WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly populated bunches

  1. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity (ζ = ΔQ/(Δp/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  2. Velocity bunching of high-brightness electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Velocity bunching has been recently proposed as a tool for compressing electron beam pulses in modern high brightness photoinjector sources. This tool is familiar from earlier schemes implemented for bunching dc electron sources, but presents peculiar challenges when applied to high current, low emittance beams from photoinjectors. The main difficulty foreseen is control of emittance oscillations in the beam in this scheme, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process at moderate energies. This paper presents two scenarios in which velocity bunching, combined with emittance control, is to play a role in nascent projects. The first is termed ballistic bunching, where the changing of relative particle velocities and positions occur in distinct regions, a short high gradient linac, and a drift length. This scenario is discussed in the context of the proposed ORION photoinjector. Simulations are used to explore the relationship between the degree of bunching, and the emittance compensation process. Experimental measurements performed at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory of the surprisingly robust bunching process, as well as accompanying deleterious transverse effects, are presented. An unanticipated mechanism for emittance growth in bends for highly momentum chirped beam was identified and studied in these experiments. The second scenario may be designated as phase space rotation, and corresponds closely to the recent proposal of Ferrario and Serafini. Its implementation for the compression of the electron beam pulse length in the PLEIADES inverse Compton scattering (ICS experiment at LLNL is discussed. It is shown in simulations that optimum compression may be obtained by manipulation of the phases in low gradient traveling wave accelerator sections. Measurements of the bunching and emittance control achieved in such an implementation at PLEIADES, as well as aspects of the use of velocity-bunched beam directly

  3. Arbitrarily shaped high-coherence electron bunches from cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, A. J.; Sheludko, D. V.; Saliba, S. D.; Bell, S. C.; Junker, M.; Nugent, K. A.; Scholten, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    Ultrafast electron diffractive imaging of nanoscale objects such as biological molecules and defects in solid-state devices provides crucial information on structure and dynamic processes: for example, determination of the form and function of membrane proteins, vital for many key goals in modern biological science, including rational drug design. High brightness and high coherence are required to achieve the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, but have been limited by the thermal nature of conventional electron sources and by divergence due to repulsive interactions between the electrons, known as the Coulomb explosion. It has been shown that, if the electrons are shaped into ellipsoidal bunches with uniform density, the Coulomb explosion can be reversed using conventional optics, to deliver the maximum possible brightness at the target. Here we demonstrate arbitrary and real-time control of the shape of cold electron bunches extracted from laser-cooled atoms. The ability to dynamically shape the electron source itself and to observe this shape in the propagated electron bunch provides a remarkable experimental demonstration of the intrinsically high spatial coherence of a cold-atom electron source, and the potential for alleviation of electron-source brightness limitations due to Coulomb explosion.

  4. Coherent spontaneous radiation from highly bunched electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    Coherent spontaneous radiation has now been observed in several FELs, and is a subject of great importance to the design of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. We report observations of coherent spontaneous radiation in both FIREFLY and the mid-infrared FEL at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. Coherent emission has been observed at wavelengths as short as 5 microns, and enhancement over incoherent levels by as much as a factor of 4x10 4 has been observed at longer wavelengths. The latter behavior was observed at 45 microns in FIREFLY with short bunches produced by off-peak acceleration and dispersive compression. We present temporal measurements of the highly bunched electron distributions responsible for the large enhancements, using both transition radiation and energy-phase techniques

  5. High-Precision Phenotyping of Grape Bunch Architecture Using Fast 3D Sensor and Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rist

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine growers prefer cultivars with looser bunch architecture because of the decreased risk for bunch rot. As a consequence, grapevine breeders have to select seedlings and new cultivars with regard to appropriate bunch traits. Bunch architecture is a mosaic of different single traits which makes phenotyping labor-intensive and time-consuming. In the present study, a fast and high-precision phenotyping pipeline was developed. The optical sensor Artec Spider 3D scanner (Artec 3D, L-1466, Luxembourg was used to generate dense 3D point clouds of grapevine bunches under lab conditions and an automated analysis software called 3D-Bunch-Tool was developed to extract different single 3D bunch traits, i.e., the number of berries, berry diameter, single berry volume, total volume of berries, convex hull volume of grapes, bunch width and bunch length. The method was validated on whole bunches of different grapevine cultivars and phenotypic variable breeding material. Reliable phenotypic data were obtained which show high significant correlations (up to r2 = 0.95 for berry number compared to ground truth data. Moreover, it was shown that the Artec Spider can be used directly in the field where achieved data show comparable precision with regard to the lab application. This non-invasive and non-contact field application facilitates the first high-precision phenotyping pipeline based on 3D bunch traits in large plant sets.

  6. High-Precision Phenotyping of Grape Bunch Architecture Using Fast 3D Sensor and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Florian; Herzog, Katja; Mack, Jenny; Richter, Robert; Steinhage, Volker; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2018-03-02

    Wine growers prefer cultivars with looser bunch architecture because of the decreased risk for bunch rot. As a consequence, grapevine breeders have to select seedlings and new cultivars with regard to appropriate bunch traits. Bunch architecture is a mosaic of different single traits which makes phenotyping labor-intensive and time-consuming. In the present study, a fast and high-precision phenotyping pipeline was developed. The optical sensor Artec Spider 3D scanner (Artec 3D, L-1466, Luxembourg) was used to generate dense 3D point clouds of grapevine bunches under lab conditions and an automated analysis software called 3D-Bunch-Tool was developed to extract different single 3D bunch traits, i.e., the number of berries, berry diameter, single berry volume, total volume of berries, convex hull volume of grapes, bunch width and bunch length. The method was validated on whole bunches of different grapevine cultivars and phenotypic variable breeding material. Reliable phenotypic data were obtained which show high significant correlations (up to r² = 0.95 for berry number) compared to ground truth data. Moreover, it was shown that the Artec Spider can be used directly in the field where achieved data show comparable precision with regard to the lab application. This non-invasive and non-contact field application facilitates the first high-precision phenotyping pipeline based on 3D bunch traits in large plant sets.

  7. Short bunch length detector for ion beam with high bunch density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron, A.M.; Shako, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The secondary electron rf monitors for short ion bunch phase distribution measurements are presented. Construction particularities of the monitors, influence of space charge of both the primary and the secondary electron beams on the phase resolution, thermal regime of the target during beam-target interaction are considered

  8. A modified space charge routine for high intensity bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.; Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 a space charge calculation for bunched beam with a three-dimensional ellipsoid was proposed, replacing the usual SCHEFF routines. It removes the cylindrical symmetry required in SCHEFF and avoids the point to point interaction computation, whose number of simulation points is limited. This routine has now been improved with the introduction of two or three ellipsoids giving a good representation of the complex non-symmetrical form of the bunch (unlike the 3-d ellipsoidal assumption). The ellipsoidal density distributions are computed with a new method, avoiding the difficulty encountered near the centre (the axis in 2-d problems) by the previous method. It also provides a check of the ellipsoidal symmetry for each part of the distribution. Finally, the Fourier analysis reported in 1991 has been replaced by a very convenient Hermite expansion, which gives a simple but accurate representation of practical distributions. Comparisons with other space charge routines have been made, particularly with the ones applying other techniques such as SCHEFF. Introduced in the versatile beam dynamics code DYNAC, it should provide a good tool for the study of the various parameters responsible for the halo formation in high intensity linacs. (orig.)

  9. Acceleration of a high-current single bunch in a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seishi

    1984-01-01

    Some problems associated with the feasibility of an electron-positron linear collider with colliding energy of about 1x1 TeV are discussed. The first problem is related to the generation of high-current single bunch. A quasi-relativistic electron beam from an electron gun is injected into one bucket of the accelerating fields, in opposition to the longitudinal defocusing due to the space-charge effect. For generating a high-current single bunch, the beam bunching by means of the velocity modulation with a subharmonic prebuncher (SHPB) is indispensable. Three existing second generation single bunch electron linear accelerators (SLC, ANL and ISLR-Osaka Univ.) are briefly described. The results of the simulation of subharmonic-bunching is also reported. The second problem is associated with the physics of accelerating high-current single bunch. The longitudinal and transverse wake fields generated by a bunch-cavity interaction and the energy spread of the single bunch are analyzed and discussed. (Aoki, K.)

  10. A high resolution, single bunch, beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient linear colliders require very small beam spots to produce high luminosities with reasonable input power, which limits the number of electrons which can be accelerated to high energies. The small beams, in turn, require high precision and stability in all accelerator components. Producing, monitoring and maintaining beams of the required quality has been, and will continue to be, difficult. A beam monitoring system which could be used to measure beam profile, size and stability at the final focus of a beamline or collider has been developed and is described here. The system uses nonimaging bremsstrahlung optics. The immediate use for this system would be examining the final focus spot at the SLAC/FFTB. The primary alternatives to this technique are those proposed by P. Chen / J. Buon, which analyses the energy and angular distributions of ion recoils to determine the aspect ratio of the electron bunch, and a method proposed by Shintake, which measures intensity variation of compton backscattered photons as the beam is moved across a pattern of standing waves produced by a laser

  11. High-intensity coherent FIR radiation from sub-picosecond electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, P.H.; Lihn, Hung-chi; Wiedemann, H.; Bocek, D.

    1994-01-01

    A facility to generate high-intensity, ultra-short pulses of broad-band far-infrared radiation has been assembled and tested at Stanford. The device uses sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches to generate coherent radiation through transition or synchrotron radiation in the far-infrared (FIR) regime between millimeter waves and wavelengths of about 100 μm and less. Experimental results show a peak radiation power of greater than 0.33 MW within a micro-bunch and an average FIR radiation power of 4 mW. The average bunch length of 2856 micro-bunches within a 1 μsec macro-pulse is estimated to be about 480 sec. Simulations experimental setup and results will be discussed

  12. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  13. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  14. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity ({zeta} = {delta}Q/({delta}p/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  15. Pickup design for high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors in free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Penirschke, Andreas; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik; Kuhl, Alexander; Schnepp, Sascha [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Graduate School of Computational Engineering; Bock, Marie Kristin; Bousonville, Michael; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2012-07-01

    The increased demands for low bunch charge operation mode in the free-electron lasers (FELs) require an upgrade of the existing synchronization equipment. As a part of the laser-based synchronization system, the bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) should have a sub-10 femtosecond precision for high and low bunch charge operation. In order to fulfill the resolution demands for both modes of operation, the bandwidth of such a BAM should be increased up to a cutoff frequency of 40 GHz. In this talk, we present the design and the realization of high bandwidth cone-shaped pickup electrodes as a part of the BAM for the FEL in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). The proposed pickup was simulated with CST STUDIO SUITE, and a non-hermetic model was built up for radio frequency (rf) measurements.

  16. Agronomic Evaluation of Bunching Onion in the Colombian Cundiboyacense High Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. Galeano Mendoza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L. is a strategic crop for Colombia due to its economic relevance within fresh and processed food markets, and therefore, there is a demand for high yielding genotypes adapted to specific regions. For this reason, after carrying out a clonal selection process including 62 genotypes, ten of these, including a regional control, were evaluated for six different traits in Boyacá (Colombia during 2012 and 2013. These traits were grouped into agronomic, yield, and processing categories. In general, these showed significant differences (p≤0.01 for genotypes, location, and genotypes × location interaction. Compared with the regional control and based on the multienvironmental analysis the genotypes Clone 30 and Clone 38 were the most promising new cultivars identified in this study. These two clones showed comparative advantages on earliness and yield, and they moreover showed some level of resistance to downy mildew and root rot, the most limiting diseases for Boyacá’s bunch onion farmers. Therefore, Clone 30 and Clone 38 were registered as new bunching onion cultivars for the Cundiboyacense High Plateau region under the names Corpoica Aquitania-1 and Corpoica Tota-1, respectively. Finally, further approaches and initiatives on bunching onion breeding are discussed.

  17. Simulations of Bunch Precompression at High Currents in the SLC Damping Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Minty, M.G.; Chao, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) each beam, after leaving a damping ring, is compressed in the Ring-to-Linac (RTL) transfer line before entering the linear accelerator. At a bunch population of 4.0 x 10 10 particles, due to the limited energy acceptance of the RTL, approximately 15% of the beam has normally been lost. During the 1996 run, however, to eliminate this loss the bunch was partially precompressed in the damping ring, just before extraction; the beam loss in the RTL was reduced to almost zero. The operation and performance of precompression are presented by Minty et al. (1999). Also given is an analysis which, however, does not include the effects of the longitudinal wakefield on the beam dynamics. In this report we extend that analysis to include these effects.

  18. Controlling nonlinear longitudinal space charge oscillations for high peak current bunch train generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Musumeci

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of picosecond modulations of the longitudinal profile of an electron beam generated in an rf photoinjector is analyzed and optimized with the goal of obtaining high peak current electron bunch trains at very high frequencies (≥THz. Taking advantage of nonlinear longitudinal space charge forces, it is found that more than 500 A peak current 1 THz bunch trains can be generated using a standard 1.6 cell SLAC/UCLA/BNL rf gun. Postacceleration is used to freeze the longitudinal phase space dynamics after one half plasma oscillation. Applications range from tunable narrow bandwidth THz radiation generation to drivers for high frequency high gradient accelerators.

  19. Experimental study on the production of high density electron bunches from a GaAs photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.; Masoli, F.; Gong, J.M.; Guidi, V.; Tecchio, L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a high charge, low emittance electron source, useful for FEL electron injector and for e + e - collider experiments, we performed a test experiment on a gallium arsenide photocathode, activated by negative electron affinity technique and illuminated with a 10 ns long laser pulse of 532 nm wavelength. We measured a maximum charge delivered, at relatively low potentials, of about 18 nC/bunch. The mean lifetime is greater than 60 h. (orig.)

  20. Nonlinear Delta-f Particle Simulations of Collective Effects in High-Intensity Bunched Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Hong; Hudson, Stuart R; Startsev, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The collective effects in high-intensity 3D bunched beams are described self-consistently by the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations.* The nonlinear delta-f method,** a particle simulation method for solving the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations, is being used to study the collective effects in high-intensity 3D bunched beams. The delta-f method, as a nonlinear perturbative scheme, splits the distribution function into equilibrium and perturbed parts. The perturbed distribution function is represented as a weighted summation over discrete particles, where the particle orbits are advanced by equations of motion in the focusing field and self-consistent fields, and the particle weights are advanced by the coupling between the perturbed fields and the zero-order distribution function. The nonlinear delta-f method exhibits minimal noise and accuracy problems in comparison with standard particle-in-cell simulations. A self-consistent 3D kinetic equilibrium is first established for high intensity bunched beams. The...

  1. Production of high intensity electron bunches for the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    This thesis describes the design and performance of a high intensity electron injecfor for the SLAC Linear Collider. Motivation for the collider and the specifications for the injector are discussed. An analytic theory of the bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields is discussed in the limit of low space charge and small signal. The design and performance of SLAC's main injector are described to illustrate a successful application of this theory. The bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields are then discussed in the limit of high space charge and large signal, and a description of the design of the collider injector follows. In the limit of high space charge forces and large rf signals, the beam dynamics are considerably more complex and numerical simulations are required to predict particle motion. A computer code which models the longitudinal dynamics of electrons in the presence of space charge and rf fields is described. The results of the simulations, the resulting collider injector design and the various components which make up the collider injector are described. These include the gun, subharmonic bunchers, traveling-wave buncher and velocity-of-light accelerator section. Finally, the performance of the injector is described including the beam intensity, bunch length, transverse emittance and energy spectrum. While the final operating conditions differ somewaht from the design, the performance of the collider injector is in good agreement with the numerical simulations and meets all of the collider specifications. 28 refs

  2. Demonstration of cathode emittance dominated high bunch charge beams in a DC gun-based photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliford, Colwyn, E-mail: cg248@cornell.edu; Bartnik, Adam, E-mail: acb20@cornell.edu; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca [CLASSE, Cornell University, 161 Synchrotron Drive Ithaca, New York 14853-8001 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (≥100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittances measured at 9–9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs and Free Electron Lasers.

  3. Analysis of the high frequency longitudinal instability of bunched beams using a computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmid, E.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of high frequency longitudinal forces on bunched beams are investigated using a computer model. These forces are thought to arise from the transfer of energy between the beam and various structures in the vacuum chamber, this coupling being characterized by a longitudinal impedance function. The simulation is performed with a passive cavity-like element. It is found that the instability can be generated if three conditions are fulfilled: (1) the impedance must be sufficiently large, (2) the induced field must have a fast wake, and (3) the frequency of the induced field must be high enough. In particular, it is shown that the coasting beam threshold criterion for the longitudinal impedance accurately describes the onset of instability, if local values along the bunch of energy spread and current are used. It is also found that the very fast initial growth rate is in good agreement with linear theory and that the coasting beam overshoot expression may be used as a rough guide of the limiting growth for unstable bunches. Concerning the wake field, it is shown how the instability tends to disappear as the fields persist longer. It is furthermore demonstrated that as the wavelength of the unstable mode is increased, initially unstable conditions begin to weaken and vanish. This, it should be emphasized, is primarily a result of the strong correlation between the unstable mode frequency and the time rate of attenuation of the induced fields. ISR parameters are used throughout and a correspondence between the microwave instability observed in the ISR bunches and the simulated instability is suggested. (Auth.)

  4. Focusing and transport of high-intensity multi-MeV proton bunches from a compact laser-driven source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Busold

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser ion acceleration provides for compact, high-intensity ion sources in the multi-MeV range. Using a pulsed high-field solenoid, for the first time high-intensity laser-accelerated proton bunches could be selected from the continuous exponential spectrum and delivered to large distances, containing more than 10^{9} particles in a narrow energy interval around a central energy of 9.4 MeV and showing ≤30  mrad envelope divergence. The bunches of only a few nanoseconds bunch duration were characterized 2.2 m behind the laser-plasma source with respect to arrival time, energy width, and intensity as well as spatial and temporal bunch profile.

  5. Focusing and transport of high-intensity multi-MeV proton bunches from a compact laser-driven source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Frydrych, S.; Kroll, F.; Joost, M.; Al-Omari, H.; Blažević, A.; Zielbauer, B.; Hofmann, I.; Bagnoud, V.; Cowan, T. E.; Roth, M.

    2013-10-01

    Laser ion acceleration provides for compact, high-intensity ion sources in the multi-MeV range. Using a pulsed high-field solenoid, for the first time high-intensity laser-accelerated proton bunches could be selected from the continuous exponential spectrum and delivered to large distances, containing more than 109 particles in a narrow energy interval around a central energy of 9.4 MeV and showing ≤30mrad envelope divergence. The bunches of only a few nanoseconds bunch duration were characterized 2.2 m behind the laser-plasma source with respect to arrival time, energy width, and intensity as well as spatial and temporal bunch profile.

  6. Design Studies for a High Current Bunching System for CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Thiery, Y.; Le Duff, J.

    2000-01-01

    A bunching system is proposed for the initial stage of CTF3 which consists of one (two) 3 GHz prebunchers and one 3 GHz travelling wave (TW) buncher with variable phase velocities. The electron beam is emitted from a 140 KV DC gun. Since the macropulse beam current (3.5 A) at the exit of the TW buncher is rather high, inside the TW buncher one has to take the beam loading effect into consideration. By using PARMELA, it is shown numerically that the bunching system can provide the bunches whose properties satisfy the design requirement of CTF3. The 0.8 m long TW buncher working at 2pi/3 mode has two phase velocities, 0.75 and 1. The dimensions of the caities in the two phase velocity regions are proposed considering the beam loading effect. The transient beam loading effect and the multibunch transverse instabilities are studied numerically, and it is concluded that higher order mode couplers should be installed in the TW buncher with the loaded quality factor of the dipole mode lower than 80.

  7. Development of bunch shape monitor for high-intensity beam on the China ADS proton LINAC Injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyu; Wu, Junxia; Du, Ze; Zhang, Yong; Xue, Zongheng; Xie, Hongming; Wei, Yuan; Jing, Long; Jia, Huan

    2018-05-01

    The development, performance, and testing of the longitudinal bunch shape monitor, namely, the Fast Faraday Cup (FFC), are presented in this paper. The FFC is an invasive instrument controlled by a stepper motor, and its principle of operation is based on a strip line structure. The longitudinal bunch shape was determined by sampling a small part of the beam hitting the strip line through a 1-mm hole. The rise time of the detector reached 24 ps. To accommodate experiments that utilize high-intensity beams, the materials of the bunch shape monitor were chosen to sustain high temperatures. Water cooling was also integrated in the detector system to enhance heat transfer and prevent thermal damage. We also present an analysis of the heating caused by the beam. The bunch shape monitor has been installed and commissioned at the China ADS proton LINAC Injector II.

  8. Design of high current bunching system and high power fast Faraday cup for high current LEBT at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuraag Misra, A.; Pandit, B.V.S.; Gautam Pal, C.

    2011-01-01

    A high current microwave ion source as described is currently operational at VECC. We are able to optimize 6.4 mA of proton current in the LEBT line of ion source. The cyclotron type of accelerators accept only a fraction of DC ion beam coming from ion source so a ion beam buncher is needed to increase the accepted current into the cyclotron. The buncher described in this paper is unique in its kind as it has to handle high beam loading power upto 400 W as it is designed to bunch few mA of proton beam currents at 80 keV beam energy. A sinusoidal quarter wave RF structure has been chosen to bunch the high current beam due to high Q achievable in comparison with other configurations. This buncher has been designed using CST Microwave studio 3D advanced code since the design frequency of our buncher is 42 MHz, we have provided the RF and vacuum window near the drift tube of buncher to avoid vacuum and multipacting problems and to keep maximum volume in air region. There is a provision of multipacting interlocks to shut off amplifier during multipacting. We have carried out a detailed electromagnetic and thermal design of the buncher in CST Microwave studio and simulated values of unloaded Q was calculated be 4000. We have estimated a power of 400 W to achieve gap (designed) voltage of 10 kV. This buncher is in advanced stage of fabrication. A high power fast Faraday cup is also designed to characterize the above mentioned high current bunching system. The fast Faraday cup is designed in 50 Ω coaxial geometry to transmit fast pulse of bunched ion beam. The design of Faraday cup was completed using ANSYS HFSS and a bandwidth of 1.75 GHz was achieved this faraday cup design was different from conventional Faraday cup design as we have designed the support and cooling lines at such a place on Faraday cup which do not disturb the electrical impedance of the cup. (author)

  9. Space Charge Mitigation by Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, AO

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider), the LHC injector chain will need to supply a higher brightness, i.e. deliver the same transverse beam emittances \\epsilon_{x,y} while providing a higher intensity N. However, a larger number of particles per bunch enhances space charge effects. One approach to mitigate the impact of space charge is to change the longitudinal phase space distribution: hollow bunches feature a depleted bunch centre and a densely populated periphery. Thus, the spatial line density maximum is depressed which ultimately decreases the tune spread imposed by space charge. Therefore, a higher intensity can be accepted while keeping the same overall space charge tune shift. 3 different methods to create hollow bunches in the PSBooster are simulated.

  10. Selective component degradation of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) using high-pressure steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi; Kim, Dong Hee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito; Nishida, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    In order to accelerate the bioconversion process of press-shredded empty fruit bunches (EFB), the effect of high-pressure steam pre-treatment (HPST) in degrading the lignocellulosic structure was investigated. HPST was carried out under various sets of temperature/pressure conditions such as 170/0.82, 190/1.32, 210/2.03, and 230 °C/3.00 MPa. It was noted that after HPST, the surface texture, color, and mechanical properties of the treated EFB had obviously altered. Scanning electron micrographs of the treated EFB exhibited effective surface erosion that had occurred along the structure. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analyses showed the removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredients. X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity. These results reveal that HPST is an effective pre-treatment method for altering the physicochemical properties of the EFB and enhancing its biodegradability characteristics for the bioconversion process. -- Highlights: ► Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was accelerated by high-pressure steam pre-treatment. ► Scanning electron micrographs exhibited surface erosion as well as composting over 20 days. ► FT-IR and TG data showed the selective removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredient. ► X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity

  11. Test of a non-invasive bunch shape monitor at the GSI high current LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, Benjamin; Forck, Peter; Kester, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Dorn, Christoph; Kowina, Piotr [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    At the heavy ion LINAC at GSI, a novel scheme of non-invasive Bunch Shape Monitor has been tested with several ion beams at 11.4 MeV/u. Caused by the beam impact on the residual gas, secondary electrons are liberated. These electrons are accelerated by an electrostatic field, transported through a sophisticated electrostatic energy analyzer and an rf-deflector, acting as a time-to-space converter. Finally a MCP detects the electron distribution. For the applied beam settings this Bunch Shape Monitor is able to obtain longitudinal profiles down to 400 ps with a resolution of 50 ps, corresponding to 2 degree of the 36 MHz acceleration frequency. During a long shutdown period for the GSI accelerators in 2013, the monitor underwent a general technical retrofit: Influence of the beam has been significantly reduced, due enhanced electrodes, new apertures have been installed to decrease electron scattering, sophisticated stepping motors will allow better image properties, a MCP shielding plate will prevent high background. Together with these improvements the achievements of the monitor are discussed.

  12. A high efficiency bunching system for the TUNL polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wender, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of producing pulsed beams without large beam current losses has been the topic of recent interest particularly in areas where large peak currents are required. In addition, an efficient bunching system will allow the use of pulsed beams when source intensities are limited. The motivation for the development of the authors' high efficiency bunching system arose from their strong interest in neutron physics and the desire to extend their research with experiments requiring polarized neutrons. A common method for the production of polarized neutrons is to bombard a deuterium gas cell with a polarized deuteron beam. The D(→d,n) 3 He reaction has a large cross section and the outgoing neutron has a polarization of approximately 60 % in the energy range between 6 MeV to 16 Mev. Most experiments which involve the detection of neutrons use time-of-flight techniques to determine the neutron energy. An excellent way of providing time-of-flight information is to use pulsed beams. To be useful for time of flight experiments beam pulses must be on the order of a few nanoseconds wide. In addition there must be sufficient time between beam bursts to allow the reaction neutrons to travel from the target to the detector before the next beam burst arrives at the target. For reactions studied at the authors' laboratory, with their flight paths, this time is on the order of 400 ns

  13. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-04-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose.

  14. High Charge PHIN Photo Injector at CERN with Fast Phase switching within the Bunch Train for Beam Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Csatari Divall, M; Bolzon, B; Bravin, E; Chevallay, E; Dabrowski, A; Doebert, S; Drozdy, A; Fedosseev, V; Hessler, C; Lefevre, T; Livesley, S; Losito, R; Olvegaard, M; Petrarca, M; Rabiller, A N; Egger, D; Mete, O

    2011-01-01

    The high charge PHIN photo-injector was developed within the framework of the European CARE program to provide an alternative to the drive beam thermionic gun in the CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility) at CERN. In PHIN 1908 electron bunches are delivered with bunch spacing of 1.5 GHz and 2.33 nC charge per bunch. Furthermore the drive beam generated by CTF3 requires several fast 180 deg phase-shifts with respect to the 1.5 GHz bunch repetition frequency in order to allow the beam combination scheme developed at CTF3. A total of 8 subtrains, each 140 ns long and shifted in phase with respect to each other, have to be produced with very high phase and amplitude stability. A novel fiber modulator based phase-switching technique developed on the laser system provides this phase-shift between two consecutive pulses much faster and cleaner than the base line scheme, where a thermionic electron gun and sub-harmonic bunching are used. The paper describes the fiber-based switching system and the measurements verifying the schem...

  15. Bunch by bunch feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiyama, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Outlines of bunch-by-bunch feedback systems for suppressing multibunch instabilities in electron/positron storage rings are presented. The design principles and functions of the feedback components are reviewed. Recent topics of applying very fast and dense FPGA as feedback signal processor are also shown. (author)

  16. A longitudinal bunch monitoring system using LabVIEW reg-sign and high-speed oscilloscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, E.L.

    1994-10-01

    A new longitudinal bunch monitoring system has been installed at Fermilab for the Tevatron and Main Ring. For each machine, a signal from a broadband wall current monitor is sampled and digitized by a high-speed oscilloscope. A Macintosh computer, running LabVIEW-based software, controls the scopes and CAMAC timing modules and analyzes the acquired data. The resulting bunch parameters are used for a variety of purposes, including Tevatron collider luminosity calculation and injection analysis. This paper examines the system in detail

  17. Production of high-quality electron bunches by dephasing and beam loading in channeled and unchanneled laser plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Tilborg, J. van; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Nieter, C.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    High-quality electron beams, with a few 10 9 electrons within a few percent of the same energy above 80 MeV, were produced in a laser wakefield accelerator by matching the acceleration length to the length over which electrons were accelerated and outran (dephased from) the wake. A plasma channel guided the drive laser over long distances, resulting in production of the high-energy, high-quality beams. Unchanneled experiments varying the length of the target plasma indicated that the high-quality bunches are produced near the dephasing length and demonstrated that channel guiding was more stable and efficient than relativistic self-guiding. Consistent with these data, particle-in-cell simulations indicate production of high-quality electron beams when trapping of an initial bunch of electrons suppresses further injection by loading the wake. The injected electron bunch is then compressed in energy by dephasing, when the front of the bunch begins to decelerate while the tail is still accelerated

  18. Electron bunch structure in energy recovery linac with high-voltage dc photoelectron gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Saveliev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The internal structure of electron bunches generated in an injector line with a dc photoelectron gun is investigated. Experiments were conducted on the ALICE (accelerators and lasers in combined experiments energy recovery linac at Daresbury Laboratory. At a relatively low dc gun voltage of 230 kV, the bunch normally consisted of two beamlets with different electron energies, as well as transverse and longitudinal characteristics. The beamlets are formed at the head and the tail of the bunch. At a higher gun voltage of 325 kV, the beam substructure is much less pronounced and could be observed only at nonoptimal injector settings. Experiments and computer simulations demonstrated that the bunch structure develops during the initial beam acceleration in the superconducting rf booster cavity and can be alleviated either by increasing the gun voltage to the highest possible level or by controlling the beam acceleration from the gun voltage in the first accelerating structure.

  19. Observation of High Transformer Ratio of Shaped Bunch Generated by an Emittance-Exchange Beam Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Ha, G; Jing, C; Antipov, S P; Power, J G; Conde, M; Gai, W; Chen, H; Shi, J; Wisniewski, E E; Doran, D S; Liu, W; Whiteford, C E; Zholents, A; Piot, P; Baturin, S S

    2018-03-16

    Collinear wakefield acceleration has been long established as a method capable of generating ultrahigh acceleration gradients. Because of the success on this front, recently, more efforts have shifted towards developing methods to raise the transformer ratio (TR). This figure of merit is defined as the ratio of the peak acceleration field behind the drive bunch to the peak deceleration field inside the drive bunch. TR is always less than 2 for temporally symmetric drive bunch distributions and therefore recent efforts have focused on generating asymmetric distributions to overcome this limitation. In this Letter, we report on using the emittance-exchange method to generate a shaped drive bunch to experimentally demonstrate a TR≈5 in a dielectric wakefield accelerator.

  20. Effects of bunch density gradient in high-gain free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigate effects of the bunch density gradient in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), including the role of coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) in the evolution of the free-electron laser (FEL) process. In the exponential gain regime, the authors solve the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations and extend the linear theory to a bunched beam with energy spread. A time-dependent, nonlinear simulation algorithm is used to study the CSE effect and the nonlinear evolution of the radiation pulse

  1. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Lactic Acid from Empty Fruit Bunch at High Solids Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursia Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of value-added chemicals from the bioconversion of lignocellulose biomass has been considered a promising venture. In this study, microwave, alkali-pretreated empty fruit bunch (EFB was used as the substrate, utilizing pelletized filamentous Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 and cellulolytic enzymes for lactic acid production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. Insoluble solids generally do not affect the SSF process until a certain concentration is exceeded. To achieve a high lactic acid concentration in the broth, a high solids loading was required to allow a higher rate of glucose conversion. However, the results revealed a decrease in the final lactic acid yield when running SSF at a massive insoluble solids level. High osmotic pressure in the medium led to poor cellular performance and caused the Rhizopus oryzae pellets to break down, affecting the lactic acid production. To improve the process performance, a fed-batch operation mode was used. The fed-batch operation was shown to facilitate higher lactic acid yield, compared with the SSF batch mode. Enzyme feeding, as well as substrate feeding, was also investigated as a means of enabling a higher dry matter content, with a high glucose conversion in SSF of cellulose-rich EFB.

  2. Fundamental cavity impedance and longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baudrenghien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between beam dynamics and the radio frequency (rf station in circular colliders is complex and can lead to longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at high beam currents. The excitation of the cavity higher order modes is traditionally damped using passive devices. But the wakefield developed at the cavity fundamental frequency falls in the frequency range of the rf power system and can, in theory, be compensated by modulating the generator drive. Such a regulation is the responsibility of the low-level rf (llrf system that measures the cavity field (or beam current and generates the rf power drive. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC rf was designed for the nominal LHC parameter of 0.55 A DC beam current. At 7 TeV the synchrotron radiation damping time is 13 hours. Damping of the instability growth rates due to the cavity fundamental (400.789 MHz can only come from the synchrotron tune spread (Landau damping and will be very small (time constant in the order of 0.1 s. In this work, the ability of the present llrf compensation to prevent coupled-bunch instabilities with the planned high luminosity LHC (HiLumi LHC doubling of the beam current to 1.1 A DC is investigated. The paper conclusions are based on the measured performances of the present llrf system. Models of the rf and llrf systems were developed at the LHC start-up. Following comparisons with measurements, the system was parametrized using these models. The parametric model then provides a more realistic estimation of the instability growth rates than an ideal model of the rf blocks. With this modeling approach, the key rf settings can be varied around their set value allowing for a sensitivity analysis (growth rate sensitivity to rf and llrf parameters. Finally, preliminary measurements from the LHC at 0.44 A DC are presented to support the conclusions of this work.

  3. Theoretical estimation and experimental design of high-intensity far-infrared to MM-wave coherent synchrotron radiation generated by short electron bunches at BFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Junbiao; Li Yonggui; Xie Jialin

    2000-01-01

    Broadband continuous and high-intensity coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted from 4 ps electron bunches provided by the 30 MeV RF linac of Beijing FEL is analyzed and numerically calculated using an exact series expansion for the infinite integral of fractional modified Bessel function. CSR in the mm-wave and far-IR to mm-wave regions can be respectively generated by directly using these bunches and by applying those ones compressed to ≤=1 ps. The CSR powers, approximately as 10 8 -10 9 times as the SR ones, in the range from several hundred microwatts to milliwatts are dependent on chosen electron density distribution, wavelength range, and gathering angle. The power produced by rectangular bunches is greater than that generated by Gaussian ones. The shorter the bunch, the stronger the produced CSR, the greater the energy concentrated to the far-IR end. Experiments to generate CSR and measure the bunch length are designed

  4. Production of high power microwaves for particle acceleration with an FEL bunched electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Gardelle, J; Marchese, G; Padois, M; Rullier, J L; Donohue, J T

    1999-01-01

    Among the studies in the framework of high gradient linear electron-positron collider research, the Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) is a very promising concept, and two projects are in progress, the Compact Linear Collider project at CERN (W. Schnell, Report no. CERN SL/92-51 and CLIC note 184; K. Huebner, CERN/PS 92-43, CLIC note 176; S. Van der Meer, CERN/PS 89-50, CLIC note 97.) and the Relativistic Klystron-TBA project at LBNL (Technical Review Committee, International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee Report 1995, SLAC-R-95-471, 1995). In a TBA an extremely intense low-energy electron beam, called the drive beam, is bunched at the desired operating frequency, and upon passing through resonant cavities generates radio-frequency power for accelerating the main beam. Among the different approaches to the production of a suitable drive beam, the use of an FEL has been proposed and is under active study at CEA/CESTA.

  5. Extraction of High Charge Electron Bunch from the ELSA RF Injector Comparison Between Simulation and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaire, J; Binet, A; Lagniel, J M; Le Flanchec, V; Pichoff, N

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme based on a photoinjector and a RF linear accelerator operating at 352 MHz has been recently proposed as a versatile radiographic facility. Beam pulses of 60 ns duration contain 20 succesive electron bunches which will be extracted at 2.5 MeV from a photoinjector then accelerated through the next structure to the final energy of 51 MeV. Bunches carrying 100 nC are required for this purpose. As a first demonstrating step, 50 nC electron bunches have been produced and accelerated to 2.5 MeV with the 144 MHz ELSA photoinjector at Bruyères le Chatel. For this experiment, we compare the results and the numerical simulations made with PARMELA, MAGIC and MAFIA codes.

  6. On the quantitative prediction of bunch lengthening in high energy electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, T.

    1981-12-01

    The longitudinal current dependent electromagnetic interaction between a bunch of charged particles and accelerator components can be described by a Green's Function in time domain or by an impedance in frequency domain. The aim of this paper is to describe a procedure which yields an approximate Green's Function for cylindrically symmetric objects. Once this Green's Function is quantitatively known the equation of motion for the particles can be solved easily by a turn-by-turn tracking code on a computer. Thus it is possible to predict the bunch length and width as a function of charge per bunch for future accelerators and storage rings based on pure geometrical data of the accelerator components. Results are presented for PETRA and LEP. A comparison between measurements at PETRA and computations shows an excellent agreement. (orig.)

  7. Beam measurement of the high frequency impedance sources with long bunches in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasheen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave instability in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS at CERN is one of the main limitations to reach the requirements for the High Luminosity-LHC project (increased beam intensity by a factor 2. To identify the impedance source responsible of the instability, beam measurements were carried out to probe the SPS impedance. The method presented in this paper relies on measurements of the unstable spectra of single bunches, injected in the SPS with the rf voltage switched off. The modulation of the bunch profile gives information about the main impedance sources driving microwave instability, and is compared to particle simulations using the SPS impedance model to identify the most important contributions. This allowed us to identify the vacuum flanges as the main impedance source for microwave instability in the SPS, and to evaluate possible missing impedance sources.

  8. Beam measurement of the high frequency impedance sources with long bunches in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheen, A.; Argyropoulos, T.; Bohl, T.; Esteban Müller, J. F.; Timko, H.; Shaposhnikova, E.

    2018-03-01

    Microwave instability in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN is one of the main limitations to reach the requirements for the High Luminosity-LHC project (increased beam intensity by a factor 2). To identify the impedance source responsible of the instability, beam measurements were carried out to probe the SPS impedance. The method presented in this paper relies on measurements of the unstable spectra of single bunches, injected in the SPS with the rf voltage switched off. The modulation of the bunch profile gives information about the main impedance sources driving microwave instability, and is compared to particle simulations using the SPS impedance model to identify the most important contributions. This allowed us to identify the vacuum flanges as the main impedance source for microwave instability in the SPS, and to evaluate possible missing impedance sources.

  9. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Busold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 10^{9} particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E_{0} at FWHM. A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90  deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  10. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  11. Hollow bunches production

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Hollow bunches address the issue of high-brightnessbeams suffering from transverse emittance growth in a strongspace charge regime. During the Proton Synchrotron (PS)injection plateau, the negative space charge tune shift canpush the beam onto theQy=6integer resonance. Modify-ing the longitudinal bunch profile in order to reduce the peakline charge density alleviates the detrimental impact of spacecharge. To this end we first produce longitudinally hollowphase space distributions in the PS Booster by exciting aparametric resonance with the phase loop feedback system.These inherently flat bunches are then transferred to the PS,where the beam becomes less prone to the emittance growthcaused by the integer resonance.During the late 2016 machine development sessions inthe PS Booster we profited from solved issues from 2015and managed to reliably extract hollow bunches of1.3eVsmatched longitudinal area. Furthermore, first results to cre-ate hollow bunches with larger longitudinal emittances to-wards the LHC Inject...

  12. Condition for a single bunch high frequency fast blow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Pellegrini, C.

    1980-01-01

    We study the longitudinal stability of a single particle bunch in a storage ring using Vlasov equation. We show that the Vlasov equation has solutions corresponding to a fast, microwave instability if a condition on the beam current, qualitatively similar to the stability condition for a coasting beam, is satisfied. This condition can be used to define a threshold current, and to discuss its dependence on the longitudinal coupling impedance

  13. The Brady Bunch? New evidence for nominative determinism in patients' health: retrospective, population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, John J; Groarke, John D; Galvin, Zita; McGorrian, Catherine; McCann, Hugh A; Sugrue, Declan; Keelan, Edward; Galvin, Joseph; Blake, Gavin; Mahon, Niall G; O'Neill, James

    2013-12-12

    To ascertain whether a name can influence a person's health, by assessing whether people with the surname "Brady" have an increased prevalence of bradycardia. Retrospective, population based cohort study. One university teaching hospital in Dublin, Ireland. People with the surname "Brady" in Dublin, determined through use of an online telephone directory. Prevalence of participants who had pacemakers inserted for bradycardia between 1 January 2007 and 28 February 2013. 579 (0.36%) of 161,967 people who were listed on the Dublin telephone listings had the surname "Brady." The proportion of pacemaker recipients was significantly higher among Bradys (n=8, 1.38%) than among non-Bradys (n=991, 0.61%; P=0.03). The unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for pacemaker implantation among individuals with the surname Brady compared with individuals with other surnames was 2.27 (1.13 to 4.57). Patients named Brady are at increased risk of needing pacemaker implantation compared with the general population. This finding shows a potential role for nominative determinism in health.

  14. The Brady Bunch? New evidence for nominative determinism in patients’ health: retrospective, population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groarke, John D; Galvin, Zita; McGorrian, Catherine; McCann, Hugh A; Sugrue, Declan; Keelan, Edward; Galvin, Joseph; Blake, Gavin; Mahon, Niall G; O’Neill, James

    2013-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether a name can influence a person’s health, by assessing whether people with the surname “Brady” have an increased prevalence of bradycardia. Design Retrospective, population based cohort study. Setting One university teaching hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Participants People with the surname “Brady” in Dublin, determined through use of an online telephone directory. Main outcome measure Prevalence of participants who had pacemakers inserted for bradycardia between 1 January 2007 and 28 February 2013. Results 579 (0.36%) of 161 967 people who were listed on the Dublin telephone listings had the surname “Brady.” The proportion of pacemaker recipients was significantly higher among Bradys (n=8, 1.38%) than among non-Bradys (n=991, 0.61%; P=0.03). The unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for pacemaker implantation among individuals with the surname Brady compared with individuals with other surnames was 2.27 (1.13 to 4.57). Conclusions Patients named Brady are at increased risk of needing pacemaker implantation compared with the general population. This finding shows a potential role for nominative determinism in health. PMID:24336304

  15. A low-frequency high-voltage rf-barrier-bunching system for high-intensity neutron source compressor rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardek, T.W.; Ziomek, C.; Rees, D.

    1995-01-01

    A Los Alamos design for a 1-MW pulsed neutron source incorporates a ring utilizing an rf-barrier bunching system. This bunching concept allows uniform longitudinal beam distributions with low momentum spread. Bunching cavities are operated at the revolution frequency (1.5 MHz in this case) and each of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th revolution frequency harmonics. Their effects combine to maintain a beam free gap in the longitudinal distribution of the accumulated beam. The cavities are driven by low-plate-resistance common-cathode configured retrode amplifiers incorporating local rf feedback. Additional adaptive feed-forward hardware is included to reduce the beam-induced bunching-gap voltages well below that achievable solely with rf feedback. Details of this system are presented along with a discussion of the various feed-back and feed-forward techniques incorporated

  16. Hydrolysis of cellulose and oil palm empty fruit bunches by using consortia of fungi isolated from the soil of Colombian high andean forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Aida Moya A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic activity was evaluated in a mixture of supernatants produced by filamentous fungi grown individually on microcrystalline cellulose and empty fruit bunches. The strains that were used correspond to two types of isolates; the first was made from soil samples from a transect of a high andean forest of Colombia, in the Parque Natural Nacional de Los Nevados, where, based on previous studies, we selected the strains B7, B11, B11M and B19. The second isolate was obtained from a pool of oil palm empty fruit bunches (Eleaeis guinensis Jacq. in different states of decomposition on the Unipalma plantation located in the eastern plains; strains TA1 and TA2. To perform the hydrolysis of cellulose and empty fruit bunches, the previously obtained supernatants from each of the selected strains were cultivated for 300 hours in cellulose and characterized individually by endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase activity. Individual supernatants were mixed at a 1:1 ratio to form consortia; and hydrolytic activity was evaluated in the substrates at two hours. The glucose concentration was determined by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS method. The results show that hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch to glucose was favored by three pools of supernatants, with increases greater than 400% in comparison with the hydrolysis obtained by individual supernatants, demonstrating the potential to decompose palm empty fruit bunches; thereby contributing to the reduction of decay time of empty fruit bunches and the decrease of environmental and health problems

  17. Measurements and analysis of a high-brightness electron beam collimated in a magnetic bunch compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F.; Bane, K.; Ding, Y.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Raubenheimer, T.

    2015-05-01

    A collimator located in a magnetic bunch compressor of a linear accelerator driven x-ray free electron laser has many potential applications, such as the removal of horns in the current distribution, the generation of ultrashort beams, and as a diagnostic of the beam slice emittance. Collective effects, however, are a major concern in applying the technique. Systematic measurements of emittance and analysis were performed using a collimator in the first bunch compressor of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). In the nominal, undercompressed configuration using the collimator we find that the y emittance (nonbending plane) is not increased, and the x emittance (in the bending plane) is increased by about 25%, in comparison to the injector emittance. From the analysis we conclude that the parasitic effects associated with this method are dominated by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which causes a "systematic error" for measuring slice emittance at the bending plane using the collimation method. In general, we find good agreement between the measurements and simulations including CSR. However, for overcompressed beams at smaller collimator gaps, an extra emittance increase is found that does not agree with 1D simulations and is not understood.

