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Sample records for highly polyunsaturated diet

  1. Effect of a high monounsaturated vs high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, R; de Luis, D A; Izaola, O; de la Fuente, B; Bachiller, R

    2014-01-01

    Hyperaminotransferasemia is an important problem in obese patients. We decide to examine the changes in hyperaminotransferasemia after weight reduction in obese patients with and without NAFLD secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs. a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets. A population of 306 obese patients was randomly allocated to two groups: Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) and Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). Patients were classified as group I (obese subjects; n=262) when serum ALT activity was normal or group II (NAFLD patients; n=44) when serum ALT activity was (≥ 43 UI/L). In NAFLD group with diet M, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol), insulin and HOMA-R decreased. In NAFLD group with diet P, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol), insulin and HOMA-R decreased, too. In NAFLD group, alanine aminotransferase [(diet M) -20.3±19.2 UI/L vs. (diet P) -14.2±20.1 UI/L], aspartate aminotransferase [(diet M) -11.3±12.2 UI/L vs. (diet P) -11.1±10.1 UI/L], and gammaglutamyl transferase [(diet M) -18.1±12.2 UI/L vs. (diet P) -10.9±20.1 UI/L] improved with both diets. We showed that weight reduction secondary to two hypocaloric diets was associated with improvement in hypertransaminasemia and insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

  2. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    in epidemiological studies, where the typical fatty acid composition of milk-fat, i.e. a high level of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been correlated to increased insulin-resistance. It is therefore essential to characterize the impact of milk......-fat on glucose-tolerance in intervention studies. Methods: 16 rats were divided into two groups and fed a semisynthetic diet containing 31 E-% fat, either as butter or highly polyunsaturated grapeseed oil. After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test (OGTT......). Results and Discussion: The OGTT revealed that the rats on the butter-containing diet, had a substantially higher glucose tolerance than the rats, which were fed grapeseed oil (area under the curve =195  31 mM*min-2 vs. 310  13 mM*min-2, n= 8, p=0.004). There were no differences in serum triacylglycerol...

  3. Hunger and satiety responses to high-fat meals after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) elicit a greater response in satiety after a single-meal challenge compared with other types of fats. The long-term effects of PUFAs on satiety, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine subjective and physiological hunger and satiety responses to high-fat (HF) meals before and after a 7-d PUFA-rich diet. Twenty-six, healthy weight (body mass index 18-24.9 kg/m 2 ), sedentary adults were randomly assigned to either a 7-d PUFA-rich diet (n = 8 men and n = 8 women) or a 7-d control diet (n = 5 men and n = 5 women). After a 3-d lead-in diet, participants reported for the baseline visit where anthropometrics, fasting visual analog scale (VAS) measurements, and a fasting blood sample were collected. Then, two HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Postprandial blood draws and VAS measures were collected approximately every 30 min for 4 h after each meal, for a total of 8 h. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was a decrease in fasting ghrelin (P hunger and satiety; yet, did not alter subjective ratings of hunger or fullness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ROLE OF RS9939609 FTO GENE VARIANT IN WEIGHT LOSS, INSULIN RESISTANCE AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS AFTER A HIGH MONOUNSATURATED VS A HIGH POLYUNSATURATED FAT HYPOCALORIC DIETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Pacheco, D

    2015-07-01

    common polymorphisms (rs9939609) of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) have been linked to obesity. our aim was to investigate the role of this polymorphism on insulin resistance, metabolic changes and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets. a sample of 233 obese subjects was enrolled in a prospective way. In the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated during 3 months to; Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) or Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). after treatment with two diets and in both genotypes, weight, fat mass and waist circumference decreased. Lower levels of body mass index (BMI), weight and fat mass were detected after Diet P in A allele carriers than TT genotype subjects. With the diet type P and in both genotypes (TT and AT + AA), total cholesterol levels (-15.3 + 35.1 mg/dl vs -11.6 + 32.1 mg/dl: p > 0.05) and LDL cholesterol levels (-11.5 + 34.1 mg/dl vs -8.5 + 30.1 mg/dl: p > 0.05) decreased. In A allele carriers a significant decreased was detected in insulin levels (-2.8 + 2.1 UI/L vs -1.3 + 8.0 UI/L: p 0.05), too. With the diet M and in both genotype groups, leptin levels (-8.0 + 17.1 ng/ ml vs -4.9 + 18.7 ng/ml: p > 0.05) decreased. Conclusiones: metabolic improvement secondary to weight loss was better in A carriers with a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Modification of high saturated fat diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fat improves glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamping, KL; Nuno, DW; Coppey, LJ; Holmes, AJ; Hu, S; Oltman, CL; Norris, AW; Yorek, MA

    2013-01-01

    Aims The ability of dietary enrichment with monounsaturated (MUFA), n-3, or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to reverse glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction resulting from excessive dietary saturated fatty acids is not resolved. We hypothesized that partial replacement of dietary saturated fats with n-3 PUFA enriched menhaden oil (MO) would provide greater improvement in glucose tolerance and vascular function compared to n-6 enriched safflower oil (SO) or MUFA-enriched olive oil (OO). Material and Methods We fed mice a high saturated fat diet (60% kcal from lard) for 12 weeks before substituting half the lard with MO, SO or OO for an additional 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, we assessed glucose tolerance, insulin signaling and reactivity of isolated pressurized gracilis arteries. Results After 12 weeks of saturated fat diet, body weights were elevated and glucose tolerance abnormal compared to mice on control diet (13% kcal lard). Diet substituted with MO restored basal glucose levels, glucose tolerance, and indices of insulin signaling (phosphorylated Akt) to normal whereas restoration was limited for SO and OO substitutions. Although dilation to acetylcholine was reduced in arteries from mice on HF, OO and SO diets compared to normal diet, dilation to acetylcholine was fully restored and constriction to phenylephrine reduced in MO fed mice compared to normal. Conclusion We conclude that short term enrichment of an ongoing high fat diet with n-3 PUFA rich MO but not MUFA rich OO or n-6 PUFA rich SO reverses glucose tolerance, insulin signaling, and vascular dysfunction. PMID:22950668

  6. Genetic variation in the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) (G1359A polymorphism) and their influence on anthropometric parameters and metabolic parameters under a high monounsaturated vs. high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocio; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz

    2013-08-01

    An intragenic polymorphism (1359 G/A) of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene was reported as a common polymorphism in Caucasian populations (rs1049353). Intervention studies with this polymorphism have yield contradictories results. We decide to investigate the role of polymorphism (G1359A) of (CNR1) gene on metabolic parameters and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat and high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. A population of 258 obese subjects was analyzed in a randomized trial. A nutritional evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of a 3-month period in which subjects received 1 of 2 diets (diet M: high monounsaturated fat diet vs diet P: high polyunsaturated fat diet). One hundred and sixty five patients (63.9%) had the genotype G1359G and 93 (36.1%) patients (A allele carriers) had G1359A (78 patients,30.3%) or A1359A (15 patients,5.8%) genotypes. In subjects with both genotypes, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressures decreased with both diets. With the diet-type M and in both genotype groups, biochemical parameters remained unchanged. After the diet type P and in subjects with both genotypes, glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels decreased. In G1359G genotype subjects after both diets, leptin levels decreased. The finding of this study is the association of the A allele with a lack of improvement on leptin levels. Subjects with both genotypes and after a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet showed a significant improvement of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR and insulin levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal intake of high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet during pregnancy causes transgenerational increase in mammary cancer risk in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen M; de Oliveira Andrade, Fabia; Jin, Lu; Zhang, Xiyuan; Macon, Madisa; Cruz, M Idalia; Benitez, Carlos; Wehrenberg, Bryan; Yin, Chao; Wang, Xiao; Xuan, Jianhua; de Assis, Sonia; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2017-07-03

    Maternal and paternal high-fat (HF) diet intake before and/or during pregnancy increases mammary cancer risk in several preclinical models. We studied if maternal consumption of a HF diet that began at a time when the fetal primordial germ cells travel to the genital ridge and start differentiating into germ cells would result in a transgenerational inheritance of increased mammary cancer risk. Pregnant C57BL/6NTac mouse dams were fed either a control AIN93G or isocaloric HF diet composed of corn oil high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids between gestational days 10 and 20. Offspring in subsequent F1-F3 generations were fed only the control diet. Mammary tumor incidence induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was significantly higher in F1 (p pregnancy induces a transgenerational increase in offspring mammary cancer risk in mice. The mechanisms of inheritance in the F3 generation may be different from the F1 generation because significantly more changes were seen in the transcriptome.

  8. Genetic variation in the beta 3-adrenoreceptor gene (Trp64Arg polymorphism) and its influence on anthropometric parameters and insulin resistance under a high monounsaturated versus a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Conde, R; Eiros Bouza, J M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the role of Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor (beta 3-AR) gene on metabolic changes and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat versus a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. A population of 260 obese subjects was analyzed. In the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated for 3 months to either diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) or diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). There were no significant differences between the positive effects (on weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass) in either genotype group with both diets. With diet P and in genotype Trp64Trp, glucose levels (-6.7 ± 12.1 vs. -1.2 ± 2.2 mg/dl; p hypocaloric diets is greatest in subjects with the normal homozygous beta 3-AR gene. Improvements in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and HOMA-R levels were better than in the heterozygous group. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, B.R.; Hernandez Rodas, M.C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincon Cervera, M.A.; Romero, N.; Barrera Vazquez, C.; Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, B.A.

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group) were fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day). The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. Supplementation with EVOO mitigated the increase in fat and oxidative stress produced by HFD in the liver, along with a normalization of LCPUFA levels in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. It is proposed that EVOO supplementation protects against fat accumulation, and oxidative stress and normalizes n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA depletion induced in mice fed a HFD. (Author)

  10. Role of G308 promoter variant of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene on weight loss and metabolic parameters after a high monounsaturated versus a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel A; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa

    2013-09-07

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of G-308 promoter variant of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha gene on metabolic changes and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. A sample of 261 obese subjects were enrolled in a consecutive prospective way, from May 2011 to July 2012 in a tertiary hospital. In the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated during 3 months to Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) and Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). One hundred and ninety seven patients (73.2%) had the genotype G-308G and 64 (26.8%) patients had the genotype G-308A. There were no significant differences between the effects (on weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass) in either genotype group with both diets. With the diet type P and in genotype G-308G, glucose levels (-6.7(22.1)mg/dl vs -3.7(2.2)mg/dl: p = 0.02), HOMA-R (-0.6(2.1)units vs -0.26(3.1)units: p = 0.01), insulin levels (-1.7(6.6)UI/L vs -0.6(7.1)UI/L: p = 0.009), total cholesterol levels (-15.3(31.1)mg/dl vs -8.4(22.1)mg/dl: p = 0.01), LDL cholesterol levels (-10.7(28.1)mg/dl vs -3.8(21.1)mg/dl: p = 0.008) and triglycerides (-12.1(52.1)mg/dl vs -6.6(43.1)mg/dl: p = 0.02) decreased. Carriers of the G-308G promoter variant of TNF alpha gene have a better metabolic response than A-308 obese with a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Mouse models: the ketogenic diet and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Literature on the anticonvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) in mouse seizure models is summarized. Recent data show that a KD balanced in vitamin, mineral, and antioxidant content is anticonvulsant in mice, confirming that the KD's effect in mice can be attributed to the composition of the diet and not other dietary factors. Given that the anticonvulsant mechanism of the KD is still unknown, the anticonvulsant profile of the diet in different seizure models may help to decipher this mechanism. The implications of the findings that the KD is anticonvulsant in electrical seizure models are indicated. Further, the potential involvement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the KD's anticonvulsant mechanism is discussed.

  12. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  13. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  15. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  16. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  17. Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Echeverria, Francisca; Ortiz, Macarena; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Illesca, Paola; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2017-04-11

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant, has an important cytoprotective effects in different cells and tissues. Male mice C57BL/6 J were fed a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or a HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 weeks. Animals were daily supplemented with saline (CD) or 5 mg HT (HFD), and blood and the studied tissues were analyzed after the HT intervention. Parameters studied included liver histology (optical microscopy), activity of hepatic desaturases 5 and 6 (gas-liquid chromatography of methyl esters derivatives) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase by spectrophotometry), oxidative stress indicators (glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactants, and the antioxidant capacity of plasma), gene expression assays for sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) (qPCR and ELISA), and LCPUFA profiles in liver, erythrocyte, brain, heart, and testicle (gas-liquid chromatography). HFD led to insulin resistance and liver steatosis associated with SREBP-1c upregulation, with enhancement in plasma and liver oxidative stress status and diminution in the synthesis and storage of n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs in the studied tissues, compared to animals given control diet. HT supplementation significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and plasma as well as tissue metabolic alterations induced by HFD. Furthermore, a normalization of desaturase activities

  18. Effect of fatty acid-binding protein 2 Ala54Thr genotype on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; Sagrado, Manuel Gonzalez; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Conde, Rosa; Primo, David

    2012-12-01

    It has been found that the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 2 messenger RNA is under dietary control. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 gene on weight loss and secondarily in cardiovascular risk factors and serum adipokine after an enriched polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A sample of 111 obese patients was analyzed. The enriched polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet during 3 months' intervention consisted of 1459 kcal, 45.7% carbohydrates, 34.4% lipids, and 19.9% proteins. The distribution of fats was as follows: 21.8% saturated fats, 55.5% monounsaturated fats, and 22.7% polyunsaturated fats. Level of significance was P fat mass (-3.1 ± 3.5 kg), and waist circumference (-3.3 ± 2.1 cm) decreased. In carriers of the Thr54 allele, body mass index (-1.9 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), weight (- 4.7 ± 1.4 kg), and waist circumference (-3.9 ± 3.7 cm) decreased. These changes were significantly higher in the carriers of the Thr54 allele than noncarriers. Only in the carriers of Thr54 allele, total cholesterol levels (-11.4 ± 20.6 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (-5.4 ± 10.6 mg/dL), insulin (-2.6 ± 3.4 MUI/L), and the level of homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity (-0.9 ± 1.7 U) decreased. Carriers of Thr54 allele have a better metabolic response than obese carriers with Ala54Ala genotype, with a decrease of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin levels, leptin levels, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity.

  19. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-11-07

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  1. Hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet in Wistar rats

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    Idália M. B. Burlamaqui

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by lipid deposits in the hepatocytes and has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemia and type-2 diabetes. It is considered a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, of which the main component is insulin resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia and increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Saturated fat promotes hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia, reduces levels of high-density cholesterol and increases levels of low-density cholesterol, while polyunsaturated fat is associated with hypolipidemic, antiinflammatory and imunoregulating action. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich diet in Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty-two rats were distributed equally in two groups: GI - standard diet (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos® providing 3.000 kcal/kg and GII - hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet providing 4.250 kcal/kg (ω-6:ω-3 = 3:1. The animals were euthanized after 23 weeks of experiment. The weight, biochemical parameters and hepatohistological changes were registered. RESULTS: Findings were submitted to variance analysis with the level of statistical significance at 5%. The average weight did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline (P = 0.711, but was greater in Group II by the end of the experiment (P = 0.000. The levels of triglycerides (P = 0.039, total cholesterol (P = 0.015 and HDL (P = 0.005 were higher in Group I than in Group II. Macrovesicular steatosis was significantly more common in Group II than in Group I (P = 0.03. CONCLUSION: Hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet rich in polyunsaturated fat promotes weight gain and favors the development of hepatic steatosis while reducing serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL.

  2. Comparison of inferred fractions of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in feral domestic cat diets with those in commercial feline extruded diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Robert C; Thomas, David G; Fritsche, Kevin L

    2013-04-01

    To compare presumed fatty acid content in natural diets of feral domestic cats (inferred from body fat polyunsatrated fatty acids content) with polyunsaturated fatty acid content of commercial feline extruded diets. Subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue samples (approx 1 g) from previously frozen cadavers of 7 adult feral domestic cats trapped in habitats remote from human activity and triplicate samples (200 g each) of 7 commercial extruded diets representing 68% of market share obtained from retail stores. Lipid, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid fractions in adipose tissue samples and ether extracts of diet samples were determined by gas chromatography of methyl esters. Triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions in the adipose tissue were isolated by thin-layer chromatography. Diet samples were also analyzed for proximate contents. For the adipose tissue samples, with few exceptions, fatty acids fractions varied only moderately with lipid fraction and site from which tissue samples were obtained. Linoleic, α-linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid fractions were 15.0% to 28.2%, 4.5% to 18.7%, 0.9% to 5.0%, feral cat diets, in which dietary n-3 and possibly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were more abundant. The impact of this difference on the health of pet cats is not known.

  3. The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on diet induced obesity and impaired glucose control do not require Gpr120.

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    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available GPR120 (Ffar4 has been postulated to represent an important receptor mediating the improved metabolic profile seen upon ingestion of a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. GPR120 is highly expressed in the digestive system, adipose tissue, lung and macrophages and also present in the endocrine pancreas. A new Gpr120 deficient mouse model on pure C57bl/6N background was developed to investigate the importance of the receptor for long-term feeding with a diet enriched with fish oil. Male Gpr120 deficient mice were fed two different high fat diets (HFDs for 18 weeks. The diets contained lipids that were mainly saturated (SAT or mainly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Body composition, as well as glucose, lipid and energy metabolism, was studied. As expected, wild type mice fed the PUFA HFD gained less body weight and had lower body fat mass, hepatic lipid levels, plasma cholesterol and insulin levels and better glucose tolerance as compared to those fed the SAT HFD. Gpr120 deficient mice showed a similar improvement on the PUFA HFD as was observed for wild type mice. If anything, the Gpr120 deficient mice responded better to the PUFA HFD as compared to wild type mice with respect to liver fat content, plasma glucose levels and islet morphology. Gpr120 deficient animals were found to have similar energy, glucose and lipid metabolism when fed HFD PUFA compared to wild type mice. Therefore, GPR120 appears to be dispensable for the improved metabolic profile associated with intake of a diet enriched in n-3 PUFA fatty acids.

  4. Impact of diesel exhaust exposure on the liver of mice fed on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Masakazu; Nakamura, Masayuki; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf A; Onoda, Atsuto; Shaheen, Hazem M; Hori, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Yusuke; El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Far, Ali H; Takeda, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) exacerbates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and may systemically affect lipid metabolism. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have anti-inflammatory activity and suppresses hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation, but many daily diets are deficient in this nutrient. Therefore, the effect of DE exposure in mice fed n-3 PUFA-deficient diet was investigated. Mice were fed control chow or n-3 PUFA-deficient diet for 4 weeks, then exposed to clean air or DE by inhalation for further 4 weeks. Liver histology, plasma parameters, and expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes were evaluated. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet increased hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and expression of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis: Acaca, Acacb, and Scd1. DE further increased the plasma leptin and the expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes: Acacb, Fasn, and Scd1. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet and DE exposure potentially enhanced hepatic fatty acid synthesis and subsequently accumulation of lipid droplets. The combination of low-dose DE exposure and intake of n-3 PUFA-deficient diet may be an additional risk factor for the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The present study suggests an important mechanism for preventing toxicity of DE on the liver through the incorporation of n-3 PUFAs in the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems of mouse brain are modulated by LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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    Fernández-Fernández, Laura; Esteban, Gerard; Giralt, Mercedes; Valente, Tony; Bolea, Irene; Solé, Montse; Sun, Ping; Benítez, Susana; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Hidalgo, Juan; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    The possible modulatory effect of the functional LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition decline during aging has been studied. 129S1/SvlmJ mice were fed for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days with either LMN or control diets. The enzymes involved in catecholaminergic and cholinergic metabolism were determined by both immunohistological and western blot analyses. Noradrenalin, dopamine and other metabolites were quantified by HPLC analysis. Theobromine, present in cocoa, the main LMN diet component, was analysed in parallel using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines. An enhanced modulatory effect on both cholinergic and catecholaminergic transmissions was observed on 20 day fed mice. Similar effect was observed with theobromine, besides its antioxidant capacity inducing SOD-1 and GPx expression. The enhancing effect of the LMN diet and theobromine on the levels of acetylcholine-related enzymes, dopamine and specially noradrenalin confirms the beneficial role of this diet on the "cognitive reserve" and hence a possible reducing effect on cognitive decline underlying aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  6. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  7. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in diet of patients with rheumatic diseases

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    P. Spinella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been widely described in the literature in particular those on cardiovascular system. In the last decade there has been an increased interest in the role of these nutrients in the reduction of articular inflammation as well as in the improvement of clinical symptoms in subjects affected by rheumatic diseases, in particular rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Nutritional supplementation with ω-3 may represent an additional therapy to the traditional pharmacological treatment due to the anti-inflammatory properties which characterize this class of lipids: production of alternative eicosanoids, reduction of inflammatory cytochines, reduction of T-lymphocytes activation, reduction of catabolic enzymes activity. The encouraging results of dietetic therapy based on ω- 3 in RA are leading researchers to test their effectiveness on patients with other rheumatic conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and ankylosing spondylitis. Nutritional therapy based on food rich in ω-3 or on supplementation with fish oil capsules, proved to be a valid support to he treatment of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  8. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

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    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Immune dysfunction and increased oxidative stress state in diet-induced obese mice are reverted by nutritional supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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    Hunsche, Caroline; Hernandez, Oskarina; Gheorghe, Alina; Díaz, Ligia Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2018-04-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired immune defences and chronic low levels of inflammation and oxidation. In addition, this condition may lead to premature aging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a nutritional supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on several functions and oxidative stress parameters in peritoneal immune cells of obese mice, as well as on the life span of these animals. Obesity was induced in adult female ICR/CD1 by the administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. During the last 6 weeks of HFD feeding, one group of obese mice received the same HFD, supplemented with 1500 mg of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) and another with 3000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Several functions and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes were evaluated. The groups of obese mice treated with 2-OHOA or with EPA and DHA showed a significant improvement in several functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, digestion capacity, Natural killer activity and lymphoproliferation in response to mitogens. All of these functions, which were decreased in obese mice, increased reaching similar levels to those found in non-obese controls. Both treatments also improved oxidative stress parameters such as xanthine oxidase activity, which decreased, catalase activity and glutathione levels, which increased. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could be an effective nutritional intervention to restore the immune response and oxidative stress state, which are impaired in obese mice.

  10. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the pancreatic β-cells and insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Mideksa, Seifu; Ambachew, Sintayehu

    2018-03-14

    Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent cytokine-induced cell death in pancreatic islets. Supplementation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids for human subjects prevent beta cell destruction and insulin resistance. It also enhances insulin secretion, reduction in lipid profiles and glucose concentration particularly in type II diabetes patients. Therefore there should be a focus on the treatment mechanism of insulin related obesity and diabetes by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and ursodeoxycholic acid have an additive effect in attenuating diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Kwan Sik; Lee, Dong Ki; Lee, Su Yeon; Chang, Hye Young; Choi, Junjeong; Lee, Jung Il

    2014-12-19

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can progress into liver cirrhosis; however, no definite treatment is available. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3) has been reported to alleviate experimental NASH, although its beneficial effect was not evident when tested clinically. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the additive effect of omega-3 and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on diet-induced NASH in mice. C57BL/6 mice were given a high-fat diet (HFD) for 24 weeks, at which point the mice were divided into three groups and fed HFD alone, HFD with omega-3 or HFD with omega-3 in combination with UDCA for another 24 weeks. Feeding mice an HFD and administering omega-3 improved histologically assessed liver fibrosis, and UDCA in combination with omega-3 further attenuated this disease. The assessment of collagen α1(I) expression agreed with the histological evaluation. Omega-3 in combination with UDCA resulted in a significant attenuation of inflammation whereas administering omega-3 alone failed to improve histologically assessed liver inflammation. Quantitative analysis of tumor necrosis factor α showed an additive effect of omega-3 and UDCA on liver inflammation. HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was attenuated by omega-3 and adding UDCA accentuated this effect. In accordance with this result, the expression of sterol regulatory binding protein-1c decreased after omega-3 administration and adding UDCA further diminished SREBP-1c expression. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which may reflect oxidative stress-induced tissue damage, was suppressed by omega-3 administration and adding UDCA further attenuated iNOS expression. These results demonstrated an additive effect of omega-3 and UDCA for alleviating fibrosis, inflammation and steatosis in diet-induced NASH.

  12. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  13. Effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diets on lipid metabolism in periportal and pericentral compartments of female rat liver lobules and the consequences for cell proliferation after partial hepatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of a low fat diet or diets enriched with either n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (safflower or fish oil, respectively) on lipid metabolism in periportal and pericentral zones of female rat liver lobules were investigated in relation with cell proliferation after partial

  14. An Interaction of the Pre- and Post-Weaning Diets Rich in Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fats Alters Plasma Lipids, Hepatic Gene Expression and Aortic Vascular Reactivity in Adult 057Bl/6 Mice

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    Kanta Chechi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of diets rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA fed during pre- and post-weaning time periods on the lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity in adult C57Bl/6 mice, in order to assess the impact of maternal nutrition and its interaction with the offspring diet on the metabolism of adult offspring. Methods Female C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet enriched with n-6 PUFA (P or control diet (C for 2-weeks before, during mating, gestation and lactation, while their pups received either P or C for 8-weeks post-weaning. Results A significant interaction between the maternal and post-weaning diets was observed for the offspring body weight, food-, caloric-intake, plasma lipids, hepatic mRNA expression of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, aortic contractile and relaxation responses ( P < 0.05. Conclusion The overall metabolic and physiological outcome in the offspring is dependent upon the interaction between the pre- and post-weaning dietary environments.

  15. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in adults on hemodialysis: The DIET-HD multinational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglimbene, Valeria M; Wong, Germaine; Ruospo, Marinella; Palmer, Suetonia C; Campbell, Katrina; Larsen, Vanessa Garcia; Natale, Patrizia; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Stenvinkel, Peter; Gargano, Letizia; Murgo, Angelo M; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Gelfman, Rubén; Celia, Eduardo; Ecder, Tevfik; Bernat, Amparo G; Del Castillo, Domingo; Timofte, Delia; Török, Marietta; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Duława, Jan; Stroumza, Paul; Hoischen, Susanne; Hansis, Martin; Fabricius, Elisabeth; Wollheim, Charlotta; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2017-12-06

    Patients on hemodialysis suffer from high risk of premature death, which is largely attributed to cardiovascular disease, but interventions targeting traditional cardiovascular risk factors have made little or no difference. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are putative candidates to reduce cardiovascular disease. Diets rich in n-3 PUFA are recommended in the general population, although their role in the hemodialysis setting is uncertain. We evaluated the association between the dietary intake of n-3 PUFA and mortality for hemodialysis patients. The DIET-HD study is a prospective cohort study (January 2014-June 2017) in 9757 adults treated with hemodialysis in Europe and South America. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was measured at baseline using the GA 2 LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted Cox regression analyses clustered by country were conducted to evaluate the association of dietary n-3 PUFA intake with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. During a median follow up of 2.7 years (18,666 person-years), 2087 deaths were recorded, including 829 attributable to cardiovascular causes. One third of the study participants consumed sufficient (at least 1.75 g/week) n-3 PUFA recommended for primary cardiovascular prevention, and less than 10% recommended for secondary prevention (7-14 g/week). Compared to patients with the lowest tertile of dietary n-3 PUFA intake (<0.37 g/week), the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular mortality for patients in the middle (0.37 to <1.8 g/week) and highest (≥1.8 g/week) tertiles of n-3 PUFA were 0.82 (0.69-0.98) and 1.03 (0.84-1.26), respectively. Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.96 (0.86-1.08) and 1.00 (0.88-1.13), respectively. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in patients on hemodialysis. As dietary n-3 PUFA intake was low, the possibility that n-3 PUFA supplementation might mitigate

  16. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA

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    Williams Jim E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.

  17. Brain histological changes in young mice submitted to diets with different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids during maternal pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunyu; Fan, Chaonan; Liu, Xinli; Xu, Feng; Qi, Kemin

    2011-10-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are essential for brain development and function, but the appropriate quantity of dietary n-3 PUFAs and ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs have not been clearly determined. In this study, we investigated the effects of different dietary ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFAs on the brain structural development in mice and the expression of associated transcription factors. C57 BL/6J mice were fed with one of two categories of n-3 PUFA-containing diets (a flaxseed oil diet and a flaxseed/fish oil mixed diet) or an n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. For each of the n-3 PUFA diets, flaxseed oil or flaxseed/fish oil was combined with other oils to yield three different n-6/n-3 ratios, which ranged from 15.7:1 to 1.6:1. The feeding regimens began two months before mouse conception and continued throughout lactation for new pups. As compared with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet, both the flaxseed oil n-3 PUFA diets and the flaxseed/fish oil n-3 PUFA diets significantly increased the expression levels of brain neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein, somewhat dose-dependently, in new pup mice at 21 d and 42 d of age. The expression of PPAR-γ in the brains of pup mice was increased only at 7 d of age with the n-3 PUFA diet, and no changes in the expression of PPAR-α and PPAR-β were found among all the diet groups. These results suggest that the higher intake amount of n-3 PUFAs with a low ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs at about 1-2:1, supplied during both maternal pregnancy and lactation, may be more beneficial for early brain development, and PPAR-γ may act in one of the pathways by which n-3 PUFAs promote early brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

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    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

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    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  20. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

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    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  1. Study on the Efficiency of Grape Seed Meals Used as Antioxidants in Layer Diets Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Compared with Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Olteanu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The 4-week study was conducted with 180 Lohmann Brown layers (52 weeks of age. The layers were assigned to three groups (C, E1 and E2. The basal diet (group C consisted mainly of corn, soybean meal and corn gluten, and contained 19% crude protein and 11.58 MJ/kg metabolizable energy. The diets for groups E1 and E2 differed from group C by the inclusion of 5% flax meal and of dietary antioxidants. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in the fat of E1 and E2 diets was almost 10 times higher than in group C. E1 diet was supplemented with vitamin E (100 mg/kg feed, DM, while E2 diet was supplemented with 2% grape seed meal (polyphenols: 630.890 µg gallic acid equivalents/g sample; flavonoids: 5.065 µg rutin equivalents/g sample; antioxidant capacity: 28.468 mM trolox equivalents/g sample. The antioxidant capacity of E2 was higher than in C, but lower than in E1. Haugh units of the eggs (18 eggs/group harvested during the last experimental week were not significantly different among groups. The ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs ratio in the fat from the eggs was 4.46 ± 0.11 (E1 and 4.52 ± 0.21 (E2, three times lower (p<0.05 than the control group (14.70 ± 0.43. In group E1 in particular, but also in group E2, the concentration of total polyphenols in the egg yolk was higher (p<0.05 than in group C.

  2. Diets Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Different Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio Decrease Liver Content of Saturated Fatty Acids Across Generations of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Halfen

    Full Text Available Our study evaluated how the consumption of diets with low (LOW group - 0.4/1 or high (CON group - 13.6/1 omega-6/omega-3 ratio across generations (F1 and F2 can modulate liver fatty acid (FA profile and blood biomarkers. Liver content of α-linolenic acid was higher in animals always fed with LOW diet than animals that changed from CON to LOW diet, which by your time was higher than animals always fed with CON diet. Liver saturated FA concentration decreased in both groups from F1 to F2. In conclusion, both diets were efficient in decreasing the saturated FA liver content across generations, the LOW ratio diet was more effective in reducing blood triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, and there was a multigenerational effect of the LOW ratio diet, improving the FA profile even when the offspring start receiving the CON diet.

  3. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 on polycystic ovary syndrome induced rats under diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Ouladsahebmadarek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (12–45 years old. It is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility. This study aimed to confirm the role of nutrition containing omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acid on control of experimental PCO induced by estradiol-valerat in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats (n=40 were allocated into control (n=10 and test groups (n= 30, test group was subdivided into 3 groups: G1, received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily; G2 and G3 groups were induced PCO by single injection of estradiol-valerate (16 mg/kg/IM. Group 3 received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily and low carbohydrate feeding for 60 subsequent days; on sixtieth day 5 ml blood samples and ovarian tissues of all rats in the group were removed and prepared for biochemical and hormonal analysis. Results: Catalase, GPX (Glutathione peroxidase, SOD (Superoxide dismutase in groups that received omega-3showed higher levels, but MDA (malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased (P

  4. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  5. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

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    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  6. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Santi, Lorena Gimenez; Antunes, Marina Masetto; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Carbonera, Fabiana; Masi, Laureane Nunes; Curi, Rui; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2016-10-29

    Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets), and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ∆-6 desaturase (D6D), elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ( n -6/ n -3) ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA) composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  7. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults

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    Jowy Yi Hoong Seah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n − 6 status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n − 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n − 6 is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n − 6, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n − 3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n − 3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n − 3 concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population.

  8. Sources of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the diet and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jussara C; Zelmanovitz, Themis; Vaz, Juliana S; Steemburgo, Thais; Perassolo, Magda S; Gross, Jorge L; Azevedo, Mirela J

    2008-10-01

    Albuminuria excretion rate above the reference range and below albustix positive proteinuria (20-199 microg/min) is known as microalbuminuria and has been associated with an increased risk of death and progression to renal failure. Besides hyperglicemia and high blood pressure levels, dietary factors can also influence albuminuria. To evaluate possible associations of dietary components (macronutrients and selected foods) with microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. In this cross-sectional study, 119 normoalbuminuric [NORMO; 24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE) protein (20.5 +/- 4.4 vs. 19.0 +/- 3.5% of total energy; p = 0.01) with a higher intake from animal sources (14.5 +/- 4.7 vs. 12.9 +/- 3.8% of total energy; p = 0.015) than NORMO patients. The intakes of PUFAs (8.6 +/- 2.9 vs. 9.7 +/- 3.3% of total energy; p vegetable sources (7.3 +/- 3.4 vs. 8.6 +/- 3.7% of total energy; p = 0.029), plant oils [0.2 (0.1-0.6) vs. 0.3 (0.1-0.9) mg/kg weight; p = 0.02] and margarines [3.3 (0-75.7) vs. 7.0 (0-51.7) g/day; p = 0.01] were lower in MICRO than in NORMO. In multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, presence of hypertension and fasting plasma glucose, intake of total protein (% of total energy; OR 1.104; 95% CI 1.008-1.208; p = 0.032) was positively associated with microalbuminuria. The intakes of total PUFAs (% of total energy; OR 0.855; 95%CI 0.762-0.961; p = 0.008), PUFAs from vegetable sources (% of total energy; OR 0.874; 95%CI 0.787-0.971; p = 0.012) and plant oils (mg/kg weight; OR 0.036; 95% CI 0.003-0.522; p = 0.015) were negatively associated with microalbuminuria. In type 2 diabetic patients, the high intake of protein and the low intake of PUFAs, particularly from plant oils, were associated with the presence of microalbuminuria. Reducing protein intake from animal sources and increasing the intake of lipids from vegetable origin might-reduce the risk of microalbuminuria.

  9. High-Protein Diets and Renal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets (i.e., protein content of more than 25% of energy or more than 2 g/kg body weight per day) based on meat and dairy products are repeatedly promoted for weight reduction and better health, but the evidence supporting these notions is quite dubious. As described in the present...... in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the general population without preexisting kidney disease. Accordingly, we find medical reasons to refrain from promoting high-protein diets, in particular those based on meat and dairy products, until clear-cut evidence for the safety and for the superiority...... review, there is a reason to be concerned about adverse effects of such diets, including glomerular hyperfiltration, hypertensive effects of a concomitant increase in dietary sodium, and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis. These diet-induced physiological consequences might lead to an increase...

