potent Human Telomerase Inhibitor with High in Vitro Anticancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuggetta, Maria Pia; De Mico, Antonella; Cottarelli, Andrea; Morelli, Franco; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Ulgheri, Fausta; Peluso, Paola; Mannu, Alberto; Deligia, Francesco; Marchetti, Mauro; Roviello, Giovanni; Reyes Romero, Atilio; Dömling, Alexander; Spanu, Pietro

    2016-10-13

    The synthesis, the enantiomeric separation, and the characterization of new simple spiroketal derivatives have been performed. The synthesized compounds have shown a very high anticancer activity. Cell proliferation assay showed that they induce a remarkable inhibition of cell proliferation in all cell lines treated, depending on culture time and concentration. The compounds have also shown a potent nanomolar human telomerase inhibition activity and apoptosis induction. CD melting experiments demonstrate that spiroketal does not affect the G-quadruplex (G4) thermal stability. Docking studies showed that telomerase inhibition could be determined by a spiroketal interaction with the telomerase enzyme.

  3. A Jak2-selective inhibitor potently reverses the immune suppression by modulating the tumor microenvironment for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Zhu, Yi; Mu, Ruoyu; Xu, Jinzhi; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Chunming; Li, Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Junfeng; Pan, Yi; Han, Jianlin; Dong, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Small molecule therapeutics can be potent tools for cancer immunotherapy. They may be devised to target the tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and regulatory T cells (Treg), which are major immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment. The infiltration and functionalization of these cells, which essentially promote tumor development, are mediated by the hyper-activation of the Jak-STAT3 signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrated that compound 9#, a novel inhibitor of Jak2, could suppress Jak2-STAT3 signaling in macrophages (peritoneal macrophages and THP-1 cells) and direct the macrophages toward the pro-inflammatory (M1-like) phenotype. When tested in ex vivo TAM culture and in vivo tumor models, compound 9# could reverse the phenotype of TAM from M2- to M1-type by promoting IL-12 expression. Further study suggested that compound 9# also inhibited the induction of Treg both in vitro and in vivo via blockage of Jak2 signaling. Finally, compound 9# potently increased the frequency and anti-tumor activity of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, leading to effective suppression of tumor growth. Taken together, our findings indicated that compound 9# could be a potential candidate of small molecule therapeutics for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenyl Ether- and Aniline-Containing 2-Aminoquinolines as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Maris A; Li, Huiying; Pensa, Anthony V; Kang, Soosung; Roman, Linda J; Martásek, Pavel; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B

    2015-11-12

    Excess nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. As a result, inhibition of nNOS and reduction of NO levels is desirable therapeutically, but many nNOS inhibitors are poorly bioavailable. Promising members of our previously reported 2-aminoquinoline class of nNOS inhibitors, although orally bioavailable and brain-penetrant, suffer from unfavorable off-target binding to other CNS receptors, and they resemble known promiscuous binders. Rearranged phenyl ether- and aniline-linked 2-aminoquinoline derivatives were therefore designed to (a) disrupt the promiscuous binding pharmacophore and diminish off-target interactions and (b) preserve potency, isoform selectivity, and cell permeability. A series of these compounds was synthesized and tested against purified nNOS, endothelial NOS (eNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS) enzymes. One compound, 20, displayed high potency, selectivity, and good human nNOS inhibition, and retained some permeability in a Caco-2 assay. Most promisingly, CNS receptor counterscreening revealed that this rearranged scaffold significantly reduces off-target binding.

  5. A novel library of saccharin and acesulfame derivatives as potent and selective inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase IX and XII isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; De Monte, Celeste; Mollica, Adriano; Ceruso, Mariangela; Akdemir, Atilla; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Codispoti, Rossella; De Cosmi, Federica; Guglielmi, Paolo; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-03-01

    Small libraries of N-substituted saccharin and N-/O-substituted acesulfame derivatives were synthesized and tested as atypical and selective inhibitors of four different isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA I, II, IX and XII, EC 4.2.1.1). Most of them inhibited hCA XII in the low nanomolar range, hCA IX with KIs ranging between 19 and 2482nM, whereas they were poorly active against hCA II (KIs >10μM) and hCA I (KIs ranging between 318nM and 50μM). Since hCA I and II are ubiquitous off-target isoforms, whereas the cancer-related isoforms hCA IX and XII were recently validated as drug targets, these results represent an encouraging achievement in the development of new anticancer candidates. Moreover, the lack of a classical zinc binding group in the structure of these inhibitors opens innovative, yet unexplored scenarios for different mechanisms of inhibition that could explain the high inhibitory selectivity. A computational approach has been carried out to further rationalize the biological data and to characterize the binding mode of some of these inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glutathione-Responsive Selenosulfide Prodrugs as a Platform Strategy for Potent and Selective Mechanism-Based Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjin, Caroline Chandra; Otley, Kate D; Baguley, Tyler D; Kurup, Pradeep; Xu, Jian; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2017-12-27

    Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation has been implicated in a number of human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. As a result of their essential role in regulating protein tyrosine phosphorylation levels, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have emerged as important yet challenging therapeutic targets. Here we report on the development and application of a glutathione-responsive motif to facilitate the efficient intracellular delivery of a novel class of selenosulfide phosphatase inhibitors for the selective active site directed inhibition of the targeted PTP by selenosulfide exchange with the active site cysteine. The strategy leverages the large difference in extracellular and intracellular glutathione levels to deliver selenosulfide phosphatase inhibitors to cells. As an initial exploration of the prodrug platform and the corresponding selenosulfide covalent inhibitor class, potent and selective inhibitors were developed for two therapeutically relevant PTP targets: the Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor mPTPA and the CNS-specific tyrosine phosphatase, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). The lead selenosulfide inhibitors enable potent and selective inhibition of their respective targets over a panel of human PTPs and a representative cysteine protease. Kinetic parameters of the inhibitors were characterized, including reversibility of inhibition and rapid rate of GSH exchange at intracellular GSH concentrations. Additionally, active site covalent inhibitor-labeling with an mPTPA inhibitor was rigorously confirmed by mass spectrometry, and cellular activity was demonstrated with a STEP prodrug inhibitor in cortical neurons.

  7. Conformational restriction of aryl thiosemicarbazones produces potent and selective anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds which induce apoptotic parasite death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Ana Daura Travassos; Teixeira de Moraes Gomes, Paulo André; de Simone, Carlos Alberto; Villela, Filipe Silva; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; da Silva, Aline Caroline; dos Santos, Thiago André Ramos; Brelaz de Castro, Maria Carolina Accioly; Pereira, Valéria Rego Alves; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima

    2014-03-21

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a life-threatening infection leading to approximately 12,000 deaths per year. T. cruzi is susceptible to thiosemicarbazones, making this class of compounds appealing for drug development. Previously, the homologation of aryl thiosemicarbazones resulted in an increase in anti-T. cruzi activity in comparison to aryl thiosemicarbazones without a spacer group. Here, we report the structural planning, synthesis and anti-T. cruzi evaluation of new aryl thiosemicarbazones (9a-x), designed as more conformationally restricted compounds. By varying substituents attached to the phenyl ring, substituents were observed to retain, enhance or greatly increase the anti-T. cruzi activity, in comparison to the nonsubstituted derivative. In most cases, hydrophobic and bulky substituents, such as bromo, biphenyl and phenoxyl groups, greatly increased antiparasitic activity. Specifically, thiosemicarbazones were identified that inhibit the epimastigote proliferation and were toxic for trypomastigotes without affecting mouse splenocytes viability. The most potent anti-T. cruzi thiosemicarbazones were evaluated against cruzain. However, inhibition of this enzyme was not observed, suggesting that the compounds work through another mechanism. In addition, examination of T. cruzi cell death showed that these thiosemicarbazones induce apoptosis. In conclusion, the structural design executed within the series of aryl thiosemicarbazones (9a-x) led to the identification of new potent anti-T. cruzi agents, such as compounds (9h) and (9r), which greatly inhibited epimastigote proliferation, and demonstrated a toxicity for trypomastigotes, but not for splenocytes. Mechanistically, these compounds do not inhibit the cruzain, but induce T. cruzi cell death by an apoptotic process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Discovery of GSK2126458, a Highly Potent Inhibitor of PI3K and the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Steven D.; Adams, Nicholas D.; Burgess, Joelle L.; Chaudhari, Amita M.; Darcy, Michael G.; Donatelli, Carla A.; Luengo, Juan I.; Newlander, Ken A.; Parrish, Cynthia A.; Ridgers, Lance H.; Sarpong, Martha A.; Schmidt, Stanley J.; Aller, Glenn S.Van; Carson, Jeffrey D.; Diamond, Melody A.; Elkins, Patricia A.; Gardiner, Christine M.; Garver, Eric; Gilbert, Seth A.; Gontarek, Richard R.; Jackson, Jeffrey R.; Kershner, Kevin L.; Luo, Lusong; Raha, Kaushik; Sherk, Christian S.; Sung, Chiu-Mei; Sutton, David; Tummino, Peter J.; Wegrzyn, Ronald J.; Auger, Kurt R.; Dhanak, Dashyant (GSKPA)

    2010-09-30

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase {alpha} (PI3K{alpha}) is a critical regulator of cell growth and transformation, and its signaling pathway is the most commonly mutated pathway in human cancers. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a class IV PI3K protein kinase, is also a central regulator of cell growth, and mTOR inhibitors are believed to augment the antiproliferative efficacy of PI3K/AKT pathway inhibition. 2,4-Difluoro-N-{l_brace}2-(methyloxy)-5-[4-(4-pyridazinyl)-6-quinolinyl]-3-pyridinyl{r_brace}benzenesulfonamide (GSK2126458, 1) has been identified as a highly potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of PI3K{alpha} and mTOR with in vivo activity in both pharmacodynamic and tumor growth efficacy models. Compound 1 is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer.

  9. Discovery and evaluation of the hybrid of bromophenol and saccharide as potent and selective protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renshuai; Yu, Rilei; Xu, Qi; Li, Xiangqian; Luo, Jiao; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Shuju; Wu, Ning; Shi, Dayong

    2017-07-07

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of insulin signaling pathway. Inhibition of PTP1B is expected to improve insulin action. Appropriate selectivity and permeability are the gold standard for excellent PTP1B inhibitors. In this work, molecular hybridization-based screening identified a selective competitive PTP1B inhibitor. Compound 10a has IC50 values of 199 nM against PTP1B, and shows 32-fold selectivity for PTP1B over the closely related phosphatase TCPTP. Molecule docking and molecular dynamics studies reveal the reason of selectivity for PTP1B over TCPTP. Moreover, the cell permeability and cellular activity of compound 10a are demonstrated respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Palbociclib (PD0332991)-a Selective and Potent Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor: A Review of Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy S; Karasic, Thomas B; DeMichele, Angela; Vaughn, David J; O'Hara, Mark; Perini, Rodolfo; Zhang, Paul; Lal, Priti; Feldman, Michael; Gallagher, Maryann; O'Dwyer, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    Palbociclib (PD0332991) is a newly developed drug that received breakthrough designation and recent US Food and Drug Administration approval in combination with endocrine therapy in the treatment of hormone receptor positive, ERBB2-negative (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu) breast cancer in the first-line metastatic setting. Herein we describe the preclinical and translational data and early- and late-phase clinical trials in which palbociclib has been investigated in a broad array of tumor types. We discuss the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, and clinical response rates. On March 1, 2015, we conducted a review of the literature describing the development of palbociclib. We used the PubMed search terms "PD0332991," "palbociclib," and "CDK4/6 inhibitor" to find all published articles of interest, without limitation as to publication date. Palbociclib is a potent and specific oral cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor that has strong preclinical data to support its activity in retinoblastoma protein-expressing tumors. Phase 1 trials have demonstrated safety, and phase 2 trials have shown single-agent activity in mantle-cell lymphoma, breast cancer, liposarcoma, and teratoma with reversible neutropenia as the main toxic effect. Addition of palbociclib to endocrine therapy improves progression-free survival in endocrine therapy-naïve and endocrine therapy-resistant metastatic settings. Palbociclib is well tolerated and has therapeutic potential for multiple cancers, including breast cancer, where its efficacy has been demonstrated alone and in combination with endocrine therapy. Additional combinations of palbociclib with endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy have potential in various tumors, and phase 3 trials are under way.

  11. A novel and selective inhibitor of PKC ζ potently inhibits human breast cancer metastasis in vitro and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Shuye; Fan, Zhijuan; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Yaqiong; Yang, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Cell motility and chemotaxis play pivotal roles in the process of tumor development and metastasis. Protein kinase C ζ (PKC ζ) mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated chemotactic signaling pathway through regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. The purpose of this study was to develop anti-PKC ζ therapeutics for breast cancer metastasis. In this study, a novel and high-efficient PKC ζ inhibitor named PKCZI195.17 was screened out through a substrate-specific strategy. MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MCF-7 cells while under PKCZI195.17 treatment. Wound-healing, chemotaxis, and Matrigel invasion assays were performed to detect the effects of PKCZI195.17 on breast cancer cells migration and invasion. Adhesion, actin polymerization, and Western blotting were performed to detect the effects of PKCZI195.17 on cells adhesion and actin polymerization, and explore the downsteam signaling mechanisms involved in PKC ζ inhibition. MDA-MB-231 xenograft was used to measure the in vivo anti-metastasis efficacy of PKCZI195.17. The compound PKCZI195.17 selectively inhibited PKC ζ kinase activity since it failed to inhibit PKC α, PKC β, PKC δ, PKC η, AKT2, as well as FGFR2 activity. PKCZI195.17 significantly impaired spontaneous migration, chemotaxis, and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MCF-7 cells, while PKCZI195.17 did not obviously inhibited cells viability. PKCZI195.17 also inhibited cells adhesion and actin polymerization through attenuating the phosphorylations of integrin β1, LIMK, and cofilin, which might be the downstream effectors of PKC ζ-mediated chemotaxis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, PKCZI195.17 suppressed the breast cancer metastasis and increased the survival time of breast tumor-bearing mice. In summary, PKCZI195.17 was a PKC ζ-specific inhibitor which dampened cancer cell migration and metastasis and may serve as a novel

  12. High-Avidity and Potently Neutralizing Cross-Reactive Human Monoclonal Antibodies Derived from Secondary Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Yang; Lai, Chih-Yun; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Lin, Hong-En; Edwards, Carolyn; Jumnainsong, Amonrat; Kliks, Srisakul; Halstead, Scott; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin R.

    2013-01-01

    The envelope (E) protein of dengue virus (DENV) is the major target of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) and vaccine development. Previous studies of human dengue-immune sera reported that a significant proportion of anti-E Abs, known as group-reactive (GR) Abs, were cross-reactive to all four DENV serotypes and to one or more other flaviviruses. Based on studies of mouse anti-E monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), GR MAbs were nonneutralizing or weakly neutralizing compared with type-specific MAbs; a GR response was thus not regarded as important for vaccine strategy. We investigated the epitopes, binding avidities, and neutralization potencies of 32 human GR anti-E MAbs. In addition to fusion loop (FL) residues in E protein domain II, human GR MAbs recognized an epitope involving both FL and bc loop residues in domain II. The neutralization potencies and binding avidities of GR MAbs derived from secondary DENV infection were stronger than those derived from primary infection. GR MAbs derived from primary DENV infection primarily blocked attachment, whereas those derived from secondary infection blocked DENV postattachment. Analysis of the repertoire of anti-E MAbs derived from patients with primary DENV infection revealed that the majority were GR, low-avidity, and weakly neutralizing MAbs, whereas those from secondary infection were primarily GR, high-avidity, and potently neutralizing MAbs. Our findings suggest that the weakly neutralizing GR anti-E Abs generated from primary DENV infection become potently neutralizing MAbs against the four serotypes after secondary infection. The observation that the dengue immune status of the host affects the quality of the cross-reactive Abs generated has implications for new strategies for DENV vaccination. PMID:24027331

  13. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A]is a potent ligand for selectively labeling α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Arik J.; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L.; Jacob, Michele H.; McIntosh, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels α7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic α7 ligand α-bungarotoxin binds to α1* and α9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC50 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked α7 nAChRs but not α1* or α9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing α7 but not cells expressing α3β2, α3β4, or α4β2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild type mice but not from nAChR α7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging α7 nAChRs. PMID:20492354

  14. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] is a potent ligand for selectively labeling alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Arik J; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L; Jacob, Michele H; McIntosh, J Michael

    2010-08-01

    The alpha7* (*denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels alpha7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic alpha7 ligand alpha-bungarotoxin binds to alpha1* and alpha9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC(50) 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked alpha7 nAChRs but not alpha1* or alpha9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing alpha7 but not cells expressing alpha3beta2, alpha3beta4, or alpha4beta2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice but not from nAChR alpha7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging alpha7 nAChRs.

  15. The prosegments of furin and PC7 as potent inhibitors of proprotein convertases. In vitro and ex vivo assessment of their efficacy and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M; Munzer, J S; Basak, A; Benjannet, S; Mowla, S J; Decroly, E; Chrétien, M; Seidah, N G

    1999-11-26

    All proprotein convertases (PCs) of the subtilisin/kexin family contain an N-terminal prosegment that is presumed to act both as an intramolecular chaperone and an inhibitor of its parent enzyme. In this work, we examined inhibition by purified, recombinant bacterial prosegments of furin and PC7 on the in vitro processing of either the fluorogenic peptide pERTKR-MCA or the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp160. These propeptides are potent inhibitors that display measurable selectivity toward specific proprotein convertases. Small, synthetic decapeptides derived from the C termini of the prosegments are also potent inhibitors, albeit less so than the full-length proteins, and the C-terminal P1 arginine is essential for inhibition. The bacterial, recombinant prosegments were also used to generate specific antisera, allowing us to study the intracellular metabolic fate of the prosegments of furin and PC7 expressed via vaccinia virus constructs. These vaccinia virus recombinants, along with transient transfectants of the preprosegments of furin and PC7, efficiently inhibited the ex vivo processing of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time that PC prosegments, expressed ex vivo as independent domains, can act in trans to inhibit precursor maturation by intracellular PCs.

  16. High constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor--identification of a potent inverse agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Cygankiewicz, Adam; Jensen, Tine Halkjaer

    2003-01-01

    Ghrelin is a GH-releasing peptide that also has an important role as an orexigenic hormone-stimulating food intake. By measuring inositol phosphate turnover or by using a reporter assay for transcriptional activity controlled by cAMP-responsive elements, the ghrelin receptor showed strong, ligand......-independent signaling in transfected COS-7 or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Ghrelin and a number of the known nonpeptide GH secretagogues acted as agonists stimulating inositol phosphate turnover further. In contrast, the low potency ghrelin antagonist, [D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]-substance P was surprisingly...... found to be a high potency (EC50 = 5.2 nm) full inverse agonist as it decreased the constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor down to that observed in untransfected cells. The homologous motilin receptor functioned as a negative control as it did not display any sign of constitutive activity...

  17. Multi-Layer Identification of Highly-Potent ABCA1 Up-Regulators Targeting LXRβ Using Multiple QSAR Modeling, Structural Similarity Analysis, and Molecular Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meimei Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in silico approaches, including multiple QSAR modeling, structural similarity analysis, and molecular docking, were applied to develop QSAR classification models as a fast screening tool for identifying highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ based on a series of new flavonoids. Initially, four modeling approaches, including linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, radial basis function neural network, and classification and regression trees, were applied to construct different QSAR classification models. The statistics results indicated that these four kinds of QSAR models were powerful tools for screening highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators. Then, a consensus QSAR model was developed by combining the predictions from these four models. To discover new ABCA1 up-regulators at maximum accuracy, the compounds in the ZINC database that fulfilled the requirement of structural similarity of 0.7 compared to known potent ABCA1 up-regulator were subjected to the consensus QSAR model, which led to the discovery of 50 compounds. Finally, they were docked into the LXRβ binding site to understand their role in up-regulating ABCA1 expression. The excellent binding modes and docking scores of 10 hit compounds suggested they were highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ. Overall, this study provided an effective strategy to discover highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators.

  18. Multi-Layer Identification of Highly-Potent ABCA1 Up-Regulators Targeting LXRβ Using Multiple QSAR Modeling, Structural Similarity Analysis, and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Fafu; Kang, Jie; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-11-29

    In this study, in silico approaches, including multiple QSAR modeling, structural similarity analysis, and molecular docking, were applied to develop QSAR classification models as a fast screening tool for identifying highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ based on a series of new flavonoids. Initially, four modeling approaches, including linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, radial basis function neural network, and classification and regression trees, were applied to construct different QSAR classification models. The statistics results indicated that these four kinds of QSAR models were powerful tools for screening highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators. Then, a consensus QSAR model was developed by combining the predictions from these four models. To discover new ABCA1 up-regulators at maximum accuracy, the compounds in the ZINC database that fulfilled the requirement of structural similarity of 0.7 compared to known potent ABCA1 up-regulator were subjected to the consensus QSAR model, which led to the discovery of 50 compounds. Finally, they were docked into the LXRβ binding site to understand their role in up-regulating ABCA1 expression. The excellent binding modes and docking scores of 10 hit compounds suggested they were highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ. Overall, this study provided an effective strategy to discover highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators.

  19. Defining the molecular basis for the first potent and selective orthosteric agonists of the FFA2 free fatty acid receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    FFA2 is a G protein-coupled receptor that responds to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and has generated interest as a therapeutic target for metabolic and inflammatory conditions. However, definition of its functions has been slowed by a dearth of selective ligands that can distinguish it from...

  20. Highly potent soluble amyloid-β seeds in human Alzheimer brain but not cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Sarah K; Langer, Franziska; Kaeser, Stephan A; Maia, Luis F; Portelius, Erik; Pinotsi, Dorothea; Kaminski, Clemens F; Winkler, David T; Maetzler, Walter; Keyvani, Kathy; Spitzer, Philipp; Wiltfang, Jens; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S; Zetterberg, Henrik; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Jucker, Mathias

    2014-11-01

    The soluble fraction of brain samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease contains highly biologically active amyloid-β seeds. In this study, we sought to assess the potency of soluble amyloid-β seeds derived from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Soluble Alzheimer's disease brain extracts were serially diluted and then injected into the hippocampus of young, APP transgenic mice. Eight months later, seeded amyloid-β deposition was evident even when the hippocampus received subattomole amounts of brain-derived amyloid-β. In contrast, cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer's disease, which contained more than 10-fold higher levels of amyloid-β peptide than the most concentrated soluble brain extracts, did not induce detectable seeding activity in vivo. Similarly, cerebrospinal fluid from aged APP-transgenic donor mice failed to induce cerebral amyloid-β deposition. In comparison to the soluble brain fraction, cerebrospinal fluid largely lacked N-terminally truncated amyloid-β species and exhibited smaller amyloid-β-positive particles, features that may contribute to the lack of in vivo seeding by cerebrospinal fluid. Interestingly, the same cerebrospinal fluid showed at least some seeding activity in an in vitro assay. The present results indicate that the biological seeding activity of soluble amyloid-β species is orders of magnitude greater in brain extracts than in the cerebrospinal fluid. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A human antibody to the CD4 binding site of gp120 capable of highly potent but sporadic cross clade neutralization of primary HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes S Gach

    Full Text Available Primary isolates of HIV-1 resist neutralization by most antibodies to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs on gp120 due to occlusion of this site on the trimeric spike. We describe 1F7, a human CD4bs monoclonal antibody that was found to be exceptionally potent against the HIV-1 primary isolate JR-FL. However, 1F7 failed to neutralize a patient-matched primary isolate, JR-CSF even though the two isolates differ by <10% in gp120 at the protein level. In an HIV-1 cross clade panel (n = 157, 1F7 exhibited moderate breadth, but occasionally achieved considerable potency. In binding experiments using monomeric gp120s of select resistant isolates and domain-swap chimeras between JR-FL and JR-CSF, recognition by 1F7 was limited by sequence polymorphisms involving at least the C2 region of Env. Putative N-linked glycosylation site (PNGS mutations, notably at position 197, allowed 1F7 to neutralize JR-CSF potently without improving binding to the cognate, monomeric gp120. In contrast, flow cytometry experiments using the same PNGS mutants revealed that 1F7 binding is enhanced on cognate trimeric Env. BN-PAGE mobility shift experiments revealed that 1F7 is sensitive to the diagnostic mutation D368R in the CD4 binding loop of gp120. Our data on 1F7 reinforce how exquisitely targeted CD4bs antibodies must be to achieve cross neutralization of two closely related primary isolates. High-resolution analyses of trimeric Env that show the orientation of glycans and polymorphic elements of the CD4bs that affect binding to antibodies like 1F7 are desirable to understand how to promote immunogenicity of more conserved elements of the CD4bs.

  2. Search for Potent and Selective Aurora A Inhibitors Based on General Ser/Thr Kinase Pharmacophore Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevich, Natalya I; Tatarskiy, Victor V; Aksenova, Elena A; Kazyulkin, Denis N; Afanasyev, Ilya I

    2016-04-13

    Based on the data for compounds known from the literature to be active against various types of Ser/Thr kinases, a general pharmachophore model for these types of kinases was developed. The search for the molecules fitting to this pharmacophore among the ASINEX proprietary library revealed a number of compounds, which were tested and appeared to possess some activity against Ser/Thr kinases such as Aurora A, Aurora B and Haspin. Our work on the optimization of these molecules against Aurora A kinase allowed us to achieve several hits in a 3-5 nM range of activity with rather good selectivity and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) properties, and cytotoxicity against 16 cancer cell lines. Thus, we showed the possibility to fine-tune the general Ser/Thr pharmacophore to design active and selective compounds against desired types of kinases.

  3. Tetrasubstituted phenanthrolines as highly potent, water-soluble, and selective g-quadruplex ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Foller; Nielsen, Mads Corvinius; Ulven, Trond

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules capable of stabilizing the G-quadruplex (G4) structure are of interest for the development of improved anticancer drugs. Novel 4,7-diamino-substituted 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxamides that represent hybrid structures of known phenanthroline-based ligands have been designed...

  4. Tetrahydro-2-naphthyl and 2-Indanyl Triazolopyrimidines Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Display Potent and Selective Antimalarial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, Karen L.; Coteron, Jose M.; Marco, Maria; de las Heras, Laura; White, John; El Mazouni, Farah; Tomchick, Diana R.; Manjalanagara, Krishne; Rudra, Kakali Rani; Chen, Gong; Morizzi, Julia; Ryan, Eileen; Kaminsky, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Malaria persists as one of the most devastating global infectious diseases. The pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) has been identified as a new malaria drug target, and a triazolopyrimidine-based DHODH inhibitor 1 (DSM265) is in clinical development. We sought to identify compounds with higher potency against Plasmodium DHODH while showing greater selectivity toward animal DHODHs. Herein we describe a series of novel triazolopyrimidines wherein the p-SF5-anili...

  5. Characterisation of CCT271850, a selective, oral and potent MPS1 inhibitor, used to directly measure in vivo MPS1 inhibition vs therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Amir; Mak, Grace W Y; Gurden, Mark D; Xavier, Cristina P R; Anderhub, Simon J; Innocenti, Paolo; Westwood, Isaac M; Naud, Sébastien; Hayes, Angela; Box, Gary; Valenti, Melanie R; De Haven Brandon, Alexis K; O'Fee, Lisa; Schmitt, Jessica; Woodward, Hannah L; Burke, Rosemary; vanMontfort, Rob L M; Blagg, Julian; Raynaud, Florence I; Eccles, Suzanne A; Hoelder, Swen; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2017-04-25

    The main role of the cell cycle is to enable error-free DNA replication, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. One of the best characterised checkpoint pathways is the spindle assembly checkpoint, which prevents anaphase onset until the appropriate attachment and tension across kinetochores is achieved. MPS1 kinase activity is essential for the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and has been shown to be deregulated in human tumours with chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Therefore, MPS1 inhibition represents an attractive strategy to target cancers. To evaluate CCT271850 cellular potency, two specific antibodies that recognise the activation sites of MPS1 were used and its antiproliferative activity was determined in 91 human cancer cell lines. DLD1 cells with induced GFP-MPS1 and HCT116 cells were used in in vivo studies to directly measure MPS1 inhibition and efficacy of CCT271850 treatment. CCT271850 selectively and potently inhibits MPS1 kinase activity in biochemical and cellular assays and in in vivo models. Mechanistically, tumour cells treated with CCT271850 acquire aberrant numbers of chromosomes and the majority of cells divide their chromosomes without proper alignment because of abrogation of the mitotic checkpoint, leading to cell death. We demonstrated a moderate level of efficacy of CCT271850 as a single agent in a human colorectal carcinoma xenograft model. CCT271850 is a potent, selective and orally bioavailable MPS1 kinase inhibitor. On the basis of in vivo pharmacodynamic vs efficacy relationships, we predict that more than 80% inhibition of MPS1 activity for at least 24 h is required to achieve tumour stasis or regression by CCT271850.

  6. Ginkgolide X is a potent antagonist of anionic Cys-loop receptors with a unique selectivity profile at glycine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Bergmann, Marianne Lerbæk; Sander, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    The novel ginkgolide analog ginkgolide X was characterized functionally at human glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GlyRs and GABAARs, respectively) in the fluorescence-based FLIPR Membrane Potential assay. The compound inhibited the signalling of all GABAAR subtypes included...... and alpha2beta subtypes at concentrations up to 300 muM. Thus, the functional properties of the compound were significantly different from those of the naturally occuring ginkgolides A, B, C, J and M but similar to those of picrotoxin. In a mutagenesis study the 6' M2 residues in the GlyR ion channel were...... identified as the primary molecular determinant of the selectivity profile of ginkgolide X, and a 6' M2 ring consisting of five Thr residues was found to be of key importance for its activity at the GABAAR. Conformational analysis and docking of low-energy conformations of the native ginkgolide...

  7. siSPOTR: a tool for designing highly specific and potent siRNAs for human and mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Ryan L.; Spengler, Ryan M.; Hylock, Ray H.; Kusenda, Brandyn J.; Davis, Heather A.; Eichmann, David A.; Davidson, Beverly L.

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) serves as a powerful and widely used gene silencing tool for basic biological research and is being developed as a therapeutic avenue to suppress disease-causing genes. However, the specificity and safety of RNAi strategies remains under scrutiny because small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) induce off-target silencing. Currently, the tools available for designing siRNAs are biased toward efficacy as opposed to specificity. Prior work from our laboratory and others’ supports the potential to design highly specific siRNAs by limiting the promiscuity of their seed sequences (positions 2–8 of the small RNA), the primary determinant of off-targeting. Here, a bioinformatic approach to predict off-targeting potentials was established using publically available siRNA data from more than 50 microarray experiments. With this, we developed a specificity-focused siRNA design algorithm and accompanying online tool which, upon validation, identifies candidate sequences with minimal off-targeting potentials and potent silencing capacities. This tool offers researchers unique functionality and output compared with currently available siRNA design programs. Furthermore, this approach can greatly improve genome-wide RNAi libraries and, most notably, provides the only broadly applicable means to limit off-targeting from RNAi expression vectors. PMID:22941647

  8. When the most potent combination of antibiotics selects for the greatest bacterial load: the smile-frown transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pena-Miller

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom holds that the best way to treat infection with antibiotics is to 'hit early and hit hard'. A favoured strategy is to deploy two antibiotics that produce a stronger effect in combination than if either drug were used alone. But are such synergistic combinations necessarily optimal? We combine mathematical modelling, evolution experiments, whole genome sequencing and genetic manipulation of a resistance mechanism to demonstrate that deploying synergistic antibiotics can, in practice, be the worst strategy if bacterial clearance is not achieved after the first treatment phase. As treatment proceeds, it is only to be expected that the strength of antibiotic synergy will diminish as the frequency of drug-resistant bacteria increases. Indeed, antibiotic efficacy decays exponentially in our five-day evolution experiments. However, as the theory of competitive release predicts, drug-resistant bacteria replicate fastest when their drug-susceptible competitors are eliminated by overly-aggressive treatment. Here, synergy exerts such strong selection for resistance that an antagonism consistently emerges by day 1 and the initially most aggressive treatment produces the greatest bacterial load, a fortiori greater than if just one drug were given. Whole genome sequencing reveals that such rapid evolution is the result of the amplification of a genomic region containing four drug-resistance mechanisms, including the acrAB efflux operon. When this operon is deleted in genetically manipulated mutants and the evolution experiment repeated, antagonism fails to emerge in five days and antibiotic synergy is maintained for longer. We therefore conclude that unless super-inhibitory doses are achieved and maintained until the pathogen is successfully cleared, synergistic antibiotics can have the opposite effect to that intended by helping to increase pathogen load where, and when, the drugs are found at sub-inhibitory concentrations.

  9. C-5-Modified Tetrahydropyrano-Tetrahydofuran-Derived Protease Inhibitors (PIs) Exert Potent Inhibition of the Replication of HIV-1 Variants Highly Resistant to Various PIs, including Darunavir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Manabu; Hayashi, Hironori; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Takamatsu, Yuki; Aoki-Ogata, Hiromi; Nakamura, Teruya; Nakata, Hirotomo; Das, Debananda; Yamagata, Yuriko; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We identified three nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-015, -085, and -097, containing tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF) with a C-5 hydroxyl. The three compounds were potent against a wild-type laboratory HIV-1 strain (HIV-1WT), with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 3.0 to 49 nM, and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity, with 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) for GRL-015, -085, and -097 of 80, >100, and >100 μM, respectively. All the three compounds potently inhibited the replication of highly PI-resistant HIV-1 variants selected with each of the currently available PIs and recombinant clinical HIV-1 isolates obtained from patients harboring multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants (HIVMDR). Importantly, darunavir (DRV) was >1,000 times less active against a highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant (HIV-1DRVRP51); the three compounds remained active against HIV-1DRVRP51 with only a 6.8- to 68-fold reduction. Moreover, the emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to the three compounds was considerably delayed compared to the case of DRV. In particular, HIV-1 variants resistant to GRL-085 and -097 did not emerge even when two different highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variants were used as a starting population. In the structural analyses, Tp-THF of GRL-015, -085, and -097 showed strong hydrogen bond interactions with the backbone atoms of active-site amino acid residues (Asp29 and Asp30) of HIV-1 protease. A strong hydrogen bonding formation between the hydroxyl moiety of Tp-THF and a carbonyl oxygen atom of Gly48 was newly identified. The present findings indicate that the three compounds warrant further study as possible therapeutic agents for treating individuals harboring wild-type HIV and/or HIVMDR. IMPORTANCE Darunavir (DRV) inhibits the replication of most existing multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains and has a high genetic barrier. However, the emergence of highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 strains (HIVDRVR) has recently been observed in vivo and in

  10. Discovery of 3-(3-(4-(1-Aminocyclobutyl)phenyl)-5-phenyl-3 H -imidazo[4,5- b ]pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-2-amine (ARQ 092): An Orally Bioavailable, Selective, and Potent Allosteric AKT Inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapierre, Jean-Marc; Eathiraj, Sudharshan; Vensel, David; Liu, Yanbin; Bull, Cathy O.; Cornell-Kennon, Susan; Iimura, Shin; Kelleher, Eugene W.; Kizer, Darin E.; Koerner, Steffi; Makhija, Sapna; Matsuda, Akihisa; Moussa, Magdi; Namdev, Nivedita; Savage, Ronald E.; Szwaya, Jeff; Volckova, Erika; Westlund, Neil; Wu, Hui; Schwartz, Brian

    2016-06-15

    The work in this paper describes the optimization of the 3-(3-phenyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-2-amine chemical series as potent, selective allosteric inhibitors of AKT kinases, leading to the discovery of ARQ 092 (21a). The cocrystal structure of compound 21a bound to full-length AKT1 confirmed the allosteric mode of inhibition of this chemical class and the role of the cyclobutylamine moiety. Compound 21a demonstrated high enzymatic potency against AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3, as well as potent cellular inhibition of AKT activation and the phosphorylation of the downstream target PRAS40. Compound 21a also served as a potent inhibitor of the AKT1-E17K mutant protein and inhibited tumor growth in a human xenograft mouse model of endometrial adenocarcinoma.

  11. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a potent, orally bioavailable, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor CCR5 with broad-spectrum anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos

    2005-11-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades and diverse geographic origin (geometric mean 90% inhibitory concentration of 2.0 nM). Maraviroc was active against 200 clinically derived HIV-1 envelope-recombinant pseudoviruses, 100 of which were derived from viruses resistant to existing drug classes. There was little difference in the sensitivity of the 200 viruses to maraviroc, as illustrated by the biological cutoff in this assay (= geometric mean plus two standard deviations [SD] of 1.7-fold). The mechanism of action of maraviroc was established using cell-based assays, where it blocked binding of viral envelope, gp120, to CCR5 to prevent the membrane fusion events necessary for viral entry. Maraviroc did not affect CCR5 cell surface levels or associated intracellular signaling, confirming it as a functional antagonist of CCR5. Maraviroc has no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity and is highly selective for CCR5, as confirmed against a wide range of receptors and enzymes, including the hERG ion channel (50% inhibitory concentration, >10 microM), indicating potential for an excellent clinical safety profile. Studies in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models predicted maraviroc to have human pharmacokinetics consistent with once- or twice-daily dosing following oral administration. Clinical trials are ongoing to further investigate the potential of using maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and AIDS.

  12. Development of water-soluble polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers as novel and highly potent topical anti-HIV-2 microbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Verónica; Sepúlveda-Crespo, Daniel; Diniz, Ana Rita; Borrego, Pedro; Rodes, Berta; de La Mata, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Taveira, Nuno; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The development of topical microbicide formulations for vaginal delivery to prevent HIV-2 sexual transmission is urgently needed. Second- and third-generation polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers with a silicon atom core and 16 sulfonate (G2-S16), napthylsulfonate (G2-NS16) and sulphate (G3-Sh16) end-groups have shown potent and broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity. However, their antiviral activity against HIV-2 and mode of action have not been probed. Cytotoxicity, anti-HIV-2, anti-sperm and antimicrobial activities of dendrimers were determined. Analysis of combined effects of triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir was performed by using CalcuSyn software. We also assessed the mode of antiviral action on the inhibition of HIV-2 infection through a panel of different in vitro antiviral assays: attachment, internalization in PBMCs, inactivation and cell-based fusion. Vaginal irritation and histological analysis in female BALB/c mice were evaluated. Our results suggest that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 exert anti-HIV-2 activity at an early stage of viral replication inactivating the virus, inhibiting cell-to-cell HIV-2 transmission, and blocking the binding of gp120 to CD4, and the HIV-2 entry. Triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir increased the anti-HIV-2 activity, consistent with synergistic interactions (CIwt: 0.33-0.66). No vaginal irritation was detected in BALB/c mice after two consecutive applications for 2 days with 3% G2-S16. Our results have clearly shown that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 have high potency against HIV-2 infection. The modes of action confirm their multifactorial and non-specific ability, suggesting that these dendrimers deserve further studies as potential candidate microbicides to prevent vaginal/rectal HIV-1/HIV-2 transmission in humans.

  13. Discovery of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones As a Novel Class of Potent and Selective A2B Adenosine Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Abel; El Maatougui, Abdelaziz; Biagini, Pierfrancesco; Azuaje, Jhonny; Coelho, Alberto; Brea, José; Loza, María Isabel; Cadavid, María Isabel; García-Mera, Xerardo; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Sotelo, Eddy

    2013-11-14

    We describe the discovery and optimization of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones as a novel family of (nonxanthine) A2B receptor antagonists that exhibit an unusually high selectivity profile. The Biginelli-based hit optimization process enabled a thoughtful exploration of the structure-activity and structure-selectivity relationships for this chemotype, enabling the identification of ligands that combine structural simplicity with excellent hA2B AdoR affinity and remarkable selectivity profiles.