  18. High-sensitivity broadband infrared monitor of spatial structure of relativistic bunches and thermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, A.A.; Mal'tsev, M.A.; Maslova, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    The monitor is intended for registration of spatial distribution of density of energy of pulsing radiation of thermal fields and bunches of relativistic electrons and protons in a wide spectral range 0,4 - 4 μm. In a measuring system of a monitor effective means of active and passive increase of the relation of a useful signal to noise, in view of particular conditions and requirements are used. The measuring channel can confidently allocate a useful signal on a background of handicaps, the size of which can make about 20 kE in a pulse [1]. The accuracy of measurement of amplitude of a signal of radiation makes 0,2% of maximum significances of a registrar scale. (author)

  19. Photon anti bunching versus phantom anti bunching?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranowicz, A.; Ekert, A.; Ekert, A.; Bajer, J.; Leonski, W.

    1997-01-01

    Photon anti bunching defined by two-time correlation functions has hitherto, to our best knowledge, been considered to constitute a unique, well defined effect. We show explicitly that this is by no means the case. We analyze two of the most famous definitions showing that both anti bunching and bunching effects according to one definition can be accompanied by arbitrary photon correlation effects according to another. As an example we discuss a model of parametric frequency conversion. (authors)

  20. Much Ado about Microbunching: Coherent Bunching in High Brightness Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The push to provide ever brighter coherent radiation sources has led to the creation of correspondingly bright electron beams. With billions of electrons packed into normalized emittances (phase space) below one micron, collective effects may dominate both the preservation and use of such ultra-bright beams. An important class of collective effects is due to density modulations within the bunch, or microbunching. Microbunching may be deleterious, as in the case of the Microbunching Instability (MBI), or it may drive radiation sources of unprecedented intensity, as in the case of Free Electron Lasers (FELs). In this work we begin by describing models of microbunching due to inherent beam shot noise, which sparks both the MBI as well as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source, the world's first hard X-ray laser. We first use this model to propose a mechanism for reducing the inherent beam shot noise as well as for predicting MBI effects. We then describe experimental measurements of the resulting microbunching at LCLS, including optical radiation from the MBI, as well as the first gain length and harmonic measurements from a hard X-ray FEL. In the final chapters, we describe schemes that use external laser modulations to microbunch light sources of the future. In these sections we describe coherent light source schemes for both both linacs and storage rings.

  1. Design of BEPCII bunch current monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Ma Huizhou; Yue Junhui; Lei Ge; Cao Jianshe; Ma Li

    2008-01-01

    BEPC II is an electron-positron collider designed to run under multi-bunches and high beam current condition. The accelerator consists of an electron ring, a positron ring and a linear injector. In order to achieve the target luminosity and implement the equal bunch charge injection, the Bunch Current Monitor (BCM) system is built on BEPC II. The BCM system consists of three parts: the front-end circuit, the bunch current acquisition system and the bucket selection system. The control software of BCM is based on VxWorks and EPICS. With the help of BCM system, the bunch current in each bucket can be monitored in the Central Control Room. The BEPC II timing system can also use the bunch current database to decide which bucket needs to refill to implement 'top-off' injection. (authors)

  2. Resistive theory of bunch lengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.; Messerschmid, E.

    1977-01-01

    A new theory of bunch lengthening in electron storage rings is proposed. The equilibrium bunch length is that length which stabilizes the bunch against the onset of ''fast'' resistive instability, caused by the combination of many high frequency resonators such as vacuum flanges. The heat dissipated in these impedance sources follows immediately from the bunch length. It is found that the anomalous bunch length is determined by a scaling parameter g = (hVcos phi/sub s/)/I. Data taken in SPEAR I and II, data in which g extends in value by more than three orders of magnitude, can be fit with an appropriate choice of high frequency, large width coupling impedance. The impedance functions for SPEAR I and II are taken to be the same, a reflection of the fact that the high frequency sources are chamber discontinuities rather than structures connected with the rf systems. A parameter search leads to an impedance characterized by a central frequency approximately 5 GHz, a width (FWHM) approximately 1.8 GHz and a peak impedance approximately 0.2 M OMEGA. The expected and observed higher mode resistance (i.e., heat dissipated) for SPEAR are compared and found to be in agreement. Predictions are given for PEP and PETRA

  3. Self-bunching electron guns

    CERN Document Server

    Mako, F; Weilhammer, Peter

    1999-01-01

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated cold emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold emission process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied this resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01-5 kA/cm/sup 2/), high charge bunches (up to 100 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1-100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally ~5% of the RF period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show ~40 ps long microbunches at ~20 A/cm/sup 2/ without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 mu s-long macro- pulses. About 5.8*10/sup 13/ micro-bunches or 62,000 coulombs have pass...

  4. Longitudinal bunch deformation of a multi-bunched beam in the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obina, T.; Satoh, K.; Kasuga, T.; Funakoshi, Y.; Tobiyama, M.

    1997-01-01

    A remarkable bunch deformation has been observed in the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) during multi-bunch operations. When two bunches that have different populations are stored in the ring, the bunch length of the weaker bunch is longer than that of the stronger one. The phenomenon can be explained as an effect of wake fields due to higher-order modes (HOMs) of accelerating cavities. We tried to find out the frequency of the mode and the strength of the wake field, and introduced a new technique called a test bunch measurement. The estimated field strength from the experiment shows a reasonable agreement with the calculation of HOM impedance. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Bunched beam neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammel, G.M.; Maschke, A.W.; Mobley, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    One of the steps involved in producing an intense ion beam from conventional accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is beam bunching. To maintain space charge neutralized transport, neutralization must occur more quickly as the beam bunches. It has been demonstrated at BNL that a 60 mA proton beam from a 750 kV Cockcroft--Walton can be neutralized within a microsecond. The special problem in HIF is that the neutralization must occur in a time scale of nanoseconds. To study neutralization on a faster time scale, a 40 mA, 450 kV proton beam was bunched at 16 MHz. A biased Faraday cup sampled the bunched beam at the position where maximum bunching was nominally expected, about 2.5 meters from the buncher. Part of the drift region, about 1.8 meters, was occupied by a series of Gabor lenses. In addition to enhancing beam transport by transverse focussing, the background cloud of electrons in the lenses provided an extra degree of neutralization. With no lens, the best bunch factor was at least 20. Bunch factor is defined here as the ratio of the distance between bunches to the FWHM bunch length. With the lens, it was hoped that the increased plasma frequency would decrease the neutralization time and cause an increase in the bunch factor. In fact, with the lens, the instantaneous current increased about three times, but the bunch factor dropped to about 10. Even with the lens, the FWHM of the bunches at the position of maximum bunching was still comparable to or less than the oscillation period of the surrounding electron plasma. Thus, the electron density in the lens must increase before neutralization could be effective in this case, or bunching should be done at a lower frequency

  6. Preparation of highly porous binderless activated carbon electrodes from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches for application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, R; Deraman, M; Awitdrus, A; Talib, I A; Taer, E; Basri, N H; Manjunatha, J G; Ishak, M M; Dollah, B N M; Hashmi, S A

    2013-03-01

    Fibres from oil palm empty fruit bunches, generated in large quantities by palm oil mills, were processed into self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). Untreated and KOH-treated SACG were converted without binder into green monolith prior to N2-carbonisation and CO2-activation to produce highly porous binderless carbon monolith electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Characterisation of the pore structure of the electrodes revealed a significant advantage from combining the chemical and physical activation processes. The electrochemical measurements of the supercapacitor cells fabricated using these electrodes, using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques consistently found that approximately 3h of activation time, achieved via a multi-step heating profile, produced electrodes with a high surface area of 1704m(2)g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.889cm(3)g(-1), corresponding to high values for the specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power of 150Fg(-1), 4.297Whkg(-1) and 173Wkg(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A high-gain and high-efficiency X-band triaxial klystron amplifier with two-stage cascaded bunching cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ju, Jinchuan; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang

    2017-12-01

    To achieve GW-level amplification output radiation at the X-band, a relativistic triaxial klystron amplifier with two-stage cascaded double-gap bunching cavities is investigated. The input cavity is optimized to obtain a high absorption rate of the external injection microwave. The cascaded bunching cavities are optimized to achieve a high depth of the fundamental harmonic current. A double-gap standing wave extractor is designed to improve the beam wave conversion efficiency. Two reflectors with high reflection coefficients both to the asymmetric mode and the TEM mode are employed to suppress the asymmetric mode competition and TEM mode microwave leakage. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that a high power microwave with a power of 2.53 GW and a frequency of 8.4 GHz is generated with a 690 kV, 9.3 kA electron beam excitation and a 25 kW seed microwave injection. Particularly, the achieved power conversion efficiency is about 40%, and the gain is as high as 50 dB. Meanwhile, there is insignificant self-excitation of the parasitic mode in the proposed structure by adopting the reflectors. The relative phase difference between the injected signals and the output microwaves keeps locked after the amplifier becomes saturated.

  8. 2.5-dimensional numerical modeling of the formation of a plasma channel due to ion redistribution during the propagation of a finite sequence of relativistic electron bunches through high-density and low-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, V.I.; Karas, I.V.; Levchenko, V.D.; Sigov, Yu.S.; Fainberg, Ya.B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of numerical simulations of the excitation of wake fields in high- and low-density plasmas are presented. The propagation of relativistic electron bunches in a plasma is described by a closed set of relativistic Vlasov equations for two spatial coordinates and three velocity coordinates for each plasma component and the nonlinear Maxwell equations for self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Numerical modeling shows that, under ordinary experimental conditions (when the length and radius of the bunch are much less than the skin depth), the radius of the bunches propagating in a plasma varies over a wide range. In this case, the dynamics of both the plasma and the bunches is nonlinear. The radial redistribution of the plasma ions in self-consistent fields leads to the formation of a plasma channel. Incorporating this phenomenon is important for studying the propagation of relativistic electron bunches in a plasma

  9. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  10. Operational performance of a bunch by bunch digital damper in the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, P.; Ashmanskas, W.J.; Foster, G.W.; Hansen, S.; Marchionni, A.; Nicklaus, D.; Semenov, A.; Wildman, D.; Kang, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project

  11. Interaction of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches with dense plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Rukhadze, A A

    2012-01-01

    Here we discuss the possibility of employment of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches for generation of high plasma wakefields in dense plasmas due to the Cherenkov resonance plasma-bunch interaction. We estimate the maximum amplitude of such a wake and minimum system length at which the maximum amplitude can be generated at the given bunch parameters.

  12. Ultrafast electron microscopy: Instrument response from the single-electron to high bunch-charge regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Dayne A.; Flannigan, David J.

    2017-09-01

    We determine the instrument response of an ultrafast electron microscope equipped with a conventional thermionic electron gun and absent modifications beyond the optical ports. Using flat, graphite-encircled LaB6 cathodes, we image space-charge effects as a function of photoelectron-packet population and find that an applied Wehnelt bias has a negligible effect on the threshold levels (>103 electrons per pulse) but does appear to suppress blurring at the upper limits (∼105 electrons). Using plasma lensing, we determine the instrument-response time for 700-fs laser pulses and find that single-electron packets are laser limited (1 ps), while broadening occurs well below the space-charge limit.

  13. N-polar GaN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor formed on sapphire substrate with minimal step bunching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertsuk, Kiattiwut; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Kimura, Takeshi; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Suemitsu, Tetsuya; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) gate N-polar GaN/AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) on a (0001) sapphire substrate, which can be expected to operate with lower on-resistance and more easily work on the pinch-off operation than an N-polar AlGaN/GaN HEMT, was fabricated. For suppressing the step bunching and hillocks peculiar in the N-polar growth, a sapphire substrate with an off-cut angle as small as 0.8° was introduced and an N-polar GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT without the step bunching was firstly obtained by optimizing the growth conditions. The previously reported anisotropy of transconductance related to the step was eliminated. The pinch-off operation was also realized. These results indicate that this device is promising.

  14. Self-bunching electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mako, Frederick M.; Len, L. K.

    1999-05-01

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated, in a microwave cavity, self-bunching, cold electron emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied using simulation codes the resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01-5 kA/cm2), high charge bunches (up to 500 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1-100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally ˜5% of the rf period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show ˜40 ps long micro-bunches at ˜20 A/cm2 without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 μs-long macro-pulses. Approximately 5.8×1013 micro-bunches or 62,000 coulombs have passed through this gun and it is still working fine. The second project, the S-Band MPG, is now operational. It is functioning at a frequency of 2.85 GHz, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, with a 2 μs-long macro-pulse. It produces about 45 A in the macro-pulse. The third project is a 34.2 GHz frequency-multiplied source driven by an X-Band MPG. A point design was performed at an rf output power of 150 MW at 34.2 GHz. The resulting system efficiency is 53% and the gain is 60 dB. The system efficiency includes the input cavity efficiency, input driver efficiency (a 50 MW klystron at 11.4 GHz), output cavity efficiency, and the post-acceleration efficiency.

  15. High-speed X-ray imaging pixel array detector for synchrotron bunch isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S; Weiss, Joel T; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-03-01

    A wide-dynamic-range imaging X-ray detector designed for recording successive frames at rates up to 10 MHz is described. X-ray imaging with frame rates of up to 6.5 MHz have been experimentally verified. The pixel design allows for up to 8-12 frames to be stored internally at high speed before readout, which occurs at a 1 kHz frame rate. An additional mode of operation allows the integration capacitors to be re-addressed repeatedly before readout which can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cyclical processes. This detector, along with modern storage ring sources which provide short (10-100 ps) and intense X-ray pulses at megahertz rates, opens new avenues for the study of rapid structural changes in materials. The detector consists of hybridized modules, each of which is comprised of a 500 µm-thick silicon X-ray sensor solder bump-bonded, pixel by pixel, to an application-specific integrated circuit. The format of each module is 128 × 128 pixels with a pixel pitch of 150 µm. In the prototype detector described here, the three-side buttable modules are tiled in a 3 × 2 array with a full format of 256 × 384 pixels. The characteristics, operation, testing and application of the detector are detailed.

  16. Beam bunch feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.

    1995-09-01

    When the electromagnetic fields that are excited by the passage of a bundle of charged particles persist to act upon bunches that follow, then the motions of the bunches are coupled. This action between bunches circulating on a closed orbit can generate growing patterns of bunch excursions. Such growth can often be suppressed by feedback systems that detect the excursion and apply corrective forces to the bunches. To be addressed herein is feedback that acts on motions of the bunch body centers. In addition to being useful for suppressing the spontaneous growth of coupled-bunch motions, such feedback can be used to damp transients in bunches injected into an accelerator or storage ring; for hadrons which lack strong radiation damping, feedback is needed to avoid emittance growth through decoherence. Motions excited by noise in magnetic fields or accelerating rf can also be reduced by using this feedback. Whether the action is on motions that are transverse to the closed orbit or longitudinal, the arrangement is the same. Bunch position is detected by a pickup and that signal is processed and directed to a kicker that may act upon the same bunch or some other portion of the collective beam pattern. Transverse motion is an oscillation with angular frequency ν perpendicular ω o where ω o is the orbital frequency 2π line-integral o. Longitudinal synchrotron oscillation occurs at frequency ω s = ν s ω o . The former is much more rapid, ν perpendicular being on the order of 10 while ν s is typically about 10 minus 1 to 10 minus 2

  17. Extremely short relativistic-electron-bunch generation in the laser wakefield via novel bunch injection scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently a new electron-bunch injection scheme for the laser wakefield accelerator has been proposed [JETP Lett. 74, 371 (2001); Phys. Rev. E 65, 046504 (2002)]. In this scheme, a low energy electron bunch, sent in a plasma channel just before a high-intensity laser pulse, is trapped in the laser

  18. CORNELL: Bunch trains provide higher luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The new colliding beam technique - ''bunch trains'' - at Cornell's electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has led to a new world record for colliding beam luminosity - 3.3 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . In the bid to increase reaction rate for any particular process, this luminosity is pushed as high as possible. Once all other luminosityincreasing cards have been played, the only practical way of making a large gain in luminosity is to increase the frequency of bunch-bunch collisions by increasing the number of bunches stored in the ring. However this is not without its own problems: • If the two beams travel the same orbit, the n bunches in one beam collide with the n bunches of the other at 2n points around the ring, and the resulting cumulative nonlinear beam-beam effect (tune shift) severely limits the luminosity attainable at any interaction point. • The destabilizing wakefield effects of bunches on each other increase as the number of bunches increases and the spacing between them decreases. • The synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams becomes a severe problem as the total beam current is raised: to overcome these effects means supplying radiofrequency power to maintain the beam energy, carrying away heat from the vacuum chamber walls, pumping out desorbed gases, and controlling Xray backgrounds in the experiment. In 1979, CESR was designed to run with a single bunch of electrons and a single bunch of positrons circulating on the same orbit and colliding head-on at two diametrically opposite points in the ring, where the CLEO and CUSB experiments were then located. Ideally one could store multiple bunches and solve the multiple collision point problem by using separate rings for the two beams, as in the CERN ISR proton-proton collider and in the original DORIS two-ring configuration at DESY, Hamburg, making the two beams intersect only at the experiments. A less expensive version of this two-ring scheme was accomplished at CESR in

  19. CORNELL: Bunch trains provide higher luminosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    The new colliding beam technique - ''bunch trains'' - at Cornell's electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has led to a new world record for colliding beam luminosity - 3.3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In the bid to increase reaction rate for any particular process, this luminosity is pushed as high as possible. Once all other luminosityincreasing cards have been played, the only practical way of making a large gain in luminosity is to increase the frequency of bunch-bunch collisions by increasing the number of bunches stored in the ring. However this is not without its own problems: • If the two beams travel the same orbit, the n bunches in one beam collide with the n bunches of the other at 2n points around the ring, and the resulting cumulative nonlinear beam-beam effect (tune shift) severely limits the luminosity attainable at any interaction point. • The destabilizing wakefield effects of bunches on each other increase as the number of bunches increases and the spacing between them decreases. • The synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams becomes a severe problem as the total beam current is raised: to overcome these effects means supplying radiofrequency power to maintain the beam energy, carrying away heat from the vacuum chamber walls, pumping out desorbed gases, and controlling Xray backgrounds in the experiment. In 1979, CESR was designed to run with a single bunch of electrons and a single bunch of positrons circulating on the same orbit and colliding head-on at two diametrically opposite points in the ring, where the CLEO and CUSB experiments were then located. Ideally one could store multiple bunches and solve the multiple collision point problem by using separate rings for the two beams, as in the CERN ISR proton-proton collider and in the original DORIS two-ring configuration at DESY, Hamburg, making the two beams intersect only at the experiments. A less expensive version of this two-ring scheme was accomplished at CESR in 1983, using

  20. Bunch identification module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This module provides bunch identification and timing signals for the PEP Interaction areas. Timing information is referenced to the PEP master oscillator, and adjusted in phase as a function of region. Identification signals are generated in a manner that allows observers in all interaction regions to agree on an unambiguous bunch identity. The module provides bunch identification signals via NIM level logic, upon CAMAC command, and through LED indicators. A front panel ''region select'' switch allows the same module to be used in all regions. The module has two modes of operation: a bunch identification mode and a calibration mode. In the identification mode, signals indicate which of the three bunches of electrons and positrons are interacting, and timing information about beam crossing is provided. The calibration mode is provided to assist experimenters making time of flight measurements. In the calibration mode, three distinct gating signals are referenced to a selected bunch, allowing three timing systems to be calibrated against a common standard. Physically, the bunch identifier is constructed as a single width CAMAC module. 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Sensitive beam-bunch phase detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, S; Shepard, K W

    1984-11-15

    A sensitive heavy-ion beam-bunch phase detector has been developed by first examining the relationship between the sensitivity of an rf resonant cavity as a particle bunch detector and the shunt impedance of the same cavity as an accelerating structure. Then the various high shunt impedance rf cavities previously developed for accelerating heavy ions were evaluated for use as bunch detectors. A spiral-loaded geometry was chosen, built, and tested with beam. The sensitivity obtained, 14 V per electrical nA of beam, is a factor 3 higher than previously reported. (orig.).

  2. Sensitive beam-bunch phase detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, S; Shepard, K W [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Physics Div.

    1984-11-15

    A sensitive heavy-ion beam-bunch phase detector has been developed by first examining the relationship between the sensitivity of an RF resonant cavity as a particle bunch detector and the shunt impedance of the same cavity as an accelerating structure. Then the various high shunt impedance RF cavities previously developed for accelerating heavy ions were evaluated for use as bunch detectors. A spiral-loaded geometry was chosen, built, and tested with beam. The sensitivity obtained, 14 ..mu.. V per electrical nA of beam, is a factor 3 higher than previously reported.

  3. Bunch Compression Stability Dependence on RF Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Limberg, T

    2005-01-01

    In present designs for FEL's with high electron peak currents and short bunch lengths, higher harmonic RF systems are often used to optimize the final longitudinal charge distributions. This opens degrees of freedom for the choice of RF phases and amplitudes to achieve the necessary peak current with a reasonable longitudinal bunch shape. It had been found empirically that different working points result in different tolerances for phases and amplitudes. We give an analytical expression for the sensitivity of the compression factor on phase and amplitude jitter for a bunch compression scheme involving two RF systems and two magnetic chicanes as well numerical results for the case of the European XFEL.

  4. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun

    2009-01-01

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  5. Controlling multi-bunches by a fast phase switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Jobe, R.K.; Merminga, N.; Thompson, K.A.

    1990-09-01

    In linear accelerators with two or more bunches the beam loading of one bunch will influence the energy and energy spread the following bunches. This can be corrected by quickly changing the phase of a traveling wave-structure, so that each bunch receives a slightly different net phase. At the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) three bunches, two (e + ,e - ) for the high energy collisions and one (e - -scavenger) for producing positrons should sit at different phases, due to their different tasks. The two e - -bunches are extracted from the damping ring at the same cycle time about 60 ns apart. Fast phase switching of the RF to the bunch length compressor in the Ring-To-Linac (RTL) section can produce the necessary advance of the scavenger bunch (about 6 degree in phase). This allows a low energy spread of this third bunch at the e + -production region at 2/3 of the linac length, while the other bunches are not influenced. The principles and possible other applications of this fast phase switching as using it for multi-bunches, as well as the experimental layout for the actual RTL compressor are presented

  6. KEKB bunch feedback systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobiyama, M; Kikutani, E [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Design and the present status of the bunch by bunch feedback systems for KEKB rings are shown. The detection of the bunch oscillation are made with the phase detection for longitudinal plane, the AM/PM method for transverse plane. Two GHz component of the bunch signal which is extracted with an analog FIR filter is used for the detection. Hardware two-tap FIR filter systems to shift the phase of the oscillation by 90deg will be used for the longitudinal signal processing. The same system will be used with no filtering but with only digital delay for transverse system. The candidate for the kicker and the required maximum power are also estimated. (author)

  7. COMMISSIONING OF THE DIGITAL TRANSVERSE BUNCH-BY-BUNCH FEEDBACK SYSTEM FOR THE TLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HU, K.H.; KUO, C.H.; CHOU, P.J.; LEE, D.; HSU, S.Y.; CHEN, J.; WANG, C.J.; HSU, K.T.; KOBAYASHI, K.; NAKAMURA, T.; CHAO, A.W.; WENG, W.T.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-bunch instabilities degrade beam quality through increased beam emittance, energy spread and even beam loss. Feedback systems are used to suppress multi-bunch instabilities associated with the resistive wall of the beam ducts, cavity-like structures, and trapped ions. A new digital transverse bunch-by-bunch feedback system has recently been commissioned at the Taiwan Light Source, and has replaced the previous analog system. The new system has the advantages that it enlarges the tune acceptance and improves damping for transverse instability at high currents, such that top-up operation is achieved. After a coupled-bunch transverse instability was suppressed, more than 350 mA was successfully stored during preliminary commissioning. In this new system, a single feedback loop simultaneously suppresses both horizontal and vertical multi-bunch instabilities. Investigating the characteristics of the feedback loop and further improving the system performances are the next short-term goals. The feedback system employs the latest generation of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processor to process bunch signals. Memory has been installed to capture up to 250 msec of bunch oscillation signal, considering system diagnostics suitable to support various beam physics studies

  8. Computer modelling of bunch-by-bunch feedback for the SLAC B-factory design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.; Fox, J.D.; Hosseini, W.; Klaisner, L.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thompson, K.A.; Lambertson, G.

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC B-factory design, with over 1600 high current bunches circulating in each ring, will require a feedback system to avoid coupled-bunch instabilities. A computer model of the storage ring, including the RF system, wave fields, synchrotron radiation loss, and the bunch-by-bunch feedback system is presented. The feedback system model represents the performance of a fast phase detector front end (including system noise and imperfections), a digital filter used to generate a correction voltage, and a power amplifier and beam kicker system. The combined ring-feedback system model is used to study the feedback system performance required to suppress instabilities and to quantify the dynamics of the system. Results are presented which show the time development of coupled bunch instabilities and the damping action of the feedback system. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Wall-Current-Monitor based Ghost and Satellite Bunch Detection in the CERN PS and the LHC Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, R J; Belleman, J; Bohl, T; Damerau, H

    2012-01-01

    While most LHC detectors and instrumentation systems are optimised for a nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns, the LHC RF cavities themselves operate at the 10th harmonic of the maximum bunch frequency. Due to the beam production scheme and transfers in the injector chain, part of the nominally ‘empty’ RF buckets may contain particles, referred to as ghost or satellite bunches. These populations must be accurately quantified for high-precision experiments, luminosity calibration and control of parasitic particle encounters at the four LHC interaction points. This contribution summarises the wall-current-monitor based ghost and satellite bunch measurements in CERN’s PS and LHC accelerators. Instrumentation set-up, post-processing and achieved performance are discussed.

  10. Production of Mineral Water Using Palm Bunch Ash (PBA) From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A public health strategy for increasing the potassium and magnesium intake of the population was explored. These electrolytes have been confirmed by epidemiological studies to have some health benefits. A process for production of mineral water using palm bunch ash was developed. The composition of the palm bunch ...

  11. Bunch-by-bunch feedback for PEP II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Eisen, N.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Hoeflich, J.; Olsen, J.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Linscott, I.

    1993-01-01

    The proposed PEP II B factory at SLAC requires a feedback to damp out longitudinal synchrotron oscillations. A time domain, downsampled, bunch-by-bunch feedback system in which each bunch is treated as an oscillator being driven by disturbances from other bunches is presented as we review the evolution of the system design. Results from a synchrotron oscillation damping experiment conducted at the SLAC/SSRL/SPEAR ring are also presented in this paper

  12. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, H.; /SLAC

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of

  13. Multi-bunch energy compensation in the NLC bunch compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Thomson, K.A.

    1996-06-01

    The task of the NLC bunch compressor is to reduce the length of each bunch in a train of 90 bunches from 4 mm, at extraction from the damping ring, to about 100 μm, suitable for injection into the X-band main linac. This task is complicated by longitudinal long-range wake fields and the multi-bunch beam loading in the various accelerating sections of the compressor. One possible approach to compensate the multi-bunch beam loading is to add two RF systems with slightly different frequencies (' Δf' scheme) to each accelerating section, as first proposed by Kikuchi. This paper summarizes the choice of parameters for three such compensating sections, and presents simulation results of combined single- and multi-bunch dynamics for four different NLC versions. The multi-bunch energy compensation is shown to be straightforward and its performance to be satisfactory

  14. Single bunch fast longitudinal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Pellegrini, C.

    1979-01-01

    Single bunch longitudinal instability producing an increase of the bunch area have been observed in proton synchrotron and storage rings. Signals at microwave frequencies are observed during the bunch blow-up and because of this the effect has been called the microwave instability. A similar increase in bunch area is observed also in electron storage rings, where it is usually referred to as the bunch lengthening effect. This paper is an attempt to obtain a more general theory of this effect. Here we describe the model used and the method of calculation, together with some general results. More detailed results will be given in another paper. The main result is the derivation of a condition for the existence of a fast longitudinal bunch blow-up. This condition is a generalized threshold formula, showing explicitly the dependence on the bunch energy spread and length. This condition is qualitatively in agreement with Boussard's suggestion

  15. Single bunch fast longitudinal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Pellegrini, C.

    1979-01-01

    Single bunch longitudinal instability producing an increase of the bunch areas has been observed in proton synchrotron and storage rings. Singals at microwave frequencies are observed during the bunch blow-up and because of this the effect has been called the microwave instability. A similar increase in bunch area is observed also in electron storage rings, where it is usually referred to as the bunch lengthening effect. This paper is an attempt to obtain a more general theory of this effect. Here we describe the model used and the method of calculation, together with some general results. The main result of this paper is the derivation of a condition for the existence of a fast longitudinal bunch blow-up. This condition is a generalized threshold formula, showing explicitly the dependence on the bunch energy spread and length

  16. Bunch coalescing in the Fermilab Main Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildman, D.; Martin, P.; Meisner, K.; Miller, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    A new RF system has been installed in the Fermilab Main Ring to coalesce up to 13 individual bunches of protons or antiprotons into a single high-intensity bunch. The coalescing process consists of adiabatically reducing the h=1113 Main Ring RF voltage from 1 MV to less than 1 kV, capturing the debunched beam in a linearized h=53 and h=106 bucket, rotating for a quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period, and then recapturing the beam in a single h=1113 bucket. The new system is described and the results of recent coalescing experiments are compared with computer-generated particle tracking simulations

  17. Measurement of femtosecond electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D. X.; Krafft, G. A.; Sinclair, C. K.

    1997-01-01

    Bunch lengths as short as 84 fs (rms) have been measured at Jefferson Lab using a zero-phasing RF technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first accurate bunch length measurement in this regime. In this letter, an analytical approach for computing the longitudinal distribution function and bunch length is described for arbitrary longitudinal and transverse distributions. The measurement results are presented, which are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations

  18. Bunch mode specific rate corrections for PILATUS3 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueb, P., E-mail: peter.trueb@dectris.com [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Dejoie, C. [ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Kobas, M. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Pattison, P. [EPF Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Peake, D. J. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Radicci, V. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Sobott, B. A. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Walko, D. A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Broennimann, C. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland)

    2015-04-09

    The count rate behaviour of PILATUS3 detectors has been characterized for seven bunch modes at four different synchrotrons. The instant retrigger technology of the PILATUS3 application-specific integrated circuit is found to reduce the dependency of the required rate correction on the synchrotron bunch mode. The improvement of using bunch mode specific rate corrections based on a Monte Carlo simulation is quantified. PILATUS X-ray detectors are in operation at many synchrotron beamlines around the world. This article reports on the characterization of the new PILATUS3 detector generation at high count rates. As for all counting detectors, the measured intensities have to be corrected for the dead-time of the counting mechanism at high photon fluxes. The large number of different bunch modes at these synchrotrons as well as the wide range of detector settings presents a challenge for providing accurate corrections. To avoid the intricate measurement of the count rate behaviour for every bunch mode, a Monte Carlo simulation of the counting mechanism has been implemented, which is able to predict the corrections for arbitrary bunch modes and a wide range of detector settings. This article compares the simulated results with experimental data acquired at different synchrotrons. It is found that the usage of bunch mode specific corrections based on this simulation improves the accuracy of the measured intensities by up to 40% for high photon rates and highly structured bunch modes. For less structured bunch modes, the instant retrigger technology of PILATUS3 detectors substantially reduces the dependency of the rate correction on the bunch mode. The acquired data also demonstrate that the instant retrigger technology allows for data acquisition up to 15 million photons per second per pixel.

  19. Operation and performance of bunch pre-compression for increased transmission at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Akre, R.; Decker, F.J.; Turner, J.

    1997-11-01

    As the beam currents at the SLC are increased, transverse aperture restrictions in the ring-to-linac transport line (RTL) become increasingly important. The RTL contains a bunch compressor which introduces a large energy variation across the bunch and hence a larger transverse beam size. Since 1994 the compressor amplitude has been operating at higher than design voltage. While advantageous for shaping the bunch distribution, this increased the bunch energy spread and therefore resulted in more beam loss. Moreover, due to current-dependent bunch lengthening in the damping ring, the higher the beam current, the more the current loss. To avoid such losses, the bunch length may be precompressed in the damping ring. Until recently, bunch precompression with high beam currents was not stable. In this paper the authors identify the reasons for the difficulties, describe the changes made to accommodate bunch precompression, and discuss performance aspects after implementation. The estimated increase in current at the interaction point is 15%

  20. LHC Report: spring cleaning over, bunches of luminosity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Scrubbing was completed on Wednesday 13 April. The run had seen over 1000 bunches per beam successfully circulating at 450 GeV. Measurements showed that electron cloud activity in the cold regions had been suppressed. A decrease of vacuum activity in the warm regions demonstrated that the cleaning had also achieved the required results there. As discussed in the last Bulletin, the scrubbing was performed with high intensity bunches with 50 nanosecond spacing. Given the potential luminosity performance with this spacing (more bunches, higher bunch intensity from the injectors) and in the light of the results of the scrubbing run, the decision was taken to continue the 2011 physics run with this bunch spacing.   A few issues with 50 nanosecond spacing had to be resolved when standard operations for luminosity production resumed. Once things had been tidied up, stable beams were provided for the experiments, firstly with 228 bunches per beam and then with 336 bunches per beam. The 336 bunch fill that w...

  1. Acceleration of a trailing positron bunch in a plasma wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doche, A.; Beekman, C.; Corde, S.

    2017-01-01

    High gradients of energy gain and high energy efficiency are necessary parameters for compact, cost-efficient and high-energy particle colliders. Plasma Wakefield Accelerators (PWFA) offer both, making them attractive candidates for next-generation colliders. Here in these devices, a charge-density plasma wave is excited by an ultra-relativistic bunch of charged particles (the drive bunch). The energy in the wave can be extracted by a second bunch (the trailing bunch), as this bunch propagates in the wake of the drive bunch. While a trailing electron bunch was accelerated in a plasma with more than a gigaelectronvolt of energy gain, accelerating a trailing positron bunch in a plasma is much more challenging as the plasma response can be asymmetric for positrons and electrons. We report the demonstration of the energy gain by a distinct trailing positron bunch in a plasma wakefield accelerator, spanning nonlinear to quasi-linear regimes, and unveil the beam loading process underlying the accelerator energy efficiency. A positron bunch is used to drive the plasma wake in the experiment, though the quasi-linear wake structure could as easily be formed by an electron bunch or a laser driver. Finally, the results thus mark the first acceleration of a distinct positron bunch in plasma-based particle accelerators.

  2. Optimization of Two-Step Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for High Sugar Concentration in Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Getting high sugar concentrations in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate with reasonable yields of sugars is commercially attractive but very challenging. Two-step acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB was conducted to get high sugar concentrations in the hydrolysate. The biphasic kinetic model was used to guide the optimization of the first step dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of EFB. A total sugar concentration of 83.0 g/L with a xylose concentration of 69.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 84.0% was experimentally achieved, which is in well agreement with the model predictions under optimal conditions (3% H2SO4 and 1.2% H3PO4, w/v, liquid to solid ratio 3 mL/g, 130°C, and 36 min. To further increase total sugar and xylose concentrations in hydrolysate, a second step hydrolysis was performed by adding fresh EFB to the hydrolysate at 130°C for 30 min, giving a total sugar concentration of 114.4 g/L with a xylose concentration of 93.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 56.5%. To the best of our knowledge, the total sugar and xylose concentrations are the highest among those ever reported for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

  3. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  4. Analysis of bunch by bunch oscillations with bunch trains at injection into LHC at 25 ns bunch spacing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H

    2012-01-01

    An MD on August 26, 2011 was dedicated to injection studies of bunch trains with 25 ns spacing and nominal intensity of approximately 1×10(11) protons per bunch. Due to an electrical glitch, the MD was stopped after two attempts of injecting a train of 48 bunches for beam 2. Both injections were aborted after less than 0.1 s. In particular, the first attempt with transverse damper on was dumped after 1000 turns while the second attempt with transverse damper off was dumped after 500 turns only. In this note, an analysis of the bunch by bunch oscillation data recorded with the post-mortem system from the transverse damper is presented. The presented data clearly shows the presence of instabilities that affect mainly the second half of the batch. This is compatible with what would be expected qualitatively in the presence of the electron cloud effect.

  5. Extremely short relativistic-electron-bunch generation in the laser wakefield via novel bunch injection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Khachatryan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently a new electron-bunch injection scheme for the laser wakefield accelerator has been proposed [JETP Lett. 74, 371 (2001JTPLA20021-364010.1134/1.1427124; Phys. Rev. E 65, 046504 (2002PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.65.046504]. In this scheme, a low energy electron bunch, sent in a plasma channel just before a high-intensity laser pulse, is trapped in the laser wakefield, considerably compressed and accelerated to an ultrarelativistic energy. In this paper we show the possibility of the generation of an extremely short (on the order of 1   μm long or a few femtoseconds in duration relativistic-electron-bunch by this mechanism. The initial electron bunch, which can be generated, for example, by a laser-driven photocathode rf gun, should have an energy of a few hundred keVs to a few MeVs, a duration in the picosecond range or less and a relatively low concentration. The trapping conditions and parameters of an accelerated bunch are investigated. The laser pulse dynamics as well as a possible experimental setup for the demonstration of the injection scheme are also considered.

  6. Bunch rotation tests at SPS flat top for the AWAKE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Argyropoulos, T; Bohl, T; Esteban Müller, J F; Petrenko, A; Shaposhnikova, E; Timko, H

    2013-01-01

    This note summarises the results of two MDs on bunch rotation at SPS flat top. The first MD was carried out on 11th July 2012 with the Q26 optics, while the second MD on the 30th October 2012 used the Q20 optics. To obtain a short bunch length, which is important for the plasma wake-field acceleration project AWAKE, the bunches have been rotated in longitudinal phase space on the SPS flat top. The aim of the MDs was to obtain first estimates of what bunch length, intensity, and transverse emittances - which are crucial for the project - can be achieved for high-intensity single bunches.

  7. Resistive wall wakefields of short bunches at cryogenic temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stupakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present calculations of the longitudinal wakefields at cryogenic temperatures for extremely short bunches, characteristic for modern x-ray free electron lasers. The calculations are based on the equations for the surface impedance in the regime of the anomalous skin effect in metals. This paper extends and complements an earlier analysis of B. Podobedov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 044401 (2009. into the region of very high frequencies associated with bunch lengths in the micron range. We study in detail the case of a rectangular bunch distribution for parameters of interest of LCLS-II with a superconducting undulator.

  8. Interaction of an ion bunch with a plasma slab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Charge neutralization of a short ion bunch passing through a plasma slab is studied by means of numerical simulation. It is shown that a fraction of plasma electrons are trapped by the bunch under the action of the collective charge separation field. The accelerated electrons generated in this process excite beam−plasma instability, thereby violating the trapping conditions. The process of electron trapping is also strongly affected by the high-frequency electric field caused by plasma oscillations at the slab boundaries. It is examined how the degree of charge neutralization depends on the parameters of the bunch and plasma slab.

  9. SuperB Bunch-By-Bunch Feedback R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drago, A.; Beretta, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC; Migliorati, M.; /Rome U.

    2011-08-12

    The SuperB project has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The SuperB design is based on collisions with extremely low vertical emittance beams and high beam currents. A source of emittance growth comes from the bunch by bunch feedback systems producing high power correction signals to damp the beams. To limit any undesirable effect, a large R&D program is in progress, partially funded by the INFN Fifth National Scientific Committee through the SFEED (SuperB Feedback) project approved within the 2010 budget. The SuperB project [1] has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In the last and current years, the machine layout has been deeply modified, in particular the main rings are now shorter and an option with high currents has been foreseen. In the fig.1 the new SuperB layout is shown. From bunch-by-bunch feedback point of view, the simultaneous presence in the machine parameters, of very low emittance, of the order of 5-10 pm in the vertical plane, and very high currents, at level of 4 Ampere for the Low Energy Ring, asks for designing very carefully the bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. The parameter list is presented in Fig. 2. The bunch-by-bunch feedback design must take care of the risky and exciting challenges proposed in the SuperB specifications, but it should consider also some other important aspects: flexibility in terms of being able to cope to unexpected beam behaviours [2], [3] legacy of previous version experience [4], [5] and internal powerful diagnostics [6] as in the systems previously used in PEP-II and DAFNE [7].

  10. Longitudinal single-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, M.; Palumbo, L.; Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome

    2001-02-01

    After introducing the concepts of longitudinal wakefield and coupling impedance, it is reviewed the theory of longitudinal single-bunch collective effects in storage rings. From the Fokker-Planck equation it is first derived the stationary solution describing the natural single-bunch regime, and then treat the problem of microwave instability, showing the different approaches used for estimating the threshold current. The lecture is ended with the semi-empirical laws that allow everyone to obtain the single-bunch behaviour above threshold, and with a description of the simulation codes that are now reliable tools for investigating all these effects

  11. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  12. Multi-bunch feedback systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lonza, M

    2008-01-01

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. The advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. The lecture will first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedbacks systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback sy...

  13. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lonza, M.

    2014-12-19

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main co...

  14. Coasting beam theory applied to bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereward, H.

    1975-01-01

    It is plausible to apply coasting beam criteria to bunches if one has short wavelength disturbances of the bunch and short memory wake fields, where short means short compared with a bunch length, for then one can argue that a piece of the bunch near the middle does not even know that the bunch has ends. Some other conditions probably required to validate this approach are discussed. The local Keil-Schnell criterion is derived from the local dispersion integral

  15. Design of a Multi-Bunch BPM for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) design requires precise control of colliding trains of high-intensity (1.4 x 10 10 particles/bunch) and low-emittance beams. High-resolution multi-bunch beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to ensure uniformity across the bunch trains with bunch spacing of 1.4ns. A high bandwidth (∼350 MHz) multi-bunch BPM has been designed based on a custom-made stripline sum and difference hybrid on a Teflon-based material. High bandwidth RF couplers were included to allow injection of a calibration tone. Three prototype BPMs were fabricated at SLAC and tested in the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK and in the PEP-II ring at SLAC. Tone calibration data and single-bunch and multi-bunch beam data were taken with high-speed (5Gsa/s) digitizers. Offline analysis determined the deconvolution of individual bunches in the multi-bunch mode by using the measured single bunch response. The results of these measurements are presented in this paper

  16. Investigation of transient processes at the DELTA electron storage ring using a digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoener, Markus

    2015-07-01

    At the 1.5-GeV synchrotron radiation source DELTA, operated by the TU Dortmund University, intensive synchrotron radiation in the spectral range from hard X-rays to THz radiation is generated by the circular deflection of highly relativistic electron bunches. Interacting with the vacuum chamber wall, the electron bunches create electric fields, which can act back on subsequent bunches. With increasing beam current, the excitation is enhanced so that the electron beam is unstable, which means that the electron bunches oscillate longitudinally or transversely relative to their reference position. The oscillations reduce the quality of the synchrotron radiation and limit the maximum storable beam current. Within the scope of this thesis, the beam instabilities at the storage ring were systematically investigated. A digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system was installed and commissioned, which allows to detect and digitize the position of each electron bunch at each turn. Based on the input signal, a correction signal is calculated in order to suppress transverse and longitudinal oscillation of the bunches. In addition, it is possible to excite dedicated bunches. The systematic excitation of all coupled-bunch modes allowed for the first time to determine the damping rates of all 192 eigenmodes of the electron beam. The current dependence of the damping rates was investigated and an instability threshold was found. Besides the investigation of multibunch instabilities, single-bunch instabilities are discussed. In addition, the acquisition unit of the digital feedback system can be triggered on external events. This was used to investigate the injection process and beam losses. It was shown that the transverse feedback system increases the injection efficiency. Another aspect of this thesis is the improvement of the signal quality of ultrashort coherent synchrotron radiation pulses, which are generated by the short-pulse facility at DELTA. The short-pulse facility is based

  17. Review of Coupled Bunch Instabilities in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

    2002-01-01

    In order to reach the required luminosity, the LHC will have a large number of high intensity bunches. Coupled bunch instabilities can therefore be excited by the higher order modes (HOMs)of the RF cavities, by parasitic cavities and by the transverse resistive wall effect. This report summarises the growth times of the coupled bunch instabilities taking into account the HOMs (damped or undamped)relevant for the 200 MHz normal conducting cavities, the 400 MHz superconducting cavities, as well as other parasitic cavities. It is shown that, with the damped HOMs of the RF cavities, the coupled bunch instabilities remain within control for the LHC operation.As far as the transverse resistive wall effect at injection disconcerned,it is demonstrated that the corresponding growth times can be safely compensated by the proposed transverse feedback system [1].

  18. Commissioning of an electro-optic electron bunch length monitor at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunlin, Jonas

    2011-03-01

    The demands on the electron beam qualities for free-electron lasers (FEL) are challenging in terms of high peak currents. At FLASH, the high-gain FEL in Hamburg, longitudinal bunch compression is performed to achieve the requested high charge densities in short bunches. The precise control of the bunch compression process requires advanced diagnostics on the longitudinal bunch profile. The bunch length monitor presented in this thesis is based on a non-destructive detection using the electro-optic effect. The focus is on a compact and reliable system for permanent bunch diagnostics. The monitor provides single-shot measurements of the longitudinal bunch profiles with lengths of a few picoseconds by spectrally encoding their charge distribution. First measurements for characterization purpose have been performed. It has been shown that the monitor is suitable for monitoring the longitudinal bunch profile behind the first bunch compressor at FLASH. Electron bunch profiles with slopes corresponding to a full width half maximum of about 1.4 ps have been detected. That is the intrinsic resolution limit of the utilized method. (orig.)