  10. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  14. A high diet quality is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular events in the Malmö diet and cancer cohort.

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    Joanna Hlebowicz

    Full Text Available To investigate if diet quality is related to incidence of cardiovascular (CV events.A diet quality index based on the 2005 Swedish Nutrition Recommendations and the Swedish Dietary Guidelines was created and included six dietary components: saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish and shellfish, dietary fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. The index ranked 17126 participants (59% women of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (Sweden on their dietary intakes. Total index score was categorized as low, medium or high. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model associations between index score categories and index components with risk of incident CV events, with adjustment for potential confounders. The incidence of first CV events (non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke or death from ischemic heart disease was monitored from baseline (1991-1996 until December 31, 2008; 703 CV events occurred in women and 1093 in men.A high diet quality was associated with decreased risk of CV events when compared to a low diet quality. In multivariate analysis, the risk reduction was 32% (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.73 in men and 27% (hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.91 in women. When examined separately and mutually adjusted for each other, the individual components were either not associated with CV risk or marginally decreased risks were seen.High quality diets in line with current recommendations may reduce the risk of CV events. This study illustrates the importance of considering a combination of dietary factors when evaluating diet-disease associations.

  15. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Ru; Chen, Pei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yang, Chueh-Lien; Tsao, Ya-Tzu; Chang, Wen; Hsieh, I-Shan; Chern, Yijuang; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT) gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17%) restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories) than in mice (~22%). We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein) for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein) for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378) in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression. PMID:25992839

  16. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17% restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories than in mice (~22%. We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378 in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  17. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  18. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO] on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  19. Effect of low-carbohydrate diets high in either fat or protein on thyroid function, plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Peters, P J; Albrink, M J

    1985-01-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet, frequently used for treatment of reactive hypoglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity may affect thyroid function. We studied the effects of replacing the deleted carbohydrate with either fat or protein in seven healthy young adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive seven days of each of two isocaloric liquid-formula, low-carbohydrate diets consecutively. One diet was high in polyunsaturated fat (HF), with 10%, 55%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate, respectively. The other was high in protein (HP) with 35%, 30%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and on day 8 of each diet. A meal tolerance test representative of each diet was given on day 7. The triiodothyronine (T3) declined more (P less than .05) following the HF diet than the HP diet (baseline 198 micrograms/dl, HP 138, HF 113). Thyroxine (T4) and reverse T3 (rT3) did not change significantly. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) declined equally after both diets. The insulin level was significantly higher 30 minutes after the HP meal (148 microU/ml) than after the HF meal (90 microU/ml). The two-hour glucose level for the HP meal was less, 85 mg/dl, than after the HF meal (103 mg/dl). Serum triglycerides decreased more after the HF diet (HF 52 mg/dl, HP 67 mg/dl). Apparent benefits of replacing carbohydrate with polyunsaturated fat rather than protein are less insulin response and less postpeak decrease in blood glucose and lower triglycerides. The significance of the lower T3 level is unknown.

  20. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  1. ADDITION POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN THE DIET INCREASES THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF FOLLICLES IN COWS FED UNDER TROPICAL GRAZING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cansino-Arroyo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was determined the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS on the number and follicular size in cows fed under tropical grazing during the dry season and rainy season. Using a group of cows PUFAS (GA, dry: n=9 and rain: n=13 maintained under grazing continuo, which received a nutritional supplement, with the addition of 5 % of PUFAS in the supplement. A second control group (GT; dry: n=13 and rain: n=9, kept in the same conditions as the previous group, without PUFAS. The number of follicles was greater during the rainy season than during dry (P=0.0001. Cows GT nutritional supplement did not improve the number of follicles between 2 times (P ≥ 0.7. However, the addition of PUFAS to supplement increases the number of follicles during the rainy season (P=0.002. Otherwise, when the cows were ovulation hormonally stimulated are not noted an increase in the number of follicles in cows with or without PUFAS in the supplement. With these results, we can conclude that the number of follicles is affected by perceived conditions, besides that addition of PUFAS increases the number of follicles during the rainy season in tropical grazing cows.

  2. Increased fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in sow gestation diet has no effect on gene expression in progeny during the first 7 days of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, de Astrid; Bikker, P.; Smit-Heinsbroek, A.; Bruininx, E.; Zwolschen, H.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Zetteler, P.; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The ‘developmental origins of health and disease’ hypothesis proposes not only that we are what we eat, but also that we could be what our parents ate. Here, we aimed to improve health and performance of young piglets via maternal diets based on the hypothesis that maternal nutritional interventions

  3. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  4. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  5. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Navas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Methods: Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Results: Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD. Keywords: Obesity, N43, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Central nervous system, Western diet, ω6-fatty acids

  6. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet; soybean oil (S; lard (L; and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H. We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver.

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects differential lipid composition in mammary glands on low fat, high animal fat versus high fructose diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianning He

    Full Text Available The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1 SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12 were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD, high animal fat diet (HAFD, and high fructose diet (HFruD. MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9.4 T scanner after 8 weeks on the diet. 1H spectra were acquired using point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS from two 1 mm3 boxes on each side of inguinal mammary gland with no cancers, lymph nodes, or lymph ducts. High spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS images were also acquired from nine 1-mm slices. A combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions was used to fit the spectra. The percentages of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, and saturated fatty acids (SFA were calculated from each fitted spectrum. Water and fat peak height images (maps were generated from HiSS data. The results showed that HAFD mice had significantly lower PUFA than both LFD (p < 0.001 and HFruD (p < 0.01 mice. The mammary lipid quantity calculated from 1H spectra was much larger in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.03 but similar to HFruD mice (p = 0.10. The average fat signal intensity over the mammary glands calculated from HiSS fat maps was ~60% higher in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.04 mice. The mean or median of calculated parameters for the HFruD mice were between those for LFD and HAFD mice. Therefore, PRESS spectroscopy and HiSS MRI demonstrated water and fat composition changes in mammary glands due to a Western diet, which was low in potassium, high in sodium, animal fat, and simple carbohydrates. Measurements of PUFA with MRI could be used to evaluate cancer risk, improve cancer detection and diagnosis, and guide preventative

  8. Effects of a high fat or a balanced omega 3/omega 6 diet on cytokines levels and DNA damage in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Barros, Karina; Gomes de Abreu, Gilclay; Xavier, Roberta Araujo Navarro; Real Martinez, Carlos Augusto; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Silveira, Vera Lúcia Flor

    2011-02-01

    High-fat diets have been shown to be a risk factor for ulcerative colitis (UC). Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to increase lipid peroxidation, while the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid exerts a chemopreventative effect. We evaluated the effect of high-fat diets (20%) enriched with fish or soybean oil on colonic inflammation and DNA damage in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Male Wistar rats (28-30 days) were fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93 diet for 47 days and divided into five groups: control normal fat non-colitic (C) or control colitis (CC), high soybean fat group (HS) colitis, high fish fat group colitis, or high-fat soybean plus fish oil colitis. UC was induced from day 35 until day 41 by 3% dextran sulfate sodium. On day 47, the rats were anesthetized; blood samples collected for corticosterone determination, and the distal colon was excised to quantify interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, and interferon-gamma levels, myeloperoxidase activity, histological analyses, and DNA damage. The disease activity index was recorded daily. The disease activity index, histological analysis, myeloperoxidase activity, IL-4, interferon-gamma, and corticosterone levels did not differ among the colitic groups. IL-10 was significantly increased by the high fish fat group diet in relation to HS, but only the high soybean-fish fat diet increased the IL-10/IL-4 ratio (anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory) to levels closer to the C group and reduced DNA damage compared to the HS group (Pdiets did not exacerbate UC and suggest that the soybean and fish oil mixture, more than the fish oil alone, could be a complementary therapy to achieve a cytokine balance in UC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Morselli, Eugenia; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD) for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  10. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  11. Diet-induced hyperinsulinemia differentially affects glucose and protein metabolism: a high-throughput metabolomic approach in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, U; de la Garza, A L; Martínez, J A; Milagro, F I

    2013-09-01

    Metabolomics is a high-throughput tool that quantifies and identifies the complete set of biofluid metabolites. This "omics" science is playing an increasing role in understanding the mechanisms involved in disease progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether a nontargeted metabolomic approach could be applied to investigate metabolic differences between obese rats fed a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for 9 weeks and control diet-fed rats. Animals fed with the HFS diet became obese, hyperleptinemic, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and resistant to insulin. Serum samples of overnight-fasted animals were analyzed by (1)H NMR technique, and 49 metabolites were identified and quantified. The biochemical changes observed suggest that major metabolic processes like carbohydrate metabolism, β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, Kennedy pathway, and folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism were altered in obese rats. The circulating levels of most amino acids were lower in obese animals. Serum levels of docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, unsaturated n-6 fatty acids, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids also decreased in HFS-fed rats. The circulating levels of urea, six water-soluble metabolites (creatine, creatinine, choline, acetyl carnitine, formate, and allantoin), and two lipid compounds (phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelin) were also significantly reduced by the HFS diet intake. This study offers further insight of the possible mechanisms implicated in the development of diet-induced obesity. It suggests that the HFS diet-induced hyperinsulinemia is responsible for the decrease in the circulating levels of urea, creatinine, and many amino acids, despite an increase in serum glucose levels.

  12. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with

  13. High Endogenous Accumulation of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protect against Ischemia-Reperfusion Renal Injury through AMPK-Mediated Autophagy in Fat-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyeong Gwon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulated autophagy is involved in the repair of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. Fat-1 transgenic mice produce ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs from ω6-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω6-PUFAs without a dietary ω3-PUFAs supplement, leading to a high accumulation of omega-3 in various tissues. ω3-PUFAs show protective effects against various renal injuries and it has recently been reported that ω3-PUFAs regulate autophagy. We assessed whether ω3-PUFAs attenuated IR-induced acute kidney injury (AKI and evaluated its associated mechanisms. C57Bl/6 background fat-1 mice and wild-type mice (wt were divided into four groups: wt sham (n = 10, fat-1 sham (n = 10, wt IRI (reperfusion 35 min after clamping both the renal artery and vein; n = 15, and fat-1 IRI (n = 15. Kidneys and blood were harvested 24 h after IRI and renal histological and molecular data were collected. The kidneys of fat-1 mice showed better renal cell survival, renal function, and pathological damage than those of wt mice after IRI. In addition, fat-1 mice showed less oxidative stress and autophagy impairment; greater amounts of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II, Beclin-1, and Atg7; lower amounts of p62; and, higher levels of renal cathepsin D and ATP6E than wt kidneys. They also showed more adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation, which resulted in the inhibition of phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Collectively, ω3-PUFAs in fat-1 mice contributed to AMPK mediated autophagy activation, leading to a renoprotective response.

  14. High Endogenous Accumulation of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protect against Ischemia-Reperfusion Renal Injury through AMPK-Mediated Autophagy in Fat-1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Do Hyeong; Hwang, Tae Woong; Ro, Ju-Ye; Kang, Yoon-Joong; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Do-Kyung; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Dong Woon; Choi, Dae Eun; Kim, Jwa-Jin

    2017-09-30

    Regulated autophagy is involved in the repair of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Fat-1 transgenic mice produce ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) from ω6-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω6-PUFAs) without a dietary ω3-PUFAs supplement, leading to a high accumulation of omega-3 in various tissues. ω3-PUFAs show protective effects against various renal injuries and it has recently been reported that ω3-PUFAs regulate autophagy. We assessed whether ω3-PUFAs attenuated IR-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and evaluated its associated mechanisms. C57Bl/6 background fat-1 mice and wild-type mice (wt) were divided into four groups: wt sham ( n = 10), fat-1 sham ( n = 10), wt IRI (reperfusion 35 min after clamping both the renal artery and vein; n = 15), and fat-1 IRI ( n = 15). Kidneys and blood were harvested 24 h after IRI and renal histological and molecular data were collected. The kidneys of fat-1 mice showed better renal cell survival, renal function, and pathological damage than those of wt mice after IRI. In addition, fat-1 mice showed less oxidative stress and autophagy impairment; greater amounts of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II, Beclin-1, and Atg7; lower amounts of p62; and, higher levels of renal cathepsin D and ATP6E than wt kidneys. They also showed more adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which resulted in the inhibition of phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Collectively, ω3-PUFAs in fat-1 mice contributed to AMPK mediated autophagy activation, leading to a renoprotective response.

  15. Effects of high-fat diet exposure on learning & memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Zachary A; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2015-12-01

    The associations between consumption of a high-fat or 'Western' diet and metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have long been recognized and a great deal of evidence now suggests that diets high in fat can also have a profound impact on the brain, behavior, and cognition. Here, we will review the techniques most often used to assess learning and memory in rodent models and discuss findings from studies assessing the cognitive effects of high-fat diet consumption. The review will then consider potential underlying mechanisms in the brain and conclude by reviewing emerging literature suggesting that maternal consumption of a high-fat diet may have effects on the learning and memory of offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Polyunsaturated fats, carbohydrates and carotid disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Jennifer L; Qiao, Ye; Guallar, Eliseo; Steffen, Lyn M; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Zhang, Yiyi; Wasserman, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrates and fat intake have both been linked to development of atherosclerosis. We examined associations between glycemic index (GI) and fat intake with carotid atherosclerosis. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort enrolled participants during the period 1987-1989 and the Carotid MRI sub-study occurred between 2004 and 2006 (1672 participants attending both visits). Measures of carbohydrate quality (usual GI), fat intake (total, polyunsaturated and saturated) and overall dietary quality index (DASH Diet Score) were derived from a 66-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Trained readers measured lipid core presence and maximum wall thickness. Using multivariate logistic regression, we determined the odds of lipid core presence by quintile (Q) of energy-adjusted dietary components. Restricted cubic spline models were used to examine non-linear associations between dietary components and maximum wall thickness. Mean daily polyunsaturated fat intake was 5 g (SD 1.4). GI and polyunsaturated fat intake had a nonlinear relationship with maximum wall thickness. Low (1-4 g) and high (6-12 g) polyunsaturated fat intake were associated with a statistically significant decreased odds of lipid core presence compared to intake in a majority of participants (OR Q5 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.98; OR Q1 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42, 0.96), however, the association with lipid core was attenuated by adjustment for maximum wall thickness, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. GI and polyunsaturated fat intake were not associated with high-risk plaque features, such as lipid core presence, independent of traditional vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the liver response in young pigs to a high-fat diet (containing 25% animal fat) and diet restriction (equivalent to 60% of maintenance) using differential proteome analysis. The objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents...... to a high-fat diet and diet restriction-induced BW loss. The high-fat diet increased (P high-fat diet had normal glucose tolerance and liver lipid content despite a general increase (P ...-density lipoprotein decreased (P high-fat diet in young pigs is similar to that of humans in terms of increased fatty acid oxidation whereas the liver response to diet restriction is similar to humans...

  18. High-protein diets and renal status in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio, V. A.; Nebot, E.; García-del Moral, R.; Machado-Vílchez, M.; Porres, J. M.; Sánchez, C.; Aranda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: High-protein (HP) diets might affect renal status. We aimed to examine the effects of a HP diet on plasma, urinary and morphological renal parameters in rats. Material and methods: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 2 experimental groups with HP or normal-protein (NP) diets over 12 weeks. Results and discussion: Final body weight was a 10% lower in the HP group (p < 0.05) whereas we have not observed differences on food intake, carcass weight and muscle ashes conten...

  19. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  20. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Shweta; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  1. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  2. A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic response to chronic high-fat diet consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, E; Frank, A P; Palmer, B F; Rodriguez-Navas, C; Criollo, A; Clegg, D J

    2016-02-01

    In this review, we discuss the observations that, following chronic high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, male mice have higher levels of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and total sphingolipids, whereas lower amounts of polyunsaturated FAs in the central nervous system (CNS) than females. Furthermore, males, when compared with female mice, have higher levels of inflammatory markers in the hypothalamus following exposure to HFD. The increase in markers of inflammation in male mice is possibly due to the reductions in proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which is not recapitulated in female mice. Consistently, hypothalamic inflammation is induced both in male and female ERα total-body knockout mice when exposed to a HFD, thus confirming the key role of ERα in the regulation of HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation. Finally, the HFD-induced depletion of hypothalamic ERα is associated with dysregulation in metabolic homeostasis, as evidenced by reductions in glucose tolerance and decrements in myocardial function.

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  5. Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the environmental factors leading to inflammatory bowel disease should help to prevent occurrence of the disease and its relapses. Aim: To review current knowledge on dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: The PubMed, Medline and Cochrane...... Library were searched for studies on diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Results: Established non-diet risk factors include family predisposition, smoking, appendectomy, and antibiotics. Retrospective case–control studies are encumbered with methodological problems. Prospective studies...... on European cohorts, mainly including middle-aged adults, suggest that a diet high in protein from meat and fish is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid may confer risk of ulcerative colitis, whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  6. PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES OF TWO ITALIAN CROSSBRED PIGS FED HIGH ENERGY DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FORTINA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to compare the average daily gain (ADG, the carcass characteristics, and the meat and fat quality of 18 Italian crossbred pigs fed high energy diets formulated for improved genotypes (digestible energy: DE >14 MJ/kg DM. Nine “Fumati” crossbreds (Large White x Mora Romagnola; average initial live weight: 84 kg and nine “Borghigiana” (Large White x Nera di Parma; average initial live weight: 90 kg, reared under similar environmental and nutritional conditions, were slaughtered at the average final weight of 180 kg (285 days. Calculated dry matter intake (DMI and feed conversion index (FCI were similar; no significant differences were observed with respect to average daily gain (ADG: 679 vs. 658 g/d. At slaughtering, the dressing percentage of the Fumati was significantly lower than that of the Borghigiana (80.9 vs. 84.5. The Fumati seemed more prone to fattening than the Borghigiana, as confirmed by the statistically higher percentage of belly (14.9 vs.12.2, and fat (3.9 vs. 2.4 and marbling of M. longissimus dorsi (2.7 vs. 1.4. On colour analysis, the Fumati had statistically higher L* and hue values, and lower a* of M. longissimus dorsi. The fatty acid composition of meat was similar between crossbreds; backfat fatty acid composition of the Fumati showed a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, and lower amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA than in the Borghigiana. Results showed that performances and meat quality of local crossbreeds still bred in semi-intensive systems, like Fumati and Borghigiana, can be positively influenced when fed diets considered suitable for improved pig genotypes.

  7. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  8. A Drosophila model of high sugar diet-induced cardiomyopathy.

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    Jianbo Na

    Full Text Available Diets high in carbohydrates have long been linked to progressive heart dysfunction, yet the mechanisms by which chronic high sugar leads to heart failure remain poorly understood. Here we combine diet, genetics, and physiology to establish an adult Drosophila melanogaster model of chronic high sugar-induced heart disease. We demonstrate deterioration of heart function accompanied by fibrosis-like collagen accumulation, insulin signaling defects, and fat accumulation. The result was a shorter life span that was more severe in the presence of reduced insulin and P38 signaling. We provide evidence of a role for hexosamine flux, a metabolic pathway accessed by glucose. Increased hexosamine flux led to heart function defects and structural damage; conversely, cardiac-specific reduction of pathway activity prevented sugar-induced heart dysfunction. Our data establish Drosophila as a useful system for exploring specific aspects of diet-induced heart dysfunction and emphasize enzymes within the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway as candidate therapeutic targets.

  9. Switching adolescent high-fat diet to adult control diet restores neurocognitive alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Boitard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al., 2014; Boitard et al., 2012; Boitard et al., 2015. Here, we assessed whether the effects of adolescent HF consumption on brain function are permanent or reversible. After adolescent exposure to HF, switching to a standard chow diet restored levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and normalized enhanced HPA axis reactivity, amygdala activity and avoidance memory. Therefore, while the adolescent period is highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity, adult exposure to a standard diet appears sufficient to reverse alterations of brain function.

  10. Enteral High Fat-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Blend Alters the Pathogen Composition of the Intestinal Microbiome in Premature Infants with an Enterostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, Noelle; Yang, Qing; Seed, Patrick C

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of enteral fish oil and safflower oil supplementation on the intestinal microbiome in infants with an enterostomy born premature. Infants with an enterostomy born premature were randomized to receive early enteral supplementation with a high-fat polyunsaturated fatty acid (HF-PUFA) blend of fish oil and safflower oil vs standard nutritional therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for longitudinal profiling of the microbiome from the time of study entry until bowel reanastomosis. We used weighted gene coexpression network analysis to identify microbial community modules that differed between study groups over time. We performed imputed metagenomic analysis to determine metabolic pathways associated with the microbial genes. Sixteen infants were randomized to receive enteral HF-PUFA supplementation, and 16 infants received standard care. The intestinal microbiota of infants in the treatment group differed from those in the control group, with greater bacterial diversity and lower abundance of Streptococcus, Clostridium, and many pathogenic genera within the Enterobacteriaceae family. We identified 4 microbial community modules with significant differences between groups over time. Imputed metagenomic analysis of the microbial genes revealed metabolic pathways that differed between groups, including metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and secondary bile acid synthesis. Enteral HF-PUFA supplementation was associated with decreased abundance of pathogenic bacteria, greater bacterial diversity, and shifts in the potential metabolic functions of intestinal microbiota. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01306838. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

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    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  12. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  13. High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet-Induced Subendothelial Matrix Stiffening is Mitigated by Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julie C; Azar, Julian; Seta, Francesca; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of a high-fat, high-sugar diet and sedentary lifestyle are correlated with bulk arterial stiffening. While measurements of bulk arterial stiffening are used to assess cardiovascular health clinically, they cannot account for changes to the tissue occurring on the cellular scale. The compliance of the subendothelial matrix in the intima mediates vascular permeability, an initiating step in atherosclerosis. High-fat, high-sugar diet consumption and a sedentary lifestyle both cause micro-scale subendothelial matrix stiffening, but the impact of these factors in concert remains unknown. In this study, mice on a high-fat, high-sugar diet were treated with aerobic exercise or returned to a normal diet. We measured bulk arterial stiffness through pulse wave velocity and subendothelial matrix stiffness ex vivo through atomic force microscopy. Our data indicate that while diet reversal mitigates high-fat, high-sugar diet-induced macro- and micro-scale stiffening, exercise only significantly decreases micro-scale stiffness and not macro-scale stiffness, during the time-scale studied. These data underscore the need for both healthy diet and exercise to maintain vascular health. These data also indicate that exercise may serve as a key lifestyle modification to partially reverse the deleterious impacts of high-fat, high-sugar diet consumption, even while macro-scale stiffness indicators do not change.

  14. Are cognitive functions in post-menopausal women related with the contents of macro- and micro-components in the diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Bojar

    2015-02-01

    The results of the study concerning diet unequivocally indicate a very poor quality of diet in the group of postmenopausal women examined. The daily diet had a too high energetic value. The women consumed an excessive amount of total fat, including definitely too much monounsaturated fatty acids, and insufficient polyunsaturated fatty acids. The dietary intake of sodium and phosphorus was too high, whereas deficiencies were observed in the consumption of iron, copper, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc. No significant correlations were found in the analysis of cognitive functions according to the energetic value of daily diet and contents of macro- and micro-components. The results concerning verbal memory significantly depended on the daily intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Women who consumed polyunsaturated fatty acids below the daily normal or normal level obtained significantly higher results in verbal memory.

  15. Differences in postprandial hemodynamic response on a high protein versus a high carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several intervention trials have shown that diet composition affects blood pressure (BP). In this study we focused on postprandial hemodynamic changes on a high carbohydrate versus a high protein diet. Design and Method: In this randomized double-blind parallel group study, 53 adult

  16. Consumption of a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet (the ketogenic diet) exaggerates biotin deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Matsui, Tomoyoshi; Ando, Saori; Ishii, Yoshie; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a cofactor for several carboxylases. The ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, is used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and promote weight loss. In Japan, the infant version of the ketogenic diet is known as the "ketone formula." However, as the special infant formulas used in Japan, including the ketone formula, do not contain sufficient amounts of biotin, biotin deficiency can develop in infants who consume the ketone formula. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ketogenic diet on biotin status in mice. Male mice (N = 32) were divided into the following groups: control diet group, biotin-deficient (BD) diet group, ketogenic control diet group, and ketogenic biotin-deficient (KBD) diet group. Eight mice were used in each group. At 9 wk, the typical symptoms of biotin deficiency such as hair loss and dermatitis had only developed in the KBD diet group. The total protein expression level of biotin-dependent carboxylases and the total tissue biotin content were significantly decreased in the KBD and BD diet groups. However, these changes were more severe in the KBD diet group. These findings demonstrated that the ketogenic diet increases biotin bioavailability and consumption, and hence, promotes energy production by gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which results in exaggerated biotin deficiency in biotin-deficient mice. Therefore, biotin supplementation is important for mice that consume the ketogenic diet. It is suggested that individuals that consume the ketogenic diet have an increased biotin requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials on ruminal characteristics, methane emission, and milk fatty acid composition in cows fed high- or low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippeau, C; Lettat, A; Martin, C; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P; Ferlay, A; Berger, C; Nozière, P

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials (DFM) on ruminal fermentation and microbial characteristics, methane (CH 4 ) emission, diet digestibility, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in dairy cows fed diets formulated to induce different ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles. Eight ruminally cannulated dairy cows were divided into 2 groups based on parity, days in milk, milk production, and body weight. Cows in each group were fed either a high-starch (38%, HS) or a low-starch (2%, LS) diet in a 55:45 forage-to-concentrate ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis. For each diet, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a Latin square design of (1) control (CON); (2) Propionibacterium P63 (P63); (3) P63 plus Lactobacillus plantarum 115 (P63+Lp); (4) P63 plus Lactobacillus rhamnosus 32 (P63+Lr). Strains of DFM were administered at 10 10 cfu/d. Methane emission (using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique), total-tract digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk production and composition were quantified in wk 3. Ruminal fermentation and microbial characteristics were measured in wk 4. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The 2 diets induced different ruminal VFA profiles, with a greater proportion of propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate for the HS diet. Greater concentrations of total bacteria and selected bacterial species of methanogenic Archaea were reported for the HS diet, whereas the protozoa concentration in HS decreased. For both diets, bacterial DFM supplementation raised ruminal pH (+0.18 pH units, on average) compared with CON. Irrespective of diet, P63+Lp and P63+Lr increased ruminal cellulase activity (3.8-fold, on average) compared with CON, but this effect was not associated with variations in ruminal microbial numbers. Irrespective of diet, no effect of bacterial DFM on ruminal VFA was observed. For the LS diet, supplementing cows with P63+Lr tended

  18. A Difference in Fatty Acid Composition of Isocaloric High-Fat Diets Alters Metabolic Flexibility in Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice.

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    Loes P M Duivenvoorde

    Full Text Available Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be healthier than saturated fatty acids (SFAs, but others postulate that especially the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs (n6/n3 ratio determines health. Health can be determined with biomarkers, but functional health status is likely better reflected by challenge tests that assess metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions, but similar n6/n3 ratio, on metabolic flexibility. Therefore, adult male mice received isocaloric high-fat diets with either predominantly PUFAs (HFpu diet or predominantly SFAs (HFs diet but similar n6/n3 ratio for six months, during and after which several biomarkers for health were measured. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by the response to an oral glucose tolerance test, a fasting and re-feeding test and an oxygen restriction test (OxR; normobaric hypoxia. The latter two are non-invasive, indirect calorimetry-based tests that measure the adaptive capacity of the body as a whole. We found that the HFs diet, compared to the HFpu diet, increased mean adipocyte size, liver damage, and ectopic lipid storage in liver and muscle; although, we did not find differences in body weight, total adiposity, adipose tissue health, serum adipokines, whole body energy balance, or circadian rhythm between HFs and HFpu mice. HFs mice were, furthermore, less flexible in their response to both fasting- re-feeding and OxR, while glucose tolerance was indistinguishable. To conclude, the HFs versus the HFpu diet increased ectopic fat storage, liver damage, and mean adipocyte size and reduced metabolic flexibility in male mice. This study underscores the physiological relevance of indirect calorimetry-based challenge tests.

  19. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Clinical Review

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    M. García de Acilu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is defined as the acute onset of noncardiogenic edema and subsequent gas-exchange impairment due to a severe inflammatory process. Recent report on the prognostic value of eicosanoids in patients with ARDS suggests that modulating the inflammatory response through the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be a useful strategy for ARDS treatment. The use of enteral diets enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA has reported promising results, showing an improvement in respiratory variables and haemodynamics. However, the interpretation of the studies is limited by their heterogeneity and methodology and the effect of ω-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion or enteral diets on patients with ARDS remains unclear. Therefore, the routine use of ω-3 fatty acid-enriched nutrition cannot be recommended and further large, homogeneous, and high-quality clinical trials need to be conducted to clarify the effectiveness of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Effect of high fat and high sugar diet on insulin binding and insulin action in isolated rat adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    岡﨑,悟

    1987-01-01

    To clarify on a cellular basis the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of the westernized diet, insulin binding, insulin stimulated 3-o-methylglucose uptake and glucose oxidation were studied in isolated adipocytes from rats fed experimental diets : low fat-no sugar diet (energy ratio of 10% fat, 70% starch, a model of the traditional Japanese diet), high fat-high sugar diet (40% fat, 20% starch, 20% sugar, a model of the westernized diet), low fat-high sugar diet (10% fat, 50% starch, 20% s...

  1. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal and infant nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskiet, Frits A. J.; van Goor, Saskia A.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Smit, Ella N.; Bouwstra, Hylco; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Boersma, E. Rudy; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Homo sapiens has evolved on a diet rich in alpha-linolenic acid and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). We have, however, gradually changed our diet from about 10,000 years ago and accelerated this change from about 100 to 200 years ago. The many dietary changes, including lower intake of

  3. Activating omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inhibitory purine nucleotides are high affinity ligands for novel mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP2 and UCP3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáčková, Markéta; Škobisová, Eva; Urbánková, Eva; Ježek, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 23 (2003), s. 20761-20769 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011106; GA ČR GA301/02/1215; GA MŠk ME 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : uncoupling protein-2 * polyunsaturated fatty acids * recombinant yeast expression Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.482, year: 2003

  4. Differential effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets on hepatic lipogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Damiano, Fabrizio; Siculella, Luisa; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic fatty acid synthesis is influenced by several nutritional and hormonal factors. In this study, we have investigated the effects of distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrate or in fat on hepatic lipogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrates (70% w/w) or in fat (20 and 35% w/w). Activity and expression of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase were analyzed through the study with assessments at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Liver lipids and plasma levels of lipids, glucose, and insulin were assayed in parallel. Whereas the high-carbohydrate diet moderately stimulated hepatic lipogenesis, a strong inhibition of this anabolic pathway was found in animals fed high-fat diets. This inhibition was time-dependent and concentration-dependent. Moreover, whereas the high-carbohydrate diet induced an increase in plasma triglycerides, the high-fat diets determined an accumulation of triglycerides in liver. An increase in the plasmatic levels of glucose and insulin was observed in all cases. The excess of sucrose in the diet is converted into fat that is distributed by bloodstream in the organism in the form of circulating triglycerides. On the other hand, a high amount of dietary fat caused a strong inhibition of lipogenesis and a concomitant increase in the level of hepatic lipids, thereby highlighting, in these conditions, the role of liver as a reservoir of exogenous fat.

  5. Low eficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the reversal of insulin resistance induced by a high-fat in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Zuzana; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 345-346 ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /42./. 14.09.2006-17.09.2006, Copenhagen-Malmoe] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : insulin resistance * n-3 PUFA * high fat diet Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  6. High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Mouse Muscle Mitochondrial Phospholipids Do Not Impair Mitochondrial Respiration Despite Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Martijn F. M.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Schaart, Gert; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Smit, Egbert; Mariman, Edwin C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus and muscle insulin resistance have been associated with reduced capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly as a result of increased intake of dietary fat. Here, we examined the hypothesis that a prolonged high-fat diet consumption (HFD) increases the saturation of muscle mitochondrial membrane phospholipids causing impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity and possibly insulin resistance. Methodology C57BL/6J mice were fed an 8-week or 20-week low fat diet (10 kcal%; LFD) or HFD (45 kcal%). Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated and fatty acid (FA) composition of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography followed by GC. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids by mitochondria. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR. Principal Findings At 8 weeks, mono-unsaturated FA (16∶1n7, 18∶1n7 and 18∶1n9) were decreased (−4.0%, p<0.001), whereas saturated FA (16∶0) were increased (+3.2%, p<0.001) in phospholipids of HFD vs. LFD mitochondria. Interestingly, 20 weeks of HFD descreased mono-unsaturated FA while n-6 poly-unsaturated FA (18∶2n6, 20∶4n6, 22∶5n6) showed a pronounced increase (+4.0%, p<0.001). Despite increased saturation of muscle mitochondrial phospholipids after the 8-week HFD, mitochondrial oxidation of both pyruvate and fatty acids were similar between LFD and HFD mice. After 20 weeks of HFD, the increase in n-6 poly-unsaturated FA was accompanied by enhanced maximal capacity of the electron transport chain (+49%, p = 0.002) and a tendency for increased ADP-stimulated respiration, but only when fuelled by a lipid-derived substrate. Insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was reduced at both 8 and 20 weeks. Conclusions/Interpretation Our findings do not support the concept that prolonged HF feeding leads to increased saturation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids resulting in a decrease in

  7. High fat diet-induced changes in mouse muscle mitochondrial phospholipids do not impair mitochondrial respiration despite insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Hoeks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and muscle insulin resistance have been associated with reduced capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly as a result of increased intake of dietary fat. Here, we examined the hypothesis that a prolonged high-fat diet consumption (HFD increases the saturation of muscle mitochondrial membrane phospholipids causing impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity and possibly insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY: C57BL/6J mice were fed an 8-week or 20-week low fat diet (10 kcal%; LFD or HFD (45 kcal%. Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated and fatty acid (FA composition of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography followed by GC. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids by mitochondria. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At 8 weeks, mono-unsaturated FA (16∶1n7, 18∶1n7 and 18∶1n9 were decreased (-4.0%, p<0.001, whereas saturated FA (16∶0 were increased (+3.2%, p<0.001 in phospholipids of HFD vs. LFD mitochondria. Interestingly, 20 weeks of HFD descreased mono-unsaturated FA while n-6 poly-unsaturated FA (18∶2n6, 20∶4n6, 22∶5n6 showed a pronounced increase (+4.0%, p<0.001. Despite increased saturation of muscle mitochondrial phospholipids after the 8-week HFD, mitochondrial oxidation of both pyruvate and fatty acids were similar between LFD and HFD mice. After 20 weeks of HFD, the increase in n-6 poly-unsaturated FA was accompanied by enhanced maximal capacity of the electron transport chain (+49%, p = 0.002 and a tendency for increased ADP-stimulated respiration, but only when fuelled by a lipid-derived substrate. Insulin sensitivity in HFD mice was reduced at both 8 and 20 weeks. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings do not support the concept that prolonged HF feeding leads to increased saturation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial phospholipids resulting in a decrease in

  8. Differential response to an algae supplement high in DHA mediated by maternal periconceptional diet: intergenerational effects of n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Edward H; Lamb, Tracy A; Refshauge, Gordon; Kerr, Matthew J; Bailes, Kristy L; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2014-08-01

    Algae high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may provide a source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) for inclusion in the diet of lambs to improve the LCn-3PUFA status of meat. The effect of background LCn-3PUFA status on the metabolism of high DHA algae is, however, unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the response to a high in DHA algae supplement fed to lambs for six weeks prior to slaughter was mediated by a maternal periconceptional diet. Forty Poll Dorset × Border Leicester × Merino weaner lambs were allocated to receive either a ration based on oat grain, lupin grain, and chopped lucerne (control) or the control ration with DHA-Gold™ algae included at 1.92 % DM (Algae) based on whether the dams of lambs had previously been fed a diet high in n-3 or n-6 around conception. LCn-3PUFA concentration was determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) prior to and following feeding. The concentrations of EPA and DHA in the plasma and RBC of lambs receiving the control ration were significantly (p DHA were also significantly (p DHA was, however, significantly (p DHA.