  14. Characterization of Pharmacologic and Pharmacokinetic Properties of CCX168, a Potent and Selective Orally Administered Complement 5a Receptor Inhibitor, Based on Preclinical Evaluation and Randomized Phase 1 Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Pirow; Dairaghi, Daniel; Seitz, Lisa; Leleti, Manmohan; Wang, Yu; Ertl, Linda; Baumgart, Trageen; Shugarts, Sarah; Lohr, Lisa; Dang, Ton; Miao, Shichang; Zeng, Yibin; Fan, Pingchen; Zhang, Penglie; Johnson, Daniel; Powers, Jay; Jaen, Juan; Charo, Israel; Schall, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The complement 5a receptor has been an attractive therapeutic target for many autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. However, development of a selective and potent C5aR antagonist has been challenging. Here we describe the characterization of CCX168 (avacopan), an orally administered selective and potent C5aR inhibitor. CCX168 blocked the C5a binding, C5a-mediated migration, calcium mobilization, and CD11b upregulation in U937 cells as well as in freshly isolated human neutrophils. CCX168 retains high potency when present in human blood. A transgenic human C5aR knock-in mouse model allowed comparison of the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the molecule. CCX168 effectively blocked migration in in vitro and ex vivo chemotaxis assays, and it blocked the C5a-mediated neutrophil vascular endothelial margination. CCX168 was effective in migration and neutrophil margination assays in cynomolgus monkeys. This thorough in vitro and preclinical characterization enabled progression of CCX168 into the clinic and testing of its safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic profiles in a Phase 1 clinical trial in 48 healthy volunteers. CCX168 was shown to be well tolerated across a broad dose range (1 to 100 mg) and it showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics. An oral dose of 30 mg CCX168 given twice daily blocked the C5a-induced upregulation of CD11b in circulating neutrophils by 94% or greater throughout the entire day, demonstrating essentially complete target coverage. This dose regimen is being tested in clinical trials in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry with trial ID ISRCTN13564773.

  15. Saxagliptin, a potent, selective inhibitor of DPP-4, does not alter the pharmacokinetics of three oral antidiabetic drugs (metformin, glyburide or pioglitazone) in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C G; Kornhauser, D; Vachharajani, N; Komoroski, B; Brenner, E; Handschuh del Corral, M; Li, L; Boulton, D W

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetic interactions of the potent, selective, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, saxagliptin, in combination with metformin, glyburide or pioglitazone. To assess the effect of co-administration of saxagliptin with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) on the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of saxagliptin, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin, metformin, glyburide, pioglitazone and hydroxy-pioglitazone, analyses of variance were performed on maximum (peak) plasma drug concentration (C(max)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) [saxagliptin + metformin (study 1) and saxagliptin + glyburide (study 2)] and area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to time t (AUC) [saxagliptin + pioglitazone (study 3)] for each analyte in the respective studies. Studies 1 and 2 were open-label, randomized, three-period, three-treatment, crossover studies, and study 3 was an open-label, non-randomized, sequential study in healthy subjects. Co-administration of saxagliptin with metformin, glyburide or pioglitazone did not result in clinically meaningful alterations in the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin or its metabolite, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin. Following co-administration of saxagliptin, there were no clinically meaningful alterations in the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glyburide, pioglitazone or hydroxy-pioglitazone. Saxagliptin was generally safe and well tolerated when administered alone or in combination with metformin, glyburide or pioglitazone. Saxagliptin can be co-administered with metformin, glyburide or pioglitazone without a need for dose adjustment of either saxagliptin or these OADs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Open saccharin-based secondary sulfonamides as potent and selective inhibitors of cancer-related carbonic anhydrase IX and XII isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzio, Melissa; Guglielmi, Paolo; Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; Florio, Rosalba; Mollica, Adriano; Ceruso, Mariangela; Akdemir, Atilla; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-12-01

    A large number of novel secondary sulfonamides based on the open saccharin scaffold were synthesized and evaluated as selective inhibitors of four different isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA I, II, IX and XII, EC 4.2.1.1). They were obtained by reductive ring opening of the newly synthesized N-alkylated saccharin derivatives and were shown to be inactive against the two cytosolic off-target hCA I and II (K i s > 10 µM). Interestingly, these compounds inhibited hCA IX in the low nanomolar range with K i s ranging between 20 and 298 nM and were extremely potent inhibitors of hCA XII isoenzyme (K i s ranging between 4.3 and 432 nM). Since hCA IX and XII are the cancer-related isoforms recently validated as drug targets, these results represent an important goal in the development of new anticancer candidates. Finally, a computational approach has been performed to better correlate the biological data to the binding mode of these inhibitors.

  17. The Pharmacology of TUG-891, a Potent and Selective Agonist of the Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120), Demonstrates Both Potential Opportunity and Possible Challenges to Therapeutic Agonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Shimpukade, Bharat; Mackenzie, Amanda E

    2013-01-01

    TUG-891 [3-(4-((4-fluoro-4'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid] was recently described as a potent and selective agonist for the long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) receptor 4 (FFA4; previously G protein-coupled receptor 120, or GPR120). Herein, we have used TUG-891 to further...

  18. Effects of a newly developed potent orexin-2 receptor-selective antagonist Compound1m on sleep/wake states in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi eEtori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orexins (also known as hypocretins, which are hypothalamic neuropeptides, play critical roles in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states by activating two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, orexin 1 (OX1R and orexin 2 receptors (OX2R. In order to know the difference between effects of OX2R-selective antagonists (2-SORA and dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORA, and to understand the mechanisms underlying orexin-mediated regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, we examined the effects of a newly developed 2-SORA, Compound 1m (C1m, and a DORA, suvorexant, on sleep/wakefulness states in C57BL/6J mice. After oral administration in the dark period, both C1m and suvorexant exhibited potent sleep-promoting properties with similar efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. While C1m did not increase NREM and REM sleep episode durations, suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered groups. When compounds were injected during light period, C1m did not show a significant change in sleep/wakefulness states in the light period, whereas suvorexant slightly but significantly increased the sleep time. We also found that C1m did not affect the time of REM sleep, while suvorexant markedly increased it. This suggests that although OX1R-mediated pathway plays a pivotal role in promoting wakefulness, OX1R-mediated pathway also plays an additional role. OX1R-mediated pathway also plays a role in suppression of REM sleep. Fos-immunostaining showed that both compounds affected the activity of arousal-related neurons with different patterns. These results suggest partly overlapping and partly distinct roles of orexin receptors in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states.

  19. Selection of potent bacterial strain for over-production of PHB by using low cost carbon source for eco-friendly bioplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Abdul Rehman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microbial PHB production is a promising tool for the plastic industry for the synthesis of environmental friendly, biodegradable plastic in contrast to the conventional petro-chemical based non-degradable plastics. The selection of potent bacterial strains, inexpensive carbon source, efficient fermentation and recovery processes are important aspects that were taken into account during this study. Methods: Different bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus Spp, P. putida and P. fluorescens were screened for maximum PHB production. Under media optimization, various carbon and nitrogen sources (alone or in combination were used to achieve the maximum PHB production. Finally the degradation tests of the PHB sheet were also performed to test its biodegradability potential. Results: Shake flask studies have shown the PHB concentrations upto 7.02, 4.50 and 34.4 mg/g of dry cell mass of P. putida, P. fluorescens and Bacillus Spp. respectively. Almost same results were observed at laboratory scale production of PHB in 10 L fermenter i.e. 6.28, 6.23 and 39.5 mg/g of dry cell mass by P. putida, P. fluorescens and Bacillus Spp. respectively. On the basis of these observations, Bacillus Spp. was chosen for laboratory scale PHB production. Corn steep liquor (4% was chosen as the best medium to achieve the highest PHB contents. Isolated PHB has shown biodegradation in soil up to 86.7% at 37oC. Conclusion: The Bacillus Spp. Proved to be the best strain for PHB production on only 4% CSL which is cheapest and easily available.

  20. Tissue selectivity and potential clinical applications of trenbolone (17beta-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one): A potent anabolic steroid with reduced androgenic and estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Joshua F; McCoy, Sean C; Borst, Stephen E

    2010-06-01

    Recently, the development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) has been suggested as a means of combating the deleterious catabolic effects of hypogonadism, especially in skeletal muscle and bone, without inducing the undesirable androgenic effects (e.g., prostate enlargement and polycythemia) associated with testosterone administration. 17beta-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone; 17beta-TBOH), a synthetic analog of testosterone, may be capable of inducing SARM-like effects as it binds to androgen receptors (ARs) with approximately three times the affinity of testosterone and has been shown to augment skeletal muscle mass and bone growth and reduce adiposity in a variety of mammalian species. In addition to its direct actions through ARs, 17beta-TBOH may also exert anabolic effects by altering the action of endogenous growth factors or inhibiting the action of glucocorticoids. Compared to testosterone, 17beta-TBOH appears to induce less growth in androgen-sensitive organs which highly express the 5alpha reductase enzyme (e.g., prostate tissue and accessory sex organs). The reduced androgenic effects result from the fact that 17beta-TBOH is metabolized to less potent androgens in vivo; while testosterone undergoes tissue-specific biotransformation to more potent steroids, dihydrotestosterone and 17beta-estradiol, via the 5alpha-reductase and aromatase enzymes, respectively. Thus the metabolism of 17beta-TBOH provides a basis for future research evaluating its safety and efficacy as a means of combating muscle and bone wasting conditions, obesity, and/or androgen insensitivity syndromes in humans, similar to that of other SARMs which are currently in development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Design and synthesis of highly potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors with novel isosorbide-derived P2 ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xin; Zhao, Guo-Dong; Tang, Long-Qiang; Liu, Zhao-Peng

    2014-06-01

    The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of six HIV-1 protease inhibitors incorporating isosorbide moiety as novel P2 ligands are described. All the compounds are very potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors with IC50 values in the nanomolar or picomolar ranges (0.05-0.43 nM). Molecular docking studies revealed the formation of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network between the inhibitor and the active site. Particularly, the isosorbide-derived P2 ligand is involved in strong hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone atoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of 4-(Aminomethyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-(phenoxy)pyridine Derivatives as Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious Inhibitors of the Copper-Dependent Amine Oxidase, Lysyl Oxidase-Like 2 (LOXL2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Martin W; Bain, Gretchen; Calderon, Imelda; Lasof, Taylor; Lonergan, David; Lai, Andiliy; Huang, Fei; Darlington, Janice; Prodanovich, Patricia; Santini, Angelina M; King, Christopher D; Goulet, Lance; Shannon, Kristen E; Ma, Gina L; Nguyen, Katherine; MacKenna, Deidre A; Evans, Jilly F; Hutchinson, John H

    2017-05-25

    LOXL2 catalyzes the oxidative deamination of ε-amines of lysine and hydroxylysine residues within collagen and elastin, generating reactive aldehydes (allysine). Condensation with other allysines or lysines drives the formation of inter- and intramolecular cross-linkages, a process critical for the remodeling of the ECM. Dysregulation of this process can lead to fibrosis, and LOXL2 is known to be upregulated in fibrotic tissue. Small-molecules that directly inhibit LOXL2 catalytic activity represent a useful option for the treatment of fibrosis. Herein, we describe optimization of an initial hit 2, resulting in identification of racemic-trans-(3-((4-(aminomethyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)phenyl)(3-fluoro-4-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone 28, a potent irreversible inhibitor of LOXL2 that is highly selective over LOX and other amine oxidases. Oral administration of 28 significantly reduced fibrosis in a 14-day mouse lung bleomycin model. The (R,R)-enantiomer 43 (PAT-1251) was selected as the clinical compound which has progressed into healthy volunteer Phase 1 trials, making it the "first-in-class" small-molecule LOXL2 inhibitor to enter clinical development.

  3. Aminopurvalanol A, a Potent, Selective, and Cell Permeable Inhibitor of Cyclins/Cdk Complexes, Causes the Reduction of in Vitro Fertilizing Ability of Boar Spermatozoa, by Negatively Affecting the Capacitation-Dependent Actin Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bernabò

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of high-througput technologies demonstrated that in mature spermatozoa are present proteins that are thought to be not present or active in sperm cells, such as those involved in control of cell cycle. Here, by using an in silico approach based on the application of networks theory, we found that Cyclins/Cdk complexes could play a central role in signal transduction active during capacitation. Then, we tested this hypothesis in the vitro model. With this approach, spermatozoa were incubated under capacitating conditions in control conditions (CTRL or in the presence of Aminopurvalanol A a potent, selective and cell permeable inhibitor of Cyclins/Cdk complexes at different concentrations (2, 10, and 20 μM. We found that this treatment caused dose-dependent inhibition of sperm fertilizing ability. We attribute this event to the loss of acrosome integrity due to the inhibition of physiological capacitation-dependent actin polymerization, rather than to a detrimental effect on membrane lipid remodeling or on other signaling pathways such as tubulin reorganization or MAPKs activation. In our opinion, these data could revamp the knowledge on biochemistry of sperm capacitation and could suggest new perspectives in studying male infertility.

  4. Synthesis and biological activity of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives: highly potent and efficacious agonists for cortical muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L J; Baker, R; Book, T; Kneen, C O; MacLeod, A M; Merchant, K J; Showell, G A; Saunders, J; Herbert, R H; Freedman, S B

    1990-10-01

    The synthesis and biochemical evaluation of novel 1,2,4-oxadiazole-based muscarinic agonists which can readily penetrate into the CNS is reported. Efficacy and binding of these compounds are markedly influenced by the structure and physicochemical properties of the cationic head group. In a series of azabicyclic ligands efficacy and affinity are influenced by the size of the surface area presented to the receptor, at the active site, and the degree of conformational flexibility. The exo-1-azanorbornane 16a represents the optimum arrangement, and this compound is one of the most efficacious and potent muscarinic agonists known. In a series of isoquinuclidine based muscarinic agonists efficacy and affinity are influenced by the geometry between the cationic head.group and hydrogen bond acceptor pharmacophore and steric bulk in the vicinity of the base. The anti configuration represented by 22a is optimal for muscarinic activity. Ligands with pKa below 6.5 show poor binding to the muscarinic receptor as exemplified by the diazabicyclic derivative 42.

  5. Evolution of potent odorants within the volatile metabolome of high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.): evaluation by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Marta Cialiè; Liberto, Erica; Spigolon, Nicola; Fontana, Mauro; Somenzi, Marco; Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara

    2018-01-09

    Within the pattern of volatiles released by food products (volatilome), potent odorants are bio-active compounds that trigger aroma perception by activating a complex array of odor receptors (ORs) in the regio olfactoria. Their informative role is fundamental to select optimal post-harvest and storage conditions and preserve food sensory quality. This study addresses the volatile metabolome from high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from the Ordu region (Turkey) and Tonda Romana from Italy, and investigates its evolution throughout the production chain (post-harvest, industrial storage, roasting) to find functional correlations between technological strategies and product quality. The volatile metabolome is analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextration combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dedicated pattern recognition, based on 2D data (targeted fingerprinting), is used to mine analytical outputs, while principal component analysis (PCA), Fisher ratio, hierarchical clustering, and analysis of variance are used to find decision makers among the most informative chemicals. Low-temperature drying (18-20 °C) has a decisive effect on quality; it correlates negatively with bacteria and mold metabolic activity, nut viability, and lipid oxidation products (2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, octanal and (E)-2-heptanal). Protective atmosphere storage (99% N2-1% O2) effectively limits lipid oxidation for 9-12 months after nut harvest. The combination of optimal drying and storage preserves the aroma potential; after roasting at different shelf-lives, key odorants responsible for malty and buttery (2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione and 2,3-pentanedione), earthy (methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine) and caramel-like and musty notes (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone - furaneol and acetyl pyrrole) show no

  6. Design and synthesis of N-[6-(Substituted Aminoethylideneamino)-2-Hydroxyindan-1-yl]arylamides as selective and potent muscarinic M₁ agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Croy, Carrie H; Hitchcock, Stephen A; Allen, Jennifer R; Rao, Zhigang; Evans, David; Bures, Mark G; McKinzie, David L; Watt, Marla Leigh; Stuart Gregory, G; Hansen, Marvin M; Hoogestraat, Paul J; Jamison, James A; Okha-Mokube, Fese M; Stratford, Robert E; Turner, William; Bymaster, Frank; Felder, Christian C

    2015-10-01

    The observation that cholinergic deafferentation of circuits projecting from forebrain basal nuclei to frontal and hippocampal circuits occurs in Alzheimer's disease has led to drug-targeting of muscarinic M1 receptors to alleviate cognitive symptoms. The high homology within the acetylcholine binding domain of this family however has made receptor-selective ligand development challenging. This work presents the synthesis scheme, pharmacokinetic and structure-activity-relationship study findings for M1-selective ligand, LY593093. Pharmacologically the compound acts as an orthosteric ligand. The homology modeling work presented however will illustrate that compound binding spans from the acetylcholine pocket to the extracellular loops of the receptor, a common allosteric vestibule for the muscarinic protein family. Altogether LY593093 represents a growing class of multi-topic ligands which interact with the receptors in both the ortho- and allosteric binding sites, but which exert their activation mechanism as an orthosteric ligand. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Discovery of a Highly Potent, Cell-Permeable Macrocyclic Peptidomimetic (MM-589) Targeting the WD Repeat Domain 5 Protein (WDR5)–Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Protein–Protein Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatas, Hacer; Li, Yangbing; Liu, Liu; Ji, Jiao; Lee, Shirley; Chen, Yong; Yang, Jiuling; Huang, Liyue; Bernard, Denzil; Xu, Jing; Townsend, Elizabeth C.; Cao, Fang; Ran, Xu; Li, Xiaoqin; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Lei, Ming; Dou, Yali; Wang, Shaomeng (Michigan)

    2017-06-06

    We report herein the design, synthesis, and evaluation of macrocyclic peptidomimetics that bind to WD repeat domain 5 (WDR5) and block the WDR5–mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) protein–protein interaction. Compound 18 (MM-589) binds to WDR5 with an IC50 value of 0.90 nM (Ki value <1 nM) and inhibits the MLL H3K4 methyltransferase (HMT) activity with an IC50 value of 12.7 nM. Compound 18 potently and selectively inhibits cell growth in human leukemia cell lines harboring MLL translocations and is >40 times better than the previously reported compound MM-401. Cocrystal structures of 16 and 18 complexed with WDR5 provide structural basis for their high affinity binding to WDR5. Additionally, we have developed and optimized a new AlphaLISA-based MLL HMT functional assay to facilitate the functional evaluation of these designed compounds. Compound 18 represents the most potent inhibitor of the WDR5–MLL interaction reported to date, and further optimization of 18 may yield a new therapy for acute leukemia.

  8. Antitumor efficacy of PKI-587, a highly potent dual PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Robert; Feldberg, Larry R; Lucas, Judy; Chaudhary, Inder; Dehnhardt, Christoph; Santos, Efren Delos; Chen, Zecheng; dos Santos, Osvaldo; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Venkatesan, Aranapakam; Hollander, Irwin

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this study was to show preclinical efficacy and clinical development potential of PKI-587, a dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mTOR inhibitor. In vitro class 1 PI3K enzyme and human tumor cell growth inhibition assays and in vivo five tumor xenograft models were used to show efficacy. In vitro, PKI-587 potently inhibited class I PI3Ks (IC(50) vs. PI3K-α = 0.4 nmol/L), PI3K-α mutants, and mTOR. PKI-587 inhibited growth of 50 diverse human tumor cell lines at IC(50) values of less than 100 nmol/L. PKI-587 suppressed phosphorylation of PI3K/mTOR effectors (e.g., Akt), and induced apoptosis in human tumor cell lines with elevated PI3K/mTOR signaling. MDA-MB-361 [breast; HER2(+), PIK3CA mutant (E545K)] was particularly sensitive to this effect, with cleaved PARP, an apoptosis marker, induced by 30 nmol/L PKI-587 at 4 hours. In vivo, PKI-587 inhibited tumor growth in breast (MDA-MB-361, BT474), colon (HCT116), lung (H1975), and glioma (U87MG) xenograft models. In MDA-MB-361 tumors, PKI-587 (25 mg/kg, single dose i.v.) suppressed Akt phosphorylation [at threonine(T)308 and serine(S)473] for up to 36 hours, with cleaved PARP (cPARP) evident up to 18 hours. PKI-587 at 25 mg/kg (once weekly) shrank large (∼1,000 mm(3)) MDA-MB-361 tumors and suppressed tumor regrowth. Tumor regression correlated with suppression of phosphorylated Akt in the MDA-MB-361 model. PKI-587 also caused regression in other tumor models, and efficacy was enhanced when given in combination with PD0325901 (MEK 1/2 inhibitor), irinotecan (topoisomerase I inhibitor), or HKI-272 (neratinib, HER2 inhibitor). Significant antitumor efficacy and a favorable pharmacokinetic/safety profile justified phase 1 clinical evaluation of PKI-587. ©2011 AACR.

  9. New tricks for an old natural product: discovery of highly potent evodiamine derivatives as novel antitumor agents by systemic structure-activity relationship analysis and biological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guoqiang; Wang, Shengzheng; Miao, Zhenyuan; Yao, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yongqiang; Guo, Zizhao; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2012-09-13

    Evodiamine is a quinazolinocarboline alkaloid isolated from the fruits of traditional Chinese herb Evodiae fructus . Previously, we identified N13-substituted evodiamine derivatives as potent topoisomerase I inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening and lead optimization. Herein, a library of novel evodiamine derivatives bearing various substitutions or modified scaffold were synthesized. Among them, a number of evodiamine derivatives showed substantial increase of the antitumor activity, with GI(50) values lower than 3 nM. Moreover, these highly potent compounds can effectively induce the apoptosis of A549 cells. Interestingly, further computational target prediction calculations in combination with biological assays confirmed that the evodiamine derivatives acted by dual inhibition of topoisomerases I and II. Moreover, several hydroxyl derivatives, such as 10-hydroxyl evodiamine (10j) and 3-amino-10-hydroxyl evodiamine (18g), also showed good in vivo antitumor efficacy and low toxicity at the dose of 1 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg. They represent promising candidates for the development of novel antitumor agents.

  10. Sulfonamide derivatives containing dihydropyrazole moieties selectively and potently inhibit MMP-2/MMP-9: Design, synthesis, inhibitory activity and 3D-QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Li, Zhen; Wang, Peng-Fei; Qiu, Han-Yue; Chen, Long-Wang; Lu, Xiao-Yuan; Lv, Peng-Cheng; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2015-10-15

    New series of sulfonamide derivatives containing a dihydropyrazole moieties inhibitors of MMP-2/MMP-9 were discovered using structure-based drug design. Synthesis, antitumor activity, structure-activity relationship and optimization of physicochemical properties were described. In vitro the bioassay results revealed that most target compounds showed potent inhibitory activity in the enzymatic and cellular assays. Among the compounds, compound 3i exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.21 μM inhibiting MMP-2 and 1.87 μM inhibiting MMP-9, comparable to the control positive compound CMT-1 (1.26 μM, 2.52 μM). Docking simulation was performed to position compound 3i into the MMP-2 active site to determine the probable binding pose. Docking simulation was further performed to position compound 3i into the MMP-2 active site to determine the probable binding model the 3D-QSAR models were built for reasonable design of MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitors at present and in future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of Cell Permeability of Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors Using Potent and Selective 2-Aminopyridine-Based Scaffolds with a Fluorobenzene Linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ha T; Wang, Heng-Yen; Li, Huiying; Chreifi, Georges; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B

    2017-11-22

    Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a promising therapeutic approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we have achieved considerable progress in improving the potency and isoform selectivity of human nNOS inhibitors bearing a 2-aminopyridine scaffold. However, these inhibitors still suffered from too low cell membrane permeability to enter into CNS drug development. We report herein our studies to improve permeability of nNOS inhibitors as measured by both PAMPA-BBB and Caco-2 assays. The most permeable compound (12) in this study still preserves excellent potency with human nNOS (Ki = 30 nM) and very high selectivity over other NOS isoforms, especially human eNOS (hnNOS/heNOS = 2799, the highest hnNOS/heNOS ratio we have obtained to date). X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that 12 adopts a similar binding mode in both rat and human nNOS, in which the 2-aminopyridine and the fluorobenzene linker form crucial hydrogen bonds with glutamate and tyrosine residues, respectively.

  12. Novel, potent, selective and cellular active ABC type PTP1B inhibitors containing (methanesulfonyl-phenyl-amino)-acetic acid methyl ester phosphotyrosine mimetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peihong; Du, Yongli; Song, Lianhua; Shen, Jingkang; Li, Qunyi

    2015-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) which plays an important role in the negative regulation of insulin and leptin pathway has emerged as a novel promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Upon careful study, a series of novel scaffold and simple synthesis method inhibitors were discovered based on the analysis of X-ray crystal structures of PTP1B/inhibitor complexes and docking simulations. Among them, compound P7 exhibited high inhibitory activity (IC50=222 nM) with moderate selectivity (8-fold) over T-cell PTPase (TCPTP) through interacting with the A, B and C binding sites of PTP1B enzyme. Further studies on cellular activities revealed that compound P7 could enhance insulin-mediated IRβ phosphorylation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beta-methyl substitution of cyclohexylalanine in Dmt-Tic-Cha-Phe peptides results in highly potent delta opioid antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Ioja, Eniko; Tömböly, Csaba; Ballet, Steven; Tourwé, Dirk; Péter, Antal; Martinek, Tamás; Chung, Nga N; Schiller, Peter W; Benyhe, Sándor; Borsodi, Anna

    2007-01-25

    The opioid peptide TIPP (H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH, Tic:1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) was substituted with Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) and a new unnatural amino acid, beta-MeCha (beta-methyl-cyclohexylalanine). This double substitution led to a new series of opioid peptides displaying subnanomolar delta antagonist activity and mu agonist or antagonist properties depending on the configuration of the beta-MeCha residue. The most promising analog, H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3S)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH was a very selective delta antagonist both in the mouse vas deferens (MVD) assay (Ke = 0.241 +/- 0.05 nM) and in radioligand binding assay (K i delta = 0.48 +/- 0.05 nM, K i mu/K i delta = 2800). The epimeric peptide H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3R)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH and the corresponding peptide amide turned out to be mixed partial mu agonist/delta antagonists in the guinea pig ileum and MVD assays. Our results constitute further examples of the influence of Dmt and beta-methyl substitution as well as C-terminal amidation on the potency, selectivity, and signal transduction properties of TIPP related peptides. Some of these compounds represent valuable pharmacological tools for opioid research.

  14. Highly functionalized and potent antiviral cyclopentane derivatives formed by a tandem process consisting of organometallic, transition-metal-catalyzed, and radical reaction steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Pratap R; Ford, Leigh; Deister, Elmar; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, Ivana; Hodek, Jan; Weber, Jan; Mackman, Richard; Bahador, Gina; Jahn, Ullrich

    2014-08-11

    A simple modular tandem approach to multiply substituted cyclopentane derivatives is reported, which succeeds by joining organometallic addition, conjugate addition, radical cyclization, and oxygenation steps. The key steps enabling this tandem process are the thus far rarely used isomerization of allylic alkoxides to enolates and single-electron transfer to merge the organometallic step with the radical and oxygenation chemistry. This controlled lineup of multiple electronically contrasting reactive intermediates provides versatile access to highly functionalized cyclopentane derivatives from very simple and readily available commodity precursors. The antiviral activity of the synthesized compounds was screened and a number of compounds showed potent activity against hepatitis C and dengue viruses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Highly Selective Hydroformylation of the Cinchona Alkaloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, Marielle; Beijer, Felix H.; Padron, José M.; Toth, Imre; Vries, Johannes G. de

    2002-01-01

    The four naturally occurring cinchona alkaloids were subjected to hydroformylation to create an extra functional group that allows immobilization. Cinchonidine, quinine, and quinidine, could be hydroformylated with virtually complete terminal selectivity, using a rhodium/tetraphosphite catalyst. The

  16. Potent Antiproliferative Effect on Liver Cancer of Medicinal Plants Selected from the Thai/Lanna Medicinal Plant Recipe Database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-01-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including liver cancer. In this study, methanolic extracts (MEs) of 23 plants were tested for antiproliferative activity on human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Nine MEs with potent antiproliferative activity (IC50 Senna alata showed the highest free radical scavenging and metal chelating activities, respectively. The compound in n-hexane fraction (HF) of Ventilago denticulata which showed an increase in antiproliferative activity comparing to its ME was isolated and identified as emodin. This study has demonstrated the potential of the ME from S. collinsae, MF from G. superba, and emodin isolated from V. denticulata, for further development as an antiliver cancer agent.

  17. Potent Antiproliferative Effect on Liver Cancer of Medicinal Plants Selected from the Thai/Lanna Medicinal Plant Recipe Database “MANOSROI III”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-01-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including liver cancer. In this study, methanolic extracts (MEs) of 23 plants were tested for antiproliferative activity on human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Nine MEs with potent antiproliferative activity (IC50 Senna alata showed the highest free radical scavenging and metal chelating activities, respectively. The compound in n-hexane fraction (HF) of Ventilago denticulata which showed an increase in antiproliferative activity comparing to its ME was isolated and identified as emodin. This study has demonstrated the potential of the ME from S. collinsae, MF from G. superba, and emodin isolated from V. denticulata, for further development as an antiliver cancer agent. PMID:26136809

  18. Design, synthesis, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and biological evaluation of thiazole derivatives as potent and selective inhibitors of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junsheng; Han, Le; Diao, Yanyan; Ren, Xiaoli; Xu, Minghao; Xu, Liuxin; Li, Shiliang; Li, Qiang; Dong, Dong; Huang, Jin; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Lili; Xu, Yufang; Qian, Xuhong; Li, Honglin

    2015-02-12

    Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (HsDHODH) is a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme that has been certified as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. On the basis of lead compound 4, which was previously identified as potential HsDHODH inhibitor, a novel series of thiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized. The X-ray complex structures of the promising analogues 12 and 33 confirmed that these inhibitors bind at the putative ubiquinone binding tunnel and guided us to explore more potent inhibitors, such as compounds 44, 46, and 47 which showed double digit nanomolar activities of 26, 18, and 29 nM, respectively. Moreover, 44 presented considerable anti-inflammation effect in vivo and significantly alleviated foot swelling in a dose-dependent manner, which disclosed that thiazole-scaffold analogues can be developed into the drug candidates for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by suppressing the bioactivity of HsDHODH.

  19. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Synthesis and Enantiomeric Separation of a Novel Spiroketal Derivative: A Potent Human Telomerase Inhibitor with High in Vitro Anticancer Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuggetta, Maria Pia; De Mico, Antonella; Cottarelli, Andrea; Morelli, Franco; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Ulgheri, Fausta; Peluso, Paola; Mannu, Alberto; Deligia, Francesco; Marchetti, Mauro; Roviello, Giovanni; Reyes Romero, Atilio; Dömling, Alexander; Spanu, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis, the enantiomeric separation, and the characterization of new simple spiroketal derivatives have been performed. The synthesized compounds have shown a very high anticancer activity. Cell proliferation assay showed that they induce a remarkable inhibition of cell proliferation in all

  1. Amino Acid Mixture Acts as a Potent VEGF Lowering Agent in CHO-K1 Cells Exposed to High Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Radhakrishnan; Bhuvanasundar, Renganathan; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy

    2017-04-01

    Though the role of amino acids in Diabetes Mellitus is controversial, the beneficial effect of amino acids in Diabetes Mellitus has been reported based on its anti-glycating property and insulin potentiating effects. In the current study, we evaluated the ROS generation and VEGF expression in CHO-K1 cells induced by high glucose concentration. The effect of amino acids treatment was studied under this condition to evaluate the VEGF lowering effect. CHO-K1 cells were treated various concentration of glucose (7 mmol, 17 mmol and 27 mmol) with and without free amino acids (5 mmol) or the amino acids mixture (AAM). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by fluorescein dye (DCFDA), nitric oxide (NO) by Griess reaction, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by fluorimetry using Amplex red dye, super oxide dismutase (SOD) by spectrophotometry and VEGF by immunoblotting. High glucose condition significantly induced the expression of VEGF and this was reduced significantly by AAM treatment (p = 0.004). AAM also significantly decreased the cellular levels of ROS, NO, H2O2 as well as the SOD activity in CHO-K1 cells exposed to high glucose condition (p <0.05). The present study identified AAM as a potential VEGF lowering agent that intervenes at the level of oxidative stress in high glucose conditions as evaluated in CHO-K1 cells. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and Discovery of N -(2-Methyl-5'-morpholino-6'-((tetrahydro-2 H -pyran-4-yl)oxy)-[3,3'-bipyridin]-5-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (RAF709): A Potent, Selective, and Efficacious RAF Inhibitor Targeting RAS Mutant Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Gisele A.; Rico, Alice; Tanner, Huw; Aversa, Robert J.; Taft, Benjamin R.; Subramanian, Sharadha; Setti, Lina; Burger, Matthew T.; Wan, Lifeng; Tamez, Victoriano; Smith, Aaron; Lou, Yan; Barsanti, Paul A.; Appleton, Brent A.; Mamo, Mulugeta; Tandeske, Laura; Dix, Ina; Tellew, John E.; Huang, Shenlin; Mathews Griner, Lesley A.; Cooke, Vesselina G.; Van Abbema, Anne; Merritt, Hanne; Ma, Sylvia; Gampa, Kalyani; Feng, Fei; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Yingyun; Haling, Jacob R.; Vaziri, Sepideh; Hekmat-Nejad, Mohammad; Jansen, Johanna M.; Polyakov, Valery; Zang, Richard; Sethuraman, Vijay; Amiri, Payman; Singh, Mallika; Lees, Emma; Shao, Wenlin; Stuart, Darrin D.; Dillon, Michael P.; Ramurthy, Savithri

    2017-06-06

    RAS oncogenes have been implicated in >30% of human cancers, all representing high unmet medical need. The exquisite dependency on CRAF kinase in KRAS mutant tumors has been established in genetically engineered mouse models and human tumor cells. To date, many small molecule approaches are under investigation to target CRAF, yet kinase-selective and cellular potent inhibitors remain challenging to identify. Herein, we describe 14 (RAF709) [Aversa, Biaryl amide compounds as kinase inhibitors and their preparation. WO 2014151616, 2014], a selective B/C RAF inhibitor, which was developed through a hypothesis-driven approach focusing on drug-like properties. A key challenge encountered in the medicinal chemistry campaign was maintaining a balance between good solubility and potent cellular activity (suppression of pMEK and proliferation) in KRAS mutant tumor cell lines. We investigated the small molecule crystal structure of lead molecule 7 and hypothesized that disruption of the crystal packing would improve solubility, which led to a change from N-methylpyridone to a tetrahydropyranyl oxy-pyridine derivative. 14 proved to be soluble, kinase selective, and efficacious in a KRAS mutant xenograft model.

  3. Separation of Tic-hydantoin enantiomers, potent sigma-1 agonists, by high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabordery, A C; Toussaint, M; Bonte, J P; Melnyk, P; Vaccher, C; Foulon, C

    2010-06-11

    Stereospecific separations of seven Tic-hydantoin sigma-1 agonists were performed by both HPLC method using derivatized cellulose and amylose chiral stationary phases and capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using neutral and anionic cyclodextrins added in the background electrolyte (BGE). An optimal baseline separation (R(s)>3.3 with analysis timesphase methodology. CE was used as an alternative technique to HPLC for the Tic-hydantoin derivatives separation. The enantiomers were fully resolved with highly sulfated beta-cyclodextrins at pH 2.5 (R(s)>1.5 with analysis times <11min). Both methods were validated in terms of linearity, detection and quantification limits. They were used to check the enantiomeric purity of the enantiomers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sortase A-Generated Highly Potent Anti-CD20-MMAE Conjugates for Efficient Elimination of B-Lineage Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liqiang; Zhao, Wenbin; Lai, Jun; Ding, Ding; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Xiaoyue; Huang, Minmin; Jin, Shijie; Xu, Yingchun; Zeng, Su; Chou, James J; Chen, Shuqing

    2017-02-01

    Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells are an effective approach for delivering drugs into the cells via antigen-mediated endocytosis. One of the well-known tumor antigens, the CD20 of B-lymphocyte, has long been suggested to be noninternalizing epitope, and is thus not considered a desirable target for ADCs. Here, sortase A (srtA)-mediated transpeptidation is used to specifically conjugate triple glycine-modified monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), a highly toxic antimitotic agent, to anti-CD20 ofatumumab (OFA) equipped with a short C-terminal LPETG (5 amino acids) tag at heavy chain (HL), which generates ADCs that show extremely strong potency in killing CD20 positive cancer cells. One of the srtA-generated ADCs with a cleavable dipeptide linker (valine-citrulline, vc), OFA-HL-vcMMAE, shows IC50 values ranging from 5 pg mL(-1) to 4.1 ng mL(-1) against CD20+ lymphoma cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirms that OFA-HL-vcMMAE internalization by Ramos cells is significantly improved compared to OFA alone, consistent with the high antitumor activity of the new ADC. OFA-HL-vcMMAE, at 5 mg kg(-1) dose, is able to eliminate tumors with mean volume ≈400 mm(3) while no obvious drug-related toxicity is observed. The results show that srtA-generated OFA-MMAE conjugate system provides a viable strategy for targeting CD20+ B lineage lymphomas. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Aleš; Bay, Tina; Wellendorph, Petrine; Kehler, Jan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Frølund, Bente; Pedersen, Martin H.F.; Clausen, Rasmus P.

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screening of 1 against different CNS targets establishes a high selectivity and we demonstrate in vivo brain penetration. In vitro characterization of [3H]-1 binding shows high specificity to the high-affinity GHB binding sites. PMID:24053696

  6. Potent Antiproliferative Effect on Liver Cancer of Medicinal Plants Selected from the Thai/Lanna Medicinal Plant Recipe Database “MANOSROI III”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranya Manosroi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including liver cancer. In this study, methanolic extracts (MEs of 23 plants were tested for antiproliferative activity on human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2 by the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. Nine MEs with potent antiproliferative activity (IC50 < 100 µg/mL were obtained and further semipurified by liquid/liquid partition extraction. The semipurified fractions were tested for the antiproliferative and antioxidative activities. ME of Stemona collinsae and the semipurified extract and methanol-water fraction (MF of Gloriosa superba gave the highest antiproliferative activity on HepG2 which were 4.79- and 50.07-fold cisplatin, respectively. The semipurified fractions showed an increased antiproliferative activity. MF of Caesalpinia sappan and HF of Senna alata showed the highest free radical scavenging and metal chelating activities, respectively. The compound in n-hexane fraction (HF of Ventilago denticulata which showed an increase in antiproliferative activity comparing to its ME was isolated and identified as emodin. This study has demonstrated the potential of the ME from S. collinsae, MF from G. superba, and emodin isolated from V. denticulata, for further development as an antiliver cancer agent.

  7. Novel 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-1,4,7,10a-tetraaza-cyclohepta[f]indene analogues as potent and selective 5-HT(2C) agonists for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, Heather; Mueller, Stephan G; Prestle, Juergen; Scheuerer, Stefan; Schindler, Marcus; Nosse, Bernd; Prevost, Natacha; Brown, Christopher J; Heifetz, Alexander; Moeller, Clemens; Pedret-Dunn, Anna; Whittaker, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of a novel series of 5-HT(2C) agonists based on a tricyclic pyrazolopyrimidine scaffold is described. Compounds with good levels of in vitro potency and moderate to good levels of selectivity with respect to the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors were identified. One of the analogues (7 g) was found to be efficacious in a sub-chronic weight loss model. A key limitation of the series of compounds was that they were found to be potent inhibitors of the hERG ion channel. Some compounds, bearing polar side chains were identified which showed a much reduced hERG liability however these compounds were sub-optimal in terms of their in vitro potency or selectivity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular imaging of {sigma} receptors: synthesis and evaluation of the potent {sigma}{sub 1} selective radioligand [{sup 18}F]fluspidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Steffen; Hiller, Achim; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Scheunemann, Matthias; Steinbach, Joerg; Brust, Peter [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Research Site Leipzig, Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany); Wiese, Christian; Grosse Maestrup, Eva; Schepmann, Dirk; Wuensch, Bernhard [Institut fuer Pharmazeutische und Medizinische Chemie der Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Neuroimaging of {sigma}{sub 1} receptors in the human brain has been proposed for the investigation of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. However, there is a lack of suitable {sup 18}F-labelled PET radioligands for that purpose. The selective {sigma}{sub 1} receptor ligand [{sup 18}F]fluspidine (1'-benzyl-3-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4'-piperidine]) was synthesized by nucleophilic {sup 18}F{sup -} substitution of the tosyl precursor. In vitro receptor binding affinity and selectivity were assessed by radioligand competition in tissue homogenate and autoradiographic approaches. In female CD-1 mice, in vivo properties of [{sup 18}F]fluspidine were evaluated by ex vivo brain section imaging and organ distribution of intravenously administered radiotracer. Target specificity was validated by organ distribution of [{sup 18}F]fluspidine after treatment with 1 mg/kg i.p. of the {sigma} receptor antagonist haloperidol or the emopamil binding protein (EBP) inhibitor tamoxifen. In vitro metabolic stability and in vivo metabolism were investigated by LC-MS{sup n} and radio-HPLC analysis. [{sup 18}F]Fluspidine was obtained with a radiochemical yield of 35-45%, a radiochemical purity of {>=} 99.6% and a specific activity of 150-350 GBq/{mu}mol (n = 6) within a total synthesis time of 90-120 min. In vitro, fluspidine bound specifically and with high affinity to {sigma}{sub 1} receptors (K{sub i} = 0.59 nM). In mice, [{sup 18}F]fluspidine rapidly accumulated in brain with uptake values of 3.9 and 4.7%ID/g and brain to blood ratios of 7 and 13 at 5 and 30 min after intravenous application of the radiotracer, respectively. By ex vivo autoradiography of brain slices, resemblance between binding site occupancy of [{sup 18}F]fluspidine and the expression of {sigma}{sub 1} receptors was shown. The radiotracer uptake in the brain as well as in peripheral {sigma}{sub 1} receptor expressing organs was significantly

  9. The Leaderless Bacteriocin Enterocin K1 Is Highly Potent against Enterococcus faecium: A Study on Structure, Target Spectrum and Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Ovchinnikov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin K1 (EntK1, enterocin EJ97 (EntEJ97, and LsbB are three sequence related leaderless bacteriocins. Yet LsbB kills only lactococci while EntK1 and EntEJ97 target wider spectra with EntK1 being particularly active against Enterococcus faecium, including nosocomial multidrug resistant isolates. NMR study of EntK1 showed that it had a structure very similar to LsbB – both having an amphiphilic N-terminal α-helix and an unstructured C-terminus. The α-helix in EntK1 is, however, about 3–4 residues longer than that of LsbB. Enterococcal mutants highly resistant to EntEJ97 and EntK1 were found to have mutations within rseP, a gene encoding a stress response membrane-bound Zn-dependent protease. Heterologous expression of the enterococcal rseP rendered resistant cells of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to EntK1 and EntEJ97, suggesting that RseP likely serves as the receptor for EntK1 and EntEJ97. It was also shown that the conserved proteolytic active site in E. faecalis RseP is partly required for EntK1 and EntEJ97 activity, since alanine substitutions of its conserved residues (HExxH reduced the sensitivity of the clones to the bacteriocins. RseP is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. As expected, the growth of resistant mutants with mutations within rseP was severely affected when they were exposed to higher (stressing growth temperatures, e.g., at 45°C, at which wild type cells still grew well. These findings allow us to design a hurdle strategy with a combination of the bacteriocin(s and higher temperature that effectively kills bacteriocin sensitive bacteria and prevents the development of resistant cells.

  10. Human metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 bind with high affinity and act as potent agonists at cannabinoid type-2 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Brents, Lisa K.; Franks, Lirit N. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Moran, Jeffery H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Arkansas Department of Public Health, Public Health Laboratory, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Prather, Paul L., E-mail: pratherpaull@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    K2 or Spice is an emerging drug of abuse that contains synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-018 and JWH-073. Recent reports indicate that monohydroxylated metabolites of JWH-018 and JWH-073 retain high affinity and activity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB{sub 1}Rs), potentially contributing to the enhanced toxicity of K2 compared to marijuana. Since the parent compounds also bind to cannabinoid type-2 receptors (CB{sub 2}Rs), this study investigated the affinity and intrinsic activity of JWH-018, JWH-073 and several monohydroxylated metabolites at human CB{sub 2}Rs (hCB{sub 2}Rs). The affinity of cannabinoids for hCB{sub 2}Rs was determined by competition binding studies employing CHO-hCB{sub 2} membranes. Intrinsic activity of compounds was assessed by G-protein activation and adenylyl cyclase (AC)-inhibition in CHO-hCB{sub 2} cells. JWH-073, JWH-018 and several of their human metabolites exhibit nanomolar affinity and act as potent agonists at hCB{sub 2}Rs. Furthermore, a major omega hydroxyl metabolite of JWH-073 (JWH-073-M5) binds to CB{sub 2}Rs with 10-fold less affinity than the parent molecule, but unexpectedly, is equipotent in regulating AC-activity when compared to the parent molecule. Finally, when compared to CP-55,940 and Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), JWH-018, JWH-018-M5 and JWH-073-M5 require significantly less CB{sub 2}R occupancy to produce similar levels of AC-inhibition, indicating that these compounds may more efficiently couple CB{sub 2}Rs to AC than the well characterized cannabinoid agonists examined. These results indicate that JWH-018, JWH-073 and several major human metabolites of these compounds exhibit high affinity and demonstrate distinctive signaling properties at CB{sub 2}Rs. Therefore, future studies examining pharmacological and toxicological properties of synthetic cannabinoids present in K2 products should consider potential actions of these drugs at both CB{sub 1} and CB{sub 2}Rs. - Highlights: • JWH-018

  11. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone), a highly potent Nrf2 activator with a reversible covalent mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, Rumen V.; Knatko, Elena V.; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J. [Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Research, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY, Scotland (United Kingdom); Zheng, Suqing [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Chemical Biology & Drug Discovery, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States); Huang, Jeffrey T.-J. [Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Research, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY, Scotland (United Kingdom); Honda, Tadashi [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Chemical Biology & Drug Discovery, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States); Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T., E-mail: a.dinkovakostova@dundee.ac.uk [Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Research, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205 (United States)

    2015-09-25

    The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone) TBE-31 is a highly potent cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action; its best-characterized target being Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), the cellular sensor for oxidants and electrophiles. TBE-31 reacts with cysteines of Keap1, impairing its ability to target nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) for degradation. Consequently, Nrf2 accumulates and orchestrates cytoprotective gene expression. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TBE-31 in C57BL/6 mice. After a single oral dose of 10 μmol/kg (∼200 nmol/animal), the concentration of TBE-31 in blood exhibited two peaks, at 22.3 nM and at 15.5 nM, 40 min and 4 h after dosing, respectively, as determined by a quantitative stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method. The AUC{sub 0–24h} was 195.5 h/nmol/l, the terminal elimination half-life was 10.2 h, and the k{sub el} was 0.068 h{sup −1}. To assess the pharmacodynamics of Nrf2 activation by TBE-31, we determined the enzyme activity of its prototypic target, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and found it elevated by 2.4- and 1.5-fold in liver and heart, respectively. Continuous feeding for 18 days with diet delivering the same daily doses of TBE-31 under conditions of concurrent treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine had a similar effect on Nrf2 activation without any indications of toxicity. Together with previous reports showing the cytoprotective effects of TBE-31 in animal models of carcinogenesis, our results demonstrate the high potency, efficacy and suitability for chronic administration of cysteine targeting reversible covalent drugs. - Highlights: • TBE-31 is a cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action. • After a single oral dose, the blood concentration of TBE-31 exhibits two peaks. • Oral TBE-31 is a potent activator of Nrf2-dependent enzymes in

  12. Rational design of antisense oligonucleotides targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms for potent and allele selective suppression of mutant Huntingtin in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Michael E; Southwell, Amber L; Kordasiewicz, Holly; Watt, Andrew T; Skotte, Niels H; Doty, Crystal N; Vaid, Kuljeet; Villanueva, Erika B; Swayze, Eric E; Bennett, C Frank; Hayden, Michael R; Seth, Punit P

    2013-11-01

    Autosomal dominant diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD) are caused by a gain of function mutant protein and/or RNA. An ideal treatment for these diseases is to selectively suppress expression of the mutant allele while preserving expression of the wild-type variant. RNase H active antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) or small interfering RNAs can achieve allele selective suppression of gene expression by targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the repeat expansion. ASOs have been previously shown to discriminate single nucleotide changes in targeted RNAs with ∼5-fold selectivity. Based on RNase H enzymology, we enhanced single nucleotide discrimination by positional incorporation of chemical modifications within the oligonucleotide to limit RNase H cleavage of the non-targeted transcript. The resulting oligonucleotides demonstrate >100-fold discrimination for a single nucleotide change at an SNP site in the disease causing huntingtin mRNA, in patient cells and in a completely humanized mouse model of HD. The modified ASOs were also well tolerated after injection into the central nervous system of wild-type animals, suggesting that their tolerability profile is suitable for advancement as potential allele-selective HD therapeutics. Our findings lay the foundation for efficient allele-selective downregulation of gene expression using ASOs-an outcome with broad application to HD and other dominant genetic disorders.

  13. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and NMR studies of a new series of arylsulfones as selective and potent matrix metalloproteinase-12 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Elisa; Panelli, Laura; Casalini, Francesca; Avramova, Stanislava I; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Santamaria, Salvatore; Nencetti, Susanna; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Martinelli, Adriano; Cercignani, Giovanni; D'Amelio, Nicola; Maiocchi, Alessandro; Uggeri, Fulvio; Rossello, Armando

    2009-10-22

    Overexpression of macrophage elastase (MMP-12), a member of the matrix metalloproteinases family, can be linked to tissue remodeling and degradation in some inflammatory processes, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and atherosclerosis. On this basis, MMP-12 can be considered an attractive target for studying selective inhibitors that are useful in the development of new therapies for COPD and other inflammatory diseases. We report herein the design, synthesis, and in vitro evaluation of a new series of compounds, possessing an arylsulfonyl scaffold, for their potential as selective inhibitors of MMP-12. The best compound in the series showed an IC50 value of 0.2 nM, with good selectivity over MMP-1 and MMP-14. A docking study was carried out on this compound in order to investigate its binding interactions with MMP-12, and NMR studies on the complex with the MMP-12 catalytic domain were able to validate the proposed binding mode.

  14. Optical Transmitter Terminal for Selective RF High Frequency Bans Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposal work is to investigate the highly innovative conceptual design of an optical communication selective frequency transmitter terminal...

  15. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... 15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in .... Growth in media of osmotic pressure range 0 - 25% (w/v) sorbitol ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae through soya flour supplementation. Biotechnol. Lett. 10(3): 217-220. Bechem ...

  16. A potent and Kv1.3-selective analogue of the scorpion toxin HsTX1 as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. Harunur; Huq, Redwan; Tanner, Mark R.; Chhabra, Sandeep; Khoo, Keith K.; Estrada, Rosendo; Dhawan, Vikas; Chauhan, Satendra; Pennington, Michael W.; Beeton, Christine; Kuyucak, Serdar; Norton, Raymond S.

    2014-03-01

    HsTX1 toxin, from the scorpion Heterometrus spinnifer, is a 34-residue, C-terminally amidated peptide cross-linked by four disulfide bridges. Here we describe new HsTX1 analogues with an Ala, Phe, Val or Abu substitution at position 14. Complexes of HsTX1 with the voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.1 were created using docking and molecular dynamics simulations, then umbrella sampling simulations were performed to construct the potential of mean force (PMF) of the ligand and calculate the corresponding binding free energy for the most stable configuration. The PMF method predicted that the R14A mutation in HsTX1 would yield a > 2 kcal/mol gain for the Kv1.3/Kv1.1 selectivity free energy relative to the wild-type peptide. Functional assays confirmed the predicted selectivity gain for HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14Abu], with an affinity for Kv1.3 in the low picomolar range and a selectivity of more than 2,000-fold for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. This remarkable potency and selectivity for Kv1.3, which is significantly up-regulated in activated effector memory cells in humans, suggest that these analogues represent valuable leads in the development of therapeutics for autoimmune diseases.

  17. New potent and selective αvβ3 integrin ligands: Macrocyclic peptides containing RGD motif synthesized by sortase A-mediated ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhimeng; Cheng, Xiaozhong; Hong, Haofei; Zhao, Xinrui; Zhou, Zhifang

    2017-05-01

    Three 14-mer macrocyclic peptides 1-3 containing mono-, di- and tri-RGD structure motif were designed and synthesized by sortase A-mediated ligation in good yields. The results of in intro cell-based biological assays indicated that linear peptide 5 and macrocyclic peptide 1, containing di-RGD and mono-RGD motif respectively, showed remarkable potency and selectivity to αvβ3 integrin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SAR studies of 3-arylpropionic acids as potent and selective agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) with enhanced pharmacokinetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Huo, Pei; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2007-02-01

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of 3-arylpropionic acids-a class of novel S1P(1) selective agonists-by introducing substitution to the propionic acid chain and replacing the adjacent phenyl ring with pyridine led to a series of modified 3-arylpropionic acids with enhanced half-life in rat. These analogs (e.g., cyclopropanecarboxylic acids) exhibited longer half-life in rat than did unmodified 3-arylpropionic acids. This result suggests that metabolic oxidation at the propionic acid chain, particularly at the C3 benzylic position of 3-arylpropionic acids, is probably responsible for their short half-life in rodent.

  19. Potent, Plasmodium-Selective Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors That Arrest the Growth of Malaria Parasites: Structure—Activity Relationships of Ethylenediamine-Analogue Scaffolds and Homology Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Steven; Cummings, Christopher G.; Rivas, Kasey; Katt, William P.; Hornéy, Carrie; Buckner, Frederick S.; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Sebti, Saïd M.; Gelb, Michael H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Hamilton, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    New chemotherapeutics are urgently needed to combat malaria. We previously reported on a novel series of antimalarial, ethylenediamine-based inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase (PFT). In the current study, we designed and synthesized a series of second generation inhibitors, wherein the core ethylenediamine scaffold was varied in order to examine both the homology model of Plasmodium falciparum PFT (PfPFT) and our predicted inhibitor binding mode. We identified several PfPFT inhibitors (PfPFTIs) that are selective for PfPFT versus the mammalian isoform of the enzyme (up to 136-fold selectivity), that inhibit the malarial enzyme with IC50 values down to 1 nM, and that block the growth of P. falciparum in infected whole cells (erythrocytes) with ED50 values down to 55 nM. The structure–activity data for these second generation, ethylenediamine-inspired PFT inhibitors were rationalized by consideration of the X-ray crystal structure of mammalian PFT and the homology model of the malarial enzyme. PMID:18686940

  20. Potent, Plasmodium-selective farnesyltransferase inhibitors that arrest the growth of malaria parasites: structure-activity relationships of ethylenediamine-analogue scaffolds and homology model validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Steven; Cummings, Christopher G; Rivas, Kasey; Katt, William P; Hornéy, Carrie; Buckner, Frederick S; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Sebti, Saïd M; Gelb, Michael H; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hamilton, Andrew D

    2008-09-11

    New chemotherapeutics are urgently needed to combat malaria. We previously reported on a novel series of antimalarial, ethylenediamine-based inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase (PFT). In the current study, we designed and synthesized a series of second generation inhibitors, wherein the core ethylenediamine scaffold was varied in order to examine both the homology model of Plasmodium falciparum PFT (PfPFT) and our predicted inhibitor binding mode. We identified several PfPFT inhibitors (PfPFTIs) that are selective for PfPFT versus the mammalian isoform of the enzyme (up to 136-fold selectivity), that inhibit the malarial enzyme with IC50 values down to 1 nM, and that block the growth of P. falciparum in infected whole cells (erythrocytes) with ED50 values down to 55 nM. The structure-activity data for these second generation, ethylenediamine-inspired PFT inhibitors were rationalized by consideration of the X-ray crystal structure of mammalian PFT and the homology model of the malarial enzyme.

  1. The in vivo gastrointestinal activity of TD-5108, a selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist with high intrinsic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, D T; Armstrong, S R; Shaw, J P; Marquess, D; Sandlund, C; Smith, J A M; Taylor, J A; Humphrey, P P A

    2008-07-01

    The in vivo preclinical pharmacodynamic profile of TD-5108, a selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist with high intrinsic activity, was compared to that of the clinically studied gastrointestinal pro-kinetic agents, tegaserod, cisapride and mosapride. The activity of TD-5108 was evaluated in guinea pig colonic transit, rat oesophageal relaxation and dog gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility models. Subcutaneous administration of TD-5108, tegaserod, cisapride and mosapride increased guinea pig colonic transit (rank order of potencies: TD-5108 > tegaserod > cisapride > mosapride). Following intravenous and intraduodenal dosing, TD-5108, tegaserod, cisapride and mosapride produced dose-dependent relaxation of the rat oesophagus. On a molar basis, TD-5108 was approximately twofold less potent than tegaserod following intravenous dosing but 6- or 86-fold more potent than cisapride or mosapride, respectively, and 9- or 18-fold more potent than tegaserod or cisapride, respectively, after intraduodenal administration. Orally dosed TD-5108 increased the contractility of the canine antrum, duodenum and jejunum with higher potency than tegaserod. The selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist, TD-5108, demonstrates robust in vivo activity in the guinea pig, rat and dog gastrointestinal tracts.

  2. Highly potent and specific siRNAs against E6 or E7 genes of HPV16- or HPV18-infected cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J T-C; Kuo, T-F; Chen, Y-J; Chiu, C-C; Lu, Y-C; Li, H-F; Shen, C-R; Cheng, A-J

    2010-12-01

    Infection with high-risk types (type 16 or type 18) of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) increases a patient's risk of cervical cancer. Given the importance of the cervix and the severe side effects resulting from traditional cancer therapies, this study aimed to achieve targeted inhibition of viral oncogenes in tumor cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNA). To accomplish this, we developed nine siRNAs against either the E6 or E7 genes of HPV-16 or HPV-18 in several combinations, yielding siRNAs targeting 16E6, 16E7, 18E6 and 18E7. We measured the effectiveness of the siRNAs by examining E6 or E7 mRNA expression after transfection of the siRNAs into HPV-positive CaSki (HPV-16) or HeLa (HPV-18) cell lines. We found that the HPV-siRNAs significantly reduced cell growth and colony formation in both cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant increase in apoptosis. The siRNAs had no effect on cell growth, colony formation or apoptosis in HPV-negative C33A cells, demonstrating a lack of off-target effects. In addition, an in vivo xenograft study showed that intra-tumoral injection of the siRNAs reduced tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice. In conclusion, we have developed highly specific and potent HPV-siRNAs that successfully suppress tumor growth and induce apoptosis in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. siRNA treatment has potential for further development as an adjuvant therapy for cervical cancer.

  3. Selection of Highly Expressed Gene Variants in Escherichia coli Using Translationally Coupled Antibiotic Selection Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Daley, Daniel O.; Nørholm, Morten H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Strategies to select highly expressed variants of a protein coding sequence are usually based on trial-and-error approaches, which are time-consuming and expensive. We address this problem using translationally coupled antibiotic resistance markers. The system requires that the target gene can...... be fused at the 3'-end with a translational coupling element and an antibiotic resistance gene. Highly expressed target genes can then be selected using a fast and simple whole cell survival assay in the presence of high antibiotic concentrations. Herein we show that the system can be used to select highly...

  4. Modulating Mineralocorticoid Receptor with Non-steroidal Antagonists. New Opportunities for the Development of Potent and Selective Ligands without Off-Target Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, Mercedes; Pérez-Gordillo, Felipe L; Álvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Rodríguez, Yoel; Gerona-Navarro, Guillermo; González-Muñiz, Rosario; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2017-04-13

    Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are used for treatment of a range of human diseases, but they present challenging issues of complex chemical synthesis, undesirable physical properties, and poor selectivity along with unwanted side effects. Therefore, there is a great interest in the discovery of non-steroidal ligands able to bind to the ligand-binding domain of the MR and recruit different co-regulators to produce tissue-specific therapeutic effects. Several academic groups and pharmaceutical companies have been developing a series of non-steroidal ligands that consist of different chemical scaffolds, yielding MR antagonists currently evaluated in clinical studies for the treatment of congestive heart failure, hypertension, or diabetic nephropathy. The main focus of this Perspective is to review the reported structure-activity relationships of the different series of compounds, as well as the structural studies that contribute to a better understanding of the receptor active site and are also helpful for optimization processes.

  5. KPT-330, a potent and selective exportin-1 (XPO-1) inhibitor, shows antitumor effects modulating the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin [corrected] in prostate cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Mancini, Andrea; Sanita, Patrizia; Vitale, Flora; Marampon, Francesco; Ventura, Luca; Landesman, Yosef; McCauley, Dilara; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Festuccia, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Increased expression of Chromosome Region Maintenance (CRM-1)/exportin-1 (XPO-1) has been correlated with poor prognosis in several aggressive tumors, making it an interesting therapeutic target. Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds bind to XPO-1 and block its ability to export cargo proteins. Here, we investigated the effects of a new class of SINE compounds in models of prostate cancer. We evaluated the expression of XPO-1 in human prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. Next, six SINE (KPT-127, KPT-185, KPT-205, KPT-225, KPT-251 and KPT-330) compounds having different potency with broad-spectrum, tumor-selective cytotoxicity, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profiles were tested in a panel of prostate cancer cells representing distinct differentiation/progression states of disease and genotypes. Two SINE candidates for clinical trials (KPT-251 and KPT-330) were also tested in vivo in three cell models of aggressive prostate cancer engrafted in male nude mice. XPO-1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer compared to normal or hyperplastic tissues. Increased XPO-1 expression, mainly in the nuclear compartment, was associated with increased Gleason score and bone metastatic potential supporting the use of SINEs in advanced prostate cancer. SINE compounds inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of tumor cells, but did not affect immortalized non-transformed prostate epithelial cells. Nuclei from SINE treated cells showed increased protein localization of XPO-1, survivin and cyclin D1 followed by degradation of these proteins leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Oral administration of KPT-251 and KPT-330 in PC3, DU145 and 22rv1 tumor-bearing nude mice reduced tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and induced apoptosis. Our results provide supportive evidence for the therapeutic use of SINE compounds in advanced/castration resistant prostate cancers and warrants further clinical investigation.

  6. Potent anti-proliferative effects against oral and cervical cancers of Thai medicinal plants selected from the Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Pattamapun, Kassara; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-07-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including oral and cervical cancers. To investigate anti-proliferative activity on human cervical (HeLa) and oral (KB) cancer cell lines of medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III". Twenty-three methanolic plant crude extracts were tested for phytochemicals and anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines for 24 h by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the doses of 1 × 10(1)-1 × 10(-6 )mg/ml. The nine extracts with the concentrations giving 50% growth inhibition (GI50) lower than 100 µg/ml were further semi-purified by liquid/liquid partition in order to evaluate and enhance the anti-proliferative potency. All extracts contained steroids/triterpenoids, but not xanthones. The methanolic extracts of Gloriosa superba L. (Colchinaceae) root and Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) wood gave the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.91 (6.0- and 0.31-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.16 µg/ml (28.78- and 82.29-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Hexane and methanol-water fractions of G. superba exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.15 (37- and 1.9-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.058 µg/ml (77.45- and 221.46-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. This study has demonstrated the potential of plants selected from MANOSROI III database especially G. superba and A. chinensis for further development as anti-oral and cervical cancer agents.

  7. Discovery of Potent 17β-Hydroxywithanolides for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer by High-Throughput Screening of a Natural Products Library for Androgen-Induced Gene Expression Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Liu, Manping X; Grunow, Nathan; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Paine-Murrieta, Gillian; Felder, Stephen; Kris, Richard M; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2015-09-10

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most prevalent cancer among men in Western societies, and those who develop metastatic castration-resistant PC (CRPC) invariably succumb to the disease. The need for effective treatments for CRPC is a pressing concern, especially due to limited durable responses with currently employed therapies. Here, we demonstrate the successful application of a high-throughput gene-expression profiling assay directly targeting genes of the androgen receptor pathway to screen a natural products library leading to the identification of 17β-hydroxywithanolides 1-5, of which physachenolide D (5) exhibited potent and selective in vitro activity against two PC cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3. Epoxidation of 5 afforded physachenolide C (6) with higher potency and stability. Structure-activity relationships for withanolides as potential anti-PC agents are presented together with in vivo efficacy studies on compound 6, suggesting that 17β-hydroxywithanolides are promising candidates for further development as CRPC therapeutics.

  8. A high throughput amenable Arabidopsis-P. aeruginosa system reveals a rewired regulatory module and the utility to identify potent anti-infectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Gopalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that in a metasystem consisting of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium (in 96 well plates even microbes considered to be innocuous such as laboratory strains of E. coli and B. subtilis can cause potent damage to the host. We further posited that such environment-induced adaptations are brought about by 'system status changes' (rewiring of pre-existing cellular signaling networks and components of the host and the microbe, and that prolongation of such a situation could lead to the emergence of pathogenic states in real-life. Here, using this infection model, we show that the master regulator GacA of the human opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa (strain PA14 is dispensable for pathogenesis, as evidenced by three independent read-outs. The gene expression profile of the host after infection with wild type PA14 or the gacA mutant are also identical. GacA normally acts upstream of the quorum sensing regulatory circuit (that includes the regulator LasR that controls a subset of virulence factors. Double mutants in gacA and lasR behave similar to the lasR mutant, as seen by abrogation of a characteristic cell type specific host cell damage caused by PA14 or the gacA mutant. This indicates that a previously unrecognized regulatory mechanism is operative under these conditions upstream of LasR. In addition, the detrimental effect of PA14 on Arabidopsis seedlings is resistant to high concentrations of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin. These data suggest that the Arabidopsis seedling infection system could be used to identify anti-infectives with potentially novel modes of action.

  9. A high throughput amenable Arabidopsis-P. aeruginosa system reveals a rewired regulatory module and the utility to identify potent anti-infectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Suresh; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2011-01-21

    We previously demonstrated that in a metasystem consisting of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium (in 96 well plates) even microbes considered to be innocuous such as laboratory strains of E. coli and B. subtilis can cause potent damage to the host. We further posited that such environment-induced adaptations are brought about by 'system status changes' (rewiring of pre-existing cellular signaling networks and components) of the host and the microbe, and that prolongation of such a situation could lead to the emergence of pathogenic states in real-life. Here, using this infection model, we show that the master regulator GacA of the human opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa (strain PA14) is dispensable for pathogenesis, as evidenced by three independent read-outs. The gene expression profile of the host after infection with wild type PA14 or the gacA mutant are also identical. GacA normally acts upstream of the quorum sensing regulatory circuit (that includes the regulator LasR) that controls a subset of virulence factors. Double mutants in gacA and lasR behave similar to the lasR mutant, as seen by abrogation of a characteristic cell type specific host cell damage caused by PA14 or the gacA mutant. This indicates that a previously unrecognized regulatory mechanism is operative under these conditions upstream of LasR. In addition, the detrimental effect of PA14 on Arabidopsis seedlings is resistant to high concentrations of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin. These data suggest that the Arabidopsis seedling infection system could be used to identify anti-infectives with potentially novel modes of action.

  10. A novel highly potent autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor produces prolonged decreases in plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation in vivo and regulates urethral tension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Saga

    Full Text Available Autotaxin, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2, is a secreted enzyme that has lysophospholipase D activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine to bioactive lysophosphatidic acid. Lysophosphatidic acid activates at least six G-protein coupled recpetors, which promote cell proliferation, survival, migration and muscle contraction. These physiological effects become dysfunctional in the pathology of cancer, fibrosis, and pain. To date, several autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitors have been reported; however, none were able to completely and continuously inhibit autotaxin/ENPP2 in vivo. In this study, we report the discovery of a highly potent autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor, ONO-8430506, which decreased plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation. The IC50 values of ONO-8540506 for lysophospholipase D activity were 6.4-19 nM for recombinant autotaxin/ENPP2 proteins and 4.7-11.6 nM for plasma from various animal species. Plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation during 1-h incubation was almost completely inhibited by the addition of >300 nM of the compound to human plasma. In addition, when administered orally to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg, the compound demonstrated good pharmacokinetics in rats and persistently inhibited plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation even at 24 h after administration. Smooth muscle contraction is a known to be promoted by lysophosphatidic acid. In this study, we showed that dosing rats with ONO-8430506 decreased intraurethral pressure accompanied by urethral relaxation. These findings demonstrate the potential of this autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor for the treatment of various diseases caused by lysophosphatidic acid, including urethral obstructive disease such as benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  11. Synthesis of hapten and preparation of specific polyclonal antibody with high affinity for lenalidomide, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish Ibrahim A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide (LND, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM, a specific antibody was required for the development of a sensitive immunoassay system for the accurate determination of LND in plasma. Results In this study, a hapten of LND (N-glutaryl-LND was synthesized by introducing the glutaryl moiety, as a spacer, into the primary aromatic amine site of the LND molecular structure. The structure of the hapten (G-LND was confirmed by mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C spectrometric techniques. G-LND was coupled to each of bovine serum albumin (BSA and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH proteins by ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. LND-KLH conjugate was used as an immunogen. Four female 2-3 months old New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with an emulsion of LND-KLH with Freund`s adjuvant. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using LND-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and affinity to LND was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A column. The specificity of the purified antibody for LND was evaluated by indirect competitive ELISA using dexamethasone as a competitor as it is used with LND in a combination therapy. Conclusions The high affinity of the antibody (IC50 = 10 ng/mL will be useful in the development of an immunoassay system for the determination of plasma LND concentrations. Current research is going to optimize the assay conditions and validate the procedures for the routine application in clinical laboratories.

  12. Investigation of PDE5/PDE6 and PDE5/PDE11 selective potent tadalafil-like PDE5 inhibitors using combination of molecular modeling approaches, molecular fingerprint-based virtual screening protocols and structure-based pharmacophore development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayık, Gülru; Tüzün, Nurcan Ş; Durdagi, Serdar

    2017-12-01

    The essential biological function of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type enzymes is to regulate the cytoplasmic levels of intracellular second messengers, 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and/or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). PDE targets have 11 isoenzymes. Of these enzymes, PDE5 has attracted a special attention over the years after its recognition as being the target enzyme in treating erectile dysfunction. Due to the amino acid sequence and the secondary structural similarity of PDE6 and PDE11 with the catalytic domain of PDE5, first-generation PDE5 inhibitors (i.e. sildenafil and vardenafil) are also competitive inhibitors of PDE6 and PDE11. Since the major challenge of designing novel PDE5 inhibitors is to decrease their cross-reactivity with PDE6 and PDE11, in this study, we attempt to identify potent tadalafil-like PDE5 inhibitors that have PDE5/PDE6 and PDE5/PDE11 selectivity. For this aim, the similarity-based virtual screening protocol is applied for the "clean drug-like subset of ZINC database" that contains more than 20 million small compounds. Moreover, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of selected hits complexed with PDE5 and off-targets were performed in order to get insights for structural and dynamical behaviors of the selected molecules as selective PDE5 inhibitors. Since tadalafil blocks hERG1 K channels in concentration dependent manner, the cardiotoxicity prediction of the hit molecules was also tested. Results of this study can be useful for designing of novel, safe and selective PDE5 inhibitors.

  13. Dinaciclib potently suppresses MCL-1 and selectively induces the cell death in human iPS cells without affecting the viability of cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayegh, Khaled; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2017-03-31

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great potential for being a major source of cells for regenerative medicine. One major issue that hinders their advancement to clinic is the persistence of undifferentiated iPS cells in iPS-derived tissue. In this report, we show that the CDKs inhibitor, Dinaciclib, selectively eliminates iPS cells without affecting the viability of cardiac cells. We found that low nanomolar concentration of dinaciclib increased DNA damage and p53 protein levels in iPSCs. This was accompanied by negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1. Gene knockdown experiments revealed that p53 downregulation only increased the threshold of dinaciclib induced apoptosis in iPS cells. Dinaciclib also inhibited the phosphorylation of Serine 2 of the C-terminal domain of RNA Polyemrase II through CDK9 inhibition. This resulted in the inhibition of transcription of MCL-1 and the pluripotency genes, NANOG and c-MYC. Even though dinaciclib caused a slight downregulation of MCL-1 in iPS-derived cardiac cells, the viability of the cells was not significantly affected, and beating iPS-derived cardiac cell sheet could still be fabricated. These findings suggest a difference in tolerance of MCL-1 downregulation between iPSCs and iPS-derived cardiac cells which could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues.

  14. Discovery of CP-690,550: a potent and selective Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Mark E; Blumenkopf, Todd A; Brissette, William H; Brown, Matthew F; Casavant, Jeffrey M; Shang-Poa, Chang; Doty, Jonathan L; Elliott, Eileen A; Fisher, Michael B; Hines, Michael; Kent, Craig; Kudlacz, Elizabeth M; Lillie, Brett M; Magnuson, Kelly S; McCurdy, Sandra P; Munchhof, Michael J; Perry, Bret D; Sawyer, Perry S; Strelevitz, Timothy J; Subramanyam, Chakrapani; Sun, Jianmin; Whipple, David A; Changelian, Paul S

    2010-12-23

    There is a critical need for safer and more convenient treatments for organ transplant rejection and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Janus tyrosine kinases (JAK1, JAK3) are expressed in lymphoid cells and are involved in the signaling of multiple cytokines important for various T cell functions. Blockade of the JAK1/JAK3-STAT pathway with a small molecule was anticipated to provide therapeutic immunosuppression/immunomodulation. The Pfizer compound library was screened against the catalytic domain of JAK3 resulting in the identification of a pyrrolopyrimidine-based series of inhibitors represented by CP-352,664 (2a). Synthetic analogues of 2a were screened against the JAK enzymes and evaluated in an IL-2 induced T cell blast proliferation assay. Select compounds were evaluated in rodent efficacy models of allograft rejection and destructive inflammatory arthritis. Optimization within this chemical series led to identification of CP-690,550 1, a potential first-in-class JAK inhibitor for treatment of autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection.

  15. HLA-B*14:02-Restricted Env-Specific CD8(+) T-Cell Activity Has Highly Potent Antiviral Efficacy Associated with Immune Control of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Ellen M; Willberg, Christian B; Tsai, Ming-Han; Chen, Huabiao; Buus, Søren; Chen, Fabian; Riddell, Lynn; Haas, David; Fellay, Jacques; Goedert, James J; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Walker, Bruce D; Martin, Jeffrey; Deeks, Steven; Wolinsky, Steven M; Martinson, Jeremy; Martin, Maureen; Qi, Ying; Sáez-Cirión, Asier; Yang, Otto O; Matthews, Philippa C; Carrington, Mary; Goulder, Philip J R

    2017-11-15

    Immune control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection is typically associated with effective Gag-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. We here focus on HLA-B*14, which protects against HIV disease progression, but the immunodominant HLA-B*14-restricted anti-HIV response is Env specific (ERYLKDQQL, HLA-B*14-EL9). A subdominant HLA-B*14-restricted response targets Gag (DRYFKTLRA, HLA-B*14-DA9). Using HLA-B*14/peptide-saporin-conjugated tetramers, we show that HLA-B*14-EL9 is substantially more potent at inhibiting viral replication than HLA-B*14-DA9. HLA-B*14-EL9 also has significantly higher functional avidity (P B*14-DA9. However, these differences were HLA-B*14 subtype specific, applying only to HLA-B*14:02 and not to HLA-B*14:01. Furthermore, the HLA-B*14-associated protection against HIV disease progression is significantly greater for HLA-B*14:02 than for HLA-B*14:01, consistent with the superior antiviral efficacy of the HLA-B*14-EL9 response. Thus, although Gag-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses may usually have greater anti-HIV efficacy, factors independent of protein specificity, including functional avidity of individual responses, are also critically important to immune control of HIV.IMPORTANCE In HIV infection, although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a potentially critical role in eradication of viral reservoirs, the features that constitute an effective response remain poorly defined. We focus on HLA-B*14, unique among HLAs associated with control of HIV in that the dominant CTL response is Env specific, not Gag specific. We demonstrate that Env-specific HLA-B*14-restricted activity is substantially more efficacious than the subdominant HLA-B*14-restricted Gag response. Env immunodominance over Gag and strong Env-mediated selection pressure on HIV are observed only in subjects expressing HLA-B*14:02, and not HLA-B*14:01. This reflects the increased functional avidity of the Env response over Gag, substantially more marked for HLA-B*14

  16. SJ-3366, a unique and highly potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that also inhibits HIV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckheit, R W; Watson, K; Fliakas-Boltz, V; Russell, J; Loftus, T L; Osterling, M C; Turpin, J A; Pallansch, L A; White, E L; Lee, J W; Lee, S H; Oh, J W; Kwon, H S; Chung, S G; Cho, E H

    2001-02-01

    We have identified and characterized a potent new nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that also is active against HIV-2 and which interferes with virus replication by two distinct mechanisms. 1-(3-Cyclopenten-1-yl)methyl-6-(3,5-dimethylbenzoyl)-5-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinedione (SJ-3366) inhibits HIV-1 replication at concentrations of approximately 1 nM, with a therapeutic index of greater than 4 x 10(6). The efficacy and toxicity of SJ-3366 are consistent when evaluated with established or fresh human cells, and the compound is equipotent against all strains of HIV-1 evaluated, including syncytium-inducing, non-syncytium-inducing, monocyte/macrophage-tropic, and subtype virus strains. Distinct from other members of the pharmacologic class of NNRTIs, SJ-3366 inhibited laboratory and clinical strains of HIV-2 at a concentration of approximately 150 nM, yielding a therapeutic index of approximately 20,000. Like most NNRTIs, the compound was less active when challenged with HIV-1 strains possessing the Y181C, K103N, and Y188C amino acid changes in the RT and selected for a virus with a Y181C amino acid change in the RT after five tissue culture passages in the presence of the compound. In combination anti-HIV assays with nucleoside and nonnucleoside RT and protease inhibitors, additive interactions occurred with all compounds tested with the exception of dideoxyinosine, with which a synergistic interaction was found. Biochemically, SJ-3366 exhibited a K(i) value of 3.2 nM, with a mixed mechanism of inhibition against HIV-1 RT, but it did not inhibit HIV-2 RT. SJ-3366 also inhibited the entry of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 into target cells. On the basis of its therapeutic index and multiple mechanisms of anti-HIV action, SJ-3366 represents an exciting new compound for use in HIV-infected individuals.

  17. HLA-B*14:02-Restricted Env-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Activity Has Highly Potent Antiviral Efficacy Associated with Immune Control of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willberg, Christian B.; Tsai, Ming-Han; Chen, Huabiao; Buus, Søren; Chen, Fabian; Riddell, Lynn; Haas, David; Fellay, Jacques; Goedert, James J.; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Walker, Bruce D.; Martin, Jeffrey; Deeks, Steven; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Martinson, Jeremy; Martin, Maureen; Qi, Ying; Yang, Otto O.; Matthews, Philippa C.; Carrington, Mary; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immune control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection is typically associated with effective Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. We here focus on HLA-B*14, which protects against HIV disease progression, but the immunodominant HLA-B*14-restricted anti-HIV response is Env specific (ERYLKDQQL, HLA-B*14-EL9). A subdominant HLA-B*14-restricted response targets Gag (DRYFKTLRA, HLA-B*14-DA9). Using HLA-B*14/peptide-saporin-conjugated tetramers, we show that HLA-B*14-EL9 is substantially more potent at inhibiting viral replication than HLA-B*14-DA9. HLA-B*14-EL9 also has significantly higher functional avidity (P B*14-DA9. However, these differences were HLA-B*14 subtype specific, applying only to HLA-B*14:02 and not to HLA-B*14:01. Furthermore, the HLA-B*14-associated protection against HIV disease progression is significantly greater for HLA-B*14:02 than for HLA-B*14:01, consistent with the superior antiviral efficacy of the HLA-B*14-EL9 response. Thus, although Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses may usually have greater anti-HIV efficacy, factors independent of protein specificity, including functional avidity of individual responses, are also critically important to immune control of HIV. IMPORTANCE In HIV infection, although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a potentially critical role in eradication of viral reservoirs, the features that constitute an effective response remain poorly defined. We focus on HLA-B*14, unique among HLAs associated with control of HIV in that the dominant CTL response is Env specific, not Gag specific. We demonstrate that Env-specific HLA-B*14-restricted activity is substantially more efficacious than the subdominant HLA-B*14-restricted Gag response. Env immunodominance over Gag and strong Env-mediated selection pressure on HIV are observed only in subjects expressing HLA-B*14:02, and not HLA-B*14:01. This reflects the increased functional avidity of the Env response over Gag, substantially more marked for HLA

  18. A potent and selective calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, MK-8825, inhibits responses to nociceptive trigeminal activation: Role of CGRP in orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Pardi, Vanessa; Akerman, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are orofacial pains within the trigeminal distribution, which involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joint or both. Their pathophysiology remains unclear, as inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved, and clinically TMD presents pain and sometimes limitation of function, but often appears without gross indications of local inflammation, such as visible edema, redness and increase in temperature. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been implicated in other pain disorders with trigeminal distribution, such as migraine, of which TMD shares a significant co-morbidity. CGRP causes activation and sensitization of trigeminal primary afferent neurons, independent of any inflammatory mechanisms, and thus may also be involved in TMD. Here we used a small molecule, selective CGRP receptor antagonist, MK-8825, to dissect the role of CGRP in inducing spontaneous nociceptive facial grooming behaviors, neuronal activation in the trigeminal nucleus, and systemic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in a mouse model of acute orofacial masseteric muscle pain that we have developed, as a surrogate of acute TMD. We show that CFA masseteric injection causes significant spontaneous orofacial pain behaviors, neuronal activation in the trigeminal nucleus, and release of interleukin-6 (IL-6). In mice pre-treated with MK-8825 there is a significant reduction in these spontaneous orofacial pain behaviors. Also, at 2 and 24h after CFA injection the level of Fos immunoreactivity in the trigeminal nucleus, used as a marker of neuronal activation, was much lower on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides after pre-treatment with MK-8825. There was no effect of MK-8825 on the release of IL-6. These data suggest that CGRP may be involved in TMD pathophysiology, but not via inflammatory mechanisms, at least in the acute stage. Furthermore, CGRP receptor antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of TMD, as they

  19. Analysis of Select Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Proteins for Restriction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1): HSV-1 gM Protein Potently Restricts HIV-1 by Preventing Intracellular Transport and Processing of Env gp160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polpitiya Arachchige, Sachith; Henke, Wyatt; Pramanik, Ankita; Kalamvoki, Maria; Stephens, Edward B

    2018-01-15

    Virus-encoded proteins that impair or shut down specific host cell functions during replication can be used as probes to identify potential proteins/pathways used in the replication of viruses from other families. We screened nine proteins from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for the ability to enhance or restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We show that several HSV-1 proteins (glycoprotein M [gM], US3, and UL24) potently restricted the replication of HIV-1. Unlike UL24 and US3, which reduced viral protein synthesis, we observed that gM restriction of HIV-1 occurred through interference with the processing and transport of gp160, resulting in a significantly reduced level of mature gp120/gp41 released from cells. Finally, we show that an HSV-1 gM mutant lacking the majority of the C-terminal domain (HA-gM[Δ345-473]) restricted neither gp160 processing nor the release of infectious virus. These studies identify proteins from heterologous viruses that can restrict viruses through novel pathways.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infection of humans results in AIDS, characterized by the loss of CD4+ T cells and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Both HIV-1 and HSV-1 can infect astrocytes and microglia of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the identification of HSV-1 proteins that directly restrict HIV-1 or interfere with pathways required for HIV-1 replication could lead to novel antiretroviral strategies. The results of this study show that select viral proteins from HSV-1 can potently restrict HIV-1. Further, our results indicate that the gM protein of HSV-1 restricts HIV-1 through a novel pathway by interfering with the processing of gp160 and its incorporation into virus maturing from the cell. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Highly Selective, Reversible Inhibitor Identified by Comparative Chemoproteomics Modulates Diacylglycerol Lipase Activity in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggelaar, Marc P; Chameau, Pascal J P; Kantae, Vasudev; Hummel, Jessica; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Janssen, Freek; van der Wel, Tom; Soethoudt, Marjolein; Deng, Hui; den Dulk, Hans; Allarà, Marco; Florea, Bogdan I; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Wadman, Wytse J; Kruse, Chris G; Overkleeft, Herman S; Hankemeier, Thomas; Werkman, Taco R; Cravatt, Benjamin F; van der Stelt, Mario

    2015-07-15

    Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)-α and -β are enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective and reversible inhibitors are required to study the function of DAGLs in neuronal cells in an acute and temporal fashion, but they are currently lacking. Here, we describe the identification of a highly selective DAGL inhibitor using structure-guided and a chemoproteomics strategy to characterize the selectivity of the inhibitor in complex proteomes. Key to the success of this approach is the use of comparative and competitive activity-based proteome profiling (ABPP), in which broad-spectrum and tailor-made activity-based probes are combined to report on the inhibition of a protein family in its native environment. Competitive ABPP with broad-spectrum fluorophosphonate-based probes and specific β-lactone-based probes led to the discovery of α-ketoheterocycle LEI105 as a potent, highly selective, and reversible dual DAGL-α/DAGL-β inhibitor. LEI105 did not affect other enzymes involved in endocannabinoid metabolism including abhydrolase domain-containing protein 6, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12, monoacylglycerol lipase, and fatty acid amide hydrolase and did not display affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Targeted lipidomics revealed that LEI105 concentration-dependently reduced 2-AG levels, but not anandamide levels, in Neuro2A cells. We show that cannabinoid CB1-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity in a mouse hippocampal slice model can be reduced by LEI105. Thus, we have developed a highly selective DAGL inhibitor and provide new pharmacological evidence to support the hypothesis that "on demand biosynthesis" of 2-AG is responsible for retrograde signaling.

  1. A highly selective, reversible inhibitor identified by comparative chemoproteomics modulates diacylglycerol lipase activity in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggelaar, Marc P.; Chameau, Pascal J. P.; Kantae, Vasudev; Hummel, Jessica; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Janssen, Freek; van der Wel, Tom; Soethoudt, Marjolein; Deng, Hui; den Dulk, Hans; Allarà, Marco; Florea, Bogdan I.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Wadman, Wytse J.; Kruse, Chris G.; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Werkman, Taco R.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; van der Stelt, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)-α and -β are enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective and reversible inhibitors are required to study the function of DAGLs in neuronal cells in an acute and temporal fashion, but they are currently lacking. Here, we describe the identification of a highly selective DAGL inhibitor using structure-guided and a chemoproteomics strategy to characterize the selectivity of the inhibitor in complex proteomes. Key to the success of this approach is the use of comparative and competitive activity-based proteome profiling (ABPP), in which broad-spectrum and tailor-made activity-based probes are combined to report on the inhibition of a protein family in its native environment. Competitive ABPP with broad-spectrum fluorophosphonate-based probes and specific β-lactone-based probes led to the discovery of α-ketoheterocycle LEI105 as a potent, highly selective and reversible dual DAGL-α/DAGL-β inhibitor. LEI105 did not affect other enzymes involved in endocannabinoid metabolism including abhydrolase domain-containing protein 6, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12, monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase and did not display affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Targeted lipidomics revealed that LEI105 concentration-dependently reduced 2-AG levels, but not anandamide levels, in Neuro2A cells. We show that cannabinoid CB1-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity in a mouse hippocampal slice model can be reduced by LEI105. Thus, we have developed a highly selective DAGL inhibitor and provide new pharmacological evidence to support the hypothesis that ‘on demand biosynthesis’ of 2-AG is responsible for retrograde signaling. PMID:26083464

  2. Identification of Uridine 5'-Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferases Responsible for the Glucuronidation of Mirabegron, a Potent and Selective β3-Adrenoceptor Agonist, in Human Liver Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kentaro; Tenmizu, Daisuke; Takusagawa, Shin

    2017-11-21

    Mirabegron is cleared by multiple mechanisms, including drug-metabolizing enzymes. One of the most important clearance pathways is direct glucuronidation. In humans, M11 (O-glucuronide), M13 (carbamoyl-glucuronide), and M14 (N-glucuronide) have been identified, of which M11 is one of the major metabolites in human plasma. The objective of this study was to identify the uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoform responsible for the direct glucuronidation of mirabegron using human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant human UGTs (rhUGTs). Reaction mixtures contained 1-1000 μM mirabegron, 8 mM MgCl2, alamethicin (25 μg/mL), 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5), human liver microsome (HLM) or rhUGT (1.0 mg protein/mL), and 2 mM UDP-glucuronic acid in a total volume of 200 μL for 120 min at 37 °C. HLMs from 16 individuals were used for the correlation study, and mefenamic acid and propofol were used for the inhibition study. Regarding M11 formation, rhUGT2B7 showed high activity among the rhUGTs tested (11.3 pmol/min/mg protein). This result was supported by the correlation between M11 formation activity and UGT2B7 marker enzyme activity (3-glucuronidation of morphine, r 2 = 0.330, p = 0.020) in individual HLMs; inhibition by mefenamic acid in pooled HLMs (IC50 = 22.8 μM); and relatively similar K m values between pooled HLMs and rhUGT2B7 (1260 vs. 486 μM). Regarding M13 and M14 formation, rhUGT1A3 and rhUGT1A8 showed high activity among the rhUGTs tested, respectively. UGT2B7 is the main catalyst of M11 formation in HLMs. Regarding M13 and M14 formation, UGT1A3 and UGT1A8 are strong candidates for glucuronidation, respectively.

  3. Calcicludine, a venom peptide of the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family, is a potent blocker of high-threshold Ca2+ channels with a high affinity for L-type channels in cerebellar granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitz, H; Heurteaux, C; Bois, P; Moinier, D; Romey, G; Lazdunski, M

    1994-02-01

    Calcicludine (CaC) is a 60-amino acid polypeptide from the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps. It is structurally homologous to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, to dendrotoxins, which block K+ channels, and to the protease inhibitor domain of the amyloid beta protein that accumulates in Alzheimer disease. Voltage-clamp experiments on a variety of excitable cells have shown that CaC specifically blocks most of the high-threshold Ca2+ channels (L-, N-, or P-type) in the 10-100 nM range. Particularly high densities of specific 125I-labeled CaC binding sites were found in the olfactory bulb, in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the stratum oriens of CA3 field in the hippocampal formation, and in the granular layer of the cerebellum. 125I-labeled CaC binds with a high affinity (Kd = 15 pM) to a single class of noninteracting sites in rat olfactory bulb microsomes. The distribution of CaC binding sites in cerebella of three mutant mice (Weaver, Reeler, and Purkinje cell degeneration) clearly shows that the specific high-affinity labeling is associated with granule cells. Electrophysiological experiments on rat cerebellar granule neurons in primary culture have shown that CaC potently blocks the L-type component of the Ca2+ current (K0.5 = 0.2 nM). Then CaC, in the nanomolar range, appears to be a highly potent blocker of an L-subtype of neuronal Ca2+ channels.

  4. CBFS: high performance feature selection algorithm based on feature clearness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Seo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of feature selection is to select useful features and simultaneously exclude garbage features from a given dataset for classification purposes. This is expected to bring reduction of processing time and improvement of classification accuracy. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we devised a new feature selection algorithm (CBFS based on clearness of features. Feature clearness expresses separability among classes in a feature. Highly clear features contribute towards obtaining high classification accuracy. CScore is a measure to score clearness of each feature and is based on clustered samples to centroid of classes in a feature. We also suggest combining CBFS and other algorithms to improve classification accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From the experiment we confirm that CBFS is more excellent than up-to-date feature selection algorithms including FeaLect. CBFS can be applied to microarray gene selection, text categorization, and image classification.

  5. Highly potent anti-proliferative effects of a gallium(III) complex with 7-chloroquinoline thiosemicarbazone as a ligand: synthesis, cytotoxic and antimalarial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kewal; Schniper, Sarah; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Holder, Alvin A; Sanders, Natalie; Sullivan, David; Jarrett, William L; Davis, Krystyn; Bai, Fengwei; Seeram, Navindra P; Kumar, Vipan

    2014-10-30

    A gallium(III) complex with 7-chloroquinoline thiosemicarbazone was synthesized and characterized. The complex proved to be thirty-one times more potent on colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, with considerably less cytotoxicity on non-cancerous colon fibroblast, CCD-18Co, when compared to etoposide. Its anti-malarial potential on 3D7 isolate of Plasmodium falciparum was better than lumefantrine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, X-ray structure, and hydrolytic chemistry of the high potent antiviral polyniobotungstate A-[alpha]-[Si2Nb6W18O77]8–

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyu-Shik Kim; Huadong Zeng; Jeffrey T. Rhule; Ira A. Weinstock; Craig L. Hill

    1999-01-01

    Potently antiviral polyniobotungstates have been structurally characterized; the dimer A-[alpha]-[Si2Nb6W18O77]8– cleaves cleanly to the monomer A-[alpha]-[SiNb3W9O40]7– within 1 min in aqueous solution buffered at physiological (neutral) pH establishing that the monomer and not the dimer is pharmacologically relevant.

  7. Super-surface selective nanomembranes providing simultaneous high permeation flux and high selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Simpson, John T.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Sturgeon, Matthew R.

    2016-04-12

    Superhydrophobic membrane structures having a beneficial combination of throughput and a selectivity. The membrane structure can include a porous support substrate; and a membrane layer adherently disposed on and in contact with the porous support substrate. The membrane layer can include a nanoporous material having a superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface can include a textured surface, and a modifying material disposed on the textured surface. Methods of making and using the membrane structures.

  8. Evaluation of the antitumor effects of BPR1J-340, a potent and selective FLT3 inhibitor, alone or in combination with an HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat, in AML cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsing Lin

    Full Text Available Overexpression or/and activating mutation of FLT3 kinase play a major driving role in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Hence, pharmacologic inhibitors of FLT3 are of therapeutic potential for AML treatment. In this study, BPR1J-340 was identified as a novel potent FLT3 inhibitor by biochemical kinase activity (IC50 approximately 25 nM and cellular proliferation (GC50 approximately 5 nM assays. BPR1J-340 inhibited the phosphorylation of FLT3 and STAT5 and triggered apoptosis in FLT3-ITD(+ AML cells. The pharmacokinetic parameters of BPR1J-340 in rats were determined. BPR1J-340 also demonstrated pronounced tumor growth inhibition and regression in FLT3-ITD(+ AML murine xenograft models. The combination treatment of the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA with BPR1J-340 synergistically induced apoptosis via Mcl-1 down-regulation in MOLM-13 AML cells, indicating that the combination of selective FLT3 kinase inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors could exhibit clinical benefit in AML therapy. Our results suggest that BPR1J-340 may be further developed in the preclinical and clinical studies as therapeutics in AML treatments.

  9. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Antibiotic CJ-16,264, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Designed Analogues, and Discovery of Highly Potent and Simpler Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Buchman, Marek; Shah, Akshay A; Cen, Nicholas; McCurry, Megan D; Beabout, Kathryn; Shamoo, Yousif

    2017-11-08

    An improved and enantioselective total synthesis of antibiotic CJ-16,264 through a practical kinetic resolution and an iodolactonization reaction to form the iodo pyrrolizidinone fragment of the molecule is described. A series of racemic and enantiopure analogues of CJ-16,264 was designed and synthesized through the developed synthetic technologies and tested against drug-resistant bacterial strains. These studies led to interesting structure-activity relationships and the identification of a number of simpler, and yet equipotent, or even more potent, antibacterial agents than the natural product, thereby setting the foundation for further investigations in the quest for new anti-infective drugs.

  10. Retinoids: Potent regulators of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Pierre-Jacques; Yang, Kryscilla Jian Zhang; Lee, Seung-Ah; Yuen, Jason J; Blaner, William S

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its analogs) are highly potent regulators of cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Because of these activities, retinoids have been most extensively studied in the contexts of embryonic development and of proliferative diseases, especially cancer and skin disease. Recently, there has been considerable new research interest focused on gaining understanding of the roles that retinoids and/or retinoid-related proteins may have in the development of metabolic diseases, primarily obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. This review will summarize recent advances that have been made in these areas, focusing on the role of retinoids in modulating adipogenesis, the roles of retinoids and retinoid-related proteins as signaling molecules linking obesity with the development of type II diabetes, the roles of retinoids in pancreatic β-cell biology/insulin secretion, and the actions of retinoids in hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Conformational Masking and Receptor-Dependent Unmasking of Highly Conserved Env Epitopes Recognized by Non-Neutralizing Antibodies That Mediate Potent ADCC against HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Lewis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of antibody-mediated protection is a major focus of HIV-1 vaccine development and a significant issue in the control of viremia. Virus neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both, are major mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection against HIV-1, although other mechanisms, such as virus aggregation, are known. The interplay between virus neutralization and Fc-mediated effector function in protection against HIV-1 is complex and only partially understood. Passive immunization studies using potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs show that both neutralization and Fc-mediated effector function provides the widest dynamic range of protection; however, a vaccine to elicit these responses remains elusive. By contrast, active immunization studies in both humans and non-human primates using HIV-1 vaccine candidates suggest that weakly neutralizing or non-neutralizing antibodies can protect by Fc-mediated effector function, albeit with a much lower dynamic range seen for passive immunization with bnAbs. HIV-1 has evolved mechanisms to evade each type of antibody-mediated protection that must be countered by a successful AIDS vaccine. Overcoming the hurdles required to elicit bnAbs has become a major focus of HIV-1 vaccine development. Here, we discuss a less studied problem, the structural basis of protection (and its evasion by antibodies that protect only by potent Fc-mediated effector function.

  12. Development of PF-06671008, a Highly Potent Anti-P-cadherin/Anti-CD3 Bispecific DART Molecule with Extended Half-Life for the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Root

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bispecific antibodies offer a promising approach for the treatment of cancer but can be challenging to engineer and manufacture. Here we report the development of PF-06671008, an extended-half-life dual-affinity re-targeting (DART® bispecific molecule against P-cadherin and CD3 that demonstrates antibody-like properties. Using phage display, we identified anti-P-cadherin single chain Fv (scFv that were subsequently affinity-optimized to picomolar affinity using stringent phage selection strategies, resulting in low picomolar potency in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing assays in the DART format. The crystal structure of this disulfide-constrained diabody shows that it forms a novel compact structure with the two antigen binding sites separated from each other by approximately 30 Å and facing approximately 90° apart. We show here that introduction of the human Fc domain in PF-06671008 has produced a molecule with an extended half-life (-4.4 days in human FcRn knock-in mice, high stability (Tm1 > 68 °C, high expression (>1 g/L, and robust purification properties (highly pure heterodimer, all with minimal impact on potency. Finally, we demonstrate in vivo anti-tumor efficacy in a human colorectal/human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC co-mix xenograft mouse model. These results suggest PF-06671008 is a promising new bispecific for the treatment of patients with solid tumors expressing P-cadherin.

  13. Optimal Feature Selection in High-Dimensional Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Mladen; Liu, Han

    2015-02-01

    We consider the high-dimensional discriminant analysis problem. For this problem, different methods have been proposed and justified by establishing exact convergence rates for the classification risk, as well as the ℓ 2 convergence results to the discriminative rule. However, sharp theoretical analysis for the variable selection performance of these procedures have not been established, even though model interpretation is of fundamental importance in scientific data analysis. This paper bridges the gap by providing sharp sufficient conditions for consistent variable selection using the sparse discriminant analysis (Mai et al., 2012). Through careful analysis, we establish rates of convergence that are significantly faster than the best known results and admit an optimal scaling of the sample size n , dimensionality p , and sparsity level s in the high-dimensional setting. Sufficient conditions are complemented by the necessary information theoretic limits on the variable selection problem in the context of high-dimensional discriminant analysis. Exploiting a numerical equivalence result, our method also establish the optimal results for the ROAD estimator (Fan et al., 2012) and the sparse optimal scaling estimator (Clemmensen et al., 2011). Furthermore, we analyze an exhaustive search procedure, whose performance serves as a benchmark, and show that it is variable selection consistent under weaker conditions. Extensive simulations demonstrating the sharpness of the bounds are also provided.

  14. Resveratrol analogues like piceatannol are potent antioxidants as quantitatively demonstrated through the high scavenging ability against reactive oxygen species and methyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueishi, Yoshimi; Nii, Risako; Kakizaki, Naru

    2017-12-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) analogues have attracted much attention because of the expected health functions including antioxidant activities. We have carried out a quantitative determination of the scavenging abilities of six trans-RSV analogues against various reactive oxygen species and methyl radical (hydroxyl radical, superoxide, alkoxyl radical, peroxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen). RSV analogues are in general more potent scavenger than the parent RSV. Furthermore, piceatannol (PIC) having two OH groups in the ortho position of resveratrol was found to show 11 times higher scavenging ability against peroxyl radical than parent resveratrol. With the aid of previous theoretical studies, the enhanced antioxidant ability was interpreted based on the effects of substituent that modifies the original resveratrol structure and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design. High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devi...

  16. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design.High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devis...

  17. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin eWu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput computing (HTC uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general purpose computation on a graphics processing unit (GPU provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin – Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit (CPU capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of

  18. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Methyl-4,5-Disubstituted Oxazoles as a Novel Class of Highly Potent Antitubulin Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Prencipe, Filippo; Oliva, Paola; Baraldi, Stefania; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Lopez-Cara, Luisa Carlota; Brancale, Andrea; Ferla, Salvatore; Hamel, Ernest; Ronca, Roberto; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Mariotto, Elena; Porcù, Elena; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2017-04-01

    Antimitotic agents that interfere with microtubule formation are one of the major classes of cytotoxic drugs for cancer treatment. Multiple 2-methyl-4-(3‧,4‧,5‧-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-substituted oxazoles and their related 4-substituted-5-(3‧,4‧,5‧-trimethoxyphenyl) regioisomeric derivatives designed as cis-constrained combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in vitro against a panel of cancer cell lines and, for selected highly active compounds, interaction with tubulin, cell cycle effects and in vivo potency. Both these series of compounds were characterized by the presence of a common 3‧,4‧,5‧-trimethoxyphenyl ring at either the C-4 or C-5 position of the 2-methyloxazole ring. Compounds 4g and 4i, bearing a m-fluoro-p-methoxyphenyl or p-ethoxyphenyl moiety at the 5-position of 2-methyloxazole nucleus, respectively, exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values of 0.35-4.6 nM (4g) and 0.5-20.2 nM (4i), which are similar to those obtained with CA-4. These compounds bound to the colchicine site of tubulin and inhibited tubulin polymerization at submicromolar concentrations. Furthermore, 4i strongly induced apoptosis that follows the mitochondrial pathway. In vivo, 4i in a mouse syngeneic model demonstrated high antitumor activity which significantly reduced the tumor mass at doses ten times lower than that required for CA-4P, suggesting that 4i warrants further evaluation as a potential anticancer drug.

  19. High density transcriptional mapping of chromosome 21 by hybridization selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassone, F.; Wade, H.; Gardiner, K. [Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A transcriptional map of human chromosome 21 is important for the study of Down syndrome, development processes and genome organization. To construct a high density transcriptional map, the technique of cDNA hybrid selection is being applied to a minimal tiling path of YAC clones that span 21q. The cDNA used for selection represents a complex pool of sequences obtained from a variety of fetal and adult tissues and cell lines. Approximately 70-80 YAC clones are sufficient to span 21q; each is individually processed through the selection procedure to obtain a YAC-specific {open_quotes}selected cDNA library{close_quotes}. Survey analysis of each library includes determination of levels of ribosomal contamination, verification of enrichment of control genes, identification of a preliminary number of novel unique sequences, and verification that novel sequences map to the correct YAC and chromosomal regions. This analysis has been completed for 19 YACs that together comprise approximately 10 Mb of non-overlapping DNA, 25% of the long arm. Ribosomal cDNA contamination is low (<10%) and all known genes of appropriate tissue specificity of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries from 8 of these YACs are now being subjected to exhaustive analysis to identify all novel genes contained within them and to obtain complete cDNAs and expression analysis for each. Not all regions of the chromosome, however, are equally amenable to these analyses. Selected cDNA libraries from the centromeric YACs are yielding apparently novel genes, but confirmation of map position is problematic. Also of interest is a region of several megabases within the Giemsa dark band, 21q21. Selected cDNA libraries from these YACs so far have yielded no novel genes and support the idea of a genuinely very gene-poor region.

  20. High-dimensional model estimation and model selection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review concepts and algorithms from high-dimensional statistics for linear model estimation and model selection. I will particularly focus on the so-called p>>n setting where the number of variables p is much larger than the number of samples n. I will focus mostly on regularized statistical estimators that produce sparse models. Important examples include the LASSO and its matrix extension, the Graphical LASSO, and more recent non-convex methods such as the TREX. I will show the applicability of these estimators in a diverse range of scientific applications, such as sparse interaction graph recovery and high-dimensional classification and regression problems in genomics.

  1. Purine derivatives as potent Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors for autoimmune diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Qing; Tebben, Andrew; Dyckman, Alaric J.; Li, Hedy; Liu, Chunjian; Lin, James; Spergel, Steve; Burke, James R.; McIntyre, Kim W.; Olini, Gilbert C.; Strnad, Joann; Surti, Neha; Muckelbauer, Jodi K.; Chang, Chiehying; An, Yongmi; Cheng, Lin; Ruan, Qian; Leftheris, Katerina; Carter, Percy H.; Tino, Joseph; De Lucca, George V. (BMS)

    2014-05-01

    Investigation of various heterocyclic core isosteres of imidazopyrazines 1 & 2 yielded purine derivatives 3 & 8 as potent and selective BTK inhibitors. Subsequent SAR studies of the purine series led to the discovery of 20 as a leading compound. Compound 20 is very selective when screened against a panel of 400 kinases and is a potent inhibitor in cellular assays of human B cell function including B-Cell proliferation and CD86 cell surface expression and exhibited in vivo efficacy in a mouse PCA model. Its X-ray co-crystal structure with BTK shows that the high selectivity is gained from filling a BTK specific lipophilic pocket. However, physical and ADME properties leading to low oral exposure hindered further development.

  2. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Weigel, Kent A.; Gatti, Natalia de Leon; Gianola, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput computing (HTC) uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high-throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long, and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl, and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general-purpose computation on a graphics processing unit provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin–Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general-purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of marker panels to realized

  3. Peptide-Directed Highly Selective Targeting of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Takeo; Järvinen, Tero A.H.; Toba, Michie; Sawada, Junko; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Mann, David; McMurtry, Ivan; Oka, Masahiko; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Komatsu, Masanobu

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder of the pulmonary vasculature associated with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Despite recent advances in the treatment of PAH, with eight approved clinical therapies and additional therapies undergoing clinical trials, PAH remains a serious life-threatening condition. The lack of pulmonary vascular selectivity and associated systemic adverse effects of these therapies remain the main obstacles to successful treatment. Peptide-mediated drug delivery that specifically targets the vasculature of PAH lungs may offer a solution to the lack of drug selectivity. Herein, we show highly selective targeting of rat PAH lesions by a novel cyclic peptide, CARSKNKDC (CAR). Intravenous administration of CAR peptide resulted in intense accumulation of the peptide in monocrotaline-induced and SU5416/hypoxia-induced hypertensive lungs but not in healthy lungs or other organs of PAH rats. CAR homed to all layers of remodeled pulmonary arteries, ie, endothelium, neointima, medial smooth muscle, and adventitia, in the hypertensive lungs. CAR also homed to capillary vessels and accumulated in the interstitial space of the PAH lungs, manifesting its extravasation activity. These results demonstrated the remarkable ability of CAR to selectively target PAH lung vasculature and effectively penetrate and spread throughout the diseased lung tissue. These results suggest the clinical utility of CAR in the targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds and imaging probes to PAH lungs. PMID:21549345

  4. Truncated G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1 splice variants are targets for highly potent opioid analgesics lacking side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Susruta; Grinnell, Steven; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Burgman, Maxim; Polikar, Lisa; Ansonoff, Michael; Pintar, John; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2011-12-06

    Pain remains a pervasive problem throughout medicine, transcending all specialty boundaries. Despite the extraordinary insights into pain and its mechanisms over the past few decades, few advances have been made with analgesics. Most pain remains treated by opiates, which have significant side effects that limit their utility. We now describe a potent opiate analgesic lacking the traditional side effects associated with classical opiates, including respiratory depression, significant constipation, physical dependence, and, perhaps most important, reinforcing behavior, demonstrating that it is possible to dissociate side effects from analgesia. Evidence indicates that this agent acts through a truncated, six-transmembrane variant of the G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1. Although truncated splice variants have been reported for a number of G protein-coupled receptors, their functional relevance has been unclear. Our evidence now suggests that truncated variants can be physiologically important through heterodimerization, even when inactive alone, and can comprise new therapeutic targets, as illustrated by our unique opioid analgesics with a vastly improved pharmacological profile.

  5. Impact of V2 mutations on escape from a potent neutralizing anti-V3 monoclonal antibody during in vitro selection of a primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Junji; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Honda, Akiko; Koito, Atsushi; Murakami, Toshio; Matsushita, Shuzo

    2007-04-01

    KD-247, a humanized monoclonal antibody to an epitope of gp120-V3 tip, has potent cross-neutralizing activity against subtype B primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates. To assess how KD-247 escape mutants can be generated, we induced escape variants by exposing bulked primary R5 virus, MOKW, to increasing concentrations of KD-247 in vitro. In the presence of relatively low concentrations of KD-247, viruses with two amino acid mutations (R166K/D167N) in V2 expanded, and under high KD-247 pressure, a V3 tip substitution (P313L) emerged in addition to the V2 mutations. However, a virus with a V2 175P mutation dominated during passaging in the absence of KD-247. Using domain swapping analysis, we demonstrated that the V2 mutations and the P313L mutation in V3 contribute to partial and complete resistance phenotypes against KD-247, respectively. To identify the V2 mutation responsible for the resistance to KD-247, we constructed pseudoviruses with single or double amino acid mutations in V2 and measured their sensitivity to neutralization. Interestingly, the neutralization phenotypes were switched, so that amino acid residue 175 (Pro or Leu) located in the center of V2 was exchanged, indicating that the amino acid at position 175 has a crucial role, dramatically changing the Env oligomeric state on the membrane surface and affecting the neutralization phenotype against not only anti-V3 antibody but also recombinant soluble CD4. These data suggested that HIV-1 can escape from anti-V3 antibody attack by changing the conformation of the functional envelope oligomer by acquiring mutations in the V2 region in environments with relatively low antibody concentrations.

  6. Discovery and optimization of 2-(4-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)methylene-4-hydroxybenzofuran-3(2H)-ones as potent and selective ATP-competitive inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoua, Hwei-Ru; MacEwana, Gloria; Birnberga, Gary; Grosua, George; Bursavicha, Matthew G.; Barda, Joel; Brooijmansa, Natasja; Toral-Barzab, Lourdes; Hollanderb, Irwin; Mansoura, Tarek S.; Ayral-Kaloustiana, Semiramis; Yub, Ker (Wyeth)

    2010-07-19

    We discovered 2-(4-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)methylene-4-hydroxybenzofuran-3(2H)-ones as potent and selective ATP-competitive inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Since phenolic OH groups pose metabolic liability, one of the two hydroxyl groups was selectively removed. The SAR data showed the structural features necessary for subnanomolar inhibitory activity against mTOR kinase as well as selectivity over PI3K?. An X-ray co-crystal structure of one inhibitor with the mTOR-related PI3K? revealed the key hydrogen bonding interactions.

  7. ON SELECTION OF CIRCUIT-BREAKERS SWITCHING ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS OF HIGH AND EXTRA-HIGH VOLTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lazimov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes some additional conditions for high-voltage circuit-breaker selection keeping in mind coordination of the switched over-voltages and voltages induced in secondary circuits with their permissible values.

  8. Transport of water vapor and inert gas mixtures through highly selective and highly permeable polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; van de Ven, W.J.C.; Potreck, Jens; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies in detail the measurement of the permeation properties of highly permeable and highly selective polymers for water vapor/nitrogen gas mixtures. The analysis of the mass transport of a highly permeable polymer is complicated by the presence of stagnant boundary layers at feed and

  9. Structural analysis of human dihydrofolate reductase as a binary complex with the potent and selective inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-{2'-O-(3-carboxypropyl)oxydibenz[b,f]-azepin-5-yl}methylpteridine reveals an unusual binding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nowak, Jessica

    2011-10-01

    In order to understand the structure-activity profile observed for a series of substituted dibenz[b,f]azepine antifolates, the crystal structure of the binary complex of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) with the potent and selective inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-{2'-O-(3-carboxypropyl)oxydibenz[b,f]-azepin-5-yl}methylpteridine (PT684) was determined to 1.8 Å resolution. These data revealed that the carboxylate side chain of PT684 occupies two alternate positions, neither of which interacts with the conserved Arg70 in the active-site pocket, which in turn hydrogen bonds to water. These observations are in contrast to those reported for the ternary complex of mouse DHFR (mDHFR) with NADPH [Cody et al. (2008), Acta Cryst. D64, 977-984], in which the 3-carboxypropyl side chain of PT684 was hydrolyzed to its hydroxyl derivative, PT684a. The crystallization conditions differed for the human and mouse DHFR crystals (100 mM K2HPO4 pH 6.9, 30% ammonium sulfate for hDHFR; 15 mM Tris pH 8.3, 75 mM sodium cacodylate, PEG 4K for mDHFR). Additionally, the side chains of Phe31 and Gln35 in the hDHFR complex have a single conformation, whereas in the mDHFR complex they occupied two alternative conformations. These data show that the hDHFR complex has a decreased active-site volume compared with the mDHFR complex, as reflected in a relative shift of helix C (residues 59-64) of 1.2 Å, and a shift of 1.5 Å compared with the ternary complex of Pneumocystis carinii DHFR (pcDHFR) with the parent dibenz[b,f]azepine PT653. These data suggest that the greater inhibitory potency of PT684 against pcDHFR is consistent with the larger active-site volume of pcDHFR and the predicted interactions of the carboxylate side chain with Arg75.

  10. Using Flash Nanoprecipitation To Produce Highly Potent and Stable Cellax Nanoparticles from Amphiphilic Polymers Derived from Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Polyethylene Glycol, and Cabazitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bteich, Joseph; McManus, Simon A; Ernsting, Mark J; Mohammed, Mohammed Z; Prud'homme, Robert K; Sokoll, Kenneth K

    2017-11-06

    We report the use of flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) as an efficient and scalable means of producing Cellax nanoparticles. Cellax polymeric conjugates consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose functionalized with PEG and hydrophobic anticancer drugs, such as cabazitaxel (coined Cellax-CBZ), have been shown to have high potency against several oncology targets, including prostate cancer. FNP, a robust method used to create nanoparticles through rapid mixing, has been used to encapsulate several hydrophobic drugs with block copolymer stabilizers, but has never been used to form nanoparticles from random copolymers, such as Cellax-CBZ. To assess the potential of using FNP to produce Cellax nanoparticles, parameters such as concentration, mixing rate, solvent ratios, and subsequent dilution were tested with a target nanoparticle size range of 60 nm. Under optimized solvent conditions, particles were formed that underwent a subsequent rearrangement to form nanoparticles of 60 nm diameter, independent of Cellax-CBZ polymer concentration. This intraparticle relaxation, without interparticle association, points to a delicate balance of hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains on the polymer backbone. These particles were stable over time, and the random amphiphilicity did not lead to interparticle attractions, which would compromise the stability and corresponding narrow size distribution required for parenteral injection. The amphiphilic nature of these conjugates allows them to be processed into nanoparticles for sustained drug release and improved tumor selectivity. Preferred candidates were evaluated for plasma stability and cytotoxicity against the PC3 prostate cancer cell line in vitro. These parameters are important when assessing nanoparticle safety and for estimating potential efficacy, respectively. The optimal formulations showed plasma stability profiles consistent with long circulating nanoparticles, and cytotoxicity comparable to that of free CBZ. This study demonstrates

  11. Assay of labile estrogen o-quinones, potent carcinogenic molecular species, by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with phenazine derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kouwa; Masuda, Akina; Hoshino, Yuka; Komatsu, Sachiko; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2010-04-01

    A sensitive and selective assay method for labile estrogen o-quinones, estrone (E(1))-2,3-quinone (Q), E(1)-3,4-Q, estradiol (E(2))-2,3-Q and E(2)-3,4-Q, based on the use of phenazine (Phz) derivatization with o-phenylenediamine and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was described. The Phz derivatives of four estrogen o-quinones were purified by solid phase extraction and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The protonated molecule was observed as a base peak for all Phz derivatives in their ESI-mass spectra (positive mode). In multiple reaction monitoring, the transition from [M+H]+ to m/z 231 was chosen for quantification. Calibration curves for the o-quinones were obtained using standard catechol estrogens after sodium metaperiodate treatment and Phz derivatization. Using this method, these four estrogen o-quinones were analyzed with the limit of quantification of 5 ng/ml in acetonitrile (MeCN)-blank matrix (1:4, v/v), respectively, on a basis of the weight of catechol estrogens. Assay accuracy and precision for four estrogen o-quinones were 89.6-113.0% and 3.1-12.6% (5, 125 and 2000 ng/ml in MeCN-blank matrix). Applications of this method enabled to determine the catalytic activities on hydroxylation and subsequent oxidation of E(1) and E(2) of Mushroom tyrosinase and rat liver microsomal fraction. It was confirmed by this method that tyrosinase exhibited 2- and 4-hydroxylation and further oxidation activities for catechols in the ring-A of estrogens. Whereas rat liver microsomal fraction possessed only 2- and 4-hydroxylation activities, and further oxidation activity for catechol estrogens was low. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Material Selection and Characterization for High Gradient RF Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Heikkinen, S; Ramsvik, T; Sgobba, Stefano; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2007-01-01

    The selection of candidate materials for the accelerating cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is carried out in parallel with high power RF testing. The maximum DC breakdown field of copper, copper alloys, refractory metals, aluminium and titanium have been measured with a dedicated setup. Higher maximum fields are obtained for refractory metals and for titanium, which exhibits, however, important damages after conditioning. Fatigue behaviour of copper alloys has been studied for surface and bulk by pulsed laser irradiation and ultrasonic excitation, respectively. The selected copper alloys show consistently higher fatigue resistance than copper in both experiments. In order to obtain the best local properties in the device a possible solution is a bi-metallic assembly. Junctions of molybdenum and copper-zirconium UNS C15000 alloy, achieved by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) diffusion bonding or explosion bonding were evaluated for their mechanical strength. The reliability of the results obtained wit...