  19. High-harmonic electron bunching in the field of a signal wave and the use of this effect in cyclotron masers with frequency multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bandurkin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of organizing electron-wave interaction at the multiplied frequency of the signal wave is proposed. This type of electron-wave interaction provides multiplied-frequency electron bunching, which leads to formation of an intense harmonic of the electron current at a selected multiplied frequency of the signal wave. This effect is attractive for the use in klystron-type cyclotron masers with frequency multiplication as a way to increase the output frequency and improve the selectivity.

  20. Measurement of multi-bunch transfer functions using time-domain data and Fourier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindi, H.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Fox, J.; Prabhakar, S.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Drago, A.

    1993-12-01

    Multi-bunch transfer functions are principal ingredients in understanding both the behavior of high-current storage rings as well as control of their instabilities. The measurement of transfer functions on a bunch-by-bunch basis is particularly important in the design of active feedback systems. Traditional methods of network analysis that work well in the single bunch case become difficult to implement for many bunches. We have developed a method for obtaining empirical estimates of the multi-bunch longitudinal transfer functions from the time-domain measurements of the bunches' phase oscillations. This method involves recording the response of the bunch of interest to a white-noise excitation. The transfer function can then be computed as the ratio of the fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of the response and excitation sequences, averaged over several excitations. The calculation is performed off-line on bunch-phase data and is well-suited to the multi-bunch case. A description of this method and an analysis of its performance is presented with results obtained using the longitudinal quick prototype feedback system developed at SLAC

  1. Application of Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) Photodetectors for Transverse and Longitudinal Intra-Bunch Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, R J; Boland, M J; Lucas, T G; Rassool, R P

    2013-01-01

    The performance reach of modern accelerators is often governed by the ability to reliably measure and control the beam stability. In high-brightness lepton and high-energy hadron accelerators, the use of optical diagnostic techniques is becoming more widespread as the required bandwidth, resolution and high RF beam power level involved limit the use of traditional electro-magnetic RF pick-up based methods. This contribution discusses the use of fibre-coupled ultra-fast Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors (MSM-PD) as an alternative, dependablemeans to measure signals derived from electro-optical and synchrotron-light based diagnostics systems. It describes the beam studies performed at CERN’s CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) and the Australian Synchrotron to assess the feasibility of this technology as a robust, wide-band and sensitive technique for measuring transverse intra-bunch and bunch-by-bunch beam oscillations, longitudinal beam profiles, un-bunched beam population and beam-halo profiles. The amplifica...

  2. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 μHy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode

  3. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 ..mu..Hy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode.

  4. Transverse and longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities in trains of closely spaced bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-03-01

    Damping rings for the next generation of linear collider may need to contain several bunch trains within which the bunches are quire closely spaced (1 or 2 RF wavelengths). Methods are presented for studying the transverse and longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities, applicable to this problem and to other cases in which the placement of the bunches is not necessarily symmetric. 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. Simulation of Transverse Multi-Bunch Instabilities of Proton Beams in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koschik, Alexander; Zotter, Bruno

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed for highest luminosity and therefore requires operation with a large number of bunches and high intensities. Its performance could be limited by the electromagnetic interaction between the charged particle beam and its surroundings which cause collective instabilities. This thesis describes methods of simulating and analyzing multi-bunch instabilities in circular accelerators and storage rings. The simulation models as well as analyzing tools presented here, also facilitate the interpretation of measurements in multi-bunch machines. The 3-dimensional, multi-bunch tracking program MultiTRISIM was developed, based on its single-bunch predecessor TRISIM3D. It allows the exploration of longrange effects in round or flat vacuum chambers for equidistant or uneven filling schemes. Previous computer simulations of collective effects concentrated mainly on instabilities of single or few bunches in electron storage rings. There, the strong radiation damping reduces the r...

  6. Bunch coalescing and bunch rotation in the Fermilab Main Ring: Operational experience and comparison with simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.S.; Wildman, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron I proton-antiproton collider project requires that the Fermilab Main Ring produce intense bunches of protons and antiprotons for injection into the Tevatron. The process of coalescing a small number of harmonic number h=1113 bunches into a single bunch by bunch-rotating in a lower harmonic rf system is described.The Main Ring is also required to extract onto the antiproton production target bunches with as narrow a time spread as possible. This operation is also discussed. The operation of the bunch coalescing and bunch rotation are compared with simulations using the computer program ESME. 2 refs., 8 figs

  7. Modelling and measurements of bunch profiles at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, S. [Crete U.; Antoniou, F. [Liverpool U.; Argyropoulos, T. [CERN; Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Hostettler, M. [CERN; Papaphilippou, Y. [CERN

    2017-07-20

    The bunch profiles in the LHC are often observed to be non-Gaussian, both at Flat Bottom (FB) and Flat Top (FT) energies. Especially at FT, an evolution of the tail population in time is observed. In this respect, the Monte-Carlo Software for IBS and Radiation effects (SIRE) is used to track different types of beam distributions. The impact of the distribution shape on the evolution of bunch characteristics is studied. The results are compared with observations from the LHC Run 2 data.

  8. Optimization of a train of bunches for plasma wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorelli, Roberto

    2016-05-10

    Particle accelerators are a fundamental instrument for the understanding of fundamental mechanism in nature. The need of always higher energies for the particle beams requires a huge increase of the sizes of the accelerators using the actual technology. Moreover the highest energies are achieved nowadays by circular colliders, not perfectly suitable for acceleration of electrons and positrons due to the radiation losses. In order to overcome this problem a new branch of physics studying alternative technique for particle acceleration has been developed. Among the various alternatives a promising one is the plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), in which a driver bunch interacts with a cold background plasma, exciting a plasma wave. The electric field of the plasma wave is then used for the acceleration of a second bunch. Such a mechanism allows to reach fields strength far beyond currently available, limited by the dielectric strength of the material. Among the different driver configurations, a promising one is the use of a modulated beam, namely a train of bunches, that provides a coherent interference among the electric fields generated by the single bunches. Such mechanism is subjected to a renewed interest in view of the forthcoming AWAKE experiment at CERN in which the long proton beam produced at the SPS facility is used as a driver. This possibility is achieved thanks to the onset of the self-modulation instability that modulates the long beam in a train of approximately 100 bunches. In order to accelerate the witness bunch to high energies is necessary on the other hand an efficient exchange of energy from the driver to the accelerated bunch, as well as a long duration of the driver so that can propagates for kilometers. This thesis deals with this two last aspects. The aim of this work is to provide an optimization for the modulated driver in order to improve specific features of the PWFA. This work shows the possibility to achieve an improved efficiency

  9. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonza, M; Schmickler, H

    2014-01-01

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main components of a feedback system and the related issues will also be analysed. Finally, we shall focus on digital feedback systems, their characteristics, and features, as well as on how they can be concretely exploited for both the optimization of feedback performance and for beam dynamics studies

  10. PF-KO system for single bunch mode operation of a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgaki, H.; Sugiyama, S.; Mikado, T.; Chiwaki, M.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, R.; Sei, N.; Noguchi, T.; Yamazaki, T.

    1994-01-01

    A new RF-KO (RF knockout) system for the single bunch mode operation of a storage ring has been developed. The knockout signal is modulated by the sum signal of the RF acceleration frequency of the storage ring and a bunch selection signal. We do not need any special device or a timing unit with this method. We obtain a high purity of bunch structure in a short knock out time. The single bunch impurity of 0.2% has been achieved. (author)

  11. Transverse modes of a bunched beam with space charge dominated impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balbekov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transverse coherent oscillations of a bunched beam in a ring accelerator are considered with space charge dominated impedance, taking into account linear synchrotron oscillations. A general equation of the bunch eigenmodes is derived, its exact analytical solution is presented for boxcar bunch, and numerical solutions are found for several realistic models. Both low and high synchrotron frequency approximations are considered and compared, fields of their applicability are determined, and some estimations are developed in the intermediate region. It is shown that most of the bunch eigenmodes are stabilized by Landau damping due to the space charge produced tune spread.

  12. Anomalous length of electron bunches as an instability threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmid, E.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    A mechanism for the anomalous length of electron bunches, based on the existence of a ''fast'' longitudinal instability, is proposed. The equilibrium length is obtained by requiring that the growth rate be sufficiently larger than the rate of synchrotron oscillations. The theory is used to describe the bunch length data for SPEAR at 1.5 GeV. The low voltage and/or high current regime is dominated by a set of ''low'' frequency, low Q resonators [e.g., f = 320 MHz, Δf(fwhm) = 130 MHz]. To fit the observations in the high voltage and/or low current regime, a high frequency, low Q impedance is required (e.g., f = 3.8 GHz, Δf = 1.0 GHz). The mechanism is mediated by the resistive component of the impedance. Thus, there is qualitative agreement with the observed distortion of the bunch tail. This is in contrast to the predictions of the potential well models based on a reactive impedance source. These latter theories yield large distortions of the head of the bunch. The calculated power dissipated in the assumed sources by the given electron bunch is not inconsistent with estimates made for SPEAR

  13. Turn-by-Turn and Bunch-by-Bunch Transverse Profiles of a Single Bunch in a Full Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, R.; Fisher, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The apparatus described in this paper can image the evolution of the transverse profile of a single bunch, isolated from a full PEP-II ring of 1500 bunches. Using this apparatus there are two methods of single bunch imaging; bunch-by-bunch beam profiling can image every bunch in the ring a single bunch at a time with the images of sequential bunches being in order, allowing one to see variations in beam size along a train. Turn-by-turn beam profiling images a single bunch on each successive turn it makes around the ring. This method will be useful in determining the effect that an injected bunch has on a stable bunch as the oscillations of the injected bunch damp out. Turn-by-turn imaging of the synchrotron light uses a system of lenses and mirrors to image many turns of both the major and minor axis of a single bunch across the photocathode of a gateable camera. The bunch-by-bunch method is simpler: because of a focusing mirror used in porting the light from the ring, the synchrotron light from the orbiting electrons becomes an image at a certain distance from the mirror; and since the camera does not use a lens, the photocathode is set exactly at this image distance. Bunch-by-bunch profiling has shown that in the Low Energy Ring (LER) horizontal bunch size decreases along a train. Turn-by-turn profiling has been able to image 100 turns of a single bunch on one exposure of the camera. The turn-by-turn setup has also been able to image 50 turns of the minor axis showing part of the damping process of an oscillating injected charge during a LER fill. The goal is to image the damping of oscillations of injected charge for 100 turns of both the major and minor axis throughout the damping process during trickle injection. With some changes to the apparatus this goal is within reach and will make turn-by-turn imaging a very useful tool in beam diagnostics

  14. Femtosecond electron bunches, source and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongbai, C.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rimjaem, S.; Rhodes, M.W.; Saisut, J.; Thamboon, P.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Vilaithong, T.

    2008-01-01

    A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University, Thailand. So far, it has produced electron bunches as short as σ z ∼180 fs with (1-6)x10 8 electrons per microbunch. The system consists of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. Coherent transition radiation emitted at wavelengths equal to and longer than the bunch length is used in a Michelson interferometer to determine the bunch length by autocorrelation technique. The experimental setup and results of the bunch length measurement are described

  15. MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C. [Center for Quantum Technologies, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 (Singapore); Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H., E-mail: pengkian@physics.org, E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-07-01

    Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

  16. Simulations of Bunch Merging in a Beta Beam Decay Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Daniel Christopher; Chance, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    To further study neutrino oscillation properties a Beta Beam facility has been proposed. Beta decaying ions with high kinetic energy are stored in a storage ring ("Decay Ring") with straight sections to create pure focused (anti) electron neutrino beams. However to reach high sensitivity to neutrino oscillation parameters in the experiment the bunched beam intensity and duty cycle in the DR have to be optimized. The first CERN-based scenario, using 6He and 18Ne as neutrino sources, has been studied using a bunch merging RF scheme. Two RF cavities at different frequencies are used to capture newly injected bunches and then merge them into the stored bunches. It was shown that this scheme could satisfy the requirements on intensity and duty cycle set by the experiment. This merging scheme has now been revised with new simulation software providing new results for 6He and 18Ne. Furthermore bunch merging has been studied for the second CERN-based scenario using 8Li and 8B.

  17. Improvement of bunch-by-bunch beam current detection system in Hefei light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Kai; Wang Junhua; Liu Zuping; Li Weimin; Zhou Zeran; Yang Yongliang; Huang Longjun; Chen Yuanbo

    2006-01-01

    Bunch-by-bunch beam current detection system is an important facility in the multibunch storage ring. In this paper, the established bunch-by-bunch beam current detection systems for the accelerator such as Cornell, SLAC and KEKB were compared and studied. The design of the bunch-by-bunch beam current detection system for HLS, which was based on the bunch-by-bunch tracing measurement system in HLS was given. Both demodulation by sine wave and square were applied in this paper, the deviation of the detect system was determined by the longitudinal oscillation. Compared the data acquired from ADC with the data from DCCT, the ADC data was scaled by the bunch current. The standard deviations of linear fit were about 1%, and the standard deviations of polynomial fit were less than 0.5% in both sine wave and square wave demodulation. Some analysis of the measurement results also had been shown in this paper. (authors)

  18. Simple method for generating adjustable trains of picosecond electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muggli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, passive method for producing an adjustable train of picosecond electron bunches is demonstrated. The key component of this method is an electron beam mask consisting of an array of parallel wires that selectively spoils the beam emittance. This mask is positioned in a high magnetic dispersion, low beta-function region of the beam line. The incoming electron beam striking the mask has a time/energy correlation that corresponds to a time/position correlation at the mask location. The mask pattern is transformed into a time pattern or train of bunches when the dispersion is brought back to zero downstream of the mask. Results are presented of a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating this novel technique that was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. This technique allows for easy tailoring of the bunch train for a particular application, including varying the bunch width and spacing, and enabling the generation of a trailing witness bunch.

  19. Bunch lengthening in the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.

    1990-02-01

    A high level of current dependent bunch lengthening has been observed on the North damping ring of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). At currents of 3 x 10 10 this behavior does not appear to degrade the machine's performance significantly. However, at the higher currents that are envisioned for the future one fears that its performance could be greatly degraded due to the phenomenon of bunch lengthening. This was the motivation for the work described in this paper. In this paper we calculate the longitudinal impedance of the damping ring vacuum chamber. More specifically, in this paper we find the response function of the ring to a short Gaussian bunch, which we call the Green function wake. In addition, we try to estimate the relative importance of the different vacuum chamber objects, in order to see how we might reduce the ring impedance. This paper also describes bunch length measurements performed on the North damping ring. We use the Green function wake, discussed above, to compute the bunch lengthening. Then we compare these results with those obtained from the measurements. In addition, we calculate the current dependence of the tune distribution

  20. Quantum beamstrahlung from gaussian bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.

    1987-08-01

    The method of Baier and Katkov is applied to calculate the correction terms to the Sokolov-Ternov radiation formula due to the variation of the magnetic field strength along the trajectory of a radiating particle. We carry the calculation up to the second order in the power expansion of B tau/B, where tau is the formation time of radiation. The expression is then used to estimate the quantum beamstrahlung average energy loss from e + e - bunches with gaussian distribution in bunch currents. We show that the effect of the field variation is to reduce the average energy loss from previous calculations based on the Sokolov-Ternov formula or its equivalent. Due to the limitation of our method, only an upper bound of the reduction is obtained. 18 refs

  1. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lonza, M.; Schmickler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides importa...

  2. Bunching phase and constraints on echo enabled harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, E.

    2018-05-01

    A simple mathematical description is developed for the bunching spectrum in echo enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) that incorporates the effect of additional electron beam energy modulations. Under common assumptions, they are shown to contribute purely through the phase of the longitudinal bunching factor, which allows the spectral moments of the bunching to be calculated directly from the known energy modulations. In particular, the second moment (spectral bandwidth) serves as simple constraint on the amplitude of the energy modulations to maintain a transform-limited seed. We show that, in general, the impact on the spectrum of energy distortions that develop between the EEHG chicanes scales like the harmonic number compared to distortions that occur upstream. This may limit the parameters that will allow EEHG to reach short wavelengths in high brightness FELs.

  3. Electron bunch length measurement with a wakefield radiation decelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure the electron bunch length with a dielectric wakefield radiation (DWR decelerator which is composed of two dielectric-lined waveguides (DLWs and an electron spectrometer. When an electron beam passes through a DLW, the DWR is excited which leads to an energy loss of the electron beam. The energy loss is found to be largely dependent on the electron bunch length and can be easily measured by an electron spectrometer which is essential for a normal accelerator facility. Our study shows that this method has a high resolution and a great simplicity.

  4. A study of fast bunch rotation in the negative mass region

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    Fast bunch rotation of high-intensity proton or ion bunches above transition is - in principle - supported by the self-bunching effect of the attractive space charge force ("negative instabilities"). Due to the broad-band nature of the space charge impedance, the highest harmonics of this negative mass mode grow fast and inhibit compression, unless the bunch rotation is accelerated by a sufficiently high rf-voltage. Using particle-in-cell simulation we establish the threshold below which effective compression is still possible. We find that the required rf-voltage for compression of a given bunch above transition can be reduced at most by a factor 2 compared with compression below transition, where space charge requires extra voltage.

  5. Beam simulations with initial bunch noise in superconducting RF proton linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, J

    2010-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by coupled bunch instabilities (CBI), driven by impedance peaks, where then all cavity higher order modes (HOMs) are possible drivers. Limiting the CBI growth rate is the fundamental reason that all superconducting rf cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. The question arises if for similar reasons HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current superconducting rf proton linacs. Therefore we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in such machines, also including charge and position noise on the injected bunches. Simulations were executed for a generic linac with properties close to the planned SPL at CERN, SNS, or Project X at FNAL. It was found that with strong bunch noise and monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter, possibly exceeding the admittance of a receiving machine, cannot be excluded. A transverse simulation shows similar requirements. Therefore including initial bunch noise in any beam dynamic study on superconducti...

  6. Nonlinear electrostatic emittance compensation in kA, fs electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.B. van der; Loos, M.J. de; Botman, J.I.M.; Luiten, O.J.; Wiel, M.J. van der

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear space-charge effects play an important role in emittance growth in the production of kA electron bunches with a bunch length much smaller than the bunch diameter. We propose a scheme employing the radial third-order component of an electrostatic acceleration field, to fully compensate the nonlinear space-charge effects. This results in minimal transverse root-mean-square emittance. The principle is demonstrated using our design simulations of a device for the production of high-quality, high-current, subpicosecond electron bunches using electrostatic acceleration in a 1 GV/m field. Simulations using the GPT code produce a bunch of 100 pC and 73 fs full width at half maximum pulse width, resulting in a peak current of about 1.2 kA at an energy of 2 MeV. The compensation scheme reduces the root-mean-square emittance by 34% to 0.4π mm mrad

  7. Beam diagnostics based on time-domain bunch-by-bunch data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, D.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Limborg, C.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Sebek, J.; Young, A.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.; Barry, W.; Stover, G.

    1998-01-01

    A bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system has been used to control coupled-bunch longitudinal motion and study the behavior of the beam at ALS, SPEAR, PEP-II, and DAΦNE. Each of these machines presents unique challenges to feedback control of unstable motion and data analysis. Here we present techniques developed to adapt this feedback system to operating conditions at these accelerators. A diverse array of techniques has been developed to extract information on different aspects of beam behavior from the time-domain data captured by the feedback system. These include measurements of growth and damping rates of coupled-bunch modes, bunch-by-bunch current monitoring, measurements of bunch-by-bunch synchronous phases and longitudinal tunes, and beam noise spectra. A technique is presented which uses the longitudinal feedback system to measure transverse growth and damping rates. Techniques are illustrated with data acquired at all of the four above-mentioned machines

  8. Production of high concentration of l-lactic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans JI12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juturu, Veeresh; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2018-03-01

    Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans JI12 was used to ferment hemicellulose hydrolysate obtained by acid hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch at 50 °C and pH 6, producing 105.4 g/L of l-lactic acid with a productivity of 9.3 g/L/H by fed-batch fermentation under unsterilized conditions. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed at pH 5.5 and 50 °C to convert both hemicellulose hydrolysate and cellulose-lignin complex in the presence of Cellic Ctec2 cellulases using yeast extract (20 g/L) as the nitrogen source, giving 114.0 g/L of l-lactic acid with a productivity of 5.7 g/L/H. The SSF was also conducted by replacing yeast extract with equal amount of dry Bakers' yeast, achieving 120.0 g/L of l-lactic acid with a productivity of 4.3 g/L/H. To the best of our knowledge, these lactic acid titers and productivities are the highest ever reported from lignocellulose hydrolysates. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Bunch compression at the Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzapple, R.L.; Decker, F.J.; Simopoulos, C.

    1995-08-01

    The production and measurement of short electron and positron bunches in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) will be presented in this paper. The bunches are compressed in a transport line between the damping rings and the linac. The electron and positron bunch distributions in the SLC linac have been measured using a Hamamatsu, model N3373-02, 500-femtosecond streak camera. The distributions were measured at the end of the SLC linac versus the bunch compressor RF voltage. The measurements are compared with simulations

  10. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  11. Certain features of FELs with short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The report is devoted to physics of free electron lasers operating in the short-wave domain where the bunch length could be less than the undulator length in the proper frame. Then the current component of the signal is locked within the bunch as in a cavity, while the electromagnetic component propagates freely. In contrast with gyrotrons where this regime can be of interest only for wavelengths comparable with the bunch length, we consider short waves in a bunch of arbitrary profile. Both amplification of an external harmonic signal and SASE regime, i.e. selective amplification of proper noises, are investigated

  12. Tax Bunching, Income Shifting and Self-employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Christian Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    shifting was neglected in this case, we would conclude that taxable incomes were highly sensitive to changes in marginal tax rates. We show, however, that more than half of the observed bunching in taxable income for the self-employed is driven by intertemporal income shifting, implying a structural...

  13. Tax Bunching, Income Shifting and Self-employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Christian Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    2013-01-01

    was neglected in this case, we would estimate a taxable income elasticity in the range of 0.43-0.53 and conclude that taxable incomes were highly sensitive to changes in marginal tax rates. We show, however, that more than half of the bunching in taxable income is driven by intertemporal income shifting...

  14. An Electron Bunch Compression Scheme for a Superconducting Radio Frequency Linear Accelerator Driven Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Tennant, S.V. Benson, D. Douglas, P. Evtushenko, R.A. Legg

    2011-09-01

    We describe an electron bunch compression scheme suitable for use in a light source driven by a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linac. The key feature is the use of a recirculating linac to perform the initial bunch compression. Phasing of the second pass beam through the linac is chosen to de-chirp the electron bunch prior to acceleration to the final energy in an SRF linac ('afterburner'). The final bunch compression is then done at maximum energy. This scheme has the potential to circumvent some of the most technically challenging aspects of current longitudinal matches; namely transporting a fully compressed, high peak current electron bunch through an extended SRF environment, the need for a RF harmonic linearizer and the need for a laser heater. Additional benefits include a substantial savings in capital and operational costs by efficiently using the available SRF gradient.

  15. Mutual compensation of wakefield and chromatic effects of intense linac bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.; Merminga, N.

    1990-05-01

    Mutual compensation of transverse and chromatic effects for intense electron bunches in a high-energy linac is a recent Novosibirsk idea which provides a new control of emittance enlargement. In this paper we elaborate on the principles and constraints for this new technique which requires careful matching of internal bunch parameters with external forces. With species values of the bunch length, bunch intensity, and klystron phasing, the transverse-wakefield-induced forces within the bunch can be cancelled by energy-dependent forces from the quadrupole lattice at all positions along the linac. Under these conditions the tolerances for quadrupole alignment, dipole stability, and injection launch errors are significantly relaxed. 7 refs., 8 figs

  16. TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).

  17. Correlation between morphological characters and estimated bunch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology of multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to estimate bunch weight. The most significant variables that were measured included number of leaves at harvest, number of fruits per bunch, FW, FL, rachis weight (RW) and stalk length (SL), generating the following prediction equation: BW= -5.249 + ...

  18. Femtosecond single electron bunch generation by rotating longitudinal bunch phase space in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Kondoh, T.; Kan, K.; Kozawa, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    2006-01-01

    A femtosecond (fs) electron bunching was observed in a photoinjector with a magnetic compressor by rotating the bunch in longitudinal phase space. The bunch length was obtained by measuring Cherenkov radiation of the electron beam with a femtosecond streak camera technique. A single electron bunch with rms bunch length of 98 fs was observed for a 32 MeV electron beam at a charge of 0.17 nC. The relative energy spread and the normalized transverse emittance of the electron beam were 0.2% and 3.8 mm-mrad, respectively. The effect of space charge on the bunch compression was investigated experimentally for charges from 0.17 to 1.25 nC. The dependences of the relative energy spread and the normalized beam transverse emittance on the bunch charge were measured

  19. Curvature radiation by bunches of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saggion, A.

    1975-01-01

    A bunch of relativistic particles moving on a curved trajectory is considered. The coherent emission of curvature radiation is described with particular regard to the role played by the 'shape' of the bunch as a function of its dimensions. It is found that the length of the bunch strongly affects the spectrum of the radiation emitted, with no effect on its polarization. For wavelengths shorter than the length of the bunch, the emitted intensity as a function of frequency shows recurrent maxima and minima, the height of the maxima being proportional to νsup(-5/3). The bunch dimensions perpendicular to the plane of the orbit affect both the spectral intensity and the polarization of the radiation. (orig./BJ) [de

  20. Feedback control of coupled-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Oxoby, G.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Serio, M.

    1993-05-01

    The next generation of synchrotron light sources and particle accelerators will require active feedback systems to control multi-bunch instabilities. Stabilizing hundreds or thousands of potentially unstable modes in these accelerator designs presents many technical challenges. Feedback systems to stabilize coupled-bunch instabilities may be understood in the frequency domain (mode-based feedback) or in the time domain (bunch-by-bunch feedback). In both approaches an external amplifier system is used to create damping fields that prevent coupled-bunch oscillations from growing without bound. The system requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback are presented, and possible implementation options developed. Feedback system designs based on digital signal-processing techniques are described. Experimental results are shown from a synchrotron oscillation damper in the SSRL/SLAC storage ring SPEAR that uses digital signal-processing techniques

  1. Operational experience with nanocoulomb bunch charges in the Cornell photoinjector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bartnik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of 9–9.5 MeV electron beams produced in the dc-gun based Cornell photoinjector is given for bunch charges ranging from 20 pC to 2 nC. Comparison of the measured emittances and longitudinal current profiles to optimized 3D space charge simulations yields excellent agreement for bunch charges up to 1 nC when the measured laser distribution is used to generate initial particle distributions in simulation. Analysis of the scaling of the measured emittance with bunch charge shows that the emittance scales roughly as the square root of the bunch charge up to 300 pC, above which the trend becomes linear. These measurements demonstrate that the Cornell photoinjector can produce cathode emittance dominated beams meeting the emittance and peak current specifications for next generation free electron lasers operating at high repetition rate. In addition, the 1 and 2 nC results are relevant to the electron ion collider community.

  2. Theory of longitudinal instability for bunched electron and proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is given of an original approach for the treatment of the longitudinal stability of high-intensity proton and electron bunches. The general analysis is divided in three steps. First, a search is made for a stationary bunch distribution which is matched to the external rf forces as well as to the current dependent induced fields. The existence of such distribution is questioned. Second, the stability of the stationary solution is checked by applying a small perturbation and observing whether this is initially damped or not. At this point a stability condition is derived in terms of current, surrounding impedance and bunch size. In the last step one should question what happens to the beam in case the stability condition is not satisfied. The problem here is the determination of the final bunch configuration. The originality of the approach stays in the combination of the three steps. All previous theories either consider only the first step or combine the second and third ones but disregard the first

  3. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  4. Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, B.R.

    2007-07-01

    Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)

  5. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-01

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  6. Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, B.R.

    2007-07-15

    Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)

  7. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-15

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  8. Fast polycrystalline CdTe detectors for bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitoring in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, A; Jolliot, M; Bravin, E

    2008-01-01

    The luminosity at the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) must be continuously monitored in order to provide an adequate tool for the control and optimisation of beam parameters. Polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors have previously been tested, showing their high potential to fulfil the requirements of luminosity measurement in the severe environment of the LHC interaction regions. Further, the large signal yield and the fast response time should allow bunch-by-bunch measurement of the luminosity at 40 MHz with high accuracy. Four luminosity monitors with two rows of five polycrystalline CdTe detectors each have been fabricated and will be installed at both sides of the low-luminosity interaction points ALICE and LHC-b. A detector housing was specially designed to meet the mechanical constraints in the LHC. A series of elementary CdTe detectors were fabricated and tested, of which 40 were selected for the luminosity monitors. A sensitivity of 104 electrons per minimum ioni...

  9. The 'Fresh-Bunch' technique in FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Yang, K.M.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Fresh Bunch' technique is being proposed as a method of increasing the gain and power of FEL amplifiers in which the length of the optical radiation pulse is shorter than the length of the electron bunch. In multi-stage FEL, electron beam energy spread is increased by the FEL interaction in the early stages. In the 'Fresh Bunch' technique, the low energy spread of the electron beam is recovered by shifting the radiation pulse to an undisturbed part of the electron bunch, thus improving the gain and trapping fraction in later stages. A test case for the application of the Fresh Bunch method is demonstrated by numerical simulation. In this particular example we examine a subharmonically seeded VUV Free-Electron Laser. We begin with the generation of harmonic radiation, which takes place over one part of the electron bunch. Then the radiation is shifted by means of a strong dispersive section to a fresh part of the bunch for exponential amplification and tapered wiggler amplification. By starting over with a new ensemble of electrons, the energy spread introduced by the bunching in the fundamental is removed, leading to an increased gain. Furthermore, it is possible to use a much stronger seed in the fundamental without incurring the penalty of a large energy spread later on. We note that more than a single application of the 'Fresh Bunch' method may be done in a single FEL multiplier-amplifier. Thus x-ray wavelengths may be reached by successive multiplication in a chain of FEL amplifiers starting from a tunable seed laser. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Shielded transient self-interaction of a bunch entering a circle from a straight path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.; Bohn, C.L.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    When a short (mm-length) bunch with high (nC-regime) charge is transported through a magnetic bending system, self-interaction via coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space charge may alter the bunch dynamics significantly. The authors consider a Gaussian rigid-line-charge bunch following a straight-path trajectory into a circle, with the trajectory centered between two infinite, parallel, perfectly conducting plates. Transients associated with CSR and space charge generated from source particles both on the straight path and the circle are calculated, and their net effect on the radiated power is contrasted with that of shielded steady-state CSR

  11. Electron cooling of a bunched ion beam in a storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Mao, Lijun; Yang, Jiancheng; Xia, Jiawen; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Jie; Tang, Meitang; Shen, Guodong; Ma, Xiaoming; Wu, Bo; Wang, Geng; Ruan, Shuang; Wang, Kedong; Dong, Ziqiang

    2018-02-01

    A combination of electron cooling and rf system is an effective method to compress the beam bunch length in storage rings. A simulation code based on multiparticle tracking was developed to calculate the bunched ion beam cooling process, in which the electron cooling, intrabeam scattering (IBS), ion beam space-charge field, transverse and synchrotron motion are considered. Meanwhile, bunched ion beam cooling experiments have been carried out in the main cooling storage ring (CSRm) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou, to investigate the minimum bunch length obtained by the cooling method, and study the dependence of the minimum bunch length on beam and machine parameters. The experiments show comparable results to those from simulation. Based on these simulations and experiments, we established an analytical model to describe the limitation of the bunch length of the cooled ion beam. It is observed that the IBS effect is dominant for low intensity beams, and the space-charge effect is much more important for high intensity beams. Moreover, the particles will not be bunched for much higher intensity beam. The experimental results in CSRm show a good agreement with the analytical model in the IBS dominated regime. The simulation work offers us comparable results to those from the analytical model both in IBS dominated and space-charge dominated regimes.

  12. Modeling two-stage bunch compression with wakefields: Macroscopic properties and microbunching instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Bosch

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In a two-stage compression and acceleration system, where each stage compresses a chirped bunch in a magnetic chicane, wakefields affect high-current bunches. The longitudinal wakes affect the macroscopic energy and current profiles of the compressed bunch and cause microbunching at short wavelengths. For macroscopic wavelengths, impedance formulas and tracking simulations show that the wakefields can be dominated by the resistive impedance of coherent edge radiation. For this case, we calculate the minimum initial bunch length that can be compressed without producing an upright tail in phase space and associated current spike. Formulas are also obtained for the jitter in the bunch arrival time downstream of the compressors that results from the bunch-to-bunch variation of current, energy, and chirp. Microbunching may occur at short wavelengths where the longitudinal space-charge wakes dominate or at longer wavelengths dominated by edge radiation. We model this range of wavelengths with frequency-dependent impedance before and after each stage of compression. The growth of current and energy modulations is described by analytic gain formulas that agree with simulations.

  13. Analysis of multi-bunch instabilities at the Diamond storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Rehm, Guenther; Smaluk, Victor

    2017-01-01

    We present the result of the analytical, numerical and experimental analysis of multi-bunch instabilities at the Diamond storage ring. This work compares the impedance estimates with CST with the analysis of the growth rates of the excited multi-bunch modes in different machine configurations. The contribution of a number of wakefield sources has been identified with very high precision thanks to high quality data provided by the existing TMBF diagnostics.

  14. Down sampled signal processing for a B Factory bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Briggs, D.; Fox, J.; Hutton, A.

    1992-03-01

    A bunch-by-bunch feedback scheme is studied for damping coupled bunch synchrotron oscillations in the proposed PEP II B Factory. The quasi-linear feedback systems design incorporates a phase detector to provide a quantized measure of bunch phase, digital signal processing to compute an error correction signal and a kicker system to correct the energy of the bunches. A farm of digital processors, operating in parallel, is proposed to compute correction signals for the 1658 bunches of the B Factory. This paper studies the use of down sampled processing to reduce the computational complexity of the feedback system. We present simulation results showing the effect of down sampling on beam dynamics. Results show that down sampled processing can reduce the scale of the processing task by a factor of 10

  15. Evaluation of Cold Tolerant High Yielding Oil Palm Germplasm in Guangdong Province of South China, a Northern Tropical Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianhai, Z.; Denglang, P.; Zhao, L.; Junming, C.; Weifu, L.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the vegetative growth, yield components and cold resistance traits from 38 pre-selected individual oil palm plants grown in six regions (populations) at the latitude (LAT) range between 20 degree N and 23 degree N in Guangdong Province, China was carried out during the period from April 2010 to April 2015. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in traits between the individual palms or the populations [except sex-ratio of female inflorescence and fruit bunch to female inflorescence, male inflorescence and fruit bunch (%) (SR)]. Phenotypic correlation analysis showed that bunch number (NB) was positively correlated with fresh fruit bunch (FFB), but not significantly with average bunch weight (ABW). For the individual palms, it was found that the higher the LAT the lower the frond production (FP) and LT 50 and the higher fruit compaction rate (FCR), and the higher the LT 50 the lower the ABW. For the populations, the higher the LAT the higher the ABW and the lower the abortion ratio of female inflorescence to female inflorescence and fruit bunch (%) (RAFM). Path coefficient analysis further revealed that for the individual palms ABW was the major determinant in both FFB and NB, and mainly determined by normal fruit higher per bunch (kg) (ANFW) and percent of ANFW to ABW (%) (F/B). For the populations, the major determining factors were ratio of aborted fruit bunch to fruit bunch (%) (ABR) for FFB and NB, and inflorescence (male, female, bisexual and non-anthesis) and fruit bunch numbers per year (No.) NIB and LT 50 for ABW. MM5 palm and Huazhou population were selected based on the major determining factors as high-yielding cold tolerant palm and population, respectively, which was consistent with the results of analysis of variance. (author)

  16. Observations of bunch-by-bunch losses in the 2010 LHC proton physics operation

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, G

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes the bunch-by-bunch loss observations carried out during the 2010 proton physics run at the LHC. These observations proved beneficial to the improvement of operations, in particular in the early days of nominal intensity per bunch operation: then the plots initiated the removal of the tune split and motivated the modification of a filling scheme to remove parasitic encounters that heightened the losses on selected bunches. Along with plots from sample physics fills, summary plots for the year are shown. The colour coding is always chosen so to highlight the dependence of the losses on the filling scheme.

  17. Bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for the PEP-II B Factory. Bunch spacing down to 2 ns is achieved using 500 Megasamples per second A/D and D/A converters, and AT ampersand T 1610 Digital Signal Processors are integrated to run a downsampled feedback algorithm for each bunch in parallel. This general purpose programmable system, packaged in VXI and VME, is modular and scalable to offer portability to other accelerator rings. The control and monitoring hardware and software architecture have been developed to provide ease of operation as well as diagnostic tools for machine physics

  18. Generation and measurement of velocity bunched ultrashort bunch of pC charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Lu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the velocity compression in a short rf linac of an electron bunch from a rf photoinjector operated in the blowout regime. Particle tracking simulations shows that with a beam charge of 2 pC an ultrashort bunch duration of 16 fs can be obtained at a tight longitudinal focus downstream of the linac. A simplified coherent transition radiation (CTR spectrum method is developed to enable the measurement of ultrashort (sub-50 fs bunches at low bunch energy (5 MeV and low bunch charges (<10  pC. In this method, the ratio of the radiation energy selected by two narrow bandwidth filters is used to estimate the bunch length. The contribution to the coherent form factor of the large transverse size of the bunch suppresses the radiation signal significantly and is included in the analysis. The experiment was performed at the UCLA Pegasus photoinjector laboratory. The measurement results show bunches of sub-40 fs with 2 pC of charge well consistent with the simulation using actual experimental conditions. These results open the way to the generation of ultrashort bunches with time-duration below 10 fs once some of the limitations of the setup (rf phase jitter, amplitude instability and low field in the gun limited by breakdown are corrected.

  19. Considerations of bunch-spacing options for multi-bunch operation of the Tevatron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1989-01-01

    This discussion will consider a number of points relevant to limitations, advantages and disadvantages of various arrangements of bunches in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The considerations discussed here will be limited to: (a) bunch spacing symmetry and relation to the relative luminosity at B0 and D0 and the beam-beam interaction with separated beams; (b) bunch spacing constraints imposed by Main Ring RF coalescing and the optics of beam separation at B0 and D0; and (c) bunch spacing constraints imposed by injection and abort kicker timing requirements, and by the Antiproton Source RF unstacking process. 20 figs., 17 tabs

  20. Curvature-Induced Bunch Self-Interaction for an Energy-Chirped Bunch in Magnetic Bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Li

    2008-01-01

    Within the realm of classical electrodynamics, the curvature-induced bunch collective interaction in magnetic bends can be studied using effective forces in the canonical formulation of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect. As an application of this canonical formulation, in this paper, for an electron distribution moving ultrarelativistically in a bending system, the dynamics of the particles in the distribution is derived from the Hamiltonian of the particles in terms of the bunch internal coordinates. The consequent Vlasov equation manifests explicitly how the phase-space distribution is perturbed by the effective CSR forces. In particular, we study the impact of an initial linear energy chirp of the bunch on the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force, which arises due to the modification of the retardation relation as a result of the energy-chirping-induced longitudinal-horizontal correlation of the bunch distribution (bunch tilt) in dispersive regions. Our study demonstrates clearly the time delay (or retardation) of the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force on a bunch in responding to the change of the bunch length in a magnetic bend. Our result also shows that the effective longitudinal CSR force for a bunch under full compression can have sensitive dependence on the transverse position of the test particle in the bunch for certain parameter regimes

  1. Single bunched beam generation without subharmonic prebuncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Tagawa, S.

    1995-01-01

    The intensity of the accelerated single bunched electron beam depends on the performance of the electron gun and the fast cathode pulser. The electron beam is emitted by a Y-796 cathode assembly with a cathode of 2 cm 2 (8 A/cm 2 ), and an extracted voltage of 90 kV. The maximum charge of the single bunched beam was attained at 1.5 nC/pulse using SHB. Recently, a single bunched beam has been generated by an ultrafast cathode pulser (rise and fall time <100 ps pulse height -2 kV at 50 Ω) without SHB. The charge of the accelerated electron beam is about 40 pC/pulse (pulse width <10 ps) without the production of a satellite beam. This result show that a single bunched beam can be produced by the linear accelerator without SHB. ((orig.))

  2. Luminosity with more bunches in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.

    1990-12-01

    The near term accelerator physics program for PEP includes experiments in a collider mode with up to 9 bunches in each beam. In this memo, luminosity data from the 3 x 3 configuration is first used to calculate vertical beam size, emittance and tune shift as a function of current. The data is then used to extrapolate to the case with either 6 x 6 or 9 x 9 bunches colliding in PEP. Vertical emittance growth from the separated bunch optics and dispersion at the IP are included in the calculations. The conclusion is that given a 90 mA current drive limitation in PEP, operating with 6 x 6 bunches yields the maximum luminosity. 9 refs., 6 figs

  3. CERN: The best of the bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, F.

    1992-10-15

    As other factors governing the electron-positron collision rate in CERN's LEP 27-kilometre storage ring reach their limit, one way of coaxing the collision rate higher is to increase the number of bunches stored in the ring.

  4. The impact of coherent synchrotron radiation on the beam transport of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.

    1999-01-01

    Designs for next-generation accelerator, such as future linear colliders and short-wavelength FEL drivers, require beams of short (mm-length or smaller) bunches and high charge (nC-regime). As such a high charge microbunch traverses magnetic bends, the curvature effect on the bunch self-interaction, by way of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space charge force, may cause serious emittance degradation. This impact of CSR on the beam transport of short bunches has raised significant concern in the design of future machines and led to extensive investigations. This paper reviews some of the recent progress in the understanding of the CSR effect, presents analysis of and computational work on the CSR impact on short bunch transport, and addresses remaining issues

  5. Space Charge Mitigation With Longitudinally Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  6. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Krafft, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser is disclosed. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control. 1 fig

  7. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunxiong; Krafft, Geoffrey Arthur

    1999-01-01

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control.

  8. Compensating effect of the coherent synchrotron radiation in bunch compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yichao; Hao, Yue; Litvinenko, Vladimir N.

    2013-06-01

    Typical bunch compression for a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) requires a large compression ratio. Frequently, this compression is distributed in multiple stages along the beam transport line. However, for a high-gain FEL driven by an energy recovery linac (ERL), compression must be accomplished in a single strong compressor located at the beam line’s end; otherwise the electron beam would be affected severely by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the ERL’s arcs. In such a scheme, the CSR originating from the strong compressors could greatly degrade the quality of the electron beam. In this paper, we present our design for a bunch compressor that will limit the effect of CSR on the e-beam’s quality. We discuss our findings from a study of such a compressor, and detail its potential for an FEL driven by a multipass ERL developed for the electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  9. Properties of Trapped Electron Bunches in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Plasma-based accelerators use the propagation of a drive bunch through plasma to create large electric fields. Recent plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) experiments, carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), successfully doubled the energy for some of the 42 GeV drive bunch electrons in less than a meter; this feat would have required 3 km in the SLAC linac. This dissertation covers one phenomenon associated with the PWFA, electron trapping. Recently it was shown that PWFAs, operated in the nonlinear bubble regime, can trap electrons that are released by ionization inside the plasma wake and accelerate them to high energies. These trapped electrons occupy and can degrade the accelerating portion of the plasma wake, so it is important to understand their origins and how to remove them. Here, the onset of electron trapping is connected to the drive bunch properties. Additionally, the trapped electron bunches are observed with normalized transverse emittance divided by peak current, {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t}, below the level of 0.2 {micro}m/kA. A theoretical model of the trapped electron emittance, developed here, indicates that the emittance scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density in the non-linear 'bubble' regime of the PWFA. This model and simulations indicate that the observed values of {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t} result from multi-GeV trapped electron bunches with emittances of a few {micro}m and multi-kA peak currents. These properties make the trapped electrons a possible particle source for next generation light sources. This dissertation is organized as follows. The first chapter is an overview of the PWFA, which includes a review of the accelerating and focusing fields and a survey of the remaining issues for a plasma-based particle collider. Then, the second chapter examines the physics of electron trapping in the PWFA. The third chapter uses theory and simulations to analyze the properties of the trapped

  10. Femtosecond X-ray Pulses from a Spatially Chirped Electron Bunch in a SASE FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emma, P.

    2003-01-14

    We propose a simple method to produce short x-ray pulses using a spatially chirped electron bunch in a SASE FEL. The spatial chirp is generated using an rf deflector which produces a transverse offset (in y and/or y') correlated with the longitudinal bunch position. Since the FEL gain is very sensitive to an initial offset in the transverse phase space at the entrance of the undulator, only a small portion of the electron bunch with relatively small transverse offset will interact significantly with the radiation, resulting in an x-ray pulse length much shorter than the electron bunch length. The x-ray pulse is also naturally phase locked to the rf deflector and so allows high precision timing synchronization. We discuss the generation and transport of such a spatially chirped electron beam and show that tens of femtosecond long pulse can be generated for the linac coherent light source (LCLS).

  11. Measurement of Sub-Picosecond Electron Bunches via Electro-Optic Sampling of Coherent Transition Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Timothy John [Northern Illinois U.

    2012-01-01

    Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.

  12. Simulation of wake potentials induced by relativistic proton bunches in electron clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)

    2012-07-01

    Electron clouds limit the intensity of modern high intensity hadron accelerators. Presently electron clouds are the main limiting factor for the LHC operation with 25 ns bunch trains. The bunches passing through an electron cloud induce a wake field. When the electron cloud density exceeds a certain threshold beam instabilities occur. The presence of electron clouds results in a shift of the synchronous phase, which increases if the bunch spacing is reduced. For LHC and SPS conditions we compare the longitudinal electron cloud wake potentials and stopping powers obtained using a simplified 2D electrostatic Particle-in-Cell code with fully electromagnetic simulations using VORPAL. In addition we analyze the wake fields induced by displaced or tilted bunches.

  13. Bunch lengthening and related effects in SPEAR II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.; Servranckx, R.; Sabersky, A.P.; Gareyte, J.; Fischer, G.E.; Chao, A.W.; Donald, M.H.R.