  9. Milk fatty acid profile of Peruvian Criollo and Brown Swiss cows in response to different diet qualities fed at low and high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Karin; Gomez, Carlos A; García, Miriam; Aufdermauer, Tony; Kreuzer, Michael; Hess, Hans Dieter; Wettstein, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-12-01

    Two identical experimental protocols were followed at 200 and 3,600 m above sea level (a.s.l.) determining the changes of the milk fatty acid (FA) profile of Brown Swiss (BS) and indigenous Peruvian Criollo cows (CR) as a response to diets which were designed to cover the variation in feed quality caused by season. At each site (altitude), six BS and six CR cows, adapted to > 3,500 m a.s.l., were fed three dietary treatments (DS, dry-season forage; RS rainy-season forage; OC, diet optimised to meet the cow's requirements) in a 2 x 2 x 3-factorial arrangement. Intakes of FA and milk yield increased from diet DS (low quality diet) to RS and OC (high quality diet) for both cow types. Milk fat proportions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), C18:3 c9,c12,c15, total n-3 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were highest (p < 0.05) with diet OC and higher in the lowlands than in the highlands. Low intakes of diet DS obviously resulted in a ruminal energy deficiency and body lipid mobilisation. The ruminal energy deficiency with diet DS was especially pronounced in BS, apparently reducing biohydrogenation rate and leading to lower proportions of C18:0 and higher proportions of C18:3 c9,c12,c15 in milk fat (p < 0.05). Especially C18:3 c9,c12,c15 intake did not concur with its proportion in milk fat, suggesting a strong dependence on energy status. Milk yield and FA excretion with milk were higher for BS than for CR (p < 0.05) with all three diets although milk fat content was lower (p < 0.05) for BS than CR. Milk fat of BS was richer in CLA and PUFA than milk fat of CR (p < 0.05). The desaturase indices for 18 FA were also higher for BS than CR (p < 0.05), suggesting a slightly higher delta9-desaturase activity for BS, especially with diet DS. Milk fat content was generally higher at the high altitude than at the lowland site (p < 0.05), whereas the FA profile was unexpectedly similar across sites. Various interactions were found among diet type, cow type and altitude (site

  10. Ellagic acid attenuates high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-03-01

    Fruits and nuts may prevent or reverse common human health conditions such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension; together, these conditions are referred to as metabolic syndrome, an increasing problem. This study has investigated the responses to ellagic acid, present in many fruits and nuts, in a diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome. Eight- to nine-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups for 16-week feeding with cornstarch diet (C), cornstarch diet supplemented with ellagic acid (CE), high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet supplemented with ellagic acid (HE). CE and HE rats were given 0.8 g/kg ellagic acid in food from week 8 to 16 only. At the end of 16 weeks, cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic parameters along with protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1 in the heart and the liver were characterised. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats developed cardiovascular remodelling, impaired ventricular function, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with increased protein levels of NF-κB and decreased protein levels of Nrf2 and CPT1 in the heart and the liver. Ellagic acid attenuated these diet-induced symptoms of metabolic syndrome with normalisation of protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1. Ellagic acid derived from nuts and fruits such as raspberries and pomegranates may provide a useful dietary supplement to decrease the characteristic changes in metabolism and in cardiac and hepatic structure and function induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.

  11. In ovo exposure to omega-3 fatty acids does not enhance omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakri, K; Carragher, J; Muhlhausler, B; Hughes, R; Gibson, R

    2017-10-01

    The content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in chicken meat can be boosted by feeding broilers a diet containing α-linolenic acid (ALA, from flaxseed oil), some of which is converted by hepatic enzymes to n-3 LCPUFA. However, most of the accumulated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in meat tissues is still in the form of ALA. Despite this, the levels of chicken diets are being enhanced by the inclusion of vegetable and marine sources of omega-3 fats. This study investigated whether the capacity of chicken for n-3 LCPUFA accumulation could be enhanced or inhibited by exposure to an increased supply of ALA or n-3 LCPUFA in ovo. Breeder hens were fed either flaxseed oil (High-ALA), fish oil (high n-3 LCPUFA) or tallow- (low n-3 PUFA, Control) based diets. The newly hatched chicks in each group were fed either the High-ALA or the Control diets until harvest at 42 days' post-hatch. The n-3 PUFA content of egg yolk and day-old chick meat closely matched the n-3 PUFA composition of the maternal diet. In contrast, the n-3 PUFA composition of breast and leg meat tissues of the 42-day-old offspring closely matched the diet fed post-hatch, with no significant effect of maternal diet. Indeed, there was an inhibition of n-3 LCPUFA accumulation in meat of the broilers from the maternal Fish-Oil diet group when fed the post-hatch High-ALA diet. Therefore, this approach is not valid to elevate n-3 LCPUFA in chicken meat.

  12. Effect of high- and low-fiber diets on plasma lipids and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M J; Newman, T; Davidson, P C

    1979-07-01

    Seven healthy young adults were maintained for two separate 1-week periods on each of two very high-carbohydrate diets, one with low-fiber and one with high-fiber content. In both diets 15% of the calories were from protein, 15% from fat, and 70% were from carbohydrate. The low-fiber diet consisted of milk, glucose, and dextrins in liquid formula form, the high-fiber diet was composed of starchy foods. The crude fiber content of the high- and low-fiber diets was 18.0 and 1.0 g, respectively. The diets were isocaloric and the subjects maintained a stable weight. During the low-fiber diet the fasting triglycerides rose, reaching a peak 45% above base-line in 6 days. During the high-fiber diet the triglycerides fell to a level slightly below base-line. The cholesterol fell 16 and 23% below base-line on the low- and high-fiber diets. The glucose response to test meals representative of each diet was similar. The insulin response to a low-fiber meal was twice as great as that to a high-fiber meal containing an equivalent amount of carbohydrate. The results suggest that carbohydrate-induced hyperlipemia does not occur if the high carbohydrate diet is rich in dietary fiber, and furthermore that the insulin-stimulating potential of foods in a very high-carbohydrate diet is a critical determinant of the magnitude of carbohydrate-induced lipemia.

  13. The Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal Muscle Phospholipidome of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Sam Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species from high-fat fed rats. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (78.1% energy. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a sedentary control group and a trained group (125 min of treadmill running at 8 m/min, 4 days/wk for 4 weeks. Forty-eight hours after their last training bout phospholipids were extracted from the red and white vastus lateralis and analyzed by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Exercise training was associated with significant alterations in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipid molecular species. These changes were more prominent in red vastus lateralis than white vastus lateralis. The largest observed change was an increase of ~30% in the abundance of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine ions in oxidative fibers. Reductions in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipids containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were also observed. These data suggest a possible reduction in phospholipid remodeling in the trained animals. This results in a decrease in the phospholipid n-3 to n-6 ratio that may in turn influence endurance capacity.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors and adipocytokines levels after two hypocaloric diets with different fat distribution in obese subjects and rs6923761 gene variant of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Bachiller, R; Pacheco, D

    2014-09-01

    The role of GLP-1 R variants on body weight response after dietary intervention is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of this polymorphism on cardiovascular risk factors, adipokine levels and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs. a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. 391 obese subjects were randomly allocated to one of these two diets for a period of 3 months; diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) and diet P (high polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fat hypocaloric diet). Two hundred and twelve patients (54.2 %) had the genotype GG (wild group) and 179 (45.8 %) patients had the next genotypes; GA (146 patients, 37.3 %) or AA (33 patients, 8.7 %) (Mutant group). With both diets and in wild-type and mutant-type groups, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased. Anthropometric parameters were higher in non-A-allele carriers than A-allele carriers. With both diets and in both genotypes, leptin, insulin levels and HOMA decreased. With the diet P and in wild genotype, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels decreased, too. Our data showed a lack of association of rs6923761 GLP-1 R polymorphism with weight loss after a high monounsaturated fat and a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets. Better anthropometric parameters in obese subjects with the mutant allele (A) of rs6923761 GLP-1 R polymorphism were observed. Insulin levels and HOMA decreased in non-A carriers.

  15. Fish Oil Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Male Mouse Reproductive Dysfunction via Modifying the Rhythmic Expression of Testosterone Synthesis Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs against high-fat diet induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and to explore circadian regulation mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed a normal chow diet (control group, CON, a high-fat diet (HFD group or a HFD supplemented with fish oil (FO group for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of feeding, the body weight and the ratio of perinephric and epididymal fat weight to body weight were significantly higher in the HFD group compared with the CON group. The supplement of fish oil rich in ω-3PUFAs only slightly reduced the HFD-induced obesity but remarkably ameliorated HFD-induced dyslipidemia, sexual hormones disorder, testicle lesions and germ cell apoptosis. Fish oil supplementation restored the expression of steroid synthesis associated genes in HFD fed mouse and flattened the HFD-induced oscillations in circadian genes’ expression. Fish oil supplementation prevented HFD-induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and modified the rhythmic expression of testosterone synthesis related genes.

  16. Comparison of effects of long-term low-fat vs high-fat diets on blood lipid levels in overweight or obese patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2013-12-01

    Dietary fat plays an important role in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, but long-term (≥12 months) effects of different percentages of fat in the diet on blood lipid levels remain to be established. Our systematic review and meta-analysis focused on randomized controlled trials assessing the long-term effects of low-fat diets compared with diets with high amounts of fat on blood lipid levels. Relevant randomized controlled trials were identified searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Trial Register until March 2013. Thirty-two studies were included in the meta-analysis. Decreases in total cholesterol (weighted mean difference -4.55 mg/dL [-0.12 mmol/L], 95% CI -8.03 to -1.07; P=0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (weighted mean difference -3.11 mg/dL [-0.08 mmol/L], 95% CI -4.51 to -1.71; Plow-fat diets, whereas rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (weighted mean difference 2.35 mg/dL [0.06 mmol/L], 95% CI 1.29 to 3.42; Pfat diet groups. Including only hypocaloric diets, the effects of low-fat vs high-fat diets on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were abolished. Meta-regression revealed that lower total cholesterol level was associated with lower intakes of saturated fat and higher intakes of polyunsaturated fat, and increases in HDL cholesterol levels were related to higher amounts of total fat largely derived from monounsaturated fat (of either plant or animal origin) in high-fat diets (composition of which was ~17% of total energy content in the form of monounsaturated fatty acids, ~8% of total energy content in the form of polyunsaturated fatty acids), whereas increases in triglyceride levels were associated with higher intakes of carbohydrates. In addition, lower LDL cholesterol level was marginally associated with lower saturated fat intake. The results of our meta-analysis do not allow for an unequivocal recommendation of either low-fat or high-fat diets in the primary prevention of

  17. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  18. Ketogenic Diets for Adults With Highly Refractory Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Tanya J. W.; Cervenka, Mackenzie C.

    2017-01-01

    The current review highlights the evidence supporting the use of ketogenic diets in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy and status epilepticus in adults. Ketogenic diet variants are compared and advantages and potential side effects of diet therapy are discussed.

  19. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids support aerial insectivore performance more than food quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Cornelia W; Brenna, J Thomas; Lawrence, Peter; Shipley, J Ryan; Tollefson, Troy N; Winkler, David W

    2016-09-27

    Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both. We manipulated both the quantity and quality of food for Tree Swallow chicks in a full factorial design. Diets were either high-LCPUFA or low in LCPUFA but high in ALA, allowing us to separate the effects of direct LCPUFA in diet from the ability of Tree Swallows to convert their precursor, ALA, into LCPUFA. We found that fatty acid composition was more important for Tree Swallow chick performance than food quantity. On high-LCPUFA diets, chicks grew faster, were in better condition, and had greater immunocompetence and lower basal metabolic rates compared with chicks on both low LCPUFA diets. Increasing the quantity of high-LCPUFA diets resulted in improvements to all metrics of performance while increasing the quantity of low-LCPUFA diets only resulted in greater immunocompetence and lower metabolic rates. Chicks preferentially retained LCPUFA in brain and muscle when both food quantity and LCPUFA were limited. Our work suggests that fatty acid composition is an important dimension of aerial insectivore nutritional ecology and reinforces the importance of high-quality aquatic habitat for these declining birds.

  20. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance: focus on dietary fat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba ePutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondria play a key role in high fat diet induced insulin resistance. Two opposite views are debated on mechanisms by which mitochondrial function could be involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In one theory, mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to cause intramyocellular lipid accumulation leading to insulin resistance. In the second theory, excess fuel within mitochondria in the absence of increased energy demand stimulates mitochondrial oxidant production and emission, ultimately leading to the development of insulin resistance. Noteworthy, mitochondrial bioenergetics is strictly associated with the maintenance of normal mitochondrial morphology by maintaining the balance between the fusion and fission processes. A shift towards mitochondrial fission with reduction of fusion protein, mainly mitofusin 2, has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation in obesity and insulin resistance development. However, dietary fat source during chronic overfeeding differently affects mitochondrial morphology. Saturated fatty acids induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation associated with fission phenotype, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and inflammation, associated with a shift toward mitochondrial fusion phenotype. The present minireview focuses on mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in skeletal muscle insulin resistance, with particular attention to the effect of different dietary fat sources on skeletal muscle mitochondria morphology and fusion/fission balance.

  1. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  2. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E on serum oxidative status in horses performing very light exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Prola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In sporting horses the use of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs could enhance performance because these fatty acids are very important in membrane permeability, and in particular they seem to increase the possibility of long chain fatty acids entering mythochondria to be burnt. The composition of cellular membranes and lipoprotein fatty acids com- position is strictly related to dietary fat quality; percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amount of antioxidants also affect tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Six horses were used in a latin square design in which three homogeneous groups were subsequently assigned three dif- ferent dietary treatments for one month each: Control group (C: basic diet; Oil group (O: Basic diet + 200g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ®; Vitamin E group (O+E: basic diet + 200 g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ® + 5 g/day α-toco- pheryl-acetate (Egon-E, Acme ®. At the end of each experimental period blood samples were taken by jugular vein puncture. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by TBARs and d-ROMs assessment. Oxidative markers showed the high- est mean values for the oil group, even if no statistically significant differences were found.

  3. A Heart-Healthy Diet: Recent Insights and Practical Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Monica; Pagliai, Giuditta; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-08-24

    The purpose of this study is to review the current evidence on the relationship between diet and heart, giving practical recommendations for cardiovascular prevention. A heart-healthy diet should maximize the consumption of whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and legumes and discourage the consumption of meat and meat products as well as refined and processed foods. Plant-based diets fully meet these criteria, and the evidence supporting the protective effect of these dietary patterns evolved rapidly in recent years. Among plant-based diets, the Mediterranean and vegetarian diets gained the greater interest, having been associated with numerous health benefits such as reduced levels of traditional and novel risk factors and lower risk of cardiovascular disease. These positive effects may be explained by their high content of dietary fiber, complex carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phytochemicals. Current evidence suggests that both Mediterranean and vegetarian diets are consistently beneficial with respect to cardiovascular disease.

  4. Ketogenic diet for high partial pressure oxygen diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadao, Jason M; Vigilante, John A; DiGeorge, Nicholas W; O'Connor, Sunila E; Bear, Alexandria; Kenyon, Jeffrey; Annis, Heather; Dituri, Joseph; Dituri, Amy E; Whelan, Harry T

    2014-01-01

    A ketogenic diet (KD) may decrease central nervous system oxygen toxicity symptoms in divers, and in view of this implication a feasibility/ toxicity pilot study was performed to demonstrate tolerance of KD while performing normal diving profiles. The exact mechanism of neuroprotection from the KD remains unknown; however, evidence to support the efficacy of the KD in reducing seizures is present in epilepsy and oxygen toxicity studies, and may provide valuable insight in diving activities. Three divers (two males and one female ages 32-45 with a history of deep diving and high pO2 exposure) on the KD made dives to varying depths in Hawaii using fully closed-circuit MK-15 and Inspiration rebreathers. These rebreathers have an electronically controlled set point, allowing the divers to monitor and control the oxygen level in the breathing loop, which can be varied manually by the divers. Oxygen level was varied during descent, bottom depth and ascent (decompression). Divers fasted for 12-18 hours before diet initiation. The ketosis level was verified by urinating on a Ketostix (reagent strips for urinalysis). Ketosis was achieved and was easily monitored with Ketostix in the simulated operational environment. The KD did not interfere with the diving mission; no seizure activity or signs or symptoms of CNS toxicity were observed, and there were no adverse effects noted by the divers while on the KD.

  5. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available There are two independent serotonin (5-HT systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  6. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nakano, Tatsuya; Saito, Ryo; Akasaka, Daisuke; Saito, Kazuki; Ogasawara, Hideki; Minashima, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Inoue, Nao; Ikeda, Ikuo; Chen, Xiangning; Miyake, Masato; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Kan; Tahara, Kohji; Nagasawa, Yuya; Rose, Michael T; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    There are two independent serotonin (5-HT) systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR) 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  7. Protein turnover in acid maltase deficiency before and after treatment with a high protein diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Umpleby, A M; Wiles, C M; Trend, P S; Scobie, I N; Macleod, A F; Spencer, G T; Sonksen, P H

    1987-01-01

    A patient with acid maltase deficiency was treated with a high protein diet for 7 months. Protein turnover expressed in terms of lean body mass was shown to be increased in this patient before the diet but was markedly reduced following the diet. The patient improved clinically whilst on the diet both subjectively and in terms of mobility, breathing and reduced peripheral cyanosis at rest.

  8. n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awada Manar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF diet or high-fat (HF, 20% diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG. Results Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6, (ii leptin and (iii 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution. Conclusion Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing

  9. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet....... The findings suggest that high-fat diets increase non-fasting FVII:C, and consequently may be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jun......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20...

  10. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2009-12-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States. This study was conducted from June 2001 to September 2008 and involved designing, preparing, and then analyzing five different diets: an experimental phytosterol-deficient control diet, a relatively high-phytosterol diet based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, American Heart Association diet, Atkins lifetime maintenance plan, and a vegan diet. A single day of meals for each diet was homogenized and the resulting composites were analyzed for free, esterified, and glycosylated phytosterols by gas chromatography. Independent samples t tests were used to compare the diets' total phytosterol content. The total phytosterol content of the experimental phytosterol-deficient diet was 64 mg/2,000 kcal, with progressively larger quantities in Atkins, American Heart Association, vegan, and the high-phytosterol Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (163, 340, 445, and 500 mg/2,000 kcal, respectively). Glycosylated phytosterols, which are often excluded from phytosterol analyses, comprised 15.9%+/-5.9% of total phytosterols. In summary, phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets that conform to recommended macronutrient guidelines and are palatable can now be used in controlled feeding studies.

  11. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafine, Katherine M; Labay, Caitlin; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to obesity, chronic metabolic disease, and increased inflammation in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Dietary supplements that are high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce or prevent these negative health consequences in rats. Eating high fat chow also increases the sensitivity of rats to behavioral effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems (e.g., cocaine), and this effect is greatest in adolescent females. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat chow induced increases in sensitivity to cocaine in adolescent female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 25-27) ate standard laboratory chow (5.7% fat), high fat chow (34.4% fat), or high fat chow supplemented with fish oil (20% w/w). Cocaine dose dependently (1-17.8mg/kg) increased locomotion and induced sensitization across 6 weeks of once-weekly testing in all rats; however, these effects were greatest in rats eating high fat chow. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented enhanced locomotion and sensitization in rats eating high fat chow. There were no differences in inflammatory markers in plasma or the hypothalamus among dietary conditions. These results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with fish oil can prevent high fat diet-induced sensitization to cocaine, but they fail to support the view that these effects are due to changes in proinflammatory cytokines. These data add to a growing literature on the relationship between diet and drug abuse and extend the potential health benefits of fish oil to stimulant drug abuse prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Dijk, van S.J.; Hoelen, D.; Siebelink, E.; Heijligenberg, R.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims - Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) such as a Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Besides being high in MUFA, a Mediterranean diet also contains abundant plant foods, moderate wine and

  13. Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. Methods/design Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk. A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%. About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. Discussion The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high

  14. Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However...

  15. Kefiran reduces atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masashi; Ishii, Itsuko; Inoue, Chika; Akisato, Yoshie; Watanabe, Kenta; Hosoyama, Saori; Toida, Toshihiko; Ariyoshi, Noritaka; Kitada, Mitsukazu

    2010-09-30

    Kefiran is an exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, and has been proposed to have many health-promoting properties. We investigated the antiatherogenic effect of kefiran on rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet without (control group, n = 7) or with kefiran (kefiran group, n = 8) for eight weeks. The aorta was analyzed by histochemistry and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified. Lipids and sugars in serum were measured. Foam cell formation of RAW264.7 by βVLDL derived from both groups of rabbits was also investigated. Cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids levels of serum and lipoprotein fractions were not significantly different between these groups. Atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta in the kefiran group were statistically lower than those of the control group, with marked differences in the abdominal aorta. T-lymphocytes were not detectable in the aorta of the kefiran group. Cholesterol contents in stools were almost identical in both groups. Cholesterol content in the liver of the kefiran group was statistically lower than in the control group. Galactose content of βVLDL derived from the kefiran group was higher, and the lipid peroxidation level was much lower than in the control group. RAW264.7 macrophages treated with βVLDL from the kefiran group showed a more spherical shape and accumulated statistically lower cholesterol than macrophages treated with βVLDL from the control group. Orally derived kefiran is absorbed in the blood. Kefiran prevents the onset and development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions.

  16. High fat diet accelerates cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wu; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M; Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs; Kops, Nicole; Bos, Pieter K; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zuurmond, Anne-Marie; Dell'Accio, Francesco; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for osteoarthritis, but it is unknown what it does on cartilage repair. Here we investigated whether a high fat diet (HFD) influences cartilage repair in a mouse model of cartilage repair. We fed DBA/1 mice control or HFD (60% energy from fat). After 2 weeks, a full thickness cartilage defect was made in the trochlear groove. Mice were sacrificed, 1, 8, and 24 weeks after operation. Cartilage repair was evaluated on histology. Serum glucose, insulin and amyloid A were measured 24 h before operation and at endpoints. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on synovium and adipose tissue to evaluate macrophage infiltration and phenotype. One week after operation, mice on HFD had defect filling with fibroblast-like cells and more cartilage repair as indicated by a lower Pineda score. After 8 weeks, mice on a HFD still had a lower Pineda score. After 24 weeks, no mice had complete cartilage repair and we did not detect a significant difference in cartilage repair between diets. Bodyweight was increased by HFD, whereas serum glucose, amyloid A and insulin were not influenced. Macrophage infiltration and phenotype in adipose tissue and synovium were not influenced by HFD. In contrast to common wisdom, HFD accelerated intrinsic cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice on the short term. Resistance to HFD induced inflammatory and metabolic changes could be associated with accelerated cartilage repair. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1258-1264, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Endometriosis, dysmenorrhea and diet--what is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbaek, Agnete; Knudsen, Ulla B

    2007-01-01

    between diet and endometriosis/dysmenorrhea was performed. Data on diet and endometriosis were limited to four trials of which two were animal studies. The articles concerning human consumption found some relation between disease and low intake of vegetable and fruit and high intake of vegetarian...... between diet and endometriosis/dysmenorrhea was performed. Data on diet and endometriosis were limited to four trials of which two were animal studies. The articles concerning human consumption found some relation between disease and low intake of vegetable and fruit and high intake of vegetarian....... Further research is recommended on both subjects.ke of vegetarian polyunsaturated fat, ham, beef and other red meat. Results concerning fish intake were not consistent. Eight trials of different design, with a total of 1097 women, investigated the relationship between diet and dysmenorrhea. Intake of fish...

  18. Diet-induced impulsivity: Effects of a high-fat and a high-sugar diet on impulsive choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catherine C; Pirkle, Jesseca R A; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Impulsive choice is a common charactertistic among individuals with gambling problems, obesity, and substance abuse issues. Impulsive choice has been classified as a trans-disease process, and understanding the etiology of trait impulsivity could help to understand how diseases and disorders related to impulsive choice are manifested. The Western diet is a possible catalyst of impulsive choice as individuals who are obese and who eat diets high in fat and sugar are typically more impulsive. However, such correlational evidence is unable to discern the direction and causal nature of the relationship. The present study sought to determine how diet may directly contribute to impulsive choice. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure (high-fat, high-sugar, chow), the rats were tested on an impulsive choice task, which presented choices between a smaller-sooner reward (SS) and a larger-later reward (LL). Then, the rats were transferred to a chow diet and retested on the impulsive choice task. The high-sugar and high-fat groups made significantly more impulsive choices than the chow group. Both groups became more self-controlled when they were off the diet, but there were some residual effects of the diet on choice behavior. These results suggest that diet, specifically one high in processed fat or sugar, induces impulsive choice. This diet-induced impulsivity could be a precursor to other disorders that are characterized by impulsivity, such as diet-induced obesity, and could offer potential understanding of the trans-disease nature of impulsive choice.

  19. Increased expression of PPARγ in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mitsutaka; Ohtake, Takaaki; Motomura, Wataru; Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Hosoki, Yayoi; Miyoshi, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yasuaki; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine a hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is implicated in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis. Mice were fed with control or high fat diet containing approximately 10% or 80% cholesterol, respectively. Macroscopic and microscopic findings demonstrated that lipid accumulation in the liver was observed as early as 2 weeks after high fat diet and that high fat diet for 12 weeks developed a fatty liver phenotype, establishing a novel model of diet-induced liver steatosis. Gene profiling with microarray and real-time PCR studies demonstrated that among genes involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis-related genes, PPARγ and its targeted gene, CD36 mRNA expression was specifically up-regulated in the liver by high fat diet for 2 weeks. Immunohistochemical study revealed that PPARγ protein expression is increased in the nuclei of hepatocytes by high fat diet. It was also shown that protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), an upstream molecule of PPARγ, in the liver was drastically suppressed by high fat diet. All these results suggest for the first time that the CREB-PPARγ signaling pathway may be involved in the high fat diet-induced liver steatosis

  20. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  1. The influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and very low calorie diet during a short-term weight reducing regimen on weight loss and serum fatty acid composition in severely obese women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunešová, M.; Braunerová, R.; Hlavatý, P.; Tvrzická, E.; Staňková, B.; Škrha, J.; Hilgertová, J.; Hill, M.; Kopecký, Jan; Wagenknecht, M.; Hainer, V.; Matoulek, M.; Pařízková, J.; Žák, A.; Svačina, Š.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2006), s. 63-72 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7031; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : obesity * fatty acids * diet Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  2. Protein carbonylation associated to high-fat, high-sucrose diet and its metabolic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lucía; Pazos, Manuel; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Gallardo, José M; Rosa Nogués, M; Torres, Josep L; Medina, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The present research draws a map of the characteristic carbonylation of proteins in rats fed high-caloric diets with the aim of providing a new insight of the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases derived from the high consumption of fat and refined carbohydrates. Protein carbonylation was analyzed in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet by a proteomics approach based on carbonyl-specific fluorescence-labeling, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Oxidized proteins along with specific sites of oxidative damage were identified and discussed to illustrate the consequences of protein oxidation. The results indicated that long-term HFHS consumption increased protein oxidation in plasma and liver; meanwhile, protein carbonyls from skeletal muscle did not change. The increment of carbonylation by HFHS diet was singularly selective on specific target proteins: albumin from plasma and liver, and hepatic proteins such as mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia), mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, argininosuccinate synthetase, regucalcin, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit beta, actin cytoplasmic 1 and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase 1. The possible consequences that these specific protein carbonylations have on the excessive weight gain, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease resulting from HFHS diet consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Apoptosis induced by a low-carbohydrate and high-protein diet in rat livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Emília L; Xavier, Analucia R; Oliveira, Felipe L; Filho, Porphirio Js; Azeredo, Vilma B

    2016-06-14

    To determine whether high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diets can cause lesions in rat livers. We randomly divided 20 female Wistar rats into a control diet group and an experimental diet group. Animals in the control group received an AIN-93M diet, and animals in the experimental group received an Atkins-based diet (59.46% protein, 31.77% fat, and 8.77% carbohydrate). After 8 wk, the rats were anesthetized and exsanguinated for transaminases analysis, and their livers were removed for flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy studies. We expressed the data as mean ± standard deviation (SD) assuming unpaired and parametric data; we analyzed differences using the Student's t-test. Statistical significance was set at P diet group and 3.73% ± 0.50% for early apoptosis, 5.67% ± 0.72% for late apoptosis, and 3.82% ± 0.28% for non-apoptotic death in the control diet group. The mean percentage of early apoptosis was higher in the experimental diet group than in the control diet group. Immunohistochemistry for autophagy was negative in both groups. Sinusoidal dilation around the central vein and small hepatocytes was only observed in the experimental diet group, and fibrosis was not identified by hematoxylin-eosin or Trichrome Masson staining in either group. Eight weeks of an experimental diet resulted in cellular and histopathological lesions in rat livers. Apoptosis was our principal finding; elevated plasma transaminases demonstrate hepatic lesions.

  4. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  5. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet

  6. Comparison of low- and high-carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Thompson, Campbell H; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D; Wittert, Gary A; Yancy, William S; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2015-10-01

    Few well-controlled studies have comprehensively examined the effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on type 2 diabetes (T2D). We compared the effects of a very-low-carbohydrate, high-unsaturated fat, low-saturated fat (LC) diet with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease risk factors in T2D after 52 wk. In this randomized controlled trial that was conducted in an outpatient research clinic, 115 obese adults with T2D [mean ± SD age: 58 ± 7 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 34.6 ± 4.3; glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c): 7.3 ± 1.1%; duration of diabetes: 8 ± 6 y] were randomly assigned to consume either a hypocaloric LC diet [14% of energy as carbohydrate (carbohydrate fasting blood glucose, glycemic variability assessed with use of 48-h continuous glucose monitoring, diabetes medication, weight, blood pressure, and lipids assessed at baseline, 24, and 52 wk. Both groups achieved similar completion rates (LC diet: 71%; HC diet: 65%) and mean (95% CI) reductions in weight [LC diet: -9.8 kg (-11.7, -7.9 kg); HC diet: -10.1 kg (-12.0, -8.2 kg)], blood pressure [LC diet: -7.1 (-10.6, -3.7)/-6.2 (-8.2, -4.1) mm Hg; HC diet: -5.8 (-9.4, -2.2)/-6.4 (-8.4, -4.3) mm Hg], HbA1c [LC diet: -1.0% (-1.2%, -0.7%); HC diet: -1.0% (-1.3%, -0.8%)], fasting glucose [LC diet: -0.7 mmol/L (-1.3, -0.1 mmol/L); HC diet: -1.5 mmol/L (-2.1, -0.8 mmol/L)], and LDL cholesterol [LC diet: -0.1 mmol/L (-0.3, 0.1 mmol/L); HC diet: -0.2 mmol/L (-0.4, 0.03 mmol/L)] (P-diet effect ≥ 0.10). Compared with the HC-diet group, the LC-diet group achieved greater mean (95% CI) reductions in the diabetes medication score [LC diet: -0.5 arbitrary units (-0.7, -0.4 arbitrary units); HC diet: -0.2 arbitrary units (-0.4, -0.06 arbitrary units); P = 0.02], glycemic variability assessed by measuring the continuous overall net glycemic action-1 [LC diet: -0.5 mmol/L (-0.6, -0.3 mmol/L); HC diet: -0.05 mmol/L (-0.2, -0.1 mmol/L); P = 0.003], and triglycerides [LC diet

  7. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission el...

  8. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in brain function and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Richard P; Layé, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    The brain is highly enriched with fatty acids. These include the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are largely esterified to the phospholipid cell membrane. Once PUFAs are released from the membrane, they can participate in signal transduction, either directly or after enzymatic conversion to a variety of bioactive derivatives ('mediators'). PUFAs and their mediators regulate several processes within the brain, such as neurotransmission, cell survival and neuroinflammation, and thereby mood and cognition. PUFA levels and the signalling pathways that they regulate are altered in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and major depression. Diet and drugs targeting PUFAs may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders.

  10. Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...

  11. Dietary Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffini, P.; Fehres, O.; Klieverik, L.; Vogels, I. M.; Tigchelaar, W.; Smorenburg, S. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of Ohm-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and Ohm-6 PUFAs on the development of experimentally induced colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver were investigated quantitatively in vivo. Rats mere kept on either a lon-fat diet or on a fish oil (Ohm-3 PUFAs) or safflower oil (Ohm-6

  12. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  13. Feeding high fibre diets changes luminal environment and morphology in the intestine of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    -products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, pea hull, brewer's spent grain, and seed residue). The diets were fed for a four-week period to 12 sows (4 for each diet). Sows were stunned 4 h post-feeding, and digesta and tissue samples were collected from various parts of the small and large intestines......Sows were fed three diets varying in type and level of dietary fibre (DF). The low fibre diet (LF; 17% DF) was based on wheat and barley. In the two high DF diets (HF1, high in soluble DF and HF2, high in insoluble DF;  44% DF), the cereal part of the diet was substituted with different co....... The carbohydrate load to the large intestine was 538-539 g/d when feeding the high DF diets and 190 g/d when feeding diet LF. Feeding sows the high DF diet containing large proportion of soluble DF resulted in a lower dry matter content of digesta (23 contra 28%), a higher tissue weight (2.9 contra 2.0 kg...

  14. Gamma delta T cells promote inflammation and insulin resistance during high fat diet-induced obesity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma delta T cells are resident in adipose tissue and increase during diet-induced obesity. Their possible contribution to the inflammatory response that accompanies diet-induced obesity was investigated in mice after a 5-10 week high milk fat diet. The high milk fat diet resulted in significant in...

  15. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyerang; Lee, Saningun; Choue, Ryowon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collec...

  16. The effect of long-term high-fibre diets in diabetic outpatients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diets containing large amounts of dietary fibre have been shown to be beneficial in improving diabetic control. We -investigated the practical aspects of administering a high-fibre diet to diabetic outpatients in Cape Town, using readily available, lowcost foodstuffs with a high dietary fibre content. Ten patients were followed ...