  13. Can Administration of Potentized Homeopathic Remedy, Arsenicum Album, Alter Antinuclear Antibody (ANA Titer in People Living in High-Risk Arsenic Contaminated Areas? I. A Correlation with Certain Hematological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Belon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine whether elevated antinuclear antibody (ANA titers reported in random human population of arsenic contaminated villages can be reverted to the normal range by administration of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum album, randomly selected volunteers in two arsenic contaminated villages and one arsenic-free village in West Bengal (India were periodically tested for their ANA titer as well as various blood parameters in two types of experiments: ‘placebo-controlled double blind’ experiment for shorter duration and ‘uncontrolled verum fed experiment’ for longer duration. Positive modulation of ANA titer was observed along with changes in certain relevant hematological parameters, namely total count of red blood cells and white blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin content, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood sugar level, mostly within 2 months of drug administration. Thus, Arsenicum album appears to have great potential for ameliorating arsenic induced elevated ANA titer and other hematological toxicities.

  14. Identification of highly potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant constituents from Zizyphus rugosa bark: enzyme kinetic and molecular docking studies with active metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichaem, Jirapast; Aree, Thammarat; Lugsanangarm, Kiattisak; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that extracts of Zizyphus rugosa Lam. (Rhamnaceae) bark contained phytoconstituents with antidiabetic potential to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. However, there has been no report on the active compounds in this plant as potential antidiabetic inhibitors. We evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Z. rugosa extract. Moreover, the active phytochemical constituents were isolated and characterized. The α-glucosidase inhibition of crude ethanol extract obtained from the bark of Z. rugosa was assayed as well as the antioxidant activity. Active compounds (1-6) were isolated, the structures were determined, and derivatives (2a-2 l) were prepared. All compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory (yeast and rat intestine) and antioxidant (DPPH) activities. The active α-glucosidase inhibitors (1-6) were isolated from Z. rugosa bark and 12 derivatives (2a-2 l) were prepared. Compound 2 showed the most powerful yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 16.3 μM), while compounds 3 and 4 display only weak inhibition toward rat intestinal α-glucosidase. Moreover, compound 6 showed the most potent antioxidant activity (IC50 42.8 μM). The molecular docking results highlighted the role of the carboxyl moiety of 2 for yeast α-glucosidase inhibition through H-bonding. These results suggest the potential of Z. rugosa bark for future application in the treatment of diabetes and active compounds 1 and 2 have emerged as promising molecules for therapy.

  15. High-throughput chemical screen identifies a novel potent modulator of cellular circadian rhythms and reveals CKIα as a clock regulatory kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hirota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock underlies daily rhythms of diverse physiological processes, and alterations in clock function have been linked to numerous pathologies. To apply chemical biology methods to modulate and dissect the clock mechanism with new chemical probes, we performed a circadian screen of ∼120,000 uncharacterized compounds on human cells containing a circadian reporter. The analysis identified a small molecule that potently lengthens the circadian period in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequent analysis showed that the compound also lengthened the period in a variety of cells from different tissues including the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus, the central clock controlling behavioral rhythms. Based on the prominent period lengthening effect, we named the compound longdaysin. Longdaysin was amenable for chemical modification to perform affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis to identify target proteins. Combined with siRNA-mediated gene knockdown, we identified the protein kinases CKIδ, CKIα, and ERK2 as targets of longdaysin responsible for the observed effect on circadian period. Although individual knockdown of CKIδ, CKIα, and ERK2 had small period effects, their combinatorial knockdown dramatically lengthened the period similar to longdaysin treatment. We characterized the role of CKIα in the clock mechanism and found that CKIα-mediated phosphorylation stimulated degradation of a clock protein PER1, similar to the function of CKIδ. Longdaysin treatment inhibited PER1 degradation, providing insight into the mechanism of longdaysin-dependent period lengthening. Using larval zebrafish, we further demonstrated that longdaysin drastically lengthened circadian period in vivo. Taken together, the chemical biology approach not only revealed CKIα as a clock regulatory kinase but also identified a multiple kinase network conferring robustness to the clock. Longdaysin provides novel possibilities in manipulating clock

  16. High Selectivity Wideband Bandpass Filter Using Stub Loaded Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing-Bing; Jiang, Ting

    2017-07-01

    This article presents a high selectivity wideband bandpass filter (BPF) adopting stub loaded resonator. Hereinto, aim passband is determined by BPF without stub embedded, which is only composed of four half-wavelength open-loop resonators. Based on typical tapped-line coupling, two same stubs are located at physical middle points of two resonators connected with I/O feed lines, respectively. Due to embedded point at middle of loaded resonator, the stub with two open-end branches has no influence on original half-wavelength resonant frequency, and aim passband keeps unchanged. Because of different even-mode resonant frequencies between loaded and unloaded resonators, no new passband is constructed. With the help of embedded stubs, original transmission zero (TZ) near low-edge of aim passband is shifted towards passband, and a new TZ is introduced near high-edge. High selectivity and good passband characteristics are obtained optimizing sizes of stubs, I/O tapped position and top open-end length of loaded resonator.

  17. Guidelines for Microplate Selection in High Content Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Oscar J

    2018-01-01

    Since the inception of commercialized automated high content screening (HCS) imaging devices in the mid to late 1990s, the adoption of media vessels typically used to house and contain biological specimens for interrogation has transitioned from microscope slides and petri dishes into multi-well microtiter plates called microplates. The early 96- and 384-well microplates commonly used in other high-throughput screening (HTS) technology applications were often not designed for optical imaging. Since then, modifications and the use of next-generation materials with improved optical clarity have enhanced the quality of captured images, reduced autofocusing failures, and empowered the use of higher power magnification objectives to resolve fine detailed measurements at the subcellular pixel level. The plethora of microplates and their applications requires practitioners of high content imaging (HCI) to be especially diligent in the selection and adoption of the best plates for running longitudinal studies or larger screening campaigns. While the highest priority in experimental design is the selection of the biological model, the choice of microplate can alter the biological response and ultimately may change the experimental outcome. This chapter will provide readers with background, troubleshooting guidelines, and considerations for choosing an appropriate microplate.

  18. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that interact with both heme propionate and tetrahydrobiopterin show high isoform selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soosung; Tang, Wei; Li, Huiying; Chreifi, Georges; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B

    2014-05-22

    Overproduction of NO by nNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neuronal disorders. Since NO signaling is involved in diverse physiological functions, selective inhibition of nNOS over other isoforms is essential to minimize side effects. A series of α-amino functionalized aminopyridine derivatives (3-8) were designed to probe the structure-activity relationship between ligand, heme propionate, and H4B. Compound 8R was identified as the most potent and selective molecule of this study, exhibiting a Ki of 24 nM for nNOS, with 273-fold and 2822-fold selectivity against iNOS and eNOS, respectively. Although crystal structures of 8R complexed with nNOS and eNOS revealed a similar binding mode, the selectivity stems from the distinct electrostatic environments in two isoforms that result in much lower inhibitor binding free energy in nNOS than in eNOS. These findings provide a basis for further development of simple, but even more selective and potent, nNOS inhibitors.

  19. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  20. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  1. Selection of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-Sik Eugene

    2017-01-01

    In the future higher temperature Stirling convertors for improved efficiency and performance, various high temperature organic materials have been demanded as essential components for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The higher temperature capabilities would also allow current state-of-the-art (SOA) convertors to be used in additional missions, particularly those that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of comprehensive structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, o-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This paper presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection recommendations.

  2. Enzyme assays: high-throughput screening, genetic selection, and fingerprinting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    ... (Testing Many Substrates Toward Hydrolase) Comparison with Other Methods 26 Estimating and Measuring Selectivity 27 Estimating Selectivity without a Reference Compound 28 Quantitative Measure of Se...

  3. Design and Development of Highly Potent HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with a Crown-Like Oxotricyclic Core as the P2-Ligand To Combat Multidrug-Resistant HIV Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun K; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Nyalapatla, Prasanth R; Osswald, Heather L; Martyr, Cuthbert D; Aoki, Manabu; Hayashi, Hironori; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Bulut, Haydar; Das, Debananda; Weber, Irene T; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2017-05-25

    Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new class of exceptionally potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors are reported. Inhibitor 5 displayed superior antiviral activity and drug-resistance profiles. In fact, this inhibitor showed several orders of magnitude improved antiviral activity over the FDA approved drug darunavir. This inhibitor incorporates an unprecedented 6-5-5 ring-fused crown-like tetrahydropyranofuran as the P2 ligand and an aminobenzothiazole as the P2' ligand with the (R)-hydroxyethylsulfonamide isostere. The crown-like P2 ligand for this inhibitor has been synthesized efficiently in an optically active form using a chiral Diels-Alder catalyst providing a key intermediate in high enantiomeric purity. Two high resolution X-ray structures of inhibitor-bound HIV-1 protease revealed extensive interactions with the backbone atoms of HIV-1 protease and provided molecular insight into the binding properties of these new inhibitors.

  4. Discovery of novel hydroxamates as highly potent tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] converting enzyme inhibitors. Part II: Optimization of the S3′ pocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola Jr., Robert D.; Zhu, Zhaoning; Sinning, Lisa; McKittrick, Brian; Lavey, Brian; Spitler, James; Kozlowski, Joseph; Neng-Yang, Shih; Zhou, Guowei; Guo, Zhuyan; Orth, Peter; Madison, Vincent; Sun, Jing; Lundell, Daniel; Niu, Xiaoda (SPRI)

    2010-10-01

    A series of cyclopropyl hydroxamic acids were prepared. Many of the compounds displayed picomolar affinity for the TACE enzyme while maintaining good to excellent selectivity profiles versus MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -14, and ADAM-10. X-ray analysis of an inhibitor in the TACE active site indicated that the molecules bound to the enzyme in the S1{prime}-S3{prime} pocket.

  5. High-content analysis of antibody phage-display library selection outputs identifies tumor selective macropinocytosis-dependent rapidly internalizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    macropinocytosis activity was identified as ephrin type-A receptor 2. Antibody-toxin conjugates created using this macropinocytosing IgG were capable of potent and receptor-dependent killing of a panel of EphA2-positive tumor cell lines in vitro. These studies identify novel methods to screen for and validate antibodies capable of receptor-dependent macropinocytosis, allowing further exploration of this highly efficient and tumor-selective internalization pathway for targeted therapy development. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. High-content Analysis of Antibody Phage-display Library Selection Outputs Identifies Tumor Selective Macropinocytosis-dependent Rapidly Internalizing Antibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    active macropinocytosis activity was identified as ephrin type-A receptor 2. Antibody-toxin conjugates created using this macropinocytosing IgG were capable of potent and receptor-dependent killing of a panel of EphA2-positive tumor cell lines in vitro. These studies identify novel methods to screen for and validate antibodies capable of receptor-dependent macropinocytosis, allowing further exploration of this highly efficient and tumor-selective internalization pathway for targeted therapy development. PMID:25149096

  7. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hung-Lun; Yip, Bak-Sau; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Chih, Ya-Han; Cheng, Hsi-Tsung; Chou, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Jya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.

  8. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Lun Chu

    Full Text Available We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.

  9. On-treatment non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, and lipid ratios in relation to residual vascular risk after treatment with potent statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...

  10. Highly oxidized peroxisomes are selectively degraded via autophagy in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Michitaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Yoshimoto, Kohki; Kondo, Maki; Mano, Shoji; Yamada, Kenji; Hayashi, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-12-01

    The positioning of peroxisomes in a cell is a regulated process that is closely associated with their functions. Using this feature of the peroxisomal positioning as a criterion, we identified three Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (peroxisome unusual positioning1 [peup1], peup2, and peup4) that contain aggregated peroxisomes. We found that the PEUP1, PEUP2, and PEUP4 were identical to Autophagy-related2 (ATG2), ATG18a, and ATG7, respectively, which are involved in the autophagic system. The number of peroxisomes was increased and the peroxisomal proteins were highly accumulated in the peup1 mutant, suggesting that peroxisome degradation by autophagy (pexophagy) is deficient in the peup1 mutant. These aggregated peroxisomes contained high levels of inactive catalase and were more oxidative than those of the wild type, indicating that peroxisome aggregates comprise damaged peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisome aggregation was induced in wild-type plants by exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide. The cat2 mutant also contained peroxisome aggregates. These findings demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide as a result of catalase inactivation is the inducer of peroxisome aggregation. Furthermore, an autophagosome marker, ATG8, frequently colocalized with peroxisome aggregates, indicating that peroxisomes damaged by hydrogen peroxide are selectively degraded by autophagy in the wild type. Our data provide evidence that autophagy is crucial for quality control mechanisms for peroxisomes in Arabidopsis.

  11. High throughput selection of effective serodiagnostics for Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Cooley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection by direct pathogen detection is complicated by the low parasite burden in subjects persistently infected with this agent of human Chagas disease. Determination of infection status by serological analysis has also been faulty, largely due to the lack of well-characterized parasite reagents for the detection of anti-parasite antibodies.In this study, we screened more than 400 recombinant proteins of T. cruzi, including randomly selected and those known to be highly expressed in the parasite stages present in mammalian hosts, for the ability to detect anti-parasite antibodies in the sera of subjects with confirmed or suspected T. cruzi infection.A set of 16 protein groups were identified and incorporated into a multiplex bead array format which detected 100% of >100 confirmed positive sera and also documented consistent, strong and broad responses in samples undetected or discordant using conventional serologic tests. Each serum had a distinct but highly stable reaction pattern. This diagnostic panel was also useful for monitoring drug treatment efficacy in chronic Chagas disease.These results substantially extend the variety and quality of diagnostic targets for Chagas disease and offer a useful tool for determining treatment success or failure.

  12. Structure-activity relationship for a series of 2-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indoles: potent subtype-selective inhibitors of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiz, A P; Whittemore, E R; Woodward, R M; Upasani, R B; Keana, J F

    1999-06-07

    A series of 2-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indoles was synthesized as potential antagonists for the NR1A/2B subtype of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Assayed by electrical recording under steady-state conditions, 7-hydroxy-2-(4-phenylbutyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido-[3,4-b]indole (30) was the most potent compound in the series having an IC50 value of 50 nM at the NR1A/2B receptors.

  13. α6 Integrin (α6high/Transferrin Receptor (CD71low Keratinocyte Stem Cells Are More Potent for Generating Reconstructed Skin Epidermis Than Rapid Adherent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Metral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis basal layer is composed of two keratinocyte populations: Keratinocyte Stem cells (KSC and Transitory Amplifying (TA cells that arise from KSC division. Unfortunately, no specific marker exists to differ between KSC and TA cells. Here, we aimed at comparing two different methods that pretended to isolate these two populations: (i the rapid adhesion method on coated substrate and (ii the flow cytometry method, which is based on the difference in cell surface expressions of the α6 integrin and transferrin receptor (CD71. Then, we compared different parameters that are known to discriminate KSC and TA populations. Interestingly, we showed that both methods allow enrichment in stem cells. However, cell sorting by flow cytometry (α6high/CD71low phenotype leads to a better enrichment of KSC since the colony forming efficiency is five times increased versus total cell suspension, whereas it is only 1.4 times for the adhesion method. Moreover, α6high/CD71low cells give rise to a thicker pluristratified epithelium with lower seeding density and display a low Ki67 positive cells number, showing that they have reached the balance between proliferation and differentiation. We clearly demonstrated that cells isolated by a rapid adherent method are not the same population as KSC isolated by flow cytometry following α6high/CD71low phenotype.

  14. An in silico high-throughput screen identifies potential selective inhibitors for the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirson T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomer Meirson, Abraham O Samson, Hava Gil-Henn Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, Israel Abstract: The non-receptor tyrosine kinase proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 is a critical mediator of signaling from cell surface growth factor and adhesion receptors to cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Emerging evidence indicates that signaling by Pyk2 regulates hematopoietic cell response, bone density, neuronal degeneration, angiogenesis, and cancer. These physiological and pathological roles of Pyk2 warrant it as a valuable therapeutic target for invasive cancers, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and inflammatory cellular response. Despite its potential as a therapeutic target, no potent and selective inhibitor of Pyk2 is available at present. As a first step toward discovering specific potential inhibitors of Pyk2, we used an in silico high-throughput screening approach. A virtual library of six million lead-like compounds was docked against four different high-resolution Pyk2 kinase domain crystal structures and further selected for predicted potency and ligand efficiency. Ligand selectivity for Pyk2 over focal adhesion kinase (FAK was evaluated by comparative docking of ligands and measurement of binding free energy so as to obtain 40 potential candidates. Finally, the structural flexibility of a subset of the docking complexes was evaluated by molecular dynamics simulation, followed by intermolecular interaction analysis. These compounds may be considered as promising leads for further development of highly selective Pyk2 inhibitors. Keywords: virtual screen, efficiency metrics, MM-GBSA, molecular dynamics

  15. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Jensen, Ole N

    2006-01-01

    a protocol for selective phosphopeptide enrichment using titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The selectivity toward phosphopeptides is obtained by loading the sample in a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) or phthalic acid solution containing acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) onto a TiO2 micro...

  16. Discovery of aminofurazan-azabenzimidazoles as inhibitors of Rho-kinase with high kinase selectivity and antihypertensive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenger, Robert A; Cui, Haifeng; Dowdell, Sarah E; Franz, Robert G; Gaitanopoulos, Dimitri E; Goodman, Krista B; Hilfiker, Mark A; Ivy, Robert L; Leber, Jack D; Marino, Joseph P; Oh, Hye-Ja; Viet, Andrew Q; Xu, Weiwei; Ye, Guosen; Zhang, Daohua; Zhao, Yongdong; Jolivette, Larry J; Head, Martha S; Semus, Simon F; Elkins, Patricia A; Kirkpatrick, Robert B; Dul, Edward; Khandekar, Sanjay S; Yi, Tracey; Jung, David K; Wright, Lois L; Smith, Gary K; Behm, David J; Doe, Christopher P; Bentley, Ross; Chen, Zunxuan X; Hu, Erding; Lee, Dennis

    2007-01-11

    The discovery, proposed binding mode, and optimization of a novel class of Rho-kinase inhibitors are presented. Appropriate substitution on the 6-position of the azabenzimidazole core provided subnanomolar enzyme potency in vitro while dramatically improving selectivity over a panel of other kinases. Pharmacokinetic data was obtained for the most potent and selective examples and one (6n) has been shown to lower blood pressure in a rat model of hypertension.

  17. Multiparameter optimization in CNS drug discovery: design of pyrimido[4,5-d]azepines as potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT₂C) receptor agonists with exquisite functional selectivity over 5-HT₂A and 5-HT₂B receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, R Ian; Brennan, Paul E; Brown, Alan D; Bungay, Peter J; Conlon, Kelly M; Corbett, Matthew S; DePianta, Robert P; Fish, Paul V; Heifetz, Alexander; Ho, Danny K H; Jessiman, Alan S; McMurray, Gordon; de Oliveira, Cesar Augusto F; Roberts, Lee R; Root, James A; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Shapiro, Michael J; Skerten, Melanie; Westbrook, Dominique; Wheeler, Simon; Whitlock, Gavin A; Wright, John

    2014-06-26

    A series of 4-substituted pyrimido[4,5-d]azepines that are potent, selective 5-HT2C receptor partial agonists is described. A rational medicinal chemistry design strategy to deliver CNS penetration coupled with SAR-based optimization of selectivity and agonist potency provided compounds with the desired balance of preclinical properties. Lead compounds 17 (PF-4479745) and 18 (PF-4522654) displayed robust pharmacology in a preclinical canine model of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and no measurable functional agonism at the key selectivity targets 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B in relevant tissue-based assay systems. Utilizing recent advances in the structural biology of GPCRs, homology modeling has been carried out to rationalize binding and agonist efficacy of these compounds.

  18. Structure Based Drug Design of Crizotinib (PF-02341066), a Potent and Selective Dual Inhibitor of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition Factor (c-MET) Kinase and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, J Jean; Tran-Dube,; #769; Michelle,; Shen, Hong; Nambu, Mitchell; Kung, Pei-Pei; Pairish, Mason; Jia, Lei; Meng, Jerry; Funk, Lee; Botrous, Iriny; McTigue, Michele; Grodsky, Neil; Ryan, Kevin; Padrique, Ellen; Alton, Gordon; Timofeevski, Sergei; Yamazaki, Shinji; Li, Qiuhua; Zou, Helen; Christensen, James; Mroczkowski, Barbara; Bender, Steve; Kania, Robert S; Edwards, Martin P [Pfizer

    2011-08-03

    Because of the critical roles of aberrant signaling in cancer, both c-MET and ALK receptor tyrosine kinases are attractive oncology targets for therapeutic intervention. The cocrystal structure of 3 (PHA-665752), bound to c-MET kinase domain, revealed a novel ATP site environment, which served as the target to guide parallel, multiattribute drug design. A novel 2-amino-5-aryl-3-benzyloxypyridine series was created to more effectively make the key interactions achieved with 3. In the novel series, the 2-aminopyridine core allowed a 3-benzyloxy group to reach into the same pocket as the 2,6-dichlorophenyl group of 3 via a more direct vector and thus with a better ligand efficiency (LE). Further optimization of the lead series generated the clinical candidate crizotinib (PF-02341066), which demonstrated potent in vitro and in vivo c-MET kinase and ALK inhibition, effective tumor growth inhibition, and good pharmaceutical properties.

  19. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric sensing of antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Hong; He, Yujian; Li, Xiangjun; Yuan, Zhuobin

    2013-05-17

    Antibiotics residues in foods are very harmful to human beings. Determination of antibiotics residues relies largely on the availability of adequate analytical techniques. Currently, there is an urgent need for on site and real time detection of antibiotics in food. In this work, a novel one step synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was proposed using pyrocatechol violet (PCV) as a reducer agent. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric detection of four antibiotics kanamycin mono sulfate (KA), neomycin sulfate (NE), streptomycin sulfate (ST) and bleomycin sulfate (BL) was realized during the formation of AuNPs. PCV has -OH groups and these antibiotics have -OH, -NH2, -NH- groups, so there may be some special hydrogen-bonding interactions between PCV and these antibiotics. Therefore, the presence of KA, NE, ST and BL would influence the synthesis of AuNPs, then the color and state of AuNPs would change, which could be observed with the naked eye or a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Results showed that A670 was linear with the logarithm of KA concentration in the range from 1.0×10(-8) to 5.0×10(-7)M and 5.0×10(-7) to 5.5×10(-5)M. The detection limit of KA was 1.0×10(-9)M (S/N=3). The coexisting substances including 1.0×10(-5)M phenylalanine, alanine, glycerol, glucose, Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), CO3(2-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-) and Br(-) did not affect the determination of 1.0×10(-7)M antibiotics. In particular, the proposed method could be applied successfully to the detection of antibiotics in the pretreated liquid milk products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure-Guided, Single-Point Modifications in the Phosphinic Dipeptide Structure Yield Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neutral Aminopeptidases

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliou, Stamatia; We?glarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, ?ukasz; Pawe?czak, Ma?gorzata; Nocek, Bogus?aw; Mulligan, Rory; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Seven crystal structures of alanyl aminopeptidase from Neisseria meningitides (the etiological agent of meningitis, NmAPN) complexed with organophosphorus compounds were resolved to determine the optimal inhibitor?enzyme interactions. The enantiomeric phosphonic acid analogs of Leu and hPhe, which correspond to the P1 amino acid residues of well-processed substrates, were used to assess the impact of the absolute configuration and the stereospecific hydrogen bond network formed between the am...

  1. Toward the Validation of Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase: Discovery, Optimization of Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors, and Preliminary Biology Insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toure, B. Barry; Giraldes, John; Smith, Troy

    2016-01-01

    describe the discovery and optimization of novel MELK inhibitors 8a and 8b that recapitulate the cellular effects observed by short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated MELK knockdown in cellular models. We also discovered a novel fluorine-induced hydrophobic collapse that locked the ligand in its...

  2. Rational Design of Novel Highly Potent and Selective Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase III beta (PI4KB) Inhibitors as Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agents and Tools for Chemical Biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mejdrová, Ivana; Chalupská, Dominika; Plačková, Pavla; Müller, C.; Šála, Michal; Klíma, Martin; Bäumlová, Adriana; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Procházková, Eliška; Dejmek, Milan; Strunin, Dmytro; Weber, Jan; Lee, G.; Matoušová, Marika; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Ziebuhr, J.; Birkuš, G.; Bouřa, Evžen; Nencka, Radim

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2017), s. 100-118 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09310S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 333916 - STARPI4K Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C virus replication * lipid kinase * crystal structure Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016

  3. AMD3465, a monomacrocyclic CXCR4 antagonist and potent HIV entry inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Princen, Katrien; De Clercq, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 function as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are attractive targets for the development of anti-HIV drugs. The most potent CXCR4 antagonists described until today are the bicyclams. The prototype compound, AMD3100, exhibits potent...... and selective anti-HIV activity against CXCR4-using (X4) viruses and showed antiviral efficacy in X4 HIV-1-infected persons in a phase II clinical trial. However, AMD3100 lacks oral bioavailability due to its high overall positive charge. Initial structure-activity relationship studies with bicyclam analogues...... suggested that the bis-macrocyclic structure was a prerequisite for anti-HIV activity. Now, we report that the N-pyridinylmethylene cyclam AMD3465, which lacks the structural constraints mentioned above, fully conserves all the biological properties of AMD3100. Like AMD3100, AMD3465 blocked the cell surface...

  4. High throughput in vivo protease inhibitor selection platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant microbial cell comprising a selection platform for screening for a protease inhibitor, wherein the platform comprises transgenes encoding a protease having selective peptide bond cleavage activity at a recognition site amino acid sequence; and transgenes...... encoding polypeptides conferring resistance to microbial growth inhibitors; wherein the polypeptides comprise the recognition site amino acid sequence cleavable by the protease. Protease inhibitors are detected by their ability to inhibit protease specific cleavage and inactivation of the polypeptides...... platform for screening for a protease inhibitor....

  5. Potent antiviral flavone glycosides from Ficus benjamina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Huleihel, Mahmoud; Zaccai, Michele; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2012-03-01

    Crude ethanol extracts from Ficus benjamina leaves strongly inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) as well as Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) cell infection in vitro. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract demonstrated that the most efficient inhibition of HSV-1 and HSV-2 was obtained with the flavonoid fraction. The present study was aimed to further isolate, purify and identify substances with potent antiviral activity from the flavonoid fraction of F. benjamina extracts. Flavonoids were collected from the leaf ethanol extracts through repeated purification procedure and HPLC analysis. The antiviral activity of each substance was then evaluated in cell culture. Three known flavone glycosides, (1) quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, (2) kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and (3) kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside, showing highest antiviral efficiency were selected and their structure was determined by spectroscopic analyses including NMR and mass spectrometry (MS). These three flavones were highly effective against HSV-1 reaching a selectivity index (SI) of 266, 100 and 666 for compound 1, 2 and 3, respectively, while the SI of their aglycons, quercetin and kaempferol amounted only in 7.1 and 3.2, respectively. Kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside showed similar SI to that of acyclovir (ACV), the standard anti-HSV drug. Although highly effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, these flavone glycosides did not show any significant activity against VZV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Celebrity Patients, VIPs, and Potentates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, James E.; Dunderdale, Barbara A.; Stern, Theodore A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: During the second half of the 20th century, the literature on the doctor-patient relationship mainly dealt with the management of “difficult” (personality-disordered) patients. Similar problems, however, surround other types of “special” patients. Method: An overview and analysis of the literature were conducted. As a result, such patients can be subcategorized by their main presentations; each requires a specific management strategy. Results: Three types of “special” patients stir up irrational feelings in their caregivers. Sick celebrities threaten to focus public scrutiny on the private world of medical caregivers. VIPs generate awe in caregivers, with loss of the objectivity essential to the practice of scientific medicine. Potentates unearth narcissism in the caregiver-patient relationship, which triggers a struggle between power and shame. Pride, privacy, and the staff's need to be in control are all threatened by introduction of the special patient into medicine's closed culture. Conclusion: The privacy that is owed to sick celebrities should be extended to protect overexposed staff. The awe and loss of medical objectivity that VIPs generate are counteracted by team leadership dedicated to avoiding any deviation from standard clinical procedure. Moreover, the collective ill will surrounding potentates can be neutralized by reassuring them that they are “special”—and by caregivers mending their own vulnerable self-esteem. PMID:15014712

  7. Family Structure Changes during High School and College Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Brian P.; Sorensen, Kia N.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that family structure changes negatively influence educational attainment, but they overlook qualitative distinctions in college choice, such as college selectivity. Yet, college choice research has largely focused on static measures of family structure, failing to account for year-to-year family structure changes that occur…

  8. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  9. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Sadowska

    Full Text Available Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  10. Feature selection for high-dimensional integrated data

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Charles

    2012-04-26

    Motivated by the problem of identifying correlations between genes or features of two related biological systems, we propose a model of feature selection in which only a subset of the predictors Xt are dependent on the multidimensional variate Y, and the remainder of the predictors constitute a “noise set” Xu independent of Y. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated the relative performance of two methods: thresholding and singular-value decomposition, in combination with stochastic optimization to determine “empirical bounds” on the small-sample accuracy of an asymptotic approximation. We demonstrate utility of the thresholding and SVD feature selection methods to with respect to a recent infant intestinal gene expression and metagenomics dataset.

  11. Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

    1992-11-30

    Efforts to synthesize bimetallic cluster-derived Rh-Mo catalysts for CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation to preferentially produce oxygenates. The rhodium-molybdenum cluster, (PPh[sub 3])[sub 2]RhMO(CO)([mu]-CO)[sub 2]Cp, was employed as a precursor to alumina- and silica-supported catalysts which were in CO hydrogenation. When compared to catalysts made from the distinct organometallic complexes, RhH(CO)(PPh[sub 3])[sub 3] and [MO(CO)[sub 3]Cp][sub 2], the catalysts derived from a binuclear precursor show higher activities for CO hydrogenation and superior selectivities towards oxygenates, namely, methanol, dimethyl ether and ethanol. Their product distributions depend on the support. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate that CO chemisorbs on cluster-derived catalysts as gem-dicarbonyls while it is chemisorbed only in the linear-carbonyl configuration on catalysts made from separate rhodium and molybdenum complexes. The particular oxygenate selectivity of the cluster-derived catalysts may be correlated to the strong electronic interaction between Rh and Mo. Carbon dioxide hydrogenation has also been carried out on the catalysts mentioned above. Again, the cluster-derived catalysts show higher oxygenate selectivities. Finally, the catalysts were studied with regard to both CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation kinetics, apparent activation energies inferred.

  12. Selection of a tool to decision making for site selection for high level waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiller Madeira Jonni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools addressed in this work are also well known and with easy implementation. The decision-making process in matters of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multicriteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various stakeholders. Thus, a comprehensive study was performed with the literature in this subject, specifically in documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision-making process. Therefore, we highlighted six judgment attributes for selecting a decision support tool, suitable for the problem. For this study, we have selected the following multicriteria tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed.

  13. Low Cost High Performance Nanostructured Spectrally Selective Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sungho [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Sunlight absorbing coating is a key enabling technology to achieve high-temperature high-efficiency concentrating solar power operation. A high-performance solar absorbing material must simultaneously meet all the following three stringent requirements: high thermal efficiency (usually measured by figure of merit), high-temperature durability, and oxidation resistance. The objective of this research is to employ a highly scalable process to fabricate and coat black oxide nanoparticles onto solar absorber surface to achieve ultra-high thermal efficiency. Black oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile process and coated onto absorber metal surface. The material composition, size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticle are guided by numeric modeling. Optical and thermal properties have been both modeled and measured. High temperature durability has been achieved by using nanocomposites and high temperature annealing. Mechanical durability on thermal cycling have also been investigated and optimized. This technology is promising for commercial applications in next-generation high-temperature concentration solar power (CSP) plants.

  14. Learning from host-defense peptides: cationic, amphipathic peptoids with potent anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Seo, Jiwon; Willingham, Stephen B; Czyzewski, Ann M; Gonzalgo, Mark L; Weissman, Irving L; Barron, Annelise E

    2014-01-01

    Cationic, amphipathic host defense peptides represent a promising group of agents to be developed for anticancer applications. Poly-N-substituted glycines, or peptoids, are a class of biostable, peptidomimetic scaffold that can display a great diversity of side chains in highly tunable sequences via facile solid-phase synthesis. Herein, we present a library of anti-proliferative peptoids that mimics the cationic, amphipathic structural feature of the host defense peptides and explore the relationships between the structure, anticancer activity and selectivity of these peptoids. Several peptoids are found to be potent against a broad range of cancer cell lines at low-micromolar concentrations including cancer cells with multidrug resistance (MDR), causing cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. They can penetrate into cells, but their cytotoxicity primarily involves plasma membrane perturbations. Furthermore, peptoid 1, the most potent peptoid synthesized, significantly inhibited tumor growth in a human breast cancer xenotransplantation model without any noticeable acute adverse effects in mice. Taken together, our work provided important structural information for designing host defense peptides or their mimics for anticancer applications. Several cationic, amphipathic peptoids are very attractive for further development due to their high solubility, stability against protease degradation, their broad, potent cytotoxicity against cancer cells and their ability to overcome multidrug resistance.

  15. Learning from host-defense peptides: cationic, amphipathic peptoids with potent anticancer activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    Full Text Available Cationic, amphipathic host defense peptides represent a promising group of agents to be developed for anticancer applications. Poly-N-substituted glycines, or peptoids, are a class of biostable, peptidomimetic scaffold that can display a great diversity of side chains in highly tunable sequences via facile solid-phase synthesis. Herein, we present a library of anti-proliferative peptoids that mimics the cationic, amphipathic structural feature of the host defense peptides and explore the relationships between the structure, anticancer activity and selectivity of these peptoids. Several peptoids are found to be potent against a broad range of cancer cell lines at low-micromolar concentrations including cancer cells with multidrug resistance (MDR, causing cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. They can penetrate into cells, but their cytotoxicity primarily involves plasma membrane perturbations. Furthermore, peptoid 1, the most potent peptoid synthesized, significantly inhibited tumor growth in a human breast cancer xenotransplantation model without any noticeable acute adverse effects in mice. Taken together, our work provided important structural information for designing host defense peptides or their mimics for anticancer applications. Several cationic, amphipathic peptoids are very attractive for further development due to their high solubility, stability against protease degradation, their broad, potent cytotoxicity against cancer cells and their ability to overcome multidrug resistance.

  16. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  17. Selection of local extremophile lactic acid bacteria with high capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is related to the isolation and identification of strains of local thermophilic lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria can exist under extreme conditions of the digestive tract (acidity and high concentration of bile salts) and have a high ...

  18. Noria: A Highly Xe-Selective Nanoporous Organic Solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rahul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia Missouri 65211 United States; Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States; Banerjee, Debasis [Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States; Simon, Cory M. [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley California 94720 United States; Atwood, Jerry L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia Missouri 65211 United States; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352 United States

    2016-07-05

    The successful mass-implementation of nuclear energy requires reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) to mitigate harmful radioactive waste. Volatile radionuclides such as Xe and Kr evolve into off-gas streams of UNF reprocessing facilities in parts per million concentrations; their capture and successive safe handing is essential from a regulatory point of view. As radioactive Xe has a short half-life, this captured Xe could be sold in the chemical market. Energy-intensive, expensive, and hazardous cryogenic distillation is the current benchmark process to capture and separate radioactive Xe and Kr from air. Thus, a cost-effective, alternative technology for the separation of Xe and Kr and their capture from air is of significant importance. Thus far, nanoporous materials, such as aluminosilicate zeolites, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and porous organic molecules have shown promise for an adsorption-based separation process at room temperature. Herein, we report the selective Xe uptake in a crystalline porous organic oligomeric molecule, noria, and its structural analogue, PgC-noria, under ambient conditions. The selectivity of noria towards Xe arises from its tailored pore size and small cavities, which allows a directed non-bonding interaction of Xe atoms with a large number of carbon atoms of the noria molecular wheel in a confined space.

  19. Aromatic amino acids in high selectivity bismuth(III) recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Sen, Souvik; Sen, Kamalika

    2013-04-21

    The three aromatic amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, play different physiological roles in life processes. Metal ions capable of binding these amino acids may aid in the reduction of effective concentration of these amino acids in any physiological system. Here we have studied the efficacy of some heavy metals for their complexation with these three amino acids. Bismuth has been found to bind selectively with these aromatic amino acids and this was confirmed using spectrofluorimetric, spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric studies. The series of heavy metals has been chosen because each of these metals remains associated with the others at very low concentration levels and Bi(III) is the least toxic amongst the other elements. So, selective recognition for Bi(III) would also mean no response for the other heavy elements if contaminants are present even at low concentration levels. The affinity towards these amino acids has been found to be in the order tryptophan < phenylalanine < tyrosine. The association constants of these amino acids have been calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand equations and the corresponding free energy change has also been calculated. The values of the association constants obtained from BH equations using absorbance values corroborate with the Stern-Volmer constants obtained from fluorimetric studies. The evidence for complexation is also supported by the results of cyclic voltammetry.

  20. Selective and membrane-permeable small molecule inhibitors of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase reverse high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Harshini; Vance, Virginia; Wetzel, Michael D; Wang, Hua-Yu Leo; McHardy, Stanton F; Finnerty, Celeste C; Hommel, Jonathan D; Watowich, Stanley J

    2018-01-01

    There is a critical need for new mechanism-of-action drugs that reduce the burden of obesity and associated chronic metabolic comorbidities. A potentially novel target to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes is nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT), a cytosolic enzyme with newly identified roles in cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. To validate NNMT as an anti-obesity drug target, we investigated the permeability, selectivity, mechanistic, and physiological properties of a series of small molecule NNMT inhibitors. Membrane permeability of NNMT inhibitors was characterized using parallel artificial membrane permeability and Caco-2 cell assays. Selectivity was tested against structurally-related methyltransferases and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) salvage pathway enzymes. Effects of NNMT inhibitors on lipogenesis and intracellular levels of metabolites, including NNMT reaction product 1-methylnicotianamide (1-MNA) were evaluated in cultured adipocytes. Effects of a potent NNMT inhibitor on obesity measures and plasma lipid were assessed in diet-induced obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Methylquinolinium scaffolds with primary amine substitutions displayed high permeability from passive and active transport across membranes. Importantly, methylquinolinium analogues displayed high selectivity, not inhibiting related SAM-dependent methyltransferases or enzymes in the NAD + salvage pathway. NNMT inhibitors reduced intracellular 1-MNA, increased intracellular NAD + and S-(5'-adenosyl)-l-methionine (SAM), and suppressed lipogenesis in adipocytes. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice systemically with a potent NNMT inhibitor significantly reduced body weight and white adipose mass, decreased adipocyte size, and lowered plasma total cholesterol levels. Notably, administration of NNMT inhibitors did not impact total food intake nor produce any observable adverse effects. These results support development of small molecule NNMT inhibitors as therapeutics to

  1. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Ales; Bay, Tina

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screen...

  2. Bayesian Variable Selection in High-dimensional Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Rockova (Veronika)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Advances in research technologies over the past few decades have encouraged the proliferation of massive datasets, revolutionizing statistical perspectives on high-dimensionality. Highthroughput technologies have become pervasive in diverse scientific disciplines

  3. Engineering Data on Selected High Speed Passenger Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to compile a list of high speed truck engineering parameters for characterization in dynamic performance modeling activities. Data tabulations are supplied for trucks from France, Germany, Italy, England, Japan, U.S.S.R...

  4. Regeneration of the vagus nerve after highly selective vagotomy, an autoradiographic study in the ferret stomach .

    OpenAIRE

    Al Muhtaseb, M. H. [محمد هاشم المحتسب; Abu-Khalaf, M.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the regeneration of the vagal nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy in the ferret stomach by using the autoradiographic technique. Autoradiographic examination of the body of the stomach in the acute experimental animals has failed to show any labelled nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy while the pylorus has shown many labelled nerve fibres . These observations indicate that the highly selective vagotomy has been performed properly and adequately. ...

  5. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd

    2011-02-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  6. Highly selective colorimetric detection and preconcentration of Bi(III) ions by dithizone complexes anchored onto mesoporous TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohd; Ismail, Adel A.; Harraz, Farid A.; Bouzid, Houcine; Al-Sayari, Saleh A.; Al-Hajry, Ali

    2014-02-01

    We successfully developed a single-step detection and removal unit for Bi(III) ions based on dithizone (DZ) anchored on mesoporous TiO2 with rapid colorometric response and high selectivity for the first time. [(DZ)3-Bi] complex is easily separated and collected by mesoporous TiO2 as adsorbent and preconcentrator without any color change of the produced complex onto the surface of mesoporous TiO2 (TiO2-[(DZ)3-Bi]) at different Bi(III) concentrations. This is because highly potent mesoporous TiO2 architecture provides proficient channeling or movement of Bi(III) ions for efficient binding of metal ion, and the simultaneous excellent adsorbing nature of mesoporous TiO2 provides an extra plane for the removal of metal ions.

  7. Input variable selection for interpolating high-resolution climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-20

    Oct 20, 2010 ... Accurate climate surfaces are vital for applications relating to groundwater recharge modelling, evapotranspiration estima- ... with distance to oceans and elevation to generate 8 sets of high-resolution (i.e. 3 arc second) climate surfaces of the Western .... ANUSPLIN, developed by the Australian National.

  8. Marker-assisted selection of high molecular weight glutenin alleles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bread-making quality in hexaploid wheats is a complex trait. It has been shown that the amount and composition of protein can influence dough rheological properties. The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins are encoded by a complex locus, Glu-1, on the long arm of group-1 homoeologus chromosome of the A, B and ...

  9. Green chemistry: highly selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of highly substrate-specific catalysts, such as biocatalysts, can reduce the number of synthetic steps required to generate organic compounds. A wide range of bacteria and yeast cultures were enriched on nitriles as the sole source...

  10. Machine learning for event selection in high energy physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Whiteson, D.

    2009-01-01

    The field of high energy physics aims to discover the underlying structure of matter by searching for and studying exotic particles, such as the top quark and Higgs boson, produced in collisions at modern accelerators. Since such accelerators are extraordinarily expensive, extracting maximal

  11. Selected Practices and Characteristics of Highly Effective Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritson, George Allen

    2012-01-01

    The federal government, through NCLB legislation, has provided target proficiency goals schools will be accountable to meet. Missouri public elementary schools use these target goals to determine their success. The focus of this study was to examine the highly effective public elementary schools in Missouri that met or exceeded the 2011 Adequate…

  12. High-density nanopore array for selective biomolecule transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2011-11-01

    Development of sophisticated tools capable of manipulating molecules at their own length scale enables new methods for chemical synthesis and detection. Although nanoscale devices have been developed to perform individual tasks, little work has been done on developing a truly scalable platform: a system that combines multiple components for sequential processing, as well as simultaneously processing and identifying the millions of potential species that may be present in a biological sample. The development of a scalable micro-nanofluidic device is limited in part by the ability to combine different materials (polymers, metals, semiconductors) onto a single chip, and the challenges with locally controlling the chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties within a micro or nanochannel. We have developed a unique construct known as a molecular gate: a multilayered polymer based device that combines microscale fluid channels with nanofluidic interconnects. Molecular gates have been demonstrated to selectively transport molecules between channels based on size or charge. In order to fully utilize these structures, we need to develop methods to actively control transport and identify species inside a nanopore. While previous work has been limited to creating electrical connections off-channel or metallizing the entire nanopore wall, we now have the ability to create multiple, separate conductive connections at the interior surface of a nanopore. These interior electrodes will be used for direct sensing of biological molecules, probing the electrical potential and charge distribution at the surface, and to actively turn on and off electrically driven transport of molecules through nanopores.

  13. Potent peptidic fusion inhibitors of influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Juraszek, Jarek; Brandenburg, Boerries; Buyck, Christophe; Schepens, Wim B. G.; Kesteleyn, Bart; Stoops, Bart; Vreeken, Rob J.; Vermond, Jan; Goutier, Wouter; Tang, Chan; Vogels, Ronald; Friesen, Robert H. E.; Goudsmit, Jaap; van Dongen, Maria J. P.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2017-09-28

    Influenza therapeutics with new targets and mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat potential pandemics, emerging viruses, and constantly mutating strains in circulation. We report here on the design and structural characterization of potent peptidic inhibitors of influenza hemagglutinin. The peptide design was based on complementarity-determining region loops of human broadly neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (FI6v3 and CR9114). The optimized peptides exhibit nanomolar affinity and neutralization against influenza A group 1 viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and avian H5N1 strains. The peptide inhibitors bind to the highly conserved stem epitope and block the low pH–induced conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. These peptidic compounds and their advantageous biological properties should accelerate the development of new small molecule– and peptide-based therapeutics against influenza virus.

  14. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial compo...... visible errors on contrast reduction. This information is subsequently analyzed via fuzzy clustering to enable a probabilistic interpretation. To evaluate the proposed approach, we performed an experimental study on a large set of publicly available HDR images....

  15. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Gao; Wujiao Dai; Zhiyong Song; Changsheng Cai

    2017-01-01

    Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP) value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection ...

  16. Potent inhibitors of LpxC for the treatment of Gram-negative infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew F; Reilly, Usa; Abramite, Joseph A; Arcari, Joel T; Oliver, Robert; Barham, Rose A; Che, Ye; Chen, Jinshan Michael; Collantes, Elizabeth M; Chung, Seung Won; Desbonnet, Charlene; Doty, Jonathan; Doroski, Matthew; Engtrakul, Juntyma J; Harris, Thomas M; Huband, Michael; Knafels, John D; Leach, Karen L; Liu, Shenping; Marfat, Anthony; Marra, Andrea; McElroy, Eric; Melnick, Michael; Menard, Carol A; Montgomery, Justin I; Mullins, Lisa; Noe, Mark C; O'Donnell, John; Penzien, Joseph; Plummer, Mark S; Price, Loren M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Thoma, Christy; Uccello, Daniel P; Warmus, Joseph S; Wishka, Donn G

    2012-01-26

    In this paper, we present the synthesis and SAR as well as selectivity, pharmacokinetic, and infection model data for representative analogues of a novel series of potent antibacterial LpxC inhibitors represented by hydroxamic acid.

  17. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  18. Selected topics in high temperature chemistry defect chemistry of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesen, Ø

    2013-01-01

    The properties of materials at high temperature play a vital role in their processing and practical use. The real properties of materials at elevated temperatures are very often governed by defects in their structure. Lattice defects may consist of point defects like vacancies, interstitial atoms or substituted atoms. These classes are discussed in general and specifically for oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides. Defect aggregates, shear structures and adaptive structures are also described. Special attention is paid to hydrogen defects which seem to play an important role in several mater

  19. When selection ratios are high: predicting the expatriation willingness of prospective domestic entry-level job applicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, S.T.; Born, M.P.; Willemsen, M.E.; van der Molen, H.T.; Derous, E.

    2009-01-01

    High expatriate selection ratios thwart the ability of multinational organizations to select expatriates. Reducing the selection ratio may be accomplished by selecting those applicants for entry level domestic positions who have expatriate aspirations. Regression analyses conducted on data from a

  20. Dynamo Enhancement and Mode Selection Triggered by High Magnetic Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzahler, S.; Ponty, Y.; Plihon, N.; Homann, H.; Grauer, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from consistent dynamo simulations, where the electrically conducting and incompressible flow inside a cylinder vessel is forced by moving impellers numerically implemented by a penalization method. The numerical scheme models jumps of magnetic permeability for the solid impellers, resembling various configurations tested experimentally in the von Kármán sodium experiment. The most striking experimental observations are reproduced in our set of simulations. In particular, we report on the existence of a time-averaged axisymmetric dynamo mode, self-consistently generated when the magnetic permeability of the impellers exceeds a threshold. We describe a possible scenario involving both the turbulent flow in the vicinity of the impellers and the high magnetic permeability of the impellers.

  1. [Employees in high-reliability organizations: systematic selection of personnel as a final criterion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubaid, V; Anheuser, P

    2014-05-01

    Employees represent an important safety factor in high-reliability organizations. The combination of clear organizational structures, a nonpunitive safety culture, and psychological personnel selection guarantee a high level of safety. The cockpit personnel selection process of a major German airline is presented in order to demonstrate a possible transferability into medicine and urology.

  2. Enantiomers of HA-966 (3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) exhibit distinct central nervous system effects: (+)-HA-966 is a selective glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, but (-)-HA-966 is a potent gamma-butyrolactone-like sedative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, L.; Donald, A.E.; Foster, A.C.; Hutson, P.H.; Iversen, L.L.; Iversen, S.D.; Kemp, J.A.; Leeson, P.D.; Marshall, G.R.; Oles, R.J.; Priestley, T.; Thorn, L.; Tricklebank, M.D.; Vass, C.A.; Williams, B.J. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Essex (England))

    1990-01-01

    The antagonist effect of {+-}-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one (HA-966) at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor occurs through a selective interaction with the glycine modulatory site within the receptor complex. When the enantiomers of {+-}-HA-966 were resolved, the (R)-(+)-enantiomer was found to be a selective glycine/NMDA receptor antagonist, a property that accounts for its anticonvulsant activity in vivo. In contrast, the (S)-(-)-enantiomer was only weakly active as an NMDA-receptor antagonist, but nevertheless it possessed a marked sedative and muscle relaxant action in vivo. In radioligand binding experiments, (+)-HA-966 inhibited strychnine-insensitive ({sup 3}H)glycine binding to rat cerebral cortex synaptic membranes with an IC{sub 50} of 12.5 {mu}M, whereas (-)-HA-966 had an IC{sub 50} value of 339 {mu}M. In mice, (+)-HA-966 antagonized sound and N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMDLA)-induced seizures. The coadministration of D-serine dose-dependently antagonized the anticonvulsant effect of a submaximal dose of (+)-HA-966 against NMDLA-induced seizures. The sedative/ataxic effect of racemic HA-966 was mainly attributable to the (-)-enantiomer. It is suggested that, as in the case of the sedative {gamma}-butyrolactone, disruption of striatal dopaminergic mechanisms may be responsible for this action.

  3. High performance selectively oxidized VCSELs and arrays for parallel high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederer, Felix; Grabherr, Martin; Eberhard, Franz; Ecker, Irene; Jäger, Roland; Joos, Jürgen; Jung, Chistian; Kicherer, Max; King, Roger; Schnitzer, Peter; Unold, Heiko; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Ebeling, Karl Joachim

    We introduce a new layout for high-bandwidth single-mode selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays operating at 980 nm or 850 nm emission wavelength for substrate or epitaxial side emission. Coplanar feeding lines and polyimide passivation are used to reduce electrical parasitics in top-emitting GaAs and bottom-emitting InGaAs VCSELs. In order to enhance fundamental single-mode emission for larger devices of reduced series resistance a surface relief transverse mode filter is employed. Fabricated VCSELs are applied in various interconnect schemes. In detail, we demonstrate 2.5 Gb/s pseudo-random data transmission with GaAs VCSELs at an emission wavelength of λ=835 nm over 120 μm core diameter step index plastic-optical fiber (POF) of 2.5 m length. InGaAs quantum-well based VCSELs at 935 nm emission wavelength are investigated for use in perfluorinated graded-index plastic-optical fiber (GI-POF) links. We obtain a 7 Gb/s pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data transmission over 80 m long 155 μm diameter GI-POF. We investigate data transmission over standard 1300 nm, 9 μm core diameter single-mode fiber using selectively oxidized single-mode GaAs or InGaAs VCSELs. We achieve biased 3 Gb/s and bias-free 1 Gb/s pseudo-random data transmission over 4.3 km at 830 nm emission wavelength where a simple fiber mode filter is used to suppress intermodal dispersion caused by the second order fiber mode. For the first time, we demonstrate 12.5 Gb/s data rate transmission of PRBS signals over 100 m graded-index multimode fiber or 1 km single-mode fiber using high performance single-mode GaAs VCSELs of 12.3 GHz modulation bandwidth emitting at λ=850 nm. Longer wave-length InGaAs VCSELs with emission at λ=1130 nm are used to transmit 2.5 Gb/s signals over 10 km of 9 μm standard fiber. For all data transmission experiments bit-error rates (BER) remain better than 10-11 for transmission of PRBS signals for back

  4. Atomic resolution mechanistic studies of ribocil: A highly selective unnatural ligand mimic of the E. coli FMN riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, John A.; Xiao, Li; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Wang, Hao; Tang, Haifeng; Villafania, Artjohn; Zhang, Rumin; Barbieri, Christopher M.; Roemer, Terry (Merck)

    2016-08-02

    Bacterial riboswitches are non-coding RNA structural elements that direct gene expression in numerous metabolic pathways. The key regulatory roles of riboswitches, and the urgent need for new classes of antibiotics to treat multi-drug resistant bacteria, has led to efforts to develop small-molecules that mimic natural riboswitch ligands to inhibit metabolic pathways and bacterial growth. Recently, we reported the results of a phenotypic screen targeting the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway in the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli that led to the identification of ribocil, a small molecule inhibitor of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch controlling expression of this biosynthetic pathway. Although ribocil is structurally distinct from FMN, ribocil functions as a potent and highly selective synthetic mimic of the natural ligand to repress riboswitch-mediated ribB gene expression and inhibit bacterial growth both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we expand our analysis of ribocil; including mode of binding in the FMN binding pocket of the riboswitch, mechanisms of resistance and structure-activity relationship guided efforts to generate more potent analogs.

  5. Potent antitrypanosomal triterpenoid saponins from Mussaenda luteola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shaymaa M.; Bachkeet, Enaam Y.; Bayoumi, Soad A.; Jain, Surendra; Cutler, Stephen J.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Five new triterpenoid saponins, heinsiagenin A 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), heinsiagenin A 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 2α-hydroxyheinsiagenin A 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 2α-hydroxyheinsiagenin A 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (4) and N-(2S, 3R, 4R-3-methyl-4-pentanolid-2-yl)-18-hydroxylanosta-8 (9), 22E, 24E-trien-27-amide-3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Mussaenda luteola Delile (Rubiaceae). Structural elucidation was based on the analysis of spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS. Compound 1 showed potent antitrypanosomal activity with an IC50 value of 8.80 μM. Compounds 2–4 showed highly potent antitrypanosomal activity with IC50 values ranging between (2.57–2.84 μM) and IC90 values ranging between (3.36–4.35 μM), which are 5 fold greater than the positive control DFMO (IC50 and IC90 values of 13.06 and 28.99 μM, respectively). Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate affinity to μ-opioid receptors with Ki values of 9.936 μM and 0.872 μM, respectively compared to a Ki value of 1.958 nM for the positive control, naloxone HCl. PMID:26524249

  6. Thermal Expansion Studies of Selected High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Caillat, Thierry; Brandon, Erik; Van Der Walde, Keith; Maricic, Lina; Sayir, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) generate electrical power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes (typically plutonium-238) into electricity using a thermoelectric converter. RTGs have been successfully used to power a number of space missions and have demonstrated their reliability over an extended period of time (tens of years) and are compact, rugged, radiation resistant, scalable, and produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. System conversion efficiency for state-of-practice RTGs is about 6% and specific power less than or equal to 5.1 W/kg. Higher specific power would result in more on-board power for the same RTG mass, or less RTG mass for the same on-board power. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been leading, under the advanced thermoelectric converter (ATEC) project, the development of new high-temperature thermoelectric materials and components for integration into advanced, more efficient RTGs. Thermoelectric materials investigated to date include skutterudites, the Yb14MnSb11 compound, and SiGe alloys. The development of long-lived thermoelectric couples based on some of these materials has been initiated and is assisted by a thermo-mechanical stress analysis to ensure that all stresses under both fabrication and operation conditions will be within yield limits for those materials. Several physical parameters are needed as input to this analysis. Among those parameters, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is critically important. Thermal expansion coefficient measurements of several thermoelectric materials under consideration for ATEC are described in this paper. The stress response at the interfaces in material stacks subjected to changes in temperature is discussed, drawing on work from the literature and project-specific tools developed here. The degree of CTE mismatch and the associated effect on the formation of stress is highlighted.

  7. (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid, a potent and selective agonist at the GluR5 subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Synthesis, modeling, and molecular pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Lotte; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Hansen, Kasper B

    2003-01-01

    We have previously described (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (4-AHCP) as a highly effective agonist at non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (non-NMDA) glutamate (Glu) receptors in vivo, which is more potent than (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic...... subunit, equipotent with (S)-2-amino-3-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisothiazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(S)-Thio-ATPA, 4] and almost 4 times more potent than (S)-2-amino-3-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(S)-ATPA, 3]. Compound 6 thus represents a new structural class of GluR5 agonists...... acid (AMPA) but inactive at NMDA receptors. However, 4-AHCP was found to be much weaker than AMPA as an inhibitor of [(3)H]AMPA binding and to have limited effect in a [(3)H]kainic acid binding assay using rat cortical membranes. To shed light on the mechanism(s) underlying this quite enigmatic...

  8. A new highly selective metabotropic excitatory amino acid agonist: 2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Sløk, F A; Skjaerbaek, N

    1996-01-01

    The homologous series of acidic amino acids, ranging from aspartic acid (1) to 2-aminosuberic acid (5), and the corresponding series of 3-isoxazolol bioisosteres of these amino acids, ranging from (RS)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (AMAA, 6) to (RS)-2-amino-6-(3-hydroxy-5......-methylisoxazol-4-yl)hexanoic acid (10), were tested as ligands for metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors (mGlu1 alpha, mGlu2, mGlu4a, and mGlu6). Whereas AMAA (6) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propinoic acid (AMPA, 7) are potent and highly selective agonists at N-methyl...

  9. Molecular Hybridization of Potent and Selective γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Ligands: Design, Synthesis, Binding Studies, and Molecular Modeling of Novel 3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic Acid (HOCPCA) and trans-γ-Hydroxycrotonic Acid (T-HCA) Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krall, Jacob; Jensen, Claus Hatt; Bavo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a neuroactive substance with specific high-affinity binding sites. To facilitate target identification and ligand optimization, we herein report a comprehensive structure–affinity relationship study for novel ligands targeting these binding sites. A molecular...

  10. Heterogeneous natural selection on oxidative phosphorylation genes among fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Broughton, Richard E

    2015-08-26

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the primary source of ATP in eukaryotes and serves as a mechanistic link between variation in genotypes and energetic phenotypes. While several physiological and anatomical factors may lead to increased aerobic capacity, variation in OXPHOS proteins may influence OXPHOS efficiency and facilitate adaptation in organisms with varied energy demands. Although there is evidence that natural selection acts on OXPHOS genes, the focus has been on detection of directional (positive) selection on specific phylogenetic branches where traits that increase energetic demands appear to have evolved. We examined patterns of selection in a broader evolutionary context, i.e., on multiple lineages of fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance. We found that patterns of natural selection on mitochondrial OXPHOS genes are complex among fishes with different swimming performance. Positive selection is not consistently associated with high performance taxa and appears to be strongest on lineages containing low performance taxa. In contrast, within high performance lineages, purifying (negative) selection appears to predominate. We provide evidence that selection on OXPHOS varies in both form and intensity within and among lineages through evolutionary time. These results provide evidence for fluctuating selection on OXPHOS associated with divergence in aerobic performance. However, in contrast to previous studies, positive selection was strongest on low performance taxa suggesting that adaptation of OXPHOS involves many factors beyond enhancing ATP production in high performance taxa. The broader pattern indicates a complex interplay between organismal adaptations, ATP demand, and OXPHOS function.

  11. Bayesian Variable Selection in High Dimensional Survival Time Cancer Genomic Datasets using Nonlocal Priors

    OpenAIRE

    Nikooienejad, Amir; Wang, Wenyi; Johnson, Valen E.

    2017-01-01

    Variable selection in high dimensional cancer genomic studies has become very popular in the past decade, due to the interest in discovering significant genes pertinent to a specific cancer type. Censored survival data is the main data structure in such studies and performing variable selection for such data type requires certain methodology. With recent developments in computational power, Bayesian methods have become more attractive in the context of variable selection. In this article we i...

  12. High cell selectivity and low-level antibacterial resistance of designed amphiphilic peptide G(IIKK)(3)I-NH(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuixia; Hu, Jing; Zeng, Ping; Chen, Yucan; Xu, Hai; Lu, Jian R

    2014-10-08

    On the basis of cell cultures involving bacterial strains (Escherichia coli 5α and Bacillus subtilis 168) and a mammalian cell line (NIH 3T3), the potent antibacterial activity and distinct selectivity from designed amphiphilic peptides G(IIKK)nI-NH2 (n = 2-4) have been demonstrated. This work extends these studies to multidrug resistant pathogens (ESBL-producing E. coli) and primary human cells (HDFa), followed by the in vivo mouse model investigation of ESBL-producing bacterial infection. G(IIKK)3I-NH2 exhibits high antibacterial activity against the pathogenic strain both in vitro and in vivo while displaying low toxicity toward the primary cells and the mice. Peptide molecules can kill bacteria by selectively interacting with bacterial membranes, causing structural disruptions. Furthermore, multidrug resistant ESBL-producing bacteria do not develop resistance after multiple treatments with G(IIKK)3I-NH2. The high cellular selectivity, low toxicity toward mammalian hosts and noninducing bacterial resistance indicate great potential for developing the peptides as anti-infection agents.

  13. Blunted furosemide action on cerebellar GABAA receptors in ANT rats selectively bred for high alcohol sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, R; Lehtonen, M; Wisden, W; Lüddens, H; Korpi, E R

    1996-01-01

    Furosemide specifically reverses the inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of t-[35S]-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding and increases the basal [35S]TBPS binding to the cerebellar granule cell layer GABAA receptors. For the selectivity of furosemide, an interplay between GABAA receptor alpha 6 and beta 2 or beta 3 subunits is needed. We have now investigated the furosemide sensitivity of cerebellar [35S]TBPS binding in the alcohol-sensitive (ANT) rat line that harbors a pharmacologically critical point mutation in the alpha 6 subunit [alpha 6 (Q1000)], increasing benzodiazepine affinity of the normally insensitive alpha 6-containing receptors. ANT receptors were less efficiently affected by furosemide, while a normal GABAA receptor antagonism was observed with a specific GABAA receptor antagonist SR 95531. Reduced [3H]muscimol binding in ANT samples and small alterations in situ hybridization signals for alpha 1, alpha 6, beta 2, beta 3, gamma 2 and delta subunit mRNAs failed to correlate with impaired cerebellar furosemide efficacy in individual animals. The alpha 6 (q100) ANT mutation was not responsible for the reduced efficacy of furosemide in the ANT rat line, as judged from the potent furosemide antagonism in recombinant ANT-type alpha 6 (Q100)beta 3 gamma 2 receptors. This data suggest that presence of a novel abnormality in the structure and/or expression of alpha 6 subunit-containing GABAA receptors in the ANT rat line.

  14. Nanosilver: Potent antimicrobial agent and its biosynthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VIKAS

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... Department of Biotechnology, Deenbandhu Chotu Ram University of Science ... plants in the synthesis of nanosilver and their potent application as antimicrobial agent. ... solute molecules that are formed during a chemical.

  15. Evaluation and Selection of Technology Concepts for a Hypersonic High Speed Standoff Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Bryce

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a method for technology concept selection to the design of a hypersonic high-speed standoff missile capable of achieving pin-point strike of long-range targets...

  16. Genetically correlated effects of selective breeding for high and low methamphetamine consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, J M; Reed, C; Burkhart-Kasch, S; Li, N; Cunningham, C L; Janowsky, A; Franken, F H; Wiren, K M; Hashimoto, J G; Scibelli, A C; Phillips, T J

    2009-01-01

    .... We produced mouse lines that orally self-administer high (MAHDR) or low (MALDR) amounts of methamphetamine, representing the first demonstration of selective breeding for self-administration of any psychostimulant drug...

  17. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection method to improve structure of the normal equation, because condition number can indicate the ill condition of the normal equation. The experimental results show that the new method can improve positioning accuracy and reliability in precise relative positioning.

  18. Selective high-affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denardo, Sally J.; Denardo, Gerald L.; Balhorn, Rodney L.

    2018-02-06

    This invention provides novel polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each bind different region son the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  19. High Trans Kinetic Selectivity in Ruthenium-Based Olefin Cross-Metathesis through Stereoretention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Adam M; Ahmed, Tonia S; Jackson, Bradford W; Grubbs, Robert H; Pederson, Richard L

    2016-02-19

    The first kinetically controlled, highly trans-selective (>98%) olefin cross-metathesis reaction is demonstrated using Ru-based catalysts. Reactions with either trans or cis olefins afford products with highly trans or cis stereochemistry, respectively. This E-selective olefin cross-metathesis is shown to occur between two trans olefins and between a trans olefin and a terminal olefin. Additionally, new stereoretentive catalysts have been synthesized for improved reactivity.

  20. Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid Vik; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Borowik, Tomasz; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Kusak, Josip; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ozolins, Janis; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2015-10-01

    Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north-south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n = 7, Dinaric-Balkan n = 9, Ukrainian Steppe n = 11). Our analyses combined identification of outlier loci with findings from genome-wide association study of individual genomic profiles and 12 environmental variables. We identified 353 candidate SNP loci. We examined the SNP position and neighboring megabase (1 Mb, one million bases) regions in the dog (C. lupus familiaris) genome for genes potentially under selection, including homologue genes in other vertebrates. These regions included functional genes for, for example, temperature regulation that may indicate local adaptation and genes controlling for functions universally important for wolves, including olfaction, hearing, vision, and cognitive functions. We also observed strong outliers not associated with any of the investigated variables, which could suggest selective pressures associated with other unmeasured environmental variables and/or demographic factors. These patterns are further supported by the examination of spatial distributions of the SNPs associated with universally important traits, which typically show marked differences in allele frequencies among population clusters. Accordingly, parallel selection for features important to all wolves may eclipse local environmental selection and implies long-term separation among population clusters.

  1. Oxoisoaporphine as Potent Telomerase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zu-Zhuang; Qin, Qi-Pin; Chen, Jia-Nian; Chen, Zhen-Feng

    2016-11-14

    Two compounds previously isolated from traditional Chinese medicine, Menispermum dauricum (DC), 6-hydroxyl-oxoisoaporphine (H-L a ), and 4,6-di(2-pyridinyl)benzo[ h ]isoindolo[4,5,6- de ]quinolin-8(5 H )-one (H-L b ), were known to have in vitro antitumor activity and to selectively bind human telomeric, c-myc, and bcl-2 G-quadruplexes (G4s). In this study, the binding properties of these two compounds to telomerase were investigated through molecular docking and telomeric repeat amplication protocol and silver staining assay (TRAP-silver staining assay). The binding energies bound to human telomerase RNA were calculated by molecular docking to be -6.43 and -9.76 kcal/mol for H-L a and H-L b , respectively. Compared with H-L a , the ligand H-L b more strongly inhibited telomerase activity in the SK-OV-3 cells model.

  2. Oxoisoaporphine as Potent Telomerase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Zhuang Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds previously isolated from traditional Chinese medicine, Menispermum dauricum (DC, 6-hydroxyl-oxoisoaporphine (H-La, and 4,6-di(2-pyridinylbenzo[h]isoindolo[4,5,6-de]quinolin-8(5H-one (H-Lb, were known to have in vitro antitumor activity and to selectively bind human telomeric, c-myc, and bcl-2 G-quadruplexes (G4s. In this study, the binding properties of these two compounds to telomerase were investigated through molecular docking and telomeric repeat amplication protocol and silver staining assay (TRAP-silver staining assay. The binding energies bound to human telomerase RNA were calculated by molecular docking to be −6.43 and −9.76 kcal/mol for H-La and H-Lb, respectively. Compared with H-La, the ligand H-Lb more strongly inhibited telomerase activity in the SK-OV-3 cells model.

  3. Selective and Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Capture by Highly Polarizing Porous Carbon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youngtak; Le, Viet-Duc; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Hwang, Jin Ok; Park, Woo Jin; Lim, Joonwon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Youn-Sang; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-22

    Energy-efficient CO2 capture is a stringent demand for green and sustainable energy supply. Strong adsorption is desirable for high capacity and selective capture at ambient conditions but unfavorable for regeneration of adsorbents by a simple pressure control process. Here we present highly regenerative and selective CO2 capture by carbon nitride functionalized porous reduced graphene oxide aerogel surface. The resultant structure demonstrates large CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient conditions (0.43 mmol·g(-1)) and high CO2 selectivity against N2 yet retains regenerability to desorb 98% CO2 by simple pressure swing. First-principles thermodynamics calculations revealed that microporous edges of graphitic carbon nitride offer the optimal CO2 adsorption by induced dipole interaction and allows excellent CO2 selectivity as well as facile regenerability. This work identifies a customized route to reversible gas capture using metal-free, two-dimensional carbonaceous materials, which can be extended to other useful applications.

  4. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...... of mixture in the distribution of the observed FP and by studying the evolution of the proportion of very high FP along the sequence of 8 generations. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that the gene transcription profile of the birds performing high FP differs from the profile of the other...

  5. The feature selection bias problem in relation to high-dimensional gene data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczuk, Jerzy; Łukaszuk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection is a technique widely used in data mining. The aim is to select the best subset of features relevant to the problem being considered. In this paper, we consider feature selection for the classification of gene datasets. Gene data is usually composed of just a few dozen objects described by thousands of features. For this kind of data, it is easy to find a model that fits the learning data. However, it is not easy to find one that will simultaneously evaluate new data equally well as learning data. This overfitting issue is well known as regards classification and regression, but it also applies to feature selection. We address this problem and investigate its importance in an empirical study of four feature selection methods applied to seven high-dimensional gene datasets. We chose datasets that are well studied in the literature-colon cancer, leukemia and breast cancer. All the datasets are characterized by a significant number of features and the presence of exactly two decision classes. The feature selection methods used are ReliefF, minimum redundancy maximum relevance, support vector machine-recursive feature elimination and relaxed linear separability. Our main result reveals the existence of positive feature selection bias in all 28 experiments (7 datasets and 4 feature selection methods). Bias was calculated as the difference between validation and test accuracies and ranges from 2.6% to as much as 41.67%. The validation accuracy (biased accuracy) was calculated on the same dataset on which the feature selection was performed. The test accuracy was calculated for data that was not used for feature selection (by so called external cross-validation). This work provides evidence that using the same dataset for feature selection and learning is not appropriate. We recommend using cross-validation for feature selection in order to reduce selection bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selection and characterisation of an HD1-like Bacillus thuringiensis isolate with a high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Hichem; Kebaili-Ghribi, Jihene; ben Farhat-Touzri, Dalel; Daoud, Fatma; Fakhfakh, Ines; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir

    2014-08-01

    Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae are known by their susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strains. In order to prevent the appearance of B. thuringiensis (Bt) resistance and to develop economical Bt-based biopesticides, the selection and the characterisation of a B. thuringiensis isolate toxic against S. littoralis larvae and overproducing δ-endotoxins were investigated. Among 124 Tunisian B. thuringiensis isolates assessed against S. littoralis larvae, four isolates showed toxicity similar to and higher than the toxicity of the aizawai strain HD133 and the kurstaki strain HD1 respectively. The plasmid pattern of the selected isolates was similar to that of HD1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using specific primers revealed that these isolates present different gene contents. The only detected gene encoding Spodoptera-specific toxin was cry9. The selected isolates were found to produce bipyramidal and cubic crystals. The assessment of δ-endotoxin production by these isolates showed that BUPM28 produced 43.71 and 80.81% more δ-endotoxin than HD1 and HD133 respectively. The application of osmotic or heat shock stress on the BUPM28 isolate made it possible to enhance δ-endotoxin production by 22 and 23% respectively. On the basis of its potent insecticidal activity and its high level of δ-endotoxin production, the BUPM28 isolate can be considered to be an effective alternative for the control of S. littoralis. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. High-throughput screening to identify selective inhibitors of microbial sulfate reduction (and beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. K.; Coates, J. D.; Deutschbauer, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The selective perturbation of complex microbial ecosystems to predictably influence outcomes in engineered and industrial environments remains a grand challenge for geomicrobiology. In some industrial ecosystems, such as oil reservoirs, sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM) produce hydrogen sulfide which is toxic, explosive and corrosive. Current strategies to selectively inhibit sulfidogenesis are based on non-specific biocide treatments, bio-competitive exclusion by alternative electron acceptors or sulfate-analogs which are competitive inhibitors or futile/alternative substrates of the sulfate reduction pathway. Despite the economic cost of sulfidogenesis, there has been minimal exploration of the chemical space of possible inhibitory compounds, and very little work has quantitatively assessed the selectivity of putative souring treatments. We have developed a high-throughput screening strategy to target SRM, quantitatively ranked the selectivity and potency of hundreds of compounds and identified previously unrecognized SRM selective inhibitors and synergistic interactions between inhibitors. Once inhibitor selectivity is defined, high-throughput characterization of microbial community structure across compound gradients and identification of fitness determinants using isolate bar-coded transposon mutant libraries can give insights into the genetic mechanisms whereby compounds structure microbial communities. The high-throughput (HT) approach we present can be readily applied to target SRM in diverse environments and more broadly, could be used to identify and quantify the potency and selectivity of inhibitors of a variety of microbial metabolisms. Our findings and approach are relevant for engineering environmental ecosystems and also to understand the role of natural gradients in shaping microbial niche space.

  8. Mixed models for selection of Jatropha progenies with high adaptability and yield stability in Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Costa, R D; Rocha, R B; Laviola, B G

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters via mixed models and simultaneously to select Jatropha progenies grown in three regions of Brazil that meet high adaptability and stability. From a previous phenotypic selection, three progeny tests were installed in 2008 in the municipalities of Planaltina-DF (Midwest), Nova Porteirinha-MG (Southeast), and Pelotas-RS (South). We evaluated 18 families of half-sib in a randomized block design with three replications. Genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction. Selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method in three strategies considering: 1) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); 2) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); and 3) simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability and adaptability. Accuracy obtained (91%) reveals excellent experimental quality and consequently safety and credibility in the selection of superior progenies for grain yield. The gain with the selection of the best five progenies was more than 20%, regardless of the selection strategy. Thus, based on the three selection strategies used in this study, the progenies 4, 11, and 3 (selected in all environments and the mean environment and by adaptability and phenotypic stability methods) are the most suitable for growing in the three regions evaluated.

  9. A visual method for direct selection of high-producing Pichia pastoris clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, offers the possibility to generate a high amount of recombinant proteins in a fast and easy way to use expression system. Being a single-celled microorganism, P. pastoris is easy to manipulate and grows rapidly on inexpensive media at high cell densities. A simple and direct method for the selection of high-producing clones can dramatically enhance the whole production process along with significant decrease in production costs. Results A visual method for rapid selection of high-producing clones based on mannanase reporter system was developed. The study explained that it was possible to use mannanase activity as a measure of the expression level of the protein of interest. High-producing target protein clones were directly selected based on the size of hydrolysis holes in the selected plate. As an example, the target gene (9elp-hal18 was expressed and purified in Pichia pastoris using this technology. Conclusions A novel methodology is proposed for obtaining the high-producing clones of proteins of interest, based on the mannanase reporter system. This system may be adapted to other microorganisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the selection of clones.

  10. Novel 1',1'-chain substituted hexahydrocannabinols: 9β-hydroxy-3-(1-hexyl-cyclobut-1-yl)-hexahydrocannabinol (AM2389) a highly potent cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikas, Spyros P; Alapafuja, Shakiru O; Papanastasiou, Ioannis; Paronis, Carol A; Shukla, Vidyanand G; Papahatjis, Demetris P; Bowman, Anna L; Halikhedkar, Aneetha; Han, Xiuwen; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2010-10-14

    In pursuit of a more detailed understanding of the structural requirements for the key side chain cannabinoid pharmacophore, we have extended our SAR to cover a variety of conformationally modified side chains within the 9-keto and 9-hydroxyl tricyclic structures. Of the compounds described here, those with a seven-atom long side chain substituted with a cyclopentyl ring at C1' position have very high affinities for both CB1 and CB2 (0.97 nM CB1. Thus, two of the C1'-cyclobutyl analogues, namely, (6aR,10aR)-3-(1-hexyl-cyclobut-1-yl)-6,6a,7,8,10,10a-hexahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6-dimethyl-9H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-9-one and (6aR,9R,10aR)-3-(1-hexyl-cyclobut-1-yl)-6a,7,8,9,10,10a-hexahydro-6,6-dimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1,9 diol (7e-β, AM2389), exhibited remarkably high affinities (0.84 and 0.16 nM, respectively) and significant selectivities (16- and 26-fold, respectively) for CB1. Compound 7e-β was found to exhibit exceptionally high in vitro and in vivo potency with a relatively long duration of action.

  11. High-paraffinaceous oil as a disperse system: The selection of a flow equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, V.N.; Kirsanov, E.S.; Remizov, S.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1994-05-01

    The rheological properties of high-paraffinaceous oil were studied for different preliminary mechanical treatments of the samples. The flow curves were analyzed by different rheological models. The selection of Casson`s model for the range of high shear velocities was proven.

  12. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  13. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  14. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Zarfeshany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions.

  15. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

  16. Inference for feature selection using the Lasso with high-dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2014-01-01

    that involve various effects strengths and correlation between predictors. The algorithm is also applied to a prostate cancer dataset that has been analyzed in recent papers on the subject. The proposed method is found to provide a powerful way to make inference for feature selection even for small samples......Penalized regression models such as the Lasso have proved useful for variable selection in many fields - especially for situations with high-dimensional data where the numbers of predictors far exceeds the number of observations. These methods identify and rank variables of importance but do...... not generally provide any inference of the selected variables. Thus, the variables selected might be the "most important" but need not be significant. We propose a significance test for the selection found by the Lasso. We introduce a procedure that computes inference and p-values for features chosen...

  17. Docking-based structural splicing and reassembly strategy to develop novel deazapurine derivatives as potent B-RafV600E inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Min; Wang, Xiang; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Guo, Bin-Bin; Yang, Zhuo; Xu, Zhi-Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, He-Yao; Meng, Ling-Hua; Zhu, Wei-Liang; Ding, Jian

    2017-07-01

    The mutation of B-RafV600E is widespread in a variety of human cancers. Its inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib have been launched as drugs for treating unresectable melanoma, demonstrating that B-RafV600E is an ideal drug target. This study focused on developing novel B-RafV600E inhibitors as drug leads against various cancers with B-RafV600E mutation. Using molecular modeling approaches, 200 blockbuster drugs were spliced to generate 283 fragments followed by molecular docking to identify potent fragments. Molecular structures of potential inhibitors of B-RafV600E were then obtained by fragment reassembly followed by docking to predict the bioactivity of the reassembled molecules. The structures with high predicted bioactivity were synthesized, followed by in vitro study to identify potent B-RafV600E inhibitors. A highly potent fragment binding to the hinge area of B-RafV600E was identified via a docking-based structural splicing approach. Using the fragment, 14 novel structures were designed by structural reassembly, two of which were predicted to be as strong as marketed B-RafV600E inhibitors. Biological evaluation revealed that compound 1m is a potent B-RafV600E inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.05 μmol/L, which was lower than that of vemurafenib (0.13 μmol/L). Moreover, the selectivity of 1m against B-RafWT was enhanced compared with vemurafenib. In addition, 1m exhibits desirable solubility, bioavailability and metabolic stability in in vitro assays. Thus, a highly potent and selective B-RafV600E inhibitor was designed via a docking-based structural splicing and reassembly strategy and was validated by medicinal synthesis and biological evaluation.

  18. A New Class of Antibody-Drug Conjugates with Potent DNA Alkylating Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael L; Fishkin, Nathan E; Li, Wei; Whiteman, Kathleen R; Kovtun, Yelena; Reid, Emily E; Archer, Katie E; Maloney, Erin K; Audette, Charlene A; Mayo, Michele F; Wilhelm, Alan; Modafferi, Holly A; Singh, Rajeeva; Pinkas, Jan; Goldmacher, Victor; Lambert, John M; Chari, Ravi V J

    2016-08-01

    The promise of tumor-selective delivery of cytotoxic agents in the form of antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) has now been realized, evidenced by the approval of two ADCs, both of which incorporate highly cytotoxic tubulin-interacting agents, for cancer therapy. An ongoing challenge remains in identifying potent agents with alternative mechanisms of cell killing that can provide ADCs with high therapeutic indices and favorable tolerability. Here, we describe the development of a new class of potent DNA alkylating agents that meets these objectives. Through chemical design, we changed the mechanism of action of our novel DNA cross-linking agent to a monofunctional DNA alkylator. This modification, coupled with linker optimization, generated ADCs that were well tolerated in mice and demonstrated robust antitumor activity in multiple tumor models at doses 1.5% to 3.5% of maximally tolerated levels. These properties underscore the considerable potential of these purpose-created, unique DNA-interacting conjugates for broadening the clinical application of ADC technology. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1870-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Natural Selection on Genes Related to Cardiovascular Health in High-Altitude Adapted Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Amaru, Ricardo; Song, Jihyun; Julian, Colleen G; Racimo, Fernando; Cheng, Jade Yu; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Lima, João A; Rotter, Jerome I; Stehlik, Josef; Moore, Lorna G; Prchal, Josef T; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-11-02

    The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia. In contrast, high-altitude-adapted Quechua- and Aymara-speaking inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano are not protected from high-altitude polycythemia in the same way, yet they exhibit other adaptive features for which the genetic underpinnings remain obscure. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to scan high-altitude Andeans for signals of selection. The genes showing the strongest evidence of selection-including BRINP3, NOS2, and TBX5-are associated with cardiovascular development and function but are not in the response-to-hypoxia pathway. Using association mapping, we demonstrated that the haplotypes under selection are associated with phenotypic variations related to cardiovascular health. We hypothesize that selection in response to hypoxia in Andeans could have vascular effects and could serve to mitigate the deleterious effects of polycythemia rather than reduce polycythemia itself. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Synthesis of Novel Synthetic Vitamin K Analogues Prepared by Introduction of a Heteroatom and a Phenyl Group That Induce Highly Selective Neuronal Differentiation of Neuronal Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kimito; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Tode, Chisato; Wada, Akimori; Osakabe, Naomi; Suhara, Yoshitomo

    2017-03-23

    We synthesized novel vitamin K2 analogues that incorporated a heteroatom and an aromatic ring in the side chain and evaluated their effect on the selective differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells into neurons in vitro. The results showed that a menaquinone-2 analogue bearing a p-fluoroaniline had the most potent activity, which was more than twice as great as the control. In addition, the neuronal selectivity was more than 3 times greater than the control.

  1. The natural product magnolol as a lead structure for the development of potent cannabinoid receptor agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fuchs

    Full Text Available Magnolol (4-allyl-2-(5-allyl-2-hydroxyphenylphenol, the main bioactive constituent of the medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis, and its main metabolite tetrahydromagnolol were recently found to activate cannabinoid (CB receptors. We now investigated the structure-activity relationships of (tetrahydromagnolol analogs with variations of the alkyl chains and the phenolic groups and could considerably improve potency. Among the most potent compounds were the dual CB1/CB2 full agonist 2-(2-methoxy-5-propyl-phenyl-4-hexylphenol (61a, K(i CB1:0.00957 µM; K(i CB2:0.0238 µM, and the CB2-selective partial agonist 2-(2-hydroxy-5-propylphenyl-4-pentylphenol (60, K(i CB1:0.362 µM; K(i CB2:0.0371 µM, which showed high selectivity versus GPR18 and GPR55. Compound 61b, an isomer of 61a, was the most potent GPR55 antagonist with an IC50 value of 3.25 µM but was non-selective. The relatively simple structures, which possess no stereocenters, are easily accessible in a four- to five-step synthetic procedure from common starting materials. The central reaction step is the well-elaborated Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction, which is suitable for a combinatorial chemistry approach. The scaffold is versatile and may be fine-tuned to obtain a broad range of receptor affinities, selectivities and efficacies.

  2. Simple and highly Z-selective ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Hansen, Fredrik R; Törnroos, Karl W; Jensen, Vidar R

    2013-03-06

    A one-step substitution of a single chloride anion of the Grubbs-Hoveyda second-generation catalyst with a 2,4,6-triphenylbenzenethiolate ligand resulted in an active olefin metathesis catalyst with remarkable Z selectivity, reaching 96% in metathesis homocoupling of terminal olefins. High turnover numbers (up to 2000 for homocoupling of 1-octene) were obtained along with sustained appreciable Z selectivity (>85%). Apart from the Z selectivity, many properties of the new catalyst, such as robustness toward oxygen and water as well as a tendency to isomerize substrates and react with internal olefin products, resemble those of the parent catalyst.

  3. Near-infrared light controlled photocatalytic activity of carbon quantum dots for highly selective oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-03-01

    Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize the transformation from benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high selectivity (100%) and conversion (92%) under NIR light irradiation. HO&z.rad; is the main active oxygen specie in benzyl alcohol selective oxidative reaction confirmed by terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing assay (TA-PL), selecting toluene as the substrate. Such metal-free photocatalytic system also selectively converts other alcohol substrates to their corresponding aldehydes with high conversion, demonstrating a potential application of accessing traditional alcohol oxidation chemistry.Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize

  4. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2017-09-13

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  5. Novel protein kinase D inhibitors cause potent arrest in prostate cancer cell growth and motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazo John S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase D (PKD has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes and pathological conditions including cancer. However, targeting PKD therapeutically and dissecting PKD-mediated cellular responses remains difficult due to lack of a potent and selective inhibitor. Previously, we identified a novel pan-PKD inhibitor, CID755673, with potency in the upper nanomolar range and high selectivity for PKD. In an effort to further enhance its selectivity and potency for potential in vivo application, small molecule analogs of CID755673 were generated by modifying both the core structure and side-chains. Results After initial activity screening, five analogs with equal or greater potencies as CID755673 were chosen for further analysis: kb-NB142-70, kb-NB165-09, kb-NB165-31, kb-NB165-92, and kb-NB184-02. Our data showed that modifications to the aromatic core structure in particular significantly increased potency while retaining high specificity for PKD. When tested in prostate cancer cells, all compounds inhibited PMA-induced autophosphorylation of PKD1, with kb-NB142-70 being most active. Importantly, these analogs caused a dramatic arrest in cell proliferation accompanying elevated cytotoxicity when applied to prostate cancer cells. Cell migration and invasion were also inhibited by these analogs with varying potencies that correlated to their cellular activity. Conclusions Throughout the battery of experiments, the compounds kb-NB142-70 and kb-NB165-09 emerged as the most potent and specific analogs in vitro and in cells. These compounds are undergoing further testing for their effectiveness as pharmacological tools for dissecting PKD function and as potential anti-cancer agents in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  6. Trigocherrierin A, a Potent Inhibitor of Chikungunya Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourjot

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trigocherrierin A (1 and trigocherriolide E (2, two new daphnane diterpenoid orthoesters (DDOs, and six chlorinated analogues, trigocherrins A, B, F and trigocherriolides A–C, were isolated from the leaves of Trigonostemon cherrieri. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry, extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. These compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV replication. Among the DDOs isolated, compound 1 exhibited the strongest anti-CHIKV activity (EC50 = 0.6 ± 0.1 µM, SI = 71.7.

  7. Trigocherrierin A, a potent inhibitor of chikungunya virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan; Dumontet, Vincent; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-03-24

    Trigocherrierin A (1) and trigocherriolide E (2), two new daphnane diterpenoid orthoesters (DDOs), and six chlorinated analogues, trigocherrins A, B, F and trigocherriolides A-C, were isolated from the leaves of Trigonostemon cherrieri. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry, extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. These compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication. Among the DDOs isolated, compound 1 exhibited the strongest anti-CHIKV activity (EC₅₀ = 0.6 ± 0.1 µM, SI = 71.7).

  8. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the efficient real time selection of the rare physics process of interest. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging the experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principal among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, specific trigger objects have been improved by building algorithms using detailed tracking and vertexing in specific detector regions to improve background rejection without loosing signal efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have benefited from a new high performance Inner Detector (ID) software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced in future by the installation...

  9. A Highly Selective Photoresist Ashing Process for Silicon Nitride Films by Addition of Trifluoromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Makoto; Eto, Hideo; Makino, Nobuaki; Omiya, Kayoko; Homma, Tetsuya; Nagatomo, Takao

    2001-09-01

    A highly selective photoresist ashing process was developed for the fabrication of thin-film transistor liquid-crystal displays (TFT-LCDs). This ashing process utilizes downflow plasma consisting of a carbon trifluoromethane/oxygen (CHF3/O2) gas mixture at a low temperature. The etching selectivity of photoresist films to silicon nitride (SiN) film increased when using the CHF3/O2 gas mixture plasma, as compared to that when using the carbon tetrafluoride/oxygen (CF4/O2) gas mixture plasma. At the CHF3 gas flow rate of 30 sccm, a high etching selectivity ratio of about 1080 for the photoresist films to the SiN films was achieved at room temperature. On the basis of surface analysis results for SiN films and plasma analysis results for the CHF3/O2 gas mixture, a mechanism for the high etching selectivity of the photoresist films was proposed. Reaction products that were formed on SiN films by the CHF3/O2 gas mixture plasma obstructed the etching of SiN films by fluorine (F) radicals, resulting in the high selectivity. It was found that the CHF3/O2 gas mixture plasma reacted with SiN, resulting in the formation of a protective reaction product that is considered to be an ammonium salt such as (NH4)2SiF6.

  10. 2-Aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Bui, Minna; Shen, Wang; Baskaran, Subramanian; Allen, Darin A; Elling, Robert A; Flanagan, W Michael; Fung, Amy D; Hanan, Emily J; Harris, Shannon O; Heumann, Stacey A; Hoch, Ute; Ivy, Sheryl N; Jacobs, Jeffrey W; Lam, Stuart; Lee, Heman; McDowell, Robert S; Oslob, Johan D; Purkey, Hans E; Romanowski, Michael J; Silverman, Jeffrey A; Tangonan, Bradley T; Taverna, Pietro; Yang, Wenjin; Yoburn, Josh C; Yu, Chul H; Zimmerman, Kristin M; O'Brien, Tom; Lew, Willard

    2009-09-01

    This Letter describes the discovery and key structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of 2-aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors. 2-Aminobenzimidazole serves as a bioisostere of the biaryl urea residue of SNS-314 (1c), which is a potent Aurora kinase inhibitor and entered clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. Compared to SNS-314, this series of compounds offers better aqueous solubility while retaining comparable in vitro potency in biochemical and cell-based assays; in particular, 6m has also demonstrated a comparable mouse iv PK profile to SNS-314.

  11. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  12. Storage xyloglucans: potent macrophages activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Rosário, Marianna Maia Taulois; Kangussu-Marcolino, Mônica Mendes; do Amaral, Alex Evangelista; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2011-01-15

    Storage xyloglucans from the seeds of Copaifera langsdorffii, Hymenaea courbaril and Tamarindus indica were obtained by aqueous extraction from the milled and defatted cotyledons, XGC, XGJ and XGT, respectively. The resulting fractions showed similar monosaccharide composition with Glc:Xyl:Gal molar ratios of 2.4:1.5:1.0, 3.8:1.5:1,0 and 3.6:2.4:1.0 for XGC, XGJ and XGT, respectively. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography of the polysaccharides showed unimodal profiles, and the average molar mass (M(w)) was obtained for XGC (9.6 × 10⁵ g/mol), XGJ (9.1 × 10⁵ g/mol) and XGT (7.3 × 10⁵ g/mol). The immunomodulatory effects of the xyloglucans on peritoneal macrophages were evaluated. Phagocytic activity was observed in macrophages treated with XGT. The effect of XGT was tested on the production of O₂(.-) and NO. At 25 μg/ml XGT caused a 100% increase in NO production when compared to the control group; however, it did not affect O₂(.-) production in the absence of PMA. The production of TNF-α, interleukins 1β and 6 by macrophages in the presence of the xyloglucans was evaluated. The polysaccharides affected the production of the cytokines by macrophages to different degrees. XGC caused an enhancement of IL-1β and TNF-α production, compared to the other xyloglucans. For IL-6 production, XGT gave greater stimulation than XGC and XGJ, reaching 87% at 50 μg/ml. XGJ promoted a statistically significant effect on all cytokine productions tested. The results indicate that the xyloglucans from C. langsdorffii, H. courbaril and T. indica can be classified as biological response modifiers (BRM). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards new neuroprotective agents: design and synthesis of 4H-thieno[2,3-c] isoquinolin-5-one derivatives as potent PARP-1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciari, Roberto; Camaioni, Emidio; Costantino, Gabriele; Marinozzi, Maura; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Moroni, Flavio; Natalini, Benedetto

    2003-09-01

    An excessive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a nuclear enzyme able to catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to acceptor proteins, is involved in the progression of neuronal damage after brain insult. Potent and selective PARP-1 inhibitors have neuroprotective properties in experimental models of brain ischemia. As a follow up of our previous structure-activity relationship study and in search for novel potent PARP-1 inhibitors, a series of 4H-thieno[2,3-c]-isoquinolin-5-one derivatives was designed and synthesized. Tested for their ability to inhibit PARP-1, these novel derivatives showed high inhibitory potency. The unsubstituted derivative TIQ was selected for further characterization and found to be endowed with strong neuroprotective properties in models of cerebral ischemia.

  14. SELECTION RESPONSE FOR INCREASED GRAIN YIELD IN TWO HIGH OIL MAIZE SYNTHETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made J. Mejaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selection for increased oil level in maize showed the increase was associated with decrease in starch concentration, kernel weight, and grain yield. The study was conducted with the objectives: (1 to evaluate response to six cycles for increased grain yield in the high oil maize Alexho Elite (AE: 60-90 g kg-1 oil concentration and Ultra High Oil (UHO: 100-140 g kg-1 oil concentration using inbred tester B73; (2 to measure responses to selection for increased grain yield with changes in yield components; and (3 to determine a suitable tester. Previously the two synthetics had been selected for oil concentration. After six cycles, the six genotypes i.e. AE C0, AE C3, AE C6, UHO C0, UHO C3, and UHO C6 were testcrossed to B73, LH185, and LH202 inbreds (40 g kg-1 oil concentration to a total of 18 testcrosses. Two field experiments were used to evaluate selection in AE and UHO testcrosses. The study showed selection using inbred tester B73 in AE and UHO was effective in increasing grain yield of AE testcrosses without changing (i.e. decreasing oil and protein concentrations. AE testcrosses produced higher grain yield and greater selection response for grain yield than UHO testcrosses. LH185 was best for grain yield in AE and UHO testcrosses. Increase in grain yield in most of the testcrosses was associated with increases in starch concentration, kernel weight, kernel number, and grain weight.

  15. Potent achiral agonists of the ghrelin (growth hormone secretagogue) receptor. Part I: Lead identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heightman, Tom D; Scott, Jackie S; Longley, Mark; Bordas, Vincent; Dean, David K; Elliott, Richard; Hutley, Gail; Witherington, Jason; Abberley, Lee; Passingham, Barry; Berlanga, Manuela; de Los Frailes, Maite; Wise, Alan; Powney, Ben; Muir, Alison; McKay, Fiona; Butler, Sharon; Winborn, Kim; Gardner, Christopher; Darton, Jill; Campbell, Colin; Sanger, Gareth

    2007-12-01

    High throughput screening combined with efficient datamining and parallel synthesis led to the discovery of a novel series of indolines showing potent in vitro ghrelin receptor agonist activity and acceleration of gastric emptying in rats.

  16. Clinical features and outcomes of AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy Características e evolução clínica da retinite por citomegalovírus em pacientes com AIDS na era da terapia antirretroviral potente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Eugênio Faria e Arantes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the features and outcomes of patients with AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis after highly active antiretroviral therapy availability. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 30 consecutive patients (44 eyes with AIDS and newly diagnosed, active AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis, examined from January 2005 to December 2007. RESULTS: The mean age was 34.8 years, 18 patients (60.0% were male and median duration of AIDS was 90 months. Nineteen patients (63.3% had evidence of highly active antiretroviral therapy failure and median CD4+ lymphocyte count was 12.5 cells/µl. Visual acuity at presentation was 20/40 or better in 27 eyes (61.4%. Retinitis involved Zone 1 in 13 eyes (39.5%. Despite specific anti-AIDSrelated cytomegalovirus therapy, 16 eyes (36.4% presented relapse of retinitis and 10 eyes (22.7% lost at least three lines of vision. When compared to highly active antiretroviral therapy responsive patients, eyes of highly active antiretroviral therapy failure patients were more likely to develop relapse of retinitis (p=0.03 and loss of at least three lines of vision (p=0.03. CONCLUSION: The patients in this series are essentially young men with longstanding AIDS, non-responsive to highly active antiretroviral therapy and with a similar immunological profile as noted before highly active antiretroviral therapy era. These findings have implications for the management of the disease and confirm the magnitude of rational periodic screening after diagnosis of AIDS.OBJETIVO: Descrever as características e evolução clínica de pacientes com retinite por citomegalovírus relacionada à AIDS após o advento da terapia antirretroviral potente. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 30 pacientes consecutivos (44 olhos com AIDS e retinite por citomegalovírus ativa recém-diagnosticada, atendidos entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2007. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 34,8 anos, 18 pacientes

  17. Design of Highly Selective Gas Sensors via Physicochemical Modification of Oxide Nanowires: Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sik Woo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the enhancement of gas sensing properties, and specifically the improvement of gas selectivity of metal oxide semiconductor nanowire (NW networks grown by chemical vapor deposition and thermal evaporation, are reviewed. Highly crystalline NWs grown by vapor-phase routes have various advantages, and thus have been applied in the field of gas sensors over the years. In particular, n-type NWs such as SnO2, ZnO, and In2O3 are widely studied because of their simple synthetic preparation and high gas response. However, due to their usually high responses to C2H5OH and NO2, the selective detection of other harmful and toxic gases using oxide NWs remains a challenging issue. Various strategies—such as doping/loading of noble metals, decorating/doping of catalytic metal oxides, and the formation of core–shell structures—have been explored to enhance gas selectivity and sensitivity, and are discussed herein. Additional methods such as the transformation of n-type into p-type NWs and the formation of catalyst-doped hierarchical structures by branch growth have also proven to be promising for the enhancement of gas selectivity. Accordingly, the physicochemical modification of oxide NWs via various methods provides new strategies to achieve the selective detection of a specific gas, and after further investigations, this approach could pave a new way in the field of NW-based semiconductor-type gas sensors.

  18. Enhanced selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells following cyclophosphamide treatment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kawabata

    Full Text Available A major goal for the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with cytotoxic therapies is the induction of long-term remission. There is, however, a paucity of information concerning the effects of these therapies on the reconstituting B cell repertoire. Since there is recent evidence suggesting that B cell lymphopenia might attenuate negative selection of autoreactive B cells, we elected to investigate the effects of cyclophosphamide on the selection of the re-emerging B cell repertoire in wild type mice and transgenic mice that express the H chain of an anti-DNA antibody. The reconstituting B cell repertoire in wild type mice contained an increased frequency of DNA-reactive B cells; in heavy chain transgenic mice, the reconstituting repertoire was characterized by an increased frequency of mature, high affinity DNA-reactive B cells and the mice expressed increased levels of serum anti-DNA antibodies. This coincided with a significant increase in serum levels of BAFF. Treatment of transgene-expressing mice with a BAFF blocking agent or with DNase to reduce exposure to autoantigen limited the expansion of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells during B cell reconstitution. These studies suggest that during B cell reconstitution, not only is negative selection of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells impaired by increased BAFF, but also that B cells escaping negative selection are positively selected by autoantigen. There are significant implications for therapy.

  19. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Daniel; Golomb, Julie D; Walther, Dirk B

    2017-01-01

    In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA), was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the

  20. Scene content is predominantly conveyed by high spatial frequencies in scene-selective visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Berman

    Full Text Available In complex real-world scenes, image content is conveyed by a large collection of intertwined visual features. The visual system disentangles these features in order to extract information about image content. Here, we investigate the role of one integral component: the content of spatial frequencies in an image. Specifically, we measure the amount of image content carried by low versus high spatial frequencies for the representation of real-world scenes in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex. To this end, we attempted to decode scene categories from the brain activity patterns of participants viewing scene images that contained the full spatial frequency spectrum, only low spatial frequencies, or only high spatial frequencies, all carefully controlled for contrast and luminance. Contrary to the findings from numerous behavioral studies and computational models that have highlighted how low spatial frequencies preferentially encode image content, decoding of scene categories from the scene-selective brain regions, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA, was significantly more accurate for high than low spatial frequency images. In fact, decoding accuracy was just as high for high spatial frequency images as for images containing the full spatial frequency spectrum in scene-selective areas PPA, RSC, OPA and object selective area LOC. We also found an interesting dissociation between the posterior and anterior subdivisions of PPA: categories were decodable from both high and low spatial frequency scenes in posterior PPA but only from high spatial frequency scenes in anterior PPA; and spatial frequency was explicitly decodable from posterior but not anterior PPA. Our results are consistent with recent findings that line drawings, which consist almost entirely of high spatial frequencies, elicit a neural representation of scene categories that is equivalent to that of full-spectrum color photographs. Collectively, these findings

  1. Marker-Assisted Selection to Pyramid Nematode Resistance and the High Oleic Trait in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of peanut ( L. farming demand a quick response from breeders to develop new cultivars, a process that can be aided by the application of molecular markers. With the goal to pyramid nematode resistance and the trait for high oleic:linoleic acid (high O:L ratio in seeds, nematode-resistant cultivar Tifguard was used as the recurrent female parent and high O:L cultivars Georgia-02C and Florida-07 were used as donor parents for the high O:L trait. ‘Tifguard High O/L’ was generated through three rounds of accelerated backcrossing using BCF progenies selected with molecular markers for these two traits as the pollen donors. Selfed BCF plants yielded marker-homozygous individuals identified as Tifguard High O/L, compressing the hybridization and selection phases of the cultivar development process to less than 3 yr. The accuracy of marker-assisted selection (MAS was confirmed by phenotyping a subset of F populations from both parental combinations. Once additional molecular markers linked with traits of interest are designed to be compatible with high-throughput screening platforms, MAS will be more widely integrated into peanut breeding programs.

  2. Synthesis of tricyclic indole-2-carboxylic [correction of caboxylic] acids as potent NMDA-glycine antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, S; Ae, N; Nagata, R

    2001-05-18

    The practical synthesis of a series of tricyclic indole-2-carboxylic acids, 7-chloro-3-arylaminocarbonylmethyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenz[cd]indole-2-carboxylic acids, as a new class of potent NMDA-glycine antagonists is described. The synthetic route to the key intermediate 12a comprises a regioselective iodination of 4-chloro-2-nitrotoluene, modified Reissert indole synthesis, Jeffery's Heck-type reaction with allyl alcohol, Wittig-Horner-Emmons reaction, and iodination at the indole C-3 position. The key step in the route is an intramolecular cyclization of 12a to give the tricyclic indole structure. Two methods of cyclization, (1) an intramolecular radical cyclization of 12a and (2) a sequence of intramolecular Heck reaction of 12a followed by a 1,4-reduction, were performed. The resulting tricyclic indole diester 13a was selectively hydrolyzed to afford the desired tricyclic indole monocarboxylic acid 16 on a multihundred gram scale without any chromatographic purifications. Optical resolution of 16 to (-)-isomer 17 and (+)-isomer 18 was carried out, and the resulting isomers were derivatized, respectively. Evaluation of the optically active derivatives for affinity to the NMDA-glycine binding site using the radio ligand binding assay with [(3)H]-5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid revealed that the derivatives of (-)-isomer 17 were more potent than the others and that especially substituted anilide (-)-isomer 24 (K(i) = 0.8 nM) showed high affinity.

  3. Polymyxin B, in combination with fluconazole, exerts a potent fungicidal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bing; Zhou, Henry; Yang, Liangpeng; Zhang, Jun; Jung, Kathy; Giam, Chou-Zen; Xiang, Xin; Lin, Xiaorong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to identify existing clinical compounds that either possess a fungicidal activity alone or can act synergistically with fungistatic antifungals. Methods We screened a clinical compound library for drugs that exhibited anti-Aspergillus activity. Among selected compounds, the cationic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B was chosen for further characterization because it can be used parenterally and topically. The fungicidal effect of polymyxin B and its synergistic interactions with azole antifungals were tested against a variety of fungal species. The toxicity of the drug combination of polymyxin B and fluconazole was compared with that of each drug alone in mammalian cell cultures. Results We found that polymyxin B possesses a broad-spectrum antifungal activity at relatively high concentrations. However, because of its synergistic interactions with azole antifungals, polymyxin B at much lower concentrations exerts a potent fungicidal effect against Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species and moulds when combined with azoles. The combination of polymyxin B and fluconazole at concentrations within susceptible breakpoints is particularly potent against C. neoformans isolates, including fluconazole-resistant strains. The drug combination displayed no additional toxicity compared with polymyxin B alone when tested in cell culture. Conclusions The combination of polymyxin B and fluconazole has the potential to be used in the clinic to treat systemic cryptococcosis. Our findings suggest that combining cationic peptide antibiotics with azole antifungals could provide a new direction for developing novel antifungal therapies. PMID:20167587

  4. Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S.; Saha, Tanmoy; Desai, Aamod V.; Talukdar, Pinaki; Ghosh, Sujit K.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known to play a vital role in human physiology and pathology which stimulated interest in understanding complex behaviour of H2S. Discerning the pathways of H2S production and its mode of action is still a challenge owing to its volatile and reactive nature. Herein we report azide functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) as a selective turn-on fluorescent probe for H2S detection. The MOF shows highly selective and fast response towards H2S even in presence of other relevant biomolecules. Low cytotoxicity and H2S detection in live cells, demonstrate the potential of MOF towards monitoring H2S chemistry in biological system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOF that exhibit fast and highly selective fluorescence turn-on response towards H2S under physiological conditions.

  5. Graphene oxide membranes with high permeability and selectivity for dehumidification of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Chase-Woods, Dylan G.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Devanathan, Ram; Fifield, Leonard S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Gotthold, David W.

    2016-09-01

    Hierarchically stacked 2D graphene oxide (GO) membranes are a fascinating and promising new class of materials with the potential for radically improved water vapor/gas separation with excellent selectivity and high permeability. This paper details dehumidification results from flowing gas mixtures through free-standing GO membrane samples prepared by a casting method. The first demonstrated use of free-standing GO membranes for water vapor separation reveals outstanding water vapor permeability and H2O/N2 selectivity. Free-standing GO membranes exhibit extremely high water vapor permeability of 1.82 x 105 Barrer and a water vapor permeance of 1.01 x 10-5 mol/m2sPa, while the nitrogen permeability was below the system’s detection limit, yielding a selectivity >104 in 80% relative humidity (RH) air at 30.8 °C. The results show great potential for a range of energy conversion and environmental applications

  6. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria eShimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults’ selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children’s selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults’ selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc. However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the adult time-window related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children’s neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM

  7. ERP markers of target selection discriminate children with high vs. low working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention enables enhancing a subset out of multiple competing items to maximize the capacity of our limited visual working memory (VWM) system. Multiple behavioral and electrophysiological studies have revealed the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting adults' selective attention of visual percepts for encoding in VWM. However, research on children is more limited. What are the neural mechanisms involved in children's selection of incoming percepts in service of VWM? Do these differ from the ones subserving adults' selection? Ten-year-olds and adults used a spatial arrow cue to select a colored item for later recognition from an array of four colored items. The temporal dynamics of selection were investigated through EEG signals locked to the onset of the memory array. Both children and adults elicited significantly more negative activity over posterior scalp locations contralateral to the item to-be-selected for encoding (N2pc). However, this activity was elicited later and for longer in children compared to adults. Furthermore, although children as a group did not elicit a significant N2pc during the time-window in which N2pc was elicited in adults, the magnitude of N2pc during the "adult time-window" related to their behavioral performance during the later recognition phase of the task. This in turn highlights how children's neural activity subserving attention during encoding relates to better subsequent VWM performance. Significant differences were observed when children were divided into groups of high vs. low VWM capacity as a function of cueing benefit. Children with large cue benefits in VWM capacity elicited an adult-like contralateral negativity following attentional selection of the to-be-encoded item, whereas children with low VWM capacity did not. These results corroborate the close coupling between selective attention and VWM from childhood and elucidate further the attentional mechanisms constraining VWM performance in children.

  8. Structure-based design and synthesis of potent, ethylenediamine-based, mammalian farnesyltransferase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Steven; Keaney, Erin Pusateri; Cummings, Christopher G; Blaskovich, Michelle A; Hast, Michael A; Glenn, Matthew P; Chang, Sung-Youn; Bucher, Cynthia J; Floyd, Ryan J; Katt, William P; Gelb, Michael H; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Beese, Lorena S; Sebti, Said M; Hamilton, Andrew D

    2010-10-14

    A potent class of anticancer, human farnesyltransferase (hFTase) inhibitors has been identified by "piggy-backing" on potent, antimalarial inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum farnesyltransferase (PfFTase). On the basis of a 4-fold substituted ethylenediamine scaffold, the inhibitors are structurally simple and readily derivatized, facilitating the extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) study reported herein. Our most potent inhibitor is compound 1f, which exhibited an in vitro hFTase IC(50) value of 25 nM and a whole cell H-Ras processing IC(50) value of 90 nM. Moreover, it is noteworthy that several of our inhibitors proved highly selective for hFTase (up to 333-fold) over the related prenyltransferase enzyme geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I). A crystal structure of inhibitor 1a co-crystallized with farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) in the active site of rat FTase illustrates that the para-benzonitrile moiety of 1a is stabilized by a π-π stacking interaction with the Y361β residue, suggesting a structural explanation for the observed importance of this component of our inhibitors.

  9. Algorithms for {K, s+1}-potent matrix constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Lebtahi, Leila; Romero, Óscar; Thome, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with {K,s+1}-potent matrices. These matrices generalize all the following classes of matrices: k-potent matrices, periodic matrices, idempotent matrices, involutory matrices, centrosymmetric matrices, mirrorsymmetric matrices, circulant matrices, among others. Several applications of these classes of matrices can be found in the literature. We develop algorithms in order to compute {K,s+1}-potent matrices and {K,s+1}-potent linear combinations of {K,s+1}-potent matrices...

  10. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  11. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  12. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  13. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  14. A high-content subtractive screen for selecting small molecules affecting internalization of GPCRs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kwon, Y-J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available transduction to physiology. Here, the authors demonstrate a high-content screen using a panel of GPCR assays to identify receptor selective molecules acting within the kinase/phosphatase inhibitor family. A collection of 88 kinase and phosphatase inhibitors...

  15. Highly selective detection of Zn 2 and Cd 2 with a simple amino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 1. Highly selective detection of Zn2+ and Cd2+ with a simple amino-terpyridine compound in ... Author Affiliations. Duobin Chao1. School of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin, Liaoning 124221, P. R. China ...

  16. Pd-Diimine : A Highly Selective Catalyst System for the Base-Free Oxidative Heck Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Teichert, Johannes F.; Heijnen, Donis; Eisink, Niek; van Dijk, Simon; Ferrer, Catalina; van den Hoogenband, Adri; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2011-01-01

    Pd(OAc)(2)/3 is an efficient catalyst system for the base-free oxidative Heck reaction that outperforms the currently available catalysts for the more challenging substrates studied. The catalyst system is highly selective, and works at room temperature with dioxygen as the oxidant.

  17. High-tide habitat choice : insights from modelling roost selection by shorebirds around a tropical bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Danny I.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis; Van Gils, Jan A.; Rogers, Ken G.

    High tides force shorebirds from intertidal feeding areas to sites known as roosts. We investigated the roost selection of great knots, Calidris tenuirostris, and red knots, Calidris canutus, on a tropical coastline in northwestern Australia, assessing several roost attributes and recording the

  18. Process for selecting NEAMS applications for access to Idaho National Laboratory high performance computing resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Pernice

    2010-09-01

    INL has agreed to provide participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Mod- eling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with access to its high performance computing (HPC) resources under sponsorship of the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) program element. This report documents the process used to select applications and the software stack in place at INL.

  19. A Highly Active and Selective Manganese Oxide Promoted Cobalt-on-Silica Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Breejen, Johan P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837318; Frey, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341358851; Yang, Jia; Holmen, Anders; van Schooneveld, Matti M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315032863; de Groot, Frank M. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Stephan, Odile; Bitter, Johannes H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/160581435; de Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    A highly active and selective manganese oxide-promoted silica-supported cobalt catalyst for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is reported. Co/MnO/SiO2 catalysts were prepared via impregnation of a cobalt nitrate and manganese nitrate precursor, followed by drying and calcination in an NO/He flow. The

  20. Selecting microalgae with high lipid productivity and photosynthetic activity under nitrogen starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benvenuti, G.; Bosma, R.; Cuaresma Franco, M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    An economically feasible microalgal lipid industry heavily relies on the selection of suitable strains. Because microalgae lipid content increases under a range of adverse conditions (e.g. nutrient deprivation, high light intensity), photosynthetic activity is usually strongly reduced. As a

  1. Ir/Sn dual-reagent catalysis towards highly selective alkylation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    *For correspondence. Ir/Sn dual-reagent catalysis towards highly selective alkylation of arenes and heteroarenes with benzyl alcohols. SUJIT ROY*, SUSMITA PODDER and JOYANTA CHOUDHURY. Organometallics and Catalysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur 721 302.

  2. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    in current diesel after-treatment techniques. The electrochemical system consisted of an electrochemical cell modified with NOx adsorbents and a diesel oxidation catalyst placed upstream of the cell. The system offers highly selective NOx reduction and a strong resistance to oxygen interference with almost...... zero emission of secondary pollutants....

  3. Materials selection for low temperature processed high Q resonators using ashby approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazmi, S.N.R.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging class of microfabrication technology that can truly be anticipated as an enabling technology for future radio frequency (RF) communications. This work focuses on the material selection using the Ashby approach for the high-Q resonators that need

  4. Middle-Class Parents' Educational Work in an Academically Selective Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study on the nature of parent-school engagement at an academically selective public high school in New South Wales, Australia. Such research is pertinent given recent policies of "choice" and decentralization, making a study of local stakeholders timely. The research comprised a set of interviews…

  5. Click-Chemistry-Mediated Synthesis of Selective Melanocortin Receptor 4 Agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Daniel; Gonçalves, Juliana P.L.; Hansen, Louise V.

    2017-01-01

    were synthesized by solid phase click chemistry to develop novel, potent, selective MC4R agonists. Using cAMP measurements and a transcriptional reporter assay, we observed that several constrained agonists generated by a cycloaddition reaction displayed high selectivity (223- to 467-fold) toward MC4R...

  6. Hierarchical High-Order Functional Connectivity Networks and Selective Feature Fusion for MCI Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Han; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-07-01

    Conventional Functional connectivity (FC) analysis focuses on characterizing the correlation between two brain regions, whereas the high-order FC can model the correlation between two brain region pairs. To reduce the number of brain region pairs, clustering is applied to group all the brain region pairs into a small number of clusters. Then, a high-order FC network can be constructed based on the clustering result. By varying the number of clusters, multiple high-order FC networks can be generated and the one with the best overall performance can be finally selected. However, the important information contained in other networks may be simply discarded. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose to make full use of the information contained in all high-order FC networks. First, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering technique is applied such that the clustering result in one layer always depends on the previous layer, thus making the high-order FC networks in the two consecutive layers highly correlated. As a result, the features extracted from high-order FC network in each layer can be decomposed into two parts (blocks), i.e., one is redundant while the other might be informative or complementary, with respect to its previous layer. Then, a selective feature fusion method, which combines sequential forward selection and sparse regression, is developed to select a feature set from those informative feature blocks for classification. Experimental results confirm that our novel method outperforms the best single high-order FC network in diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects.

  7. Deep Mutational Scanning: Library Construction, Functional Selection, and High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Fields, Stanley

    2015-08-03

    Deep mutational scanning is a highly parallel method that uses high-throughput sequencing to track changes in >10(5) protein variants before and after selection to measure the effects of mutations on protein function. Here we outline the stages of a deep mutational scanning experiment, focusing on the construction of libraries of protein sequence variants and the preparation of Illumina sequencing libraries. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Potent haloperidol derivatives covalently binding to the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Tobias; Kaindl, Jonas; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R) is a common drug target for the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders including schizophrenia. Structure based design of subtype selective D 2 R antagonists requires high resolution crystal structures of the receptor and pharmacological tools promoting a better understanding of the protein-ligand interactions. Recently, we reported the development of a chemically activated dopamine derivative (FAUC150) designed to covalently bind the L94C mutant of the dopamine D 2 receptor. Using FAUC150 as a template, we elaborated the design and synthesis of irreversible analogs of the potent antipsychotic drug haloperidol forming covalent D 2 R-ligand complexes. The disulfide- and Michael acceptor-functionalized compounds showed significant receptor affinity and an irreversible binding profile in radioligand depletion experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High amino acid diversity and positive selection at a putative coral immunity gene (tachylectin-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellberg Michael E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in immune functions, including pathogen recognition and the activation of innate defense pathways, are among the most genetically variable known, and the proteins that they encode are often characterized by high rates of amino acid substitutions, a hallmark of positive selection. The high levels of variation characteristic of immunity genes make them useful tools for conservation genetics. To date, highly variable immunity genes have yet to be found in corals, keystone organisms of the world's most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reef. Here, we examine variation in and selection on a putative innate immunity gene from Oculina, a coral genus previously used as a model for studies of coral disease and bleaching. Results In a survey of 244 Oculina alleles, we find high nonsynonymous variation and a signature of positive selection, consistent with a putative role in immunity. Using computational protein structure prediction, we generate a structural model of the Oculina protein that closely matches the known structure of tachylectin-2 from the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus, a protein with demonstrated function in microbial recognition and agglutination. We also demonstrate that at least three other genera of anthozoan cnidarians (Acropora, Montastrea and Nematostella possess proteins structurally similar to tachylectin-2. Conclusions Taken together, the evidence of high amino acid diversity, positive selection and structural correspondence to the horseshoe crab tachylectin-2 suggests that this protein is 1 part of Oculina's innate immunity repertoire, and 2 evolving adaptively, possibly under selective pressure from coral-associated microorganisms. Tachylectin-2 may serve as a candidate locus to screen coral populations for their capacity to respond adaptively to future environmental change.

  10. An Augmented Common Weight Data Envelopment Analysis for Material Selection in High-tech Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Shokr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a challenging issue in manufacturing processes while the inappropriate selected material may lead to fail the manufacturing process or end user experience especially in high-tech industries such as aircraft and shipping. Every material has different quantitative and qualitative criteria which should be considered simultaneously when assessing and selecting the right material. A weighted linear optimization method (WLOM in the class of data envelopment analysis which exists in literature is adopted to address material selection problem while accounting for both qualitative and quantitative criteria. However, it is demonstrated the adopted WLOM method is not able to produce a full ranking vector for the material selection problems borrowed from the literature. Thus, an augmented common weight data envelopment analysis model (ACWDEA is developed in this paper with the aim of eliminating deficiencies of WLOM model. The proposed ACWDEA is able to produce full ranking vector in decision making problems with less computational complexities in superior to the WLOM. Two material selection problems are solved and results are compared with WLOM and previous methods. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed ACWDEA method are evaluated through Spearman’s correlation tests.

  11. Highly Active Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts Exhibiting Unprecedented Activity and Z-Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrugh, Lauren E.; Herbert, Myles B.; Marx, Vanessa M.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel chelated ruthenium-based metathesis catalyst bearing an N-2,6-diisopropylphenyl group is reported and displays near-perfect selectivity for the Z-olefin (>95%), as well as unparalleled TONs of up to 7400, in a variety of homodimerization and industrially relevant metathesis reactions. This derivative and other new catalytically-active species were synthesized using an improved method employing sodium carboxylates to induce the salt metathesis and C-H activation of these chelated complexes. All of these new ruthenium-based catalysts are highly Z-selective in the homodimerization of terminal olefins. PMID:23317178

  12. High-throughput phenotyping and genomic selection: the frontiers of crop breeding converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Crossa, José; von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Serret, María Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2012-05-01

    Genomic selection (GS) and high-throughput phenotyping have recently been captivating the interest of the crop breeding community from both the public and private sectors world-wide. Both approaches promise to revolutionize the prediction of complex traits, including growth, yield and adaptation to stress. Whereas high-throughput phenotyping may help to improve understanding of crop physiology, most powerful techniques for high-throughput field phenotyping are empirical rather than analytical and comparable to genomic selection. Despite the fact that the two methodological approaches represent the extremes of what is understood as the breeding process (phenotype versus genome), they both consider the targeted traits (e.g. grain yield, growth, phenology, plant adaptation to stress) as a black box instead of dissecting them as a set of secondary traits (i.e. physiological) putatively related to the target trait. Both GS and high-throughput phenotyping have in common their empirical approach enabling breeders to use genome profile or phenotype without understanding the underlying biology. This short review discusses the main aspects of both approaches and focuses on the case of genomic selection of maize flowering traits and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and plant spectral reflectance as high-throughput field phenotyping methods for complex traits such as crop growth and yield. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Tracking and flavour tagging selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Calvetti, Milene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, track based selection in the online environment is crucial for the detection of physics processes of interest for further study. This is of particular importance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the increasingly harsh collision environment is challenging participating experiments to improve the performance of their online selection. Principle among these challenges is the increasing number of interactions per bunch crossing, known as pileup. In the ATLAS experiment the challenge has been addressed with multiple strategies. Firstly, individual trigger groups focusing on specific physics objects have implemented novel algorithms which make use of the detailed tracking and vertexing performed within the trigger to improve rejection without losing efficiency. Secondly, since 2015 all trigger areas have also benefited from a new high performance inner detector software tracking system implemented in the High Level Trigger. Finally, performance will be further enhanced i...

  14. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  15. Selection of high heterozygosity popcorn varieties in Brazil based on SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, I B O; Mangolin, C A; Scapim, C A; Gonçalves, C S; Machado, M F P S

    2012-07-19

    We analyzed genetic structure and diversity among eight populations of popcorn, using SSR loci as genetic markers. Our objectives were to select SSR loci that could be used to estimate genetic diversity within popcorn populations, and to analyze the genetic structure of promising populations with high levels of heterozygosity that could be used in breeding programs. Fifty-seven alleles (3.7 alleles per locus) were detected; the highest effective number of alleles (4.21) and the highest gene diversity (0.763) were found for the Umc2226 locus. A very high level of population differentiation was found (F(ST) = 0.3664), with F(ST) for each locus ranging from 0.1029 (Umc1664) to 0.6010 (Umc2350). This analysis allowed us to identify SSR loci with high levels of heterozygosity and heterozygous varieties, which could be selected for production of inbred lines and for developing new cultivars.

  16. Molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide: highly sensitive and selective hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, A.; Rathi, Servin; Lee, In-yeal; Park, Jinwoo; Lim, Dongsuk; Kang, Moonshik; Joh, Han-Ik; Kim, Gil-Ho; Kannan, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we report on the hydrogen (H2) sensing behavior of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nano particles (NPs) based composite film. The RGO/MoS2 composite exhibited a highly enhanced H2 response (∼15.6%) for 200 ppm at an operating temperature of 60 °C. Furthermore, the RGO/MoS2 composite showed excellent selectivity to H2 with respect to ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) which are highly reactive gas species. The composite’s response to H2 is 2.9 times higher than that of NH3 whereas for NO it is 3.5. This highly improved H2 sensing response and selectivity of RGO/MoS2 at low operating temperatures were attributed to the structural integration of MoS2 nanoparticles in the nanochannels and pores in the RGO layer.

  17. Genomic mapping of social behavior traits in a F2 cross derived from mice selectively bred for high aggression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Wang, Shiliang; Buus, Ryan J; Perkins, James; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Rapid response to selection was previously observed in mice selected for high levels of inter-male aggression based on number of attacks displayed in a novel social interaction test after isolation housing...

  18. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Einar E; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Poulsen, Nina A; Loeschcke, Volker; Moen, Thomas; Johansen, Torild; Mittelholzer, Christian; Taranger, Geir-Lasse; Ogden, Rob; Carvalho, Gary R

    2009-01-01

    .... Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection...

  19. Sociodemographic differences in selected eating practices among alternative high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary

    2009-05-01

    Students attending alternative high schools are an at-risk group of youth for poor health behaviors and obesity. However, little is known about their dietary practices. To examine associations between sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status and selected dietary practices, including consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, and fruits and vegetables and fast-food restaurant use, among students attending alternative high schools. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of adolescents (n=145; 52% men; 63% aged sociodemographic differences in fruit/vegetable consumption. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a higher consumption of regular soda (P=0.027). Racial/ethnic and sex differences in the consumption of regular soda, high-fat foods, and fast-food restaurant use among alternative high school students underscores the importance of implementing health promotion programs in alternative high schools.

  20. Highly Selective Fluorescent Sensing of Proteins Based on a Fluorescent Molecularly Imprinted Nanosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent molecularly imprinted nanosensor was obtained by grafting imprinted polymer onto the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and post-imprinting treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. The fluorescence of lysozyme-imprinted polymer (Lys-MIP was quenched more strongly by Lys than that of nonimprinted polymer (NIP, which indicated that the Lys-MIP could recognize Lys. The resulted imprinted material has the ability to selectively sense a target protein, and an imprinting factor of 3.34 was achieved. The Lys-MIP also showed selective detection for Lys among other proteins such as cytochrome C (Cyt C, hemoglobin (HB and bovine serum albumin (BSA due to the imprinted sites in the Lys-MIP. This approach combines the high selectivity of surface molecular imprinting technology and fluorescence, and converts binding events into detectable signals by monitoring fluorescence spectra. Therefore, it will have further applications for Lys sensing.

  1. Target protein interactions of indole-3-carbinol and the highly potent derivative 1-benzyl-I3C with the C-terminal domain of human elastase uncouples cell cycle arrest from apoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronchik, Ida; Chen, Tony; Durkin, Kathleen A; Horwitz, Marshall S; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N; Bjeldanes, Leonard F; Firestone, Gary L

    2012-11-01

    Elastase is the only currently identified target protein for indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring hydrolysis product of glucobrassicin in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts that induces a cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. In vitro elastase enzymatic assays demonstrated that I3C and at lower concentrations its more potent derivative 1-benzyl-indole-3-carbinol (1-benzyl-I3C) act as non-competitive allosteric inhibitors of elastase activity. Consistent with these results, in silico computational simulations have revealed the first predicted interactions of I3C and 1-benzyl-I3C with the crystal structure of human neutrophil elastase, and identified a potential binding cluster on an external surface of the protease outside of the catalytic site that implicates elastase as a target protein for both indolecarbinol compounds. The Δ205 carboxyterminal truncation of elastase, which disrupts the predicted indolecarbinol binding site, is enzymatically active and generates a novel I3C resistant enzyme. Expression of the wild type and Δ205 elastase in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells demonstrated that the carboxyterminal domain of elastase is required for the I3C and 1-benzyl-I3C inhibition of enzymatic activity, accumulation of the unprocessed form of the CD40 elastase substrate (a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member), disruption of NFκB nuclear localization and transcriptional activity, and induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest. Surprisingly, expression of the Δ205 elastase molecule failed to reverse indolecarbinol stimulated apoptosis, establishing an elastase-dependent bifurcation point in anti-proliferative signaling that uncouples the cell cycle and apoptotic responses in human breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  3. Highly Selective TiN-Supported Highly Dispersed Pt Catalyst: Ultra Active toward Hydrogen Oxidation and Inactive toward Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Tang, Haibo; Tian, Xinlong; Hou, Sanying; Li, Xiuhua; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2018-01-31

    The severe dissolution of the cathode catalyst, caused by an undesired oxygen reduction reaction at the anode during startup and shutdown, is a fatal challenge to practical applications of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. To address this important issue, according to the distinct structure-sensitivity between the σ-type bond in H 2 and the π-type bond in O 2 , we design a HD-Pt/TiN material by highly dispersing Pt on the TiN surface to inhibit the unwanted oxygen reduction reaction. The highly dispersed Pt/TiN catalyst exhibits excellent selectivity toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. With a Pt loading of 0.88 wt %, our catalyst shows excellent hydrogen oxidation reaction activity, close to that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst, and much lower oxygen reduction reaction activity than the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The lack of well-ordered Pt facets is responsible for the excellent selectivity of the HD-Pt/TiN materials toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Our work provides a new and cost-effective solution to design selective catalysts toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, making the strategy of using oxygen-tolerant anode catalyst to improve the stability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown more affordable and practical.

  4. Molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jialuo; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-03-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin (PC) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), via a sol-gel polymerization process using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) as fluorescent signal source. The ratio of two fluorescence peak emission intensities of NBD and PC was utilized to determine the concentration of PC, which could effectively reduce the background interference and fluctuation of diverse conditions. As a result, this sensor obtained high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14 nM within 6 min, and excellent recognition specificity for PC over its analogues with a high imprinting factor of 9.1. Furthermore, the sensor attained high recoveries in the range of 93.8-110.2% at three spiking levels of PC, with precisions below 4.7% in seawater and lake water samples. The developed sensor strategy demonstrated simplicity, reliability, rapidity, high selectivity and high sensitivity, proving to be a feasible way to develop high efficient fluorescence sensors and thus potentially applicable for ultratrace analysis of complicated matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels with high selectivity over a bifunctional catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Li, Shenggang; Bu, Xianni; Dang, Shanshan; Liu, Ziyu; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Liangshu; Qiu, Minghuang; Yang, Chengguang; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation to various C1 chemicals, it is still a great challenge to synthesize value-added products with two or more carbons, such as gasoline, directly from CO2 because of the extreme inertness of CO2 and a high C-C coupling barrier. Here we present a bifunctional catalyst composed of reducible indium oxides (In2O3) and zeolites that yields a high selectivity to gasoline-range hydrocarbons (78.6%) with a very low methane selectivity (1%). The oxygen vacancies on the In2O3 surfaces activate CO2 and hydrogen to form methanol, and C-C coupling subsequently occurs inside zeolite pores to produce gasoline-range hydrocarbons with a high octane number. The proximity of these two components plays a crucial role in suppressing the undesired reverse water gas shift reaction and giving a high selectivity for gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Moreover, the pellet catalyst exhibits a much better performance during an industry-relevant test, which suggests promising prospects for industrial applications.

  6. Efficient removal and highly selective adsorption of Hg2+ by polydopamine nanospheres with total recycle capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiulan; Jia, Xin; Zhang, Guoxiang; Hu, Jiamei; Sheng, Wenbo; Ma, Zhiyuan; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    This study reported a new method for efficient removal of Hg2+ from contaminated water using highly selective adsorptive polydopamine (PDA) nanospheres, which were uniform and had a small diameter (150-200 nm). The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics were investigated. Also, the effects of ionic strength, co-existing ions on removing ability of PDA nanospheres for Hg2+ were studied. Adsorption of Hg2+ was very fast and efficient as adsorption equilibrium was completed within 4 h and the maximum adsorption capacities were 1861.72 mg/g, 2037.22 mg/g, and 2076.81 mg/g at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K respectively, increasing with increasing of temperature. The PDA nanospheres exhibited highly selective adsorption of Hg2+ and had a total desorption capacity of 100% in hydrochloric acid solution, pH 1. The results showed that the structure of PDA nanospheres remained almost unchanged after recycling five times. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to determine the elements of PDA nanospheres before and after Hg2+ adsorption. Considering their efficient and highly Hg2+ selective adsorption, total recycle capacity, and high stability, PDA nanospheres will be feasible in a number of practical applications.

  7. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  8. Examining applying high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajab, Murad; Lu, Joan; Xu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and efficiency (time complexity) of high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis. The need for this research derives from the urgent and increasing need for accurate and efficient algorithms. Colon cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, hence it is vitally important for the cancer tissues to be expertly identified and classified in a rapid and timely manner, to assure both a fast detection of the disease and to expedite the drug discovery process. In this research, a three-phase approach was proposed and implemented: Phases One and Two examined the feature selection algorithms and classification algorithms employed separately, and Phase Three examined the performance of the combination of these. It was found from Phase One that the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm performed best with the colon dataset as a feature selection (29 genes selected) and from Phase Two that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm outperformed other classifications, with an accuracy of almost 86%. It was also found from Phase Three that the combined use of PSO and SVM surpassed other algorithms in accuracy and performance, and was faster in terms of time analysis (94%). It is concluded that applying feature selection algorithms prior to classification algorithms results in better accuracy than when the latter are applied alone. This conclusion is important and significant to industry and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  10. Detecting selection signatures between Duroc and Duroc synthetic pig populations using high-density SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edea, Z; Hong, J-K; Jung, J-H; Kim, D-W; Kim, Y-M; Kim, E-S; Shin, S S; Jung, Y C; Kim, K-S

    2017-08-01

    The development of high throughput genotyping techniques has facilitated the identification of selection signatures of pigs. The detection of genomic selection signals in a population subjected to differential selection pressures may provide insights into the genes associated with economically and biologically important traits. To identify genomic regions under selection, we genotyped 488 Duroc (D) pigs and 155 D × Korean native pigs (DKNPs) using the Porcine SNP70K BeadChip. By applying the FST and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH-Rsb) methods, we detected genes under directional selection associated with growth/stature (DOCK7, PLCB4, HS2ST1, FBP2 and TG), carcass and meat quality (TG, COL14A1, FBXO5, NR3C1, SNX7, ARHGAP26 and DPYD), number of teats (LOC100153159 and LRRC1), pigmentation (MME) and ear morphology (SOX5), which are all mostly near or at fixation. These results could be a basis for investigating the underlying mutations associated with observed phenotypic variation. Validation using genome-wide association analysis would also facilitate the inclusion of some of these markers in genetic evaluation programs. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Oligonucleotide Functionalised Microbeads: Indispensable Tools for High-Throughput Aptamer Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis A. Fraser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalisation of microbeads with oligonucleotides has become an indispensable technique for high-throughput aptamer selection in SELEX protocols. In addition to simplifying the separation of binding and non-binding aptamer candidates, microbeads have facilitated the integration of other technologies such as emulsion PCR (ePCR and Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS to high-throughput selection techniques. Within these systems, monoclonal aptamer microbeads can be individually generated and assayed to assess aptamer candidate fitness thereby helping eliminate stochastic effects which are common to classical SELEX techniques. Such techniques have given rise to aptamers with 1000 times greater binding affinities when compared to traditional SELEX. Another emerging technique is Fluorescence Activated Droplet Sorting (FADS whereby selection does not rely on binding capture allowing evolution of a greater diversity of aptamer properties such as fluorescence or enzymatic activity. Within this review we explore examples and applications of oligonucleotide functionalised microbeads in aptamer selection and reflect upon new opportunities arising for aptamer science.

  12. Oligonucleotide Functionalised Microbeads: Indispensable Tools for High-Throughput Aptamer Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lewis A; Kinghorn, Andrew B; Tang, Marco S L; Cheung, Yee-Wai; Lim, Bryce; Liang, Shaolin; Dirkzwager, Roderick M; Tanner, Julian A

    2015-12-01

    The functionalisation of microbeads with oligonucleotides has become an indispensable technique for high-throughput aptamer selection in SELEX protocols. In addition to simplifying the separation of binding and non-binding aptamer candidates, microbeads have facilitated the integration of other technologies such as emulsion PCR (ePCR) and Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) to high-throughput selection techniques. Within these systems, monoclonal aptamer microbeads can be individually generated and assayed to assess aptamer candidate fitness thereby helping eliminate stochastic effects which are common to classical SELEX techniques. Such techniques have given rise to aptamers with 1000 times greater binding affinities when compared to traditional SELEX. Another emerging technique is Fluorescence Activated Droplet Sorting (FADS) whereby selection does not rely on binding capture allowing evolution of a greater diversity of aptamer properties such as fluorescence or enzymatic activity. Within this review we explore examples and applications of oligonucleotide functionalised microbeads in aptamer selection and reflect upon new opportunities arising for aptamer science.

  13. Miniaturizable Ion-Selective Arrays Based on Highly Stable Polymer Membranes for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Mir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylchloride (PVC is the most common polymer matrix used in the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs. However, the surfaces of PVC-based sensors have been reported to show membrane instability. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, here we developed two alternative methods for the preparation of highly stable and robust ion-selective sensors. These platforms are based on the selective electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, where the sulfur atoms contained in the polymer covalently interact with the gold electrode, also permitting controlled selective attachment on a miniaturized electrode in an array format. This platform sensor was improved with the crosslinking of the membrane compounds with poly(ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (PEG, thus also increasing the biocompatibility of the sensor. The resulting ISE membranes showed faster signal stabilization of the sensor response compared with that of the PVC matrix and also better reproducibility and stability, thus making these platforms highly suitable candidates for the manufacture of robust implantable sensors.

  14. Submillimetre observations of WISE-selected high-redshift, luminous AGN and their surrounding overdense environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Suzy F.

    2016-08-01

    We present JCMT SCUBA-2 850 μm submillimetre (submm) observations of 10 mid-infrared (mid-IR) luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky IR survey and 30 that have also been detected by the NVSS/FIRST radio survey. These rare sources are selected by their extremely red mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Further investigations show that they are highly obscured, have abundant warm AGN-heated dust and are thought to be experiencing intense AGN feedback. When comparing the number of submm galaxies detected serendipitously in the surrounding 1.5 arcmin to those in blank-field submm surveys, there is a very significant overdensity, of order 3-5, but no sign of radial clustering centred at our primary objects. The WISE-selected AGN thus reside in 10-Mpc-scale overdense environments that could be forming in pre-viralized clusters of galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be the strongest signposts of high-density regions of active, luminous and dusty galaxies. SCUBA-2 850 μm observations indicate that their submm fluxes are low compared to many popular AGN SED templates, hence the WISE/radio-selected AGNs have either less cold and/or more warm dust emission than normally assumed for typical AGN. Most of the targets have total IR luminosities ≥1013 L⊙, with known redshifts of 20 targets between z ˜ 0.44-4.6.

  15. Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panos G. Datskos; Michael J. Sepaniak; Nickolay Lavrik; Pampa Dutta; Mustafa Culha

    2005-12-28

    The main objective of this research program is to develop robust and reliable micro-electro-mechanical sensing systems, based on microcantilevers (MCs), that can operate in liquid environments with high levels of sensitivity and selectivity. The chemical responses of MCs result from analyte-induced differential stress at the cantilever surfaces. We aim to employ various surface nanostructuring strategies that enhance these stresses and hence the degree of static bending of the cantilevers. Receptor phases as self assembled monolayers (SAMs) and thin films are being synthesized and tested to provide selectivity. Selectivity is chemically enhanced by using different phases on individual MCs in arrays and by adding a spectroscopic component, surface enhanced Raman spectrometry (SERS), in hybrid approaches to sensing. Significant progress was made in tasks that were listed in the work plan for DOE EMSP project ''Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste''. Several project areas are listed below and discussed and referenced to our literature on the topics.

  16. Highly selective Lewis acid sites in desilicated MFI zeolites for dihydroxyacetone isomerization to lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapsens, Pierre Y; Mondelli, Cecilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Desilication of commercial MFI-type (ZSM-5) zeolites in solutions of alkali metal hydroxides is demonstrated to generate highly selective heterogeneous catalysts for the aqueous-phase isomerization of biobased dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid (LA). The best hierarchical ZSM-5 sample attains a LA selectivity exceeding 90 %, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art catalyst (i.e., the Sn-beta zeolite); this optimized hierarchical catalyst is recyclable over three runs. The Lewis acid sites, which are created through desilication along with the introduction of mesoporosity, are shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the desired product; these cannot be achieved by using other post-synthetic methods, such as steaming or impregnation of aluminum species. Desilication of other metallosilicates, such as Ga-MFI, also leads to high LA selectivity. In the presence of a soluble aluminum source, such as aluminum nitrate, alkaline-assisted alumination can introduce these unique Lewis acid centers in all-silica MFI zeolites. These findings highlight the potential of zeolites in the field of biomass-to-chemical conversion, and expand the applicability of desilication for the generation of selective catalytic centers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil over high-silica zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Guan, Guoqing; Rizkiana, Jenny; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Zhang, Zhonglin; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-03-01

    Four high silica zeolites, i.e., HSZ-385, 890, 960, and 990 were utilized for the selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil from Fallopia japonica to certain chemicals in a fixed-bed reactor. The Beta-type HSZ-960 zeolite showed the highest selectivity to hydrocarbons, especially to aromatics as well as PAH compounds with the lowest unwanted chemicals while HSZ-890 showed high selectivity to aromatics. NH3-Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) analysis indicated that different amounts of acid sites in different zeolites determined the catalytic activity for the oxygen removal from bio-oil, in which the acid sites at low temperature (LT) region gave more contribution within the utilized temperature region. The reusability test of HSZ-960 showed the stability of hydrocarbons yield at higher temperature due to the significant contribution of coke gasification which assisted further deoxygenation of bio-oil. These results provide a guidance to select suitable zeolite catalysts for the upgrading of bio-oil in a practical process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High temperature and bacteriophages can indirectly select for bacterial pathogenicity in environmental reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville-Petri Friman

    Full Text Available The coincidental evolution hypothesis predicts that traits connected to bacterial pathogenicity could be indirectly selected outside the host as a correlated response to abiotic environmental conditions or different biotic species interactions. To investigate this, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Serratia marcescens, was cultured in the absence and presence of the lytic bacteriophage PPV (Podoviridae at 25°C and 37°C for four weeks (N = 5. At the end, we measured changes in bacterial phage-resistance and potential virulence traits, and determined the pathogenicity of all bacterial selection lines in the Parasemia plantaginis insect model in vivo. Selection at 37°C increased bacterial motility and pathogenicity but only in the absence of phages. Exposure to phages increased the phage-resistance of bacteria, and this was costly in terms of decreased maximum population size in the absence of phages. However, this small-magnitude growth cost was not greater with bacteria that had evolved in high temperature regime, and no trade-off was found between phage-resistance and growth rate. As a result, phages constrained the evolution of a temperature-mediated increase in bacterial pathogenicity presumably by preferably infecting the highly motile and virulent bacteria. In more general perspective, our results suggest that the traits connected to bacterial pathogenicity could be indirectly selected as a correlated response by abiotic and biotic factors in environmental reservoirs.

  19. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Sugawara, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-01-27

    Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  20. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kawanishi

    Full Text Available Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  1. Biological activities of fusarochromanone: a potent anti-cancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavian, Elahe; Palyok, Phillip; Adelmund, Steven; Williams-Hart, Tara; Furmanski, Brian D; Kim, Yoon-Jee; Gu, Ying; Barzegar, Mansoureh; Wu, Yang; Bhinge, Kaustubh N; Kolluru, Gopi K; Quick, Quincy; Liu, Yong-Yu; Kevil, Christopher G; Salvatore, Brian A; Huang, Shile; Clifford, John L

    2014-09-03

    Fusarochromanone (FC101) is a small molecule fungal metabolite with a host of interesting biological functions, including very potent anti-angiogenic and direct anti-cancer activity. Herein, we report that FC101 exhibits very potent in-vitro growth inhibitory effects (IC50 ranging from 10nM-2.5 μM) against HaCat (pre-malignant skin), P9-WT (malignant skin), MCF-7 (low malignant breast), MDA-231 (malignant breast), SV-HUC (premalignant bladder), UM-UC14 (malignant bladder), and PC3 (malignant prostate) in a time-course and dose-dependent manner, with the UM-UC14 cells being the most sensitive. FC101 induces apoptosis and an increase in proportion of cells in the sub-G1 phase in both HaCat and P9-WT cell lines as evidenced by cell cycle profile analysis. In a mouse xenograft SCC tumor model, FC101 was well tolerated, non-toxic, and achieved a 30% reduction in tumor size at a dose of 8 mg/kg/day. FC101 is also a potent anti-angiogenenic agent. At nanomolar doses, FC101 inhibits the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)-mediated proliferation of endothelial cells. Our data presented here indicates that FC101 is an excellent lead candidate for a small molecule anti-cancer agent that simultaneously affects angiogenesis signaling, cancer signal transduction, and apoptosis. Further understanding of the underlying FC101's molecular mechanism may lead to the design of novel targeted and selective therapeutics, both of which are pursued targets in cancer drug discovery.

  2. Selection Criteria for Combining High Yield and Striga Resistance in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showemimo, FA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten genetically diverse but homozygote sorghum cultivars that are adapted to northern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria were grown in Striga sick-field for two years. Agronomic traits of maturity, Striga resistance traits and actual grain yield were quantitatively heritable. Correlation coefficients computed among these traits revealed that grain yield was positively correlated with plant vigour, stem girth, root weight, shoot weight and plant height, while Striga count was negative and highly significantly correlated (r= -0.86 with grain yield. Correlated response indicated that selecting for bigger stem girth, high root, good plant vigour and shoot weight, and taller plants under Striga infestation will lead to a corresponding increase of 1.1%, 1.4%, 2.7%, 7.8% and 14.9% respectively on grain yield, while a 52.4% reduction in grain yield is observed by selecting Striga encouraging traits.

  3. High-temperature selective solar thermal absorber based on Fabry-Perot resonance cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Liping

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigate the design, fabrication and characterization of a multilayer selective solar absorber made of metallic and dielectric thin films. The investigated selective absorber exhibits theoretical spectral absorptance higher than 95% within solar spectrum and infrared emittance lower than 5%, due to the Fabry-Perot resonance and antireflection effect. In terms of fabrication, different materials are tested under high temperatures in order to obtain the structure with best thermal stability. Structures with different materials are fabricated with sputtering, chemical vapor deposition and electron beam evaporation techniques. The near normal reflectance is characterized with a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer for these structures before and after heat treatment. Meanwhile, Rutherford backscattering Spectroscopy is employed to analyze the diffusion and oxidation conditions during the heating process. Moreover, better material choice and fabrication techniques are considered to construct solar absorber sample with better high temperature thermal stability.

  4. Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyo-Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Taikjin; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Q-Han; Seo, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Molecular recognition and discrimination of carbohydrates are important because carbohydrates perform essential roles in most living organisms for energy metabolism and cell-to-cell communication. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify or distinguish various carbohydrate molecules owing to the lack of a significant distinction in the physical or chemical characteristics. Although there has been considerable effort to develop a sensing platform for individual carbohydrates selectively using chemical receptors or an ensemble array, their detection and discrimination limits have been as high in the millimolar concentration range. Here we show a highly sensitive and selective detection method for the discrimination of carbohydrate molecules using nano-slot-antenna array-based sensing chips which operate in the terahertz frequency range. This THz metamaterial sensing tool recognizes various types of carbohydrate molecules over a wide range of molecular concentrations. Strongly localized and enhanced terahertz t...

  5. Therapeutic Antibodies to Ganglioside GD2 Evolved from Highly Selective Germline Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Sterner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies play a crucial role in host defense and are indispensable research tools, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Antibody generation involves binding of genomically encoded germline antibodies followed by somatic hypermutation and in vivo selection to obtain antibodies with high affinity and selectivity. Understanding this process is critical for developing monoclonal antibodies, designing effective vaccines, and understanding autoantibody formation. Prior studies have found that antibodies to haptens, peptides, and proteins evolve from polyspecific germline antibodies. The immunological evolution of antibodies to mammalian glycans has not been studied. Using glycan microarrays, protein microarrays, cell binding studies, and molecular modeling, we demonstrate that therapeutic antibodies to the tumor-associated ganglioside GD2 evolved from highly specific germline precursors. The results have important implications for developing vaccines and monoclonal antibodies that target carbohydrate antigens. In addition, they demonstrate an alternative pathway for antibody evolution within the immune system that is distinct from the polyspecific germline pathway.

  6. Networked Pd (core) @ polyaniline (shell) composite: Highly electro-catalytic ability and unique selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youyi; Liu, Ning; Sun, Ling; Xu, Hao; Gao, Hong; Lu, Taofeng

    2018-01-01

    A networked composite (Pd@PANI), which is self-assemblied freely from Pd (core) @polyaniline (shell) nanoparticles, has been prepared successfully by a facilely one-step approach. Owing to the conductive environment and acid-doped behavior provided by PANI, the composite exhibits highly catalytic ability in the reaction involving acidic reactants. For instance, in the HCOOH electro-oxidation, 9.16 times of specific activity (comparing with that when using commercial Pd/C catalyst) is observed. Meanwhile, the as-prepared product is unable to catalyze some other systems like the electro-oxidation of C2H5OH, showing novel and unique selectivity. Those would open up new routes for synthesizing high-performance Pd-based catalysts, and could also shed some light on synthesizing new types of selective catalysts.

  7. Highly sensitive and selective liquid crystal optical sensor for detection of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofang; Zhong, Yuanbo; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei; Luo, Dan

    2017-06-12

    Ammonia detection technologies are very important in environment monitoring. However, most existing technologies are complex and expensive, which limit the useful range of real-time application. Here, we propose a highly sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of ammonia (NH3) based on liquid crystals (LCs). This optical sensor is realized through the competitive binding between ammonia and liquid crystals on chitosan-Cu2+ that decorated on glass substrate. We achieve a broad detection range of ammonia from 50 ppm to 1250 ppm, with a low detection limit of 16.6 ppm. This sensor is low-cost, simple, fast, and highly sensitive and selective for detection of ammonia. The proposal LC sensing method can be a sensitive detection platform for other molecule monitors such as proteins, DNAs and other heavy metal ions by modifying sensing molecules.

  8. Further SAR studies of piperidine-based analogues of cocaine. 2. Potent dopamine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiz, A P; Zhang, J; Flippen-Anderson, J L; Zhang, M; Johnson, K M; Deschaux, O; Tella, S; Kozikowski, A P

    2000-03-23

    The synthesis and monoamine transporter activity of additional members of a series of 3,4-disubstituted piperidines (truncated analogues of the WIN series) are described. All members of this series were prepared from arecoline hydrobromide in optically pure form and were evaluated for their ability to inhibit high affinity uptake of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) into rat brain nerve endings (synaptosomes). Most of the compounds prepared in this series are reasonably potent DAT inhibitors (K(i) values of 4-400 nM) and have selectivity for the 5-HT transporter relative to both the NE transporter (3-9-fold) and to the DAT ( approximately 25-fold). In the present series, (-)-methyl 1-methyl-4beta-(2-naphthyl)piperidine-3beta-carboxylate (6) was found to be the most potent piperidine-based ligand, exhibiting K(i)'s of 21 nM and 7.6 nM at the DAT and 5-HTT, respectively. While the 5-HTT activity of compound 6 is comparable to that of the antidepressant medication fluoxetine, it is less selective. As is apparent from the data presented, the naphthyl substituted piperidines 6-9, which differ in their stereochemistry, show different degrees of selectivity for the three transporters. Consistent with results reported in the literature for the tropane analogues, removal of the methyl group from the nitrogen atom of 9 leads to a further enhancement in 5-HTT activity. To examine the in vivo effects of these piperidines, preliminary behavioral screening was carried out on piperidine 14. Despite its 2.5-fold greater DAT activity compared to cocaine, piperidine 14 was found to be about 2. 5-fold less potent in increasing distance traveled in mice. However, consistent with its DAT activity, piperidine 14 was found to be about 2.5-fold more potent than cocaine in enhancing stereotypic movements. Further studies of these piperidine-based ligands may provide valuable insights into the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the enhancement in distance traveled

  9. Thermal-hydraulic code selection for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Bogaard, J.P.A. van den

    1995-06-01

    In order to study the transient thermal-hydraulic system behaviour of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors, the thermal-hydraulic computer codes RELAP5, MELCOR, THATCH, MORECA, and VSOP are considered at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN. This report presents the selection of the most appropriate codes. To cover the range of relevant accidents, a suite of three codes is recommended for analyses of HTR-M and MHTGR reactors. (orig.).

  10. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High strain-rate compressive behavior and constitutive modeling of selected polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama T; Nakai K

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with constitutive modeling of the compressive stress-strain behavior of selected polymers at strain rates from 10−3 to 103/s using a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation. High strain-rate compressive stress-strain curves for four different commercially available extruded polymers are determined on the standard split Hopkinson pressure bar. The low and intermediate strain-rates compressive stress-strain relations are measured in an Instron testing machine. The five paramete...

  12. Highly efficient cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymers for solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons with molecular oxygen has been of great interest in catalysis, and the development of highly efficient catalysts for this process is a crucial challenge. A new kind of heterogeneous catalyst, cobalt-doped carbon nitride polymer (g-C3N4, was harnessed for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and high resolution transmission electron microscope revealed that Co species were highly dispersed in g-C3N4 matrix and the characteristic structure of polymeric g-C3N4 can be retained after Co-doping, although Co-doping caused the incomplete polymerization to some extent. Ultraviolet–visible, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further proved the successful Co doping in g-C3N4 matrix as the form of Co(IIN bonds. For the selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Co-doping can markedly promote the catalytic performance of g-C3N4 catalyst due to the synergistic effect of Co species and g-C3N4 hybrid. Furthermore, the content of Co largely affected the activity of Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts, among which the catalyst with 9.0 wt% Co content exhibited the highest yield (9.0% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol, as well as a high stability. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism over Co-doped g-C3N4 catalysts was elaborated. Keywords: Selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Oxygen oxidant, Carbon nitride, Co-doping

  13. Selective screening of 650 high risk Iranian patients for detection of inborn error of metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Pishva; Alie Mirzaee; Zohre Karamizade; Shahnaz Pourarian; Fariba Hemmati; Mostajab Razvi; Forough Saki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although metabolic diseases individually are rare ,but overall have an incidence of 1/2000 and can cause devastating and irreversible effect if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. selective screening is an acceptable method for detection of these multi presentation diseases. Method: using panel neonatal screening for detection of metabolic diseases in 650 high risk Iranian patients in Fars province. The following clinical features were used as inclusion criteria for inv...

  14. Ultrasensitive and highly selective detection of Cu2 + ions based on a new carbazole-Schiff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Bing, Qijing; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guang

    2018-01-01

    A new chemosensor for Cu2 + based on Schiff base with high sensitivity and selectivity was designed and synthesized. The fluorescence intensity of the chemosensor in CH3CN solution was enhanced 160-fold after the addition of 10 equiv. Cu2 + over other metal ions. In addition, it also facilitates colorimetric detection for Cu2 + in CH3CN solution. The chemosensor displayed low detection limit and fast response time to Cu2 +.

  15. Highly selective and active niobia-supported cobalt catalysts for fischer-tropsch synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Otter, Jan H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337238774; De Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    The performance of Co/Nb2O5 was compared to that of Co/γ-Al2O3 for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at 20 bar and over the temperature range of 220-260°C. The C5+ selectivity of Nb2O5-supported cobalt catalysts was found to be very high, i.e. up to 90 wt% C5+ at 220°C. The activity per unit weight

  16. High temperature size selective membranes. Final report, September 1992--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Availability of a high temperature size selective membrane capable of separating hydrogen from carbon dioxide and other gases is seen as highly desirable from an economic perspective. Preparation of such a membrane is technically very difficult due to the limitations that the high temperature places on materials selection. We have prepared high temperature membranes as thin film composites of a porous Blackglas{trademark} support and a carbon molecular sieve selective film. Porous Blackglail{trademark} supports have been prepared by pyrolysis of a formed mixture of Blackglas{trademark} B-staged precursor and short Carbon fibers. Such supports have the necessary smoothness for use as a membrane support, good mechanical properties, and an appropriate pore size distribution. These supports can be made either in flat sheet form or in a tubular configuration. A carbon molecular sieve layer can be added to the support by repeated coating/pyrolysis with a dilute solution of precursor polymer. The preferred precursors are polyimide or polyamic acid. Crack formation is observed after the first pyrolyses, but these cracks are repaired during later pyrolyses. The final membrane thickness is only 2.5 {mu}m. The permeation flux of the membrane for hydrogen ranges from 8.1 x 10{sup -5} at room temperature to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 3} (STP) cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} cmHg{sup -1} at 717{degrees}C, and the selectivity for hydrogen over nitrogen from 2.8 to 3.8, and a selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide of 2.4. This selectivity is close to the Knudsen diffusion limit. In a companion study, unsupported carbon molecular sieve films were also prepared under pyrolysis conditions similar to those used for the supported film. Hydrogen adsorption porosimetry at 19.7{degrees}K was used to show that, under appropriate activation or pyrolysis conditions, such films can be prepared which adsorb hydrogen to a much greater extent than carbon dioxide.

  17. Toward high-throughput phenotyping: unbiased automated feature extraction and selection from knowledge sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng; Liao, Katherine P; Shaw, Stanley Y; Gainer, Vivian S; Churchill, Susanne E; Szolovits, Peter; Murphy, Shawn N; Kohane, Isaac S; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of narrative (text) data from electronic health records (EHRs) can improve population-scale phenotyping for clinical and genetic research. Currently, selection of text features for phenotyping algorithms is slow and laborious, requiring extensive and iterative involvement by domain experts. This paper introduces a method to develop phenotyping algorithms in an unbiased manner by automatically extracting and selecting informative features, which can be comparable to expert-curated ones in classification accuracy. Comprehensive medical concepts were collected from publicly available knowledge sources in an automated, unbiased fashion. Natural language processing (NLP) revealed the occurrence patterns of these concepts in EHR narrative notes, which enabled selection of informative features for phenotype classification. When combined with additional codified features, a penalized logistic regression model was trained to classify the target phenotype. The authors applied our method to develop algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis and coronary artery disease cases among those with rheumatoid arthritis from a large multi-institutional EHR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for classifying RA and CAD using models trained with automated features were 0.951 and 0.929, respectively, compared to the AUCs of 0.938 and 0.929 by models trained with expert-curated features. Models trained with NLP text features selected through an unbiased, automated procedure achieved comparable or slightly higher accuracy than those trained with expert-curated features. The majority of the selected model features were interpretable. The proposed automated feature extraction method, generating highly accurate phenotyping algorithms with improved efficiency, is a significant step toward high-throughput phenotyping. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All

  18. Selection of High Performance Alloy for Gas Turbine Blade Using Multiphysics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Khawaja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive increase in the utilization of energy resources in the modern era, the need of energy extraction from various resources has pronounced in recent years. Thus comprehensive efforts have been made around the globe in the technological development of turbo machines where means of energy extraction is energized fluids. This development led the aviation industry to power boost due to better performing engines. Meanwhile, the structural conformability requirements relative to the functional requirements have also increased with the advent of newer, better performing materials. Thus there is a need to study the material behavior and its usage with the idea of selecting the best possible material for its application. In this work a gas turbine blade of a small turbofan engine, where geometry and aerodynamic data was available, was analyzed for its structural behavior in the proposed mission envelope, where the engine turbine is subjected to high thermal, inertial and aerodynamic loads. Multiphysics Finite Element (FE linear stress analysis was carried out on the turbine blade. The results revealed the upper limit of Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS for the blade. Based on the limiting factor, high performance alloys were selected from the literature. The two most recommended alloy categories for gas turbine blades are NIMONIC and INCONEL from where total of 21 types of INCONEL alloys and 12 of NIMONIC alloys, available on commercial bases, were analyzed individually to meet the structural requirements. After applying