    1977-03-01

    In recent years, electron storage ring designers have become aware of the problems caused by the interaction of short, high current bunches with their environment. Important effects are: (1) energy loss can cause local overheating of chamber components; (2) additional rf power is required due to overall energy loss; (3) the increased energy spread requires increased aperture; (4) destructive instabilities could occur. Anomalous bunch lengthening and energy spread, the spectroscopy of longitudinal modes and the shift of synchronous phase were simultaneously measured in order to study the dynamics of the interaction. From the data obtained at SPEAR II one is led to a model of coupling impedance which should be useful in the design of any electron ring

  14. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  15. Emittance preservation during bunch compression with a magnetized beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-02

    The deleterious effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the phase-space and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. In this paper, we present a simple method to preserve the beam emittance by means of using magnetized beams that exhibit a large aspect ratio on their transverse dimensions. The concept is based on combining a finite solenoid field where the beam is generated together with a special optics adapter. Numerical simulations of this new type of beam source show that the induced phase-space density growth can be notably suppressed to less than 1% for any bunch charge. This work elucidates the key parameters that are needed for emittance preservation, such as the required field and aspect ratio for a given bunch charge.

  16. Bunch-motion feedback for B-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1992-09-01

    The colliding electron and positron beams in a B-factory must have average current of one ampere or more to produce the required luminosity. The high current interacts with structures in the beam tube to drive strong coupled-bunch (c.b.) instabilities. To suppress these instabilities requires negative feedback of the bunch motions. Beam impedances arising from strong rf cavity modes should first be reduced to make the required feedback damping rate practical and the cost economical. In what follows, control of transverse motions will be discussed first, then longitudinal. We shall use the parameters of the 3.1 GeV ring of PEP-II to illustrate the general requirements

  17. Emittance preservation during bunch compression with a magnetized beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2016-03-01

    The deleterious effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the phase-space and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. In this paper, we present a simple method to preserve the beam emittance by means of using magnetized beams that exhibit a large aspect ratio on their transverse dimensions. The concept is based in combining a finite solenoid field where the beam is generated with a special optics adapter. Numerical simulations of this new type of beam source show that the induced phase-space density growth from CSR can be notably suppressed to less than 1% for any bunch charge. This work elucidates the key parameters that are needed for emittance preservation, such as the required field and aspect ratio for a given bunch charge.

  18. Ultrashort electron bunch length measurement with diffraction radiation deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Huang, Wen-Hui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure electron bunch length with a diffraction radiation (DR) deflector which is composed of a DR radiator and three beam position monitors (BPMs). When an electron beam passes through a metallic aperture which is tilted by 45 degrees with respect to its trajectory, backward DR that propagates perpendicular to the beam’s trajectory is generated which adds a transverse deflection to the beam as a result of momentum conservation. The deflection is found to be largely dependent on the bunch length and could be easily observed with a downstream BPM. Detailed investigations show that this method has wide applicability, high temporal resolution, and great simplicity.

  19. Ultrashort electron bunch length measurement with diffraction radiation deflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure electron bunch length with a diffraction radiation (DR deflector which is composed of a DR radiator and three beam position monitors (BPMs. When an electron beam passes through a metallic aperture which is tilted by 45 degrees with respect to its trajectory, backward DR that propagates perpendicular to the beam’s trajectory is generated which adds a transverse deflection to the beam as a result of momentum conservation. The deflection is found to be largely dependent on the bunch length and could be easily observed with a downstream BPM. Detailed investigations show that this method has wide applicability, high temporal resolution, and great simplicity.

  20. Beam diagnostics based on time-domain bunch-by-bunch data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, D.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Limborg, C.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Sebek, J.; Young, A.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.; Barry, W.; Stover, G.

    1998-01-01

    A bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system has been used to control coupled-bunch longitudinal motion and study the behavior of the beam at ALS, SPEAR, PEP-II, and DAΦNE. Each of these machines presents unique challenges to feedback control of unstable motion and data analysis. Here we present techniques developed to adapt this feedback system to operating conditions at these accelerators. A diverse array of techniques has been developed to extract information on different aspects of beam behavior from the time-domain data captured by the feedback system. These include measurements of growth and damping rates of coupled-bunch modes, bunch-by-bunch current monitoring, measurements of bunch-by-bunch synchronous phases and longitudinal tunes, and beam noise spectra. A technique is presented which uses the longitudinal feedback system to measure transverse growth and damping rates. Techniques are illustrated with data acquired at all of the four above-mentioned machines. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Preliminary Study on Two Possible Bunch Compression Schemes at NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yipeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two possible bunch compression configurations are proposed and evaluated by numerical simulation in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC. A bunch compression ratio up to 20 could be achieved under a perfect condition, without consideration for the timing jitter and other error sources. The NLCTA is a test accelerator built at SLAC, which is approximately 42 meters long and composed of X-band acceleration structures. The main aim of building NLCTA is to develop and demonstrate the X-band rf acceleration technologies for the next generation linear collider, with a relatively high acceleration gradient between 50 MV/m and 100 MV/m. The current operation configuration of NLCTA features a thermionic-cathode electron gun at its starting point which generates an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV. This is followed by a roughly 1.5 meter long X-band acceleration structure which boosts the electron beam energy to 60 MeV. Then there is a four-dipole magnetic chicane which is 6 meters long and provides a first order longitudinal dispersion of R 56 = -73mm. Next the electron beam passes by several matching quadrupoles and can be accelerated further to 120 MeV through another one-meter-long X-band acceleration structure. After that, there are three small chicanes downstream, with a total first order longitudinal dispersion of R 56 = -10mm. A sketch of the main components of NLCTA is shown in Figure 1, where the total length of this accelerator is 45 meters. Free Electron Lasers (FELs), proposed by J. Madey and demonstrated for the first time at Stanford University in 1970s (2) (3), use the lasing of relativistic electron beam traveling through a magnetic undulator, which can reach high power and can be widely tunable in wavelength. Linac based FEL source can provide sufficient brightness, and a short X-ray wavelength down to angstrom scale, which promises in supporting wide range of research experiments. In order to have an electron beam

  2. Emittance control and RF bunch compression in the NSRRC photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.K.; Hung, S.B.; Lee, A.P.; Chou, C.S.; Huang, N.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The high-brightness photoinjector being constructed at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center is for testing new accelerator and light-source concepts. It is the so-called split photoinjector configuration in which a short solenoid magnet is used for emittance compensation. The UV-drive laser pulses are also shaped to produce uniform cylindrical bunches for further reduction of beam emittance. However, limited by the available power from our microwave power system, the nominal accelerating gradient in the S-band booster linac is set at 18 MV/m. A simulation study with PARMELA shows that the linac operating at this gradient fails to freeze the electron beam emittance at low value. A background solenoid magnetic field is applied for beam emittance control in the linac during acceleration. A satisfactory result that meets our preliminary goal has been achieved with the solenoid magnetic field strength at 0.1 T. RF bunch compression as a means to achieve the required beam brightness for high-gain free-electron laser experiments is also examined. The reduction of bunch length to a few hundred femtoseconds can be obtained.

  3. Evolution of dense spatially modulated electron bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, N.; Bratman, V. L.; Friedman, A.

    2018-03-01

    An analytical theory describing the dynamics of relativistic moving 1D electron pulses (layers) with the density modulation affected by a space charge has been revised and generalized for its application to the formation of dense picosecond bunches from linear accelerators with laser-driven photo injectors, and its good agreement with General Particle Tracer simulations has been demonstrated. Evolution of quasi-one-dimensional bunches (disks), for which the derived formulas predict longitudinal expansion, is compared with that for thin and long electron cylinders (threads), for which the excitation of non-linear waves with density spikes was found earlier by Musumeci et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 184801 (2011)] and Musumeci et al. [Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. -Accel. Beams 16(10), 100701 (2013)]. Both types of bunches can be used for efficiency enhancement of THz sources based on the Doppler frequency up-shifted coherent spontaneous radiation of electrons. Despite the strong Coulomb repulsion, the periodicity of a preliminary modulation in dense 1D layers persists during their expansion in the most interesting case of a relatively small change in particle energy. However, the period of modulation increases and its amplitude decreases in time. In the case of a large change in electron energy, the uniformity of periodicity is broken due to different relativistic changes in longitudinal scales along the bunch: the "period" of modulation decreases and its amplitude increases from the rear to the front boundary. Nevertheless, the use of relatively long electron bunches with a proper preliminary spatial modulation of density can provide a significantly higher power and a narrower spectrum of coherent spontaneous radiation of dense bunches than in the case of initially short single bunches with the same charge.

  4. Bunch compression for an FEL at NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the design effort for a free electron laser driven by the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA), the author reports studies of bunch-length compression utilizing the existing infrastructure and hardware. In one possible version of the NLCTA FEL, bunches with 900-microm FWHM length, generated by an S-band photo-injector, would be compressed to an rms length of 60--120 microm before entering the FEL undulator. It is shown that, using the present magnetic chicane, the bunch compression is essentially straightforward, and that almost all emittance-diluting effects, e.g. wakefields, chromaticity, or space charge in the bending magnets, are small. The only exception to this finding is the predicted increase of the horizontal emittance due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Estimates based on existing theories of coherent synchrotron radiation suggest a tripling or quadrupling of the initial emittance, which seems to preclude bunch compression during regular FEL operation. Serendipitously, the magnitude of the predicted emittance growth would, on the other hand, make the NLCTA chicane an excellent tool for measuring the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation. This will be of considerable interest to many future projects, in particular to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). As an aside, it is shown that coherent synchrotron radiation in a bending magnet gives rise to a minimum possible bunch length, which is very reminiscent of the Oide limit on the vertical spot size at the interaction point of a linear collider

  5. LHC Report: Boost in bunches brings record luminosity

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Having hit a luminosity of around 8.4x1032 cm-2 s-1 with 768 bunches per beam, the LHC went into a 5-day machine development (MD) program on Wednesday 4 May. Operators are now working on increasing the number of particle bunches in the machine towards a 2011 maximum of around 1380 bunches. The team is already hitting major milestones, recording another record-breaking peak luminosity on Monday 23 May.   Former LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans (to the right) and Laurette Ponce, the engineer-in-charge when the recent luminosity record was achieved. The MD periods improve our understanding of the machine, with the aim of increasing its short- and long-term performance. This one also included tests of the machine’s configurations for special physics runs and a future high luminosity LHC. It was an intense program and overall it went very well, with most measurements carried out successfully. Highlights included: commissioning a dedicated machine setup for TOTEM and ALFA; succe...

  6. Femtosecond electron bunches from an RF-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Farias, Ruy; Thongbai, Chitrlada; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    Sub-picosecond electron pulses become a tool of increasing importance to study dynamics at an atomic level. Such electron pulses can be used directly or be converted into intense coherent far infrared radiation or equally short X-ray pulses. In principle, sub-picosecond electron pulses can be obtained in large, high-energy electron linear accelerator systems by repeatedly applying an energy slew and magnetic compression. Another process is the production of short electron pulses at low energies from an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode together with a bunch compressing α-magnet. In this paper, we present a systematic analysis of capabilities and limits of sub-picosecond electron pulses from such a source. We discuss particular parameter choices as well as the impact of geometric and electric specifications on the 6-dimensional phase space electron distribution. Numerical beam simulations with the computer code PARMELA are performed including effects and limitations due to space charge forces. While the production of femtosecond electron bunches is of primary concern, we also consider the preservation of such short bunches along a beam transport line

  7. Focusing of relativistic electron bunch, moving in cylindrical plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, A.Ts.; Ehlbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem on the focusing of electron bunches moving with the relativistic velocity along the axis of cylindrical overdense plasma waveguide with the conducting internal surface is considered. The existence of periodic and nonperiodic components of the fields, generated in the plasma is shown. The conditions of electron bunch self-focusing by transverse electrical field and azimuthal magnetic field are derived. The possibility of the acceleration and focusing of electron or positron bunches by driving electron bunch wake field is discussed. The conditions, when the bunch in plasma waveguide moves without wake fields generating are obtained, which could be of the interest for the transport of relativistic electron (positron) bunches. 5 refs

  8. Calculation of coupled bunch effects in the synchrotron light source BESSY VSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruprecht, Martin

    2016-02-22

    In the scope of this thesis, the strength of coupled bunch instabilities (CBIs) driven by longitudinal monopole higher order modes (HOMs) and transverse dipole and quadrupole HOMs is evaluated for the upgrade project BESSY Variable Pulse Length Storage Ring (BESSY VSR) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), based on analytic calculations and tracking simulations, and compared to the performance of an active bunch-by-bunch feedback (BBFB). Algorithms for tracking codes are derived, and a semi-empirical formula for the estimation of transverse quadrupole CBIs is presented. CBI studies are an integral part of the benchmarking of the cavity models for BESSY VSR and have been accompanying and influencing their entire design process. Based on the BESSY VSR cavity model with highly advanced HOM damping, beam stability is likely to be reached with a BBFB system, independent of the bunch fill pattern. Additionally, measurements of CBIs have been performed at BESSY II and the Metrology Light Source of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (MLS), where the longitudinal long range impedance was characterized. Transient beam loading is evaluated by means of analytic formulas and new experimentally verified tracking codes. For the baseline bunch fill pattern of BESSY VSR, it is shown that the particular setup of cavity frequencies amplifies the transient effect on the long bunch, limiting its elongation and potentially resulting in increased Touschek losses.

  9. A coupled bunch instability due to beam-photoelectron interactions in KEKB-LER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmi, Kazuhito [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    LER of KEKB is designed to storage the positron beam of 2.6 A with multibunch operation. Nb = 3.3 x 10{sup 10} positrons are filled in a bunch and the bunch passes every 2ns through a beam chamber. The photoelectron instability may be serious for KEKB-LER. We consider a motion of photoelectrons produced by a bunch with a computer simulation technic. A cylindrical chamber with a diameter of 10 cm was used as a model chamber. About 15 times of the photoelectrons were produced by a bunch. The wake force was calculated for the loading bunches with displacements of 0.5 mm and 1 mm. The wake characteristics seems to be caused by the trapped electrons kicked by the loading bunch. The wake was saturated with the loading displacement of 0.5 mm. We obtained a growth rate by the wake force. It is very high rate, 2500s{sup -1} which exceeds damping rates of various mechanism, radiation, head-tail and feedback. Perhaps it is essential to remove the photoelectrons around the positron beam explicitly. If we apply magnetic field fo about 20 G, the growth rate will be reduced. (S.Y.)

  10. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-01

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  11. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-15

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  12. BBAT: Bunch and bucket analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    BBAT is written to meet the need of an interactive graphical tool to explore the longitudinal phase space. It is driven for testing new ideas or new tricks quickly. It is especially suitable for machine physicists or operation staff as well both in the control room during machine studies or off-line to analyze the data. The heart of the package contains a set of c-routines to do the number crunching. The graphics part is wired with scripting language tcl/tk and BLT. The c-routines are general enough that one can write new applications such as animation of the bucket as a machine parameter varies via a sliding scale. BBAT deals with single rf system. For double rf system, one can use Dr. BBAT, which stands for Double rf Bunch and Bucket Analysis Tool. One usage of Dr. BBAT is to visualize the process of bunch coalescing and flat bunch creation

  13. Note on polarized RHIC bunch arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss what combinations of bunch polarization in the two RHIC rings are necessary to do the physics measurements at various interaction regions. We also consider the bunches for both the pion inclusive and p-p elastic polarization measurements. Important factors to consider are the direction of the polarization with respect to the momentum in each bunch, the beam gas backgrounds, and the simulation of zero - polarization in one beam by averaging + and - helicity, and luminosity monitoring for normalization. These considerations can be addressed by setting the relative number of each of the 9 combinations possible at each of the 6 interaction regions. The combinations are (+ empty -) yellow X (+ empty -)blue, where yellow and blue are the counter-rotating rings

  14. Infrared single shot diagnostics for the longitudinal profile of the electron bunches at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein

    2008-09-01

    The longitudinal profile of electron bunches plays an important role in the design of single-pass free electron lasers and future linear e + e - colliders. For the free electron laser FLASH in Hamburg, a longitudinal compression scheme is used which results in an asymmetric longitudinal bunch profile with a 'spike'. This 'spike', which has a very high peak current, is used in a high-gain SASE-FEL process to produce high intensity (about 70 μJ) femtosecond photon pulses in the XUV wavelength range. The required high peak current of the electron bunch is realized by confining a large number of electrons in a width, measured in time units, of few tens of femtosecond, making the diagnostics of such bunches a challenge. Furthermore, the operation of facilities such as FLASH shows that single-shot diagnostics is indispensable. It is intuitive to use a time domain method to measure the electron bunch length. However, when the structures present in the bunch profile fall in the femtoseconds range, this is beyond the resolution of time-resolved methods developed so far. In this thesis, a wavelength-domain technique is described that can fulfill both requirements of single shot and high resolution reaching to the femtoseconds range. The amount of charge that is confined in a typical length of several femtoseconds (FWHM of the spike) can be determined by a novel single-shot spectrometer that resolves the coherent radiation (e.g. coherent transition radiation) in the far-infrared and mid-infrared range. Furthermore the extension of this single-shot spectroscopy to shorter wavelengths reaching the near-infrared, makes it possible to investigate the presence of structures in the bunch profile that might correlate or anti-correlate to the SASE intensity. (orig.)

  15. Infrared single shot diagnostics for the longitudinal profile of the electron bunches at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein

    2008-09-15

    The longitudinal profile of electron bunches plays an important role in the design of single-pass free electron lasers and future linear e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. For the free electron laser FLASH in Hamburg, a longitudinal compression scheme is used which results in an asymmetric longitudinal bunch profile with a 'spike'. This 'spike', which has a very high peak current, is used in a high-gain SASE-FEL process to produce high intensity (about 70 {mu}J) femtosecond photon pulses in the XUV wavelength range. The required high peak current of the electron bunch is realized by confining a large number of electrons in a width, measured in time units, of few tens of femtosecond, making the diagnostics of such bunches a challenge. Furthermore, the operation of facilities such as FLASH shows that single-shot diagnostics is indispensable. It is intuitive to use a time domain method to measure the electron bunch length. However, when the structures present in the bunch profile fall in the femtoseconds range, this is beyond the resolution of time-resolved methods developed so far. In this thesis, a wavelength-domain technique is described that can fulfill both requirements of single shot and high resolution reaching to the femtoseconds range. The amount of charge that is confined in a typical length of several femtoseconds (FWHM of the spike) can be determined by a novel single-shot spectrometer that resolves the coherent radiation (e.g. coherent transition radiation) in the far-infrared and mid-infrared range. Furthermore the extension of this single-shot spectroscopy to shorter wavelengths reaching the near-infrared, makes it possible to investigate the presence of structures in the bunch profile that might correlate or anti-correlate to the SASE intensity. (orig.)

  16. Bunch heating by coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.A.; Zolotorev, M.

    1995-10-01

    The authors discuss here effects which define the steady-state rms energy spread of a microbunch in a storage ring. It is implied that the longitudinal microwave instability is controlled by low α lattice. In this case the coherent synchrotron radiation, if exists, may be the main factor defining the bunch temperature. Another effect comes from the fact that a nonlinear momentum compaction of such lattices makes Haissinskii equation not applicable, and the coherent synchrotron radiation may effect not only bunch lengthening but the energy spread as well

  17. Sub-fs electron bunch generation with sub-10-fs bunch arrival-time jitter via bunch slicing in a magnetic chicane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The generation of ultrashort electron bunches with ultrasmall bunch arrival-time jitter is of vital importance for laser-plasma wakefield acceleration with external injection. We study the production of 100-MeV electron bunches with bunch durations of subfemtosecond (fs and bunch arrival-time jitters of less than 10 fs, in an S-band photoinjector by using a weak magnetic chicane with a slit collimator. The beam dynamics inside the chicane is simulated by using two codes with different self-force models. The first code separates the self-force into a three-dimensional (3D quasistatic space-charge model and a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR model, while the other one starts from the first principle with a so-called 3D sub-bunch method. The simulations indicate that the CSR effect dominates the horizontal emittance growth and the 1D CSR model underestimates the final bunch duration and emittance because of the very large transverse-to-longitudinal aspect ratio of the sub-fs bunch. Particularly, the CSR effect is also strongly affected by the vertical bunch size. Due to the coupling between the horizontal and longitudinal phase spaces, the bunch duration at the entrance of the last dipole magnet of the chicane is still significantly longer than that at the exit of the chicane, which considerably mitigates the impact of space charge and CSR effects on the beam quality. Exploiting this effect, a bunch charge of up to 4.8 pC in a sub-fs bunch could be simulated. In addition, we analytically and numerically investigate the impact of different jitter sources on the bunch arrival-time jitter downstream of the chicane, and define the tolerance budgets assuming realistic values of the stability of the linac for different bunch charges and compression schemes.

  18. Population dynamics at high Reynolds number

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlekar, P.; Benzi, R.; Nelson, D.R.; Toschi, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of population dynamics evolving in a realistic two-dimensional compressible turbulent velocity field. We show that the interplay between turbulent dynamics and population growth and saturation leads to quasi-localization and a remarkable reduction in the carrying

  19. Development of bunch by bunch transverse feedback system at Hefei light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junhua; Zheng Kai; Li Weimin; Yang Yongliang; Huang Longjun; Chen Yuanbo; Zhou Zeran; Wang Lin; Liu Zeping; Sun Baogen; Ma Li; Cao Jianshe; Yue Junhui; Liu Dekang; Ye Kairong

    2008-01-01

    This paper has introduced the development of the transverse bunch-by-bunch measurement and feedback system, including the experiment of damping the coupled bunch instability. Some key technologies on the system have been introduced: the vector calculation module as a signal processing module used to adjust the phase of the feedback signals, the feedback kicker cavity and the notch filter used to filter the DC component and revolution frequencies component in a signal and save the feedback power. The result of the feedback experiment is mentioned: the instability oscillation was damped when the feedback system was on. (authors)

  20. Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10

  1. Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash-Derived Alkali and ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The remedial process involved subjecting the dried palm bunch matter to total combustion, ...

  2. Short bunch wake potentials for a chain of TESLA cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; Mosnier, Alban

    2014-01-01

    The modification of wake fields from a single cavity to a quasi-periodic structure of cavities is of great concern, especially for applications using very short bunches. We extend our former study (Novokhatski, 1997 [1]). A strong modification of wake fields along a train of cavities was clearly found for bunch lengths lower than 1 mm. In particular, the wakes induced by the bunch, as it proceeds down the successive cavities, decrease in amplitude and become more linear around the bunch center, with a profile very close to the integral of the charge density. The loss factor, decreasing also with the number of cells, becomes independent of bunch length for very short bunches and tends asymptotically to a finite value. This nice behavior of wake fields for short bunches presents good opportunity for application of very short bunches in Linear Colliders and X-ray Free Electron Lasers

  3. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, op 't W.P.E.M.; Smorenburg, P.W.; Oudheusden, van T.; Wiel, van der M.J.; Luiten, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present the theory of coherent transition radiation (CTR) generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches. We calculate analytical expressions for the electric field spectrum, the power spectrum, and the temporal electric field of CTR, generated by cylindrically symmetric ellipsoidal electron bunches

  4. Luminosity geometric reduction factor from colliding bunches with different lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In the interaction point of the future electron-Ion collider eRHIC, the electron beam bunches are at least one order of magnitude shorter than the proton beam bunches. With the introduction of a crossing angle, the actual number of collisions resulting from the bunch collision gets reduced. Here we derive the expression for the luminosity geometric reduction factor when the bunches of the two incoming beams are not equal.

  5. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  6. A BUNCH TO BUCKET PHASE DETECTOR USING DIGITAL RECEIVER TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DELONG, J.; BRENNAN, J.M.; HAYES, T.; LE, T.N.; SMITH, K.

    2003-01-01

    Transferring high-speed digital signals to a Digital Signal Processor is limited by the IO bandwidth of the DSP. A digital receiver circuit is used to translate high frequency W signals to base-band. The translated output frequency is close to DC and the data rate can be reduced, by decimation, before transfer to the DSP. By translating both the longitudinal beam (bunch) and RF cavity pick-ups (bucket) to DC, a DSP can be used to measure their relative phase angle. The result can be used as an error signal in a beam control servo loop and any phase differences can be compensated

  7. Oil palm empty-fruit bunch application effects on the earthworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of polyphenols at several stages of oil palm empty-fruit bunch (EFB) composting, the types of phenol compounds in several types of EFB composting processes and the effects of phenol compounds on EFB composting in an earthworm population were evaluated under field conditions. The amount of ...

  8. The SPS Individual Bunch Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, A; Jones, R; Savioz, J J

    2001-01-01

    The Individual Bunch Measurement System (IBMS) allows the intensity of each bunch in an LHC batch to be the measured both in the PS to SPS transfer lines and in the SPS ring itself. The method is vased on measuring the peak and valley of the analogue signal supplied by a Fast Beam Current Transformer at a frequency of 40 MHz. A 12 bit acquisition system is required to obtain a 1% resolution for the intensity range of 5X10`9 to 1.7X10`11 protons per bunch, corresponding to the pilot and ultimate LHC bunch intensities. The acquisition selection and external trigger adjustment system is driven by the 200MHz RF, which is distributed using a single-mode fibre-optic link. A local oscilloscope, controlled via a GPIB interface, allows the remote adjustment of the timing signals. The low-level software consists of a real-time task and a communication server run on a VME Power PC, which is accessed using a graphical user interface. This paper describes the system as a whole and presents some recent uses and results fro...

  9. Single bunch stability in the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvacque, L.

    1990-01-01

    The longitudinal wake potential/impedance and bunch lengthening/stability in ESRF were studied. A cylindrical approximation of individual components of the vacuum chamber were studied. The results are wake potential and loss parameters. Measurements are necessary when the cylindrical approximation is not realistic. The coaxial wire method which is used gives a wake potential that can be substituted for the computed wake in the analysis. A measurement bench is presently being tested at ESRF. Wake potentials (computed or measured) are added before modeling or approximation is made. The impedance model used is the broad-band resonator model. Equations are derived for the longitudinal potential well. The bunch shape can be estimated knowing the first moments of the line density function. Mode coupling cannot explain the turbulent instability threshold. The threshold has then to be estimated by crude assumptions on potential well or bunch shape distortions. In the ESRF case, this threshold corresponds to a value of asymmetry s (th) = 0.6. Above the threshold the bunch lengthens with this constant asymmetry value

  10. Introduction to impedance for short relativistic bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, P.L.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of impedance to calculate the wake field forces left behind by a short bunch which travels at relativistic speed through a structure with discontinuities. We will try to be as intuitive as possible and leave the more rigorous derivations to the second paper on this subject by J. Wang

  11. CERN: The best of the bunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, F.

    1992-01-01

    As other factors governing the electron-positron collision rate in CERN's LEP 27-kilometre storage ring reach their limit, one way of coaxing the collision rate higher is to increase the number of bunches stored in the ring

  12. Electron diffraction using ultrafast electron bunches from a laser-wakefield accelerator at kHz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.-H.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Beaurepaire, B.; Nees, J. A.; Hou, B.; Malka, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Faure, J.

    2013-02-01

    We show that electron bunches in the 50-100 keV range can be produced from a laser wakefield accelerator using 10 mJ, 35 fs laser pulses operating at 0.5 kHz. It is shown that using a solenoid magnetic lens, the electron bunch distribution can be shaped. The resulting transverse and longitudinal coherence is suitable for producing diffraction images from a polycrystalline 10 nm aluminum foil. The high repetition rate, the stability of the electron source, and the fact that its uncorrelated bunch duration is below 100 fs make this approach promising for the development of sub-100 fs ultrafast electron diffraction experiments.

  13. Electron diffraction using ultrafast electron bunches from a laser-wakefield accelerator at kHz repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.-H.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Nees, J. A.; Hou, B.; Krushelnick, K. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106-2099 (United States); Beaurepaire, B.; Malka, V.; Faure, J. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-02-11

    We show that electron bunches in the 50-100 keV range can be produced from a laser wakefield accelerator using 10 mJ, 35 fs laser pulses operating at 0.5 kHz. It is shown that using a solenoid magnetic lens, the electron bunch distribution can be shaped. The resulting transverse and longitudinal coherence is suitable for producing diffraction images from a polycrystalline 10 nm aluminum foil. The high repetition rate, the stability of the electron source, and the fact that its uncorrelated bunch duration is below 100 fs make this approach promising for the development of sub-100 fs ultrafast electron diffraction experiments.

  14. A 4 GS/sec Instability Feedback Processing System for Intra-bunch Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dusatko, J; Fox, J D; Pollock, K; Rivetta, C H; Turgut, O; Hofle, W

    2013-01-01

    We present the architecture and implementation overview of a proof-of-principle digital signal processing system developed to study control of Electron-Cloud and Transverse Mode Coupling Instabilities (TMCI) in the CERN SPS. This system is motivated by intensity increases planned as part of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade. It is based on a reconfigurable processing architecture which samples intra-bunch motion and applies correction signals at a 4GSa/s rate, allowing multiple samples across a single 3.2ns SPS bunch. This initial demonstration system is a rapidly developed prototype consisting of both commercial and custom- designed hardware that implements feedback control on a single bunch. It contains a high speed ADC and DAC, capable of sampling at up to 4GSa/s, with a 16-tap FIR control filter for each bunch sample slice. Other system features include a timing subsystem to synchronize the sampling to the injection and the bunch 1 markers, the capability of generating arbitrary time domain signals to drive...

  15. Bunch decompression for laser-plasma driven free-electron laser demonstration schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seggebrock

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs require a very high electron beam quality in terms of emittance and energy spread. Since 2004 high quality electrons produced by laser-wakefield accelerators have been demonstrated, but the electron quality up to now did not allow the operation of a compact x-ray FEL using these electrons. Maier et al. [Phys. Rev. X 2, 031019 (2012PRXHAE2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.2.031019] suggested a concept for a proof-of-principle experiment allowing FEL operation in the vacuum ultraviolet range based on an optimized undulator and bunch decompression using electron bunches from a laser-plasma accelerator as currently available. In this paper we discuss in more detail how a chicane can be used as a bunch stretcher instead of a bunch compressor to allow the operation of a laser-wakefield accelerator driven FEL using currently available electrons. A scaling characterizing the impact of bunch decompression on the gain length is derived and the feasibility of the concept is tested numerically in a demanding scenario.

  16. Femtosecond electron-bunch dynamics in laser wakefields and vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Khachatryan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in laser wakefield acceleration demonstrated the generation of extremely short (with a duration of a few femtoseconds relativistic electron bunches with relatively low (of the order of couple of percent energy spread. In this article we study the dynamics of such bunches in drift space (vacuum and in channel-guided laser wakefields. Analytical solutions were found for the transverse coordinate of an electron and for the bunch envelope in the wakefield in the case of arbitrary change in the energy. Our results show strong bunch dynamics already on a millimeter scale propagation distance both in plasma and in vacuum. When the bunch propagates in vacuum, its transverse sizes grow considerably; the same is observed for the normalized bunch emittance that worsens the focusability of the bunch. A scheme of two-stage laser wakefield accelerator with small drift space between the stages is proposed. It is found that fast longitudinal betatron phase mixing occurs in a femtosecond bunch when it propagates along the wakefield axis. When bunch propagates off axis, strong bunch decoherence and fast emittance degradation due to the finite bunch length was observed.

  17. Obtaining the Bunch Shape in a Linac from Beam Spectrum Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, Karl LF

    1999-01-01

    In linacs with high single-bunch charge, and tight tolerances for energy spread and emittance growth, controlling the short-range wakefield effects becomes extremely important. The effects of the wakefields, in turn, depend on the bunch length and also on the bunch shape. It was shown in the linac of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), for example, that by shaping the bunch, the final rms energy spread could be greatly reduced, compared to for the standard Gaussian bunch shape[1]. Therefore, in machines with high single-bunch charge, a method of measuring bunch shape can be an important beam diagnostic. In a linac with low single-bunch charge, the longitudinal bunch shape can be obtained relatively easily from a single measurement of the beam's final energy spectrum, provided that the final to initial energy ratio is large. One merely shifts the average phase of the beam, so that it rides off-crest sufficiently to induce an energy variation that is monotonic with longitudinal position. Then, by knowing the initial and final energies, the rf wave number, and the average beam phase, one can directly map the spectrum into the bunch shape. In a linac with high single-bunch charge, however, due to the effect of the longitudinal wakefield, this method either does not work at all, or it requires such a large shift in beam phase as to become impractical. In earlier work[2],[3] it was shown that, even when wakefields are important, if one measures the final beam spectrum for two different (properly chosen) values of beam phase, then one can again obtain the bunch shape, and--as a by-product--also the form of the wakefield induced voltage; this method was then illustrated using data from the linac of the SLC. These SLC measurements, however, had been performed with the machine in a special configuration, where the current was low; in addition, the noise the data was low and the measured spectra were smooth distributions. Under normal SLC conditions, however, the currents

  18. Electron bunch profile reconstruction in the few fs regime using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, R; Delerue, N; Doucas, G; Reichold, A; Clarke, C

    2012-01-01

    Advanced accelerators for fourth generation light sources based on high brightness linacs or laser-driven wakefield accelerators will operate with intense, highly relativistic electron bunches that are only a few fs long. Diagnostic techniques for the determination of temporal profile of such bunches are required to be non invasive, single shot, economic and with the required resolution in the fs regime. The use of a radiative process such as coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR), is particularly promising with this respect. In this technique the beam is made to radiate a small amount of electromagnetic radiation and the temporal profile is reconstructed from the measured spectral distribution of the radiation. We summarise the advantages of SPR and present the design parameters and preliminary results of the experiments at the FACET facility at SLAC. We also discuss a new approach to the problem of the recovery of the 'missing phase', which is essential for the accurate reconstruction of the temporal bunch profile.

  19. Electron Bunch Profile Reconstruction in the Few fs Regime using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, R.; Clarke, C.; Delerue, N.; Doucasa, G.; Reicholda, A.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced accelerators for fourth generation light sources based on high brightness linacs or laser-driven wakefield accelerators will operate with intense, highly relativistic electron bunches that are only a few fs long. Diagnostic techniques for the determination of temporal profile of such bunches are required to be non invasive, single shot, economic and with the required resolution in the fs regime. The use of a radiative process such as coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR), is particularly promising with this respect. In this technique the beam is made to radiate a small amount of electromagnetic radiation and the temporal profile is reconstructed from the measured spectral distribution of the radiation. We summarise the advantages of SPR and present the design parameters and preliminary results of the experiments at the FACET facility at SLAC. We also discuss a new approach to the problem of the recovery of the 'missing phase', which is essential for the accurate reconstruction of the temporal bunch profile.

  20. Effect of empty buckets on coupled bunch instability in RHIC Booster: Longitudinal phase-space simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.; Griffin, J.E.; Khiari, F.Z.

    1988-05-01

    Excitation of large amplitude coherent dipole bunch oscillations by beam induced voltages in spurious narrow resonances are simulated using a longitudinal phase-space tracking code (ESME). Simulation of the developing instability in a high intensity proton beam driven by a spurious parasitic resonance of the rf cavities allows one to estimate the final longitudinal emittance of the beam at the end of the cycle, which puts serious limitations on the machine performance. The growth of the coupled bunch modes is significantly enhanced if a gap of missing bunches is present, which is an inherent feature of the high intensity proton machines. A strong transient excitation of the parasitic resonance by the Fourier components of the beam spectrum resulting from the presence of the gap is suggested as a possible mechanism of this enhancement. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Transverse blowup along bunch train caused by electron cloud in BEPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yudong; Guo Zhiyuan; Qin Qing; Wang Jiuqing; Zhao Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Electron cloud instability (ECI) may take place in a storage ring when the machine is operated with a multi-bunch positively charged beam. Transverse blowup due to electron cloud has been observed in some machines and is considered to be a major limit factor in the development of high current and high luminosity electron positron colliders. With a streak camera, the transverse blowup along the bunch train was first observed in an experiment at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC) and the simulation results were used to compared with the observation. (authors)

  2. Design of bunch compressing system with suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation for ATF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Yichao; Fedurin, Mikhail; Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-01-01

    One of the operation modes for Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) upgrade is to provide high peak current, high quality electron beam for users. Such operation requires a bunch compressing system with a very large compression ratio. The CSR originating from the strong compressors generally could greatly degrade the quality of the electron beam. In this paper, we present our design for the entire bunch compressing system that will limit the effect of CSR on the e-beam@s quality. We discuss and detail the performance from the start to end simulation of such a compressor for ATF.

  3. Temporal dynamics of the longitudinal bunch profile in a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heigoldt, Matthias

    2017-05-19

    This thesis deals with the temporal characterisation of electron bunches produced by a laser plasma accelerator. In the so-called laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme, an ultra-short high-intensity laser pulse excites a plasma wave, which can sustain accelerating electric fields of several hundred GV/m, thus exceeding the fields attainable by current state-of-the-art radio frequency (RF) accelerators by four orders of magnitude, offering the prospect of downsizing both the size and cost of such machines. Furthermore, by intrinsically confining the accelerated electron beam to the μm-scale size of the plasma wave, LWFAs provide ultra-short and highly brilliant beams, sparking great scientific interest for their application as a driver for compact sources of ultra-short X-ray pulses, e.g. Thomson-scattering, betatron sources or table-top free-electron lasers (FELs). The bunch profile is an important quantity for the application of these sources. With particular regard to the envisioned table-top FELs, it also determines the available peak current, an import input parameter for an appropriate undulator design that is optimized to support the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process. The experiments presented in this thesis comprise the measurement of the temporal profile of electron bunches produced by LWFA and further investigation of the evolution of the temporal profile in dependence of the acceleration distance and the plasma density. By measuring the intensity spectrum of coherent transition radiation (CTR) emitted by LWFA-driven electron bunches in the frequency domain, the experiments allow a reconstruction of the longitudinal bunch profiles with unprecedented resolution. Compared to earlier work, a key improvement is the single-shot coverage of a broadband spectral range of more than four octaves, which yields a time resolution of the reconstructed bunch profile in the sub-femtosecond region. This work further inspired the development of a new

  4. Temporal dynamics of the longitudinal bunch profile in a laser wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heigoldt, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the temporal characterisation of electron bunches produced by a laser plasma accelerator. In the so-called laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme, an ultra-short high-intensity laser pulse excites a plasma wave, which can sustain accelerating electric fields of several hundred GV/m, thus exceeding the fields attainable by current state-of-the-art radio frequency (RF) accelerators by four orders of magnitude, offering the prospect of downsizing both the size and cost of such machines. Furthermore, by intrinsically confining the accelerated electron beam to the μm-scale size of the plasma wave, LWFAs provide ultra-short and highly brilliant beams, sparking great scientific interest for their application as a driver for compact sources of ultra-short X-ray pulses, e.g. Thomson-scattering, betatron sources or table-top free-electron lasers (FELs). The bunch profile is an important quantity for the application of these sources. With particular regard to the envisioned table-top FELs, it also determines the available peak current, an import input parameter for an appropriate undulator design that is optimized to support the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process. The experiments presented in this thesis comprise the measurement of the temporal profile of electron bunches produced by LWFA and further investigation of the evolution of the temporal profile in dependence of the acceleration distance and the plasma density. By measuring the intensity spectrum of coherent transition radiation (CTR) emitted by LWFA-driven electron bunches in the frequency domain, the experiments allow a reconstruction of the longitudinal bunch profiles with unprecedented resolution. Compared to earlier work, a key improvement is the single-shot coverage of a broadband spectral range of more than four octaves, which yields a time resolution of the reconstructed bunch profile in the sub-femtosecond region. This work further inspired the development of a new

  5. Coherent transition radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator as an electron bunch diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilborg, J. van; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, C.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Martin, M.C.; Hao, Z.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    The observation and modeling of coherent transition radiation from femtosecond laser accelerated electron bunches is discussed. The coherent transition radiation, scaling quadratically with bunch charge, is generated as the electrons transit the plasma-vacuum boundary. Due to the limited transverse radius of the plasma boundary, diffraction effects will strongly modify the angular distribution and the total energy radiated is reduced compared to an infinite transverse boundary. The multi-nC electron bunches, concentrated in a length of a few plasma periods (several tens of microns), experience partial charge neutralization while propagating inside the plasma towards the boundary. This reduces the space-charge blowout of the beam, allowing for coherent radiation at relatively high frequencies (several THz). The charge distribution of the electron bunch at the plasma-vacuum boundary can be derived from Fourier analysis of the coherent part of the transition radiation spectrum. A Michelson interferometer was used to measure the coherent spectrum, and electron bunches with duration on the order of 50 fs (rms) were observed

  6. Fast digital transverse feedback system for bunch train operation in CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J T; Billing, M G; Dobbins, J A [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies; and others

    1996-08-01

    We have developed a time domain transverse feedback system with the high bandwidth needed to control transverse instabilities when the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is filled with trains of closely spaced bunches. This system is based on parallel digital processors and a stripline driver. It is capable of acting on arbitrary patterns of bunches having a minimum spacing of 14 ns. Several simplifying features have been introduced. A single shorted stripline kicker driven by one power amplifier is used to control both counter-rotating beams. The desired feedback phase is achieved by sampling the bunch position at a single location on two independently selectable beam revolutions. The system adapts to changes in the betatron tune, bunch pattern, or desired damping rate through the loading of new parameters into the digital processors via the CESR control system. The feedback system also functions as a fast gated bunch current monitor. Both vertical and horizontal loops are now used in CESR operation. The measured betatron damping rates with the transverse feedback system in operation are in agreement with the analytical prediction and a computer simulation developed in connection with this work. (author)

  7. Fast digital transverse feedback system for bunch train operation in CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Billing, M.G.; Dobbins, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a time domain transverse feedback system with the high bandwidth needed to control transverse instabilities when the CESR e + e - collider is filled with trains of closely spaced bunches. This system is based on parallel digital processors and a stripline driver. It is capable of acting on arbitrary patterns of bunches having a minimum spacing of 14 ns. Several simplifying features have been introduced. A single shorted stripline kicker driven by one power amplifier is used to control both counter-rotating beams. The desired feedback phase is achieved by sampling the bunch position at a single location on two independently selectable beam revolutions. The system adapts to changes in the betatron tune, bunch pattern, or desired damping rate through the loading of new parameters into the digital processors via the CESR control system. The feedback system also functions as a fast gated bunch current monitor. Both vertical and horizontal loops are now used in CESR operation. The measured betatron damping rates with the transverse feedback system in operation are in agreement with the analytical prediction and a computer simulation developed in connection with this work. (author)

  8. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.

    1988-05-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. The results showed that, although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the 'capacitive' component had also decreased relative to the 'inductive'--to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded 'capacitor' cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained. 7 refs., 6 figs

  9. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.

    1988-01-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. This paper shows that although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the capacitive component had also decreased relative to the inductive - to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded capacitor cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained

  10. Single bunch instabilities in an SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this note coherent instability thresholds are estimated for the SSC and discuss some of the subsequent design restrictions. The various instabilities are set out in a block diagram with the essential features of each. The assumption is made that long wavelength coupled bunch effects can be cured effectively by a feedback system (both longitudinal and transverse) and that the impedance of the feedback system is such as to cancel that of the environment (at low frequency). Alternatively, the long wake field is assumed to be exactly canceled, on the average, by a feedback wake field. This leaves only single bunch effects. Thresholds for fast-blowup are discussed both in the longitudinal and transverse and the transverse mode coupling instability more familiar in electron/positron storage rings is covered. The impedances considered are a broadband impedance and the resistive wall impedance

  11. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckstern, R.L.; Fedotov, A.V.; Kurennoy, S.; Ryne, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed, analytically and numerically, a class of self-consistent six-dimensional (6D) phase space stationary distributions. Stationary distributions allow us to study the halo development mechanism without it being obscured by beam redistribution and its effect on halo formation. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the formation of longitudinal and transverse halos in 3D axisymmetric beam bunches. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first for comparable longitudinal and transverse mismatches because the longitudinal tune depression is more severe than the transverse one for elongated bunches. Of particular importance is the result that, due to the coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion, a longitudinal or transverse halo is observed for a mismatch less than 10% if the mismatch in the other plane is large. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Beam induced heating reduction by bunch flattening

    CERN Document Server

    Argyropoulos, T; Esteban Müller, JF; Jakobsen, S; Mastoridis, T; Metral, E; Mounet, N; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Salvant, B; Shaposhnikova, E; Timko, H

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this MD was to modify the beam induced heating on some critical LHC components by flattening the bunch distribution by applying an RF phase modulation. In this way, the beam spectrum was modified so that the power spectral density is reduced at low frequencies (below 1.1 GHz), which is the band of frequencies where the beam interaction with different component impedances is most critical. We present temperature measurements showing the beneficial effect of this latter distribution on some of the monitored devices. Longitudinal peak detected Schottky spectrum was also acquired during the first part of the MD with the intention of estimating the synchrotron frequency shift due to the reactive part of the longitudinal impedance. In the second part of the MD, an attempt to cure the transverse instability during the beta-squeeze was done by reducing the RF voltage to lengthen the bunches and enhance Landau Damping.