  17. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  18. Prevention and reversal of hepatic steatosis with a high-protein diet in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Caraballo, Sonia C.; Comhair, Tine M.; Verheyen, Fons; Gaemers, Ingrid; Schaap, Frank G.; Houten, Sander M.; Hakvoort, Theodorus B. M.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Koehler, S. Eleonore

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of NAFLD is steatosis of unknown etiology. We tested the effect of a high-protein (HP)(2) diet on diet-induced steatosis in male C57BL/6 mice with and without pre-existing fatty liver. Mice were fed all combinations of semisynthetic low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) and low-protein (LP) or

  19. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Methods Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1–4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5–8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. Results The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Conclusions Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning

  20. OMASAL MORPHOLOGY OF DAIRY COWS FED WITH HIGH OR LOW GRAIN CONTENT DIET PRIOR PARTURITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Oliveira Rocha Bhering Santoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about the morphological response of the omasum in dairy cows that consume a high-energy diet pre-partum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a transitional diet with high grain content is able to induce changes in omasum morphology. Six weeks before the expected calving, four Holstein cows were fed a standardization diet, and four weeks before delivery, the cows were fed a diet with high grain content (HGC or low (LGC grain content. After calving, all of the cows were fed a high energy lactation diet. The cows that were fed the HGC diet pre-partum had higher dry matter and nutrient intake than the cows that were fed the LGC diet. The mitotic index of the omasum epithelium was higher than the mitotic index in the rumen, but apparently the response to the diet stimuli was slower. In the cows that were fed the HGC diet, the omasum papillae were taller one week before parturition and two weeks post-partum. Cows that were fed the HGC diet had a thinner epithelium due to thinner non-keratinized layers of the omasum epithelium. We conclude that the omasum mucosa of dairy cows responds to the stimuli of a pre-partum HGC diet, which was indicated by the greater height of the omasum papillae and by the reduced thickness of the omasum epithelium. It seems that the mitotic index responds a little more slowly, but the response to the diet stimuli is stronger in the omasum epithelium than in the rumen.

  1. Deregulation of arginase induces bone complications in high-fat/high-sucrose diet diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil; Sangani, Rajnikumar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Toque, Haroldo A; Cain, Michael; Wong, Abby; Howie, Nicole; Shinde, Rahul; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Yao, Lin; Chutkan, Norman; Hunter, Monty; Caldwell, Ruth B; Isales, Carlos; Caldwell, R William; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-02-15

    A balanced diet is crucial for healthy development and prevention of musculoskeletal related diseases. Diets high in fat content are known to cause obesity, diabetes and a number of other disease states. Our group and others have previously reported that activity of the urea cycle enzyme arginase is involved in diabetes-induced dysregulation of vascular function due to decreases in nitric oxide formation. We hypothesized that diabetes may also elevate arginase activity in bone and bone marrow, which could lead to bone-related complications. To test this we determined the effects of diabetes on expression and activity of arginase, in bone and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). We demonstrated that arginase 1 is abundantly present in the bone and BMSCs. We also demonstrated that arginase activity and expression in bone and bone marrow is up-regulated in models of diabetes induced by HFHS diet and streptozotocin (STZ). HFHS diet down-regulated expression of healthy bone metabolism markers (BMP2, COL-1, ALP, and RUNX2) and reduced bone mineral density, bone volume and trabecular thickness. However, treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH) prevented these bone-related complications of diabetes. In-vitro study of BMSCs showed that high glucose treatment increased arginase activity and decreased nitric oxide production. These effects were reversed by treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH). Our study provides evidence that deregulation of l-arginine metabolism plays a vital role in HFHS diet-induced diabetic complications and that these complications can be prevented by treatment with arginase inhibitors. The modulation of l-arginine metabolism in disease could offer a novel therapeutic approach for osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal related diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hemphill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation.

  3. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (Pcontent of plasma cholesterol was lowered and that of TAG was upgraded in both the groups when fed the HSF diet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (Pbacterial diversity and composition in obese rats were less altered after the HSF diet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet.

  4. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels.

  5. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F; Macintosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Mann, J Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E

    2014-05-01

    Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, alters unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations and reduces AA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Kyung Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  7. Increased plasma ghrelin suppresses insulin release in wethers fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. High-fat diet determines the composition of the murine gut microbiome independently of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Marie A; Hoffmann, Christian; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Keilbaugh, Sue A; Hamady, Micah; Chen, Ying-Yu; Knight, Rob; Ahima, Rexford S; Bushman, Frederic; Wu, Gary D

    2009-11-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome is affected by host phenotype, genotype, immune function, and diet. Here, we used the phenotype of RELMbeta knockout (KO) mice to assess the influence of these factors. Both wild-type and RELMbeta KO mice were lean on a standard chow diet, but, upon switching to a high-fat diet, wild-type mice became obese, whereas RELMbeta KO mice remained comparatively lean. To investigate the influence of diet, genotype, and obesity on microbiome composition, we used deep sequencing to characterize 25,790 16S rDNA sequences from uncultured bacterial communities from both genotypes on both diets. We found large alterations associated with switching to the high-fat diet, including a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in both Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. This was seen for both genotypes (ie, in the presence and absence of obesity), indicating that the high-fat diet itself, and not the obese state, mainly accounted for the observed changes in the gut microbiota. The RELMbeta genotype also modestly influenced microbiome composition independently of diet. Metagenomic analysis of 537,604 sequence reads documented extensive changes in gene content because of a high-fat diet, including an increase in transporters and 2-component sensor responders as well as a general decrease in metabolic genes. Unexpectedly, we found a substantial amount of murine DNA in our samples that increased in proportion on a high-fat diet. These results demonstrate the importance of diet as a determinant of gut microbiome composition and suggest the need to control for dietary variation when evaluating the composition of the human gut microbiome.

  9. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (Pgarlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  10. Pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome: The onset of natural recovery on withdrawal of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ankita; Kalita, Himadri; Chandra Boruah, Dulal; Chandra Kalita, Mohan; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-10-01

    Chronic consumption of high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) diet induces metabolic syndrome (MetS) and markedly impairs the ultra-structure of organs. To our knowledge, no scientific study has yet to report the effect of withdrawal of an HCHF diet on MetS-associated ultra-structural abnormalities in affected organs and tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic withdrawal of the HCHF diet, specifically with a pathophysiological approach. Wister albino rats (N = 72) were divided into three groups: Groups A and B were fed a standard basal diet and an HCHF diet, respectively, for 16 wk. Group C was on an HCHF diet for the initial 12 wk and then returned to basal diet for 4 wk. Histopathological changes in the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidney, white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and hippocampus of the brain were monitored at 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk. Lipid droplets (LDs) in liver, fibrosis in the pancreas, abnormalities in the glomerulus of the kidney, and an increase in the size of adipocytes were observed in groups B and C at week 12. Withdrawal of the HCHF diet in group C showed the onset of regenerative features at the ultra-structural level. HCHF diet-fed rats in group B had higher body weights; raised lipid profiles, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance than basal diet-fed rats in group A and HCHF to basal diet-fed rats in group C at week 16. An HCHF diet induces ultra-structural abnormalities, which are significantly reversed by subchronic withdrawal of a MetS-inducing HCHF diet, indicating the onset of natural recovery at the ultra-structural level of affected organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fish oil alleviated high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via regulating hepatic lipids metabolism and metaflammation: a transcriptomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; Li, Qi; He, Lei; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Intake of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is believed to be beneficial against development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was to gain further understanding of the potential mechanisms of the protective effects of fish oil against NAFLD. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control diet (CON), a Western style high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (WD), or a WD diet containing fish oil (FOH) for 16 weeks respectively. The development of liver steatosis and fibrosis were verified by histological and biochemical examination. Hepatic transcriptome were extracted for RNA-seq analysis, and particular results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The consumption of fish oil significantly ameliorated WD-induced dyslipidemia, transaminase elevation, hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis showed that long-term intake of fish oil restored the expression of circadian clock-related genes per2 and per3, which were reduced in WD fed animals. Fish oil consumption also corrected the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism, such as Srebf1, Fasn, Scd1, Insig2, Cd36, Cyp7a1, Abcg5, Abcg8 and Pcsk9. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammation genes Mcp1, Socs2, Sema4a, and Cd44 in the FOH group were lower than that of WD group, implying that fish oil protects the liver against WD-induced hepatic inflammation. The present study demonstrates fish oil protects against WD-induced NALFD via improving lipid metabolism and ameliorating hepatic inflammation. Our findings add to the current understanding on the benefits of n-3 PUFAs against NAFLD.

  12. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...... at 19 weeks. From 19-30 weeks all groups were fed the same commercial pre-layer and layer diets. Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (eg. 75, 100, 110 and 92 g feed/bird/d in week 16 for A, B, C and D, respectively). The higher amounts of food offered on the high fibre...

  13. Effects of high fat diet on incidence of spontaneous tumors in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KRISTIANSEN, E.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    In a 2.5-year carcinogenicity study, two groups, both including male and female Wistar rats, were fed two different diets with 4% and 16% fat. In addition to 4% soybean oil, the high-fat diet contained 12% mono- and diglycerides, of which 85% was stearic acid and 13% palmitic acid...

  14. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  15. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy

  16. High sugar diet disrupts gut homeostasis though JNK and STAT pathways in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Jin, Qiuxia; Jin, Li Hua

    2017-06-10

    The incidence of diseases associated with a high sugar diet has increased in the past years, and numerous studies have focused on the effect of high sugar intake on obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, how a high sugar diet influences gut homeostasis is still poorly understood. In this study, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism and supplemented a culture medium with 1 M sucrose to create a high sugar condition. Our results indicate that a high sugar diet promoted differentiation of intestinal stem cells through upregulation of the JNK pathway and downregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, the number of commensal bacteria decreased in the high sugar group. Our data suggests that the high caloric diet disrupts gut homeostasis and highlights Drosophila as an ideal model system to explore gastrointestinal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Activation of hindbrain neurons in response to gastrointestinal lipid is attenuated by high fat, high energy diets in mice prone to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2009-01-12

    Food intake is controlled by peripheral signals from the gastrointestinal tract and adipocytes, which are integrated within the central nervous system. There is evidence that signals from the GI tract are modulated by long term changes in diet, possibly leading to hyperphagia and increased body weight. We tested the hypothesis that diet-induced obese-prone (DIO-P) and obese-resistant (DIO-R) mice strains differ in the long term adaptive response of the gut-brain pathway to a high fat diet. Immunochemical detection of Fos protein was used as a measure of neuronal activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in response to intragastric administration of lipid in DIO-P (C57Bl6) and DIO-R (129sv) mouse strains maintained on chow or high fat, high energy diets (45% or 60% kcal from fat). Intragastric lipid administration activated neurons in the NTS in both DIO-P and DIO-R mice; the number of activated neurons was significantly greater in DIO-P than in DIO-R mice (Pdiet, for 4 or 8 weeks, compared to chow fed controls (Pdiet (45% or 60%) had no effect on lipid-induced activation of NTS neurons. These results demonstrate that DIO-P and DIO-R mice strains differ in the adaptation of the pathway to long term ingestion of high fat diets, which may contribute to decrease satiation and increased food intake.

  18. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sunwoo; Bamba, Takeshi; Suyama, Tatsuya; Ishijima, Tomoko; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A high phosphorus (HP) diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus) or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus). Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054) in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty acids

  19. Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic high-sucrose diet increases fibroblast growth factor 21 production and energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Ryuya; Seino, Yusuke; Ogata, Hidetada; Murase, Masatoshi; Iida, Atsushi; Hosokawa, Kaori; Joo, Erina; Harada, Norio; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Excess carbohydrate intake causes obesity in humans. On the other hand, acute administration of fructose, glucose or sucrose in experimental animals has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of anti-obesity hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which contribute to reducing body weight. However, the secretion and action of GLP-1 and FGF21 in mice chronically fed a high-sucrose diet has not been investigated. To address the role of anti-obesity hormones in response to increased sucrose intake, we analyzed mice fed a high-sucrose diet, a high-starch diet or a normal diet for 15 weeks. Mice fed a high-sucrose diet showed resistance to body weight gain, in comparison with mice fed a high-starch diet or control diet, due to increased energy expenditure. Plasma FGF21 levels were highest among the three groups in mice fed a high-sucrose diet, whereas no significant difference in GLP-1 levels was observed. Expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) and β-klotho (KLB) mRNA in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in high sucrose-fed mice, suggesting increases in FGF21 sensitivity and energy expenditure. Expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) mRNA in liver and brown adipose tissue was also increased in high sucrose-fed mice. These results indicate that FGF21 production in liver and brown adipose tissue is increased in high-sucrose diet and participates in resistance to weight gain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of High-Fat Diet upon Inflammatory Markers and Aortic Stiffening in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bento Chaves Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle such as increase in high-fat food consumption are an important cause for vascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of ACE and TGF-β in the aorta stiffness induced by high-fat diet. C57BL/6 male mice were divided in two groups according to their diet for 8 weeks: standard diet (ST and high-fat diet (HF. At the end of the protocol, body weight gain, adipose tissue content, serum lipids and glucose levels, and aorta morphometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Analysis of collagen fibers by picrosirius staining of aorta slices showed that HF diet promoted increase of thin (55% and thick (100% collagen fibers deposition and concomitant disorganization of these fibers orientations in the aorta vascular wall (50%. To unravel the mechanism involved, myeloperoxidase (MPO and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE were evaluated by protein expression and enzyme activity. HF diet increased MPO (90% and ACE (28% activities, as well as protein expression of ACE. TGF-β was also increased in aorta tissue of HF diet mice after 8 weeks. Altogether, we have observed that the HF diet-induced aortic stiffening may be associated with increased oxidative stress damage and activation of the RAS in vascular tissue.

  2. Impact of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-01-01

    In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review focusing on the effects of HC diet on glucose, lipids and body weight in patients with T2DM. In this review, we examined recently-published literature on the effects of HC diets on metabolic parameters in T2DM. HC diets are at least as effective as LC diets, leading to significant weight loss and a reduction in plasma glucose, HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The major concern is that HC diets may raise serum triglyceride levels and reduce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, these untoward effects were not a persistent consequence and may be ameliorated with the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI)/low glycemic load (GL) and high fiber. Carbohydrate intake should be individualized, and low caloric intake remains a crucial factor to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce body weight; however, an HC diet, rich in fiber and with a low GI/GL, may be recommendable in patients with T2DM. PMID:28338608

  3. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  4. Impact of maternal high fat diet on hypothalamic transcriptome in neonatal Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Barrand

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during early development has been shown to impact the formation of hypothalamic neurocircuitry, thereby contributing to imbalances in appetite and energy homeostasis and increasing the risk of obesity in subsequent generations. Early in postnatal life, the neuronal projections responsible for energy homeostasis develop in response to appetite-related peptides such as leptin. To date, no study characterises the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur in response to exposure to high fat diet during this critical window. We explored the effects of maternal high fat diet consumption on hypothalamic gene expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring at postnatal day 10. RNA-sequencing enabled discovery of differentially expressed genes between offspring of dams fed a high fat diet and offspring of control diet fed dams. Female high fat diet offspring displayed altered expression of 86 genes (adjusted P-value<0.05, including genes coding for proteins of the extra cellular matrix, particularly Collagen 1a1 (Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, and the imprinted Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2 gene. Male high fat diet offspring showed significant changes in collagen genes (Col1a1 and Col3a1 and significant upregulation of two genes involved in regulation of dopamine availability in the brain, tyrosine hydroxylase (Th and dopamine reuptake transporter Slc6a3 (also known as Dat1. Transcriptional changes were accompanied by increased body weight, body fat and body length in the high fat diet offspring, as well as altered blood glucose and plasma leptin. Transcriptional changes identified in the hypothalamus of offspring of high fat diet mothers could alter neuronal projection formation during early development leading to abnormalities in the neuronal circuitry controlling appetite in later life, hence priming offspring to the development of obesity.

  5. A free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces changes in arcuate neuropeptide expression that support hyperphagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S. E.; van Rozen, A. J.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; Groeneweg, F.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms for how saturated fat and sugar-based beverages contribute to human obesity are poorly understood. This paper describes a series of experiments developed to examine the response of hypothalamic neuropeptides to diets rich in sugar and fat, using three different diets: a high-fat

  6. Limited efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of highly refractory epileptic spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaun A; Shin, Ji Hyun; Shih, Evan J; Murata, Kristina K; Sewak, Sarika; Kezele, Michele E; Sankar, Raman; Matsumoto, Joyce H

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the ketogenic diet is effective in the treatment of epileptic spasms, even in refractory cases. However, there has been very limited demonstration of prompt and complete (video-EEG confirmed) response. We set out to describe our center's experience with the ketogenic diet in the treatment of children with highly refractory epileptic spasms, with rigorous seizure outcome assessment. Children treated with the ketogenic diet for epileptic spasms between April, 2010 and June, 2014 were retrospectively identified. Seizure burden was tabulated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12-months of ketogenic diet exposure. Adverse events were similarly ascertained. We identified a cohort of 22 consecutive patients who received ketogenic diet therapy, with median age of onset of epileptic spasms of 5.2 (IQR 2.0-9.0) months, with diet initiation beginning a median of 26.4 (12.5-38.7) months after onset, and following a median of 7 (IQR 5-7) treatment failures. Only 2 patients exhibited a complete response during ketogenic diet exposure, and response was more reasonably attributed to alternative therapies in both cases. A modest early reduction in seizure frequency was not sustained beyond 1 month of diet exposure. The diet was well tolerated, and continued in 6 patients with subjective and/or partial response. In contrast to prior studies reporting substantial efficacy of the ketogenic diet, our findings suggest limited efficacy, albeit in a highly refractory cohort. Prospective studies in both refractory and new-onset populations, with both video-EEG confirmation of response and rigorous cognitive outcome assessment, would be of great value to more clearly define the utility of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic spasms. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal

    Full Text Available The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON or high-energy (OVE diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation.

  8. High fat diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid and mitochondrial-membrane protein signatures precede the development of hepatic insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, M; Schäfer, A; Seelig, A; Schultheiß, J; Wu, M; Aichler, M; Leonhardt, J; Rathkolb, B; Rozman, J; Sarioglu, H; Hauck, S M; Ueffing, M; Wolf, E; Kastenmueller, G; Adamski, J; Walch, A; Hrabé de Angelis, M; Neschen, S

    2015-01-01

    Excess lipid intake has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatosteatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. Lipids constitute approximately 50% of the cell membrane mass, define membrane properties, and create microenvironments for membrane-proteins. In this study we aimed to resolve temporal alterations in membrane metabolite and protein signatures during high-fat diet (HF)-mediated development of hepatic insulin resistance. We induced hepatosteatosis by feeding C3HeB/FeJ male mice an HF enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 fatty acids for 7, 14, or 21 days. Longitudinal changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed via the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, in membrane lipids via t-metabolomics- and membrane proteins via quantitative proteomics-analyses, and in hepatocyte morphology via electron microscopy. Data were compared to those of age- and litter-matched controls maintained on a low-fat diet. Excess long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 intake for 7 days did not compromise hepatic insulin sensitivity, however, induced hepatosteatosis and modified major membrane lipid constituent signatures in liver, e.g. increased total unsaturated, long-chain fatty acid-containing acyl-carnitine or membrane-associated diacylglycerol moieties and decreased total short-chain acyl-carnitines, glycerophosphocholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, or sphingolipids. Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease within 14 days HF-exposure. Overt hepatic insulin resistance developed until day 21 of HF-intervention and was accompanied by morphological mitochondrial abnormalities and indications for oxidative stress in liver. HF-feeding progressively decreased the abundance of protein-components of all mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, inner and outer mitochondrial membrane substrate transporters independent from the hepatocellular mitochondrial volume in liver. We assume HF-induced modifications in membrane lipid- and protein-signatures prior to and

  9. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  10. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  11. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low

  12. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucrose

  13. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  14. Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Schothorst, E. M.; Flachs, Pavel; Franssen-van Hal, N.; Kuda, Ondřej; Bunschoten, A.; Molthoff, J.; Vink, C.; Hooiveld, G. J.E.J.; Kopecký, Jan; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 10 (2009), s. 1-11 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant - others:Nature management and food quality(NL) 8037173901; Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs through the Innovation Oriented Research Program on Genomics(NL) IGE01016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : PUFA * small intestinal Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.759, year: 2009

  15. Anti-obesity effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice fed high-fat diet is independent of cold-induced thermogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovská, Petra; Flachs, Pavel; Kazdová, L.; Kopecký, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2013), s. 153-161 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0226; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : marine lipids * obesity * thermoneutrality * indirect calorimetry * metabolic syndrome Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  16. Alterations of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in ovarian tissues of polycystic ovary syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Xue, Xinli; Li, Shengxian; Wang, Yuying; Sun, Yun; Liu, Wei; Yin, Huiyong; Tao, Tao

    2018-03-30

    The metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remains poorly characterized in ovarian tissues of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study aimed to explore alterations in the levels of PUFAs and their metabolites in serum and ovarian tissues in a PCOS rat model treated with a high-fat diet and andronate. Levels of PUFAs and their metabolites were measured using gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after the establishment of a PCOS rat model. Only 3 kinds of PUFAs [linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid] were detected in both the circulation and ovarian tissues of the rats, and their concentrations were lower in ovarian tissues than in serum. Moreover, significant differences in the ovarian levels of AA were observed between control, high-fat diet-fed and PCOS rats. The levels of prostaglandins, AA metabolites via the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, in ovarian tissues of the PCOS group were significantly increased compared to those in the controls. Further studies on the mechanism underlying this phenomenon showed a correlation between decreased expression of phosphorylated cytosolic phospholipase A2 (p-cPLA2) and increased mRNA and protein expression of COX2, potentially leading to a deeper understanding of altered AA and prostaglandin levels in ovarian tissues of PCOS rats. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. A free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces glucose intolerance and insulin unresponsiveness to a glucose load not explained by obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S. E.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; van Rozen, A. J.; Kalsbeek, A.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In diet-induced obesity, it is not clear whether impaired glucose metabolism is caused directly by the diet, or indirectly via obesity. This study examined the effects of different free-choice, high-caloric, obesity-inducing diets on glucose metabolism. In these free-choice diets,

  18. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  19. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bosse, John D.; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E. Dale; Pereira, Troy J.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Symons, J. David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-...

  20. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs...... (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease....... Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated...

  1. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  2. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  3. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  4. Effect of the preparation of canned "crumbled anchovy" (Engraulis ringens) on polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Ordoñez, Lenny R.; Hernánde, Eloisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) is a major fishery resources exploited in Peru. It is rich source of proteins of high biological value and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The objective was to determine the effect of the process of preparing the canned "crumbled anchovy" with emphasis on polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids and true content of them in canning. It was developed following the standardized technology by the Institu...

  5. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavon...

  6. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Vellers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels.Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD or high fat/high sugar (HFHS diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males and 17β-estradiol (females to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity.Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀ were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001 and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001. The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28% and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%. In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat.Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones.

  7. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-01-01

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD 10 dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 ± 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 ± 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-α2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating the JAK/STAT3

  8. High energy diets-induced metabolic and prediabetic painful polyneuropathy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xie

    Full Text Available To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals.

  9. High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun-Feng; Jiao, Kai; Costigan, Michael; Chen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD) or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD) relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF) as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF) in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose) could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt) deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals. PMID:23451227

  10. Effects of High Fat Diet and Physical Exercise on Glucose Tolelance and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    福田,哲也

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the interrelationships between the westernized diet and physical exercise as they affect the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), adiposity, glucose tolerance and insulin response to an intraperitoneal glucose load (1.5g/kg bw) and insulin sensitivity to exogenous insulin (0.2U/kg bw) were studied in spontaneously exercised and sedentary rats fed either a high fat diet (40% fat, modern western type) or a low fat diet (10% fat, traditional Japanese typ...

  11. A butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and of n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in rat serum and hearts than a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, K; Ozeki, Y; Nakano, T; Takezoe, R; Nakanishi, M; Asano, Y; Higuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 47-week diet of butter or safflower oil as fat in combination with casein or soy protein as protein were observed for the serum concentrations of lipids and fatty acid compositions in rat serum and heart. Serum total cholesterol (Chol) did not differ among the four experimental diet groups. In the butter groups, significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-Chol and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-Chol were observed than in the safflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups, the butter groups showed higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents and lower n-6 PUFA contents in serum and the hearts (psafflower oil groups of under 0.01 in serum and 0.02 and 0.03 in the hearts (safflower oil-casein diet and safflower oil-soy protein diet, respectively) (psafflower oil diet in rat serum and hearts over a long feeding period.

  12. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M.; Crump, Erica M.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet con...

  13. Neuroinflammation and aging: influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layé Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.

  14. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ching-Hsiu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2 and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY. Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  15. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Hung, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Yang, Ching-Hsiu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2008-01-01

    Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2) and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY). Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:18822121

  16. High Phenolics Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce Improves Glucose Metabolism in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M.; Roopchand, Diana E.; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Armas, Isabel; Johnson, William D.; Oren, Andrew; Ribnicky, David; Zelzion, Ehud; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Scope The ability of high phenolic Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) to attenuate metabolic syndrome and gut dysbiosis was studied in very high fat diet (VHFD)-fed mice. Phenolic absorption was assessed in vivo and in a gastrointestinal tract model. Methods and results Mice were fed VHFD, VHFD supplemented with RSL (RSL-VHFD) or store-purchased green lettuce (GL-VHFD), or low-fat diet (LFD) for 13 weeks. Compared to VHFD or GL-VHFD-fed groups, RSL-VHFD group showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (p<0.05). Comparison of VHFD, RSL-VHFD, and GL-VHFD groups revealed no significant differences with respect to insulin tolerance, hepatic lipids, body weight gain, fat mass, plasma glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acid, and lipopolysaccharide levels, as well as relative abundances of major bacterial phyla from 16S rDNA amplicon data sequences (from fecal and cecal samples). However, RSL and GL-supplementation increased abundance of several taxa involved in plant polysaccharide degradation/fermentation. RSL phenolics chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside were bioaccessible in the TIM-1 digestion model, but had relatively low recovery. Conclusions RSL phenolics contributed to attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia. Changes in gut microbiota were likely due to microbiota accessible carbohydrates in RSL and GL rather than RSL phenolics, which may be metabolized, absorbed, or degraded before reaching the colon. PMID:27529448

  17. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  18. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  19. The efficacy of a high protein/low glycemic index diet intervention in non-obese patients with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Astrup, Arne

    2018-01-01

    intervention consisted of a high protein and low GI diet whilst the control group continued habitual diet. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients in the diet and 34 in the control group completed the study. The diet group reduced their energy intake by ~20% and had high dietary compliance. Intake of fatty fish doubled......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: EFFORT Asthma study is a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effects of diet and exercise in non-obese, untrained patients with asthma. We here present results from a subgroup of participants in the diet and control group to assess the feasibility of a high...... protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet and the effects on body composition. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Of the 149 subjects who were included in the study, 76 subjects (30 males) were randomized into either a diet group (n = 38) or a control group (n = 38) and included in the present analysis. The 8 week...

  20. Balanced high fat diet reduces cardiovascular risk in obese women although changes in adipose tissue, lipoproteins, and insulin resistance differ by race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswender, Kevin D; Fazio, Sergio; Gower, Barbara A; Silver, Heidi J

    2018-05-01

    We previously reported that consuming a balanced high fat diet (BHFD) wherein total saturated fat was reduced and total unsaturated fat increased by proportionately balancing the type of fat (1/3 saturated, 1/3 monounsaturated, 1/3 polyunsaturated) led to significant improvements in inflammatory burden, blood pressure, and vascular function in obese premenopausal European American (EA) and African American (AA) women. Here we compared changes in adipose tissue, lipoproteins, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk between EA and AA women. Dietary intakes, plasma fatty acids, lipids, apolipoproteins, lipoproteins, HOMA-IR and ASCVD risk was measured in 144 women who consumed BHFD for 16 weeks. Generalized linear modeling was performed while controlling for change in body weight. EA women had greater reductions in visceral adipose tissue. Only EA women had significant reductions in fasting insulin levels (↓24.8%) and HOMA-IR (↓29%) scores. In EA women, the most significant improvements occurred in VLDL particle size (↑), apolipoprotein B levels (↑), serum TG (↓), number of plasma LDL particles (↓), and serum LDL-cholesterol (↓). In AA women, significant improvements occurred in HDL particle size (↑), number of large HDL particles (↑), and apolipoprotein AI levels (↑). Consequently, both groups had improved ASCVD risk scores (↓5.5%). Consuming the balanced high fat diet led to significant reduction in cardiovascular risk factors in both groups. However, the pattern of response to BHFD differed with EA women responding more in components of the apolipoprotein B pathway versus AA women responding more in components of the apolipoprotein AI pathway. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies

    OpenAIRE

    Racette, Susan B.; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M.; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify th...

  2. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Rauckhorst, Adam J.; Gray, Lawrence R.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D.; Feddersen, Charlotte R.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Cox, James E.; Burgess, Shawn C.; Taylor, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. T...

  3. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  4. Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Coelho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.

  5. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal, and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group. Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  6. High fat diet and exercise lead to a disrupted and pathogenic DNA methylome in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Hlady, Ryan A; Schafer, Marissa J; White, Thomas A; Liu, Chen; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Miller, Jordan D; Roberts, Lewis R; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Robertson, Keith D

    2017-01-02

    High-fat diet consumption and sedentary lifestyle elevates risk for obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. Exercise training conveys health benefits in populations with or without these chronic conditions. Diet and exercise regulate gene expression by mediating epigenetic mechanisms in many tissues; however, such effects are poorly documented in the liver, a central metabolic organ. To dissect the consequences of diet and exercise on the liver epigenome, we measured DNA methylation, using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, and transcription, using RNA-seq, in mice maintained on a fast food diet with sedentary lifestyle or exercise, compared with control diet with and without exercise. Our analyses reveal that genome-wide differential DNA methylation and expression of gene clusters are induced by diet and/or exercise. A combination of fast food and exercise triggers extensive gene alterations, with enrichment of carbohydrate/lipid metabolic pathways and muscle developmental processes. Through evaluation of putative protective effects of exercise on diet-induced DNA methylation, we show that hypermethylation is effectively prevented, especially at promoters and enhancers, whereas hypomethylation is only partially attenuated. We assessed diet-induced DNA methylation changes associated with liver cancer-related epigenetic modifications and identified significant increases at liver-specific enhancers in fast food groups, suggesting partial loss of liver cell identity. Hypermethylation at a subset of gene promoters was associated with inhibition of tissue development and promotion of carcinogenic processes. Our study demonstrates extensive reprogramming of the epigenome by diet and exercise, emphasizing the functional relevance of epigenetic mechanisms as an interface between lifestyle modifications and phenotypic alterations.

  7. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Tidehag, Per; Erik Bach Knudsen, Knud; Moazzami, Ali A; Aman, Per

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  8. High-level adherence to a Mediterranean diet beneficially impacts the gut microbiota and associated metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Vannini, Lucia; Jeffery, Ian B; La Storia, Antonietta; Laghi, Luca; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ferrocino, Ilario; Lazzi, Camilla; Turroni, Silvia; Cocolin, Luca; Brigidi, Patrizia; Neviani, Erasmo; Gobbetti, Marco; O'Toole, Paul W; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-11-01

    Habitual diet plays a major role in shaping the composition of the gut microbiota, and also determines the repertoire of microbial metabolites that can influence the host. The typical Western diet corresponds to that of an omnivore; however, the Mediterranean diet (MD), common in the Western Mediterranean culture, is to date a nutritionally recommended dietary pattern that includes high-level consumption of cereals, fruit, vegetables and legumes. To investigate the potential benefits of the MD in this cross-sectional survey, we assessed the gut microbiota and metabolome in a cohort of Italian individuals in relation to their habitual diets. We retrieved daily dietary information and assessed gut microbiota and metabolome in 153 individuals habitually following omnivore, vegetarian or vegan diets. The majority of vegan and vegetarian subjects and 30% of omnivore subjects had a high adherence to the MD. We were able to stratify individuals according to both diet type and adherence to the MD on the basis of their dietary patterns and associated microbiota. We detected significant associations between consumption of vegetable-based diets and increased levels of faecal short-chain fatty acids, Prevotella and some fibre-degrading Firmicutes, whose role in human gut warrants further research. Conversely, we detected higher urinary trimethylamine oxide levels in individuals with lower adherence to the MD. High-level consumption of plant foodstuffs consistent with an MD is associated with beneficial microbiome-related metabolomic profiles in subjects ostensibly consuming a Western diet. This study was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT02118857. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Carol S; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Swan, Pamela D

    2004-03-01

    Although popular and effective for weight loss, low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat (Atkins) diets have been associated with adverse changes in blood and renal biomarkers. High-protein diets low in fat may represent an equally appealing diet plan but promote a more healthful weight loss. Healthy adults (n = 20) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 low-fat (vs. the high-carbohydrate diet (3.9 +/- 1.4 and 0.7 +/- 1.7 g N/d, respectively, P low-fat, energy-restricted diets of varying protein content (15 or 30% energy) promoted healthful weight loss, but diet satisfaction was greater in those consuming the high-protein diet.

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors, GPR40 and GPR120, are expressed in the hypothalamus and control energy homeostasis and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragano, Nathalia R V; Solon, Carina; Ramalho, Albina F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats is one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. GPR120 and GPR40 are polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors that exert a number of systemic effects that are beneficial...... for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluate the expression and potential role of hypothalamic GPR120 and GPR40 as targets for the treatment of obesity. METHODS: Male Swiss (6-weeks old), were fed with a high fat diet (HFD, 60% of kcal from fat) for 4 weeks. Next, mice underwent stereotaxic...... the treatment period. At the end of the experiment, the hypothalamus was collected for real-time PCR analysis. RESULTS: We show that both receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus; GPR120 is primarily present in microglia, whereas GPR40 is expressed in neurons. Upon intracerebroventricular treatment, GW9508...

  11. Effects of a high protein diet on cognition and brain metabolism in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-López, M; Méndez, M; Arias, J; Arias, J L

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological complication observed in patients with liver disease. Patients who suffer from HE present neuropsychiatric, neuromuscular and behavioral symptoms. Animal models proposed to study HE resulting from cirrhosis mimic the clinical characteristics of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and require the administration of hepatotoxins such as thioacetamide (TAA). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a high protein diet on motor function, anxiety and memory processes in a model of cirrhosis induced by TAA administration. In addition, we used cytochrome c-oxidase (COx) histochemistry to assess the metabolic activity of the limbic system regions. Male rats were distributed into groups: control, animals with cirrhosis, Control rats receiving a high protein diet, and animals with cirrhosis receiving a high protein diet. Results showed preserved motor function and normal anxiety levels in all the groups. The animals with cirrhosis showed an impairment in active avoidance behavior and spatial memory, regardless of the diet they received. However, the animals with cirrhosis and a high protein diet showed longer escape latencies on the spatial memory task. The model of cirrhosis presented an under-activation of the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subfields and the medial part of the medial mammillary nucleus. The results suggest that a high protein intake worsens spatial memory deficits shown by the TAA-induced model of cirrhosis. However, high protein ingestion has no influence on the COx hypoactivity associated with the model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Diet High in Palmitoleic Acid on Serum Lipid Levels and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    that originated in Australia, has taining substantial amounts of olive oil, a become a primary export crop from Ha- substance with high concentrations...monounsaturated fatty the pilot study, although the high-dose macadamia nut acids, enriched with avocado , and a high-carbohydrate diet. AmdClinNutr

  13. Influence of high glycine diets on the activity of glycine-catabolizing enzymes and on glycine catabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Przybilski, H.