  13. The Eindhoven High-Brightness Electron Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, G.J.H.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Eindhoven High-Brightness programme is aimed at producing ultra-short intense electron bunches from compact accelerators. The RF electron gun is capable of producing 100 fs electron bunches at 7.5 MeV and 10 pC bunch charge. The DC/RF hybrid gun under development will produce bunches <75 fs at

  14. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  15. Transport of dc and bunched beams through a 25 MV folded tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, W.T.; Alton, G.D.; Hensley, D.C.; Jones, C.M.; King, R.F.; Larson, J.D.; Moak, C.D.; Sayer, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of beam transport through the planned ORNL 25 MV folded tandem accelerator demonstrate efficient utilization of phase-space acceptance and the feasibility of injecting bunched beams from the tandem accelerator into the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Use of a 180 0 bending magnet in the terminal provides outstanding charge state selection and permits better control of the high-energy beam transport than has previously been possible in conventional tandem accelerators. Time spreads introduced in bunched beams by the 180 0 magnet are kept within a 6 0 RF acceptance window at ORIC provided the beam has a crossover in the center of the 180 0 magnet. Ion masses from 12 to 240 amu, preinjection energies from 150 to 500 keV and terminal voltages from 7.5 to 25 MV were studied for dc beams and beams bunched by various modulation techniques. (U.S.)

  16. Mumps vaccine effectiveness in highly immunized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Angela; Torner, Núria; Castilla, Jesús; Batalla, Joan; Godoy, Pere; Guevara, Marcela; Carnicer, Dolors; Caylà, Joan; Rius, Cristina; Jansà, Josep Maria

    2010-04-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate effectiveness of mumps MMR component in communities with high MMR coverage. Outbreak-related cases of mumps born between 1995 and 2005 notified to Navarre and Catalonia public health services during the period 2005-2007 were studied. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) and their 95%CI were calculated using the screening method. Of 47 confirmed, 85.1% immunized with at least one dose (1MMR) and 44.9% with two (2MMR). Estimated VE was 85.4% (95%CI: 67.3-93.4) for 1MMR and 88.5% (95%CI: 78.1-93.9) for 2MMR. High 2MMR coverage, improved confirmation techniques and further VE studies with all confirmed cases are needed to prevent further outbreaks. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; Kimmitt, M.F.; Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.

    2011-01-01

    Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.

  18. Compact femtosecond electron diffractometer with 100 keV electron bunches approaching the single-electron pulse duration limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldecker, Lutz; Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of a highly compact femtosecond electron diffractometer working at electron energies up to 100 keV. We use a multi-body particle tracing code to simulate electron bunch propagation through the setup and to calculate pulse durations at the sample position. Our simulations show that electron bunches containing few thousands of electrons per bunch are only weakly broadened by space-charge effects and their pulse duration is thus close to the one of a single-electron wavepacket. With our compact setup, we can create electron bunches containing up to 5000 electrons with a pulse duration below 100 fs on the sample. We use the diffractometer to track the energy transfer from photoexcited electrons to the lattice in a thin film of titanium. This process takes place on the timescale of few-hundred femtoseconds and a fully equilibrated state is reached within 1 ps

  19. On measuring charged particle bunch duration in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomize, L.G.; Malykh, N.I.; Khizhnyj, V.I.; Yampol'skij, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The process of measuring short bunches is simulated by means of cavity resonators in which HF fields are excited by both positive and negative ion bunches flying through them. The simulation is aimed to assess optimum operation of a linear accelerator. A set of bunches of chance form and duration is simulated. Then the simulation of the process of restoring the duration and shape of a bunch according to data obtained from a limited number of resonators is realized. The use of 3-4 resonators tuned to 3, 6, 9 and 12-th harmonics of bunch repetition rate is shown to be sufficient for determining bunch duration with an accuracy of several per cent. When data on harmonic phases is available, one can obtain information on beam asymmetry

  20. A combined source of electron bunches and microwave power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, J.L.; Wang, F.Y.; Yang, X.P.; Shen, B.; Gu, W.; Zhang, L.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the possibility of using a high power klystron amplifier simultaneously as a microwave power source as usual and an electron bunches source by extracting the spent beam with a magnet and also as an oscillator by feedback is investigated. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a very compact electron linear accelerator or for other applications of electron bunches. The feasibility of the idea was first examined by computer simulation of the electron motion in a 5 MW klystron and the characteristics of the klystron spent beam. Experimental study was then carried out by installing a radio frequency cavity and a Faraday cage in sequence at the exit end of a bending magnet located at the top of the klystron collector. The energy and current of the chopped spent electron beam can then be measured. By properly choosing the feedback circuit elements, the frequency stability of the klystron in oscillator mode was proved to be good enough for linac operation. According to the results presented in this article, it is evident that an extremely compact linac for research and education with better affordability can be constructed to promote the applications of linacs

  1. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics of relativistic electron bunches during the micro bunching instability: study of the Synchrotron Soleil and UVSOR storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, Eleonore

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic electron bunches circulating in storage rings are used to produce intense radiation from far-infrared to X-rays. However, above a density threshold value, the interaction between the electron bunch and its own radiation can lead to a spatio-temporal instability called micro bunching instability. This instability is characterized by a strong emission of coherent THz radiation (typically 105 times stronger than the classical synchrotron radiation) which is a signature of the presence of microstructures (at mm scale) in the electron bunch. This instability is known to be a fundamental limitation of the operation of synchrotron light sources at high beam current. In this thesis, we have focused on this instability from a nonlinear dynamics point of view by combining experimental studies carried out at the Synchrotron Soleil and UVSOR storage rings with numerical studies mainly based on the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. In a first step, due to the very indirect nature of the experimental observations, we have sought to deduce information on the microstructure wavenumber either by looking at the temporal evolution of the THz signal emitted during the instability or by studying the response of the electron bunch to a laser perturbation. In a second step, we have achieved direct, real time observations of the microstructures dynamics through two new, very different, detection techniques: a thin-film superconductor-based detector at UVSOR, and a spectrally-encoded electro-optic detection technique at Soleil. These new available experimental observations have allowed severe comparisons with the theoretical models. (author)

  3. More Options for the NLC Bunch Compressors (LCC-0035)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    2004-01-01

    The present bunch compressor design for the NLC allows control of the final bunch length by way of changes to the horizontal betatron phase advance of the 180 o -turnaround arc. This adjustability requirement significantly constrains the design and cost optimization of the system and excludes the possibility of using permanent magnet quadrupoles in the arc. To relieve this constraint, and to avoid the very strong arc focusing required at the upper limits of the bunch length range, we explore an option of bunch length control using the first compressor stage, with the arc optics fixed

  4. Ply tensile properties of banana stem and banana bunch fibres

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... BANANA BUNCH FIBRES REINFORCED NATURAL RUBBER. COMPOSITE ... National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, (NIIST) CSIR Trivandrum, India. ..... Handbook of Ceramics and Composites,. Vol.

  5. Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.

    1993-05-01

    The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed

  6. POSITION DETERMINATION OF CLOSELY SPACED BUNCHES USING CAVITY BPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Cullinan, F; Lyapin, A

    2011-01-01

    Radio Frequency (RF) Cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems form a major part of precision position measurement diagnostics for linear accelerators with low emittance beams. Using cavity BPMs, a position resolution of less than 100 nm has been demonstrated in single bunch mode operation. In the case of closely spaced bunches, where the decay time of the cavity is comparable to the time separation between bunches, the BPM signal from a bunch is polluted by the signal induced by the previous bunches in the same bunch-train. This paper discusses our ongoing work to develop the methods to extract the position of closely spaced bunches using cavity BPMs. A signal subtraction code is being developed to remove the signal pollution from previous bunches and to determine the individual bunch position. Another code has been developed to simulate the BPM data for the cross check. Performance of the code is studied on the experimental and simulated data. Application of the analysis techniques to the linear colliders,...

  7. Commissioning of FPGA-based Transverse and Longitudinal Bunch-by-Bunch Feedback System for the TLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, K. H.; Kuo, C. H.; Lau, W. K.; Yeh, M. S.; Hsu, S. Y.; Chou, P. J.; Wang, M. H.; Lee, Demi; Chen, Jenny; Wang, C. J.; Hsu, K. T.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakamura, T.; Dehler, M.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-bunch instabilities deteriorate beam quality, increasing beam emittance, or even causing beam loss in the synchrotron light source. The feedback system is essential to suppress multi-bunch instabilities caused by the impedances of beam ducts, and trapped ions. A new FPGA based transverse and longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system have been commissioned at the Taiwan Light Source recently, A single feedback loop is used to simultaneously suppress the horizontal and the vertical multi-bunch instabilities. Longitudinal instabilities caused by cavity-like structures are suppressed by the longitudinal feedback loop. The same FPGA processor is employed in the transverse feedback and the longitudinal feedback system respectively. Diagnostic memory is included in the system to capture the bunch oscillation signal, which supports various studies

  8. Phase measurement and control of bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    An ion bean buncher was developed at ANL for bunching all ion species through a tandem accelerator. Transit time variations through the tandem, caused by ripple and fluctuations in the injection and lens power supplies and terminal voltage, and to varying voltage distributions in the accelerating tube, cause a beam-phase variation at the output of the tandem. A beam-phase measurement and control system was designed and installed in conjunction with the ion beam buncher to control beam phase at the tandem output. That system is described

  9. Analyzing gigahertz bunch length instabilities with a digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stege, R.E. Jr.; Krejcik, P.; Minty, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    A bunch length instability, nicknamed the ''sawtooth'', because of its transient behavior, has been observed at high current running in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) electron damping ring. The incompatibility of this instability with successful SLC naming prompted its study using a high bandwidth real-time spectrum analyzer, the Tektronix 3052 digital signal processor (DSP) system. This device has been used to study energy ramping in storage rings but this is the first time it has been used to study transient instability phenomena. It is a particularly valuable tool for use in understanding non-linear, multiple frequency phenomena. The frequency range of this device has been extended through the use of radio frequency (RF) down converters. This paper describes the measurement setup and presents some of the results

  10. Electron bunch compression and coherent effects at the SDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, Henrik; Carr, G. Lawrence; Doyuran, Adnan; Graves, William S.; Johnson, Eric D.; Krinsky, Samuel; Rose, James; Sheehy, Brian; Shaftan, Timur V.; Skaritka, John; Yu Lihua

    2002-01-01

    The DUVFEL accelerator in the Source Development Lab of NSLS/BNL generates a high brightness electron beam from a laser driven electron source and a magnetic bunch compressor. This beam is used for different FEL experiments in SASE and future HGHG configurations. The compression of the electron beam to high peak current while preserving the transverse properties is of great importance to the performance goals of these FELs. In this paper we report on the experimental methods to characterize the longitudinal properties of the electron beam and the measured results for various settings of the DUVFEL accelerator. The observed effects on the electron beam spectra and time profiles during compression are most likely due to coherent effects while their exact origin is still subject of ongoing investigation

  11. Emittance growth of bunched beams in bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1995-01-01

    Talman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1429 (1986)] has proposed a novel relativistic effect that occurs when a charged particle beam is bent in the magnetic field from an external dipole. The consequence of this effect is that the space-charge forces from the particles do not exhibit the usual inverse-square energy dependence and some part of them are, in fact, independent of energy. This led to speculation that this effect could introduce significant emittance growth for a bending electron beam. Subsequently, it was shown that this effect's influence on the beam's transverse motion is canceled for a dc beam by a potential depression within the beam (to first order in the beam radius divided by the bend radius). In this paper, we extend the analysis to include short bunch lengths (as compared to the beam pipe dimensions) and find that there is no longer the cancellation for forces both transverse to and in the direction of motion. We provide an estimate for the emittance growth as a function of bend angle, beam radius, and current, and for magnetic compression of an electron bunch

  12. Studies of Longitudinal Coupled-Bunch Instabilities in the LHC Injectors Chain

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087149; Migliorati, M

    Among several challenging objectives of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project, one aim is to double the beam intensity of the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) in order to achieve the integrated luminosity target of the High-Luminosity LHC project. A known limitation to reach the required high intensity is caused by the longitudinal coupled-bunch (CB) oscillations developing above the PS transition energy. The unwanted oscillations induce large bunch-to-bunch intensity variations not compatible with the specifications of the future LHC-type beams. In 2014 a new longitudinal kicker cavity has been installed, the Finemet cavity, as a part of the new digital coupled-bunch feedback (FB) system. The Finemet cavity allows with its large frequency bandwidth, to damp all the expected oscillation modes simultaneously. In the framework of this PhD study the impedance contribution of this equipment has been analyzed starting from the present knowledge of the machine impedance. A model of both the 10 MHz and the Finemet has been ...

  13. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches. PMID:26212024

  14. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-07-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches.

  15. On some properties of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Yukihide.

    1983-02-01

    Some properties of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities have been investigated theoretically and computationally, mainly based on a rigid-bunch model. In this report, we will study Robinson's stability, sum rules of the instabilities and the cure of instabilities by producing the oscillation frequencies different from bunch to bunch, and also give the numerical examples for KEK-PF storage ring. KEYWORD: storage ring, accelerator, bunched beam, longitudinal instability, transverse instability, coupled-bunch instability. (author)

  16. Emittance growth due to static and radiative space charge forces in an electron bunch compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard; Malitsky, Nikolay; Stulle, Frank

    2009-01-01

    -21, MOCOS05, available at http://www.JACoW.org], a code with similar capabilities. For this comparison an appropriately new, 50 MeV, “standard chicane” is introduced. Unlike CSRTrack (which neglects vertical forces) the present simulation shows substantial growth of vertical emittance. But “turning off” vertical forces in the UAL code (to match the CSRTrack treatment) brings the two codes into excellent agreement. (iii) Results are also obtained for 5 GeV electrons passing through a previously introduced “standard chicane” [Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, CSR Workshop, Berlin 2002, http://www.desy.de/csr] [of the sort needed for linear colliders and free electron lasers (FEL’s) currently under design or construction]. Relatively little emittance growth is predicted for typical bunch parameters at such high electron energy. Results are obtained for both round beams and ribbon beams (like those actually needed in practice). Little or no excess emittance growth is found for ribbon bunches compared to round bunches of the same charge and bunch width. The UAL string space charge formulation (like TraFic4 and CSRTrack) avoids the regularization step (subtracting the free-space space charge force) which is required (to remove divergence) in some methods. Also, by avoiding the need to calculate a retarded-time, four-dimensional field history, the computation time needed for realistic bunch evolution calculations is modest. Some theories of bunch dilution, because they ascribe emittance growth entirely to CSR, break down at low energy. In the present treatment, as well as CSR, all free-space Coulomb and magnetic space charge forces (but not image forces), and also the centrifugal space charge force (CSCF) are included. Charge-dependent beam steering due to CSCF, as observed recently by Beutner et al. [B. Beutner , in Proceedings of FEL Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, MOPPH009], is also investigated.

  17. Electron bunch length measurement at the Vanderbilt FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, C.A.; Mendenhall, M. [Vanderbilt Free-Electron-Laser Center, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years, a number of experiments have been performed to demonstrate the possibility to extract the longitudinal charge distribution from spectroscopic measurements of the coherent far-infrared radiation emitted as transition radiation or synchrotron radiation. Coherent emission occurs in a spectral region where the wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length, leading to an enhancement of the radiation intensity that is on the order of the number of particles per bunch, as compared to incoherent radiation. This technique is particularly useful in the region of mm and sub-mm bunch lengths, a range where streak-cameras cannot be used for beam diagnostics due to their limited time resolution. Here we report on experiments that go beyond the proof of principle of this technique by applying it to the study and optimization of FEL performance. We investigated the longitudinal bunch length of the Vanderbilt FEL by analyzing the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted by the electron bunches. By monitoring the bunch length while applying a bunch-compression technique, the amount of the compression could be easily observed. This enabled us to perform a systematic study of the FEL performance, especially gain and optical pulse width, as a function of the longitudinal electron distribution in the bunch. The results of this study will be presented and discussed.

  18. Electric-current-induced step bunching on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Yoshikazu; Aizawa, Noriyuki

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally investigated step bunching induced by direct current on vicinal Si(111)'1x1' surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The scaling relation between the average step spacing l b and the number of steps N in a bunch, l b ∼N -α , was determined for four step-bunching temperature regimes above the 7x7-'1x1' transition temperature. The step-bunching rate and scaling exponent differ between neighboring step-bunching regimes. The exponent α is 0.7 for the two regimes where the step-down current induces step bunching (860-960 and 1210-1300 deg. C), and 0.6 for the two regimes where the step-up current induces step bunching (1060-1190 and >1320 deg. C). The number of single steps on terraces also differs in each of the four temperature regimes. For temperatures higher than 1280 deg. C, the prefactor of the scaling relation increases, indicating an increase in step-step repulsion. The scaling exponents obtained agree reasonably well with those predicted by theoretical models. However, they give unrealistic values for the effective charges of adatoms for step-up-current-induced step bunching when the 'transparent' step model is used

  19. Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takanaka

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.

  20. Evaluation of fruit and bunch traits in black Sigatoka resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies involving the evaluation of fruit and bunch characteristics of twenty seven cultivars of plantain and banana were undertaken. Results showed that bunch weight of plantain hybrid, 25344-18, differed significantly (P<0.05) from all other genotypes except SH 3362, with an average of 20.8 kg plant. The number of hands ...

  1. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  2. Coupled-Beam and Coupled-Bunch Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Alexey [Fermilab

    2016-06-23

    A problem of coupled-beam instability is solved for two multibunch beams with slightly different revolution frequencies, as in the Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR). Sharing of the inter-bunch growth rates between the intra-bunch modes is described. The general analysis is applied to the RR; possibilities to stabilize the beams by means of chromaticity, feedback and Landau damping are considered.

  3. Simulation of the longitudinal instabilities of the asymmetric bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jianping; Zhao Zhentang

    2002-01-01

    The computational model of the code used to simulate the longitudinal instabilities of the asymmetric bunches was introduced. The growth rates of the longitudinal instabilities of the symmetric bunches got by this code were compared with those got by the code ZAP, and they were almost the same. As an example, the simulation results of the BEPC-II were presented

  4. RF acceleration of intense laser generated proton bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, Ali

    2012-07-13

    With respect to laser-accelerated beams, the high current capability of the CH-DTL cavity has been investigated. Beam simulations have demonstrated that 10{sup 10} protons per bunch can be accelerated successfully and loss free along the structure. It was shown that, the maximum number of protons per bunch that can be accelerated in the first cavity by exploiting about 1% of the stored field energy is 2.02 x 10{sup 11} protons. One further aspect is the total number of protons arriving at the linac entrance. One main aspect of an rf postacceleration experiment is the rf operation stability under these beam load conditions. Detailed simulations from the target along the solenoid and down to the linac entrance were presented, applying adapted software. Special care was taken on the time steps, especially close to the target, and on the collective phenomena between electron and proton distributions. The effect of comoving electrons on the beam dynamics has been investigated in detail. A CH-linac with high space charge limit and large transverse and longitudinal acceptance was designed to accept a maximum fraction of the laser generated proton bursts. Due to well-known transformations of the injected beam emittances along the CH-cavity, it is aimed to derive parameters of the laser generated beam by measuring the beam properties behind of the CH-cavity. With respect to the linac development it is intended to realize the first cavity of the proposed CH-DTL and to demonstrate the acceleration of a laser generated proton bunch with the LIGHT project. The first cavity consists of 7 gaps within a total length of about 668 mm. It is operated at 325 MHz and has an effective accelerating field gradient of about 12.6 MV/m. The study on the surface electric field for this cavity shows, that maximum surface fields of about 94 MV/m and 88 MV/m on the third and sixth drift tubes are reachable, respectively.

  5. Evaluating oil palm fresh fruit bunch processing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaoha, Kelechi E; Sakrabani, Ruben; Patchigolla, Kumar; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2018-03-01

    Three routes of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing in Nigeria namely, industrial, small-scale and traditional were compared by means of determining fruit losses associated with each route. The fruits that are not recovered after each process were hand-picked and quantified in terms of crude palm oil (CPO), palm kernel (PK), mesocarp fibre (MF) and palm kernel shell (PKS). The energy value of empty fruit bunch (EFB), MF and PKS were used to determine the value of energy lost for each route. Additionally, the environmental implications of disposal of EFB were estimated, and socio-economics of the industrial and small-scale routes were related. The analysis showed that 29, 18, 75 and 27 kg of CPO, PK, MF and PKS were lost for every 1000 kg of FFB processed with the industrial route, whereas 5.6, 3.2, 1.4 and 5.1 g were lost with the small-scale route, respectively. Approximately 89 kWh and 31 kWh more energy were lost from MF and PKS with the industrial route than the other two routes, respectively. An equivalent of 6670 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent of methane and nitrogen oxide was released due to the disposal of 29,000 tonnes of EFB from one palm oil mill. The monetary value of lost CPO per 1000 kg of FFB processed in the industrial route is more than the labour cost of processing 1000 kg of FFB in the small-scale route. The advantages of the industrial route are high throughput in terms of FFB processed per hour and high quality of CPO; however, high fruit loss is associated with it and therefore, the poorly threshed EFB is recommended to be fed into the small-scale route.

  6. Gridded thermionic gun and integral superconducting ballistic bunch compression cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, Thomas [Advanced Energy Systems, Inc., Medford, NY (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Electron-Ion colliders such as the Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) being developed by JLAB require high current electrons with low energy spread for electron cooling of the collider ring. Accelerator techniques for improving bunch charge, average current, emittance, and energy spread are required for Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and Circulator Rings (CR) for next generation colliders for nuclear physics experiments. Example candidates include thermionic-cathode electron guns with RF accelerating structures. Thermionic cathodes are known to produce high currents and have excellent lifetime. The success of the IR and THz Free-Electron Laser (FEL) designed and installed by Advanced Energy Systems at the Fritz Haber Institute (FHI) of the Max Planck Society in Berlin [1,2] demonstrates that gridded thermionic cathodes and rf systems be considered for next generation collider technology. In Phase 1 Advanced Energy Systems (AES) developed and analyzed a design concept using a superconducting cavity pair and gridded thermionic cathode. Analysis included Beam Dynamics and thermal analysis to show that a design of this type is feasible. The latest design goals for the MEIC electron cooler were for electron bunches of 420 pC at a frequency of 952.6 MHz with a magnetic field on the cathode of 2kG. This field magnetizes the beam imparting angular momentum that provides for helical motion of the electrons in the cooling solenoid. The helical motion increases the interaction time and improves the cooling efficiency. A coil positioned around the cathode providing 2kG field was developed. Beam dynamics simulations were run to develop the particle dynamics near the cathode and grid. Lloyd Young added capability to Tstep to include space charge effects between two plates and include image charge effects from the grid. He also added new pepper-pot geometry capability to account for honeycomb grids. These additions were used to develop the beam dynamics for this gun. The

  7. Longitudinal Bunch Position Control for the Super-B Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, Kirk; Rivetta, Claudio; Sullivam, Michael K.; SLAC; Drago, Alessandro; Frascati

    2009-01-01

    The use of normal conducting cavities and an ion-clearing gap will cause a significant RF accelerating voltage gap transient and longitudinal phase shift of the individual bunches along the bunch train in both rings of the SuperB accelerator. Small relative centroid position shifts between bunches of the colliding beams will have a large adverse impact on the luminosity due to the small β* y at the interaction point (IP). We investigate the possibility of minimizing the relative longitudinal position shift between bunches by reducing the gap transient in each ring and matching the longitudinal bunch positions of the two rings at the IP using feedback/feedforward techniques in the LLRF. The analysis is conducted assuming maximum use of the klystron power installed in the system

  8. A bunch clock for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A bunch clock timing module has been developed for use by Advanced Photon Source beamlines. The module provides bunch pattern and timing information that can be used to trigger beamline data collection equipment. The module is fully integrated into the control system software (EPICS) which automatically loads it with the storage ring fill pattern at injection time. Fast timing outputs (1 ns FWHM) for each stored bunch are generated using the storage ring low-level rf and revolution clock as input references. Fiber-optic-based transmitters and receivers are used to transmit a 352-MHz low-level rf reference to distributed bunch clock modules. The bunch clock module is a single-width VME module and may be installed in a VME crate located near beamline instrumentation. A prototype has been in use on the SRI CAT beamline for over a year. The design and integration into the control system timing software along with measured performance results are presented

  9. Estimates of post-acceleration longitudinal bunch compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A simple analytic method is developed, based on physical approximations, for treating transient implosive longitudinal compression of bunches of heavy ions in an accelerator system for ignition of inertial-confinement fusion pellet targets. Parametric dependences of attainable compressions and of beam path lengths and times during compression are indicated for ramped pulsed-gap lines, rf systems in storage and accumulator rings, and composite systems, including sections of free drift. It appears that for high-confidence pellets in a plant producing 1000 MW of electric power the needed pulse lengths cannot be obtained with rings alone unless an unreasonably large number of them are used, independent of choice of rf harmonic number. In contrast, pulsed-gap lines alone can meet this need. The effects of an initial inward compressive drift and of longitudinal emittance are included

  10. Shielded transient self-interaction of a bunch entering a circle from a straight path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.; Bohn, C.L.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in electron-gun and injector technologies enable production of short (mm-length), high-charge (nC-regime) bunches. In this parameter regime, the curvature effect on the bunch self-interaction, by way of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space-charge forces as the beam traverses magnet bends, may cause serious emittance degradation. In this paper, the authors study an electron bunch orbiting between two infinite, parallel conducting plates. The bunch moves on a trajectory from a straight path to a circular orbit and begins radiating. Transient effects, arising from CSR and space-charge forces generated from source particles both on the bend and on the straight path prior to the bend, are analyzed using Lienard-Wiechert fields, and their overall net effect is obtained. The influence of the plates on the transients is contrasted to their shielding of the steady-state radiated power. Results for emittance degradation induced by this self-interaction are also presented

  11. Effect of Chitosan Binder on Water Absorption of Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziatul Niza Sadikin; Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi; Norasikin Othman

    2015-01-01

    The potential of chitosan as filter media binder was investigated in this study. Chitosan solution with different concentrations were applied to the empty fruit bunches using two different deposition techniques, namely, spray method and addition method. In this study, a water absorption test was used to study the sorption behaviour of empty fruit bunches filter media. The water absorption study showed that the water uptake for empty fruit bunches filter media without the chitosan binder increases with time, until the water sorption reaches the equilibrium state. It was observed that the water uptake decreased from 23 % to 14 % for the chitosan-filled filter media as compared to binder-less filter media, over the duration of 24 hours. For 1 % chitosan concentration, the water uptake is higher compared to 3 % chitosan-filled filter media. The water absorption is relatively lower for filter media with a higher concentration of chitosan due to the high compatibility achieved at this interfacial region between empty fruit bunches fibres and chitosan. Alkali-treated filter media showed the lowest water uptake compared to diethyl ether, ethanol and hot water pretreatment methods. (author)

  12. Development and commissioning of a double-prism spectrometer for the diagnosis of femtosecond electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Steffen

    2016-12-15

    Free-electron lasers as accelerator-driven light sources and wakefield-based acceleration in plasmas require the knowledge of the longitudinal extension and the longitudinal current profile of the involved electron bunches. These bunches can yield lengths below 10 μm, or durations shorter than approx. 33 fs, as well as charges less than 30 pC. During this work, transition radiation from relativistic electron bunches was investigated in the mid-infrared wavelength regime. A spectrometer using an arrangement of two consecutive zinc selenide prisms was developed, built and commissioned. The instrument covers the spectral range from 2 μm to 18 μm in a single shot. Measurements with the double-prism spectrometer were conducted at the FEL facilities FLASH at DESY in Hamburg, Germany and FELIX at the Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. The assessment of the spectrometer and comparative studies with established diagnostic devices at FLASH show high signal-to-noise ratios at bunch charges below 10 pC and confirm the obtained results.

  13. Utilization of Liquid Smoke from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches on Raw Rubber Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayati Hidayati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research utilization of liquid smoke from oil palm empty fruit bunches of raw rubber has been made to utilize solid waste from industrial processing of oil palm empty fruit bunches of oil palm so that it becomes economically valuable products. This research has been done by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at a temperature of 400oC for 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours. The results show that the pyrolysis liquid smoke oil palm empty fruit bunches for 8 hours give a high concentration of phenol and acetic acid, respectively 5% and 0.454%. Liquid smoke that has been obtained is used as a coagulant in raw rubber plantation crops of the people residing in the village of Ambawang, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan. Results of treatment of liquid smoke on raw rubber  show that the rubber products that have been frozen and dried are superior in terms of color, smell and drying time compared with the treatment of formic acid and water battery which has been added so far on raw rubber by the local rubber farmers.

  14. Simulations of the ILC Electron Gun and Electron Bunching System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakonsen, C.B.; McGill U.

    2006-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed electron-positron collider, expected to provide insight into important questions in particle physics. A part of the global R and D effort for the ILC is the design of its electron gun and electron bunching system. The present design of the bunching system has two sub-harmonic bunchers, one operating at 108 MHz and one at 433MHz, and two 5-cell 1.3 GHz (L-band) bunchers. This bunching system has previously been simulated using the Phase and Radial Motion in Electron Linear Accelerators (PARMELA) software, and those simulations indicated that the design provides sufficient bunching and acceleration. Due to the complicated dynamics governing the electrons in the bunching system we decided to verify and expand the PARMELA results using the more recent and independent simulation software General Particle Tracer (GPT). GPT tracks the motion and interactions of a set of macro particles, each of which represent a number of electrons, and provides a variety of analysis capabilities. To provide initial conditions for the macro particles, a method was developed for deriving the initial conditions from detailed simulations of particle trajectories in the electron gun. These simulations were performed using the Egun software. For realistic simulation of the L-band bunching cavities, their electric and magnetic fields were calculated using the Superfish software and imported into GPT. The GPT simulations arrived at similar results to the PARMELA simulations for sub-harmonic bunching. However, using GPT it was impossible to achieve an efficient bunching performance of the first L-band bunching cavity. To correct this, the first L-band buncher cell was decoupled from the remaining 4 cells and driven as an independent cavity. Using this modification we attained results similar to the PARMELA simulations. Although the modified bunching system design performed as required, the modifications are technically challenging to implement

  15. Generation and transport of double-bunch electron beams in the FLASH beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrena Utrilla, Carlos Manuel

    2014-10-01

    The Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is part of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) research center. Its linear accelerator produces high-quality electron bunches of up to about 1.2 GeV that are used in its undulator to generate short, intense, high-brilliance soft-X ray pulses with a wavelength from 4.2 nm to 45 nm with the SASE process. This characteristics make FLASH a leading facility worldwide in photon science and linear accelerator technologies, along with the Linac Coherent Light Source (in SLAC, Standford, USA), the FERMI rate at Elettra in Trieste (Italy) and SACLA (Japan). For several reasons, there is a substantial interest to accelerate two electron bunches with a final temporal distance of several hundreds of femtoseconds. These two bunches are generated on the photocathode within picoseconds from each other and accelerated within the same RF bucket (the same period of the RF (radio-frequency) accelerating fields). These experiments are of interest for two-color FEL for pump-probe experiments, and for the external injection of electrons in the future particle-driven plasma wakefield accelerator experiment, called FLASHForward, which will start in early 2016. This work analyzes the longitudinal dynamics of said double-bunches, from generation on the photocathode to the transport and compression through the linac. It is shown how a working point for a desired compression scenario (shape and final current of the bunches, and final distance between them) can be found with different numerical tracking procedures, and how the electrons can be experimentally generated and transported through the accelerator in the current layout, which was confirmed in a proof-of-concept experiment in late May 2014.

  16. Implementation of the Electronics Chain for the Bunch by Bunch Intensity Measurement Devices for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Belohrad, D; Ludwig, M; Savioz, J J; Thoulet, S

    2009-01-01

    The fast beam intensity measurements for the LHC are provided by eight Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Four FBCTs installed in the LHC rings are capable of providing both bunch-by-bunch and total turn-by-turn beam intensity information. A further four FBCTs, two in each of the LHC dump lines, are used to measure the total extracted beam intensity. In addition to providing intensity information the ring FBCTs also send signals to the machine protection system. This increases the complexity of both the RF front-end and the digital acquisition parts of the signal processing chain. The aim of this paper is to discuss the implemented hardware solution for the FBCT system, in particular with respect to the signal distribution, FPGA signal processing, calibration, and interaction of the FBCTs with the machine protection chain.

  17. Population III Stars and Remnants in High-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.

    2013-08-01

    Recent simulations of Population III star formation have suggested that some fraction form in binary systems, in addition to having a characteristic mass of tens of solar masses. The deaths of metal-free stars result in the initial chemical enrichment of the universe and the production of the first stellar-mass black holes. Here we present a cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 109 M ⊙ dark matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach M vir ~ 107 M ⊙ because this biased region is quickly enriched from both Population III and galaxies, which also produce high levels of ultraviolet radiation that suppress H2 formation. Nevertheless, Population III stars continue to form, albeit in more massive halos, at a rate of ~10-4 M ⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 at redshift 15. The most massive starless halo has a mass of 7 × 107 M ⊙, which could host massive black hole formation through the direct gaseous collapse scenario. We show that the multiplicity of the Population III remnants grows with halo mass above 108 M ⊙, culminating in 50 remnants located in 109 M ⊙ halos on average. This has implications that high-mass X-ray binaries and intermediate-mass black holes that originate from metal-free stars may be abundant in high-redshift galaxies.

  18. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  19. Influence of laser parameters on the relativistic short electron bunches dynamics in linear accelerators based on RF-guns and development of associated diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinatier, T.

    2015-01-01

    My thesis investigates dynamics and diagnostics related to short electron bunches, namely whose rms duration is not directly measurable by an electronic method locating the border at a few tens of picoseconds. The short nature of the bunch and the necessity of a high peak current for the applications imply strong space-charge forces leading to a degradation of beam properties, as its transverse emittance and duration. The main difficulty is to characterize, model and take into account these effects. The chapter 2 consists in the measurements of several properties of these bunches: charge, transverse emittance, energy and duration. The originality of my work is that I use simple methods, both on the theoretical (analytical at maximum) and technological (using only common elements of electron accelerators) point of view. I have developed a method of charge measurement from the measurement of the light intensity emitted by a scintillating screen following the interaction with an electron beam. I have also developed a method to measure the bunch mean energy with a steering magnet and a scintillating screen, via the displacement of the bunch centroid as a function of the field of the steering magnet. I have also adapted multi-parametric methods to measure the transverse emittance and duration of electron bunches. These indirect methods allow the determination of these properties from the measurement of other more accessible properties: the transverse dimensions for the transverse emittance and the energy spread for the duration. The chapter 3 consists in the comparison of the properties of short electron beams, single or longitudinally modulated, generated by 3 different methods: Injection of a short or longitudinally modulated laser pulse in an RF-gun; Magnetic compression in a chicane; and RF-compression in an accelerating structure (Velocity Bunching). I have shown that, at equal conditions of charge, the generation of short bunches thanks to a short laser pulse

  20. Natriuretic peptides: prediction of cardiovascular disease in the general population and high risk populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per

    2009-01-01

    (General Practitioner) setting as in the acute setting. Supporting this use is a very strong prognostic value of the natriuretic peptides. This has been shown in as well heart failure as acute coronary syndromes, but also in the general population and in high-risk groups as patients with diabetes......, hypertension and coronary artery disease. This has of course raised interest for the use of the natriuretic peptides as a risk marker and for screening for heart failure with reduced systolic function in these populations. In symptomatic persons and in high risk populations, the natriuretic peptides have...... demonstrated a high sensitivity for ruling out the disease, if the right decision limits are choosen. Thus the number of normal echocardiographies can be reduced. More recently, the use in screening asymptomatic persons for left ventricular systolic dysfunction has gained more interest. In the unselected...

  1. Upgraded D OE calorimeter electronics for short Tevatron bunch space and the effect of pile-up on the W mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokos, S.

    1992-11-01

    The high luminosity and short bunch spacing time of the upgraded Tevatron force the calorimeter to replace a significant part of the present electronics. The W mass measurement was used to study the pile-up effects

  2. The simultaneous generation of soliton bunches and Q-switched-like pulses in a partially mode-locked fiber laser with a graphene saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-ge; He, Ruijing; Wang, Guangdou; Yang, Guang; Han, Simeng

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally report the coexistence of soliton bunches and Q-switched-like pulses in a partially mode-locked fiber laser with a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber. The soliton bunches, like isolated spikes with extreme amplitude and ultrashort duration, randomly generate in the background of the Q-switched-like pulses. The soliton bunches have some pulse envelopes in which pulses operate at a fundamental repetition rate in the temporal domain. Further investigation shows that the composite pulses are highly correlated with the noise-like pulses. Our work can make a further contribution to enrich the understanding of the nonlinear dynamics in fiber lasers.

  3. Solid Catalyst Nanoparticles derived from Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunches (OP-EFB) as a Renewable Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, H.; Asnawi, T. M.; Firdaus, A.; Husaini, H.; Ibrahim, I.; Hasfita, F.

    2018-05-01

    Solid nanocatalyst derived from oil-palm empty fruit bunches (OP-EFB) fiber was successfully synthesized and its application for biodiesel production was investigated. The OPEFB was treated by burning, milling and heating methods to generate ashes in a nanoparticle size. The nanoparticle palm-bunch ash was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the calcination temperature and catalyst amounts for transesterification reactions were investigated. XRD analysis of palm bunch ash exhibited that the highest composition of peaks characteristic were potassium oxide (K2O). SEM analysis showed that the nano palm bunch ash have a particle size ranging of 150-400 nm. The highest conversion of palm-oil to biodiesel reach to 97.90% was observed by using of palm bunch ash nanocatalyst which heated at 600°C, 3 h reaction time and 1% catalyst amount. Reusability of palm bunch ash catalysts was also examined. It was found that of its high active sites, reusable solid catalyst was obtained by just heating of palm bunch ash. It has a capability to reduce not only the amount of catalyst consumption but also reduce the reaction time of transesterification process.

  4. Mode-coupling theory and bunch lengthening in SPEAR II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Chin, Y.; Satoh, K.

    1983-01-01

    A mode-coupling theory of bunched-beam instabilities is developed for a Gaussian bunch. The theory converts Sacherer's integral equation with mode coupling into a matrix eigenvalue problem. The present theory assumes well-defined azimuthal modes and takes into account radial modes which are expressed as superpositions of orthogonal functions. The theory is applied to bunch lengthening observed at SPEAR II. The theory explains qualitative features of the experimental results fairly well, but quantitative agreement is not too good. This is ascribed to insufficient knowledge of the coupling impedance of SPEAR II or to the possibility that such effects as radiation damping and quantum excitation should be included. (author)

  5. Multiple bunch-splitting in the PS results and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2001-01-01

    The nominal longitudinal characteristics of the PS proton beam for the LHC were attained during the year 2000, using a sequence of triple- and double-splittings to divide each PS Booster (PSB) bunch into 12. This method minimizes longitudinal emittance blow-up and preserves a gap, free of particles, in the bunch train. Some of the ideas for alternative bunch trains have also been tested. The performance achieved is described and the sources of limitations are discussed together with the foreseen improvements.

  6. Developing electron beam bunching technology for improving light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Chan, K.C.D.; Feldman, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new electron bunch compression technology, experimentally demonstrate subpicosecond compression of bunches with charges on the order of 1 nC, and to theoretically investigate fundamental limitations to electron bunch compression. All of these goals were achieved, and in addition, the compression system built for this project was used to generate 22 nm light in a plasma-radiator light source

  7. Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1997-05-12

    The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime.

  8. Function of bunching segment in multi-cell RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xingfan; Xu Zhou Liu Xisan

    2001-01-01

    With a bunching segment and a shortened first cell, the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun produced in CAEP has been proved experimentally to be effective in reducing electron back bombardment. The analysis of the electric field distribution and electron motion in bunching segment of multi-cell RF gun is presented. The electron capture efficiency and electron trajectory with different initial phase are calculated using Runge-Kutta method. The function of the bunching segment is discussed. The calculated parameters of the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun agree well with the experimental results

  9. Transverse-Longitudinal Coupling Effect in Laser Bunch Slicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, M.; Katoh, M.; Adachi, M.; Kimura, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Hosaka, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Takashima, Y.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report turn-by-turn observation of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) produced by the laser bunch slicing technique at an electron storage ring operated with a small momentum compaction factor. CSR emission was intermittent, and its interval depended strongly on the betatron tune. This peculiar behavior of the CSR could be interpreted as a result of coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motion of the electrons. This is the first observation of such an effect, which would be important not only for controlling the CSR emission but also for generating and transporting ultrashort electron bunches or electron bunches with microdensity structures in advanced accelerators.

  10. Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime

  11. Longitudinal Electron Bunch Diagnostics Using Coherent Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Daniel; Happek, Uwe; Regis-Guy Piot, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal charge distribution of electron bunches in the Fermilab A0 photo-injector was determined by using the coherent transition radiation produced by electrons passing through a thin metallic foil. The auto-correlation of the transition radiation signal was measured with a Michelson type interferometer. The response function of the interferometer was determined from measured and simulated power spectra for low electron bunch charge and maximum longitudinal compression. Kramers-Kroning technique was used to determine longitudinal charge distribution. Measurements were performed for electron bunch lengths in the range from 0.3 to 2 ps (rms).

  12. Chicane and wiggler based bunch compressors for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.; Emma, P.; Kheifets, S.

    1993-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss bunch compressors for future linear colliders. In the past, the bunch compression optics has been based upon achromatic cells using strong sextupoles to correct the dispersive and betatron chromaticity. To preserve the very small emittances required in most future collider designs, these schemes tend to have very tight alignment tolerances. Here, we describe bunch compressors based upon magnetic chicanes or wigglers which do need sextupoles to correct the chromatic emittance dilution. The dispersive chromaticity cancels naturally and the betatron chromaticity is not a significant source of emittance dilution. Thus, these schemes allow for substantially reduced alignment tolerances. Finally, we present a detailed design for the NLC linear collider

  13. New diagnostics and cures for coupled-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a charged particle beam and its surroundings causes collective instabilities, which must be controlled if the new light sources and colliders are to meet their design goals. Control requires a combination of passive damping and fast active feedback on an unprecedented technological scale. Efficient instability diagnosis techniques are also needed for machines with large numbers of bunches. This thesis describes new methods of measuring and analyzing coupled-bunch instabilities in circular accelerators, and demonstrates the existence of a new cure. A new technique is demonstrated for simultaneous measurement of growth rates, damping rates and coherent tune shifts of all unstable coupled-bunch eigenmodes from a single 10-25-ms transient snapshot of beam motion. The technique has been used to locate and quantify beam impedance resonances at PEP-II, ALS and SPEAR. This method is faster than existing spectral scan methods by at least an order of magnitude, and has the added advantage of revealing coupled-bunch dynamics in the linear small-signal regime. A method is also presented for estimating beam impedance from multi-bunch fill shape and synchronous phase measurements. Phase space tracking of multi-bunch instabilities is introduced as a ''complete instability diagnostic.'' Digitized multi-bunch data is analyzed offline, to estimate the phase space trajectories of bunches and modes. Availability of phase space trajectories is shown to open up a variety of possibilities, including measurement of reactive impedance, and diagnosis of the fast beam-ion instability. Knowledge gained from longitudinal measurements (all made using a digital longitudinal feedback system) has been used to optimize cavity temperatures, tuner positions and feedback parameters, and also to identify sources of beam noise at the three machines. A matrix-based method is presented for analyzing the beneficial effect of bunch-to-bunch tune variation on instability

  14. Simultaneous detection of longitudinal and transverse bunch signals at ANKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Benjamin; Blomley, Edmund; Brosi, Miriam; Bruendermann, Erik; Hiller, Nicole; Mueller, Anke-Susanne; Steinmann, Johannes; Schedler, Manuel; Schuh, Marcel; Schoenfeldt, Patrik; Smale, Nigel [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schuetze, Paul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The ANKA storage ring offers different operation modes including the short-bunch mode with bunch lengths tuned down to a few picoseconds. This can lead to the occurrence of microwave instabilities coupled to the emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the so-called 'bursts'. To study this CSR instability we use several turn-by-turn enabled detector systems to synchronously measure both the THz signal as well as bunch profiles. The different detectors are placed at different locations around the storage ring. Here we discuss the experimental setup and calibration of the various systems' synchronisation.

  15. Bunch monitor for an S-band electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yuji; Nakahara, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of bunch characteristics in an S-band electron linear accelerator is required in order to evaluate the quality of accelerated electron beams. A new-type bunch monitor has been developed which combines micro-stripline technology with an air insulator and wall-current monitoring technology. The obtained time resolution of the monitor was more than 150 ps. This result shows that the monitor can handle the bunch number of an S-band linac. The structure of the monitor is suitable for being installed in the vacuum area, since it is constructed of only metal and ceramic parts. It can therefore easily be employed in an actual machine

  16. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. Results We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. Conclusions We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  17. Theoretical analysis and simulation of the influence of self-bunching effects and longitudinal space charge effects on the propagation of keV electron bunch produced by a novel S-band Micro-Pulse electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jifei; Lu, Xiangyang; Zhou, Kui; Yang, Ziqin; Yang, Deyu; Luo, Xing; Tan, Weiwei; Yang, Yujia

    2016-06-01

    As an important electron source, Micro-Pulse electron Gun (MPG) which is qualified for producing high average current, short pulse, low emittance electron bunches steadily holds promise to use as an electron source of Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation (CSPR), Free Electron Laser (FEL). The stable output of S-band MPG has been achieved in many labs. To establish reliable foundation for the future application of it, the propagation of picosecond electron bunch produced by MPG should be studied in detail. In this article, the MPG which was working on the rising stage of total effective Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) curve was introduced. The self-bunching mechanism was discussed in depth both in the multipacting amplifying state and the steady working state. The bunch length broadening induced by the longitudinal space-charge (SC) effects was investigated by different theoretical models in different regions. The 2D PIC codes MAGIC and beam dynamic codes TraceWin simulations were also performed in the propagation. The result shows an excellent agreement between the simulation and the theoretical analysis for bunch length evolution.

  18. Theoretical analysis and simulation of the influence of self-bunching effects and longitudinal space charge effects on the propagation of keV electron bunch produced by a novel S-band Micro-Pulse electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jifei; Lu, Xiangyang, E-mail: xylu@pku.edu.cn; Yang, Ziqin; Yang, Deyu; Tan, Weiwei; Yang, Yujia [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Zhou, Kui; Luo, Xing [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-06-15

    As an important electron source, Micro-Pulse electron Gun (MPG) which is qualified for producing high average current, short pulse, low emittance electron bunches steadily holds promise to use as an electron source of Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation (CSPR), Free Electron Laser (FEL). The stable output of S-band MPG has been achieved in many labs. To establish reliable foundation for the future application of it, the propagation of picosecond electron bunch produced by MPG should be studied in detail. In this article, the MPG which was working on the rising stage of total effective Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) curve was introduced. The self-bunching mechanism was discussed in depth both in the multipacting amplifying state and the steady working state. The bunch length broadening induced by the longitudinal space-charge (SC) effects was investigated by different theoretical models in different regions. The 2D PIC codes MAGIC and beam dynamic codes TraceWin simulations were also performed in the propagation. The result shows an excellent agreement between the simulation and the theoretical analysis for bunch length evolution.

  19. Theoretical analysis and simulation of the influence of self-bunching effects and longitudinal space charge effects on the propagation of keV electron bunch produced by a novel S-band Micro-Pulse electron Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifei Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important electron source, Micro-Pulse electron Gun (MPG which is qualified for producing high average current, short pulse, low emittance electron bunches steadily holds promise to use as an electron source of Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation (CSPR, Free Electron Laser (FEL. The stable output of S-band MPG has been achieved in many labs. To establish reliable foundation for the future application of it, the propagation of picosecond electron bunch produced by MPG should be studied in detail. In this article, the MPG which was working on the rising stage of total effective Secondary Electron Yield (SEY curve was introduced. The self-bunching mechanism was discussed in depth both in the multipacting amplifying state and the steady working state. The bunch length broadening induced by the longitudinal space-charge (SC effects was investigated by different theoretical models in different regions. The 2D PIC codes MAGIC and beam dynamic codes TraceWin simulations were also performed in the propagation. The result shows an excellent agreement between the simulation and the theoretical analysis for bunch length evolution.

  20. Stellar populations a guide from low to high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio

    2011-01-01

    This up-to-date reference on stellar populations and development models includes coverage of distant galaxies, chemical evolution and supernovae. Written by highly acclaimed authorities in the field, the book makes use of specific problems to reveal the ""kitchen secrets.""

  1. Real-time monitoring of longitudinal electron bunch parameters by intensity-integrated and spectroscopic measurements of single coherent THz pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesch, Stephan

    2012-12-01

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) generate intense and monochromatic photon pulses with few tens of femtosecond duration. For this purpose, electron beams are accelerated to relativistic energies and shrunk longitudinally down to micrometer size.The diagnosis of theses compressed electron bunches is a challenge especially for MHz bunch repetition rates as provided by the FEL FLASH in Hamburg. In this thesis, coherently emitted THz radiation of single electron bunches were investigated, on which the longitudinal structure is imprinted. Two instruments were used: First, the FLASH bunch compression monitors, relying on the integrated intensity measurement of diffraction radiation, were modified to determine the overall length of every bunch behind the two bunch compressors (BC). A model was developed showing that their response is independent of the exact bunch shape for lengths below 200 μm (rms). This could experimentally be verified in the range between 50 and 190 μm within 7% accuracy for themonitor behind the last BC by comparison with measurements with the transverse deflecting structure (TDS). Second, a single-shot spectrometer with five staged reflective blazed gratings has been designed, build and commissioned. With its two grating sets, the wavelength ranges from 5.5 to 44 μm and 45 to 440 μm can be simultaneously detected by 118 fast pyroelectric elements. Measurements based on transition radiation spectra were compared with profiles recorded by the TDS.The shape of the spectra as well as the reconstructed temporal profiles (using the Kramers-Kronig relation for phase retrieval) are in excellent agreement. For bunches with a charge of 50 pC, bunch lengths down to 5 μm (fhwm) could be detected.

  2. POPULATION III STARS AND REMNANTS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Wise, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent simulations of Population III star formation have suggested that some fraction form in binary systems, in addition to having a characteristic mass of tens of solar masses. The deaths of metal-free stars result in the initial chemical enrichment of the universe and the production of the first stellar-mass black holes. Here we present a cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 10 9 M ☉ dark matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach M vir ∼ 10 7 M ☉ because this biased region is quickly enriched from both Population III and galaxies, which also produce high levels of ultraviolet radiation that suppress H 2 formation. Nevertheless, Population III stars continue to form, albeit in more massive halos, at a rate of ∼10 –4 M ☉ yr –1 Mpc –3 at redshift 15. The most massive starless halo has a mass of 7 × 10 7 M ☉ , which could host massive black hole formation through the direct gaseous collapse scenario. We show that the multiplicity of the Population III remnants grows with halo mass above 10 8 M ☉ , culminating in 50 remnants located in 10 9 M ☉ halos on average. This has implications that high-mass X-ray binaries and intermediate-mass black holes that originate from metal-free stars may be abundant in high-redshift galaxies

  3. Effects of emittance and space-charge in femtosecond bunch compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.; Yang, J.; Kondoh, T.; Norizawa, K.; Yoshida, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrashort electron bunches of the order of <100fs are essential for the study of ultrafast reactions and phenomena by means of time-resolved pump-probe experiments. In order to generate such an electron bunch, the effects of emittance, space-charge (SC) and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the bunch length in a femtosecond magnetic bunch compressor were studied theoretically. It was observed that the bunch length is dominated by the emittance, SC and CSR effects when the electron bunch is compressed into a femtosecond electron bunch. The increases in bunch length due to the transverse emittance, SC and CSR effects in the bunch compressor were 1.7 fs/mm mrad, 107 fs/nC and 72 fs/nC, respectively. Finally, the simulated bunch length was compared with the experimental results.

  4. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, M.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Blackburn, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results

  5. Three bunch energy stabilization for the SLC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Almog, I.; Bambade, P.S.; Clendenin, J.E.; Jobe, R.K.; Phinney, N.; Shoaee, H.; Stiening, R.F.; Thompson, K.A.

    1986-09-01

    Slow feedback has been developed to control the energy and energy spread of the beams which are injected into the SLC damping rings. Within a single RF pulse, two bunches of electrons and one bunch of positrons are accelerated to an energy of 1.21 GeV in the injector of the SLC. The two electron bunches are deflected into the north damping ring while the positrons are targeted into the south ring. In order to fit into the acceptance of the rings, the composite energy deviation and energy spread of the beams must be less than 2% full width. Control of the beam energy characteristics is accomplished with a set of computer controlled feedback loops which monitor the parameters of the three bunches and make adjustments to the available RF energy, RF phasing, and RF timing. This paper presents an overview of the feedback algorithms and of the special hardware developments, and reports on the operational status of the processes

  6. The population program shifts to 'high-scenario' targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-choudury, P

    1986-01-01

    The Philippine Population Program would like to achieve a replacement level of 1 daughter per childbearing woman by the year 2000 to reduce the population growth rate to 2% by 1992. Laing projected that high performance by the National Population Program would mean continued increase of sterilization prevalence at an average 1978-1983 rate. Strategies have been adopted to strengthen information-education-communication efforts, to attain higher contraceptive prevalence rates and use-effectiveness, to develop manpower, to achieve self-reliance, and to effect better program coordination, monitoring, research use. Effective service delivery will be a key to achieving the high-scenario targets. Effective use of natural family planning (NFP), will help in achieving the high-scenario goals. Apart from the heavy demand on NFP follow-up, need for prompt delivery of supplies, and lack of doctors and nurses, other factors may impede the high-scenario targets. Saniel believes that program workers should be allowed to insert IUDs and to dispense pills. Under the cost-recovery and cost-sharing schemes of the high-scenario targets, only sterilization will be done for free. It might affect the campaign for increased acceptors, but the start for self-reliance must happen now.

  7. Coupled-bunch instabilities in the APS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, L.

    1991-01-01

    A study of coupled bunch instabilities for the APS storage ring is presented. The instabilities are driven by the higher-order modes of the fifteen 352-MHz single-cell RF cavities. These modes are modeled using the 2-D cavity program URMEL. The program ZAP is then used to estimate the growth time of the instabilities for an equally-spaced bunch pattern. The cavity modes most responsible for the instabilities will be singles out for damping. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Nonlinear space charge effect of bunched beam in linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao

    1992-02-01

    The nonlinear space charge effect due to the nonuniform particle density distribution in bunched beam of a linac is discussed. The formulae of nonlinear space charge effect and nonlinear focusing forces were derived for the bunched beam with Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) distribution, waterbag (WB) distribution, parabolic (PA) distribution, and Gauss (GA) distribution in both of the space charge disk model and space charge cylinder model in the waveguide of a linac

  9. Ex situ investigation of the step bunching on crystal surfaces by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, Mariusz J.

    1997-07-01

    We are describing ex situ observation of step bunching on the surfaces of solution grown potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and sodium chlorate monocrystals. The measurements have been done with the use of atomic force microscope. The use of this equipment allowed us to see directly the structure of macrosteps. Observation confirmed the existence of step pinning which is one of the proposed mechanisms of step bunching. Despite the very high resolution of AFM it was not possible to determine the nature of pinning point. The monatomic steps on KDP and sodium chlorate crystal surfaces are mainly one unit cell high what seems to be the result of the steps pairing. The origin of observed step pattern is discussed in frames of existing theories.

  10. State orthogonality, boson bunching parameter and bosonic enhancement factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchewka, A.; Granot, E.

    2016-01-01

    Bosons bunching is the tendency of bosons to bunch together with respect to distinguishable particles. It is emphasized that the bunching parameter β = p_B/p_D, i.e. the ratio between the probability to measure 2 bosons and 2 distinguishable particles at the same state, is a constant of motion and depends only on the overlap between the initial wavefunctions. This ratio is equal to β = 2/(1 + l"2), where l is the overlap integral between the initial wavefunctions. That is, only when the initial wavefunctions are orthogonal this ratio is equal to 2, however, this bunching ratio can be reduced to 1, when the two wavefunctions are identical. This simple equation explains the experimental evidences of a beam splitter. A straightforward conclusion is that by measuring the local bunching parameter β (at any point in space and time) it is possible to evaluate a global parameter l (the overlap between the initial wavefunctions). The bunching parameter is then generalized to arbitrary number of particles, and in an analogy to the two-particles scenario, the well-known bosonic enhancement appears only when all states are orthogonal

  11. Bunches of random cross-correlated sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maystrenko, A A; Melnik, S S; Pritula, G M; Usatenko, O V

    2013-01-01

    The statistical properties of random cross-correlated sequences constructed by the convolution method (likewise referred to as the Rice or the inverse Fourier transformation) are examined. We clarify the meaning of the filtering function—the kernel of the convolution operator—and show that it is the value of the cross-correlation function which describes correlations between the initial white noise and constructed correlated sequences. The matrix generalization of this method for constructing a bunch of N cross-correlated sequences is presented. Algorithms for their generation are reduced to solving the problem of decomposition of the Fourier transform of the correlation matrix into a product of two mutually conjugate matrices. Different decompositions are considered. The limits of weak and strong correlations for the one-point probability and pair correlation functions of sequences generated by the method under consideration are studied. Special cases of heavy-tailed distributions of the generated sequences are analyzed. We show that, if the filtering function is rather smooth, the distribution function of generated variables has the Gaussian or Lévy form depending on the analytical properties of the distribution (or characteristic) functions of the initial white noise. Anisotropic properties of statistically homogeneous random sequences related to the asymmetry of a filtering function are revealed and studied. These asymmetry properties are expressed in terms of the third- or fourth-order correlation functions. Several examples of the construction of correlated chains with a predefined correlation matrix are given. (paper)

  12. The LHC Transverse Coupled-Bunch Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Mounet, Nicolas; Métral, Elias

    In this thesis, the problem of the transverse coupled-bunch instabilities created by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-coupling impedance, that can possibly limit the machine operation, is addressed thanks to several new theories and tools. A rather complete vision of the problem is proposed here, going from the calculation of the impedances and wake functions of individual machine elements, to the beam dynamics study. Firstly, new results are obtained in the theory of the beam-coupling impedance for an axisymmetric two-dimensional structure, generalizing Zotter's theories, and a new general theory is derived for the impedance of an infinite flat two-dimensional structure. Then, a new approach has been found to compute the wake functions from such analytically obtained beam-coupling impedances, over-coming limitations that could be met with standard discrete Fourier transform procedures. Those results are then used to obtain an impedance and wake function model of the LHC, based on the (resistive-) wall im...

  13. Integration of energy-efficient empty fruit bunch drying with gasification/combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Prawisudha, Pandji; Prabowo, Bayu; Budiman, Bentang Arief

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel integrated drying, gasification and combined cycle for empty fruit bunch. • Application of enhanced process integration to achieve high total energy efficiency. • The technology covers exergy recovery and process integration. • High overall energy efficiency can be achieved (about 44% including drying). - Abstract: A high-energy-efficient process for empty fruit bunch drying with integration to gasification and combined cycle processes is proposed. The enhancement is due to greater exergy recovery and more efficient process integration. Basically, the energy/heat involved in a single process is recovered as much as possible, leading to minimization of exergy destruction. In addition, the unrecoverable energy/heat is utilized for other processes through process integration. During drying, a fluidized bed dryer with superheated steam is used as the main evaporator. Exergy recovery is performed through exergy elevation via compression and effective heat coupling in a dryer and heat exchangers. The dried empty fruit bunches are gasified in a fluidized bed gasifier using air as the fluidizing gas. Furthermore, the produced syngas is utilized as fuel in the combined cycle module. From process analysis, the proposed integrated processes can achieve a relatively high energy efficiency. Compared to a standalone drying process employing exergy recovery, the proposed integrated drying can reduce consumed energy by about 1/3. In addition, the overall integrated processes can reach a total power generation efficiency of about 44%

  14. Architectures and Algorithms for Control and Diagnostics of Coupled-Bunch Instabilities in Circular Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2003-07-08

    Modern light sources and circular colliders employ large numbers of high-intensity particle bunches in order to achieve high luminosity. The electromagnetic coupling of bunches via resonant structures causes coherent instabilities at high beam currents. Achieving high luminosity requires the control of such unstable motion. Feedback control is challenging due to wideband nature of the problem with up to 250 MHz bandwidths required. This thesis presents digital signal processing architectures and diagnostic techniques for control of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities. Diagnostic capabilities integrated into the feedback system allow one to perform fast transient measurements of unstable dynamics by perturbing the beam from the controlled state via feedback and recording the time-domain response. Such measurements enable one to thoroughly characterize plant (beam) dynamics as well as performance of the feedback system. Beam dynamics can change significantly over the operating range of accelerator currents and energies . Here we present several methods for design of robust stabilizing feedback controllers. Experimental results from several accelerators are presented. A new baseband architecture for transverse feedback is described that compactly implements the digital processing functions using field-programmable gate array devices. The architecture is designed to be software configurable so that the same hardware can be used for instability control in different accelerators.

  15. Architectures and Algorithms for Control and Diagnostics of Coupled-Bunch Instabilities in Circular Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2003-01-01

    Modern light sources and circular colliders employ large numbers of high-intensity particle bunches in order to achieve high luminosity. The electromagnetic coupling of bunches via resonant structures causes coherent instabilities at high beam currents. Achieving high luminosity requires the control of such unstable motion. Feedback control is challenging due to wideband nature of the problem with up to 250 MHz bandwidths required. This thesis presents digital signal processing architectures and diagnostic techniques for control of longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities. Diagnostic capabilities integrated into the feedback system allow one to perform fast transient measurements of unstable dynamics by perturbing the beam from the controlled state via feedback and recording the time-domain response. Such measurements enable one to thoroughly characterize plant (beam) dynamics as well as performance of the feedback system. Beam dynamics can change significantly over the operating range of accelerator currents and energies . Here we present several methods for design of robust stabilizing feedback controllers. Experimental results from several accelerators are presented. A new baseband architecture for transverse feedback is described that compactly implements the digital processing functions using field-programmable gate array devices. The architecture is designed to be software configurable so that the same hardware can be used for instability control in different accelerators

  16. Isolation, Characterization, and Application of Nanocellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber as Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Lani; N. Ngadi; A. Johari; M. Jusoh

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites, consisting of a polymeric matrix and nanosized elements as reinforcement, have attracted significant scientific attention because of their high mechanical performance. A large variety of nanocomposites have been prepared using bio-based materials as a matrix and nanoreinforcement, so that it can reduce the dependence on nondegradable products and move to a sustainable materials basis. The objective of this study was to isolate nanocellulose from empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber a...

  17. Current-horn suppression for reduced coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced emittance growth in strong bunch compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Charles

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR-induced emittance growth is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Extreme current values at the head and tail of the electron bunch, resulting from strong bunch compression, are responsible for large CSR production leading to significant transverse projected emittance growth. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS truncates the head and tail current spikes which greatly improves free electron laser (FEL performance. Here we consider the underlying dynamics that lead to formation of current spikes (also referred to as current horns, which has been identified as caustics forming in electron trajectories. We present a method to analytically determine conditions required to avoid the caustic formation and therefore prevent the current spikes from forming. These required conditions can be easily met, without increasing the transverse slice emittance, through inclusion of an octupole magnet in the middle of a bunch compressor.

  18. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    tend to sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level ( McCormick , DeNisi, & Staw, 1979; McCormick , Jeanneret, & Mecham...of Genetic Psychology, 153, 229-230. Specific abilities, g, & high ability populations 14 McCormick , E. J., DeNisi, A. S., & Shaw, J. B... McCormick , E. J., Jeanneret, P. R., & Mecham, R. C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire

  19. Virtual photon impulse of bunch, beampipe response, coherent RF Beamstrahlung; and BEPC bunch length, BES jam, virtual acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Shen

    1993-01-01

    A brief EEE view of signal QED is presented. The research has been concentrated on the virtual photon modes of ultra relativistic shock wave in a bunch-beampipe system, and real photon modes of Coherent RF Beamstrahlung CRFB. Physically, the virtual photons emitted by a bunch were treated as a travelling pseudo wave packet in a flight coaxial cavity constructed by bunch-wakefield core and beampipe. Mathematically, it is a boundary solution of shock wave excited by ultra relativistic impulse of bunch. The new modes of solution: VTA, VTEM, VTM, VLE are virtual photon packets and RTE, RTM, RTEM are real photon modes of CRFB. By these results the author measured and corrected BEPC bunch length from signals of : (1) TOF reference of BES, (2) BPM of BEPC, (3) Colliding CRFB of BEPC - BES coupling signal, as well as (4) the ordinary method of Synchrotron Radiation. All results of the measured bunch lengths are in accordance with the design length of BEPC, and were verified by the BES data of vertex reconstruction of hadron events. The author also found that CRFB is the unknown jam source of BES electronics. VLE virtual photons can accelerate particles

  20. A 40 MHz Bunch by Bunch Intensity Measurement for the CERN SPS and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jakob, H; Jones, R; Jensen, L

    2003-01-01

    A new acquisition system has been developed to allow the measurement of the individual intensity of each bunch in a 40MHz bunch train. Such a system will be used for the measurement of LHC type beams after extraction from the CERN-PS right through to the dump lines of the CERN-LHC. The method is based on integrating the analogue signal supplied by a Fast Beam Current Transformer at a frequency of 40MHz. This has been made possible with the use of a fast integration ASIC developed by the University of Clermont-Ferrand, France, for the LHC-b pre-shower detector. The output of the integrator is digitised using a 12-bit ADC and fed into a Digital Acquisition Board (DAB) that was originally developed by TRIUMF, Canada, for use in the LHC orbit system. A full system set-up was commissioned during 2002 in the CERN-SPS, and following its success will now be extended in 2003 to cover the PS to SPS transfer lines and the new TT40 LHC extraction channel.

  1. Electron Bunch Timing with Femtosecond Precision in a Superconducting Free-Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhl, F.; Arsov, V.; Felber, M.; Hacker, K.; Jalmuzna, W.; Lorbeer, B.; Ludwig, F.; Matthiesen, K.-H.; Schlarb, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmüser, P.; Schulz, S.; Szewinski, J.; Winter, A.; Zemella, J.

    2010-04-01

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) are capable of generating femtosecond x-ray pulses with peak brilliances many orders of magnitude higher than at other existing x-ray sources. In order to fully exploit the opportunities offered by these femtosecond light pulses in time-resolved experiments, an unprecedented synchronization accuracy is required. In this Letter, we distributed the pulse train of a mode-locked fiber laser with femtosecond stability to different locations in the linear accelerator of the soft x-ray FEL FLASH. A novel electro-optic detection scheme was applied to measure the electron bunch arrival time with an as yet unrivaled precision of 6 fs (rms). With two beam-based feedback systems we succeeded in stabilizing both the arrival time and the electron bunch compression process within two magnetic chicanes, yielding a significant reduction of the FEL pulse energy jitter.

  2. A multi-frequency approach to free electron lasers driven by short electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovella, Nicola

    1997-01-01

    A multi-frequency model for free electron lasers (FELs), based on the Fourier decomposition of the radiation field coupled with the beam electrons, is discussed. We show that the multi-frequency approach allows for an accurate description of the evolution of the radiation spectrum, also when the FEL is driven by short electron bunches, of arbitrary longitudinal profile. We derive from the multi-frequency model, by averaging over one radiation period, the usual FEL equations modelling the slippage between radiation and particles and describing the super-radiant regime in high-gain FELs. As an example of application of the multi-frequency model, we discuss the coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) from short electron bunches

  3. Dynamic behaviour of nominal and PACMAN bunches for different LHC crossing schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, Werner

    2005-01-01

    To avoid unwanted beam-beam interactions, the two LHC beams cross at an angle in all experimental interaction regions. The choice of the crossing plane in the different areas has fundamental consequences on the effects of the long range beam-beam interaction. An alternating crossing scheme, i.e. horizontal and vertical crossing planes in the two high luminosity experiments, is presently foreseen to partly compensate and minimize first order effects on PACMAN bunches. Recent studies with a simplified model of the machine suggested that an alternating crossing scheme may be less favourable due to a reduced dynamic aperture. In this report I investigate this assertion with a detailed tracking study. The head on and long range beam-beam effects are taken into account as well as machine imperfections. The effects on the dynamic aperture of nominal and PACMAN bunches are evaluated.

  4. An emittance measurement system for a wide range of bunch charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, B.; Engwall, D.; Hofler, A.; Keesee, M.; Legg, R.

    1997-01-01

    As a part of the emittance measurements planned for the FEL injector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), the authors have developed an emittance measurement system that covers the wide dynamic range of bunch charges necessary to fully characterize the high-DC-voltage photocathode gun. The measurements are carried out with a variant of the classical two-slit method using a slit to sample the beam in conjunction with a wire scanner to measure the transmitted beam profile. The use of commercial, ultra-low noise picoammeters makes it possible to cover the wide range of desired bunch charges, with the actual measurements made over the range of 0.25 pC to 125 pC. The entire system, including its integration into the EPICS control system, is discussed

  5. Electron Bunch Timing with Femtosecond Precision in a Superconducting Free-Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehl, F.; Arsov, V.; Felber, M.; Hacker, K.; Lorbeer, B.; Ludwig, F.; Matthiesen, K.-H.; Schlarb, H.; Schmidt, B.; Winter, A.; Jalmuzna, W.; Schmueser, P.; Schulz, S.; Zemella, J.; Szewinski, J.

    2010-01-01

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) are capable of generating femtosecond x-ray pulses with peak brilliances many orders of magnitude higher than at other existing x-ray sources. In order to fully exploit the opportunities offered by these femtosecond light pulses in time-resolved experiments, an unprecedented synchronization accuracy is required. In this Letter, we distributed the pulse train of a mode-locked fiber laser with femtosecond stability to different locations in the linear accelerator of the soft x-ray FEL FLASH. A novel electro-optic detection scheme was applied to measure the electron bunch arrival time with an as yet unrivaled precision of 6 fs (rms). With two beam-based feedback systems we succeeded in stabilizing both the arrival time and the electron bunch compression process within two magnetic chicanes, yielding a significant reduction of the FEL pulse energy jitter.

  6. Feedback for suppression of single-bunch transverse instability in electron-positron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaluk, V; Sukhanov, D; Oreshonok, V; Cherepanov, V; Kiselev, V

    2012-01-01

    Transverse head-tail instability is a severe limitation of a single-bunch beam current in circular accelerators. Applicability and efficiency of feedbacks for suppression of the instability is analyzed. Both chromatic and nonlinear effects have been taken into account to understand the processes of excitation and damping of the instability. Analytical estimations are compared with the results of experiments and numerical simulations. A feedback system has been developed, installed and commissioned at the VEPP-4M electron-positron collider. An original scheme of the kicker powering has been developed to provide the necessary performance with minimal expenses. Real-time digital data processing performed by a code running in an FPGA module provides high efficiency and flexibility of the system. During the system commissioning, a more than threefold increase of intensity of the VEPP-4M single-bunch beam has been achieved.

  7. Study on the Effect of Calcium and Potassium Spray on Date Bunch Fading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shekofteh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date bunch fading disorder has been one of the most important problems, which caused economic damage to date plantation area of Iran. It has been first reported on Mozafti cultivar in Kahnuj area, Kerman province. It has often been observed on soft and mid ripening cultivars such as Mozafti, Mordaseng and Kalote. Furthermore, it usually appears on Mozafti cultivar when fruits change from Khalal to Rutab stage. The most important symptoms of this disorder are sudden wilting of fruits and necrotic strips on the upper surface of the main bunch stalk. Incidence and development of these symptoms increase by high temperature, low relative humidity, and hot and dry wind. Several research studies have been carried out on this disorder so far, but the only research about the effect of nutrition on disorder was performed by Rosta (2003. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium and potassium spray on date bunch fading and some traits of date fruit in Rigan region, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block designs with three replicates in Rigan located in east south of Kerman province, Iran, in 2012. Treatments were: T1: control, T2: spray of calcium nitrate at the concentration of 5 ppm, T3: spray of potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm, and T4: combined spray of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm. Treatments were applied at Kimri, Hobabok and Khalal stages. Sampling was performed from 3 date palms (3 bunches from each date palm were selected randomly at the second date harvest. Totally, the traits of 200 fruits were measured in each date palm. The traits measured in the present study were: fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage. Results and Discussions: According to the data of variance analysis, treatments had a significant effect on wet fruit

  8. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Bunch by bunch beam monitoring in 3rd and 4th generation light sources by means of single crystal diamond detectors and quantum well devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Tallaire, A.; Achard, J.; Carrato, S.; Menk, R. H.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Jark, W. H.; Biasiol, G.; Ganbold, T.; Oliver, K.; Callegari, C.; Coreno, M.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2012-10-01

    New generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) require novel concepts of beam diagnostics to keep photon beams under surveillance, asking for simultaneous position and intensity monitoring. To deal with high power load and short time pulses provided by these sources, novel materials and methods are needed for the next generation BPMs. Diamond is a promising material for the production of semitransparent in situ X-ray BPMs withstanding the high dose rates of SR rings and high energy FELs. We report on the development of freestanding, single crystal CVD diamond detectors. Performances in both low and radio frequency SR beam monitoring are presented. For the former, sensitivity deviation was found to be approximately 2%; a 0.05% relative precision in the intensity measurements and a 0.1-μm precision in the position encoding have been estimated. For the latter, single-shot characterizations revealed sub-nanosecond rise-times and spatial precisions below 6 μm, which allowed bunch-by-bunch monitoring in multi-bunch operation. Preliminary measurements at the Fermi FEL have been performed with this detector, extracting quantitative intensity and position information for FEL pulses (~ 100 fs, energy 12 ÷ 60 eV), with a long-term spatial precision of about 85 μm results on FEL radiation damages are also reported. Due to their direct, low-energy band gap, InGaAs quantum well devices too may be used as fast detectors for photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Results are reported which show the capability of a novel InGaAs/InAlAs device to detect intensity and position of 100-fs-wide laser pulses.

  10. Ethanol production from non-detoxified whole slurry of sulfite-pretreated empty fruit bunches at a low cellulase loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlan Cheng; Shao-Yuan Leu; J.Y. Zhu; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2014-01-01

    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to an empty fruit bunches (EFB) for ethanol production. SPORL facilitated delignification through lignin sulfonation and dissolution of xylan to result in a highly digestible substrate. The pretreated whole slurry was enzymatically saccharified at a solids loading of 18% using a...

  11. Bunch arrival time monitors; Concepts towards improving the sensitivity for low charge operation for FLASH II and XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penirschke, Andreas; Angelovski, Aleksandar; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik, Merckstr. 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Sydlo, Cezary; Bousonville, Michael; Czwalinna, Marie Kristin; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kuhl, Alexander [University of Hamburg, Physics Department, Accelerator Physics Group (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2013-07-01

    High gain Free-Electron Lasers can generate ultra short X-ray pulses in the femtosecond range. For a stable operation of the FEL, the precise knowledge of the bunch arrival time is crucial. A novel high bandwidth Bunch Arrival time Monitor was recently installed at FLASH to allow a low charge operation mode with a sub-10 fs resolution for bunch charges of 20 pC or more. The BAM is equipped with cone shaped pickups for the precise measurement of both, the high and low bunch charge operation mode. For the extension of FLASH facility to FLASH II new pickups for the high bandwidth BAMs need to be developed. The new BAM needs to maximize the voltage level of the beam induced signal for low charge operation mode in order to provide sufficient signal strength for the subsequent electronics. In this talk, we present concepts to improve the signal strength at the electro-optic modulators for low charge operation at FLASH II and XFEL.

  12. Superthermal photon bunching in terms of simple probability distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettau, T.; Leymann, H. A. M.; Melcher, B.; Wiersig, J.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the second-order photon autocorrelation function g(2 ) with respect to the photon probability distribution and discuss the generic features of a distribution that results in superthermal photon bunching [g(2 )(0 ) >2 ]. Superthermal photon bunching has been reported for a number of optical microcavity systems that exhibit processes such as superradiance or mode competition. We show that a superthermal photon number distribution cannot be constructed from the principle of maximum entropy if only the intensity and the second-order autocorrelation are given. However, for bimodal systems, an unbiased superthermal distribution can be constructed from second-order correlations and the intensities alone. Our findings suggest modeling superthermal single-mode distributions by a mixture of a thermal and a lasinglike state and thus reveal a generic mechanism in the photon probability distribution responsible for creating superthermal photon bunching. We relate our general considerations to a physical system, i.e., a (single-emitter) bimodal laser, and show that its statistics can be approximated and understood within our proposed model. Furthermore, the excellent agreement of the statistics of the bimodal laser and our model reveals that the bimodal laser is an ideal source of bunched photons, in the sense that it can generate statistics that contain no other features but the superthermal bunching.

  13. Destructive interferences results in bosons anti bunching: refining Feynman's argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'el

    2014-09-01

    The effect of boson bunching is frequently mentioned and discussed in the literature. This effect is the manifestation of bosons tendency to "travel" in clusters. One of the core arguments for boson bunching was formulated by Feynman in his well-known lecture series and has been frequently used ever since. By comparing the scattering probabilities of two bosons and of two distinguishable particles, he concluded: "We have the result that it is twice as likely to find two identical Bose particles scattered into the same state as you would calculate assuming the particles were different" [R.P. Feynman, R.B. Leighton, M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics: Quantum mechanics (Addison-Wesley, 1965)]. This argument was rooted in the scientific community (see for example [C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Laloë, Quantum Mechanics (John Wiley & Sons, Paris, 1977); W. Pauli, Exclusion Principle and Quantum Mechanics, Nobel Lecture (1946)]), however, while this sentence is completely valid, as is proved in [C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Laloë, Quantum Mechanics (John Wiley & Sons, Paris, 1977)], it is not a synonym of bunching. In fact, as it is shown in this paper, wherever one of the wavefunctions has a zero, bosons can anti-bunch and fermions can bunch. It should be stressed that zeros in the wavefunctions are ubiquitous in Quantum Mechanics and therefore the effect should be common. Several scenarios are suggested to witness the effect.

  14. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balal, N.; Magory, E. [Ariel University, Ariel 40700 (Israel); Bandurkin, I. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Bratman, V. L. [Ariel University, Ariel 40700 (Israel); Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Savilov, A. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-19

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.

  15. Measurement of self-shaped ellipsoidal bunches from a photoinjector with postacceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan O’Shea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown the possibility of generating self-shaped ellipsoidal beams with properties commensurate with the requirements of future light sources such as free-electron lasers and inverse Compton sources. In this so-termed “blowout” regime, short laser bunches are transformed via photoemission into short electron bunches which then self-consistently evolve into nearly uniform-density ellipsoids under space-charge forces. We report here on the first blowout studies conducted in collaboration between the UCLA Particle Beam Physics Lab and the Photo Injector Test Facility, Zeuthen (PITZ. The measurements conducted at the PITZ photoinjector facility examine the evolution of 750 pC, 2.7 ps FWHM electron bunches born in an L-band photoinjector and subsequently accelerated through a nine-cell L-band booster for a resulting energy of 12 MeV. These measurements represent the first observations of self-shaped ellipsoid evolution under postinjector acceleration, a key step in demonstrating the utility of such self-shaped beams at higher energy, where the advantages in both transverse and longitudinal and transverse phase space may be exploited in creating very high brightness beams.

  16. Micro-bunching diagnostics for the IFEL by coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Cline, D.B.

    1996-10-01

    Here, we propose an effective method for detecting micro-bunching effects (10 fs bunch length) produced by the IFEL interaction, by measuring the CTR spectrum. The pre-bunching of an initially energy- modulated c- beam passing through a wiggler (IFEL interaction) is studied. Simulation shows that more than 40% of electrons are pre- bunched in the micro-bunches. The longitudinal distribution of an optically pre-bunched beam is Fourier analyzed to find the dominant harmonics contributing to the CTR. The CTR spectrum is calculated analytically for the IFEL situation. A detection system has been built to demonstrate this technique

  17. Performance of the transverse coupled-bunch feedback system in the SRRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.T.; Kuo, C.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Lin, K.K.; Ueng, T.S.; Weng, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    A transverse feedback system has been implemented and commissioned in the SRRC storage ring to suppress transverse coupled-bunch oscillations of the electron beam. The system includes transverse oscillation detectors, notch filter, baseband quadrature processing circuitry, power amplifiers, and kickers. To control a large number of transverse coupled-bunch modes, the system is broad-band, bunch-by- bunch in nature. Because the system is capable of bunch-by-bunch correction, it can also be useful for suppressing instabilities introduced by ions. The sextupole strength was then reduced to improve dynamic aperture and hence lifetime of the storage ring

  18. Bunching and phase focusing of laser generated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Dennis; Hofmann, Ingo; Blazevic, Abel; Deppert, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Busold, Simon; Roth, Markus; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Brabetz, Christian [Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Zielbauer, Bernhard [HI Jena (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Laser accelerated proton beams can reach very high intensities and very low emittances. Therefore they are suitable as ion sources for many applications. One is the coupling into common ion accelerator structures to replace pre accelerators that are used so far. The LIGHT (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport) collaboration has been founded to develop ion optics and targets and optimize laser parameter to make this coupling most efficient. In a first step a short pulse beam line for the PHELIX-laser at GSI to the experiment site Z6 has been build in order to laser accelerate protons here. In a second step a pulsed solenoid has been established to collimate the divergent ion beam. In a third step this collimated beam will be coupled into a bunching unit, which consists of a spiral resonator with three gaps which leads to an overall acceleration voltage of 1 MV. With this cavity it is not only possible to avoid the broadening of the pulse, but also to phase focus it. This talk presents also the progress towards the operation of the spiral resonator as buncher for a laser accelerated ion beam e.g. simulations, tests and performance data and shows the next steps of the beam shaping efforts.

  19. Fast cooling of bunches in compton storage rings*

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    We propose an enhancement of laser radiative cooling by utilizing laser pulses of small spatial and temporal dimensions, which interact only with a fraction of an electron bunch circulating in a storage ring. We studied the dynamics of such electron bunch when laser photons scatter off the electrons at a collision point placed in a section with nonzero dispersion. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling’, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering where the laser spot size is larger than the electron beam; and the synchrotron oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped within one synchrotron period, so that this method can support the rapid successive injection of many bunches in longitudinal phase space for stacking purposes. Results of extensive simulations are presented for the performance optimization of Compton gamma-ray sources and damping rings.

  20. Improved Bunch Splitting for the 75ns LHC Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2011-01-01

    The 75ns variant was added to the PS arsenal of LHC-type beams by adapting the 20MHz cavity used to produce the 25 and 50ns variants to operate at a switchable 13MHz. This permitted splitting from harmonic 14 to 28, but at a cost in adiabaticity compared with the h=2142 splitting of the other two cases. Consequently, a delicate empirical optimization was necessary to bring the 75ns beam inside specification. More recently the speed at which the bunches, once fully distinct, are moved apart has been revisited and further optimization achieved. As a by-product, deliberately degrading the splitting by moving the bunches apart too quickly led to sufficient coherent motion in the resultant bunch pair to permit a voltage calibration of the 13MHz cavity by means of the influence on convergence of the rf voltage input into the iterative algorithm of the Tomoscope [1,2].

  1. Electro-Magnetic Bunch Length Measurement in LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, L

    1998-01-01

    Bunch lengths between 3 and 12 mm have been measured routinely in LEP in 1997 with a small (7 mm diameter) button electrode. The measurement method is based on the spectral analysis of the electrode signal and relies on the fact that the transfer function of the complete set-up, including the signal cable, can be computed rather exactly thus eliminating the need for external calibration. The information of beam intensity is recovered as a by-product. It provides an interesting internal validation of the measurement by comparison with the normal intensity measurement. The system has been used to detect subtle but real bunch length changes with bunch intensity which can be attributed to the inductive impedance in LEP. A value for the imaginary (inductive) longitudinal impedance is derived from the observations. An indication for the resistive part of the impedance is given as well.

  2. Enhanced coherent undulator radiation from bunched electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.; Smith, T.I.

    1996-01-01

    When energetic bunches of electrons traverse an undulator field, they can spontaneously emit radiation both coherently and incoherently. Although it has generally been assumed that undulator radiation is incoherent at wavelengths short compared to the longitudinal size of the electron bunch, several recent observations have proved this assumption false. Furthermore, the appearance of coherent radiation is often accompanied by a significant increase in radiated power. Here we report observations of strongly enhanced coherent spontaneous radiation together with direct measurements, using transition radiation techniques, of the electron distributions responsible for the coherent emission. We also report demonstrated enhancements in the predicted spontaneous radiated power by as much as 6x10 4 using electron bunch compression. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Thresholds of a bunched beam longitudinal instability in proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbekov, V.I.; Ivanov, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    The formulas and graphs for calculating instability thresholds arising during the interaction of a bunched proton beam with narrow-band resonator are given. The instabilities of three types with oscillations of a definite multipolarity, oscillations of some bound multipoles and with microwave oscillations arising as a result of addition of a great number of multipoles. The analysis of the above data shows that the increase of oscillations nonlinearity is accompanied by the growth of instability threshold only in the zone of separated and weakly bound multipoles. The increase of spread of synchrotron frequencies reduces the zone separated multipoles owing to which the microwave bunch instability can be caused by more and more low-frequency resonators. In the microwave zone practically there is no stabilizing effect of synchrotron frequencies spread. The instability threshold of the bunched beam now - where exceeds the microwave level

  4. A waveguide overloaded cavity as longitudinal kicker for the DA{Phi}NE bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, A; Boni, R; Ghigo, A; Marcellini, F; Serio, M; Zobov, M [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1996-08-01

    The multibunch operation of DA{Phi}NE calls for a very efficient feedback system to damp the coupled-bunch longitudinal instabilities. A collaboration program among SLAC, LBL and LNF laboratories on this subject led to the development of a time domain, digital system based on digital signal processors that has been already successfully tested at ALS. The feedback chain ends with the longitudinal kicker, an electromagnetic structure capable of transferring the proper energy correction to each bunch. A cavity kicker for the DA{Phi}NE bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system based on a pill-box loaded by six waveguides has been designed and a full-scale aluminium prototype has been fabricated at LNF. Both simulations and measurements have shown a peak shunt impedance of about 750 ohm and a bandwidth of about 220 MHz. The large shunt impedance allows to economize on the costly feedback power. Moreover, the damping waveguides drastically reduce the device HOM longitudinal and transverse impedances. One cavity pre ring will be sufficient to operate the machine up to 30 bunches while a second device per ring together with a feedback power improvement will be necessary to reach the ultimate current. (G.T.)

  5. Investigation of the phase space distribution of electron bunches at the FLASH-linac using a transverse deflecting structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrs, M.

    2008-06-15

    The operation of a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) puts stringent demands on the peak current, transverse emittance and energy spread of the electron beam. At the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) has been installed to investigate these electron beam parameters. The radio-frequency electromagnetic field in the TDS is utilized to deflect the beam electrons vertically as a function of time so that the charge distribution in the longitudinal-horizontal plane can be imaged with optical transition radiation screens. Using this technique, the single-bunch current profile was measured with an unprecedented resolution of about 10 {mu}m (30 fs) under FEL operating conditions. A precise single-shot measurement of the energy distribution along a bunch was accomplished by using the TDS in combination with an energy spectrometer. Appropriate variations of the focal strengths of quadrupole magnets allowed for the measurement of the horizontal emittance as a function of the longitudinal position within a bunch (slice emittance) with a longitudinal resolution in the order of 10 {mu}m. While the slice emittance in the peak current region was measured to be significantly larger than deduced from properties of the FEL radiation, tomographic methods revealed a bunch region of small horizontal emittance and high current. The observed increase in slice emittance in the peak current region was found to be caused by coherent emission of synchrotron radiation within bending magnets. (orig.)

  6. Pseudo-single-bunch mode for a 100 MHz storage ring serving soft X-ray timing experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, T.; Leemann, S. C.; Georgiev, G.; Paraskaki, G.

    2018-06-01

    At many storage rings for synchrotron light production there is demand for serving both high-flux and timing users simultaneously. Today this is most commonly achieved by operating inhomogeneous fill patterns, but this is not preferable for rings that employ passive harmonic cavities to damp instabilities and increase Touschek lifetime. For these rings, inhomogeneous fill patterns could severely reduce the effect of the harmonic cavities. It is therefore of interest to develop methods to serve high-flux and timing users simultaneously without requiring gaps in the fill pattern. One such method is pseudo-single-bunch (PSB), where one bunch in the bunch train is kicked onto another orbit by a fast stripline kicker. The light emitted from the kicked bunch can then be separated by an aperture in the beamline. Due to recent developments in fast kicker design, PSB operation in multibunch mode is within reach for rings that operate with a 100 MHz RF system, such as the MAX IV and Solaris storage rings. This paper describes machine requirements and resulting performance for such a mode at the MAX IV 1.5 GeV storage ring. A solution for serving all beamlines is discussed as well as the consequences of beamline design and operation in the soft X-ray energy range.

  7. Investigation of the phase space distribution of electron bunches at the FLASH-linac using a transverse deflecting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrs, M.

    2008-06-01

    The operation of a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) puts stringent demands on the peak current, transverse emittance and energy spread of the electron beam. At the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) has been installed to investigate these electron beam parameters. The radio-frequency electromagnetic field in the TDS is utilized to deflect the beam electrons vertically as a function of time so that the charge distribution in the longitudinal-horizontal plane can be imaged with optical transition radiation screens. Using this technique, the single-bunch current profile was measured with an unprecedented resolution of about 10 μm (30 fs) under FEL operating conditions. A precise single-shot measurement of the energy distribution along a bunch was accomplished by using the TDS in combination with an energy spectrometer. Appropriate variations of the focal strengths of quadrupole magnets allowed for the measurement of the horizontal emittance as a function of the longitudinal position within a bunch (slice emittance) with a longitudinal resolution in the order of 10 μm. While the slice emittance in the peak current region was measured to be significantly larger than deduced from properties of the FEL radiation, tomographic methods revealed a bunch region of small horizontal emittance and high current. The observed increase in slice emittance in the peak current region was found to be caused by coherent emission of synchrotron radiation within bending magnets. (orig.)

  8. Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assmann, M.; Veit, F.; Bayer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum mechanically indistinguishable particles such as photons may show collective behavior. Therefore, an appropriate description of a light field must consider the properties of an assembly of photons instead of independent particles. We have studied multiphoton correlations up to fourth order...... in the single-mode emission of a semiconductor microcavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. The counting statistics of single photons were recorded with picosecond time resolution, allowing quantitative measurement of the few-photon bunching inside light pulses. Our results show bunching behavior...

  9. Transient analysis of a bunched beam free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Yu, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of the bunched beam operation of a free electron laser was studied. Assuming the electron beam to be initially monoenergetic, the Maxwell-Vlasov equations describing the system reduce to a third order partial differential equation for the envelope of the emitted light. The Green's function corresponding to an arbitrary shape of the electron bunch, which describes the transient behavior of the system, is obtained. The Green's function was used to discuss the start up problem as well as the power output and the power specrum of a self-amplified spontaneous emission

  10. Optical plasma torch electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wittig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel, flexible method of witness electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators is described. A quasistationary plasma region is ignited by a focused laser pulse prior to the arrival of the plasma wave. This localized, shapeable optical plasma torch causes a strong distortion of the plasma blowout during passage of the electron driver bunch, leading to collective alteration of plasma electron trajectories and to controlled injection. This optically steered injection is more flexible and faster when compared to hydrodynamically controlled gas density transition injection methods.