    1986-01-01

    Male albino rats were adapted to isocaloric purified diets that differed mainly in their glycine and casein contents. Controls received a 30% casein diet. In experimental diets gelatin or gelatin hydrolysate was substituted for half of the 30% casein. An additional group was fed a glycine-supplemented diet, which corresponded in glycine level to the gelatin diet but in which the protein level was nearly the same as that of the casein control diet. Another group received a 15% casein diet. Rat liver glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and serine dehydratase activities were measured. 14 CO 2 production from the catabolism of 14 C-labeled glycine was measured in vivo and in vitro (from isolated hepatocytes). Serine dehydratase and glycine cleavage system activities were higher in animals fed 30% casein diets than in those fed 15% casein diets. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was highest when a high glycine diet (glycine administered as pure, protein bound in gelatin or peptide bound in gelatin hydrolysate) was fed. 14 CO 2 formation from [1- 14 C]- and [2- 14 C]glycine both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes was higher when a high glycine diet was fed than when a casein diet was fed. These results suggest that glycine catabolism is dependent on and adaptable to the glycine content of the diet. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase appears to play a major role in the regulation of glycine degradation via serine and pyruvate

  14. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  16. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  17. Effect of High Fat and High Sugar Diet on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Response to Glucose Load and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    岡﨑, 悟

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the precipitating effects of the westernized diet on diabetes mellitus, glucose tolerance and insulin response to oral glucose load (1.5g/kg body weight) and insulin sensitivity to exogenous insulin (0.2U/kg) were studied in rats fed an experimental diet for 8 weeks. Four experimental diets were used : low fat-no sugar diet (energy ratio of 10% fat, 70% starch, a model of the traditional Japanese diet), high fat-high sugar diet (40% fat, 20% starch, 20% sugar, a model of the we...

  18. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwoo Chun

    Full Text Available A high phosphorus (HP diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα, a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054 in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty

  19. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  20. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunologic and metabolic effects of high-refined carbohydrate-containing diet in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Letícia Tamie Paiva; de Oliveira, Marina Chaves; Batista, Nathália Vieira; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Pereira, Rafaela Vaz Sousa; Perez, Denise Alves; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Cara, Denise Carmona; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos

    2016-02-01

    Allergic mice show a reduction in body weight and adiposity with a higher inflammatory response in the adipose tissue similar to obese fat tissue. This study aimed to evaluate whether the low-grade inflammatory milieu of mice with diet-induced mild obesity interferes with the allergic response induced by ovalbumin (OVA). BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: 1) non-allergic (OVA-) mice fed chow diet, 2) allergic (OVA+) mice fed chow diet, 3) OVA- mice fed high-refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet, and 4) OVA+ mice fed HC diet. After 5 wk, allergic groups were sensitized with OVA and received a booster 14 d later. All groups received an oral OVA challenge 7 d after the booster. Allergic groups showed increased serum levels of total IgE, anti-OVA IgE, and IgG1; a high disease activity index score; aversion to OVA; and increased intestinal eosinophil infiltration. Non-allergic mild-obese mice also showed aversion to OVA and an increased number of eosinophils in the proximal jejunum. After the allergic challenge, OVA+ mice fed chow diet showed weight loss and lower adiposity in several adipose tissue depots. OVA+ mice fed HC diet showed a loss of fat mass only in the mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, increased levels of TNF, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed in this tissue. Our data show that mild-obese allergic mice do not present severe pathologic features of food allergy similar to those exhibited by lean allergic mice. Mild obesity promoted by HC diet ingestion causes important intestinal disorders that appear to modulate the inflammatory response during the antigen challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eCai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects.

  3. Role of high-fat diet in stress response of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erilynn T Heinrichsen

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with many diseases, one of the most common being obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, which in turn leads to blood gas disturbances, including intermittent hypoxia (IH. Obesity, OSA and IH are associated with metabolic changes, and while much mammalian work has been done, mechanisms underlying the response to IH, the role of obesity and the interaction of obesity and hypoxia remain unknown. As a model organism, Drosophila offers tremendous power to study a specific phenotype and, at a subsequent stage, to uncover and study fundamental mechanisms, given the conservation of molecular pathways. Herein, we characterize the phenotype of Drosophila on a high-fat diet in normoxia, IH and constant hypoxia (CH using triglyceride and glucose levels, response to stress and lifespan. We found that female flies on a high-fat diet show increased triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a shortened lifespan in normoxia, IH and CH. Furthermore, flies on a high-fat diet in normoxia and CH show diminished tolerance to stress, with decreased survival after exposure to extreme cold or anoxia (p<0.001. Of interest, IH seems to rescue this decreased cold tolerance, as flies on a high-fat diet almost completely recovered from cold stress following IH. We conclude that the cross talk between hypoxia and a high-fat diet can be either deleterious or compensatory, depending on the nature of the hypoxic treatment.

  4. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  5. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  6. Maternal high-fat diet intensifies the metabolic response to stress in male rat offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Dargahi, Leila; Salimi, Mina; Rashidi, FatemehSadat

    2017-01-01

    Background The mother?s consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. Methods Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in a...

  7. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  8. A maternal high-protein diet predisposes female offspring to increased fat mass in adulthood whereas a prebiotic fibre diet decreases fat mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-11-14

    The negative effects of malnourishment in utero have been widely explored; the effects of increased maternal macronutrient intake are not known in relation to high fibre, and have been inconclusive with regard to high protein. In the present study, virgin Wistar dams were fed either a control (C), high-protein (40 %, w/w; HP) or high-prebiotic fibre (21·6 %, w/w; HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups consumed the C diet from 3 to 14·5 weeks of age, and then switched to a high-fat/sucrose diet for 8 weeks. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed and plasma satiety hormones measured. The final body weight and the percentage of body fat were significantly affected by the interaction between maternal diet and offspring sex: weight and fat mass were higher in the female offspring of the HP v. HF dams. No differences in body weight or fat mass were seen in the male offspring. There was a significant sex effect for fasting and total AUC for ghrelin and fasting GIP, with females having higher levels than males. Liver TAG content and plasma NEFA were lower in the offspring of high-prebiotic fibre dams (HF1) than in those of high-protein dams (HP1) and control dams (C1). Intestinal expression of GLUT2 was decreased in HF1 and HP1 v. C1. The maternal HP and HF diets had lasting effects on body fat and hepatic TAG accumulation in the offspring, particularly in females. Whereas the HP diet predisposes to an obese phenotype, the maternal HF diet appears to reduce the susceptibility to obesity following a high-energy diet challenge in adulthood.

  9. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

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    Hye-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD- induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

  10. Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and High Muscular Fitness Are Associated with a Healthier Cardiometabolic Profile in Collegiate Students

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the combined association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet and muscular fitness (MF with cardiometabolic health in collegiate students. The present cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1248 (714 females healthy collegiate students (20.1 ± 2.7 years old. Adherence to a MedDiet was assessed by a KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index questionnaire. Standing broad jump, standing vertical jump, and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used as indicators of MF. The cardiometabolic profile was assessed using the following components: triglycerides, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, glucose, and waist circumference. Analysis of covariance shows a significant difference in the cardiometabolic profile of both genders between the high MF/low MedDiet and high MF/optimal MedDiet groups, and the low MF/low MedDiet and low MF/optimal MedDiet groups (p < 0.001. No difference was found on cardiometabolic profile between high MF/optimal MedDiet and high MF/low MedDiet, both in males and females. Additionally, logistic regression shows that both female (odds ratio (OR = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI: (1.8–3.7; p = 0.02 and male (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: (1.9–5.8; p < 0.001 participants in the optimal MedDiet/high MF group had the highest odds of expressing a healthier cardiometabolic profile as compared to those in the low MF/low MedDiet group. In conclusion, a combination of high MF levels and optimal adherence to a MedDiet is associated with a healthier cardiometabolic profile; however, high MF levels seem to circumvent the deleterious effects of having a low adherence to a MedDiet.

  11. Moderate high fat diet increases sucrose self-administration in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlewicz, Dianne P; Jay, Jennifer L; Acheson, Molly A; Magrisso, Irwin J; West, Constance H; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F

    2013-02-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Multiparity is associated with high motivation to change diet among overweight and obese postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Lori A; Pathiraja, Viranga C; Krause, Katrina; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Swamy, Geeta K; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Østbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with weight gain and obesity. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of parity and other factors on motivation to change diet to lose weight in a cohort of overweight and obese postpartum women. Active Mothers Postpartum is a randomized, controlled trial aimed at postpartum weight reduction. At baseline, we measured motivation to change diet to lose weight among 491 overweight/obese postpartum women. Logistic regression was used to model the effect of parity on motivation to change diet at baseline while adjusting for potential confounders including age, race, education, body mass index category, and breastfeeding status. Approximately two thirds (68%) of participants were highly motivated to change their diet to lose weight. In the multivariable model, women with three or more children had 2.5 times the odds of high motivation compared with primigravid women, and women not breastfeeding had 1.6 times the odds of high motivation compared with any breastfeeding. Although risk for obesity is incurred starting with a woman's first pregnancy, women in this study were more motivated to change their diet to lose weight after their third pregnancy. Further research is needed to understand how to best capitalize on the high motivation in women with several children as well as how to improve motivation for primigravid women and women who are breastfeeding. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High amylose resistant starch diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease.

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    Nosratola D Vaziri

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a major mediator of CKD progression and is partly driven by altered gut microbiome and intestinal barrier disruption, events which are caused by: urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; disruption of epithelial barrier by urea-derived ammonia leading to endotoxemia and bacterial translocation; and restriction of potassium-rich fruits and vegetables which are common sources of fermentable fiber. Restriction of these foods leads to depletion of bacteria that convert indigestible carbohydrates to short chain fatty acids which are important nutrients for colonocytes and regulatory T lymphocytes. We hypothesized that a high resistant starch diet attenuates CKD progression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks to induce CKD. Rats were then fed diets supplemented with amylopectin (low-fiber control or high fermentable fiber (amylose maize resistant starch, HAM-RS2 for 3 weeks. CKD rats consuming low fiber diet exhibited reduced creatinine clearance, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, tubular damage, activation of NFkB, upregulation of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-fibrotic molecules; impaired Nrf2 activity, down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and disruption of colonic epithelial tight junction. The high resistant starch diet significantly attenuated these abnormalities. Thus high resistant starch diet retards CKD progression and attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of HAM-RS2 in CKD patients.

  14. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  15. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts daytime overeating induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Kek, Huiling Calvina; Lim, Joy; Gelling, Richard Wayne; Han, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) induces overeating and obesity. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces HFD-induced body weight and body fat gain mainly through increased lipid metabolism and fat oxidation. However, little is known about its effect on HFD-induced alterations in feeding behavior. Three diet groups of wildtype C57B/6j male mice at 5 months old were fed on normal chow diet, 1 week of HFD (60% of energy) and 3 months of HFD (diet-induced obesity (DIO)) prior to EGCG supplement in respective diet. EGCG had no effect on feeding behavior in normal chow diet group. Increased daytime feeding induced by HFD was selectively corrected by EGCG treatment in HFD groups, including reversed food intake, feeding frequency and meal size in HFD + EGCG group, and reduced food intake and feeding frequency in DIO + EGCG group. Moreover, EGCG treatment altered diurnally oscillating expression pattern of key appetite-regulating genes, including AGRP, POMC, and CART, and key circadian genes Clock and Bmal1 in hypothalamus of DIO mice, indicating its central effect on feeding regulation. Our study demonstrates that EGCG supplement specifically counteracts daytime overeating induced by HFD in mice, suggesting its central role in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. High-fat diets and seizure control in myoclonic-astatic epilepsy: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard-Tremblay, Elisabeth; Berry, Patricia; Owens, Aaron; Cook, William Byron; Sittner, Haley R; Mazzanti, Marta; Huber, Jennifer; Warner, Molly; Shurtleff, Hillary; Saneto, Russell P

    2015-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and Ketogenic Diet (KD) in seizure control within a population of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) patients. This was a retrospective, single center study evaluating the seizure control by high fat diets. Seizure diaries kept by the parents performed seizure counts. All patients met the clinical criteria for MAE. Nine patients met the clinical criteria. We found that both the MAD and KD were efficacious in complete seizure control and allowed other medications to be stopped in seven patients. Two patients had greater than 90% seizure control without medications, one on the KD and the other on the MAD. Seizure freedom has ranged from 13 to 36 months, and during this time four patients have been fully weaned off of diet management. One patient was found to have a mutation in SLC2A1. Our results suggest that strictly defined MAE patients respond to the MAD with prolonged seizure control. Some patients may require the KD for seizure freedom, suggesting a common pathway of increased requirement for fats. Once controlled, those fully responsive to the Diet(s) could be weaned off traditional seizure medications and in many, subsequently off the MAD or KD. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal obesity and high-fat diet program offspring metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mina; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Beall, Marie; Lane, Robert H; Ross, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    We determined the potential programming effects of maternal obesity and high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and/or lactation on offspring metabolic syndrome. A rat model of maternal obesity was created using an HF diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, thereby generating 4 paradigms of maternal diets during pregnancy/lactation: (1) control (Con) diet during pregnancy and lactation (Con/Con), (2) HF during pregnancy and lactation (HF/HF), (3) HF during pregnancy alone (HF/Con), and (4) HF during lactation alone (Con/HF). Maternal phenotype during pregnancy and the end of lactation evidenced markedly elevated body fat and plasma corticosterone levels in HF dams. In the offspring, the maternal HF diet during pregnancy alone programmed increased offspring adiposity, although with normal body weight, whereas the maternal HF diet during lactation increased both body weight and adiposity. Metabolic disturbances, particularly that of hyperglycemia, were apparent in all groups exposed to the maternal HF diet (during pregnancy and/or lactation), although differences were apparent in the manifestation of insulin resistant vs insulin-deficient phenotypes. Elevated systolic blood pressure was manifest in all groups, implying that exposure to an obese/HF environment is disadvantageous for offspring health, regardless of pregnancy or lactation periods. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism may differ because offspring that experienced in utero HF exposure had increased corticosterone levels. Maternal obesity/HF diet has a marked impact on offspring body composition and the risk of metabolic syndrome was dependent on the period of exposure during pregnancy and/or lactation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise reverses metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sabeur; Meziri, Fayçal; Devaux, Sylvie; Berthelot, Alain; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet induces obesity. We investigated whether exercise would reverse the cardiometabolic disorders associated with obesity without it being necessary to change from a high- to normal-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 12 wk. HFD rats were then divided into four groups: sedentary HFD (HFD-S), exercise trained (motor treadmill for 12 wk) HFD (HFD-Ex), modified diet (HFD to CD; HF/CD-S), and exercise trained with modified diet (HF/CD-Ex). Cardiovascular risk parameters associated with metabolic syndrome were measured, and contents of aortic Akt, phospho-Akt at Ser (473), total endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and phospho-eNOS at Ser (1177) were determined by Western blotting. Chronic consumption of HFD induced a metabolic syndrome. Exercise and dietary modifications reduced adiposity, improved glucose and insulin levels and plasma lipid profile, and exerted an antihypertensive effect. Exercise was more effective than dietary modification in improving plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance and in correcting the endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and insulin. Furthermore, independent of the diet used, exercise increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. Metabolic syndrome induced by HFD is reversed by exercise and diet modification. It is demonstrated that exercise training induces these beneficial effects without the requirement for dietary modification, and these beneficial effects may be mediated by shear stress-induced Akt/eNOS pathway activation. Thus, exercise may be an effective strategy to reverse almost all the atherosclerotic risk factors linked to obesity, particularly in the vasculature.

  19. Maintaining K+ balance on the low-Na+, high-K+ diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Ryan J.; Wang, Bangchen; Wang-France, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A low-Na+, high-K+ diet (LNaHK) is considered a healthier alternative to the “Western” high-Na+ diet. Because the mechanism for K+ secretion involves Na+ reabsorptive exchange for secreted K+ in the distal nephron, it is not understood how K+ is eliminated with such low Na+ intake. Animals on a LNaHK diet produce an alkaline load, high urinary flows, and markedly elevated plasma ANG II and aldosterone levels to maintain their K+ balance. Recent studies have revealed a potential mechanism involving the actions of alkalosis, urinary flow, elevated ANG II, and aldosterone on two types of K+ channels, renal outer medullary K+ and large-conductance K+ channels, located in principal and intercalated cells. Here, we review these recent advances. PMID:26739887

  20. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  1. High-calorie diet exacerbates prostate neoplasia in mice with haploinsufficiency of Pten tumor suppressor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehnan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: High-calorie diet promotes prostate cancer progression in the genetically susceptible Pten haploinsufficient mouse while preserving insulin sensitivity. This appears to be partly due to increased inflammatory response to high-caloric intake in addition to increased ability of insulin to promote lipogenesis.

  2. Comparative proteomic analyses of the parietal lobe from rhesus monkeys fed a high-fat/sugar diet with and without resveratrol supplementation, relative to a healthy diet: Insights into the roles of unhealthy diets and resveratrol on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swomley, Aaron M; Triplett, Judy C; Keeney, Jeriel T; Warrier, Govind; Pearson, Kevin J; Mattison, Julie A; de Cabo, Rafael; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2017-01-01

    A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional intervention. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which resveratrol functions through the up- or down-regulation of proteins in different cellular sub-systems to affect the overall health of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  4. Effects of BST and high energy diet on gene expression in mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Joyce Lew

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy and recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST injection to identify genes that might control mammogenesis. Total RNA was extracted from the parenchymal tissue of 32 heifers randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two diets (a standard diet and a high energy, high protein diet, each with or without bST. To perform microarray experiments, RNA samples were pooled (2 animals/pool before reverse transcription and labeling with Cy3 or Cy5. A 4-node loop design was used to examine the differential gene expression among treatments using a bovine-specific cDNA microarray (National Bovine Functional Genomics Consortium Library, NBFGC containing 18,263 unique expressed sequence tags (EST. Significance levels of differential gene expression among treatments were assessed using a mixed model approach. Injection of bST altered the expression of 12 % of the genes on NBFGC slide related to tissue development, whereas 6% were altered by diet. Administration of bST increases the expression of genes positively related to cell proliferation and mammary parenchyma to a greater extent than a high energy diet.

  5. A high-protein diet enhances satiety without conditioned taste aversion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaïd, Ahmed; Tomé, Daniel; L'Heureux-Bourdon, Diane; Even, Patrick; Gietzen, Dorothy; Morens, Céline; Gaudichon, Claire; Larue-Achagiotis, Christiane; Fromentin, Gilles

    2003-02-01

    In order to determine the respective roles of conditioned food aversion, satiety and palatability, we studied behavioral responses to a 50% total milk protein diet, compared with those to a normal protein diet containing 14% total milk protein. Different paradigms were employed, including meal pattern analysis, two-choice testing, flavor testing, a behavioral satiety sequence (BSS) and taste reactivity. Our experiments showed that only behavioral and food intake parameters were disturbed during the first day when an animal ate the high-protein (P50) diet, and that most parameters returned to baseline values as soon as the second day of P50. Rats adapted to P50 did not acquire a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) but exhibited satiety, and a normal BSS. The initial reduction in high-protein diet intake appeared to result from the lower palatability of the food combined with the satiety effect of the high-protein diet and the delay required for metabolic adaptation to the higher protein level.

  6. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of diet and exercise on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saely, Christoph H; Drexel, Heinz

    2016-12-01

    Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK9) plays an important role in the regulation of blood cholesterol levels, and inhibition of PCSK9 with monoclonal antibodies reduces LDL cholesterol by more than 50% over and above what can be achieved with statins or ezetimibe alone. Diet and exercise influence PCSK9 levels; however data on this issue are scarce. Regarding diet, a high oleic canola/docosahexaenoic acid oil blend, marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vegetable n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, a Mediterranean style diet and acute fasting, but not necessarily weight reduction are associated with low PCSK9 concentrations, whereas a high fructose diet is associated with high PCSK9 concentrations. Animal data regarding the effect of diet on PCSK9 must be interpreted with caution, because even between rodent species, significant differences become apparent. Regarding exercise, a decrease in PCSK9 has been reported in one investigation along with an intervention promoting active use of stairs rather than elevators. Reports from sparse animal studies regarding the effect of exercise on PCSK9 have yielded varying results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-11-01

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  9. Energy balance and hypothalamic effects of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Hargrave, Sara L.; Hyun, Jayson; Moran, Timothy H.

    2007-01-01

    Diets high in fat or protein and extremely low in carbohydrate are frequently reported to result in weight loss in humans. We previously reported that rats maintained on a low carbohydrate-high fat diet (LC-HF) consumed similar kcals/day as chow (CH)-fed rats and did not differ in body weight after 7 weeks. LC-HF rats had a 45% decrease in POMC expression in the ARC, decreased plasma insulin, and increased plasma leptin and ghrelin. In the present study we assessed the effects of a low carboh...

  10. Impaired mTORC2 signaling in catecholaminergic neurons exaggerates high fat diet-induced hyperphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Dadalko

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data support a model in which mTORC2 signaling within catecholaminergic neurons constrains consumption of a high-fat diet, while disruption causes high-fat diet-specific exaggerated hyperphagia. In parallel, impaired mTORC2 signaling leads to aberrant striatal DA neurotransmission, which has been associated with obesity in human and animal models, as well as with escalating substance abuse. These data suggest that defects localized to the catecholaminergic pathways are capable of overriding homeostatic circuits, leading to obesity, metabolic impairment, and aberrant DA-dependent behaviors.

  11. Consumption of a High-Fat Diet Induces Central Insulin Resistance Independent of Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Deborah J.; Gotoh, Koro; Kemp, Christopher; Wortman, Matthew D.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Brown, Lynda M.; D’Alessio, David; Tso, Patrick; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma insulin enters the CNS where it interacts with insulin receptors in areas that are related to energy homeostasis and elicits a decrease of food intake and body weight. Here, we demonstrate that consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet impairs the central actions of insulin. Male Long-Evans rats were given chronic (70-day) or acute (3-day) ad libitum access to HF, low-fat (LF), or chow diets. Insulin administered into the 3rd-cerebral ventricle (i3vt) decreased food intake and body weight of LF and chow rats but had no effect on HF rats in either the chronic or the acute experiment. Rats chronically pair-fed the HF diet to match the caloric intake of LF rats, and with body weights and adiposity levels comparable to those of LF rats, were also unresponsive to i3vt insulin when returned to ad lib food whereas rats pair-fed the LF diet had reduced food intake and body weight when administered i3vt insulin. Insulin’s inability to reduce food intake in the presence of the high-fat diet was associated with a reduced ability of insulin to activate its signaling cascade, as measured by pAKT. Finally, i3vt administration of insulin increased hypothalamic expression of POMC mRNA in the LF-but not the HF-fed rats. We conclude that consumption of a HF diet leads to central insulin resistance following short exposure to the diet, and as demonstrated by reductions in insulin signaling and insulin-induced hypothalamic expression of POMC mRNA. PMID:21241723

  12. Effects of clay on toxin binding capacity, ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, and growth of steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelo, D S; Lancaster, N A; Melnichenko, S; Muegge, C R; Schoonmaker, J P

    2017-10-01

    proportional adsorption was decreased to 35.5 and 91.1% at 5,200 μg/mL ( clay effectively binds ruminal toxins, decreases ruminal lactate, and improves performance only during adaptation to a high-concentrate feedlot diet.

  13. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Mohd Nazri Abu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC, and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO. After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%, adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L, total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L, triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L, blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L, resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL, and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet.

  14. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Molecular adaptation of ruminal epithelia to highly fermentable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Steele, M A; Aschenbach, J R; McBride, B W

    2011-04-01

    Feeding highly fermentable diets to ruminants is one strategy to increase energy intake. The increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and reduced ruminal pH associated with highly fermentable diets imposes a challenge to the metabolism and the regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis of ruminal epithelia. The ruminal epithelia respond to these challenges in a coordinated manner. Whereas the enlargement of absorptive surface area is well documented, emerging evidence at the mRNA and transporter and enzyme activity levels indicate that changes in epithelial cell function may be the initial response. It is not surprising that gene expression analysis has identified pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, ion transport, and intracellular homeostasis to be the pathways dominantly affected during adaptation and after adaptation to a highly fermentable diet. These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption. Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule. Current data indicate that for butyrate metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase are potential regulatory points with transient up- and downregulation during diet adaptation. In addition to nutrient transport and utilization, genes involved in the maintenance of cellular tight junction integrity and induction of inflammation have been identified as differentially expressed genes during adaptation to highly fermentable diets. This may have important implications on ruminal epithelial barrier function and the inflammatory response often associated with subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of this review is to summarize ruminal epithelial adaptation to highly fermentable diets focusing on the changes at the enzyme and

  15. High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baufeld, Caroline; Osterloh, Anja; Prokop, Stefan; Miller, Kelly R; Heppner, Frank L

    2016-09-01

    Diets high in fat (HFD) are known to cause an immune response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system. In peripheral adipose tissue, this immune response is primarily mediated by macrophages that are recruited to the tissue. Similarly, reactivity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, has been shown to occur in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. To characterize the nature of the microglial response to diets high in fat in a temporal fashion, we studied the phenotypic spectrum of hypothalamic microglia of mice fed high-fat diet for 3 days and 8 weeks by assessing their tissue reaction and inflammatory signature. While we observed a significant increase in Iba1+ myeloid cells and a reaction of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hypothalamus after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, we found the hypothalamic myeloid cell reaction to be limited to endogenous microglia and not mediated by infiltrating myeloid cells. Moreover, obese humans were found to present with signs of hypothalamic gliosis and exacerbated microglia dystrophy, suggesting a targeted microglia response to diet in humans as well. Notably, the glial reaction occurring in the mouse hypothalamus was not accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, but rather by an anti-inflammatory reaction. Gene expression analyses of isolated microglia not only confirmed this observation, but also revealed a downregulation of microglia genes important for sensing signals in the microenvironment. Finally, we demonstrate that long-term exposure of microglia to HFD in vivo does not impair the cell's ability to respond to additional stimuli, like lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our findings support the notion that microglia react to diets high in fat in a region-specific manner in rodents as well as in humans; however, this response changes over time as it is not exclusively pro-inflammatory nor does exposure to HFD prime microglia in the hypothalamus.

  16. Maternal high-fat diet and offspring expression levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, S A; Cagampang, F R; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-12-01

    Studies suggest that bone growth and development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) including osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, periostin, and growth-arrest specific- protein 6, in both bone and vascular development. We have examined whether there are alterations in these VKDPs in bone and vascular tissue from offspring of mothers subjected to a nutritional challenge: a high-fat diet during pregnancy and postnatally, using 6-week-old mouse offspring. Bone site-specific and sex-specific differences across femoral and vertebral bone in male and female offspring were observed. Overall a high-fat maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex-specific differences and tissue-specific differences were observed in VKDP levels in aorta tissue from high-fat diet-fed female offspring from high-fat diet-fed mothers displaying increased levels of Gas6 and Ggcx compared with those of female controls. In contrast, differences were seen in VKDP levels in femoral bone of female offspring with lower expression levels of Mgp in offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet compared with those of controls. We observed a significant correlation in Mgp expression levels within the femur to measures of bone structure of the femur and vertebra, particularly in the male offspring cohort. In summary, the current study has highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure.

  17. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Tinsley, Grant M; Pannell, Benjamin K; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance). At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group. Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year.

  18. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent-Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular diseases among men and women. Thus, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with heart healthy diet plan during weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of individuals with obesity. Methods: The experiment involved 40 adults with obesity (men, n = 21; women, n = 19 and was divided into two phases: (a 12-week high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1 and (b a 1-year (52-week weight loss maintenance comparing high-protein, intermittent-fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2. Body weight, body mass index, blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control, 12 (weight loss, and 64 (12+52 week; weight loss maintenance.Results: At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant with reductions in body weight, body mass index, blood lipids, and arterial compliance was enhanced (p < 0.05. No sex-specific differences were observed. During phase 2, high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie group demonstrated less weight regain and percentage change in aortic pulse wave velocity than heart healthy group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high-protein, intermittent-fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with body weight loss and reduction in blood lipids. This diet also demonstrated a potential advantage in minimizing weight gain relapse as well as enhancing arterial compliance compared to the heart healthy diet in the long term.

  19. Centrally administered urocortin 2 decreases gorging on high-fat diet in in both diet induced obesity-prone and -resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina; Nagy, Tim R.; Coscina, Donald V.; Levin, Barry E.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a costly, deadly public health problem for which new treatments are needed. Individual differences in meal pattern have been proposed to play a role in obesity risk. The present study tested the hypothesis that i) the microstructure of chronic high-fat diet intake differs between genetically selected Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) and Diet Resistant (DR) rats, and ii) central administration of urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) agonist, decreases high-fat diet intake not only in lean DR rats, but also in obese DIO rats. Design Male, selectively bred DIO and DR rats (n=10/genotype) were chronically fed a high-fat diet. Food and water intake as well as ingestion microstructure were then compared under baseline conditions and following third intracerebroventricular injection of Ucn 2 (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 µg). Results Irrespective of genotype, Ucn 2 reduced nocturnal food intake with a minimum effective dose of 0.3 µg, suppressing high-fat diet intake by ~40% at the 3 µg dose. Ucn 2 also made rats of both genotypes eat smaller and briefer meals, including at doses that did not reduce drinking. Obese DIO rats ate fewer but larger meals than DR rats, which they ate more quickly and consumed with 2/3rd less water. Conclusions Unlike leptin and insulin, Ucn 2 retains its full central anorectic efficacy to reduce high-fat diet intake even in obese, genetically-prone DIO rats, which otherwise show a “gorging” meal pattern. These results open new opportunities of investigation towards treating some forms of diet-induced obesity. PMID:23478425

  20. Interaction of dietary sucrose and fiber on serum lipids in healthy young men fed high carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M J; Ullrich, I H

    1986-03-01

    High sucrose diets may cause increased serum triglycerides and decreased high density lipoprotein concentration. To determine whether dietary fiber protects against these effects, four groups of six healthy young men were assigned to one of four very high carbohydrate diets providing 0, 18, 36, or 52% of calories as sucrose. Each diet was fed in both low (less than 14 g) and high (greater than 34 g) levels of dietary fiber for 10 days each. Triglycerides increased during the 36 and 52% sucrose diets compared to 0 and 18% sucrose diets, and fiber protected partially against this rise. Serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were lower during the 0 and 18% sucrose diets than the 36 or 52% sucrose diets but fiber had no effect. HDL cholesterol decreased during all low fat diets, with a trend toward a greater decrease during the high sucrose diets. The results suggest that fiber protects against carbohydrate-induced lipemia but has no effect on cholesterol during very high carbohydrate diets.

  1. Effects of a plant-based high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet versus high-monounsaturated fat/low-carbohydrate diet on postprandial lipids in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Natale, Claudia; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Mazzarella, Raffaella; Costabile, Giuseppina; Ciano, Ornella; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A

    2009-12-01

    To search for a better dietary approach to treat postprandial lipid abnormalities and improve glucose control in type 2 diabetic patients. According to a randomized crossover design, 18 type 2 diabetic patients (aged 59 +/- 5 years; BMI 27 +/- 3 kg/m(2)) (means +/- SD) in satisfactory blood glucose control on diet or diet plus metformin followed a diet relatively rich in carbohydrates (52% total energy), rich in fiber (28 g/1,000 kcal), and with a low glycemic index (58%) (high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet) or a diet relatively low in carbohydrate (45%) and rich in monounsaturated fat (23%) (low-carbohydrate/high-monounsaturated fat diet) for 4 weeks. Thereafter, they shifted to the other diet for 4 more weeks. At the end of each period, plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, and lipoprotein fractions (separated by discontinuous density gradient ultracentrifugation) were determined on blood samples taken at fasting and over 6 h after a test meal having a similar composition as the corresponding diet. In addition to a significant decrease in postprandial plasma glucose, insulin responses, and glycemic variability, the high-carbohydrate/high-fiber diet also significantly improved the primary end point, since it reduced the postprandial incremental areas under the curve (IAUCs) of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in particular, chylomicrons (cholesterol IAUC: 0.05 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.02 mmol/l per 6 h; triglycerides IAUC: 0.71 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.03 +/- 0.58 mmol/l per 6 h, P carbohydrate and fiber, essentially based on legumes, vegetables, fruits, and whole cereals, may be particularly useful for treating diabetic patients because of its multiple effects on different cardiovascular risk factors, including postprandial lipids abnormalities.

  2. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  3. Diminished metabolic responses to centrally-administered apelin-13 in diet-induced obese rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K J; Whitaker, K W; Reyes, T M

    2009-02-01

    The central administration of apelin, a recently identified adipokine, has been shown to affect food and water intake. The present study investigated whether body weight could affect an animal's response to apelin. The effects of centrally-administered apelin-13 on food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were investigated in adult male diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed either a high fat (32%) or control diet. Rats were administered i.c.v. apelin-13, 15-30 min prior to lights out, and food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were assessed. Intracerebroventricular administration of apelin-13 decreased food and water intake and respiratory exchange ratio in DIO rats on the control diet, but had no effect in DIO rats on the high-fat diet. In an effort to identify potential central mechanisms explaining the observed physiological responses, the mRNA level of the apelin receptor, APJ, was examined in the hypothalamus. A high-fat diet induced an up-regulation of the expression of the receptor. Apelin induced a down-regulation of the receptor, but only in the DIO animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a diminished central nervous system response to apelin that is coincident with obesity.

  4. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain.

  5. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    -fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread...... (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h...... was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management....

  6. Lack of effect of dietary fiber on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin in healthy young men fed high starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J

    1982-07-01

    Eight healthy young men were fed a 72% carbohydrate high starch diet either high or low in dietary fiber for 4 days in a double cross-over design. Both groups showed a slight transient increase in plasma triglyceride level and a decrease in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were few differences in glucose and insulin levels after glucose and meal tolerance tests after each diet. Fasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were inversely related at base-line; insulin response to oral glucose was inversely related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at the end of the study. We conclude that a high carbohydrate high starch diet, whether high or low in fiber, caused little increase in triglycerides, with little difference between the high and low fiber diets. Dietary fiber did not influence the fall in plasma cholesterol or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations over and above that seen after the low fiber diet.

  7. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...... randomly assigned to a diet high in protein ( 90 g/day) and sodium (180 mmol/day) ( calciuric diet) or a diet moderate in protein ( 70 g/day) and low in sodium ( 65 mmol/day) for 4 weeks followed by crossover to alternative dietary regimen for a further 4 weeks. The calciuric diet significantly (P...

  8. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  9. Knowledge of students attending a high school in Pretoria, South Africa, on diet, nutrition and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letlape, S V; Mokwena, K; Oguntibeju, O O

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the knowledge of students on the composition of a healthy diet, daily nutritional requirements and the importance of regular exercise. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions to assess students 'knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise was conducted. The study group were students of Tswaing High School in Pretoria, South Africa, who were in attendance on a particular day when the study was conducted and who consented to participate in the study Only 500 students of the school participated in the study Results showed that 77% of the students do not have adequate knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise while 23% of the students showed satisfactory knowledge. Approximately 26% and 16% of the students reported that they participated in rigorous and moderate exercise respectively The study also showed that the majority of the students were however not engaged in physical activities. Students at Tswaing High School do not have adequate knowledge on nutrition, diet and exercise. Their views on what exercise entails were found not to be satisfactory. Programmes/ information or seminars that could assist to inform students on the importance of diet and exercise are therefore suggested.

  10. Temporal microbiota changes of high-protein diet intake in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-10-01

    Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis. The structural alteration of fecal microbiota was observed after 4 weeks, especially for the decreased appearance of bands related to Akkermansia species. HPD increased numbers of Escherichia coli while decreased Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, Ruminococcus bromii, and Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale (P protein diet. HPD also decreased the copies of genes encoding butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and Prevotella-associated methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase α-subunit (P high-protein diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interference from high-grain diet on carcass and meat characteristics of Texel lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Dorneles de Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of diets with different proportions of concentrate in finishing lambs Texel on carcass characteristics and meat sheep. Twelve Texel lambs with an initial weight of 20.1 ± 2.34 kg were used. The treatments consisted of three levels of concentrate in the total ration (60, 80 and 100% and four replicates per treatment.As the values of loin eye area, finish and weight of rib and ham were higher (P <0.05 for animals receiving 80 and 100% concentrate diet compared to animals consuming 60%. Lambs receiving 100% of the diet with high grain had higher incomes, loin eye area and carcass finish, these characteristics relevant to the issue by providing animals most productive portion of edible meat and satisfactory quality to the consumer market. The levels of concentrate in the diet did not alter the qualitative parameters and sensory from lamb feedlot these characteristics that may ensure greater acceptance of the final product, so it is recommended the use of diets containing high concentrate to sheep.

  12. Effect of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Lipid Profile in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats in the Presence and Absence of Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Najafzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The daily stress and shift working cause insomnia. In other hands, fatty food consumption increased this disorder. The aim of present study is evaluation additive effect of partial insomnia and high fatty diet with or without vitamin C on serum lipid profile in rats.Materials and Methods: Fifty six rats in 7 groups (8 rats each group were conducted for study during 26 days as: 1: normal diet+normal sleep, 2: high fatty diet+normal sleep, 3: normal diet+insomnia, 4: high fatty diet+insomnia, 5: high fatty diet+normal sleep+vitamin C, 6: high fatty diet+insomnia+vitamin C, 7: normal diet+insomnia+ vitamin C. The lipid profile was examined at end of study. Results: Results shown the high fatty diet+insomnia increased triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level and decreased HDL level with comparison to high fatty diet+normal sleep group. But only insomnia did not change serum lipid profile. High fatty diet increased level of cholesterol (p<0.05. The normal diet increased body weight but high fatty diet decreased it significantly. Liver weight ratio was elevated by high fatty diet+insomnia. The vitamin C decreased cholesterol and increased HDL level in group of rats which received high fatty diet+insomnia. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study shown the only insomnia did not affect on serum lipid profile while insomnia along with high fatty diet increased lipid high risk factors in blood.

  13. Effect of high carbohydrate or high protein diets on the uptake of [57Co] cyanocobalamin in the rat organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamdar-Deshmukh, A.B.; Jathar, V.S.

    1978-01-01

    The mean total body radiocyanocobalamin uptake in rats fed high casein or high carbohydrate diet did not show any significant difference, though there was marked variation in their body-weights. It seems that the body possesses the mechanism to maintain its B 12 store constant though the protein status altered at an early stage of under or over protein nutrition. (author)

  14. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M; Crump, Erica M; Rowland, Neil E

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or "junk food" diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance.

  15. High-fructose diet is as detrimental as high-fat diet in the induction of insulin resistance and diabetes mediated by hepatic/pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, M; Raji, L; Prabhu, D; Sathishkumar, C; Prabu, P; Mohan, V; Balasubramanyam, M

    2016-12-01

    In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet. Investigations include oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, histopathology by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining, mRNA expression by real-time PCR, protein expression by Western blot, and caspase-3 activity by colorimetry. Rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets became glucose intolerant, insulin-resistant, and dyslipidemic. Compared to control animals, rats subjected to different combination of fat/fructose diets showed increased mRNA and protein expression of a battery of ER stress markers both in pancreas and liver. Transcription factors of β-cell function (INSIG1, SREBP1c and PDX1) as well as hepatic gluconeogenesis (FOXO1 and PEPCK) were adversely affected in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. The convergence of chronic ER stress towards apoptosis in pancreas/liver was also indicated by increased levels of CHOP mRNA & increased activity of both JNK and Caspase-3 in rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets. Our study exposes the experimental support in that high-fructose diet is equally detrimental in causing metabolic disorders.

  16. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum) on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoorechi, Vahideh; Rismanchi, Marjan; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet), high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet), Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek) for 14 weeks. High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG), plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets.

  17. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  18. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  19. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  20. The influence of high iron diet on rat lung manganese absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Khristy; Molina, Ramon; Donaghey, Thomas; Brain, Joseph D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Individuals chronically exposed to manganese are at high risk for neurotoxic effects of this metal. A primary route of exposure is through respiration, although little is known about pulmonary uptake of metals or factors that modify this process. High dietary iron levels inversely affect intestinal uptake of manganese, and a major goal of this study was to determine if dietary iron loading could increase lung non-heme iron levels and alter manganese absorption. Rats were fed a high iron (1% carbonyl iron) or control diet for 4 weeks. Lung non-heme iron levels increased ∼2-fold in rats fed the high iron diet. To determine if iron-loading affected manganese uptake, 54 Mn was administered by intratracheal (it) instillation or intravenous (iv) injection for pharmacokinetic studies. 54 Mn absorption from the lungs to the blood was lower in it-instilled rats fed the 1% carbonyl iron diet. Pharmacokinetics of iv-injected 54 Mn revealed that the isotope was cleared more rapidly from the blood of iron-loaded rats. In situ analysis of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) expression in lung detected mRNA in airway epithelium and bronchus-associated lymphatic tissue (BALT). Staining of the latter was significantly reduced in rats fed the high iron diet. In situ analysis of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA showed staining in BALT alone. These data demonstrate that manganese absorption from the lungs to the blood can be modified by iron status and the route of administration

  1. Functional Deficits Precede Structural Lesions in Mice With High-Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Rithwick; Bligard, Gregory W; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Li; Lukasiewicz, Peter; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity predisposes to human type 2 diabetes, the most common cause of diabetic retinopathy. To determine if high-fat diet-induced diabetes in mice can model retinal disease, we weaned mice to chow or a high-fat diet and tested the hypothesis that diet-induced metabolic disease promotes retinopathy. Compared with controls, mice fed a diet providing 42% of energy as fat developed obesity-related glucose intolerance by 6 months. There was no evidence of microvascular disease until 12 months, when trypsin digests and dye leakage assays showed high fat-fed mice had greater atrophic capillaries, pericyte ghosts, and permeability than controls. However, electroretinographic dysfunction began at 6 months in high fat-fed mice, manifested by increased latencies and reduced amplitudes of oscillatory potentials compared with controls. These electroretinographic abnormalities were correlated with glucose intolerance. Unexpectedly, retinas from high fat-fed mice manifested striking induction of stress kinase and neural inflammasome activation at 3 months, before the development of systemic glucose intolerance, electroretinographic defects, or microvascular disease. These results suggest that retinal disease in the diabetic milieu may progress through inflammatory and neuroretinal stages long before the development of vascular lesions representing the classic hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, establishing a model for assessing novel interventions to treat eye disease. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. TRPV1 Channels and Gastric Vagal Afferent Signalling in Lean and High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Kentish

    Full Text Available Within the gastrointestinal tract vagal afferents play a role in control of food intake and satiety signalling. Activation of mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents induces satiety. However, gastric vagal afferent responses to mechanical stretch are reduced in high fat diet mice. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1 are expressed in vagal afferents and knockout of TRPV1 reduces gastro-oesophageal vagal afferent responses to stretch. We aimed to determine the role of TRPV1 on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity and food intake in lean and HFD-induced obese mice.TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet or high fat diet for 20wks. Gastric emptying of a solid meal and gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity was determined.Gastric emptying was delayed in high fat diet mice but there was no difference between TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice on either diet. TRPV1 mRNA expression in whole nodose ganglia of TRPV1+/+ mice was similar in both dietary groups. The TRPV1 agonist N-oleoyldopamine potentiated the response of tension receptors in standard laboratory diet but not high fat diet mice. Food intake was greater in the standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- compared to TRPV1+/+ mice. This was associated with reduced response of tension receptors to stretch in standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- mice. Tension receptor responses to stretch were decreased in high fat diet compared to standard laboratory diet TRPV1+/+ mice; an effect not observed in TRPV1-/- mice. Disruption of TRPV1 had no effect on the response of mucosal receptors to mucosal stroking in mice on either diet.TRPV1 channels selectively modulate gastric vagal afferent tension receptor mechanosensitivity and may mediate the reduction in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in high fat diet-induced obesity.

  3. Decreased reproductive rates in sheep fed a high selenium diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High Se-containing forages grow on seleniferous soils in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. Selenium is an essential trace element that is required for many physiological processes but can also be either acutely or chronically toxic to livestock. Anecdotal reports of decrease...

  4. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F.; MacIntosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F.; Mann, J. Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. Objective To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, change unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to: (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Results Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Conclusion Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations, but also reduces AA. PMID:24675168

  5. Influence of a high fibre diet on glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P A; Maskell, E; Rawlings, J M; Nash, A S; Markwell, P J

    2002-02-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate a high fibre diet used in the management of 10 dogs with naturally occurring insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Following baseline measurements of health and glycaemic control, the dogs were fed a canned diet containing a blend of insoluble and soluble dietary fibres and were monitored during the ensuing four months. Switching to the high fibre diet was associated with significantly lower mean 24-hour and postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, which were maintained over the study period. The high fibre diet was also associated with significant reductions in plasma concentrations of fructosamine, glycated haemoglobin, free glycerol and cholesterol, and there were significant improvements in dog activity and demeanour. Bodyweight declined during the fourth month of feeding the diet, which is likely to have resulted from underfeeding relative to increased activity. The results indicate that a high fibre diet can significantly improve glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Effects of leptin treatment and Western diet on wheel running in selectively bred high runner mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2012-05-15

    The role of leptin in regulating physical activity is varied. The behavioral effects of leptin signaling depend on the type of activity and the animal's physiological state. We used mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running to further study how leptin regulates volitional exercise. Mice from four replicate high runner (HR) lines typically run ~3-fold more revolutions per day than those from four non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice have altered dopamine function and differences from C in brain regions known to be important in leptin-mediated behavior. Furthermore, male HR mice have been found to dramatically increase running when administered Western diet, an effect possibly mediated through leptin signaling. Male mice from generation 61 (representing three HR lines and one C line) were allowed wheel access at 24 days of age and given either Western diet (high in fat and with added sucrose) or standard chow. After four weeks, Western diet significantly increased circulating leptin, insulin, C-peptide, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and inflammatory hormone resistin concentrations in HR mice (C mice not measured). Western diet increased running in HR mice, but did not significantly affect running in C mice. During the fifth week, all mice received two days of intra-peritoneal sham injections (physiological saline) followed by three days of murine recombinant leptin injections, and then another six days of sham injections. Leptin treatment significantly decreased caloric intake (adjusted for body mass) and body mass in all groups. Wheel running significantly increased with leptin injections in HR mice (fed Western or standard diet), but was unaffected in C mice. Whether Western diet and leptin treatment stimulate wheel running in HR mice through the same physiological pathways awaits future study. These results have implications for understanding the neural and endocrine systems that control locomotor activity, food consumption, and body

  7. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of high-impact exercise on the physical properties of bones of ovariectomized rats fed to a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, R C; Yanagihara, G R; Macedo, A P; Yamanaka, J S; Shimano, A C; Tavares, J M R S; Issa, J P M

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-impact physical exercise as a prophylactic and therapeutic means in osteopenic bones of rats submitted to ovariectomy and protein diet intake. A total of 64 Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 8 each), being: OVX, ovx, standard diet and sedentary; OVXE, ovx, standard diet and jump; OVXP, ovx, high-protein diet and sedentary; and OVXEP, ovx, high-protein diet and jump; SH, sham, standard diet and sedentary; SHE, sham, standard diet and jump; SHP, sham, high-protein diet and sedentary; and SHEP, sham, high-protein diet and jump. OVX surgery consists of ovariectomy, and sham was the control surgery. The jumping protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week. The bone structure was evaluated by densitometry, mechanical tests, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. A high-protein diet resulted in increased bone mineral density (P = .049), but decreased maximal load (P = .026) and bone volume fraction (P = .023). The benefits of physical exercise were demonstrated by higher values of the maximal load in the trained groups compared to the sedentary groups (P high-protein diet (P = .005) and jump exercise (P = .017) resulted in lower immunostaining of osteopontin compared to the standard diet and sedentary groups, respectively. In this experimental model, it was concluded that ovariectomy and a high-fat diet can negatively affect bone tissue and the high-impact exercise was not enough to suppress the deleterious effects caused by the protein diet and ovariectomy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D.; Al Houayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. Methods We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16?weeks) a group of ...

  10. Proinflammatory Cytokines in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression Promoted by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to examine whether proinflammatory cytokines participated in prostate cancer (PCa development and progression promoted by high-fat diet (HFD. Methods. TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal diet group and HFD group. Mortality rate and tumor formation rate were examined. TRAMP mice were sacrificed and sampled on the 20th, 24th, and 28th week, respectively. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were tested by FlowCytomix. Prostate tissue of TRAMP mice was used for histology study. Results. A total of 13 deaths of TRAMP mice were observed, among which 3 (8.33% were from the normal diet group and 10 (27.78% from the HFD group. The mortality rate of TRAMP mice from HFD group was significantly higher than that of normal diet group (P=0.032. Tumor formation rate at 20th week of age of HFD group was significantly higher than that of normal diet group (P=0.045. Proinflammatory cytokines levels, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were significantly higher in HFD TRAMP mice. Conclusions. HFD could promote TRAMP mouse PCa development and progression with elevated proinflammatory cytokines levels. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to PCa development and progression promoted by HFD.

  11. High-fiber diets with reduced crude protein for commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFFM Praes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating diets containing different fiber sources and two crude protein levels on the performance, egg quality, and nitrogen metabolism of commercial layers. In total, 392 48-wk-old Isa Brown layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x2+1 (control factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of three fiber feedstuffs (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls, and rice hulls and two dietary crude protein levels (12% and 16%. Cottonseed hulls associated with the high crude protein level (16% resulted in the worst feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs. Diets with 16% crude protein resulted in the highest feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass values, and improved feed conversion ratio (kg eggs/kg feed. The dietary inclusion of soybean hulls determined low yolk pigmentation, and of rice hulls, low egg specific gravity. The 16% crude protein diet with rice hulls promoted the best feed conversion ratio. Hens fed the reference diet presented higher egg mass and better feed conversion ratio per kg eggs and per dozen eggs. Hens fed the diets with low crude protein level (12% had reduced nitrogen excretion, but presented worse egg production.

  12. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (Pdigestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions.

  13. A 7-day high protein hypocaloric diet promotes cellular metabolic adaptations and attenuates lean mass loss in healthy males

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Furber; Ana Anton-Solanas; Emma Koppe; Charlotte Ashby; Michael Roberts; Justin Roberts

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial quantity and density are associated with increased oxidative metabolism. It has been demonstrated that a hypocaloric high fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC) diet can up-regulate transcriptional markers of mitochondrial biogenesis; this was yet to be explored in vivo subsequent to a high protein/low carbohydrate (HP/LC) diet. Thus the aims of the study were to explore such diets on transcriptional markers or mitochondrial biogenesis, body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR). F...

  14. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  15. Andrographis paniculata extract attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Yi-Lin; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chen, Yu-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-11-04

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) has a considerable medicinal reputation in most parts of Asia as a potent medicine in the treatment of Endocrine disorders, inflammation and hypertension. Water extract of A. paniculata and its active constituent andrographolide are known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Our aim is to identify whether A. paniculata extract could protect myocardial damage in high-fat diet induced obese mice. The test mice were divided into three groups fed either with normal chow or with high fat diet (obese) or with high fat diet treated with A. paniculata extract (2g/kg/day, through gavage, for a week). We found that the myocardial inflammation pathway related proteins were increased in the obese mouse which potentially contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial apoptosis. But feeding with A. paniculata extract showed significant inhibition on the effects of high fat diet. Our study strongly suggests that supplementation of A. paniculata extract can be used for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. RESULTS: In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  17. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the potency of ampicillin in altering gut flora in the presence of a high-sucrose diet in rat pups, and to determine its effect on selected neurotransmitters and a cytokine as markers of the persistent autistic features repeatedly induced in orally administered propionic acid rat pups.. Methods: ...

  18. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A slight decrease in hepatic α-amylase gene expression was observed only in. E1. Conclusion: Besides its sweetening properties, inulin may also find use as a potential anti-obesity compound. Keywords: High-fat diet, Inulin, Obesity, Blood glucose, Biochemical profile. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is ...

  19. Impairment of mitochondrial function of rat hepatocytes by high fat diet and oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garnol, T.; Endlicher, R.; Kučera, O.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Červinková, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2014), s. 271-274 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) PRVOUK P37/02 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hepatocytes * high fat diet * mitochondrial activities * ROS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  20. An overview on how components of the melanocortin system respond to different high energy diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, José K.; van Rozen, Andréa J.; Adan, Roger A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    High energy diets are used to model the obesity epidemic. Moreover, from a variety of genetic studies, it has become clear that the melanocortin system plays an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Since most dietary interventions are not standardized, fat/sugar-induced effects on

  1. High levels of maize in broiler diets with or without microbial enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mbhuiya3

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... High levels of maize in broiler diets with or without microbial enzyme .... to improve carbohydrate digestion and availability of phosphorus from ... grinding machine and stored at –4 ºC in airtight containers for chemical analysis ...

  2. Osteoarthritis and a high-fat diet: the full 'OA syndrome' in a small animal model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, P.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of the main risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) and due to the global rise in obesity this will increasingly contribute to OA development. The article of Griffin and co-workers in this issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy shows that a high-fat diet leads to obesity and OA in the

  3. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...

  4. Exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Al-Massadi, Omar; Donelan, Elizabeth; Lehti, Maarit; Weber, Jon; Ress, Chandler; Trivedi, Chitrang; Müller, Timo D.; Woods, Stephen C.; Hofmann, Susanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation is a potentially important process in the pathogenesis of high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders that has recently received significant attention. Microglia are macrophage-like cells of the central nervous system which are activated by pro-inflammatory signals causing

  5. Hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P.; Li, Dan L.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha

  6. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  7. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  8. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  9. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  10. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of guarana on mitochondrial biogenesis in a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6J mice were divided in two groups: high-fat diet HFD and high-fat diet + guarana (HFD-GUA. Both groups received HFD and water ad libitum and the HFD-GUA group also received a daily gavage of guarana (1 g/kg weight. Body weight and food intake was measured weekly. Glycemic, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels were determined. VO2 and energy expenditure (EE were determined by indirect calorimetry. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and protein content by western blotting. The HFD-GUA group presented lower body weight, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, visceral, and epididyimal adipose tissue depots, and glycemic and triglyceride levels, with no change in food intake and cholesterol levels. Furthermore, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in VO2 and basal energy expenditure (EE, as well as Pgc1α, Creb1, Ampka1, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Sirt1 expression in the muscle and brown adipose tissue. In addition, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in mtDNA (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid content in the muscle when compared to the HFD group. Thus, our data showed that guarana leads to an increase in energetic metabolism and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, contributing to control of weight gain, even when associated with high-fat diet.

  11. A diet high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increases the genotoxic potential of 'faecal water'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieger, Martin A.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effects of different diets on the genotoxicity of human faecal water, a diet rich in fat, meat and sugar but poor in vegetables and free of wholemeal products (diet 1) was consumed by seven healthy volunteers over a period of 12 days. One week after the end of this period......, the volunteers started to consume a diet enriched with vegetables and wholemeal products but poor in fat and meat (diet 2) over a second period of 12 days. The genotoxic effect of faecal waters obtained after both diets was assessed with the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) using the human colon...... and purine bases revealed no differences after pretreatment with both types of faecal water. The results indicate that diets high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increase the genotoxicity of faecal water to colonic cells and may contribute to an enhanced risk of colorectal cancer....

  12. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA...... that a TTA-induced increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis drains fatty acids from blood and extrahepatic tissues and that this contributes significantly to the beneficial effects of TTA on fat mass accumulation and peripheral insulin sensitivity....

  13. Running speed in mammals increases with muscle n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ruf

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are important dietary components that mammals cannot synthesize de novo. Beneficial effects of PUFAs, in particular of the n-3 class, for certain aspects of animal and human health (e.g., cardiovascular function are well known. Several observations suggest, however, that PUFAs may also affect the performance of skeletal muscles in vertebrates. For instance, it has been shown that experimentally n-6 PUFA-enriched diets increase the maximum swimming speed in salmon. Also, we recently found that the proportion of PUFAs in the muscle phospholipids of an extremely fast runner, the brown hare (Lepus europaeus, are very high compared to other mammals. Therefore, we predicted that locomotor performance, namely running speed, should be associated with differences in muscle fatty acid profiles. To test this hypothesis, we determined phospholipid fatty acid profiles in skeletal muscles of 36 mammalian species ranging from shrews to elephants. We found that there is indeed a general positive, surprisingly strong relation between the n-6 PUFAs content in muscle phospholipids and maximum running speed of mammals. This finding suggests that muscle fatty acid composition directly affects a highly fitness-relevant trait, which may be decisive for the ability of animals to escape from predators or catch prey.

  14. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet increases C-reactive protein during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Janet W; Turpyn, Abigail D

    2007-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with elevated risk of heart disease and may be linked to oxidative stress in obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of weight loss diet composition (low carbohydrate, high fat, LC or high carbohydrate, low fat, HC) on inflammation and to determine whether this was related to oxidative stress. Twenty nine overweight women, BMI 32.1 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2), were randomly assigned to a self-selected LC or HC diet for 4 wks. Weekly group sessions and diet record collections helped enhance compliance. Body weight, markers of inflammation (serum interleukin-6, IL-6; C-reactive protein, CRP) oxidative stress (urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha, 8-epi) and fasting blood glucose and free fatty acids were measured weekly. The diets were similar in caloric intake (1357 kcal/d LC vs. 1361 HC, p=0.94), but differed in macronutrients (58, 12, 30 and 24, 59, 18 for percent of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein for LC and HC, respectively). Although LC lost more weight (3.8 +/- 1.2 kg LC vs. 2.6 +/- 1.7 HC, p=0.04), CRP increased 25%; this factor was reduced 43% in HC (p=0.02). For both groups, glucose decreased with weight loss (85.4 vs. 82.1 mg/dl for baseline and wk 4, p<0.01), while IL-6 increased (1.39 to 1.62 pg/mL, p=0.04). Urinary 8-epi varied differently over time between groups (p<0.05) with no consistent pattern. Diet composition of the weight loss diet influenced a key marker of inflammation in that LC increased while HC reduced serum CRP but evidence did not support that this was related to oxidative stress.

  15. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate diet induced more hepatic steatosis and inflammation than high-fat diet mediated by miR- 34a/SIRT1 axis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the different effects of isocaloric high-fat diet (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms, especially the role of microRNA- 34a/silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) axis, C57BL/6J mice (n = 12/group) were isocaloric pair-fed with Li...

  17. Biocompatibility of Four Common Orthopedic Biomaterials Following a High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lecocq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, salt consumption appears to be drastically above the recommended level in industrialized countries. The health consequences of this overconsumption are heavy since high-salt intake induces cardiovascular disease, kidney dysfunction, and stroke. Moreover, harmful interaction may also occur with orthopaedic devices because overconsumption of salt reinforces the corrosive aspect of biological tissues and favors bone resorption process. In the present study, we aimed to assess the in vivo effect of three weeks of a high-salt diet, associated (or not with two weeks of the neuro-myoelectrostimulation (NMES rehabilitation program on the biocompatibility of four biomaterials used in the manufacture of arthroplasty implants. Thus, two non-metallic (PEEK and Al2O3 and two metallic (Ti6Al4V and CrCo compounds were implanted in the rat tibial crest, and the implant-to-bone adhesion and cell viability of two surrounded muscles, the Flexor Digitorum (FD and Tibialis Anterior (TA, were assessed at the end of the experiment. Results indicated lower adhesion strength for the PEEK implant compared to other biomaterials. An effect of NMES and a high-salt diet was only identified for Al2O3 and Ti6Al4V implants, respectively. Moreover, compared to a normal diet, a high-salt diet induced a higher number of dead cells on both muscles for all biomaterials, which was further increased for PEEK, Al2O3, and CrCo materials with NMES application. Finally, except for Ti6Al4V, NMES induced a higher number of dead cells in the directly stimulated muscle (FD compared to the indirectly stimulated one (TA. This in vivo experiment highlights the potential harmful effect of a high-salt diet for people who have undergone arthroplasty, and a rehabilitation program based on NMES.

  18. Biocompatibility of Four Common Orthopedic Biomaterials Following a High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Mathieu; Bernard, Cécile; Felix, Marie Solenne; Chaves-Jacob, Julien; Decherchi, Patrick; Dousset, Erick

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, salt consumption appears to be drastically above the recommended level in industrialized countries. The health consequences of this overconsumption are heavy since high-salt intake induces cardiovascular disease, kidney dysfunction, and stroke. Moreover, harmful interaction may also occur with orthopaedic devices because overconsumption of salt reinforces the corrosive aspect of biological tissues and favors bone resorption process. In the present study, we aimed to assess the in vivo effect of three weeks of a high-salt diet, associated (or not) with two weeks of the neuro-myoelectrostimulation (NMES) rehabilitation program on the biocompatibility of four biomaterials used in the manufacture of arthroplasty implants. Thus, two non-metallic (PEEK and Al2O3) and two metallic (Ti6Al4V and CrCo) compounds were implanted in the rat tibial crest, and the implant-to-bone adhesion and cell viability of two surrounded muscles, the Flexor Digitorum (FD) and Tibialis Anterior (TA), were assessed at the end of the experiment. Results indicated lower adhesion strength for the PEEK implant compared to other biomaterials. An effect of NMES and a high-salt diet was only identified for Al2O3 and Ti6Al4V implants, respectively. Moreover, compared to a normal diet, a high-salt diet induced a higher number of dead cells on both muscles for all biomaterials, which was further increased for PEEK, Al2O3, and CrCo materials with NMES application. Finally, except for Ti6Al4V, NMES induced a higher number of dead cells in the directly stimulated muscle (FD) compared to the indirectly stimulated one (TA). This in vivo experiment highlights the potential harmful effect of a high-salt diet for people who have undergone arthroplasty, and a rehabilitation program based on NMES. PMID:28696371

  19. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Céline

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH features. Rats fed coconut (86% of saturated fatty acid or butter (51% of saturated fatty acid had an increased caloric intake (+143% and +30%. At the end of the study period, total lipid ingestion in term of percentage of energy intake was higher in both coconut (45% and butter (42% groups than in the standard (7% diet group. No change in body mass was observed as compared with standard rats at the end of the experiment. However, high fat fed rats were fattier with enlarged white and brown adipose tissue (BAT depots, but they showed no liver steatosis and no difference in triglyceride content in hepatocytes, as compared with standard rats. Absence of hepatic lipid accumulation with high fat diets was not related to a higher lipid oxidation by isolated hepatocytes (unchanged ketogenesis and oxygen consumption or hepatic mitochondrial respiration but was rather associated with a rise in BAT uncoupling protein UCP1 (+25–28% vs standard. Conclusion Long term high saturated fat feeding led to increased "peripheral" fat storage and BAT thermogenesis but did not induce hepatic steatosis and NASH.

  20. Maternal high-fat diet intensifies the metabolic response to stress in male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Dargahi, Leila; Salimi, Mina; Rashidi, FatemehSadat

    2017-01-01

    The mother's consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in accordance with their given diets from pre-pregnancy to the end of lactation. The offspring were divided into control (NC and HFC) and stress (NS and HFS) groups based on their mothers' diet and exposure to stress in adulthood. After the two-week stress induction period was over, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed and plasma glucose and insulin levels were assessed. The pancreas was then removed for measuring insulin secretion from the isolated islets as well as glucose transporter 2 mRNA expression and protein levels. According to the results obtained, plasma corticosterone concentrations increased significantly on days 1 and 14 of the stress induction period and were lower on the last day compared to on the first day. In both the NS and HFS groups, stress reduced plasma insulin concentration in the IPGTT without changing the plasma glucose concentration, suggesting an increased insulin sensitivity in the NS and HFS groups, although more markedly in the latter. Stress reduced insulin secretion (at high glucose concentrations) and increased glucose transporter 2 mRNA and protein expression, especially in the HFS group. Mothers' high-fat diet appears to intensify the stress response by changing the programming of the neuroendocrine system in the offspring.

  1. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dokkum, W; Wesstra, A; Luyken, R; Hermus, R J

    1986-09-01

    1. Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of vegetable origin). Retention of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper as well as various bowel function indices were investigated during each dietary period. 2. Neither the HA diet nor the HV diet changed the retention of the minerals considerably. Only Fe balance decreased significantly on the HV diet. 3. Substituting the HV diet for the HA diet resulted in significant increases in faecal wet weight (17 g/d), defaecation frequency (0.12 stools/d), faecal volatile fatty acids (2.6 mmol/d) and a decrease in faecal bile acids (128 mumol/d). 4. It is concluded that a HV diet, rather than a HA diet is to be recommended with respect to bowel function, whereas the HV diet does not necessarily have a significant influence on mineral retention.

  2. Diet, smoking and cardiovascular risk in schizophrenia in high and low care supported housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avirup; Craig, Tom K J

    2009-01-01

    People suffering from schizophrenia have markedly increased physical morbidity and mortality. A poor diet and sedentary lifestyle make a significant contribution to this ill health. Healthcare professionals need to include assessments of diet and to promote a 'healthy living' lifestyle. To describe the dietary habits and cardiovascular risk factors of people with chronic schizophrenia living in supported accommodation and to audit the provision of cardiovascular health screening in this population. The dietary habits of 69 people with chronic schizophrenia living in community settings were assessed. Tobacco smoking, body mass indices and waist circumference were also measured. The dietary behaviour of patients living in high care settings with care staff present every day was compared with those in low care settings. Residents in both levels of care made poor dietary choices. Patients in high care were consuming more fast food than those in low care. The dietary habits of men and women in both levels of care were worse than reported by surveys of the general population in England. All patients had seen their GP in the previous year though only 3 had received diabetes screening and fewer than half had lipid profiles. People with schizophrenia do not improve their diet just by the provision of healthy food as was the case in high care settings. Secondary care services must address physical health monitoring as well as mental health if the increased mortality of patients with schizophrenia is to be addressed effectively. More effective interventions are necessary to improve and sustain a healthy diet.

  3. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27%) and liver triglycerides (314.75%) compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  4. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD, high fat diet (HFD, and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg (V-HFD. After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27% and liver triglycerides (314.75% compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  5. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Diets with Improved Omega-3 Fatty Acid Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R V Coelho

    Full Text Available A high incidence of cardiovascular disease is observed worldwide, and dietary habits are one of the risk factors for these diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet help to prevent cardiovascular disease. We used life cycle assessment to analyse the potential of two strategies to improve the nutritional and environmental characteristics of French diets: 1 modifying diets by changing the quantities and proportions of foods and 2 increasing the omega-3 contents in diets by replacing mainly animal foods with equivalent animal foods having higher omega-3 contents. We also investigated other possibilities for reducing environmental impacts. Our results showed that a diet compliant with nutritional recommendations for macronutrients had fewer environmental impacts than the current average French diet. Moving from an omnivorous to a vegetarian diet further reduced environmental impacts. Increasing the omega-3 contents in animal rations increased Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA in animal food products. Providing these enriched animal foods in human diets increased their EPA and DHA contents without affecting their environmental impacts. However, in diets that did not contain fish, EPA and DHA contents were well below the levels recommended by health authorities, despite the inclusion of animal products enriched in EPA and DHA. Reducing meat consumption and avoidable waste at home are two main avenues for reducing environmental impacts of diets.

  6. Increased adipose tissue lipolysis after a 2-week high-fat diet in sedentary overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Harold R; Heidal, Kimberly; Choi, Myung Dong; Kraus, Ray M; Boyle, Kristen; Hickner, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a high-fat diet would result in a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue than a lower-fat diet in sedentary nonlean men. Six participants (healthy males; 18-40 years old; body mass index, 25-37 kg/m(2)) underwent 2 weeks on a high-fat or well-balanced diet of similar energy content (approximately 6695 kJ) in randomized order with a 10-day washout period between diets. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was determined over the course of a day using microdialysis after both 2-week diet sessions. Average interstitial glycerol concentrations (index of lipolysis) as determined using microdialysis were higher after the high-fat diet (210.8 ± 27.9 μmol/L) than after a well-balanced diet (175.6 ± 23.3 μmol/L; P = .026). There was no difference in adipose tissue microvascular blood flow as determined using the microdialysis ethanol technique. These results demonstrate that healthy nonlean men who diet on the high-fat plan have a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue than when they diet on a well-balanced diet plan. This higher rate of lipolysis may result in a higher rate of fat mass loss on the high-fat diet; however, it remains to be determined if this higher lipolytic rate in men on the high-fat diet results in a more rapid net loss of triglyceride from the abdominal adipose depots, or if the higher lipolytic rate is counteracted by an increased rate of lipid storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cafeteria diet is a robust model of human metabolic syndrome with liver and adipose inflammation: comparison to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampey, Brante P; Vanhoose, Amanda M; Winfield, Helena M; Freemerman, Alex J; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Fueger, Patrick T; Newgard, Christopher B; Makowski, Liza

    2011-06-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and reports estimate that American children consume up to 25% of calories from snacks. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare high-fat diets (HFD) traditionally used in rodent models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) to diets consisting of food regularly consumed by humans, including high-salt, high-fat, low-fiber, energy dense foods such as cookies, chips, and processed meats. To investigate the obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of a cafeteria diet (CAF) compared to a lard-based 45% HFD in rodent models, male Wistar rats were fed HFD, CAF or chow control diets for 15 weeks. Body weight increased dramatically and remained significantly elevated in CAF-fed rats compared to all other diets. Glucose- and insulin-tolerance tests revealed that hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance were exaggerated in the CAF-fed rats compared to controls and HFD-fed rats. It is well-established that macrophages infiltrate metabolic tissues at the onset of weight gain and directly contribute to inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity. Although both high fat diets resulted in increased adiposity and hepatosteatosis, CAF-fed rats displayed remarkable inflammation in white fat, brown fat and liver compared to HFD and controls. In sum, the CAF provided a robust model of human metabolic syndrome compared to traditional lard-based HFD, creating a phenotype of exaggerated obesity with glucose intolerance and inflammation. This model provides a unique platform to study the biochemical, genomic and physiological mechanisms of obesity and obesity-related disease states that are pandemic in western civilization today.

  8. Uncoupling of interleukin-6 from its signalling pathway by dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation alters sickness behaviour in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingam, Rozenn; Moranis, Aurélie; Bluthé, Rose-Marie; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Kelley, Keith W.; Guesnet, Philippe; Lavialle, Monique; Dantzer, Robert; Layé, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Sickness behaviour is an adaptive behavioural response to the activation of the innate immune system. It is mediated by brain cytokine production and action, especially interleukin-6 (IL-6). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential fatty acids that are highly incorporated in brain cells membranes and display immunomodulating properties. We hypothesized that a decrease in n-3 PUFA brain level by dietary means impacts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 production and sickness behaviour. Our results show that mice exposed throughout life to a diet containing n-3 PUFA (n-3/n-6 diet) display a decrease in social interaction that does not occur in mice submitted to a diet devoid of n-3 PUFA (n-6 diet). LPS induced high IL-6 plasma levels as well as expression of IL-6 mRNA in the hippocampus and cFos mRNA in the brainstem of mice fed either diet, indicating intact immune-to-brain communication. However, STAT3 and STAT1 activation, a hallmark of IL-6 signalling pathway, was lower in the hippocampus of LPS-treated n-6 mice as compared to n-3/n-6 mice. In addition, LPS did not reduce social interaction in IL-6 knock-out (IL-6 KO) mice and failed to induce STAT3 activation in the brain of IL-6 KO mice. Altogether, these findings point to alteration in brain STAT3 as a key mechanism for the lack of effect of LPS on social interaction in mice fed with the n-6 PUFA diet. The relative deficiency of Western diets in n-3 PUFA could impact on behavioural aspects of the host response to infection. PMID:18973601

  9. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-05-26

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  10. Maternal high-fat diet associated with altered gene expression, DNA methylation, and obesity risk in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Madeline Rose; Zaidi, Rabab; Shah, Shyam; Oakley, M Elsa; Pavlatos, Cassondra; El Idrissi, Samir; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Daofeng; Wang, Ting; Cheverud, James M

    2018-01-01

    We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts. Maternal diet particularly affected genes involved in RNA processing, immune response, and mitochondria. Between one-quarter and one-third of differentially expressed genes contained a differentially methylated region associated with maternal diet. An offspring high-fat diet reduced overall variation in DNA methylation, increased body weight and organ weights, increased long bone lengths and weights, decreased insulin sensitivity, and changed the expression of 3,908 genes in the liver. Although the offspring were more affected by their own diet, their maternal diet had epigenetic effects lasting through adulthood, and in the daughters these effects were accompanied by phenotypic changes relevant to obesity and diabetes.

  11. Maternal high-fat diet associated with altered gene expression, DNA methylation, and obesity risk in mouse offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Rabab; Shah, Shyam; Oakley, M. Elsa; Pavlatos, Cassondra; El Idrissi, Samir; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Daofeng; Wang, Ting; Cheverud, James M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts. Maternal diet particularly affected genes involved in RNA processing, immune response, and mitochondria. Between one-quarter and one-third of differentially expressed genes contained a differentially methylated region associated with maternal diet. An offspring high-fat diet reduced overall variation in DNA methylation, increased body weight and organ weights, increased long bone lengths and weights, decreased insulin sensitivity, and changed the expression of 3,908 genes in the liver. Although the offspring were more affected by their own diet, their maternal diet had epigenetic effects lasting through adulthood, and in the daughters these effects were accompanied by phenotypic changes relevant to obesity and diabetes. PMID:29447215

  12. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  13. Diet simplification selects for high gut microbial diversity and strong fermenting ability in high-altitude pikas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Wirth, Stephan; Zhang, Yanming; Zhao, Xinquan; Li, Xiangzhen

    2018-06-03

    The gut microbiota in mammals plays a key role in host metabolism and adaptation. However, relatively little is known regarding to how the animals adapts to extreme environments through regulating gut microbial diversity and function. Here, we investigated the diet, gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles, and cellulolytic activity from two common pika (Ochotona spp.) species in China, including Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Daurian pika (Ochotona daurica) from the Inner Mongolia Grassland. Despite a partial diet overlap, Plateau pikas harbored lower diet diversity than Daurian pikas. Some bacteria (e.g., Prevotella and Ruminococcus) associated with fiber degradation were enriched in Plateau pikas. They harbored higher gut microbial diversity, total SCFA concentration, and cellulolytic activity than Daurian pikas. Interestingly, cellulolytic activity was positively correlated with the gut microbial diversity and SCFAs. Gut microbial communities and SCFA profiles were segregated structurally between host species. PICRUSt metagenome predictions demonstrated that microbial genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism were overrepresented in the gut microbiota of Plateau pikas. Our results demonstrate that Plateau pikas harbor a stronger fermenting ability for the plant-based diet than Daurian pikas via gut microbial fermentation. The enhanced ability for utilization of plant-based diets in Plateau pikas may be partly a kind of microbiota adaptation for more energy requirements in cold and hypoxic high-altitude environments.

  14. A choline-deficient diet exacerbates fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, Peter J; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Walker, Brian R

    2006-07-01

    Liver fat accumulation is proposed to link obesity and insulin resistance. To dissect the role of liver fat in the insulin resistance of diet-induced obesity, we altered liver fat using a choline-deficient diet. C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low-fat (10% of calories) or high-fat (45% of calories) diet for 8 weeks; during the final 4 weeks, diets were either choline deficient or choline supplemented. In choline replete animals, high-fat feeding induced weight gain, elevated liver triglycerides (171%), hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Choline deficiency did not affect body or adipose depot weights but amplified liver fat accumulation with high-fat diet (281%, P insulin (from 983 +/- 175 to 433 +/- 36 pmol/l, P phosphatidylcholine synthesis and of enzymes involved in free fatty acid esterification, without affecting those of de novo lipogenesis or fatty acid oxidation. We conclude that liver fat accumulation per se does not cause insulin resistance during high-fat feeding and that choline deficiency may shunt potentially toxic free fatty acids toward innocuous storage triglyceride in the liver.

  15. Low-carbohydrate diets reduce lipid accumulation and arterial inflammation in guinea pigs fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jose O; DeOgburn, Ryan; Ratliff, Joseph; Su, Randy; Smyth, Joan A; Volek, Jeff S; McGrane, Mary M; Dardik, Alan; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2010-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) efficiently induce weight loss and favorably affect plasma lipids, however, the effect of LCD on atherosclerosis is still argued. To evaluate the effect of LCD on the prevention of atherosclerosis. Twenty guinea pigs were fed either a LCD or a low-fat diet (LFD) in combination with high-cholesterol (0.25g/100g) for 12 weeks. The percentage energy of macronutrient distribution was 10:65:25 for carbohydrate:fat:protein for the LCD, and 55:20:25 for the LFD. Plasma lipids were measured using colorimetric assays. Plasma and aortic oxidized (oxLDL) were quantified using ELISA methods. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in aortic homogenates using an immunoassay. H&E stained sections of aortic sinus and Schultz stained sections of carotid arteries were examined. LDL cholesterol was lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (71.9+/-34.8 vs. 81.7+/-26.9mg/dL; p=0.039). Aortic cholesterol was also lower in the LCD (4.98+/-1.3mg/g) compared to the LFD group (6.68+/-2.0mg/g); p<0.05. The Schultz staining method confirmed less aortic cholesterol accumulation in the LCD group. Plasma oxLDL did not differ between groups, however, aortic oxLDL was 61% lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (p=0.045). There was a positive correlation (r=0.63, p=0.03) between oxLDL and cholesterol concentration in the aorta of LFD group, which was not observed in LCD group (r=-0.05, p=0.96). Inflammatory markers were reduced in guinea pigs from the LCD group (p<0.05) and they were correlated with the decreases in oxLDL in aorta. These results suggest that LCD not only decreases lipid deposition, but also prevents the accumulation of oxLDL and reduces inflammatory cytokines within the arterial wall and may prevent atherosclerosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Determinants of Dieting Behavior and Eating Disorders in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Lillian Miller

    This study examines the prevalence and intensity of dieting behavior and the development of eating disorders in a sample of 1269 high school students from ten schools in the Greater Cleveland area. The sample includes four race-sex groups: black and white male and female students. Differences in dieting behavior between these groups are examined and, within each race-sex group, dieters and non-dieters are compared to see whether they differ in such factors as current weight and personal weight history, parental weights, socioeconomic class, religion, birth order, exercise and personality factors such as self-esteem and eating disorder measures. Data were collected using both self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews with a subsample of students. The study documents a higher prevalence of dieting and purging behavior than has been reported in other research. Forty-one percent of both black and white males, 61 percent of black females, and 77 percent of white females dieted and many purged, particularly black females who tended to use laxatives and diuretics and white females and males who tended to use vomiting. Dieters and non -dieters differed significantly in past experience with being overweight and in their current weights. At the time of the study 20 to 30 percent of the dieters were classifiable as overweight. While black and white male dieters and non-dieters were in agreement about ideal body weight, white female dieters and non-dieters wanted considerably lower weights than black female dieters and non-dieters. Ethnicity, as determined by socioeconomic class and religion, was not significantly related to dieting behavior, nor was birth order, a familial factor. It appeared that pervasive cultural pressures to attain an ideal figure affected all race-sex groups and led large percentages of the students to diet, even many who were already underweight.

  18. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Exercise as a mean to reverse the detrimental effect of high-fat diet on bone’s fracture characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Doulamis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate whether exercise can reverse some of the adverse effects of high-fat-diet-induced obesity on lipid metabolism and bone biomechanical properties. A total of 26 adult male C57bl/6J mice were randomly assigned into three groups: (A Control group (n=6, (B High-fat diet group (n=10, (C High-fat diet and exercise group (n=10. Body mass and relevant biochemical parameters were measured for the duration of the experimental protocol (37 weeks. Mechanical strength of both femurs of each animal was assessed in-vitro based on three point bending tests. It was re¬vealed that exposure to high-fat diet led to significant increase of body mass and cholesterol levels and also to substantial changes in bone mor-phology and strength. Ultimate stress for the animals exposed to high-fat diet and those exposed to high-fat-diet and exercise was 25% and 24% lower compared to control, respectively. Exercise increased bone thickness by 15% compared to animals that were not exposed to exer¬cise. It was concluded that high-fat-diet ap¬pears to have a detrimental effect on bone biomechanics and strength. Exer¬cise reversed the reduction in bone thickness that appears to be induced by high-fat diet. However no statistically significant increase in bone strength was observed.

  20. High-protein diets in hyperlipidemia : effect of wheat gluten on serum lipids, uric acid, and renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, D.J.A.; Kendall, C.W.C.; Vidgen, E.; Augustin, L.S.A.; Erk, van M.; Geelen, A.; Parker, T.; Faulkner, D.; Vuksan, V.; Josse, R.G.; Leiter, L.A.; Connelly, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein have not been assessed despite much recent interest in the effect of soy proteins in reducing serum cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein (specifically, wheat gluten) on serum

  1. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Metabolic syndrome reversion by polyunsaturated fatty acids ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Mondragón, Martha Gabriela; Oliart Ros, Rosa María; Martínez Martinez, Angélica; Méndez Machado, Gustavo Francisco; Angulo Guerrero, Jesús Ofelia

    2013-12-21

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) frequency is growing and diet has an important influence on its evolution. Our objective was to study the effect of 3 sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids on MS parameters in humans. The MS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three groups of individuals (n=15/group) were quasi-randomly assigned to one of the following treatments during 6 weeks: a) 1.8 g/d n-3 (1.08g eicosapentoaenoic acid+0.72 g docosahexaenoic acid); b) 2.0 g/d conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 50:50, cis9:trans11, trans10:cis12), and c) 40 g/d walnut. The clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the essay. In the group with n-3 the triglycerides level decreased from 183.9 ± 35.2mg/dl to 149.6 ± 29.0mg/dl (P=.007). In the group with walnut the HDL level rose from 41.7 ± 5.2mg/dl to 47.8 ± 5.4 mg/dl (P=.004) and the Castelli index (total cholesterol/HDL) decreased from 4.86 ± 0.97 to 3.82 ± 0.81 (P=.004). There were not significant changes in the CLA group. At the end of the essay, 46.7% of walnut group patients, 46.7% of n-3 group and 20% of CLA group, had no MS. The groups that consumed polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 and those in walnut in moderate daily doses during 6 weeks had an improvement of the dyslipidemia component of MS, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilization of [1-14C]carbon of glycine of high glycine diet fed young and old rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Medovar, B.Ya.; Pisarczuk, K.L.; Grigorov, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    The incorporation of radioactivity from [1- 14 C]glycine was studied in various organ (serum, liver, muscle) fractions (acid soluble, proteins, lipids, liver glycogen) and carbon dioxide in rats fed with isonitrogenous isocaloric purfied diets. The diets contained 30% casein (control), gelatin (exchange of half of the 30% casein) or glycine (corresponding level of glycine in relation to the gelatin diet). The incorporation of radioactivity into proteins was reduced by feeding high glycine diets in young (20-weeks-old) and old (18-month-old) rats in relation to the control diet. The modifications of the results for old animals may be partially explained on the base of a reduced protein turnover rate and adaptation to a high gelatin (glycine) diet. (author)

  4. Effect of administration of high-protein diet in rats submitted to resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Lima, Thiago; Ávila, Eudes Thiago Pereira; Fraga, Géssica Alves; de Souza Sena, Mariana; de Souza Dias, Arlyson Batista; de Almeida, Paula Caroline; Dos Santos Trombeta, Joice Cristina; Junior, Roberto Carlos Vieira; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Navalta, James Wilfred; Prestes, Jonato; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo

    2018-04-01

    Although there is limited evidence regarding the pathophysiological effects of a high-protein diet (HD), it is believed that this type of diet could overload the body and cause damage to the organs directly involved with protein metabolism and excretion. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of HD on biochemical and morphological parameters of rats that completed a resistance training protocol (RT; aquatic jump) for 8 weeks. Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8 for each group): sedentary normal protein diet (SN-14%), sedentary high-protein diet (SH-35%), trained normal protein diet (TN-14%), and trained high-protein diet (TH-35%). Biochemical, tissue, and morphological measurements were made. Kidney (1.91 ± 0.34) and liver weights (12.88 ± 1.42) were higher in the SH. Soleus muscle weight was higher in the SH (0.22 ± 0.03) when compared to all groups. Blood glucose (123.2 ± 1.8), triglycerides (128.5 ± 44.0), and HDL cholesterol levels (65.7 ± 20.9) were also higher in the SH compared with the other experimental groups. Exercise reduced urea levels in the trained groups TN and TH (31.0 ± 4.1 and 36.8 ± 6.6), respectively. Creatinine levels were lower in TH and SH groups (0.68 ± 0.12; 0.54 ± 0.19), respectively. HD negatively altered renal morphology in SH, but when associated with RT, the apparent damage was partially reversed. In addition, the aquatic jump protocol reversed the damage to the gastrocnemius muscle caused by the HD. A high-protein diet promoted negative metabolic and morphological changes, while RT was effective in reversing these deleterious effects.

  5. High Intensity Exercise: Can It Protect You from A Fast Food Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Christian; Rouillier, Marc-Antoine; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Karelis, Antony D

    2017-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of high intensity exercise to counteract the deleterious effects of a fast food diet on the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy men. Fifteen men were subjected to an exclusive fast food diet from a popular fast food restaurant chain (three extra value meals/day + optional snack) for 14 consecutive days. Simultaneously, participants were asked to perform each day high intensity interval training (HIIT) (15 × 60 sec sprint intervals (~90% of maximal heart rate)) on a treadmill. Fast food diet and energy expenditure profiles of the participants during the intervention were assessed as well as body composition (DXA), cardiometabolic profile (lipid, hepatic enzymes, glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, hsC-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood pressure) and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) pre- and post-experiment. We found significant improvements for fat mass, lean body mass, estimated VO₂ max, fasting glucose, serum lipoprotein(a) and hsCRP after the intervention ( p fast food diet.

  6. High fat diet prevents over-crowding induced decrease of sex ratio in mice.

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    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Adaptive theory predicts that mothers would be advantaged by adjusting the sex ratio of their offspring in relation to their offspring's future reproductive success. In the present study, we tested the effect of housing mice under crowded condition on the sex ratio and whether the fat content of the diet has any influence on the outcome of pregnancies. Three-week-old mice were placed on the control diet (NFD for 3 weeks. Thereafter the mice were allotted randomly to two groups of 7 cages each with 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 mice in every cage to create increasing crowding gradient and fed either NFD or high fat diet (HFD. After 4 weeks, dams were bred and outcomes of pregnancy were analyzed. The average dam body weight (DBW at conception, litter size (LS and SR were significantly higher in HFD fed dams. Further, male biased litters declined with increasing crowding in NFD group but not in HFD. The LS and SR in NFD declined significantly with increasing crowding, whereas only LS was reduced in HFD group. We conclude that female mice housed under overcrowding conditions shift offspring SR in favor of daughters in consistent with the TW hypothesis and high fat diet reduces this influence of overcrowding.

  7. Protective effect of lycopene on high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Jin; Wang, Jian; Li, Yuxia; Xiao, Li; Duan, Dan; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-08-03

    A Western diet, high in saturated fats, has been linked to the development of cognitive impairment. Lycopene has recently received considerable attention for its potent protective properties demonstrated in several models of nervous system dysfunction. However, it remains unclear whether lycopene exerts protective effects on cognition. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lycopene on learning and memory impairment and the potential underlying mechanism in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). One-month-old male rats were fed different diets for 16 weeks (n=12 per group), including a standard chow diet (CD), a HFD, or a HFD plus lycopene (4mg/kg, oral gavage in the last three weeks). Behavioral testing, including the Morris water maze (MWM), object recognition task (ORT), and anxiety-like behavior in an open field (OF), were assessed at week 16. The dendritic spine density and neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 subfield were subsequently measured. The results indicate that HFD consumption for 16 weeks significantly impaired spatial memory (Plycopene significantly attenuated learning and memory impairments and prevented the reduction in dendritic spine density (Plycopene helps to protect HFD induced cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. GENOTYPE-PHENOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS: MODULATION BY DIET AND OBESITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovas, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in diet are likely to reduce chronic disorders, but after decades of active research and heated discussion the question still remains: what is the optimal diet to achieve this elusive goal? Is a low fat, as traditionally recommended by multiple medical societies? Or a high monounsaturated fat as predicated by the Mediterranean diet? Perhaps a high polyunsaturated fat based on the cholesterol lowering effects? The right answer may be all of the above but not for everybody. A well-known phenomenon in nutrition research and practice is the dramatic variability in interindividual response to any type of dietary intervention. There are many other factors influencing response, and they include, among many others, age, sex, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking as well as genetic factors that will help to identify vulnerable populations/individuals that will be benefit from a variety of more personalized and mechanistic based dietary recommendations. This potential could and needs to be developed within the context of nutritional genomics that in conjunction with systems biology may provide the tools to achieve the holy grail of dietary prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. This approach will break with the traditional public health approach of “one size fits all.” The current evidence based on nutrigenetics has begun to identify subgroups of individuals who benefit more from a low fat diet, whereas others appear to benefit more from a high monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) diets. The continuous progress in Nutrigenomics will allow some time in the future to provide targeted gene-based dietary advice. PMID:19037211

  9. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

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    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  10. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Matthias J; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7). Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience) and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint), explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by increased adaptive thermogenesis in BAT.

  11. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  12. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

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    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  13. Lowering dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: interaction with brain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashmali, Shoug M; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the brain, where they have many biological effects, including on inflammation, cell-signaling, appetite regulation, and blood flow. The Western diet contains a high ratio of n-6: n-3 PUFA. Although interest in lowering this ratio has largely focused on increasing intake of n-3 PUFA, few studies have examined lowering dietary n-6 PUFA. This review will evaluate the effect of lowering dietary n-6 PUFA on levels and metabolism of ARA and DHA in animal models and in humans, with a primary focus on the brain. In animal models, lowering dietary ARA or linoleic acid generally lowers levels of brain ARA and raises DHA. Lowering dietary n-6 PUFA can also modulate the levels of ARA and DHA metabolizing enzymes, as well as their associated bioactive mediators. Human studies examining changes in plasma fatty acid composition following n-6 PUFA lowering demonstrate no changes in levels of ARA and DHA, though there is evidence of alterations in their respective bioactive mediators. Lowering dietary n-6 PUFA, in animal models, can alter the levels and metabolism of ARA and DHA in the brain, but it remains to be determined whether these changes are clinically meaningful.

  14. Development of rabbit meat products fortified with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.

  15. An Improvement of Cardiovascular Risk Factors by Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Masui, Yoshinori; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Adachi, Hiroki; Kawaguchi, Akiko; Hakoshima, Mariko; Waragai, Yoko; Harigae, Tadanao; Sako, Akahito

    2018-04-01

    An epidemiological survey in the Northwest Greenland reported that the Greenlanders have a lower frequency of acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus. The very low incidence of ischemic heart disease in the Greenlanders was explained by consumption of a diet rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Possible anti-atherothrombotic effects of omega-3 PUFA include an improvement of lipid metabolism such as a reduction of triglyceride and an increase of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and glucose metabolism, anti-platelet activity, anti-inflammatory effects, an improvement of endothelial function and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque. The present study reviews an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia and diabetes due to consumption of omega-3 PUFA. A sufficient number of studies suggest that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces serum triglyceride and increases HDL-cholesterol. The mechanisms for omega-3 PUFA-mediated improvements of lipid metabolism have been partially elucidated. The studies using experimental animals, part of trials in humans, have shown the beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The meta-analysis showed that omega-3 PUFA might prevent development of diabetes in part of population. Further studies should be performed to elucidate the association of omega-3 PUFA supplementation with diabetes, in the future.

  16. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.

  17. High-Fat Diet Induces Oxidative Stress and MPK2 and HSP83 Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade de Paula, Mariane; Poetini Silva, M?rcia R?sula; Machado Araujo, St?fani; Cardoso Bortolotto, Vandreza; Barreto Meichtry, Luana; Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Wallau, Gabriel L.; Jesse, Cristiano Ricardo; Franco, Jeferson Lu?s; Posser, Tha?s; Prigol, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes alteration in normal metabolism affecting lifespan of flies; however molecular mechanism associated with this damage in flies is not well known. This study evaluates the effects of ingestion of a diet supplemented with 10% and 20% of coconut oil, which is rich in saturated fatty acids, on oxidative stress and cells stress signaling pathways. After exposure to the diet for seven days, cellular and mitochondrial viability, lipid peroxidation and a...

  18. Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression

  19. No difference between high-fructose and high-glucose diets on liver triacylglycerol or biochemistry in healthy overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard D; Stephenson, Mary C; Crossland, Hannah; Cordon, Sally M; Palcidi, Elisa; Cox, Eleanor F; Taylor, Moira A; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Macdonald, Ian A

    2013-11-01

    Diets high in fructose have been proposed to contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We compared the effects of high-fructose and matched glucose intake on hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration and other liver parameters. In a double-blind study, we randomly assigned 32 healthy but centrally overweight men to groups that received either a high-fructose or high-glucose diet (25% energy). These diets were provided during an initial isocaloric period of 2 weeks, followed by a 6-week washout period, and then again during a hypercaloric 2-week period. The primary outcome measure was hepatic level of TAG, with additional assessments of TAG levels in serum and soleus muscle, hepatic levels of adenosine triphosphate, and systemic and hepatic insulin resistance. During the isocaloric period of the study, both groups had stable body weights and concentrations of TAG in liver, serum, and soleus muscle. The high-fructose diet produced an increase of 22 ± 52 μmol/L in the serum level of uric acid, whereas the high-glucose diet led to a reduction of 23 ± 25 μmol/L (P fructose diet also produced an increase of 0.8 ± 0.9 in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, whereas the high-glucose diet produced an increase of only 0.1 ± 0.7 (P = .03). During the hypercaloric period, participants in the high-fructose and high-glucose groups had similar increases in weight (1.0 ± 1.4 vs 0.6 ± 1.0 kg; P = .29) and absolute concentration of TAG in liver (1.70% ± 2.6% vs 2.05% ± 2.9%; P = .73) and serum (0.36 ± 0.75 vs 0.33 ± 0.38 mmol/L; P = .91), and similar results in biochemical assays of liver function. Body weight changes were associated with changes in liver biochemistry and concentration of TAGs. In the isocaloric period, overweight men who were on a high-fructose or a high-glucose diet did not develop any significant changes in hepatic concentration of TAGs or serum levels of liver enzymes. However, in the hypercaloric period

  20. High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mousumi; Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Arnab Kumar; Bose, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Rudra, Smita; Dey, Monalisa; Bandyopadhyay, Arkita; Pattari, Sanjib K; Mallick, Sanjaya; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenic toxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of high-fat diet on somatic growth, metabolic parameters and function of peritoneal macrophages of young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alheiros-Lira, Maria Cláudia; Jurema-Santos, Gabriela Carvalho; da-Silva, Helyson Tomaz; da-Silva, Amanda Cabral; Moreno Senna, Sueli; Ferreira E Silva, Wylla Tatiana; Ferraz, José Candido; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein-high fat (LP-HF)). Somatic growth, food and energy intake, fat depots, serum glucose, cholesterol and leptin concentrations were evaluated. Phagocytic rate and NO production were analysed in peritoneal macrophages under stimulation of zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+interferon γ (IFN-γ), respectively. The maternal LP diet altered the somatic parameters of growth and development of pups. LP and LP-HF pups showed a higher body weight gain and food intake than C pups. HF and LP-HF pups showed increased retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots, serum level of TAG and total cholesterol compared with C and LP pups. After LPS+IFN-γ stimulation, LP and LP-HF pups showed reduced NO production when compared with their pairs. Increased phagocytic activity and NO production were seen in LP but not LP-HF peritoneal macrophages. However, peritoneal macrophages of LP pups were hyporesponsive to LPS+IFN-γ induced NO release, even after a post-weaning HF diet. Our data demonstrated that there was an immunomodulation related to dietary fatty acids after the maternal LP diet-induced metabolic programming.

  2. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  3. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Glomerular cell death and inflammation with high-protein diet and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Rick L; LeBoeuf, Renee C; Saha, Sandeep A; Alpers, Charles E; Hudkins, Kelly L; Cooney, Sheryl K; Anderberg, Robert J; Tuttle, Katherine R

    2013-07-01

    Overfeeding amino acids (AAs) increases cellular exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), a mechanism for protein intake to worsen diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study assessed receptor for AGE (RAGE)-mediated apoptosis and inflammation in glomerular cells exposed to metabolic stressors characteristic of high-protein diets and/or diabetes in vitro with proof-of-concept appraisal in vivo. Mouse podocytes and mesangial cells were cultured under control and metabolic stressor conditions: (i) no addition; (ii) increased AAs (4-6-fold>control); (iii) high glucose (HG, 30.5 mM); (iv) AA/HG combination; (v) AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA, 300 µg/mL); (vi) BSA (300 µg/mL). RAGE was inhibited by blocking antibody. Diabetic (streptozotocin) and nondiabetic mice (C57BL/6J) consumed diets with protein calories of 20 or 40% (high) for 20 weeks. People with DKD and controls provided 24-h urine samples. In podocytes and mesangial cells, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity and TUNEL) increased in all metabolic stressor conditions. Both inflammatory mediator expression (real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: serum amyloid A, caspase-4, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and RAGE (immunostaining) also increased. RAGE inhibition prevented apoptosis and inflammation in podocytes. Among mice fed high protein, podocyte number (WT-1 immunostaining) decreased in the diabetic group, and only these diabetic mice developed albuminuria. Protein intake (urea nitrogen) correlated with AGE excretion (carboxymethyllysine) in people with DKD and controls. High-protein diet and/or diabetes-like conditions increased glomerular cell death and inflammation, responses mediated by RAGEs in podocytes. The concept that high-protein diets exacerbate early indicators of DKD is supported by data from mice and people.

  5. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. OBJECTIVE: We explored...... the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk...... duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed...

  6. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axen, Kathleen V; Axen, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the obese rats (VLC) were then fed a popular VLC-HF diet (Weeks 9 and 10 at 5% and Weeks 11 to 14 at 15% carbohydrate), and one-half (HC) were pair-fed an HC-LF diet (Weeks 9 to 14 at 60% carbohydrate). Energy intakes of pair-fed VLC and HC rats were less than C rats throughout Weeks 9 to 14. Compared with HC rats, VLC rats exhibited impaired insulin and glycemic responses to an intraperitoneal glucose load at Week 10 and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels but retarded loss of hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat at Week 14. VLC, HC, and C rats no longer differed in body weight, plasma cholesterol, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin resistance at Week 14. Progressive decreases in fasting insulin resistance in obese groups paralleled concomitant reductions in hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat. When energy intake was matched, the VLC-HF diet provided no advantage in weight loss or in improving those components of the metabolic syndrome induced by dietary obesity and may delay loss of hepatic and visceral fat as compared with an HC-LF diet.

  7. Characterisation of Atherogenic Effects of Low Carbohydrate, High Protein Diet (LCHP) in ApoE/LDLR-/- Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, R B; Johann, C; Czyżyńska, I; Franczyk-Żarów, M; Drahun, A; Maślak, E; Jasztal, A; Gajda, M; Mateuszuk, Ł; Wrobel, T P; Baranska, M; Wybrańska, I; Jezkova, K; Nachtigal, P; Chlopicki, S

    2015-08-01

    Low Carbohydrate High Protein diet represents a popular strategy to achieve weight loss. The aim of this study was to characterize effects of low carbohydrate, high protein diet (LCHP) on atherosclerotic plaque development in brachiocephalic artery (BCA) in apoE/LDLR-/- mice and to elucidate mechanisms of proatherogenic effects of LCHP diet. Atherosclerosis plaques in brachiocephalic artery (BCA) as well as in aortic roots, lipoprotein profile, inflammation biomarkers, expression of SREBP-1 in the liver as well as mortality were analyzed in Control diet (AIN-93G) or LCHP (Low Carbohydrate High Protein) diet fed mice. Area of atherosclerotic plaques in aortic roots or BCA from LCHP diet fed mice was substantially increased as compared to mice fed control diet and was characterized by increased lipids and cholesterol contents (ORO staining, FT-IR analysis), increased macrophage infiltration (MOMA-2) and activity of MMPs (zymography). Pro-atherogenic phenotype of LCHP fed apoE/LDLR-/- mice was associated with increased plasma total cholesterol concentration, and in LDL and VLDL fractions, increased TG contents in VLDL, and a modest increase in plasma urea. LCHP diet increased SCD-1 index, activated SREBP-1 transcription factor in the liver and triggered acute phase response as evidence by an increased plasma concentration of haptoglobin, CRP or AGP. Finally, in long-term experiment survival of apoE/LDLR-/- mice fed LCHP diet was substantially reduced as compared to their counterparts fed control diet suggesting overall detrimental effects of LCHP diet on health. The pro-atherogenic effect of LCHP diet in apoE/LDLR-/- mice is associated with profound increase in LDL and VLDL cholesterol, VLDL triglicerides, liver SREBP-1 upregulation, and systemic inflammation.

  8. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  9. The snacking rat as model of human obesity: effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on meal patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S. E.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; van der Zwaal, E. M.; Brans, M. A. D.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Rats subjected to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet persistently overeat, exhibit increased food-motivated behavior and become overtly obese. Conversely, several studies using a non-choice (nc) high-energy diet showed only an initial increase in food intake with unaltered or reduced

  10. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus ( P proteins from the diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  11. Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway.

  12. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    , but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key......Diets based on different fibre sources were given to broiler breeders from day 12 to 19 weeks of age to increase feed quantity. Diet A (commercial control diet: 21% dietary fibre (DF); 10.7MJ/kg), B (42% DF; 7.25MJ/kg), C (38% DF; 7.25MJ/kg) and D (30% DF; 8.00MJ/kg) were fed each to 8 groups of 28...... chickens. The food allowance was adjusted twice weekly to obtain commercial growth curves. Weights of intestinal segments and their contents were measured seven times during 24 hours at 4, 9 and 14 weeks. Behavioural observations were carried out at 18 weeks. Group size was reduced to 10 hens per group...

  13. Sensory-specific satiety is intact in rats made obese on a high-fat high-sugar choice diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin P

    2017-05-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is the temporary decreased pleasantness of a recently eaten food, which inhibits further eating. Evidence is currently mixed whether SSS is weaker in obese people, and whether such difference precedes or follows from the obese state. Animal models allow testing whether diet-induced obesity causes SSS impairment. Female rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to an obesogenic high-fat, high-sugar choice diet or chow-only control. Tests of SSS involved pre-feeding a single palatable, distinctively-flavored food (cheese- or cocoa-flavored) prior to free choice between both foods. Rats were tested for short-term SSS (2 h pre-feeding immediately followed by 2 h choice) and long-term SSS (3 day pre-feeding prior to choice on day 4). In both short- and long-term tests rats exhibited SSS by shifting preference towards the food not recently eaten. SSS was not impaired in obese rats. On the contrary, in the long-term tests they showed stronger SSS than controls. This demonstrates that neither the obese state nor a history of excess energy consumption fundamentally causes impaired SSS in rats. The putative impaired SSS in obese people may instead reflect a specific predisposition, properties of the obesogenic diet, or history of restrictive dieting and bingeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The early infant gut microbiome varies in association with a maternal high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derrick M; Antony, Kathleen M; Ma, Jun; Prince, Amanda L; Showalter, Lori; Moller, Michelle; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-08-09

    Emerging evidence suggests that the in utero environment is not sterile as once presumed. Work in the mouse demonstrated transmission of commensal bacteria from mother to fetus during gestation, though it is unclear what modulates this process. We have previously shown in the nonhuman primate that, independent of obesity, a maternal high-fat diet during gestation and lactation persistently shapes the juvenile gut microbiome. We therefore sought to interrogate in a population-based human longitudinal cohort whether a maternal high-fat diet similarly alters the neonatal and infant gut microbiome in early life. A representative cohort was prospectively enrolled either in the early third trimester or intrapartum (n = 163), with a subset consented to longitudinal sampling through the postpartum interval (n = 81). Multiple body site samples, including stool and meconium, were collected from neonates at delivery and by 6 weeks of age. A rapid dietary questionnaire was administered to estimate intake of fat, added sugars, and fiber over the past month (National Health and Examination Survey). DNA was extracted from each infant meconium/stool sample (MoBio) and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. On average, the maternal dietary intake of fat ranged from 14.0 to 55.2 %, with an average intake of 33.1 % (σ = 6.1 %). Mothers whose diets significantly differed from the mean (±1 standard deviation) were separated into two distinct groups, a control group (n = 13, μ = 24.4 %) and a high-fat group (n = 13, μ = 43.1 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the microbiome of the neonatal stool at birth (meconium) clustered differently by virtue of maternal gestational diet (PERMANOVA p = 0.001). LEfSe feature selection identified several taxa that discriminated the groups, with a notable relative depletion of Bacteroides in the neonates exposed to a maternal high-fat gestational diet (Student's t-test, p < 0

  15. Effect of High Phytase Inclusion Rates on Performance of Broilers Fed Diets Not Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytate is not only an unavailable source of phosphorus (P for broilers but it also acts as an anti-nutrient, reducing protein and mineral absorption, increasing endogenous losses and reducing broiler performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-nutritional effects of phytate by including high levels of phytase in diets not severely limited in available P. A total of 768 male Arbor Acres broilers were distributed in six treatments of eight replicate pens of 16 birds each consisting of a positive control diet (PC, positive control with 500 FTU/kg phytase, negative control (NC diet with lower available P and calcium (Ca levels and the same NC diet with 500, 1,000 or 1,500 FTU/kg phytase. Body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR and mortality were determined at 21 and 35 d of age while foot ash was determined in four birds per pen at 21 d of age. FI, FCR and foot ash where not affected by the lower mineral diets at 21 d of age nor by the enzyme inclusion but broilers fed lower Ca and available P diets had lower BWG. At 35 d of age no difference was observed between broilers fed the positive or NC diets but broilers fed 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg on top of the NC diet had better FCR than broilers fed the positive control diet. When compared to birds fed a diet adequate in P, birds fed the same diet included with 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg of phytase in marginally deficient available P and Ca diets had an improvement of performance. These results support the concept that hydrolysing phytate and reducing the anti-nutritional effects of phytate improves bird performance on marginally deficient diets that were not covering the P requirement of birds.

  16. Effect of low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena; Maślak, Edyta; Topolska, Kinga

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of Western diet (WD) with low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 2 months. The experimental diets were: Control (7% of soybean oil, 20% protein), WD (21% of butter, 20% protein), and LCHP (21% of butter and 52.4% protein) diet. The LCHP diet significantly decreased the body weight of the rats. Diet consumption was differentiated among groups, however significant changes were observed since third week of the experiment duration. Rats fed LCHP diet ate significantly less (25.2g/animal/day) than those from Control (30.2g/animal/day) and WD (27.8 g/animal/day) groups. Additionally, food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to decrease in LCHP fed rats. Serum homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. Liver weights were significantly higher in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. At the end of the experiment (2 months) the triacylglycerol (TAG) was significantly decreased in animals fed LCHP compared to WD. qRT-PCR showed that SCD-1 and FAS were decreased in LCHP fed rats, but WD diet increased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Rats receiving LCHP diet had two fold higher kidney weight and 54.5% higher creatinin level compared to Control and WD diets. In conclusion, LCHP diet decreased animal's body weight and decreased TAG in rat's serum. However, kidney damage in LCHP rats was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have sex-specific effects on bone health in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zengin, Ayse; Kropp, Benedikt; Chevalier, Yan

    2016-01-01

    the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic......PURPOSE: Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while...... low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay...

  18. Are Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Implicated in Histaminergic Dysregulation in Bipolar Disorder?: AN HYPOTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Riveros

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is an extremely disabling psychiatric disease, characterized by alternate states of mania (or hypomania and depression with euthymic states in between. Currently, patients receive pharmacological treatment with mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Unfortunately, not all patients respond well to this type of treatment. Bipolar patients are also more prone to heart and metabolic diseases as well as a higher risk of suicide compared to the healthy population. For a correct brain function is indispensable a right protein and lipids (e.g., fatty acids balance. In particular, the amount of fatty acids in the brain corresponds to a 50–70% of the dry weight. It has been reported that in specific brain regions of BD patients there is a reduction in the content of unsaturated n-3 fatty acids. Accordingly, a diet rich in n-3 fatty acids has beneficial effects in BD patients, while their absence or high levels of saturated fatty acids in the diet are correlated to the risk of developing the disease. On the other hand, the histamine system is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric diseases such as BD. Histamine is a neuromodulator involved in arousal, motivation, and energy balance; drugs acting on the histamine receptor H3 have shown potential as antidepressants and antipsychotics. The histaminergic system as other neurotransmission systems can be altered by fatty acid membrane composition. The purpose of this review is to explore how polyunsaturated fatty acids content alterations are related to the histaminergic system modulation and their impact in BD pathophysiology.

  19. Insulin Resistance Induced by a High Fructose Diet in Rats Due to Hepatic Disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.; Kelada, N.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    High consumption of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Therefore, this experiment was designed to evaluate the role of high fructose diet on metabolic syndrome in rats. The experimental animals were divided into two batches. The control batch received a control diet; the second batch was given a high-fructose diet as the sole source of carbohydrate. The rats were continued on the dietary regimen for 1, 2 and 3 months. After the experimental periods, fructose fed rats groups showed significant elevations in the levels of glucose, insulin sensitivity, liver function tests, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α when compared to their corresponding values in the rats fed normal diet. Moreover, liver lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxide concentrations were remarkably increased in high-fructose-fed rats according to the time of administration (1, 2 and 3 months). On the other hand, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase I and II were significantly declined in this group. In conclusion, high fructose feeding raises liver dysfunction and causes the features of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance) in rats dependent on the time of administration due to different mechanisms which were discussed in this work according to available recent researches

  20. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  1. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  2. Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-03-29

    This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17-32 ng g - 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40-46 ng g - 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55-86 ng g - 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

  3. Correction of dyslipidemia resulting from high fat diets with purified anthocyanins from blueberry or strawberry but not in context of the complete berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male C57BL/6 mice received diets with either 10% of kcal from fat (LF), a high fat diet [45% (HF45) or 60% (HF60) kcal from fat]. In the first study the diets were prepared with or without freeze dried powders from whole blueberries (BB) and strawberries (SB). In the 2nd study, a LF or HF60 diet was...

  4. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P

  6. Equisetum sylvaticum base reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-He Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We identify an Equisetum sylvaticum alkaloid (ESA derived from E. hyemale, which has robust antihyperlipidemic effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. ESA was isolated from E. hyemale and identified by IR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR. Rats were induced to hyperlipidemia and subjected to ESA treatment. In hyperlipidemic model, fed with a high-fat diet, the blood levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were increased. The administration of ESA (20 or 40 mg/kg to those rats significantly improved the HDL-C level and reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C. The atherosclerosis index and atherosclerosis risk of these rats were significantly reduced by ESA. In addition, the administration of ESA in rats increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA. These results reveal the antihyperlipidemic and anti-oxidative effects of ESA in vivo.

  7. Differential Effects of High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Diet Composition on Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Normal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trapala, María A.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Torres-Lopez, Jorge E.; Mendez, Jose D.; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; Olvera-Hernández, Viridiana; Palma-Cordova, Leydi C.; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    The macronutrient component of diets is critical for metabolic control and insulin action. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high fat diets (HFDs) vs. high carbohydrate diets (HCDs) on metabolic control and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Thirty animals divided into five groups (n = 6) were fed: (1) Control diet (CD); (2) High-saturated fat diet (HSFD); (3) High-unsaturated fat diet (HUFD); (4) High-digestible starch diet, (HDSD); and (5) High-resistant starch diet (HRSD) during eight weeks. HFDs and HCDs reduced weight gain in comparison with CD, however no statistical significance was reached. Calorie intake was similar in both HFDs and CD, but rats receiving HCDs showed higher calorie consumption than other groups, (p < 0.01). HRSD showed the lowest levels of serum and hepatic lipids. The HUFD induced the lowest fasting glycemia levels and HOMA-IR values. The HDSD group exhibited the highest insulin resistance and hepatic cholesterol content. In conclusion, HUFD exhibited the most beneficial effects on glycemic control meanwhile HRSD induced the highest reduction on lipid content and did not modify insulin sensitivity. In both groups, HFDs and HCDs, the diet constituents were more important factors than caloric intake for metabolic disturbance and insulin resistance. PMID:22754464

  8. High fat diet alters lactation outcomes: possible involvement of inflammatory and serotonergic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Hernandez

    Full Text Available Delay in the onset of lactogenesis has been shown to occur in women who are obese, however the mechanism altered within the mammary gland causing the delay remains unknown. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD has been previously determined to result decreased litters and litter numbers in rodent models due to a decrease in fertility. We examined the effects of feeding a HFD (60% kcal from fat diet versus a low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal from fat to female Wistar rats on lactation outcomes. Feeding of HFD diet resulted in increased pup weights compared to pups from LFD fed animals for 4 d post-partum. Lactation was delayed in mothers on HFD but they began to produce copious milk volumes beginning 2 d post-partum, and milk yield was similar to LFD by day 3. Mammary glands collected from lactating animals on HFD diet, displayed a disrupted morphologies, with very few and small alveoli. Consistently, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of milk protein genes, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and keratin 5 (K5, a luminobasal cell marker in the mammary glands of HFD lactating animals. Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin (5-HT biosynthesis, and the 5-HT(7 receptor (HTR7, which regulates mammary gland involution, were significantly increased in mammary glands of HFD animals. Additionally, we saw elevation of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α. These results indicate that consumption of HFD impairs mammary parenchymal tissue and impedes its ability to synthesize and secrete milk, possibly through an increase in 5-HT production within the mammary gland leading to an inflammatory process.

  9. Hypolipidemic activity of Piper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Piper betel (P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat. Methods: The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of 250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally. Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results: In group II animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low densi...

  10. Berberine improves insulin resistance induced by high fat diet in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Libin; Yang Ying; Shang Wenbin; Li Fengying; Tang Jinfeng; Wang Xiao; Liu Shangquan; Yuan Guoyue; Chen Mingdao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of berberine on insulin resistance induced by high fat diet in rats. Methods: Normal male SD rats (8 weeks old) were divided into two groups taking either normal chow (NC, n=9) or high fat diet (HF, n=20). After fourteen weeks, HF rats were divided into two groups. Ten rats continued to take high fat diet. Another ten rats took additional berberine gavage (HF+B, 150mg/kg weight once a day). Six weeks later, oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed for estimating insulin sensitivity. Results: The body weight, liver weight and epididyaml fat pads weight of HF group were significantly higher than those of HF+B group and NC group (all P<0.01). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and plasma glucose, insulin 2h after taking glucose in HF+B rats were significantly lower than those in HF rats (all P<0.01). Plasma glucose and insulin levels at all time points in HF rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. Homa-IR of HF group was markedly higher than that of HF+B group (P<0.01). The glucose-lowering effects after the administration of insuin (0.5u/kg intrapenitoneally) at all time points in HF+B rats were stronger than those in HF rats with 23% and 7% reduction at 15min respectively. Conclusion: Long term high fat diet resulted in insulin resistance. Berberine was able to reverse insulin resistance through promoting peripheral tissue up taking of glucose and decreasing insulin, which would be quite ideal for the intervention of IGT. (authors)

  11. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: ...

  12. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SOCS2 deletion protects against hepatic steatosis but worsens insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Santana-Farre, Ruyman; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. SOCS2-knockout (SOCS2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were fed for 4 mo with control or high-fat diet, followed by assessment of insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid content, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. SOCS2(-/-) mice...

  14. Role of glycogen-lowering exercise in the change of fat oxidation in response to a high-fat diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. One of the candidate factors for determining the increase of fat oxidation after a switch from a reduced-fat diet to a high-fat diet is the size of the glycogen storage. Therefore, we studied the effect of low glycogen stores on

  15. Application of an in vivo hepatic triacylglycerol production method in the setting of a high fat diet in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    High fat (HF) diets typically promote diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic dysfunction (i.e., insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis). Changes in TAG metabolism contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis including changes in production rate from de novo lipogenes...

  16. Electronegative LDL is linked to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Ho, Shu-Li; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lu, Shao-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), like that of atherosclerosis, involves lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis. Recent studies suggest that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may be a risk factor for NASH, but oxLDL levels were not directly measured in these studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an association between electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], a mildly oxLDL found in the blood, and the development of NASH using two animal models. Golden Syrian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 6 or 12weeks, then liver lipid and histopathology, plasma lipoprotein profile and LDL(-) levels were examined. The HFC-diet-fed hamsters and mice had similar levels of hepatic lipid but different histopathological changes, with microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and bridging fibrosis in the hamsters, but only in mild steatohepatitis with low inflammatory cell infiltration in the mice. It also resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and LDL(-) in hamsters, but only a slight increase in mice. Moreover, enlarged Kupffer cells, LDL(-) and accumulation of unesterified cholesterol were detected in the portal area of HFC-diet-fed hamsters, but not HFC-diet-fed mice. An in vitro study showed that LDL(-) from HFC-diet-fed hamsters induced TNF-α secretion in rat Kupffer cell through a LOX-1-dependent pathway. Our results strongly suggest that LDL(-) is one of the underlying causes of hepatic inflammation and plays a critical role in the development of NASH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  18. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  19. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche

    2017-04-09

    In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of whether a reduced sodium intake improves health is still unsolved. To estimate the effects of low sodium intake versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum levels of renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides. The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to March 2016: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Studies randomising persons to low-sodium and high-sodium diets were included if they evaluated at least one of the above outcome parameters. Two review authors independently collected data, which were analysed with Review Manager 5.3. A total of 185 studies were included. The average sodium intake was reduced from 201 mmol/day (corresponding to high usual level) to 66 mmol/day (corresponding to the recommended level).The effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP) was as follows: white people with normotension: SBP: mean difference (MD) -1.09 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): -1.63 to -0.56; P = 0.0001); 89 studies, 8569 participants; DBP: + 0.03 mmHg (MD 95% CI: -0.37 to 0.43; P = 0.89); 90 studies, 8833 participants. High-quality evidence. Black people with normotension: SBP: MD -4.02 mmHg (95% CI:-7.37 to -0.68; P = 0.002); seven studies, 506 participants; DBP: MD -2.01 mmHg (95% CI:-4.37 to 0.35; P = 0.09); seven studies, 506 participants. Moderate-quality evidence. Asian people with normotension: SBP: MD -0.72 mmHg (95% CI: -3.86 to 2.41; P = 0.65); DBP: MD -1.63 mmHg (95% CI:-3.35 to 0

  20. Voluntary exercise improves murine dermal connective tissue status in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Kende; Haluszka, Dóra; Kiss, Norbert; Gyöngyösi, Nóra; Bánvölgyi, András; Szipőcs, Róbert; Wikonkál, Norbert M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Its influence on the skin is less obvious, yet certain negative effects of adipose tissue inflammation on the dermis have been suggested. Excess weight is closely associated with sedentary behavior, so any increase in physical activity is considered beneficial against obesity. To investigate the effects of obesity and physical exercise on the skin, we established a mouse model in which mice were kept either on a high-fat diet or received standard chow. After the two groups achieved a significant weight difference, physical exercise was introduced to both. Animals were given the opportunity to perform voluntary exercise for 40 min daily in a hamster wheel for a period of 8 weeks. We evaluated the status of the dermis at the beginning and at the end of the exercise period by in vivo nonlinear microscopy. Obese mice kept on high-fat diet lost weight steadily after they started to exercise. In the high-fat diet group, we could detect significantly larger adipocytes and a thicker layer of subcutaneous tissue; both changes started to normalize after exercise. Nonlinear microscopy revealed an impaired collagen structure in obese mice that improved considerably after physical activity was introduced. With the ability to detect damage on collagen structure, we set out to address the question whether this process is reversible. With the use of a novel imaging method, we were able to show the reversibility of connective tissue deterioration as a benefit of physical exercise.

  1. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  2. Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit Juice on High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Ahsan; Alwar, M C; Shenoy, Preethi J; Gokul, P

    2016-04-01

    The medicinal value of Morinda citrifolia L. (commonly known as Noni) has been explored in ancient folk remedies with a wide range of therapeutic utility, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumour, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and immune enhancing effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Noni fruit juice on serum lipid profile in high fat diet induced murine model of dyslipidemia. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding a cholesterol rich high fat diet for 45 days in wistar albino rats of either sex (n=8). Noni fruit juice administered at 50mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day, per oral, was compared with the standard drug Atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day, oral) fed for the latter 30 days. The blood samples were then sent for complete blood lipid profile, after 30 days of treatment. The data presented as mean ± SEM was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The p juice treated group showed a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein - Cholesterol at both the doses when compared to the disease control (pjuice at the 50mg/kg dose employed, failed to show a statistical significance when compared to atorvastatin. The present study provides evidence for the hypolipidemic activity of Noni fruit juice in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

  3. High-salt diets during pregnancy affected fetal and offspring renal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Caiping; Liu, Rong; Bo, Le; Chen, Ningjing; Li, Shigang; Xia, Shuixiu; Chen, Jie; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2013-07-01

    Intrauterine environments are related to fetal renal development and postnatal health. Influence of salty diets during pregnancy on renal functions and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was determined in the ovine fetuses and offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed high-salt diet (HSD) or normal-salt diet (NSD) for 2 months during middle-to-late gestation. Fetal renal functions, plasma hormones, and mRNA and protein expressions of the key elements of renal RAS were measured in the fetuses and offspring. Fetal renal excretion of sodium was increased while urine volume decreased in the HSD group. Fetal blood urea nitrogen was increased, while kidney weight:body weight ratio decreased in the HSD group. The altered ratio was also observed in the offspring aged 15 and 90 days. Maternal and fetal plasma antidiuretic hormone was elevated without changes in plasma renin activity and Ang I levels, while plasma Ang II was decreased. The key elements of local renal RAS, including angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, AT1, and AT2 receptor expression in both mRNA and protein, except renin, were altered following maternal high salt intake. The results suggest that high intake of salt during pregnancy affected fetal renal development associated with an altered expression of the renal key elements of RAS, some alterations of fetal origins remained after birth as possible risks in developing renal or cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Lessons from Mouse Models of High-Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Terauchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD encompasses a clinicopathologic spectrum of diseases ranging from isolated hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, the more aggressive form of fatty liver disease that may progress to cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD, including NASH, is also increasing in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes. However, the causal relationships between obesity and/or diabetes and NASH or liver tumorigenesis have not yet been clearly elucidated. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH provide crucial information, not only for elucidating the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH, but also for examining therapeutic effects of various agents. A high-fat diet is widely used to produce hepatic steatosis and NASH in experimental animals. Several studies, including our own, have shown that long-term high-fat diet loading, which can induce obesity and insulin resistance, can also induce NASH and liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/6J mice. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for NAFLD and subsequent NAFLD-related complications such as NASH and liver tumorigenesis, mainly based on lessons learned from mouse models of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD/NASH.

  5. Both paternal exercise and healthy diet are required to protect offspring from high fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Paternal eating and physical activity behaviors peri-conception may influence offspring obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. A recent study showed that paternal exercise increased offspring susceptibility to obesity when the offspring consumed a high fat (HF) diet. However, it is not y...

  6. Effects of a high-protein/low carbohydrate versus a standard hypocaloric diet on adipocytokine levels and insulin resistance in obese patients along 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Aller, Rocio; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Bachiller, Rosario; Romero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Recent dietary trials and observational studies have focused on the effects of diet on health outcomes such as improvement in levels of surrogate biomarkers. The aim of our study was to examine the changes in weight, adipocytokines levels and insulin resistance after a high-protein/low carbohydrate hypocaloric diet vs. a standard hypocaloric diet during an intervention of 9 months. 331 obese subjects were randomly allocated to one of two diets for a period of 9 months. Diet HP (n=168) (high-protein hypocaloric diet) consisted in a diet of 1050 cal/day, 33% of carbohydrates, 33% of fats and 34% of proteins. Diet S (n=163) (standard protein hypocaloric diet) consisted in a diet of 1093 cal/day, 53% carbohydrates, 27%fats, and 20% proteins. With the diets HP and S, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin and HOMA decreased. The decrease at 9 months of (BMI: -2.6±1.3kg/m(2) vs. -2.1±1.2kg/m(2):pdiet HP than Diet S. With both diets, leptin levels decreased. A high-protein/low carbohydrate hypocaloric diet shows a higher weight loss, insulin and HOMA-R decreased after 9 months than a standard hypocaloric diet. The improvement in adipokine levels was similar with both diets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Behavior of circadian rhythm of ACTH and cortisol in 16 normal subjects after a balanced normocaloric diet and after a high protein diet (Cosinor mean method)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellini, M; Giovannini, C; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Borboni, P

    1983-01-31

    In 16 normal subjects the circadian rhythm of ACTH has been studied during normal calories diet and after a 15 days period of high protein content diet (2 g/Kg body weight). The statistical study, according Cosinor method, has shown a significant increase of the mesor and of the amplitude, but has not shown any change of the ACTH and Cortisol rhythm, after hyperproteic diet. Data advise the increase of the tonic and fasic secretion of both hormones and shown the mantained acrophase. The action of the protein on the ACTH and Cortisol secretion does not seem related to mechanism like stress, neither to the probable mediation of intestinal like-ACTH messengers. On the contrary it seems related to a direct stimulus on the diencephalo-pituitary axis; it is possible that some amino-acids (tryptophan, arginine) act as a mediator, even if data concern just the effect of the over mentioned amino-acid in large doses.

  8. Myostatin expression, lymphocyte population, and potential cytokine production correlate with predisposition to high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri-Anne Lyons

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong relationship exists between increased inflammatory cytokines and muscle insulin resistance in obesity. This study focused on identifying a relationship between metabolic propensity and myostatin expression in muscle and spleen cells in response to high-fat diet intake. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed the effects of high-fat diet intake on myostatin and follistatin expression, spleen cell composition, and potential cytokine expression in high-fat diet induced obesity (HFDIO resistant (SWR/J and susceptible (C57BL/6 mice models. Results demonstrated overall increased myostatin expression in muscle following high-fat diet intake in HFDIO-susceptible mice, while myostatin expression levels decreased initially in muscle from high-fat diet fed resistant mice. In HFDIO-resistant mice, myostatin expression decreased in spleen, while myostatin increased in spleen tissue from HFDIO-susceptible mice. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-17, IL-1β, and IFNγ potential increased in splenocytes from HFDIO-susceptible mice. In comparison, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher frequencies of CD4(+/CD44(hi and CD8(+/CD44(hi cells in the spleen compared to control fed mice. Together, these results suggest that susceptibility to high-fat diet induced obesity could be influenced by local myostatin activity in a tissue-specific manner and that splenocytes exhibit differential cytokine production in a strain-dependent manner. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the interactions between growth, inflammation, and metabolism.

  9. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of vegetable origin). Retention of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper as well as various bowel function indices were investigated during each dietary period. Neither the HA d...

  10. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of a Short-Term High-Nitrate Diet on Exercise Performance

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    Simone Porcelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that nitrate supplementation can improve exercise performance. Most of the studies have used either beetroot juice or sodium nitrate as a supplement; there is lack of data on the potential ergogenic benefits of an increased dietary nitrate intake from a diet based on fruits and vegetables. Our aim was to assess whether a high-nitrate diet increases nitric oxide bioavailability and to evaluate the effects of this nutritional intervention on exercise performance. Seven healthy male subjects participated in a randomized cross-over study. They were tested before and after 6 days of a high (HND or control (CD nitrate diet (~8.2 mmol∙day−1 or ~2.9 mmol∙day−1, respectively. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were significantly higher in HND (127 ± 64 µM and 350 ± 120 nM, respectively compared to CD (23 ± 10 µM and 240 ± 100 nM, respectively. In HND (vs. CD were observed: (a a significant reduction of oxygen consumption during moderate-intensity constant work-rate cycling exercise (1.178 ± 0.141 vs. 1.269 ± 0.136 L·min−1; (b a significantly higher total muscle work during fatiguing, intermittent sub-maximal isometric knee extension (357.3 ± 176.1 vs. 253.6 ± 149.0 Nm·s·kg−1; (c an improved performance in Repeated Sprint Ability test. These findings suggest that a high-nitrate diet could be a feasible and effective strategy to improve exercise performance.

  12. Maternal High-Fat and High-Salt Diets Have Differential Programming Effects on Metabolism in Adult Male Rat Offspring

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    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl, high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl, high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet and were culled on postnatal day 130 for plasma and tissue collection. Adipocyte histology and adipose tissue, liver, and gut gene expression were examined in adult male offspring. HF offspring had significantly greater body weight, impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperleptinemia compared to CD offspring, but these increases were blunted in HFSD offspring. HF offspring had moderate adipocyte hypertrophy and increased expression of the pre-adipocyte marker Dlk1. There was a significant effect of maternal salt with increased hepatic expression of Dgat1 and Igfb2. Gut expression of inflammatory (Il1r1, Tnfα, Il6, and Il6r and renin–angiotensin system (Agtr1a, Agtr1b markers was significantly reduced in HFSD offspring compared to HF offspring. Therefore, salt mitigates some adverse offspring outcomes associated with a maternal HF diet, which may be mediated by altered adipose tissue morphology and gut inflammatory and renin–angiotensin regulation.

  13. Effects of Ad libitum Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

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    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Seltmann, Christie L; Hollingsworth, Angela; O'Neal, Eric K

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a 3-wk ad libitum, low-carbohydrate (fat (~70% of calories) (LCHF) diet on markers of endurance performance in middle-age, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) after their normal high-carbohydrate (HC) diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed five 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological variables, metabolic variables, and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20 min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial on a road course. Subjects then consumed an LCHF diet for 3 wk and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and seven-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (P vs 37.3°C ± 0.2°C) in the HC diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF diet. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF diet. RER and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly, whereas fat oxidation increased after LCHF diet for every pace (P fat oxidation from LCHF diet potentially negate expected performance decrement from reduced carbohydrate use late in exercise for nonelite runners. An acute decrease in training capacity is expected; however, if performance improvement is not exhibited after 3 wk, diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  14. Red algae (Gelidium amansii) hot-water extract ameliorates lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

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    Yang, Tsung-Han; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii (GA) hot-water extracts (GHE) on lipid metabolism in hamsters. Six-week-old male Syrian hamsters were used as the experimental animals. Hamsters were divided into four groups: (1) control diet group (CON); (2) high-fat diet group (HF); (3) HF with GHE diet group (HF + GHE); (4) HF with probucol diet group (HF + PO). All groups were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 6 weeks. The results showed that GHE significantly decreased body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue (perirenal and paraepididymal) weight. The HF diet induced an increase in plasma triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, GHE supplementation reversed the increase of plasma lipids caused by the HF diet. In addition, GHE increased fecal cholesterol, TG and bile acid excretion. Lower hepatic TC and TG levels were found with GHE treatment. GHE reduced hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) including SREBP 1 and SREBP 2 protein expressions. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein expression in hamsters was decreased by the HF diet; however, GHE supplementation increased the phosphorylation of AMPK protein expression. Our results suggest that GHE may ameliorate lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a HF diet. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Red algae (Gelidium amansii hot-water extract ameliorates lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii (GA hot-water extracts (GHE on lipid metabolism in hamsters. Six-week-old male Syrian hamsters were used as the experimental animals. Hamsters were divided into four groups: (1 control diet group (CON; (2 high-fat diet group (HF; (3 HF with GHE diet group (HF + GHE; (4 HF with probucol diet group (HF + PO. All groups were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 6 weeks. The results showed that GHE significantly decreased body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue (perirenal and paraepididymal weight. The HF diet induced an increase in plasma triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, GHE supplementation reversed the increase of plasma lipids caused by the HF diet. In addition, GHE increased fecal cholesterol, TG and bile acid excretion. Lower hepatic TC and TG levels were found with GHE treatment. GHE reduced hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP including SREBP 1 and SREBP 2 protein expressions. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK protein expression in hamsters was decreased by the HF diet; however, GHE supplementation increased the phosphorylation of AMPK protein expression. Our results suggest that GHE may ameliorate lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a HF diet.

  16. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

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    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  17. Effect of high fat diets on the NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase activities in the central nervous system.

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    Kaizer, Rosilene Rodrigues; Spanevello, Rosélia Maria; Costa, Eduarda; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2018-02-01

    High fat diets are associated with the promotion of neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). This study aim investigate the high fat diets role to promotion of AD using as biochemistry parameter of status of central nervous system through the NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in brain of young rats. The intake of high fat diets promotes an inhibition of purinergic and cholinergic functions, mainly in the long-term exposure to saturated and saturated/unsaturated diets. The AChE activity was decreased to supernatant and synaptosomes tissues preparations obtained from cerebral cortex in average of 20%, to both groups exposed to saturated and saturated/unsaturated diets, when compared to the control group. Very similar results were found in hippocampus and cerebellum brain areas. At same time, the adenine nucleotides hydrolysis in synaptosomes of cerebral cortex were decreased to ATP, ADP and AMP after the long-term exposure to high fat diets, as saturated and saturated/unsaturated. The inhibition of ATP hydrolysis was of 26% and 39% to saturated and saturated/unsaturated diets, respectively. ADP hydrolysis was decreased in 20% to saturated diet, and AMP hydrolysis was decreased in 25% and 33% to saturated and saturated/unsaturated diets, respectively, all in comparison to the control. Thus, we can suggest that the effects of high diets on the purinergic and cholinergic nervous system may contribute to accelerate the progressive memory loss, to decline in language and other cognitive disruptions, such as AD patients presents. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of One Month Duration Ketogenic and non-Ketogenic High Fat Diets on Mouse Brain Bioenergetic Infrastructure

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    Selfridge, J. Eva; Wilkins, Heather M.; Lezi, E; Carl, Steven M.; Koppel, Scott; Funk, Eric; Fields, Timothy; Lu, Jianghua; Tang, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Wang, WenFang; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Using C57Bl/6J mice, we tested the effect of ketosis-inducing and non-inducing high fat diets on genes relevant to brain bioenergetic infrastructures, and on proteins that constitute and regulate that infrastructure. At the end of a one-month study period the two high fat diets appeared to differentially affect peripheral insulin signaling, but brain insulin signaling was not obviously altered. Some bioenergetic infrastructure parameters were similarly impacted by both high fat diets, while other parameters were only impacted by the ketogenic diet. For both diets, mRNA levels for CREB, PGC1α, and NRF2 increased while NRF1, TFAM, and COX4I1 mRNA levels decreased. PGC1β mRNA increased and TNFα mRNA decreased only with the ketogenic diet. Brain mtDNA levels fell in both the ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diet groups, although TOMM20 and COX4I1 protein levels were maintained, and mRNA and protein levels of the mtDNA-encoded COX2 subunit were also preserved. Overall, the pattern of changes observed in mice fed ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets over a one month time period suggests these interventions enhance some aspects of the brain’s aerobic infrastructure, and may enhance mtDNA transcription efficiency. Further studies to determine which diet effects are due to changes in brain ketone body levels, fatty acid levels, glucose levels, altered brain insulin signaling, or other factors such as adipose tissue-associated hormones are indicated. PMID:25104046

  19. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  20. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  1. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Wang, Tao; Luo, Jia; Liang, Shan; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli; Jin, Feng; Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period.

  2. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Methods Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. Results In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. Discussion High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period. PMID:25179125

  3. A diet based on high-heat-treated foods promotes risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlouez-Aragon, Inès; Saavedra, Giselle; Tessier, Frédéric J; Galinier, Anne; Ait-Ameur, Lamia; Lacoste, Florence; Niamba, Claude-Narcisse; Alt, Nadja; Somoza, Veronika; Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    The modern Western lifestyle is characterized by the consumption of high-heat-treated foods because of their characteristic taste and flavor. However, it has been shown that treating food at high temperatures can generate potentially harmful compounds that promote inflammation and cardiovascular disease in subjects with diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-heat-treated foods also pose a risk for healthy subjects. A randomized, crossover, diet-controlled intervention trial with 62 volunteers was designed to compare the potential metabolic effects of 2 diets, one that was based on mild steam cooking and another that was based on high-temperature cooking. These 2 diets differed mainly in their contents of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). MRPs were assessed in the diet and in subjects' feces, blood, and urine samples, with N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine as an indicator of MRPs. Biological indicators of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress were analyzed in subjects after 1 mo on each diet. In comparison with the steamed diet, 1 mo of consuming the high-heat-treated diet induced significantly lower insulin sensitivity and plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids and vitamins C and E [-17% (P markers associated with an enhanced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in healthy people. Replacing high-heat-treatment techniques by mild cooking techniques may help to positively modulate biomarkers associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Maternal High-Fat Diet Programming of the Neuroendocrine System and Behavior

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    Sullivan, Elinor L.; Riper, Kellie M.; Lockard, Rachel; Valleau, Jeanette C.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity, metabolic state, and diet during gestation have profound effects on offspring development. The prevalence of neurodevelopmental and mental health disorders has risen rapidly in the last several decades in parallel with the rise in obesity rates. Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of offspring developing behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and schizophrenia. Animal models show that a maternal diet high in fat similarly disrupts behavioral programming of offspring, with animals showing social impairments, increased anxiety and depressive behaviors, reduced cognitive development, and hyperactivity. Maternal obesity, metabolic conditions, and high fat diet consumption increase maternal leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and inflammatory cytokines. This leads to increased risk of placental dysfunction, and altered fetal neuroendocrine development. Changes in brain development that likely contribute to the increased risk of behavioral and mental health disorders include increased inflammation in the brain, as well as alterations in the serotonergic system, dopaminergic system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. PMID:25913366

  5. Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Megan W; Alim, Ishraq; Bultman, Scott J; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2016-06-20

    As interest in the gut microbiome has grown in recent years, attention has turned to the impact of our diet on our brain. The benefits of a high fiber diet in the colon have been well documented in epidemiological studies, but its potential impact on the brain has largely been understudied. Here, we will review evidence that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, can improve brain health. Butyrate has been extensively studied as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor but also functions as a ligand for a subset of G protein-coupled receptors and as an energy metabolite. These diverse modes of action make it well suited for solving the wide array of imbalances frequently encountered in neurological disorders. In this review, we will integrate evidence from the disparate fields of gastroenterology and neuroscience to hypothesize that the metabolism of a high fiber diet in the gut can alter gene expression in the brain to prevent neurodegeneration and promote regeneration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Al-Massadi, Omar; Donelan, Elizabeth; Lehti, Maarit; Weber, Jon; Ress, Chandler; Trivedi, Chitrang; Müller, Timo D; Woods, Stephen C; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2012-06-25

    Hypothalamic inflammation is a potentially important process in the pathogenesis of high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders that has recently received significant attention. Microglia are macrophage-like cells of the central nervous system which are activated by pro-inflammatory signals causing local production of specific interleukins and cytokines, and these in turn may further promote systemic metabolic disease. Whether or how this microglial activation can be averted or reversed is unknown. Since running exercise improves systemic metabolic health and has been found to promote neuronal survival as well as the recovery of brain functions after injury, we hypothesized that regular treadmill running may blunt the effect of western diet on hypothalamic inflammation. Using low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (l dlr-/-) mice to better reflect human lipid metabolism, we first confirmed that microglial activation in the hypothalamus is severely increased upon exposure to a high-fat, or "western", diet. Moderate, but regular, treadmill running exercise markedly decreased hypothalamic inflammation in these mice. Furthermore, the observed decline in microglial activation was associated with an improvement of glucose tolerance. Our findings support the hypothesis that hypothalamic inflammation can be reversed by exercise and suggest that interventions to avert or reverse neuronal damage may offer relevant potential in obesity treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A high-fat diet decreases GABA concentration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc Sandoval-Salazar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight by controlling the excitability, plasticity and the synchronization of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex (FC. It has been also proposed that the high-fat diet (HFD could disturb the metabolism of glutamate and consequently the GABA levels, but the mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a HFD on the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rats RESULTS: The HFD significantly increased weight gain and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus compared with standard diet-fed rats CONCLUSIONS: HFD decreases GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rat, which likely disrupts the GABAergic inhibitory processes, underlying feeding behavior.

  8. A high-fat diet decreases GABA concentration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Salazar, Cuauhtemoc; Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel; Trejo-Bahena, Aurora; Oviedo-Solís, Cecilia I; Solís-Ortiz, Martha Silvia

    2016-02-29

    It has been proposed that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight by controlling the excitability, plasticity and the synchronization of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex (FC). It has been also proposed that the high-fat diet (HFD) could disturb the metabolism of glutamate and consequently the GABA levels, but the mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a HFD on the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rats. The HFD significantly increased weight gain and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus compared with standard diet-fed rats. HFD decreases GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rat, which likely disrupts the GABAergic inhibitory processes, underlying feeding behavior.

  9. Hyperleptinemia Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Mediated Atrial Fibrosis and Fibrillation.