  11. Refinements to longitudinal, single bunch, coherent instability theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscielniak, S R

    1995-06-01

    For the case of a bunched beam confined to a quadratic potential well, we demonstrate the necessity for considering mode-coupling to correctly obtain the threshold current for the d.c. instability. Further we find the effect upon growth rate and coherent tune shift of evaluating the impedance at a complex frequency. For the case of a bunched beam confined to a cosine potential well, we give an exact analytic expression for the dispersion integral, and calculate (with no approximations), the stability diagram for the Robinson instability taking into account Landau damping. This paper comprises extracts from a lengthy internal report. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Emittance Growth during Bunch Compression in the CTF-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubenheimer, Tor O

    1999-02-26

    Measurements of the beam emittance during bunch compression in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF-II) are described. The measurements were made with different beam charges and different energy correlations versus the bunch compressor settings which were varied from no compression through the point of full compression and to over-compression. Significant increases in the beam emittance were observed with the maximum emittance occurring near the point of full (maximal) compression. Finally, evaluation of possible emittance dilution mechanisms indicate that coherent synchrotron radiation was the most likely cause.

  13. Design of the ALS transverse coupled-bunch feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Corlett, J.N.; Hinkson, J.; Johnson, J.; Lambertson, G.R.; Fox, J.D.

    1993-05-01

    Calculations of transverse coupled bunch growth rates in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring for producing synchrotron radiation, indicate the need for damping via a transverse feedback (TFB) system. We present the design of such a system. The maximum bunch frequency is 500 MHz, requiring that the FB system have a broadband response of at least 250 MHz. We described, in detail, the choice of broadband components such as kickers, pickups, power amplifiers, and electronics

  14. Evolving bunch and retardation in the impedance formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, Robert; Venturini, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The usual expression for the longitudinal wake field in terms of the impedance is exact only for the model in which the source of the field is a rigid bunch. To account for a deforming bunch one has to invoke the complete impedance, a function of both wave number and frequency. A computation of the corresponding wake field would be expensive, since it would involve integrals over frequency and time in addition to the usual sum over wave number. We treat the problem of approximating this field in an example of current interest, the case of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the presence of shielding by the vacuum chamber

  15. Cancellation Effects in CSR Induced Bunch Transverse Dynamics in Bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.

    2002-01-01

    The partial cancellation between the effect of centrifugal space charge force on transverse bunch dynamics and the potential energy effect has been a long-standing controversial issue in the study of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) induced bunch dynamics in bends. In this paper, we clarify our definition of the ''centrifugal space charge force,'' and discuss the meaning of the ''cancellation effect'' and its general application. We further use simulation to demonstrate the cancellation in both steady state and transient regimes, and show the behavior of the effective transverse force

  16. Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized

  17. Bunch-shape monitor for a picosecond single-bunch beam of a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Yoneichi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    1995-01-01

    A non-interactive-type bunch-shape and beam intensity monitor for a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA-type connector and an Al pipe of 50 mm inner diameter. Test measurements of the present monitor have been made under the conditions of the accelerated charges of lower than 27 nC/pulse and the pulse width ranging from 6 to 30 ps (Full Width at Half Maximum). The results show that the present monitor is applicable to bunch-shape measurement of the picosecond single-bunch beam. The monitor output is also found to be proportional to the beam intensity of more than 0.05 nC/pulse. (author)

  18. Observation of coherent Smith-Purcell and transition radiation driven by single bunch and micro-bunched electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yifan; Du, Yingchao; Su, Xiaolu; Wang, Dan; Yan, Lixin; Tian, Qili; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Dong; Huang, Wenhui; Gai, Wei; Tang, Chuanxiang; Konoplev, I. V.; Zhang, H.; Doucas, G.

    2018-01-01

    Generation of coherent Smith-Purcell (cSPr) and transition/diffraction radiation using a single bunch or a pre-modulated relativistic electron beam is one of the growing research areas aiming at the development of radiation sources and beam diagnostics for accelerators. We report the results of comparative experimental studies of terahertz radiation generation by an electron bunch and micro-bunched electron beams and the spectral properties of the coherent transition and SP radiation. The properties of cSPr spectra are investigated and discussed, and excitations of the fundamental and second harmonics of cSPr and their dependence on the beam-grating separation are shown. The experimental and theoretical results are compared, and good agreement is demonstrated.

  19. Flat bunch creation and acceleration: a possible path for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the collider luminosity by replacing bunches having Gaussian line-charge distribution with flat bunches, but with same beam-beam tune shift at collision, has been studied widely in recent years. But, creation of 'stable' flat bunches (and their acceleration) using a multiple harmonic RF system has not been fully explored. Here, we review our experience with long flat bunches in the barrier RF buckets at Fermilab.We presentsome preliminary results from beam dynamics simulations and recent beam studies in the LHC injectors to create stable flat bunches using double harmonic RF systems. The results deduced from these studies will be used to model the necessary scheme for luminosity upgrade in the LHC. We have also described a viable (and economical) way for creation and acceleration of flat bunches in the LHC. The flat bunch scheme may have many advantages over the LHC baseline scenario, particularly because of the reduced momentum spread of the bunch for increased intensities.

  20. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  1. Genealogical Properties of Subsamples in Highly Fecund Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, Bjarki; Freund, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    We consider some genealogical properties of nested samples. The complete sample is assumed to have been drawn from a natural population characterised by high fecundity and sweepstakes reproduction (abbreviated HFSR). The random gene genealogies of the samples are—due to our assumption of HFSR—modelled by coalescent processes which admit multiple mergers of ancestral lineages looking back in time. Among the genealogical properties we consider are the probability that the most recent common ancestor is shared between the complete sample and the subsample nested within the complete sample; we also compare the lengths of `internal' branches of nested genealogies between different coalescent processes. The results indicate how `informative' a subsample is about the properties of the larger complete sample, how much information is gained by increasing the sample size, and how the `informativeness' of the subsample varies between different coalescent processes.

  2. Observation of the substructure in the electron bunch on the ACO storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergher, M.; Velghe, M.; Mialocq, J.P.

    1984-09-01

    In the future, one interesting point of the SRFEL at Orsay will be the microtemporal analysis of the laser beam correlated with that of the electron bunch. In a first time, we have only analysed the temporal structure of the electron bunch with an Electrophotonic streak camera. The first results seem to indicate that the bunch is not an homogeneous bunch but presents a substructure. We discuss with details this data

  3. Production of a high-efficiency TILLING population through polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Helen; Missirian, Victor; Ngo, Kathie J; Tran, Robert K; Chan, Simon R; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) provides a nontransgenic method for reverse genetics that is widely applicable, even in species where other functional resources are missing or expensive to build. The efficiency of TILLING, however, is greatly facilitated by high mutation density. Species vary in the number of mutations induced by comparable mutagenic treatments, suggesting that genetic background may affect the response. Allopolyploid species have often yielded higher mutation density than diploids. To examine the effect of ploidy, we autotetraploidized the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, whose diploid has been used for TILLING extensively, and mutagenized it with 50 mm ethylmethane sulfonate. While the same treatment sterilized diploid Columbia, the tetraploid M1 plants produced good seed. To determine the mutation density, we searched 528 individuals for induced mutations in 15 genes for which few or no knockout alleles were previously available. We constructed tridimensional pools from the genomic DNA of M2 plants, amplified target DNA, and subjected them to Illumina sequencing. The results were analyzed with an improved version of the mutation detection software CAMBa that accepts any pooling scheme. This small population provided a rich resource with approximately 25 mutations per queried 1.5-kb fragment, including on average four severe missense and 1.3 truncation mutations. The overall mutation density of 19.4 mutations Mb(-1) is 4 times that achieved in the corresponding diploid accession, indicating that genomic redundancy engenders tolerance to high mutation density. Polyploidization of diploids will allow the production of small populations, such as less than 2,000, that provide allelic series from knockout to mild loss of function for virtually all genes.

  4. THE STUDY ON IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF SOAKED PALM OIL FIBER BY FILTRATED PALM OIL FRUIT BUNCH ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari L. Darmawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil fiber has its potency as feed fiber source for ruminant, but contains high lignin and causes limited digestibility. This research was carried out to find the effect of soaking palm oil fiber in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash (FPOFBA on in vitro digestibility. This experiment used a completely randomized design that repeated for 4times. Palm oil fruit bunch ash was mixed in water and entered into container for 24 hours within concentrations, consists of: 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/L. Moreover, this filtrate used to soak palm oil fiber for 3 hours. The processed products were analyzed for their level of lignin and crude fiber. Meanwhile, in vitro test was used to measure digestibility. It showed that soaking in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash gave significant effect to decrease level of lignin and crude fiber (P0.05, such as 23.48 and 24.12% as well as 16.70 and 17.06 % in each. It can be concluded that soaked palm oil fiber with 150 g/L concentration of filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash was more effective in improving digestibility.

  5. Radial bunch compression : path-length compensation in an rf photoinjector with a curved cathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, de M.J.; Geer, van der S.B.; Saveliev, Y.M.; Pavlov, V.M.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Wiggins, S.M.; Rodier, J.; Garvey, T.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Electron bunch lengthening due to space-charge forces in state-of-the-art rf photoinjectors limits the minimum bunch length attainable to several hundreds of femtoseconds. Although this can be alleviated by increasing the transverse dimension of the electron bunch, a larger initial radius causes

  6. On the single bunch longitudinal collective effects in electron storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, J

    2002-01-01

    After giving an analytical expression for the single bunch short range wake potential of a storage ring, we have discussed separately the roles of linear and nonlinear terms of the Taylor expansion of the wake potential on the bunch longitudinal motion. The equations describing bunch lengthening and increase in energy spread are established. Applications to different operating machines are made.

  7. Palm oil fresh fruit bunch ripeness grading identification using color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigates the ripeness grading identification of the palm oil FFB using color features that are color histogram, color moment and color correlogram. Palm is harvested during the optimum stage of its ripeness since it improves the FFB oil quality and quantity. Harvesting wrong bunches decreases the oil ...

  8. BUNCHED BEAM STOCHASTIC COOLING SIMULAITONS AND COMPARISON WITH DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN, J.M.

    2007-09-10

    With the experimental success of longitudinal, bunched beam stochastic cooling in RHIC it is natural to ask whether the system works as well as it might and whether upgrades or new systems are warranted. A computer code, very similar to those used for multi-particle coherent instability simulations, has been written and is being used to address these questions.

  9. Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-29

    During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.

  10. Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.

  11. LHC Report: 1,033 bunches per beam and counting

    CERN Multimedia

    Jorg Wenninger for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Following the second technical stop, the first beams were injected into the LHC in the early evening of Saturday, 5 September. About ten days later, the machine was operated with around 1,000 bunches per beam.    Evolution of the stored energy per LHC beam, over time.   The first step after a technical stop consists of running through a full LHC cycle, from injection to collisions and beam dump, with a low-intensity bunch (“probe”) to check all machine settings and equipment. This is followed by a series of collimation and absorber validation tests at different points in the LHC cycle. Low-intensity beams – typically the equivalent of three nominal bunches (3 x 1011 protons) – are expanded transversely or longitudinally, or de-bunched to verify that the collimators and absorbers are correctly intercepting lost particles. The techniques for those validations have been progressively improved, and t...

  12. Generation of slow positron beam and beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, O.; Satoh, T.; Shitoh, M.; Kaneko, N.; Kawaratani, T.; Hara, O.

    1994-01-01

    Two items are described in this report. One is about the outline of our slow positron beam system, which has been fabricated as a commercial prototype. The other is about the calculation result of positron beam bunching, which will be an additional function to the system. (author)

  13. State orthogonality, boson bunching parameter and bosonic enhancement factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'el

    2016-04-01

    It is emphasized that the bunching parameter β ≡ p B / p D , i.e. the ratio between the probability to measure two bosons and two distinguishable particles at the same state, is a constant of motion and depends only on the overlap between the initial wavefunctions. This ratio is equal to β = 2 / (1 + I 2), where I is the overlap integral between the initial wavefunctions. That is, only when the initial wavefunctions are orthogonal this ratio is equal to 2, however, this bunching ratio can be reduced to 1, when the two wavefunctions are identical. This simple equation explains the experimental evidences of a beam splitter. A straightforward conclusion is that by measuring the local bunching parameter β (at any point in space and time) it is possible to evaluate a global parameter I (the overlap between the initial wavefunctions). The bunching parameter is then generalized to arbitrary number of particles, and in an analogy to the two-particles scenario, the well-known bosonic enhancement appears only when all states are orthogonal.

  14. Colossal photon bunching in quasiparticle-mediated nanodiamond cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew A.; Dumitrescu, Eugene F.; Bridges, Denzel; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Davidson, Roderick B.; Evans, Philip G.; Hachtel, Jordan A.; Hu, Anming; Pooser, Raphael C.; Haglund, Richard F.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.

    2018-02-01

    Nanoscale control over the second-order photon correlation function g(2 )(τ ) is critical to emerging research in nonlinear nanophotonics and integrated quantum information science. Here we report on quasiparticle control of photon bunching with g(2 )(0 ) >45 in the cathodoluminescence of nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy (NV0) centers excited by a converged electron beam in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Plasmon-mediated NV0 cathodoluminescence exhibits a 16-fold increase in luminescence intensity correlated with a threefold reduction in photon bunching compared with that of uncoupled NV0 centers. This effect is ascribed to the excitation of single temporally uncorrelated NV0 centers by single surface plasmon polaritons. Spectrally resolved Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry is employed to demonstrate that the bunching is mediated by the NV0 phonon sidebands, while no observable bunching is detected at the zero-phonon line. The data are consistent with fast phonon-mediated recombination dynamics, a conclusion substantiated by agreement between Bayesian regression and Monte Carlo models of superthermal NV0 luminescence.

  15. Emittance growth due to static and radiative space charge forces in an electron bunch compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Talman

    2009-01-01

    2004 FEL Conference, pp. 18–21, MOCOS05, available at http://www.JACoW.org], a code with similar capabilities. For this comparison an appropriately new, 50 MeV, “standard chicane” is introduced. Unlike CSRTrack (which neglects vertical forces the present simulation shows substantial growth of vertical emittance. But “turning off” vertical forces in the UAL code (to match the CSRTrack treatment brings the two codes into excellent agreement. (iii Results are also obtained for 5 GeV electrons passing through a previously introduced “standard chicane” [Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, CSR Workshop, Berlin 2002, http://www.desy.de/csr] [of the sort needed for linear colliders and free electron lasers (FEL’s currently under design or construction]. Relatively little emittance growth is predicted for typical bunch parameters at such high electron energy. Results are obtained for both round beams and ribbon beams (like those actually needed in practice. Little or no excess emittance growth is found for ribbon bunches compared to round bunches of the same charge and bunch width. The UAL string space charge formulation (like TraFic4 and CSRTrack avoids the regularization step (subtracting the free-space space charge force which is required (to remove divergence in some methods. Also, by avoiding the need to calculate a retarded-time, four-dimensional field history, the computation time needed for realistic bunch evolution calculations is modest. Some theories of bunch dilution, because they ascribe emittance growth entirely to CSR, break down at low energy. In the present treatment, as well as CSR, all free-space Coulomb and magnetic space charge forces (but not image forces, and also the centrifugal space charge force (CSCF are included. Charge-dependent beam steering due to CSCF, as observed recently by Beutner et al. [B. Beutner et al., in Proceedings of FEL Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, MOPPH009], is also investigated.

  16. Preservation of low slice emittance in bunch compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bettoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the dilution of the electron beam emittance is crucial for the performance of accelerators, in particular for free electron laser facilities, where the length of the machine and the efficiency of the lasing process depend on it. Measurements performed at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility revealed an increase in slice emittance after compressing the bunch even for moderate compression factors. The phenomenon was experimentally studied by characterizing the dependence of the effect on beam and machine parameters relevant for the bunch compression. The reproduction of these measurements in simulation required the use of a 3D beam dynamics model along the bunch compressor that includes coherent synchrotron radiation. Our investigations identified transverse effects, such as coherent synchrotron radiation and transverse space charge as the sources of the observed emittance dilution, excluding other effects, such as chromatic effects on single slices or spurious dispersion. We also present studies, both experimental and simulation based, on the effect of the optics mismatch of the slices on the variation of the slice emittance along the bunch. After a corresponding reoptimization of the beam optics in the test facility we reached slice emittances below 200 nm for the central slices along the longitudinal dimension with a moderate increase up to 300 nm in the head and tail for a compression factor of 7.5 and a bunch charge of 200 pC, equivalent to a final current of 150 A, at about 230 MeV energy.

  17. A fifth harmonic rf bunch monitor for the ANL-APS electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassiri, A.; Grelick, A.

    1993-01-01

    The function of a fifth harmonic (14.28 GHz) bunch monitor is to provide a signal which is proportional to the electron beam bunch size. The monitoring of the rf power signal at 14.28 GHz enables the operator to optimize the rf bunching of the beam at the end of the first accelerating section where the full bunching has been formed and remains mainly constant in size throughout the rest of the electron linac. A modified version of the SLAC original bunch monitor has been fabricated and its rf properties measured. This paper describes the design and the initial measurement results

  18. A fifth harmonic RF bunch monitor for the ANL-APS electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassiri, A.; Grelick, A.

    1993-01-01

    The function of a fifth harmonic (14.28 GHz) bunch monitor is to provide a signal which is proportional to the electron beam bunch size. The monitoring of the rf power signal at 14.28 GHz enables the operator to optimize the rf bunching of the beam at the end of the first accelerating section where the full bunching has been formed and remains mainly constant in size throughout the rest of the electron linac. A modified version of the SLAC original bunch monitor has been fabricated and its rf properties measured. This paper describes the design and the initial measurements results

  19. Evaluation and comparison of high population density sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulies, T.S.

    1979-10-01

    Consideration of the population distribution surrounding a potential nuclear site generally includes the calculation of population density over a circular area outward to a radial distance of 30 miles from the site. A recently proposed nuclear site Perryman, Maryland challenged the NRC population density guidelines and motivated this project which was performed under the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program. The report provides a comparison of several site population factor indices for comparing relative public safety aspects of alternative nuclear power plant sites. In addition, it is illustrated that use of the reactor safety study (WASH-1400) consequence model as a tool for comparing the relative safety of alternative sites has potential pitfalls

  20. Increasing STEM Competence in Urban, High Poverty Elementary School Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueanne McKinney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing STEM competence (e.g., interests, knowledge, skills, and dispositions among urban, high poverty, elementary school populations in the United States (U.S. is and remains a growing national concern, especially since Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM competence is and will continue to be a necessary requisite for gainful employment in the future, according to workforce development experts. In an attempt to address this gap, many urban elementary schools have begun to offer STEM-related programs to increase STEM learning at an early age. STEM competence (interest, knowledge, skills, and dispositions, however, remains low. This paper results in a matrix used to analyze children's fictional literary selections and a model that argues that elementary teachers, as the first point of contact with young students, can affect STEM competence. By adopting a more culturally responsive pedagogy that attends to the 21st Century Learning Skills and the Next Generation Science Standards, teachers can choose literature that serves to excite and reinforce STEM learning.

  1. Rf stability, control and bunch lengthening in electron synchrotron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtel, J.M.

    1989-09-01

    A self-consistent theory for nonlinear longitudinal particle motion and rf cavity excitation in a high energy electron storage ring is developed. Coupled first order equations for the motion of an arbitrary number of particles and for the field in several rf cavities are given in the form used in control system theory. Stochastic quantum excitation of synchrotron motion is included, as are the effects of rf control system corrections. Results of computations for double cavity bunch lengthening are given. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Micro-bunching diagnostics for the ICA by coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bogacz, S.A.; Cline, D.B.; Wang, X.J.; Pogorelsky, I.V.; Kimura, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Here, the authors propose an effective method to detect micro-bunching effects (10 fs bunch length), produced by the ICA interaction, by using the CTR spectrum. The re-bunching of initially energy modulated e-beam passing through a Hydrogen gas cell (ICA interaction) is studied via a Monte Carlo simulation code (STI), as well as in a space-charge dominated region by a multi-particle time domain tracking code (PARMELA). The results show that even in a strong space-charge dominated region the re-bunching effect is still very pronounced. The erosion of bunching due to the space-charge defocusing washes out the final bunching peak only by about 10% (FWHM). The longitudinal distribution of a micro-bunched beam is Fourier analyzed to find the dominant harmonics contributing to the CTR. The CTR spectrum is calculated analytically for the ICA situation. A schematic of the experimental set up is also proposed

  3. CSR Interaction for a 2D Energy-Chirped Bunch on a General Orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui

    2009-01-01

    When an electron bunch with initial linear energy chirp traverses a bunch compression chicane, the bunch interacts with itself via coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space charge force. The effective longitudinal CSR force for such kind of 2D bunch on a circular orbit has been analyzed earlier (1). In this paper, we present the analytical results of the effective longitudinal CSR force for a 2D energy-chirped bunch going through a general orbit, which includes the entrance and exit of a circular orbit. In particular, we will show the behavior of the force in the last bend of a chicane when the bunch is under extreme compression. This is the condition when bifurcation of bunch phase space occurs in many CSR measurements. (1) R. Li, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 024401 (2008)

  4. Creation and Storage of Long and Flat Bunches in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2005-01-01

    To maximize the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the collision of particle bunches with a uniform longitudinal particle density is considered for a future upgrade. The benefits of such bunches and their generation by means of special longitudinal beam manipulations are presented in this report. Three possible options are analyzed with respect to their potential luminosity gain at the beam-beam limit: short rectangular bunches held by radio frequency (RF) harmonics using multiples of the nominal RF frequency of 400.8MHz, long and flat bunches held by multiples of 40.08MHz, and so-called superbunches, confined by barrier buckets. The comparison of the three different approaches shows that flat bunches, with an intermediate bunch length of the order of several meters, are capable of producing a comparable luminosity to superbunches, while avoiding most of their inherent disadvantages. Possible schemes to create the bunches with uniform line density are studied and a longitudinal manipulation to com...

  5. Gamma Irradiation Effects on Oil Palm (Elaies Guineensis) Pollen Viability, Fruits and Bunch Formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aida Nazlyn Nazari; Azhar Mohamad; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Assessing performance and genetic diversity of the wild material of oil palm is important for understanding genetic structure of natural oil palm populations towards improvement of the crops. This information is important for oil palm breeding programs, and also for continued ex-situ conservation of the germplasm and breeding program in Malaysia. Mutation induction is one of the alternative ways in creating variants for selection in the breeding program. In this study, evaluation on the effect of irradiated pollen towards pollen viability, bunches formation and no. of parthenocarpic fruits were conducted. Series of acute gamma radiation at dose 0, 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500, 100 and 2000 Gy were exposed to Elaies guineensis pollen. Increasing level of irradiation higher than 200 Grays (Gy) affects pollen viability based on the 12 consecutive days observation evaluated in situ conditions. Besides, at this level of irradiation (> 200 Gy), the pollen tube formation were disrupted and subsequently unable the pollen to reach the ovule which cause the embryo to aborted and contributed to the formation of parthenocarpic fruits and rotten bunches. These observations suggested that at low levels of irradiation (< 200 Gy) may damage only part of the generative nucleus while maintaining its capacity to fertilise the egg cells and lead to hybridization. (author)

  6. Real-time monitoring of longitudinal electron bunch parameters by intensity-integrated and spectroscopic measurements of single coherent THz pulses; Echtzeitbestimmung longitudinaler Elektronenstrahlparameter mittels absoluter Intensitaets- und Spektralmessung einzelner kohaerenter THz Strahlungspulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesch, Stephan

    2012-12-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) generate intense and monochromatic photon pulses with few tens of femtosecond duration. For this purpose, electron beams are accelerated to relativistic energies and shrunk longitudinally down to micrometer size.The diagnosis of theses compressed electron bunches is a challenge especially for MHz bunch repetition rates as provided by the FEL FLASH in Hamburg. In this thesis, coherently emitted THz radiation of single electron bunches were investigated, on which the longitudinal structure is imprinted. Two instruments were used: First, the FLASH bunch compression monitors, relying on the integrated intensity measurement of diffraction radiation, were modified to determine the overall length of every bunch behind the two bunch compressors (BC). A model was developed showing that their response is independent of the exact bunch shape for lengths below 200 {mu}m (rms). This could experimentally be verified in the range between 50 and 190 {mu}m within 7% accuracy for themonitor behind the last BC by comparison with measurements with the transverse deflecting structure (TDS). Second, a single-shot spectrometer with five staged reflective blazed gratings has been designed, build and commissioned. With its two grating sets, the wavelength ranges from 5.5 to 44 {mu}m and 45 to 440 {mu}m can be simultaneously detected by 118 fast pyroelectric elements. Measurements based on transition radiation spectra were compared with profiles recorded by the TDS.The shape of the spectra as well as the reconstructed temporal profiles (using the Kramers-Kronig relation for phase retrieval) are in excellent agreement. For bunches with a charge of 50 pC, bunch lengths down to 5 {mu}m (fhwm) could be detected.

  7. High coffee population density to improve fertility of an oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan,Marcos Antonio; Chaves,Júlio César Dias; Siqueira,Rubens; Androcioli Filho,Armando; Colozzi Filho,Arnaldo; Balota,Elcio Liborio

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) population densities on the chemical and microbiological properties of an Oxisol. The work was carried out on soil samples of 0-20 cm depth originated from an experimental site which had been used for coffee tree spacing studies during 15 years, in Paraná State, Brazil. Eight coffee tree populations were evaluated: 7143, 3571, 2381, 1786, 1429, 1190, 1020, and 893 trees/ha. Increasing plant population increase...

  8. Are MAO-A deficiency states in the general population and in putative high-risk populations highly uncommon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D L; Sims, K; Eisenhofer, G; Greenberg, B D; George, T; Berlin, F; Zametkin, A; Ernst, M; Breakefield, X O

    1998-01-01

    Lack of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) due to either Xp chromosomal deletions or alterations in the coding sequence of the gene for this enzyme are associated with marked changes in monoamine metabolism and appear to be associated with variable cognitive deficits and behavioral changes in humans and in transgenic mice. In mice, some of the most marked behavioral changes are ameliorated by pharmacologically-induced reductions in serotonin synthesis during early development, raising the question of possible therapeutic interventions in humans with MAO deficiency states. At the present time, only one multi-generational family and a few other individuals with marked MAO-A deficiency states have been identified and studied in detail. Although MAO deficiency states associated with Xp chromosomal deletions were identified by distinct symptoms (including blindness in infancy) produced by the contiguous Norrie disease gene, the primarily behavioral phenotype of individuals with the MAO mutation is less obvious. This paper reports a sequential research design and preliminary results from screening several hundred volunteers in the general population and from putative high-risk groups for possible MAO deficiency states. These preliminary results suggest that marked MAO deficiency states are very rare.

  9. High recombination rate in natural populations of Plasmodium falciparum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conway, D. J.; Roper, C.; Oduola, A. M.; Arnot, D. E.; Kremsner, P. G.; Grobusch, M. P.; Curtis, C. F.; Greenwood, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    Malaria parasites are sexually reproducing protozoa, although the extent of effective meiotic recombination in natural populations has been debated. If meiotic recombination occurs frequently, compared with point mutation and mitotic rearrangement, linkage disequilibrium between polymorphic sites is

  10. Repetitive Bunches from RF-Photo Gun Radiate Coherently

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Geer, C A J; Van der Geer, S B

    2004-01-01

    We consider to feed the laser wake field accelerator of the alpha-X project by a train of low charge pancake electron bunches to reduce undesired expansion due to space-charge forces. To this purpose the photo excitation laser of the rf-injector is split into a train of sub-pulses, such that each of the produced electron bunches falls into a successive ponderomotive well of the plasma accelerator. This way the total accelerated charge is not reduced. The repetitive photo gun can be tested, at low energy, by connecting it directly to the undulator and monitoring the radiation. The assertions are based on the results of new GPT simulations.

  11. MD210 Note: Creation of Hollow Bunches in the PSB

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Findlay, Alan James; Hancock, Steven; Rumolo, Giovanni; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD210 aims for the creation of longitudinally hollow bunches in the CERN PS Booster. The first three sessions have been carried out using the radial loop feedback system in order to drive the beam on a dipolar parametric resonance (instead of the phase loop). It has been found that the damping by the phase loop inhibits the excitation of the resonance to a major extent. The hollow distributions generated under these circumstances fail to reach a satisfying bunching factor. Nonetheless, proving the principally successful application of this technique to the PS Booster promises good results once the phase loop system supports trim functions. The approach, actions and detailed results of the first three MD sessions are presented in this paper.

  12. Electron Bunch Length Measurement for LCLS at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, M.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, Sergei; Emma, P.; Kotturi, K.d.; Loos, H.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Straumann, T.

    2007-01-01

    At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a Bunch Length Measurement system has been developed to measure the length of the electron bunch for its new Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This destructive measurement uses a transverse-mounted RF deflector (TCAV) to vertically streak the electron beam and an image taken with an insertable screen and a camera. The device control software was implemented with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit. The analysis software was implemented in Matlab(trademark) using the EPICS/Channel Access Interface for Scilab(trademark) and Matlab(trademark) (labCA). This architecture allowed engineers and physicists to develop and integrate their control and analysis without duplication of effort

  13. Single bunch beam breakup in linacs and BNS damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyomasu, Takanori

    1991-12-01

    We study a single-bunch beam breakup (BBU) problem by a macro-particle model. We consider both the BBU solution and the Landau damping solution which includes the Balakin-Novokhatsky-Smirnov (BNS) damping. In the BBU solution, we get an analytic solution which includes both the Chao-Richter-Yao solution and the two-particle model solution and which agrees well with simulation. The solution can also be used in a multi-bunch case. In the Landau damping solution, we can be see the mechanism of Landau damping formally and can get some insights into BNS damping. We confirm that a two-particle model criterion for BNS damping is a good one. We expect that the two-particle model criterion is represented by the first order interaction in Landau damping solution of a macro-particle model. (author)

  14. Bio-phenolic resin from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zuhaili; Zakaria, Sarani; Roslan, Rasidi; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Amran, Umar Adli

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) in the production of bio-phenolic resin is an alternative way to reduce the dependency of petroleum-based phenol. In this study, resol type bio-phenolic resin (BPR) was synthesized from EFB fibers using sulfuric acid as the catalyst to produce liquefied empty fruit bunches (LEFB) followed by resinification reaction with formaldehyde in alkaline condition. The SEM image of LEFB residue showed separation of fiber bundles into individual fibers. This indicate that lignin was destroyed during the liquefaction process. The increased of formaldehyde/LEFB molar ratio has resulted an increase of viscosity, solid content and pH of the resin. The obtained FTIR spectra confirmed that functional groups of BPR resins was almost similar with commercial resin.

  15. Loss factor for short bunches in azimuthally symmetric tapered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blednykh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We use the program ECHO to study numerically the loss factor of axisymmetric cavities and collimators with and without tapering. We consider a Gaussian driving bunch of length σ, and structures with inner radius b, outer radius d, cavity gap (or collimator inner length g, and taper length L. In all cases we consider a short bunch with σ≪b. For the untapered structures (L=0, in certain regimes, we describe our numerical results using the known expressions for a step transition and for the diffraction model. In addition, we identify new regimes where gb, we present a phenomenological formula which accurately describes the dependence of the loss factor on the parameters σ, b, d, and L. This formula also holds for a tapered cavity with g>d^{2}/σ and d-b>b.

  16. Laser vacuum acceleration of a relativistic electron bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazyrin, I V; Karpeev, A V; Kotova, O G; Nazarov, K S [E.I. Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Technical Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Centre, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region (Russian Federation); Bychenkov, V Yu [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-30

    With regard to the problem of laser acceleration of a relativistic electron bunch we present a scheme of its vacuum acceleration directly by a relativistic intensity laser pulse. The energy of the electron bunch injected into the laser pulse leading edge increases during its coaxial movement to a thin, pulse-reflecting target. The laser-accelerated electrons continue to move free forward, passing through the target. The study of this acceleration scheme in the three-dimensional geometry is verified in a numerical simulation by the particle-in-cell method, which showed that the energy of a part of the electrons can increase significantly compared to the initial one. Restrictions are discussed, which impose limiting values of energy and total charge of accelerated electrons. (superstrong light fields)

  17. Measurement of electron beam bunch phase length by rectangular cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.D.; Rudychev, V.G.; Ushakov, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of a phase length of electron bunches with the help of crossed rectangular resonators with the Hsub(102) oscillation type has been made. It has been shown that the electron coordinates after the duplex resonator are described by an ellipse equation for a non-modulated beam. An influence of the initial energy spread upon the electron motion has been studied. It has been ascertained that energy modulation of the electron beam results in displacement of each electron with respect to the ellipse which is proportional to modulation energy, i.e. an error in determination of the phase length of an electron bunch is proportional to the beam energy spread. Relations have been obtained which enable to find genuine values of phases of the analyzed electrons with an accuracy up to linear multipliers

  18. Many Mobile Health Apps Target High-Need, High-Cost Populations, But Gaps Remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karandeep; Drouin, Kaitlin; Newmark, Lisa P; Lee, JaeHo; Faxvaag, Arild; Rozenblum, Ronen; Pabo, Erika A; Landman, Adam; Klinger, Elissa; Bates, David W

    2016-12-01

    With rising smartphone ownership, mobile health applications (mHealth apps) have the potential to support high-need, high-cost populations in managing their health. While the number of available mHealth apps has grown substantially, no clear strategy has emerged on how providers should evaluate and recommend such apps to patients. Key stakeholders, including medical professional societies, insurers, and policy makers, have largely avoided formally recommending apps, which forces patients to obtain recommendations from other sources. To help stakeholders overcome barriers to reviewing and recommending apps, we evaluated 137 patient-facing mHealth apps-those intended for use by patients to manage their health-that were highly rated by consumers and recommended by experts and that targeted high-need, high-cost populations. We found that there is a wide variety of apps in the marketplace but that few apps address the needs of the patients who could benefit the most. We also found that consumers' ratings were poor indications of apps' clinical utility or usability and that most apps did not respond appropriately when a user entered potentially dangerous health information. Going forward, data privacy and security will continue to be major concerns in the dissemination of mHealth apps. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Study of nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and intermediate cavities in a relativistic klystron amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu, Z.; Li, Z. H. [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, C. X. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-07-15

    In intermediate cavities of a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) driven by intense relativistic electron beam, the equivalent circuit model, which is widely adopted to investigate the interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a conventional klystron design, is invalid due to the high gap voltage and the nonlinear beam loading in a RKA. According to Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation, the self-consistent equations for beam-wave interaction in the intermediate cavity are introduced to study the nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a RKA. Based on the equations, the effects of modulation depth and modulation frequency of the beam on the gap voltage amplitude and its phase are obtained. It is shown that the gap voltage is significantly lower than that estimated by the equivalent circuit model when the beam modulation is high. And the bandwidth becomes wider as the beam modulation depth increases. An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier is designed based on the result. And the corresponding experiment is carried out on the linear transformer driver accelerator. The peak output power has achieved 1.2 GW with an efficiency of 28.6% and a gain of 46 dB in the corresponding experiment.

  20. Study of nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and intermediate cavities in a relativistic klystron amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Li, Z. H.; Tang, C. X.

    2012-07-01

    In intermediate cavities of a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) driven by intense relativistic electron beam, the equivalent circuit model, which is widely adopted to investigate the interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a conventional klystron design, is invalid due to the high gap voltage and the nonlinear beam loading in a RKA. According to Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation, the self-consistent equations for beam-wave interaction in the intermediate cavity are introduced to study the nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a RKA. Based on the equations, the effects of modulation depth and modulation frequency of the beam on the gap voltage amplitude and its phase are obtained. It is shown that the gap voltage is significantly lower than that estimated by the equivalent circuit model when the beam modulation is high. And the bandwidth becomes wider as the beam modulation depth increases. An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier is designed based on the result. And the corresponding experiment is carried out on the linear transformer driver accelerator. The peak output power has achieved 1.2 GW with an efficiency of 28.6% and a gain of 46 dB in the corresponding experiment.

  1. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This geometry improves the handling of space charge for high-current beams, significantly increases the capture fraction into the primary rf bucket and reduces the capture fraction of the unwanted parasitic rf bucket. Total capture and transport through the PII has been demonstrated as high as 80% of the injected dc beam ...

  2. An Investigation of Presumptive Synergism of Oil Palm Bunch Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two kilogram (2 kg) of sandy soil was placed in each of five plastic vessels labeled TA, TB, TC, TD and TE. TA was left in its natural state while the others were each polluted with 6.7% v/w of crude oil. TB was not given any remediation amendment. TC and TD were each amended with 13.3% of oil palm bunch ash and ...

  3. Bunch lengthening with bifurcation in electron storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-San; Hirata, Kohji [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    The mapping which shows equilibrium particle distribution in synchrotron phase space for electron storage rings is discussed with respect to some localized constant wake function based on the Gaussian approximation. This mapping shows multi-periodic states as well as double bifurcation in dynamical states of the equilibrium bunch length. When moving around parameter space, the system shows a transition/bifurcation which is not always reversible. These results derived by mapping are confirmed by multiparticle tracking. (author)

  4. Feasibility study of stochastic cooling of bunches in the SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dome, G.; Linnecar, T.

    1984-01-01

    The average luminosity of the SPS collider could be improved if the slow blow-up of transverse emittances due to beam-beam and intrabeam scattering effects were to be reduced by a transverse cooling system. We examine the parameters of such a system and propose a technological approach which seems better suited to the case of a few bunches circulating in a large machine. (orig./HSI)

  5. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  6. Transient Resistive Wall Wake for Very Short Bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, G.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The catch up distance for the resistive wall wake in a round pipe is approximately equal to the square of the pipe radius divided by the bunch length. The standard formulae for this wake are applicable at distances much larger than the catch up distance. In this paper, we calculate the resistive wall wake at distances compared with the catch up distance assuming a constant wall conductivity

  7. Multiple frequency generation by bunched solitons in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1981-01-01

    A detailed numerical study of a long Josephson tunnel junction modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation demonstrates the existence of a variety of bunched soliton configurations. Thus, on the third zero-field step of the V-I characteristic, two simultaneous adjacent frequencies are generated...... in a narrow bias current range. The analysis of the soliton modes provides an explanation of recent experimental observations....

  8. Population policies for 21st century. Population and sustainable development high on agenda at Bali conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    At the August 1992 Population Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in Bali, a state minister from Indonesia remarked that changes in population growth must occur along with changes in quality of life and that more effective family planning (FP), family health, and welfare programs were needed. FP programs must be internally financed by each country. Conference goals were to assist governments in understanding the value of having multidisciplinary policies and programs, the need for research and evaluation in program implementation, and the role of population data for planning and policy. Senior officials from 36 countries and representatives from international bodies attended the week-long meetings. There was representation from outside the regional (Syria, Sweden, the Holy See, and the World Bank). A series of goals for the 21st century were agreed upon by participants in the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development. The message that there were no "quick fixes" was communicated and that women need to be involved in development beyond their role as wives as mothers. Dr. Sadik spoke about the importance of reducing maternal mortality and improving reproductive health. In Southeast Asia alone maternal deaths number about 250,000/year. The solution is family planning particularly for women older than 35 years and teenagers and social welfare programs for improving health care, fertility regulation, nutrition, and income. Dr. Sadik also focused on placing the elimination of poverty, improving women's conditions, and enabling reproductive choice as top priorities on country agendas. The issue of a large aging population in Southeast Asia necessitates future planning. The Japanese delegation pledged continued bilateral and multilateral cooperation in population control, with the hope that Japan may be useful as an example to other countries. There was participant commitment to the creation of policies on population and sustainable development.

  9. Alkali suppression within laser ion-source cavities and time structure of the laser ionized ion-bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Köster, U; Georg, U; Jonsson, O; Marzari, S; Fedosseev, V

    2003-01-01

    The chemical selectivity of the target and ion-source production system is an asset for Radioactive Ion-Beam (RIB) facilities equipped with mass separators. Ionization via laser induced multiple resonant steps Ionization has such selectivity. However, the selectivity of the ISOLDE Resonant Ionization Laser Ion-Source (RILIS), where ionization takes place within high temperature refractory metal cavities, suffers from unwanted surface ionization of low ionization potential alkalis. In order to reduce this type of isobaric contaminant, surface ionization within the target vessel was used. On-line measurements of the efficiency of this method is reported, suppression factors of alkalis up to an order of magnitude were measured as a function of their ionization potential. The time distribution of the ion bunches produced with the RILIS was measured for a variety of elements and high temperature cavity materials. While all ions are produced within a few nanoseconds, the ion bunch sometimes spreads over more than 1...

  10. Declines in low-elevation subalpine tree populations outpace growth in high-elevation populations with warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Veblen, Thomas T; Smith, Jeremy M.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution shifts in response to climate change require that recruitment increase beyond current range boundaries. For trees with long life spans, the importance of climate-sensitive seedling establishment to the pace of range shifts has not been demonstrated quantitatively.Using spatially explicit, stochastic population models combined with data from long-term forest surveys, we explored whether the climate-sensitivity of recruitment observed in climate manipulation experiments was sufficient to alter populations and elevation ranges of two widely distributed, high-elevation North American conifers.Empirically observed, warming-driven declines in recruitment led to rapid modelled population declines at the low-elevation, ‘warm edge’ of subalpine forest and slow emergence of populations beyond the high-elevation, ‘cool edge’. Because population declines in the forest occurred much faster than population emergence in the alpine, we observed range contraction for both species. For Engelmann spruce, this contraction was permanent over the modelled time horizon, even in the presence of increased moisture. For limber pine, lower sensitivity to warming may facilitate persistence at low elevations – especially in the presence of increased moisture – and rapid establishment above tree line, and, ultimately, expansion into the alpine.Synthesis. Assuming 21st century warming and no additional moisture, population dynamics in high-elevation forests led to transient range contractions for limber pine and potentially permanent range contractions for Engelmann spruce. Thus, limitations to seedling recruitment with warming can constrain the pace of subalpine tree range shifts.

  11. Characterization of pseudosingle bunch kick-and-cancel operational mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudosingle-bunch kick-and-cancel (PSB-KAC is a new operational mode at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that provides full timing and repetition rate control for single x-ray pulse users while being fully transparent to other users of synchrotron radiation light. In this operational mode, a single electron bunch is periodically displaced from a main bunch train by a fast kicker magnet with a user-on-demand repetition rate, creating a single x-ray pulse to be matched to a typical laser excitation pulse rate. This operational mode can significantly improve the signal to noise ratio of single x-ray pulse experiments and drastically reduce dose-induced sample damage rate. It greatly expands the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In this paper, we carry out extensive characterizations of this PSB-KAC mode both numerically and experimentally. This includes the working principle of this mode, resonance conditions and beam stability, experimental setups, and diagnostic tools and measurements.

  12. Characterization of pseudosingle bunch kick-and-cancel operational mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C.; Robin, D. S.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.

    2015-12-01

    Pseudosingle-bunch kick-and-cancel (PSB-KAC) is a new operational mode at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that provides full timing and repetition rate control for single x-ray pulse users while being fully transparent to other users of synchrotron radiation light. In this operational mode, a single electron bunch is periodically displaced from a main bunch train by a fast kicker magnet with a user-on-demand repetition rate, creating a single x-ray pulse to be matched to a typical laser excitation pulse rate. This operational mode can significantly improve the signal to noise ratio of single x-ray pulse experiments and drastically reduce dose-induced sample damage rate. It greatly expands the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In this paper, we carry out extensive characterizations of this PSB-KAC mode both numerically and experimentally. This includes the working principle of this mode, resonance conditions and beam stability, experimental setups, and diagnostic tools and measurements.

  13. Modulated electron bunch with amplitude front tilt in an undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-12-01

    In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radiation behind the kick, because the deflection process involves the introduction of a tilt of the bunch profile. This tilt of the bunch profile leads to radiation pulse front tilt, which is equivalent to angular dispersion of the output radiation. We remark that our exact results can potentially be useful to developers of new generation XFEL codes for cross-checking their results.

  14. Creation and storage of long and flat bunches in the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damerau, H.

    2005-09-01

    To maximize the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the collision of particle bunches with a uniform longitudinal particle density is considered for a future upgrade. The benefits of such bunches and their generation by means of special longitudinal beam manipulations are presented in this report. Three possible options are analyzed with respect to their potential luminosity gain at the beam-beam limit: short rectangular bunches held by radio frequency (RF) harmonics using multiples of the nominal RF frequency of 400.8 MHz, long and flat bunches held by multiples of 40.08 MHz, and so-called superbunches, confined by barrier buckets. The comparison of the three different approaches shows that flat bunches, with an intermediate bunch length of the order of several meters, are capable of producing a comparable luminosity to superbunches, while avoiding most of their inherent disadvantages. Possible schemes to create the bunches with uniform line density are studied and a longitudinal manipulation to combine a batch of ordinary bunches into a long and flat bunch is proposed. These RF gymnastics are based on well-proven techniques such as batch compression and bunch pair merging. Their advantages and disadvantages, including optimization with respect to degradation of the longitudinal particle density, are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to the investigation of collective effects due to the large line charge density and the influence of the beam on the RF installation is also studied. (Orig.)

  15. Intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics in the superconducting accelerators FLASH and European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellert, Thorsten

    2017-11-15

    FLASH and the European XFEL are linear accelerator driven SASE-FELs, operating in a pulsed mode with long bunch-trains. Multi-bunch FEL operation requires longitudinal and transverse stability within the bunch-train. The purpose of this work is to investigate the intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics at FLASH and XFEL. Key relationships of superconducting RF cavity operation, their misalignments and the resulting impact on the intra-bunch-train trajectory variation are described. In this thesis a numerical model is developed and simulations for different accelerating sections at FLASH and XFEL are performed. With the current operational setup significant intra-bunch-train trajectory variation must be considered, hence approaches for their reduction are discussed. The theoretical studies are compared to experimental results at FLASH. The observed trajectory variation during multi-bunch user runs is analyzed and related to causal intra-bunch-train variations of the RF and the following impact on the multi-bunch SASSE performance. Furthermore, HOM-based cavity misalignment measurements are performed and the deduction of misalignments from multi-bunch data is considered.

  16. Intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics in the superconducting accelerators FLASH and European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellert, Thorsten

    2017-11-01

    FLASH and the European XFEL are linear accelerator driven SASE-FELs, operating in a pulsed mode with long bunch-trains. Multi-bunch FEL operation requires longitudinal and transverse stability within the bunch-train. The purpose of this work is to investigate the intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics at FLASH and XFEL. Key relationships of superconducting RF cavity operation, their misalignments and the resulting impact on the intra-bunch-train trajectory variation are described. In this thesis a numerical model is developed and simulations for different accelerating sections at FLASH and XFEL are performed. With the current operational setup significant intra-bunch-train trajectory variation must be considered, hence approaches for their reduction are discussed. The theoretical studies are compared to experimental results at FLASH. The observed trajectory variation during multi-bunch user runs is analyzed and related to causal intra-bunch-train variations of the RF and the following impact on the multi-bunch SASSE performance. Furthermore, HOM-based cavity misalignment measurements are performed and the deduction of misalignments from multi-bunch data is considered.

  17. Characterestics of pico-second single bunch at the S-band linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kozawa, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Ueda, Toru; Miya, Kenzo

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the bunch structure of a pico-second single bunch was performed using a femto-second streak camera at the S-band linear accelerator of the University of Tokyo. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of the generation of a femto-second single bunch at the S-band linac. The details of the bunch structure and energy spectrum of an original single bunch were precisely investigated in several operation modes where the RF phases in accelerating tubes and a prebuncher were varied. The femto-second streak camera was utilized to measure the bunch structure by one shot via Cherenkov radiation emitted by the electrons in the bunch. Next, an experiment for magnetic pulse compression of the original single bunch was carried out. Pulse shapes of the compressed bunchs for different energy modulation were also obtained by measuring Cherenkov radiation by one shot using the femto-second streak camera. Prior to the experiment, numerical tracking analysis to determine operating parameters for the magnetic pulse compression was also done. Measured pulse widths were compared with calculated ones. Finally, a 2 ps (full width at half maximum; FWHM) single bunch with an electric charge of 0.3 nC could be generated by the magnetic pulse compression. ((orig.))

  18. Theoretical models for describing longitudinal bunch compression in the neutralized drift compression experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Sefkow

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ion drivers for warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion applications use intense charge bunches which must undergo transverse and longitudinal compression in order to meet the requisite high current densities and short pulse durations desired at the target. The neutralized drift compression experiment (NDCX at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to study the longitudinal neutralized drift compression of a space-charge-dominated ion beam, which occurs due to an imposed longitudinal velocity tilt and subsequent neutralization of the beam’s space charge by background plasma. Reduced theoretical models have been used in order to describe the realistic propagation of an intense charge bunch through the NDCX device. A warm-fluid model is presented as a tractable computational tool for investigating the nonideal effects associated with the experimental acceleration gap geometry and voltage waveform of the induction module, which acts as a means to pulse shape both the velocity and line density profiles. Self-similar drift compression solutions can be realized in order to transversely focus the entire charge bunch to the same focal plane in upcoming simultaneous transverse and longitudinal focusing experiments. A kinetic formalism based on the Vlasov equation has been employed in order to show that the peaks in the experimental current profiles are a result of the fact that only the central portion of the beam contributes effectively to the main compressed pulse. Significant portions of the charge bunch reside in the nonlinearly compressing part of the ion beam because of deviations between the experimental and ideal velocity tilts. Those regions form a pedestal of current around the central peak, thereby decreasing the amount of achievable longitudinal compression and increasing the pulse durations achieved at the focal plane. A hybrid fluid-Vlasov model which retains the advantages of both the fluid and kinetic approaches has been

  19. Transient response of relativistic electron bunches to wave-number selected perturbations near the micro-bunching instability threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, E; Evain, C; Le Parquier, M; Szwaj, C; Bielawski, S; Hosaka, M; Yamamoto, N; Takashima, Y; Shimada, M; Adachi, M; Zen, H; Kimura, S; Katoh, M

    2014-01-01

    Many spatio-temporal systems can undergo instabilities, leading to the spontaneous formation of spatial structures (patterns). However, a range of cases exist for which the pattern itself is not directly visible because of technical or fundamental reasons. This is the case for the spontaneous formation of millimeter-scale patterns appearing inside relativistic electron bunches of accelerators. We demonstrate in this case how the study of responses to sine external perturbations can be used as a ‘probe’ to deduce the characteristic wavenumber of the pattern formation process. Experiments are performed in the UVSOR-II electron storage ring when the electron bunch is subjected to so-called microbunching instability, and the sine perturbations are provided by an external laser. The response is constituted of pulses of coherent synchrotron radiation, whose amplitude depends on the perturbation wavenumber. Experimental results on the dynamics are compared to numerical calculations obtained using a Vlasov–Fokker–Planck model. (paper)

  20. High population connectivity and Pleistocene range expansion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nuclear markers (ATPSα, ATPSβ, ANT, SRPS4, TBP, LTRS and ZMP) showed no sequence variation. Bullia rhodostoma exhibited shallow ... from these refugial regions. Keywords: cytochrome oxidase I, demographic history, Pleistocene climatic changes, population genetic structure, sandy beach ecosystems, sea level ...

  1. A modified space charge routine for high intensity bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.; Lombardi, A.M.; Tanke, E.; Valero, S.; Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    A new routine and a computer code (DYNAC) for the calculation of space charge densities in a new generation of linear accelerators for various industrial applications is presented. The new beam dynamics method used in this code, employs a set of quasi-Liouvillian equations, allowing beam dynamics computations in long and complex structures for electrons, as well as protons and ions. With this new beam dynamics method, the coordinates of particles are known at any position in the accelerating elements, allowing multistep space charge calculations. (K.A.)

  2. A high resolution, single bunch, beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a beam monitoring system which could be used to measure beam profile, size and stability at the final forms of a beamline or collider. The system uses nonimaging bremsstrahlung optics. The immediate use for this system would be examining the final focus spot at the SLAC/FFTR

  3. ISABELLE, accumulators, bunched beams and cosmictrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    An elaboration of the ISABELLE concept as the model for a high energy, high luminosity proton-proton facility is given. Its place in the total high energy physics program is discussed. Certain features of the ISABELLE design which have not been consolidated, in particular injection and modes of beam operation, are considered. A new scheme is reviewed, one which could provide quick beam turn-on after construction, one in which there is a high probability of reaching and perhaps even exceeding the design objectives, one which should provide comparatively more flexible and reliable operation for physics, and finally one whose presence opens up a window to a much higher energy region. The new system involves the use of a physically separate current accumulator, allowing, therefore, the optimal utilization of the superconducting structures. The fact that an obvious addition to the complex will permit pp collisions in the 4 TeV center-of-mass energy region, which corresponds to an equivalent lab energy of approximately 10 16 eV, i.e., cosmic ray energies, prompts the added structure to be referred to as the COSMICTRON. The facility operated in the ''new'' manner proposed is considered to be ''the best ISABELLE that can be built.''

  4. Coherent instabilities of a relativistic bunched beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1982-06-01

    A charge-particle beam contained in an accelerator vacuum chamber interacts electromagnetically with its environment to create a wake field. This field than acts back on the beam, perturbing the particle motion. If the beam intensity is high enough, this beam-environment interaction may lead to an instability and to subsequent beam loss. The beam and its environment form a dynamical system, and it is this system that will be studied. 84 references

  5. Coherent instabilities of a relativistic bunched beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1982-06-01

    A charge-particle beam contained in an accelerator vacuum chamber interacts electromagnetically with its environment to create a wake field. This field than acts back on the beam, perturbing the particle motion. If the beam intensity is high enough, this beam-environment interaction may lead to an instability and to subsequent beam loss. The beam and its environment form a dynamical system, and it is this system that will be studied. 84 references.

  6. Measuring brightness temperature distributions of plasma bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirko, V.I.; Stadnichenko, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of restoration of brightness temperature distribution along plasma jet on the base of a simple ultra high- speed photography and subsequent photometric treatment is shown. The developed technique has been applied for finding spectral radiation intensity and brightness temperature of plasma jets of a tubular gas-cumulative charge and explosive plasma compressor. The problem of shock wave front has been successfully solved and thus distribution of above parameters beginning from the region preceeding the shock wave has been obtained [ru

  7. Improvement in the accuracy of flux measurement of radio sources by exploiting an arithmetic pattern in photon bunching noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Richard

    2018-01-01

    A hierarchy of statistics of increasing sophistication and accuracy is proposed, to exploit an interesting and fundamental arithmetic structure in the photon bunching noise of incoherent light of large photon occupation number, with the purpose of suppressing the noise and rendering a more reliable and unbiased measurement of the light intensity. The method does not require any new hardware, rather it operates at the software level, with the help of high precision computers, to reprocess the intensity time series of the incident light to create a new series with smaller bunching noise coherence length. The ultimate accuracy improvement of this method of flux measurement is limited by the timing resolution of the detector and the photon occupation number of the beam (the higher the photon number the better the performance). The principal application is accuracy improvement in the bolometric flux measurement of a radio source.

  8. Improvement in the Accuracy of Flux Measurement of Radio Sources by Exploiting an Arithmetic Pattern in Photon Bunching Noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieu, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    A hierarchy of statistics of increasing sophistication and accuracy is proposed to exploit an interesting and fundamental arithmetic structure in the photon bunching noise of incoherent light of large photon occupation number, with the purpose of suppressing the noise and rendering a more reliable and unbiased measurement of the light intensity. The method does not require any new hardware, rather it operates at the software level with the help of high-precision computers to reprocess the intensity time series of the incident light to create a new series with smaller bunching noise coherence length. The ultimate accuracy improvement of this method of flux measurement is limited by the timing resolution of the detector and the photon occupation number of the beam (the higher the photon number the better the performance). The principal application is accuracy improvement in the signal-limited bolometric flux measurement of a radio source.

  9. Main Ring bunch spreaders: Past, 1987/1988 fixed target run, and proposed future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    During the last 1987--1988 fixed target running period beam intensity was limited many times by coherent instabilities in both the Main Ring and in the Tevatron. The intensity thresholds for instabilities are generally inversely proportional to the proton bunch length. Since fixed target operations are insensitive to the longitudinal phase space emittance of the beam, bunch spreaders are employed to increase this emittance, and hence the bunch length. As a result, more beam intensity can be delivered to the fixed target experiments. This paper starts with a short history behind the old Main Ring bunch spreader. After discussing the physics of stimulated emittance growth, the design and performance of the 1987--1988 fixed target run Main Ring bunch spreader is discussed. Finally, designs of improved Main Ring and Tevatron bunch spreaders for the next fixed target run are proposed. 23 figs

  10. Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation as a diagnostic for sub-picosecond electron bunch length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    We suggest a novel technique of measuring sub-picosecond electron bunch length base on coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) emitted when electrons pass close to the surface of a metal grating. With electron bunch lengths comparable to the grating period, we predict that coherent SPR will be emitted at large angles with respect to direction of beam propagation. As the bunch length shortens, the coherent SPR will be enhanced over the incoherent component that is normally observed at small angles. Furthermore, the angular distribution of the coherent SPR will be shifted toward smaller angles as the bunch length becomes much smaller than the grating period. By measuring the angular distribution of the coherent SPR, one can determine the bunch length of sub-picosecond electron pulses. This new technique is easy to implement and appears capable of measuring femtosecond electron bunch lengths

  11. LHC MD 652: Coupled-Bunch Instability with Smaller Emittance (all HOMs)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081238; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the MD was to measure the coupled-bunch stability from all HOM impedances, with a reduced longitudinal emittance in order to explore the HL-LHC conditions. The acceleration ramp was performed with the nominal beams of 2016, but a reduced target bunch length and RF voltage. With this reduced emittance, the beam remained close but above the single-bunch stability threshold. No coupled-bunch oscillations were observed, so we can conclude that the stability threshold for coupled-bunch instability is not lower than the single-bunch threshold. An interesting observation in the MD was the long-lasting injection oscillations, whose traces can still be seen at arrival to flat top; in agreement with observations in earlier MDs. The measurements took place between 28th October 20:00 and 29th October 05:10.

  12. The beam bunching and transport system of the Argonne positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Bogaty, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new positive ion injector (PII) is currently under construction at Argonne that will replace the existing 9-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as an injector into ATLAS. It consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance-ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a superconducting linac optimized for very slow (β ≤ .007 c) ions. This combination can potentially produce even higher quality heavy-ion beams than are currently available from the tandem since the emittance growth within the linac is largely determined by the quality of the bunching and beam transport. The system we have implemented uses a two-stage bunching system, composed of a 4-harmonic gridded buncher located on the ECR high-voltage platform and a room temperature spiral-loaded buncher of novel design. A sinusoidal beam chopper is used for removal of tails. The beam transport is designed to provide mass resolution of M/ΔM > 250 and a doubly-isochronous beamline is used to minimize time spread due to path length differences. 4 refs., 2 figs

  13. Time evolution of coupled-bunch modes from beta function variation in storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Meng Hock

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analytical and numerical study of the equations of motion for bunches coupled by transverse wakefields. We base our study on a recent lattice design for the damping rings in the baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider. Using the macroparticle model, and assuming resistive wall wakefield coupling, we present numerical results on the time evolution of the multibunch modes. Decay modes display growth after initial decay, and mode amplitudes exhibit high-frequency oscillations. These phenomena are not expected if the beta function is assumed to have a constant, averaged value. We show analytically that they can come from coupling between modes caused by variation of the beta function in a real lattice. The effect is shown to be comparable to the effect of a nonuniform fill pattern and significantly larger than that of the higher-order mode wakefield localized in the rf cavities. Turning to the case of constant beta function, we develop a more complete treatment of the equations of motion. We derive general formulas for the bunch trajectories, and show that such formulas can only be valid in the limit of small wakefield coupling.

  14. Substrate bias induced synthesis of flowered-like bunched carbon nanotube directly on bulk nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, Atul [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR Campus, New Delhi 110012 (India); Chockalingam, S. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR Campus, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kesarwani, A.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR Campus, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, B.P. [Physics and Engineering of Carbon Materials, Division of Materials Physics and Engineering, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR Campus, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, V.N. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR Campus, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Flowered-like bunched MWCNTs have been synthesized by MW PECVD technique. • Effect of substrate bias on the properties of MWCNT has been studied. • Minimum E{sub T} = 1.9 V/μm with β = 4770 has been obtained in the film deposited at −350 V. - Abstract: This paper reports the effect of substrate bias on the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) deposited on nickel foil by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The MWCNTs have been characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, field emission and current–voltage characteristic of the heterojunction diode. The SEM images exhibit unique hierarchical flowered-like bunched and conformally coated MWCNTs. Substrate bias induced ion bombardment helps in the enhancement of hydrocarbon dissociation and is responsible for flowered-like MWCNTs growth. The HRTEM micrographs show the base growth mechanism for MWCNTs. The value of turn on field for emission decreases from 5.5 to 1.9 V/μm and field enhancement factor increases from 927 to 4770, respectively, with the increase of substrate bias. The diode ideality factor of CNT/ n-Si heterojunction is evaluated as 2.4 and the on/off current ratio is found to be 7 at ±2 V, respectively.

  15. Few femtosecond, few kilo-ampere electron bunch produced by a laser-plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundh, O.; Lim, J.; Rechatin, C.; Ammoura, L.; Goddet, J.P.; Malka, V.; Faure, J.; Ben-Ismail, A.; Davoine, X.; Lefebvre, E.; Gallot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Particle accelerators driven by the interaction of ultra-intense and ultrashort laser pulses with a plasma can generate accelerating electric fields of several hundred giga-volts per meter and deliver high-quality electron beams with low energy spread, low emittance and up to 1 GeV peak energy. Moreover, it is expected they may soon be able to produce bursts of electrons shorter than those produced by conventional particle accelerators, down to femtosecond durations and less. Here we present wide-band spectral measurements of coherent transition radiation which we use for temporal characterization. Our analysis shows that the electron beam, produced using controlled optical injection, contains a temporal feature that can be identified as a 15 pC, 1.4-1.8 fs electron bunch (root mean square) leading to a peak current of 3-4 kA depending on the bunch shape. We anticipate that these results will have a strong impact on emerging applications such as short-pulse and short-wavelength radiation sources, and will benefit the realization of laboratory-scale free-electron lasers. (authors)

  16. Matching the laser generated p bunch into a crossbar-H drift tube linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, A.; Droba, M.; Ratzinger, U.; Hofmann, I.

    2012-05-01

    Proton bunches with energies up to 30 MeV have been measured at the PHELIX laser. Because of the laser-plasma interactions at a power density of about 4×1019W/cm2, a total yield of 1.5×1013protons was produced. For the reference energy of 10 MeV, the yield within ±0.5MeV was exceeding 1010protons. The important topic for a further acceleration of the laser generated bunch is the matching into the acceptance of an rf accelerator stage. With respect to the high space charge forces and the transit energy range, only drift tube linacs seem adequate for this purpose. A crossbar H-type (CH) cavity was chosen as the linac structure. Optimum emittance values for the linac injection are compared with the available laser generated beam parameters. Options for beam matching into a CH structure by a pulsed magnetic solenoid and by using the simulation codes LASIN and LORASR are presented.

  17. Matching the laser generated p bunch into a crossbar-H drift tube linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almomani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Proton bunches with energies up to 30 MeV have been measured at the PHELIX laser. Because of the laser-plasma interactions at a power density of about 4×10^{19}  W/cm^{2}, a total yield of 1.5×10^{13}  protons was produced. For the reference energy of 10 MeV, the yield within ±0.5  MeV was exceeding 10^{10}  protons. The important topic for a further acceleration of the laser generated bunch is the matching into the acceptance of an rf accelerator stage. With respect to the high space charge forces and the transit energy range, only drift tube linacs seem adequate for this purpose. A crossbar H-type (CH cavity was chosen as the linac structure. Optimum emittance values for the linac injection are compared with the available laser generated beam parameters. Options for beam matching into a CH structure by a pulsed magnetic solenoid and by using the simulation codes LASIN and LORASR are presented.

  18. Retroflex Versus Bunched in Treatment for Rhotic Misarticulation: Evidence From Ultrasound Biofeedback Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Swartz, Michelle T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To document the efficacy of ultrasound biofeedback treatment for misarticulation of the North American English rhotic in children. Because of limited progress in the first cohort, a series of two closely related studies was conducted in place of a single study. The studies differed primarily in the nature of tongue-shape targets (e.g., retroflex, bunched) cued during treatment. Method Eight participants received 8 weeks of individual ultrasound biofeedback treatment targeting rhotics. In Study 1, all 4 participants were cued to match a bunched tongue-shape target. In Study 2, participants received individualized cues aimed at eliciting the tongue shape most facilitative of perceptually correct rhotics. Results Participants in Study 1 showed only minimal treatment effects. In Study 2, all participants demonstrated improved production of rhotics in untreated words produced without biofeedback, with large to very large effect sizes. Conclusions The results of Study 2 indicate that with proper parameters of treatment, ultrasound biofeedback can be a highly effective intervention for children with persistent rhotic errors. In addition, qualitative comparison of Studies 1 and 2 suggests that treatment for the North American English rhotic should include opportunities to explore different tongue shapes, to find the most facilitative variant for each individual speaker. PMID:25088034

  19. Choice of parameters for linear colliders in multi-bunch mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.

    1987-01-01

    The energy efficiency of a linear collider in multi-bunch mode is calculated for the case that the bunches in each of the two interacting beams are identical in all interaction points, a configuration which can be realized by taking advantage of the beam-beam effect between beams of opposite electric charge. The maximization of the efficiency is discussed, the maximum appears to increase nearly linearly with beam brightness and accelerating gradient, and about quadratically with the length of the ir. The optimum operating frequency for the linacs increases also, while the pulse repetition rate and the beam current needed for fixed luminosity, decrease. The increasing brightness and the decreasing current needed for higher efficiency lead to smaller transverse spotsizes in the crossing points; this imposes tighter tolerances on the relative transverse coordinates of the two beam-axes. Pillbox or similar resonators, excited in the TM01 mode, may be preferable to quadrupoles for transverse focusing, at the high frequencies and gradients that seem desirable, particularly in the final focus. 4 refs., 7 figs

  20. The beam bunching and transport system of the Argonne positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Bogaty, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new positive ion injector (PII) is currently under construction at Argonne that will replace the existing 9-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as an injector into ATLAS. It consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance-ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a superconducting linac optimized for very slow (..beta.. less than or equal to .007 c) ions. This combination can potentially produce even higher quality heavy-ion beams than are currently available from the tandem since the emittance growth within the linac is largely determined by the quality of the bunching and beam transport. The system we have implemented uses a two-stage bunching system, composed of a 4-harmonic gridded buncher located on the ECR high-voltage platform and a room temperature spiral-loaded buncher of novel design. A sinusoidal beam chopper is used for removal of tails. The beam transport is designed to provide mass resolution of M/..delta..M > 250 and a doubly-isochronous beamline is used to minimize time spread due to path length differences. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Beam transfer functions for relativistic proton bunches with beam–beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Görgen, P., E-mail: goergen@temf.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstr. 8 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O. [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstr. 8 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    We present a method for the recovery of the transverse tune spread directly from the beam transfer function (BTF). The model is applicable for coasting beams and bunched beams at high energy with a tune spread from transverse nonlinearities induced by the beam–beam effect or by an electron lens. Other sources of tune spread can be added. A method for the recovery of the incoherent tune spread without prior knowledge of the nonlinearity is presented. The approach is based on the analytic model for BTFs of coasting beams, which agrees very well with simulations results for bunched beams at relativistic energies with typically low synchrotron tune. A priori the presented tune spread recovery method is usable only in the absence of coherent modes, but additional simulation data shows its applicability even in the presence of coherent beam–beam modes. Finally agreement of both the analytic and simulation models with measurement data obtained at RHIC is presented. The proposed method successfully recovers the tune spread from analytic, simulated and measured BTF.

  2. GYRO-ORBIT SIZE, BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE LIMIT, AND IMPLAUSIBILITY OF COHERENT EMISSION BY BUNCHING IN SYNCHROTRON RADIO SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    We show that an upper limit on the maximum brightness temperature for a self-absorbed incoherent synchrotron radio source is obtained from the size of its gyro orbits, which in turn must lie well within the confines of the total source extent. These temperature limits are obtained without recourse to inverse Compton effects or the condition of equipartition of energy between magnetic fields and relativistic particles. For radio variables, the intra-day variability implies brightness temperatures ∼10 19 K in the comoving rest frame of the source. This, if interpreted purely due to an incoherent synchrotron emission, would imply gyroradii >10 28 cm, the size of the universe, while from the causality arguments the inferred maximum size of the source in such a case is ∼ 15 cm. Such high brightness temperatures are sometimes modeled in the literature as some coherent emission process where bunches of non-thermal particles are somehow formed that radiate in phase. We show that, unlike in the case of curvature radiation models proposed in pulsars, in the synchrotron radiation mechanism the oppositely charged particles would contribute together to the coherent phenomenon without the need to form separate bunches of the opposite charges. At the same time we show that bunches would disperse over dimensions larger than a wavelength in time shorter than the gyro orbital period (∼< 0.1 s). Therefore, a coherent emission by bunches cannot be a plausible explanation of the high brightness temperatures inferred in extragalactic radio sources showing variability over a few hours or longer.

  3. Conditioning of BPM pickup signals for operations of the Duke storage ring with a wide range of single-bunch current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Huang, Sen-Lin; Z. Wu, W.; Hao, H.; P., Wang; K. Wu, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Duke storage ring is a dedicated driver for the storage ring based oscillator free-electron lasers (FELs), and the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). It is operated with a beam current ranging from about 1 mA to 100 mA per bunch for various operations and accelerator physics studies. High performance operations of the FEL and γ-ray source require a stable electron beam orbit, which has been realized by the global orbit feedback system. As a critical part of the orbit feedback system, the electron beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to be able to precisely measure the electron beam orbit in a wide range of the single-bunch current. However, the high peak voltage of the BPM pickups associated with high single-bunch current degrades the performance of the BPM electronics, and can potentially damage the BPM electronics. A signal conditioning method using low pass filters is developed to reduce the peak voltage to protect the BPM electronics, and to make the BPMs capable of working with a wide range of single-bunch current. Simulations and electron beam based tests are performed. The results show that the Duke storage ring BPM system is capable of providing precise orbit measurements to ensure highly stable FEL and HIGS operations.

  4. Stability of longitudinal oscillations of a bunch propagating through an evacuated chamber with reactive impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnier, G.

    1979-01-01

    The longitudinal space-charge force is assumed to vary like the derivative of the longitudinal beam density. Solutions of the linearized Vlasov equation are then given as an expansion of normal modes for the longitudinal phase-space density of a bunched beam. For a given bunch intensity, the method allows calculation of the required synchrotron frequency spread inside a parabolic bunch, in order to stabilize the beam against coherent oscillations by Landau-damping. (Auth.)

  5. Methods For Electron Bunch Measurement With Resolution Of The Order Of 1 Fs And 1 Nm

    CERN Document Server

    Tron, A M

    2004-01-01

    Methods for bunch length and shape monitoring with femtosecond resolution by means of time converting photochronography of the bunch radiation in the range of visible light using photoelectron camera of new principle of its operation, and for monitoring the transverse bunch size, based on new beam cross section wire scanner technique where the depth of electron escapement being not more than 1 nm is used, are described. Main limitation, caused by space charge effect, is considered.

  6. Spatial configuration of a plasma bunch formed under gyromagnetic resonance in a magnetic mirror trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V.; Novitskii, A. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Chuprov, D. V., E-mail: chu-d@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The spatial configuration of a relativistic plasma bunch generated under the gyromagnetic autoresonance and confined in a magnetic mirror trap has been studied experimentally and numerically. The characteristics of bremsstrahlung generated by the plasma bunch from the gas and chamber walls were investigated using X-ray spectroscopy and radiometry, which made it possible to determine the localization of the bunch and analyze the dynamics of its confinement.

  7. On the acceleration of charged particles by strong longitudinal plasma wake fields excited by electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, A.Ts.; Elbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of the use of longitudinal field excited in a plasma by electron bunches to accelerate charged particles is investigated. It is shown that the highets value of accelerating fields proportional to the square root of factor of electrons in the bunch is achieved in the case when bunch particle density approaches a limit equal to the half of the the plasma electron equilibrium density

  8. Investigation of advanced electron bunch generation and diagnostics in the BOND laboratory at DESY

    OpenAIRE

    Kononenko, Olena; Bohlen, Simon; Gruse, Jan-Niclas; Karstensen, Sven; Libov, Vladyslav; Ludwig, Kai; Martinez de la Ossa, Alberto; Marutzky, Frank; Niroula, Avinash; Osterhoff, Jens; Quast, Martin; Schaper, Lucas; Dale, John; Schwinkendorf, Jan-Patrick; Streeter, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Laser driven plasma wakefield accelerators have been explored as a potential compact, reproducible source of relativistic electron bunches, utilising an electric field of many GV/m. Control over injection of electrons into the wakefield is of crucial importance in producing stable, mono-energetic electron bunches. Density tailoring of the target, to control the acceleration process, can also be used to improve the quality of the bunch. By using gas jets to provide tailored targets it is poss...

  9. Application of constrained deconvolution technique for reconstruction of electron bunch profile with strongly non-Gaussian shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2004-08-01

    An effective and practical technique based on the detection of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) spectrum can be used to characterize the profile function of ultra-short bunches. The CSR spectrum measurement has an important limitation: no spectral phase information is available, and the complete profile function cannot be obtained in general. In this paper we propose to use constrained deconvolution method for bunch profile reconstruction based on a priori-known information about formation of the electron bunch. Application of the method is illustrated with practically important example of a bunch formed in a single bunch-compressor. Downstream of the bunch compressor the bunch charge distribution is strongly non-Gaussian with a narrow leading peak and a long tail. The longitudinal bunch distribution is derived by measuring the bunch tail constant with a streak camera and by using a priory available information about profile function.

  10. Application of constrained deconvolution technique for reconstruction of electron bunch profile with strongly non-Gaussian shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    An effective and practical technique based on the detection of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) spectrum can be used to characterize the profile function of ultra-short bunches. The CSR spectrum measurement has an important limitation: no spectral phase information is available, and the complete profile function cannot be obtained in general. In this paper we propose to use constrained deconvolution method for bunch profile reconstruction based on a priori-known information about formation of the electron bunch. Application of the method is illustrated with practically important example of a bunch formed in a single bunch-compressor. Downstream of the bunch compressor the bunch charge distribution is strongly non-Gaussian with a narrow leading peak and a long tail. The longitudinal bunch distribution is derived by measuring the bunch tail constant with a streak camera and by using a priory available information about profile function

  11. A Main Ring bunch length monitor by detecting two frequency components of the beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieiri, T.; Jackson, G.

    1989-01-01

    The bunch length is measured by detecting two revolution frequency harmonics of the beam and taking the ratio of their amplitudes. Two heterodyne receivers have been made to direct them, one at 53MHz and the other at 159MHz. These signals are picked-up by a stripline detector. An analog circuit provides a signal proportional to the bunch length. The monitor measures variation of the bunch length as a function of time in the Main Ring. The measured signal, which sometimes shows that the bunches are tumbling in phase space, can be damped by feedback to the RF amplitude modulator. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  12. On the preservation of single- and multi-bunch emittance in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevlak, M.

    1995-11-01

    This document is concentrated on the investigation of the dynamics of a particle beam in a linear accelerator. We numerically simulate a number of effects and evaluate the severity of their impact on the beam. Furthermore, we examine the applicability of several correction techniques aiming at the suppression or correction of the effects diluting the beam emittance. First, there is the issue of single-bunch dynamics : we see that wake field effects and dispersive errors can cause a significant emittance growth. Secondly, long range dipole wakes and dispersive effects arising from the energy spread between different bunches will cause relative offsets between the individual bunches and likewise result in emittance growth. Finally, we observe interactions between the single-bunch and multi-bunch dynamics in a bunch train, which further aggravate these effects. The corrective measures against emittance growth are first tested with respect to individual effects relating to issues of single- or multi-bunch dynamics. Later, these different correction techniques are joined to one machine tuning procedure that will be applied in order to achieve good emittance preservation for operation of the accelerator with a full beam consisting of the full number of bunches. The performance of this procedure is tested in simulations of the combined single- and multi-bunch dynamics. Finally, tolerances on the machine alignment as well as machine and beam parameters are established. (orig.)

  13. Transverse multibunch modes for non-rigid bunches, including mode coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J S; Ruth, R D [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A method for computing transverse multibunch growth rates and frequency shifts in rings, which has been described previously, is applied to the PEP-II B factory. The method allows multibunch modes with different internal-bunch oscillation modes to couple to one another, similar to single-bunch mode coupling. Including coupling between the multibunch modes gives effects similar to those seen in single-bunch mode coupling. These effects occur at currents that are lower than the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. (author)

  14. Timing system for multi-bunch/multi-train operation at ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.; Imai, T.

    2000-01-01

    A timing system has been constructed for multi-bunch/multi-train operation at KEK-ATF. The linac accelerates 20 bunches of multi-bunch with 2.8 ns spacing. The Damping Ring stores up to 5 trains of multi-bunch. The timing system is required to provide flexible operation mode and bucket selection. A personal computer is used for manipulating the timing. The performance of kicker magnets at the injection/extruction is key issue for multi-train operation. The hardware and the test results are presented. (author)

  15. Measurement of the longitudinal wakefield and the bunch shape in the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Decker, F.J.; Seeman, J.T.; Zimmermann, F.

    1997-05-01

    The authors report on measurements of the bunch energy spectrum at the end of the SLAC linac. Using the spectra obtained for two different linac rf phases they obtain both the bunch induced voltage and the longitudinal distribution of the bunch. The measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions. In particular, the induced voltage is in good agreement with that obtained using the calculated wake function for the SLAC linac. This measurement technique may be useful for monitoring changes of the linac bunch shape in the SLC

  16. Beam beam tune shifts for 36 bunch operation in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.

    1996-10-01

    We are preparing to upgrade the Tevatron Collider from 6 to 36 bunch operation. The 36 bunches are in 3 ''trains'' of 12 bunches. The spacing between bunches within a train is 21 RF buckets (53.106 MHz) and 139 empty buckets separate the trains. Because the 36 bunches are not evenly spaced around the machine, the different bunches within a train pass the opposing bunches at different points in the ring and so feel different beam beam effects. Through most of the machine the beams have helical separation, so these are mainly long range beam beam effects. As a first, very simple step, we've looked at the differences in the tunes of the different anti-proton (anti p) bunches. During the 36 bunch studies in Fall 1995, we used a new tune measurement system to measure these in several different machine conditions. We compare these measurements to calculations of the tunes for a anti p with zero transverse and longitudinal oscillation amplitudes. We discuss experimental problems, and the assumptions, approximations, and effects included in the calculations. Our main intent is to gain confidence that we can accurately model beam beam effects in the Tevatron

  17. The population genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different patient populations exhibits high-level host specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping method by comparing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. METHODS: Selected P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 60 were genotyped with PFGE, MLST and MLVA to determine the diversity index (DI and congruence (adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients. Subsequently, isolates from patients admitted to two different ICUs (n = 205, from CF patients (n = 100 and from non-ICU, non-CF patients (n = 58, of which 19 were community acquired were genotyped with MLVA to determine distribution of genotypes and genetic diversity. RESULTS: Congruence between the typing methods was >79% and DIs were similar and all >0.963. Based on costs, ease, speed and possibilities to compare results between labs an adapted MLVA scheme called MLVA9-Utrecht was selected as the preferred typing method. In 363 clinical isolates 252 different MLVA types (MTs were identified, indicating a highly diverse population (DI  = 0.995; CI  = 0.993-0.997. DI levels were similarly high in the diverse clinical sources (all >0.981 and only eight genotypes were shared. MTs were highly specific (>80% for the different patient populations, even for similar patient groups (ICU patients in two distinct geographic regions, with only three of 142 ICU genotypes detected in both ICUs. The two major CF clones were unique to CF patients. CONCLUSION: The population structure of P. aeruginosa isolates is highly diverse and population specific without evidence for a core lineage in which major CF, hospital or community clones co-cluster. The two genotypes highly prevalent among Dutch CF patients appeared unique to CF patients

  18. Quantification of the changes in potent wine odorants as induced by bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Fungal infections are detrimental for viticulture since they may reduce harvest yield and wine quality. This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on wine aroma by quantification of representative aroma compounds using Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis (SIDA). For this purpose, samples affected to a high degree by each fungus were compared with a healthy sample in each case; to this aim, the respective samples were collected and processed applying identical conditions. Thereby, the effects of bunch rot were studied in three different grape varieties: White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer whereas the influence of powdery mildew was studied on the hybrid Gm 8622-3. Analyses revealed that both fungal diseases caused significant changes in the concentration of most target compounds. Thereby, the greatest effects were increases in the concentration of phenylacetic acid, acetic acid and γ-decalactone for both fungi and all grape varieties. Regarding other compounds, however, inconsistent effects of bunch rot were observed for the three varieties studied.

  19. Quantification of the Changes in Potent Wine Odorants as Induced by Bunch Rot (Botrytis cinerea and Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lopez Pinar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are detrimental for viticulture since they may reduce harvest yield and wine quality. This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on wine aroma by quantification of representative aroma compounds using Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis (SIDA. For this purpose, samples affected to a high degree by each fungus were compared with a healthy sample in each case; to this aim, the respective samples were collected and processed applying identical conditions. Thereby, the effects of bunch rot were studied in three different grape varieties: White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer whereas the influence of powdery mildew was studied on the hybrid Gm 8622-3. Analyses revealed that both fungal diseases caused significant changes in the concentration of most target compounds. Thereby, the greatest effects were increases in the concentration of phenylacetic acid, acetic acid and γ-decalactone for both fungi and all grape varieties. Regarding other compounds, however, inconsistent effects of bunch rot were observed for the three varieties studied.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  1. Chromatic correction in the SLC bunch length compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.E.; Emma, P.J.; Fieguth, T.H.; Spence, W.L.

    1991-06-01

    The SLC Ring to Linac (RTL) transport lines employ intense bending and strong transverse focusing to produce the momentum compaction needed for bunch length compression prior to S-band acceleration. In the presence of the large rf induced energy spread needed for compression the consequent chromatic effects -- viz. the variation with energy of residual output dispersion and of the RTL transfer matrix, threaten to destroy the small emittances produced by the damping rings. We report on the tuning methods that have been developed and used to implement the sextupole based chromatic correction scheme. 6 refs., 4 figs

  2. Optimized Bunch Compression System for the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Limberg, Torsten; Brinkmann, Reinhard; Decking, Winfried; Dohlus, Martin; Flöettmann, Klaus; Kim, Yujong; Schneidmiller, Evgeny

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL bunch compressor system has been optimized for greater flexibility in parameter space. Operation beyond the XFEL design parameters is discussed in two directions: achieving the uppermost number of photons in a single pulse on one hand and reaching the necessary peak current for lasing with a pulse as short as possible on the other. Results of start-to-end calculations including 3D-CSR effects, space charge forces and the impact on wake fields demonstrate the potential of the XFEL for further improvement or, respectively, its safety margin for operation at design values.

  3. Self-focusing of electron bunches in a nonlinear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasovitskii, V.B.; Osmolovsky, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomena of self-focusing of previously bunched electron beam in hot nonlinear plasma with the frequency which less than the plasma one is studied. It is established that influence of the Miller's force nonlinearity of the plasma don't leads to self-focusing breaking. However in the case of a dense beam, the appearance strong resonant electric field is followed by the change of the sign of the plasma dielectric constant to positive at the beam axis. But the dielectric constant remain negative at the outer of the beam

  4. Overview of coupled bunch active damper systems at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimel, J.; Crisp, J.; Ma, Hengjie; Marriner, J.; McGinnis, D.

    1996-05-01

    Beam intensities in all of the accelerators at Fermilab will increase significantly when the Main Injector becomes operational and will cause unstable oscillations in transverse position and energy. Places where the coupled bunch oscillations could dilute emittances include the Booster, Main Injector, and Tevatron. This paper provides an overview of the active feedback system upgrades which will be used to counteract the problem. It will explain the similarities between all the systems and will also explain design differences between longitudinal and transverse systems, fast sweeping systems, and systems for partially filled machines. Results from operational systems will also be shown. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Time domain numerical calculations of the short electron bunch wakefields in resistive structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanian, Andranik

    2010-10-15

    The acceleration of electron bunches with very small longitudinal and transverse phase space volume is one of the most actual challenges for the future International Linear Collider and high brightness X-Ray Free Electron Lasers. The exact knowledge on the wake fields generated by the ultra-short electron bunches during its interaction with surrounding structures is a very important issue to prevent the beam quality degradation and to optimize the facility performance. The high accuracy time domain numerical calculations play the decisive role in correct evaluation of the wake fields in advanced accelerators. The thesis is devoted to the development of a new longitudinally dispersion-free 3D hybrid numerical scheme in time domain for wake field calculation of ultra short bunches in structures with walls of finite conductivity. The basic approaches used in the thesis to solve the problem are the following. For materials with high but finite conductivity the model of the plane wave reflection from a conducting half-space is used. It is shown that in the conductive half-space the field components perpendicular to the interface can be neglected. The electric tangential component on the surface contributes to the tangential magnetic field in the lossless area just before the boundary layer. For high conducting media, the task is reduced to 1D electromagnetic problem in metal and the so-called 1D conducting line model can be applied instead of a full 3D space description. Further, a TE/TM (''transverse electric - transverse magnetic'') splitting implicit numerical scheme along with 1D conducting line model is applied to develop a new longitudinally dispersion-free hybrid numerical scheme in the time domain. The stability of the new hybrid numerical scheme in vacuum, conductor and bound cell is studied. The convergence of the new scheme is analyzed by comparison with the well-known analytical solutions. The wakefield calculations for a number of

  6. High genetic diversity and low population structure in Porter's sunflower (Helianthus porteri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Scott D; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Granite outcrops in the southeastern United States are rare and isolated habitats that support edaphically controlled communities dominated by herbaceous plants. They harbor rare and endemic species that are expected to have low genetic variability and high population structure due to small population sizes and their disjunct habitat. We test this expectation for an annual outcrop endemic, Helianthus porteri (Porter's sunflower). Contrary to expectation, H. porteri has relatively high genetic diversity (H e = 0.681) and relatively low genetic structure among the native populations (F ST = 0.077) when compared to 5 other Helianthus species (N = 288; 18 expressed sequence tag-SSR markers). These findings suggest greater gene flow than expected. The potential for gene flow is supported by the analysis of transplant populations established with propagules from a common source in 1959. One population established close to a native population (1.5 km) at the edge of the natural range is genetically similar to and shares rare alleles with the adjacent native population and is distinct from the central source population. In contrast, a transplant population established north of the native range has remained similar to the source population. The relatively high genetic diversity and low population structure of this species, combined with the long-term success of transplanted populations, bode well for its persistence as long as the habitat persists.

  7. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in a Slovenian High School Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan

    2000-01-01

    In a study of Slovenian high school students (N=3,687) results show that those who had attempted suicide and those who had not differed in levels of self-esteem, emotional reaction to family problems, running away from home, and substance abuse. Differences in depression, suicide ideation, family suicide ideation, family suicide occurrence,…

  8. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-09-01

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 μm precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  9. Coherent synchrotron radiation and bunch stability in a compactstorage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Marco; Warnock, Robert; Ruth, Ronald; Ellison, James A.

    2004-04-09

    We examine the effect of the collective force due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in an electron storage ring with small bending radius. In a computation based on time-domain integration of the nonlinear Vlasov equation, we find the threshold current for a longitudinal microwave instability induced by CSR alone. The model accounts for suppression of radiation at long wave lengths due to shielding by the vacuum chamber. In a calculation just above threshold, small ripples in the charge distribution build up over a fraction of a synchrotron period, but then die out to yield a relatively smooth but altered distribution with eventual oscillations in bunch length. The instability evolves from small noise on an initial smooth bunch of r.m.s.length much greater than the shielding cutoff. The paper includes a derivation and extensive analysis of the complete impedance function Z for synchrotron radiation with parallel plate shielding. We find corrections to the lowest approximation to the coherent force which involve ''off-diagonal'' values of Z, that is, fields with phase velocity not equal to the particle velocity.

  10. Violence Patterns in Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch (1969: Critical Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Bani-Khair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issue of violence in Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch (1969 through explaining some of the cultural and historical implications of violence in the 1960s such as Vietnam War, the Mexican war and also the explosion of the feminist movement and some other important social and political upheavals that shaped the cultural context of the 1960s in America. It also sheds light on Sam Peckinpah’s approach of violence screen and stylizing violence and the representations of violence as a tormenting and brutalizing reality that matches the spirit of the age in addition to the social, political, and colonial conflicts of the 1960s. Violence and the implications of violence in The Wild Bunch whether social , cultural, psychological, or humanistic have been discussed in brief in order to show the critical approach of the film as being a rich and didactic film to watch, especially in terms of its rich cultural and historical contexts.

  11. A multi-channel THz and infrared spectrometer for femtosecond electron bunch diagnostics by single-shot spectroscopy of coherent radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter

    2011-08-15

    The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 {mu}m) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 {mu}m). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)

  12. A multi-channel THz and infrared spectrometer for femtosecond electron bunch diagnostics by single-shot spectroscopy of coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 μm) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 μm). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)

  13. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Rose, Amy N [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Urban, Marie L [ORNL; Stewart, Robert N [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  14. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Gobal climate change may affect wolves in Canada's High Arctic (80?? N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However, when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  15. Generation of ultra-short relativistic-electron-bunch by a laser wakefield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Boller, Klaus J.; van Goor, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of the generation of an ultra-short (about one micron long) relativistic (up to a few GeVs) electron-bunch in a moderately nonlinear laser wakefield excited in an underdense plasma by an intense laser pulse is investigated. The ultra-short bunch is formed by trapping, effective

  16. Investigation of focusing of relativistic electron and positron bunches moving in cold plasma. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, A.Ts.; Elbakian, S.S.; Khachatryan, A.G.; Sekhpossian, E.V.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the final report on a project to study focusing effects of relativistic beams of electrons and positrons interacting with a cold plasma. The authors consider three different models for the overdense cold plasma - electron bunch interaction. They look at coulomb effects, wakefield effects, bunch parameters, and the effects of trains of pulses on focusing properties

  17. Beam-Beam Interaction, Electron Cloud and Intrabeam Scattering for Proton Super-bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, Giovanni; Papaphilippou, Y

    2003-01-01

    Super-bunches are long bunches with a flat longitudinal profile, which could potentially increase the LHC luminosity in a future upgrade. We present example parameters and discuss a variety of issues related to such superbunches, including beam-beam tune shift, tune footprints, crossing schemes, luminosity, intrabeam scattering, and electron cloud. We highlight the benefits, disadvantages and open questions.

  18. A Value-Engaged Approach for Evaluating the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jennifer C.

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the Bunche Academy was chosen by its district to join in partnership with the Da Vinci Learning Corporation to embark on an ambitious whole-school reform initiative, especially designed by the corporation for low-performing schools. In this chapter, the author describes how, as illustrated in the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy context,…

  19. A Proposal to Build Evaluation Capacity at the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jean A.

    2005-01-01

    The author describes potential evaluation capacity-building activities in contrast to the specifics of an evaluation design. Her response to the case of the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy is developed in three parts: (1) an initial framing of the Bunche-Da Vinci situation; (2) what should be done before signing a contract; and (3)…

  20. The excitation of wakefield in plasma by the sequence of electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, I.N.; Balakirev, V.A.; Berezin, A.K.; Fainberg, J.B.; Kiselyov, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Sidel'nikov, G.L.; Sotnikov, G.V.; Uskov, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of wakefield excitation in plasma by the train of bunches were carried out. The dependence of the wakefield amplitude on the number of bunches was considered and the saturation mechanism was determined. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs