Cunningham, John Paul; Carlsson, Mikael A; Villa, Tommaso F; Dekker, Teun; Clarke, Anthony R
Frugivorous tephritid fruit flies have lineages with high levels of host generalism. These insects use olfaction to locate fruits, but how they are able to recognize the odors of so many different host species is poorly understood. We used a series of behavioral experiments to investigate the role of fruit ripening volatiles as host cues in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), a polyphagous pest in Australia. Odors of mature guava (Psidium guajava) attracted female and male flies more strongly than three other ripening stages and guava pulp. We analyzed volatiles from guava odor and selected eleven compounds, all of which elicited an electrophysiological response in the antenna of female flies. Three of these, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, and ethyl propionate, were released at the highest rates from the most attractive ripening stage. In behavioral trials, these three esters were not attractive individually, whereas a combination was necessary and sufficient in attracting female flies. The three-component blend was as attractive as the entire 11-component blend, which without these key volatiles was not attractive. Moreover, injecting low ranking hosts (squash and cucumber) with the three volatiles increased attraction in ovipositing female flies. These fruit flies are classed as generalists, but like many polyphagous insects they could be regarded as resource specialists, preferring specific plant reproductive stages with predictable odor cues. Exploring olfaction from this perspective could improve our understanding of host choice in polyphagous insects, and the selection of volatiles to be used as attractants in insect pest management.
Birke, A; Aluja, M
The preference-performance hypothesis (PPH) has widely been used to explain host exploitation patterns by phytophagous insects. However, this hypothesis often fails in the case of polyphagous species when compared with specialists. One explanation, validated by the information-processing hypothesis (IPH), considers that polyphagous insects are unable to process a large array of cues, which hinders females from distinguishing between high- and low- quality hosts. Here we analyzed Anastrepha ludens female host preference and offspring performance, and tested if neuronal limitations could possibly play a role in the incapacity of the polyphagous A. ludens to make 'accurate decisions' and therefore partially explain mismatches related to PPH. Results testing the PPH by correlating female preference to six naturally occurring hosts and its offspring outcomes show that A. ludens females oviposited greater proportions of eggs on fruit according to hierarchical preferences. Infestation level was low in white sapote, the preferential and seemingly putative ancestral host, likely due to sapote defence mechanisms. Pupal weight and adult size were lower when A. ludens larvae developed in guava (conditional host that was artificially infested) and peach, a lower ranked host compared with 'Marsh' grapefruit, white sapote, and 'Manila' mango (three preferred hosts). Larvae reared in 'Manzano' pepper, a low-ranked host, performed better than in peach and guava. Results testing the IPH, show that polyphagous A. ludens females were less accurate when discerning between a non natural host (guava) when compared with a preferred, natural host (grapefruit): error rate was significantly higher, number of oviposited fruit in a 6-h period was extremely low, time searching and ovipositing took longer, and pupae recovery was extremely low. Our findings indicate that both hypotheses tested are complementary and help better understand host use by A. ludens. However, we also discuss the
Pearce, S L; Clarke, D F; East, P D
BACKGROUND: Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea are major caterpillar pests of Old and New World agriculture, respectively. Both, particularly H. armigera, are extremely polyphagous, and H. armigera has developed resistance to many insecticides. Here we use comparative genomics, transcriptom...
Michelle A Rafter; Hereward, James P.; Walter, Gimme H.
Scirtothrips aurantii is a generalist horticultural pest in its native African range and recently established quite widely in Australia on the invasive succulent weed Bryophyllum delagoense. Paradoxically, this thrips is not polyphagous in its incursive range. The issue is principally one of quarantine. Will the thrips in Australia shift, perhaps adaptively, to citrus, and should the primary focus be on containment around Australian citrus, or does the real quarantine risk exist offshore with...
Rafter, Michelle A; Hereward, James P; Walter, Gimme H
Scirtothrips aurantii is a generalist horticultural pest in its native African range and recently established quite widely in Australia on the invasive succulent weed Bryophyllum delagoense. Paradoxically, this thrips is not polyphagous in its incursive range. The issue is principally one of quarantine. Will the thrips in Australia shift, perhaps adaptively, to citrus, and should the primary focus be on containment around Australian citrus, or does the real quarantine risk exist offshore with thrips present on citrus in Africa? We examined the phylogenetic relationships between Bryophyllum-associated thrips populations in Australia and populations sampled from various host plant species in South Africa (including Bryophyllum) using both CO1 and 28s markers. Eight variable microsatellite markers were developed to assess the extent of gene flow between the thrips on different hosts in South Africa. The COI phylogeny resolved S. aurantii into three distinct clades with samples collected from B. delagoense in South Africa and Australia representing a single clade, a second clade associated with Gloriosa lilies and the third with horticultural hosts. The microsatellite analysis confirmed that the populations associated with citrus and Bryophyllum do not hybridize with one another in sympatry. We conclude that the citrus-damaging thrips are not currently present in Australia and remain a serious quarantine concern in relation to Australian horticulture.
Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.
The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure
Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard; Toft, Søren
, and an unaccessible, fenced area. Numbers of polyphagous predators and aphids were recorded throughout the growing season. In the unfenced areas with high numbers of predators, aphid populations reached only one third the size in the fenced, predator-low areas. June-numbers of several predator groups and species were...... negatively correlated to three measures of aphid population development. Also, carabids as a group and two carabid species showed an aggregative response to aphid densities. For comparison, predators were positively correlated with Collembola numbers in spring, and also showed an aggregative response...
Full Text Available Tomato explants (fruit with a pedicel and a piece of peduncle, with fruit growth stimulated by treating the flowers with NOA + GA3 (NG-series were used as a model system for studying the effect of high temperature on C-sucrose uptake, its distribution and Ca retranslocation. Two cultivars with contrasting responses to high temperature were compared. In sensitive cv. Roma heat stress during 22h (40oC for 10h and 30oC for 12h, drastically depressed the uptake of 14C-sucrose coinciding with diminished fruit 14C-supply. It also decreased the specific activity of soluble acid invertase and the calcium content. All these strong negative responses to high temperature were markedly reduced in the NG-treated series involving remobilization of Ca to the fruits and a higher stability of the invertase activity. This indicates the indirect role of flower treatment with NG in addaptation to heat stress. In tolerant cv. Robin even higher temperatures (42oC for 10h and 34oC for 12h were not stressful. They did not affect the 14C-sucrose uptake and stimulated 14C-supply to the fruit. Increased specific activity of acid invertase and a higher calcium content were also recorded but only in the control explants. In contrast to cv. Roma elevated temperature was slightly stressful for cv. Robin explants of NG-series. The differences in response of both cultivar explants to elevated temperature, based on unequal fruit supply with 14C-sucrose, seem to be causaly connected with two factors: the invertase activity being more or less sensitive to the heat stress, the ability to translocate Ca to the heated fruits.
Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.
We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted
Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming
Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.
Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.
Dermauw, Wannes; Osborne, Edward John; Clark, Richard M; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas
The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone-regulated transporter E
Sarate, P.J.; Tamhane, V.A.; Kotkar, H.M.; Ratnakaran, N.; Susan, N.; Gupta, V.S.; Giri, A.P.
Developmental patterns and survival of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous insect pest, have been studied with reference to the effect of diet on major gut digestive enzymes (amylases, proteases, and lipases). Significant correlations between nutritional quality of the diet and larval and pupal mass were observed when H. armigera larvae were fed on various host plants viz. legumes (chickpea and pigeonpea), vegetables (tomato and okra), flowers (rose and marigold), and cereals (sorghum and maize). Larvae fed on diets rich in proteins and/or carbohydrates (pigeonpea, chickpea, maize, and sorghum) showed higher larval mass and developed more rapidly than larvae fed on diets with low protein and carbohydrate content (rose, marigold, okra, and tomato). Low calorific value diets like rose and marigold resulted in higher mortality (25–35%) of H. armigera. Even with highly varying development efficiency and larval/pupal survival rates, H. armigera populations feeding on different diets completed their life cycles. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera displayed variable expression levels and were found to be regulated on the basis of macromolecular composition of the diet. Post—ingestive adaptations operating at the gut level, in the form of controlled release of digestive enzymes, might be a key factor contributing to the physiological plasticity in H. armigera. PMID:22954360
Molina, J. M.; Calvo, D.; Medina, J. J.; Barrau, C.; Romero, E.
Physical and chemical parameters of fresh berries from three southern high bush (ONeal, Sharp blue and Misty) blueberry cultivars grown in Huelva (Southwestern Spain) under two production systems were measured and evaluated. ANOVA applied to data yielded significant differences between production systems for mean fruit size and mean fruit fresh weight (P<0.05), although main effects on physical and chemical characteristics of fruit were due to cultivar. All three cultivars showed significantly different means (P<0.05) for fruit fresh weight, and all chemical characteristics. Stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) for classification and identification of the cultivars based on physico-chemical properties of samples of fruits was performed. The model obtained gave high percentages of correct classification and prediction (81.1% and 78.4%, respectively). The variables with higher discriminating power were fruit titratable acidity, fruit size and fruit sugar content. (Author)
Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Zhurov, Vladimir; Wybouw, Nicky; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Villarroel, Carlos A; Greenhalgh, Robert; Grbić, Mike; Schuurink, Rob C; Tirry, Luc; Baggerman, Geert; Clark, Richard M; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Menschaert, Gerben; Van Leeuwen, Thomas
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an extremely polyphagous crop pest. Alongside an unparalleled detoxification potential for plant secondary metabolites, it has recently been shown that spider mites can attenuate or even suppress plant defenses. Salivary constituents, notably effectors, have been proposed to play an important role in manipulating plant defenses and might determine the outcome of plant-mite interactions. Here, the proteomic composition of saliva from T. urticae lines adapted to various host plants-bean, maize, soy, and tomato-was analyzed using a custom-developed feeding assay coupled with nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry. About 90 putative T. urticae salivary proteins were identified. Many are of unknown function, and in numerous cases belonging to multimembered gene families. RNAseq expression analysis revealed that many genes coding for these salivary proteins were highly expressed in the proterosoma, the mite body region that includes the salivary glands. A subset of genes encoding putative salivary proteins was selected for whole-mount in situ hybridization, and were found to be expressed in the anterior and dorsal podocephalic glands. Strikingly, host plant dependent expression was evident for putative salivary proteins, and was further studied in detail by micro-array based genome-wide expression profiling. This meta-analysis revealed for the first time the salivary protein repertoire of a phytophagous chelicerate. The availability of this salivary proteome will assist in unraveling the molecular interface between phytophagous mites and their host plants, and may ultimately facilitate the development of mite-resistant crops. Furthermore, the technique used in this study is a time- and resource-efficient method to examine the salivary protein composition of other small arthropods for which saliva or salivary glands cannot be isolated easily. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Kohri, Naonori; Yamashita, Miki; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Kodera, Hajime
Kikisui is a herbal lotion containing Kochia scoparia Fruit and Cnidium monnieri Fruit that is clinically used as an antipruritic for itchy dry skin. However, this formulation is unsuitable for inducing a prolonged effect. Here, we attempted to change the formulation from a lotion to a cream. The cream we chose was a water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsion for enhancing skin compatibility. In addition, the high water content imparts a sensation of coolness. However, it is difficult to prepare a stable W/O type cream with high water content using a mechanical mixing method. Instead, we prepared the W/O type emulsion using liquid crystals. Water containing cocamidopropyl betaine was added to a dispersed phase comprising an oil phase of oleic acid and liquid paraffin that was constantly stirred. Addition of an aqueous solution containing Kochia scoparia Fruit and Cnidium monnieri Fruit decreased the stability of the cream. However, addition of glycerin as a humectant, and ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate/n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate as preservatives enhanced the stability of the cream. The stability of the emulsion was correlated with the apparent viscosity of the cream. The final W/O type cream had a water content of 83% and was stable for more than 6 months at 4°C. Furthermore, ostol, which is one of the main biologically active herbal compounds, was also stable for more than 6 months.
Hammons, Derrick L; Kurtural, S Kaan; Newman, Melissa C; Potter, Daniel A
Invasive species' facilitation, or benefiting, of native species is rarely considered in biological invasion literature but could have serious economic consequences should a non-native herbivore facilitate injury by a native pest of high-value crops. Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, a polyphagous scarab, facilitates feeding by the obligate fruit-feeding native green June beetle (GJB), Cotinis nitida, by biting into intact grape berries that GJB, which has blunt spatulate mandibles, is otherwise unable to exploit. Here, we show JB further facilitates GJB by contaminating fruits with yeasts, and by creating infection courts for yeasts associated with GJB, that elicit volatiles exploited as aggregation kairomones by GJB. Traps baited with combinations of grapes and beetles were used to show that fruits injured by JB alone, or in combination with GJB, become highly attractive to both sexes of GJB. Such grapes emit high amounts of fermentation compounds compared with intact grapes. Beetle feeding on grape mash induced the same volatiles as addition of winemaker's yeast, and similar attraction of GJB in the field. Eight yeast species were isolated and identified from JB collected from grapevine foliage. Establishment and spread of JB throughout fruit-growing regions of the United States is likely to elevate the pest status of GJB and other pests of ripening fruits in vineyards and orchards.
Franchini, Maria Clara; Flemmer, Andrea Cecilia; Lindstrom, Lilia Ivone; David, María Ángela; Fernández, Paola
The purpose of this study was to describe fruit development in two high oleic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars during four growing seasons. Pericarp histogenesis, and dynamics of pericarp and seed dry weight and fruit water content were studied. The dynamics of the pericarp and seed growth was similar between cultivars and years. The pericarp completed its growth before the seed. Pericarp potential size was already set at anthesis as no cell division was observed at thi...
Gabrielle Silveira de Campos
Full Text Available Melon, a member of the family Cucurbitaceae, is the fourth most important fruit in the world market and, on a volume basis, is Brazil’s main fresh fruit export. Many molecular techniques used to understand the maturation of these fruits require high concentrations of highly purified RNA. However, melons are rich in polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides, which interfere with RNA extraction. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for total RNA extraction from melon fruits. Six extraction buffers were tested: T1 guanidine thiocyanate/phenol/chloroform; T2 sodium azide/?-mercaptoethanol; T3 phenol/guanidine thiocyanate; T4 CTAB/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol; T5 SDS/sodium perchlorate/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol, and T6 sarkosyl/PVP/guanidine thiocyanate, using the AxyPrepTM Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit. The best method for extracting RNA from both mature and green fruit was based on the SDS/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol buffer, because it rapidly generated a high quality and quantity of material. In general, higher amounts of RNA were obtained from green than mature fruits, probably due to the lower concentration of polysaccharides and water. The purified material can be used as a template in molecular techniques, such as microarrays, RT-PCR, and in the construction of cDNA and RNA-seq data.
Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan
Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.
Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S
The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. © The Author(s) 2012.
Morrien, E.; Engelkes, T.; Van der Putten, W.H.
Plant biomass and plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground natural enemies. However, little is known about how the aboveground and belowground enemy effects may add up. We exposed 15 plant species to aboveground polyphagous insect herbivores and feedback effects from the soil
Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin
Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed.
Bino, R.J.; Vos, de C.H.; Lieberman, M.; Hall, R.D.; Bovy, A.G.; Jonker, H.H.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Lommen, A.; Moco, S.I.A.; Levin, I.
Overall metabolic modifications between fruit of light-hyperresponsive high-pigment (hp) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant plants and isogenic nonmutant (wt) control plants were compared. Targeted metabolite analyses, as well as large-scale nontargeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite
Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua
The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.
Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.
Full Text Available Anthocyanins are a group of phenolic compounds responsible for red, blue and violet colouration of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The high content of these pigments is important as it influences directly their health promoting properties as well as the sensory quality of the product; however they are prone to degradation by, inter alia, elevated temperature and tissue enzymes. The traditional thermal methods of food preservation cause significant losses of these pigments. Thus, novel non-thermal techniques such as high pressure processing, high pressure carbon dioxide and high pressure homogenization are under consideration. In this review, the authors attempted to summarize the current knowledge of the impact of high pressure techniques on the stability of anthocyanins during processing and storage of fruit and vegetable products. Furthermore, the effect of the activity of enzymes involved in the degradation of these compounds has been described. The conclusions including comparisons of pressure-based methods with high temperature preservation techniques were presented.
Marszałek, Krystian; Woźniak, Łukasz; Kruszewski, Bartosz; Skąpska, Sylwia
Anthocyanins are a group of phenolic compounds responsible for red, blue and violet colouration of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The high content of these pigments is important as it influences directly their health promoting properties as well as the sensory quality of the product; however they are prone to degradation by, inter alia, elevated temperature and tissue enzymes. The traditional thermal methods of food preservation cause significant losses of these pigments. Thus, novel non-thermal techniques such as high pressure processing, high pressure carbon dioxide and high pressure homogenization are under consideration. In this review, the authors attempted to summarize the current knowledge of the impact of high pressure techniques on the stability of anthocyanins during processing and storage of fruit and vegetable products. Furthermore, the effect of the activity of enzymes involved in the degradation of these compounds has been described. The conclusions including comparisons of pressure-based methods with high temperature preservation techniques were presented.
Muñoz, T; Escribano, M I; Merodio, C
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 184.108.40.206) regulatory properties were studied in non-photosynthetic (mesocarp) and photosynthetic (peel) tissues from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) fruit stored in air, in order to gain a better understanding of in vivo enzyme regulation. Analyses were also performed with fruit treated with 20% CO(2)-20% O(2) to define the role of PEPC as part of an adaptive mechanism to high external carbon dioxide levels. The results revealed that the special kinetic characteristics of the enzyme from mesocarp--high V(max) and low sensibility to L-malate inhibition - are related to the active acid metabolism of these fruits and point to a high rate of reassimilation of respired CO(2) into keto-acids. With respect to fruit stored in air, PEPC in crude extracts from CO(2)-treated cherimoyas gave a similar V(max) (1.12+/-0.03 microkat x mg(-1) protein), a lower apparent K(m) (68+/-9 microM for PEP) and a higher I(50) of L-malate (5.95+/-0.3 mM). These kinetic values showed the increase in the affinity of this enzyme toward one of its substrate, PEP, by elevated external CO(2) concentrations. The lower K(m) value and lower sensitivity to L-malate are consistent with higher in vivo carboxylation reaction efficiency in CO(2)-treated cherimoyas, while pointing to an additional enzyme regulation system via CO(2).
Yanan Hao; Christopher H. Dietrich; Wu Dai
Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by suck...
de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria; Wheat, Christopher W; Vogel, Heiko; Söderlind, Lina; Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Sören
Transcriptome studies of insect herbivory are still rare, yet studies in model systems have uncovered patterns of transcript regulation that appear to provide insights into how insect herbivores attain polyphagy, such as a general increase in expression breadth and regulation of ribosomal, digestion- and detoxification-related genes. We investigated the potential generality of these emerging patterns, in the Swedish comma, Polygonia c-album, which is a polyphagous, widely-distributed butterfly. Urtica dioica and Ribes uva-crispa are hosts of P. c-album, but Ribes represents a recent evolutionary shift onto a very divergent host. Utilizing the assembled transcriptome for read mapping, we assessed gene expression finding that caterpillar life-history (i.e. 2nd vs. 4th-instar regulation) had a limited influence on gene expression plasticity. In contrast, differential expression in response to host-plant identified genes encoding serine-type endopeptidases, membrane-associated proteins and transporters. Differential regulation of genes involved in nucleic acid binding was also observed suggesting that polyphagy involves large scale transcriptional changes. Additionally, transcripts coding for structural constituents of the cuticle were differentially expressed in caterpillars in response to their diet indicating that the insect cuticle may be a target for plant defence. Our results state that emerging patterns of transcript regulation from model species appear relevant in species when placed in an evolutionary context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Persea schiedeana, a close relative of avocado (Persea americana, is an important part of agroforestry systems and diets in parts of Mesoamerica, particularly in the coffee growing areas of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala, where it is known as chinene, coyo, and yas. Little research attention has been given to this species, other than as a rootstock for avocado. Research carried out in six villages composing the Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla Alta (CORENCHI in Oaxaca, Mexico shows that Persea schiedeana has potential as a supplement to avocado production in subsistence systems and as a potential oil crop in more market oriented agroforestry systems. This survey of Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla area reports on the ethnoecology and management of chinene, as well as on the morphological diversity of the fruit in the area. High morphological diversity for fruit characters was noted and it is suggested that artificial selection has occurred and been modestly successful for desired fruit characters. Superior fruiting trees, identified during village level “chinene fairs” were targeted for vegetative propagation as part of a participatory domestication project. Such superior genotypes hold potential for addressing food security and creating marketable products in tropical areas around the globe.
Morriën, Elly; Engelkes, Tim; van der Putten, Wim H
Plant biomass and plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground natural enemies. However, little is known about how the aboveground and belowground enemy effects may add up. We exposed 15 plant species to aboveground polyphagous insect herbivores and feedback effects from the soil community alone, as well as in combination. We envisaged three possibilities: additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects of the aboveground and belowground enemies on plant biomass. In our analysis, we included native and phylogenetically related range-expanding exotic plant species, because exotic plants on average are less sensitive to aboveground herbivores and soil feedback than related natives. Thus, we examined if lower sensitivity of exotic plant species to enemies also alters aboveground-belowground interactions. In a greenhouse experiment, we exposed six exotic and nine native plant species to feedback from their own soil communities, aboveground herbivory by polyphagous insects, or a combination of soil feedback and aboveground insects and compared shoot and root biomass to control plants without aboveground and belowground enemies. We observed that for both native and range-expanding exotic plant species effects of insect herbivory aboveground and soil feedback added up linearly, instead of enforcing or counteracting each other. However, there was no correlation between the strength of aboveground herbivory and soil feedback. We conclude that effects of polyphagous aboveground herbivorous insects and soil feedback add up both in the case of native and related range-expanding exotic plant species, but that aboveground herbivory effects may not necessarily predict the strengths of soil feedback effects.
Full Text Available Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can cause many diseases of the circulatory and nervous system as well as tumors. There are many ways of preventing and treating these diseases including the consumption of products that contain significant amounts of antioxidant compounds, such as polyphenols and antioxidative vitamins. However, currently food stores offer mainly convenient food, ready-to-eat foodstuffs or highly processed products. During numerous technological treatments they have been deprived of many valuable compounds occurring in fresh products. Therefore, an important element of the food production technology is to ensure a proper composition of valuable human health-promoting compounds, mostly vitamins, minerals and polyphenols in final food product. Consumers often and willingly drink beverages. They are also a good starting base for supplementation. Drinks can be enriched with polyphenols, which may reduce the risk of lifestyle diseases, owing to their antiradical potential. The aim of this study was to use the fruit extracts for beverages enrichment in order to increase their antioxidative potential and polyphenol content. For the experiment the fruits of Cornelian cherry, lingonberry, elderberry, hawthorn and Japanese quince were used. Fruit was extracted with 80% ethanol, and then thickened by distillation under reduced pressure. Extracts were used to enrich the apple, orange and grapefruit beverages. Antioxidative activity and total polyphenols content in final beverages were determined. Also, sensory analysis was carried out. The fortification of tested beverages resulted in an increased antioxidative activity and total polyphenol content in case of all applied fruit extracts. Among the beverages composed, the best antioxidative properties were found in a beverage of red grapefruit, whereas the best organoleptically evaluated was the orange beverage. The scores of on the sensory evaluation revealed that the addition of
Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína
The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basics of healthy eating is five times consumption of fruits and vegetable a day. Given the importance of recognizing effective factors of consuming fruit and vegetable in this group, the present study aimed to investigate high school girl's adherence to five-time serving fruits and vegetables per day in Hamadan based on the theory of planned behavior application. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 400 girl students from high schools of Hamadan recruited with a multistage cluster sampling method. Participants filled out questionnaires including demographic variables, the theory of planned behavior constructs and a fruit and vegetable consumption measure one week later. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-18 by Chi-square, Pearson correlation and Logistic regression. Results: Fruit and vegetable consumption by female students is 3.4 times daily. Among the demographic variables, family size, mother's education, father's occupation, household income, body mass index and type of school had significant associations with fruit and vegetable consumption (P<0.05. Behavioral intention predicted 35% of the variation in daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Moreover, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and attitude were able to predict 32% of behavioral intention. Conclusion: Fruit and vegetable consumption in female students is inadequate. The theory of planned behavior may be a useful framework to design a 5-A-Day intervention for female students.
Jaakola, L; Pirttilä, A M; Halonen, M; Hohtola, A
A simple and efficient method is described for isolating high quality RNA from bilberry fruit. The procedure is based on the use of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and beta-mercaptoethanol in an extraction buffer in order to eliminate the polysaccharides and prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. This method is a modification of the one described for pine trees, and yields high-quality RNA suitable for cDNA based methodologies. This method is applicable for a variety of plant tissues.
Castillo-Ruiz, F. J.; Jiménez-Jiménez, F.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Sola-Guirado, R. R.; Agüera-Vega, J.; Castro-Garcia, S.
Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina) in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%). Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system. (Author)
Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Ma, Liang; Bobell, John
Patulin is a mycotoxin commonly found in certain fruit and fruit products. For this reason many countries have established regulatory limits pertaining to, in particular, apple juice and apple products. Fruit leathers are produced by dehydrating fruit puree, leaving a sweet product that has a leathery texture. A recent report in the literature described the detection of patulin at substantial levels in fruit leathers. To investigate this further, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) method was developed for the sensitive detection of patulin in fruit leathers. Investigations were also made of the suitability of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for detection of patulin from the surface of fruit leathers. Results indicated DART-MS was insufficiently sensitive for quantification from the surface of home-style apple leathers, although patulin spiked onto the surface of leather or peel could be detected. The UPLC-PDA method was used to determine the fate of patulin during the preparation of home-made fruit leathers. Interestingly, when a home-style process was used, the patulin was not destroyed, but rather increased in concentration as the puree was dehydrated. The UPLC-PDA method was also used to screen for patulin in commercial fruit leathers. Of the 36 products tested, 14 were above the limit of detection (3.5 μg kg(-1)) and nine were above the limit of quantification (12 μg kg(-1)). Positive samples were confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS. Only one sample was found above the US regulatory limit for single-strength apple juice products (50 μg kg(-1)). These results suggest patulin can be concentrated during preparation and can be found in fruit leathers. The limited survey suggests that patulin is fairly prevalent in such commercial products, but that the levels are usually low.
Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mase, Keisuke; Okada, Eiji; Asaoka, Kiyoshi
Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s) on the polyphagous (pph) locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem) on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+pph) is marked with Zebra (Ze). Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose–response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F1 generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF1 progeny between F1 females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF1 progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s) on the pph locus. PMID:22649537
Deans, Carrie A; Sword, Gregory A; Behmer, Spencer T
Insect herbivores that ingest protein and carbohydrates in physiologically-optimal proportions and concentrations show superior performance and fitness. The first-ever study of protein-carbohydrate regulation in an insect herbivore was performed using the polyphagous agricultural pest Helicoverpa zea. In that study, experimental final instar caterpillars were presented two diets - one containing protein but no carbohydrates, the other containing carbohydrates but no protein - and allowed to self-select their protein-carbohydrate intake. The results showed that H. zea selected a diet with a protein-to-carbohydrate (p:c) ratio of 4:1. At about this same time, the geometric framework (GF) for the study of nutrition was introduced. The GF is now established as the most rigorous means to study nutrient regulation (in any animal). It has been used to study protein-carbohydrate regulation in several lepidopteran species, which exhibit a range of self-selected p:c ratios between 0.8 and 1.5. Given the economic importance of H. zea, and it is extremely protein-biased p:c ratio of 4:1 relative to those reported for other lepidopterans, we decided to revisit its protein-carbohydrate regulation. Our results, using the experimental approach of the GF, show that H. zea larvae self-select a p:c ratio of 1.6:1. This p:c ratio strongly matches that of its close relative, Heliothis virescens, and is more consistent with self-selected p:c ratios reported for other lepidopterans. Having accurate protein and carbohydrate regulation information for an insect herbivore pest such as H. zea is valuable for two reasons. First, it can be used to better understand feeding patterns in the field, which might lead to enhanced management. Second, it will allow researchers to develop rearing diets that more accurately reflect larval nutritional needs, which has important implications for resistance bioassays and other measures of physiological stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Alpas, Hami; Bozoglu, Faruk
The objective of this study was to compare high pressure resistance of Listeria monocytogenes strains at 25 degrees C and 50 degrees C at 350 MPa and to use high pressure (250 MPa and 350 MPa) at 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C for the inactivation of the relatively most pressure resistant strain inoculated in pasteurized apple, apricot, cherry and orange juices. L. monocytogenes CA was found to be the relatively most pressure resistant strain and increasing pressurization from 250 MPa to 350 MPa at 30 degrees C had an additional three to four log cycle reduction in viability, still leaving viable cells after 5 min. When 350 MPa at 40 degrees C for 5 min was applied more than eight log cycle reduction in cell population of all fruit juices was achieved. This study demonstrated that low temperature (40 degrees C) high pressure (350 MPa) treatment has the potential to inactivate relatively pressure resistant L. monocytogenes strains inoculated in different fruit juices within 5 min.
Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.
Piper, Alexander M; Farnier, Kevin; Linder, Tomas; Speight, Robert; Cunningham, John Paul
Yeast-insect interactions have been well characterized in drosophilid flies, but not in tephritid fruit flies, which include many highly polyphagous pest species that attack ripening fruits. Using the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) as our model tephritid species, we identified yeast species present in the gut of wild-collected larvae and found two genera, Hanseniaspora and Pichia, were the dominant isolates. In behavioural trials using adult female B. tryoni, a fruit-agar substrate inoculated with Pichia kluyveri resulted in odour emissions that increased the attraction of flies, whereas inoculation with Hanseniaspora uvarum, produced odours that strongly deterred flies, and both yeasts led to decreased oviposition. Larval development trials showed that the fruit-agar substrate inoculated with the 'deterrent odour' yeast species, H. uvarum, resulted in significantly faster larval development and a greater number of adult flies, compared to a substrate inoculated with the 'attractive odour' yeast species, P. kluyveri, and a yeast free control substrate. GC-MS analysis of volatiles emitted by H. uvarum and P. kluyveri inoculated substrates revealed significant quantitative differences in ethyl-, isoamyl-, isobutyl-, and phenethyl- acetates, which may be responsible for the yeast-specific olfactory responses of adult flies. We discuss how our seemingly counterintuitive finding that female B. tryoni flies avoid a beneficial yeast fits well with our understanding of female choice of oviposition sites, and how the contrasting behavioural effects of H. uvarum and P. kluyveri raises interesting questions regarding the role of yeast-specific volatiles as cues to insect vectors. A better understanding of yeast-tephritid interactions could assist in the future management of tephritid fruit fly pests through the formulation of new "attract and kill" lures, and the development of probiotics for mass rearing of insects in sterile insect control programs.
Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis
Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose.
Johnson, Carolyn C; Myers, Leann; Mundorf, Adrienne R; O'Malley, Keelia; Spruance, Lori Andersen; Harris, Diane M
The school lunch salad bar (SB) is a recommended food environmental strategy to increase access to, and consumption of fruit and vegetables (F/V). In a study to examine use of school lunch SBs, middle and high school students provided data via the Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) tool for kids (ASA24-Kids-2012), a web-based data collection platform. Kilocalories were computed, food groups were assigned and F/V sources were obtained. Students (n = 718) from 12 schools with SBs and nine schools without SBs were approximately 87% African American, over 64% female and most were 7th and 8th graders. SB school students had higher median energy consumption at lunch but a higher percent of non-SB students reported eating fruit at lunch compared to SB students. Most students reporting eating F/V at lunch obtained F/V from the cafeteria main line; only 19.6% reported eating F/V exclusively from the SB. In SB schools median intake of cups F/V was higher among students using the SB (0.92) compared to those not using the SB (0.53). Results of this study are mixed, but encouraging. Additional factors, e.g., nutrition education, marketing, and kinds of foods offered on the SB need to be examined for potential influence on SB use.
Johnson, Carolyn C.; Myers, Leann; Mundorf, Adrienne R.; O’Malley, Keelia; Spruance, Lori Andersen; Harris, Diane M.
The school lunch salad bar (SB) is a recommended food environmental strategy to increase access to, and consumption of fruit and vegetables (F/V). In a study to examine use of school lunch SBs, middle and high school students provided data via the Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) tool for kids (ASA24-Kids-2012), a web-based data collection platform. Kilocalories were computed, food groups were assigned and F/V sources were obtained. Students (n = 718) from 12 schools with SBs and nine schools without SBs were approximately 87% African American, over 64% female and most were 7th and 8th graders. SB school students had higher median energy consumption at lunch but a higher percent of non-SB students reported eating fruit at lunch compared to SB students. Most students reporting eating F/V at lunch obtained F/V from the cafeteria main line; only 19.6% reported eating F/V exclusively from the SB. In SB schools median intake of cups F/V was higher among students using the SB (0.92) compared to those not using the SB (0.53). Results of this study are mixed, but encouraging. Additional factors, e.g., nutrition education, marketing, and kinds of foods offered on the SB need to be examined for potential influence on SB use. PMID:28406472
Almela, L; Fernández-López, J A; Roca, M J
Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection was applied to the systematic screening of chlorophylls and derivative pigments. The chromatographic procedure proposed made it possible to successfully separate and identify eight chlorophyll derivatives (the a and b forms of chlorophyll, chlorophyllide, pheophytin and pheophorbide) by using a linear gradient of methanol, acetone and ammonium acetate. The method has been routinely applied to study chlorophyll degradation during the postharvest storage of cherimoya (Annona cherimola, Mill.) fruits. The brilliant green colour even at maturity, and its high chlorophyllase and Mg-dechelating activities, indicate that this plant material might be suitable for investigating the as yet not well known chlorophyll breakdown processes.
Mounir, M; Shafiei, R; Zarmehrkhorshid, R; Hamouda, A; Alaoui, M Ismaili; Thonart, P
Six strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated from Moroccan local products and their potential as industrial strains was evaluated in lab-bioreactor. Three of them, namely TAV01, AF01 and CV01, isolated from traditional apple vinegar, apple and cactus fruit, respectively were selected and their responses to high temperature were assessed. Morphological and biochemical identification confirmed that these strains belong to Acetobacter species. Their growth and acetic acid production were compared with the thermoresistant reference strain, Acetobacter senegalensis and mesophilic strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus. The two strains AF01 and CV01 showed abundant growth and noticeable acetic acid production ability at high temperatures (38 to 41°C). A thermophilic character was observed for AF01 strain. Indeed, this bacterium grew better at 38 than 30°C.
Burdulis, Deividas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakstas, Valdas; Janulis, Valdimaras
Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is rich in flavonoids (major part anthocyanins), tannins, phenolic and organic acids, and other biologically active compounds. Anthocianins possess a broad spectrum of therapeutic properties. Variation in anthocyanin content of bilberry fruit crude drugs is significant in optimizing collection conditions. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) crude drug samples were collected in July-September of 2006 in natural environment in the territory of Lithuania. Ultrasonic extraction was applied using methanol as solvent. Acidic hydrolysis was performed. Qualitative and quantitative composition of five major anthocyanidins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin) was estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography in frozen fruits. Cyanidin predominated in all crude drug samples. Dynamics of variation in qualitative and quantitative composition of anthocyanidins was estimated in bilberry fruits collected during vegetation period. The greatest total amount of all analyzed anthocyanidins was determined at the end of investigated period. Variation in qualitative and quantitative content of anthocyanidins in bilberry fruits collected in different regions of Lithuania was estimated as well. The greatest total amounts of anthocyanidins were found in samples collected in Krikstoniai forest (1.78%) and Prienai pinewood (2.13%) and the lowest amounts--in samples collected in Balkasodis forest (1.14%) and Ryliskes forest (0.99%). Significant variation in anthocyanidin content reaching 28.40% (delphinidin) was determined in bilberry fruits. It is important for the standardization of bilberry fruit crude drugs.
Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua
The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected through...
Full Text Available Polyphenols are important bioactive substances in apple. To explore the profiles of the nine representative polyphenols in this fruit, a high-performance liquid chromatography method has been established and validated. The validated method was successfully applied for the simultaneous characterization and quantification of these nine apple polyphenols in 11 apple extracts, which were obtained from six cultivars from Shaanxi Province, China. The results showed that only abscission of the Fuji apple sample was rich in the nine apple polyphenols, and the polyphenol contents of other samples varied. Although all the samples were collected in the same region, the contents of nine polyphenols were different. The proposed method could serve as a prerequisite for quality control of Malus products.
Bai, Lu; Guo, Sen; Liu, Qingchao; Cui, Xueqin; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Li; Yang, Xinwen; Hou, Manwei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng
Polyphenols are important bioactive substances in apple. To explore the profiles of the nine representative polyphenols in this fruit, a high-performance liquid chromatography method has been established and validated. The validated method was successfully applied for the simultaneous characterization and quantification of these nine apple polyphenols in 11 apple extracts, which were obtained from six cultivars from Shaanxi Province, China. The results showed that only abscission of the Fuji apple sample was rich in the nine apple polyphenols, and the polyphenol contents of other samples varied. Although all the samples were collected in the same region, the contents of nine polyphenols were different. The proposed method could serve as a prerequisite for quality control of Malus products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Teh, Huey Fang; Neoh, Bee Keat; Hong, May Ping Li; Low, Jaime Yoke Sum; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Ithnin, Nalisha; Thang, Yin Mee; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Chew, Fook Tim; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd.; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David R.
To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes. PMID:23593468
Huey Fang Teh
Full Text Available To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.
Pu, De-Bing; Zheng, Xi; Gao, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Xing-Jie; Qi, Yan; Li, Xiao-Si; Wang, Yong-Mei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Li, Xiao-Li; Wan, Chun-Ping; Xiao, Wei-Lie
Eight new highly oxygenated lanostane triterpenes, gibbosic acids A-H (1-8), along with three known ones (9-11), were isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma gibbosum. The structures of new isolates were assigned by NMR and HRESIMS experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 were further confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction data and computational ECD methods. Immunoregulatory effect and anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were screened in murine lymphocyte proliferation assay and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW-264.7 macrophages, respectively. Compound 2 exhibited immunostimulatory effect both in lymphocyte proliferation assay without any induction and ConA-induced mitogenic activity of T-lymphocyte, and the proportion of lymphocyte proliferation at the concentration of 0.1μM are 20.01% and 21.40%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Ultrasound is a sound frequency in the range between 18 and 100 kHz that is above hearing of the human ear. High power ultrasound means application of intensities higher than 1 W cm–2 (usually in the range between I=10–1000Wcm–2. High power and low frequency ultrasound (f = 20 to 100 kHz is considered as “power ultrasound” because its application causes cavitation and is applied in the food industry. High power ultrasound is applied for degassing of liquid food, for induction of oxidation/reduction reactions, for extraction of enzymes and proteins, for inactivation of enzymes and induction of nucleation for crystallization. Ultrasound is anticipating heat transfer; it is used for emulsifying, sterilization, extraction, degassing, filtrating, drying and induction of oxidation. Conventional hot air drying is a very energy- and cost-intensive process. Drying is a simultaneous operation of heat and mass exchange that is followed by phase changes. Application of different pretreatments, like osmotic dehydration, ultrasound and ultrasound assisted osmotic dehydration has shown different effects on fruits and vegetables. When the high intensity acoustic energy is passing through solid material, it causes several fast and successive compressions and rarefactions with speeds that depend on the frequency applied. Thus, material is exposed to a series of exchangeable squeezing and relaxations, very like continuous squeezing and releasing of the sponge. This mechanism known as "rectified diffusion" is very important in acoustic drying and migration of water. Application of ultrasound as a pretreatment has shown great influence on reducing afterward hot air drying thereby reducing total drying time. It is also shown that pretreatment before drying facilitates better mass transfer and water diffusivity than osmotic dehydration. Quality of the product after drying is better because ultrasound pretreatment is applied at room temperature thus reducing
Kuntz, Cody Daniel
The composition and complexity of agro-ecosystems are important factors influencing the population dynamics of insect pests. Understanding these interactions may improve our ability to predict the spatial occurrence of pest outbreaks, thereby informing scouting and management decisions. In 2012 and 2013, two concurrent studies were conducted to examine the relationship between landscapes surrounding Iowa soybean, Glycine max [L.] Merrill, fields and two polyphagous pest groups; Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Population densities were monitored in soybean within simple and complex agricultural landscapes to determine the response of these pests to landscape complexity. Results revealed P. japonica populations were significantly greater in soybean fields within complex landscapes and were positively associated with area of uncultivated land. The specific compositions of surrounding landscapes were also analyzed to determine the landscape features that explain the greatest variation in P. japonica and stink bug population densities. Results suggested that the area of wooded and grass habitat around fields accounted for the greatest variation in P. japonica populations; however, no discernable relationships were observed with stink bug populations. Sampling also sought to survey the community of stink bugs present in Iowa soybean. The community was predominantly comprised of stink bugs in the genus Euschistus, comprising a combined 91.04% of all captures. Additional species included the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (4.48%); spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (2.99%); and red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator accerra (McAtee) (1.49%). Future work will be needed to determine if the landscape effects on P. japonica in soybean reported here are representative of other similar polyphagous pests of soybean and if they extend to other host plants as well
Schückel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Lausen, Thomas Frederik
an important role in fruit development and ripening processes by modulating the plant cell wall. Knowledge about these enzymes is important for research in fruit development and also important for industry regarding postharvest properties. Although advances in genetic control and cell wall biochemistry have...
Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann
Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim...... was to investigate the impact of disruption of 14 candidate genes for human attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on fly behavior. By obtaining a range of correlated measures describing the space of variables for behavioral activity we show, that some mutants display similar phenotypic responses...... in fruit flies. Results provide additional support for the investigated genes being risk candidate genes for ADHD in humans....
Nicklas, Theresa A.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Myers, Leann; Farris, Rosanne P.; Cunningham, Amy
Describes the effectiveness of the Gimme 5 intervention to increase high school students' fruit and vegetable consumption. Intervention included media campaigns, classroom workshops, school meal modification, and parental support. After two years, daily servings increased more in the intervention group. Control students, who received Gimme 5…
Soares, Cristina; Correia, Manuela; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Barroso, M. Fátima
This paper reports a laboratorial internship included in the Portuguese Science and Technology promotion program "Internships for Young People in Laboratories (Ciência Viva no Laboratório)", which provided high school students an opportunity to approach the reality of scientific and technological research in a higher education…
Sinha, Supriyo; Liang, Liang; Ho, Eric T W; Urbanek, Karel E; Luo, Liqun; Baer, Thomas M; Schnitzer, Mark J
Intravital microscopy is a key means of monitoring cellular function in live organisms, but surgical preparation of a live animal for microscopy often is time-consuming, requires considerable skill, and limits experimental throughput. Here we introduce a spatially precise (laser and the fruit fly as a model, we created observation windows (12- to 350-µm diameters) in the exoskeleton. Through these windows we used two-photon microscopy to image odor-evoked Ca(2+) signaling in projection neuron dendrites of the antennal lobe and Kenyon cells of the mushroom body. The impact of a laser-cut window on fly health appears to be substantially less than that of conventional manual dissection, for our imaging durations of up to 18 h were ∼5-20 times longer than prior in vivo microscopy studies of hand-dissected flies. This improvement will facilitate studies of numerous questions in neuroscience, such as those regarding neuronal plasticity or learning and memory. As a control, we used phototaxis as an exemplary complex behavior in flies and found that laser microsurgery is sufficiently gentle to leave it intact. To demonstrate that our techniques are applicable to other species, we created microsurgical openings in nematodes, ants, and the mouse cranium. In conjunction with emerging robotic methods for handling and mounting flies or other small organisms, our rapid, precisely controllable, and highly repeatable microsurgical techniques should enable automated, high-throughput preparation of live animals for optical experimentation.
Sinha, Supriyo; Liang, Liang; Ho, Eric T. W.; Urbanek, Karel E.; Luo, Liqun; Baer, Thomas M.; Schnitzer, Mark J.
Intravital microscopy is a key means of monitoring cellular function in live organisms, but surgical preparation of a live animal for microscopy often is time-consuming, requires considerable skill, and limits experimental throughput. Here we introduce a spatially precise (laser and the fruit fly as a model, we created observation windows (12- to 350-µm diameters) in the exoskeleton. Through these windows we used two-photon microscopy to image odor-evoked Ca2+ signaling in projection neuron dendrites of the antennal lobe and Kenyon cells of the mushroom body. The impact of a laser-cut window on fly health appears to be substantially less than that of conventional manual dissection, for our imaging durations of up to 18 h were ∼5–20 times longer than prior in vivo microscopy studies of hand-dissected flies. This improvement will facilitate studies of numerous questions in neuroscience, such as those regarding neuronal plasticity or learning and memory. As a control, we used phototaxis as an exemplary complex behavior in flies and found that laser microsurgery is sufficiently gentle to leave it intact. To demonstrate that our techniques are applicable to other species, we created microsurgical openings in nematodes, ants, and the mouse cranium. In conjunction with emerging robotic methods for handling and mounting flies or other small organisms, our rapid, precisely controllable, and highly repeatable microsurgical techniques should enable automated, high-throughput preparation of live animals for optical experimentation. PMID:24167298
Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.
Campbell, J W; O'Brien, J; Irvin, J H; Kimmel, C B; Daniels, J C; Ellis, J D
Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination. There were four treatments in this study: two treatments of caged commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies (low and high weight hives), a treatment excluding all pollinators, and a final treatment which allowed all pollinators (managed and wild pollinators) in the area have access to the plot. All treatments were located within a highbush blueberry field containing two cultivars of blooming plants, 'Emerald' and 'Millennia', with each cage containing 16 mature blueberry plants. We gathered data on fruit set, berry weight, and number of seeds produced per berry. When pollinators were excluded, fruit set was significantly lower in both cultivars (58%). Berry weight was not significantly different among the treatments, and the number of seeds per berry did not show a clear response. This study emphasizes the importance of bumble bees as an effective pollinator of blueberries and the potential beneficial implications of the addition of bumble bees in commercial blueberry greenhouses or high tunnels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Maldonado, Roberto; Sanchez-Ballesta, M Teresa; Alique, Rafael; Escribano, M Isabel; Merodio, Carmen
In this study we focused on the effect of a pretreatment with high (20%) CO2 levels on malic acid metabolism in cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill) fruit stored at chilling temperature. We analyzed the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and the NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), involved in the carboxylation/decarboxylation of malate. Our results show that CO2 treatment, which improves tolerance to prolonged storage at chilling temperature, was closely linked to considerably greater NADP-ME activity. These results, combined with lower PEPC activity, may explain the significantly lower amount of malic acid and titratable acidity quantified in CO2-treated fruit. Moreover, the high cytoplasmic MDH enzyme activity and the strong stimulation of NADP-ME activity exhibited by CO2-treated fruit could be contributing factors in the maintenance of fruit energy metabolism, pH stability, and the promotion of synthesis of defense compounds that prevent or repair damage caused by chilling temperature. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society
Full Text Available A modified version of high hydrostatic pressure extraction has been performed for extraction of antioxidants from M. citrifolia fruit at 5, 15, 25 bar and temperature 30° to 70°C for time duration 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by di-phenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The process parameters were optimized for antioxidant activity by central composite design method of response surface methodology using the statistical package, design expert. The results are expressed as 3D surface graphs. The optimum antioxidant activity was achieved at 58°C and 5 hours for 25bar. The optimal result achieved was within the region of response surface methodology. The statistical results were compared with the experimental result at 25bar, 2hour and 30° to 70°C and were found to be in proximate. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were found to increase with increase in pressure. It was also found that the response surface methodology works effectively for shorter range of parameters considered.
Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Popovich, D G; Vidgen, E; Mehling, C C; Vuksan, V; Ransom, T P; Rao, A V; Rosenberg-Zand, R; Tariq, N; Corey, P; Jones, P J; Raeini, M; Story, J A; Furumoto, E J; Illingworth, D R; Pappu, A S; Connelly, P W
We tested the effects of feeding a diet very high in fiber from fruit and vegetables. The levels fed were those, which had originally inspired the dietary fiber hypothesis related to colon cancer and heart disease prevention and also may have been eaten early in human evolution. Ten healthy volunteers each took 3 metabolic diets of 2 weeks duration. The diets were: high-vegetable, fruit, and nut (very-high-fiber, 55 g/1,000 kcal); starch-based containing cereals and legumes (early agricultural diet); or low-fat (contemporary therapeutic diet). All diets were intended to be weight-maintaining (mean intake, 2,577 kcal/d). Compared with the starch-based and low-fat diets, the high-fiber vegetable diet resulted in the largest reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (33% +/- 4%, P vegetable diet (1.2 mg/g wet weight, P =.002). Maximum lipid reductions occurred within 1 week. Urinary mevalonic acid excretion increased (P =.036) on the high-vegetable diet reflecting large fecal steroid losses. We conclude that very high-vegetable fiber intakes reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease and possibly colon cancer. Vegetable and fruit fibers therefore warrant further detailed investigation. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.
Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth
Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P production (R = -0.838 for Hamlin; R = -0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Jansen, Patrick A.; Bohlman, Stephanie A.; Garzon-Lopez, Carol X.; Olff, Han; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Wright, S. Joseph; Svenning, Jens-Christian
Fruit abundance is a critical factor in ecological studies of tropical forest animals and plants, but difficult to measure at large spatial scales. We tried to estimate spatial variation in fruit abundance on a relatively large spatial scale using low altitude, high-resolution aerial photography. We
Dietary intake modulates disease risk, but little is known as to how components within food mixtures affect pathophysiology. Here, a low-calorie, high-fiber, fruit-based nutrient-dense bar of defined composition (e.g., vitamins/minerals, fruit polyphenolics, B-glucan, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) app...
Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious...
Li, Zhimiao; Palmer, William M; Martin, Antony P; Wang, Rongqing; Rainsford, Frederick; Jin, Ye; Patrick, John W; Yang, Yuejian; Ruan, Yong-Ling
Heat stress can cause severe crop yield losses by impairing reproductive development. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined patterns of carbon allocation and activities of sucrose cleavage enzymes in heat-tolerant (HT) and -sensitive (HS) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) lines subjected to normal (control) and heat stress temperatures. At the control temperature of 25/20 °C (day/night) the HT line exhibited higher cell wall invertase (CWIN) activity in flowers and young fruits and partitioned more sucrose to fruits but less to vegetative tissues as compared to the HS line, independent of leaf photosynthetic capacity. Upon 2-, 4-, or 24-h exposure to day or night temperatures of 5 °C or more above 25/20 °C, cell wall (CWIN) and vacuolar invertases (VIN), but not sucrose synthase (SuSy), activities in young fruit of the HT line were significantly higher than those of the HS line. The HT line had a higher level of transcript of a CWIN gene, Lin7, in 5-day fruit than the HS line under control and heat stress temperatures. Interestingly, heat induced transcription of an invertase inhibitor gene, INVINH1, but reduced its protein abundance. Transcript levels of LePLDa1, encoding phospholipase D, which degrades cell membranes, was less in the HT line than in the HS line after exposure to heat stress. The data indicate that high invertase activity of, and increased sucrose import into, young tomato fruit could contribute to their heat tolerance through increasing sink strength and sugar signalling activities, possibly regulating a programmed cell death pathway.
Full Text Available Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.
Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Dai, Wu
Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments) and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera. PMID:27253390
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.
Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H; Dai, Wu
Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments) and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.
Anttonen, Mikko J; Karjalainen, Reijo O
Black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) contain a diverse range of phenolics and possess a high antioxidant activity, which makes them an interesting target for the functional food industry. In this study, phenolic profiles of organically and conventionally grown black currant fruits, collected from commercial farms within a climatically similar area, were compared. Compounds were identified using UV/vis and mass spectroscopy techniques and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV/vis detection. Several different conjugates of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins were quantified. Statistically significant differences between farms were found for almost all compounds. Differences between the highest and the lowest measured values of major phenolic compounds of different phenolic classes ranged from 24 to 77%. Principal component analysis quite effectively separated farms from each other but did not cluster them according to cultivation technique. Thus, it was concluded that the biochemical quality of organically grown black currant fruits does not differ from those grown conventionally.
Jayanthi, Pagadala D Kamala; Woodcock, Christine M; Caulfield, John; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an economically damaging, polyphagous pest of fruit crops in South-East Asia and Hawaii, and a quarantine pest in other parts of the world. The objective of our study was to identify new attractants for B. dorsalis from overripe mango fruits. Headspace samples of volatiles were collected from two cultivars of mango, 'Alphonso' and 'Chausa', and a strong positive behavioral response was observed when female B. dorsalis were exposed to these volatiles in olfactometer bioassays. Coupled GC-EAG with female B. dorsalis revealed 7 compounds from 'Alphonso' headspace and 15 compounds from 'Chausa' headspace that elicited an EAG response. The EAG-active compounds, from 'Alphonso', were identified, using GC-MS, as heptane, myrcene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, allo-ocimene, (Z)-myroxide, and γ-octalactone, with the two ocimene isomers being the dominant compounds. The EAG-active compounds from 'Chausa' were 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl butanoate, ethyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate, ethyl tiglate, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl hexanoate, 3-carene, p-cymene, ethyl sorbate, α-terpinolene, phenyl ethyl alcohol, ethyl octanoate, and benzothiazole. Individual compounds were significantly attractive when a standard dose (1 μg on filter paper) was tested in the olfactometer. Furthermore, synthetic blends with the same concentration and ratio of compounds as in the natural headspace samples were highly attractive (P < 0.001), and in a choice test, fruit flies did not show any preference for the natural samples over the synthetic blends. Results are discussed in relation to developing a lure for female B. dorsalis to bait traps with.
Apr 2, 2007 ... Currently, most South African fruit canneries recycle their lye solutions as far as ... 2.3 ℓ (total height of 830 mm and internal diameter of 50 mm) ... and helium was used as carrier gas at a flow rate of 30 mℓ·min-1. Results and ...
Shen, Changwei; Wang, Jie; Shi, Xiaoqian; Kang, Yalong; Xie, Changyan; Peng, Lirun; Dong, Caixia; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Yangchun
Potassium (K) deficiency is a common abiotic stress that can inhibit the growth of fruit and thus reduce crop yields. Little research has been conducted on pear transcriptional changes under low and high K conditions. Here, we performed an experiment with 7-year-old pot-grown “Huangguan” pear trees treated with low, Control or high K levels (0, 0.4, or 0.8 g·K2O/kg soil, respectively) during fruit enlargement and mature stages. We identified 36,444 transcripts from leaves and fruit using transcriptome sequencing technology. From 105 days after full blooming (DAB) to 129 DAB, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in leaves and fruit in response to low K increased, while in response to high K, the number of DEGs in leaves and fruit decreased. We selected 17 of these DEGs for qRT-PCR analysis to confirm the RNA sequencing results. Based on GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that low-K treatment significantly reduced K nutrient and carbohydrate metabolism of the leaves and fruit compared with the Control treatment. During the fruit development stages, AKT1 (gene39320) played an important role on K+ transport of the leaves and fruit response to K stress. At maturity, sucrose and acid metabolic pathways were inhibited by low K. The up-regulation of the expression of three SDH and two S6PDH genes involved in sorbitol metabolism was induced by low K, promoting the fructose accumulation. Simultaneously, higher expression was found for genes encoding amylase under low K, promoting the decomposition of the starch and leading the glucose accumulation. High K could enhance leaf photosynthesis, and improve the distribution of the nutrient and carbohydrate from leaf to fruit. Sugar components of the leaves and fruit under low K were regulated by the expression of genes encoding 8 types of hormone signals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our data revealed the gene expression patterns of leaves and fruit in response to different K levels during
Flores-Félix, José David; Silva, Luis R; Rivera, Lina P; Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Mateos, Pedro F; Velázquez, Encarna; Andrade, Paula; Rivas, Raúl
The increasing interest in the preservation of the environment and the health of consumers is changing production methods and food consumption habits. Functional foods are increasingly demanded by consumers because they contain bioactive compounds involved in health protection. In this sense biofertilization using plant probiotics is a reliable alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, but there are few studies about the effects of plant probiotics on the yield of functional fruits and, especially, on the content of bioactive compounds. In the present work we reported that a strain of genus Phyllobacterium able to produce biofilms and to colonize strawberry roots is able to increase the yield and quality of strawberry plants. In addition, the fruits from plants inoculated with this strain have significantly higher content in vitamin C, one of the most interesting bioactive compounds in strawberries. Therefore the use of selected plant probiotics benefits the environment and human health without agronomical losses, allowing the production of highly functional foods.
Fernández-López, J A; Almela, L
The qualitative and quantitative betalain pigment content of two cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruits grown in southeastern Spain was evaluated. After methanolic extraction of crushed fruits, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection were applied simultaneously for the separation, identification and quantification of these pigments. Two main pigments were obtained, which were identified as indicaxanthin (lambda(max) 484 nm) and betanin (lambda(max) 535 nm). Spectrophotometric evaluation of both pigments showed a yield of around 20-30 mg per 100 g of fresh pulp. When the influence of temperature (25 to 90 degrees C) on betacyanin pigment stability was investigated, the results revealed a substantial degree of thermodegradation at temperatures higher than 70 degrees C.
Flores-Félix, José David; Silva, Luis R.; Rivera, Lina P.; Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Mateos, Pedro F.; Velázquez, Encarna; Andrade, Paula; Rivas, Raúl
The increasing interest in the preservation of the environment and the health of consumers is changing production methods and food consumption habits. Functional foods are increasingly demanded by consumers because they contain bioactive compounds involved in health protection. In this sense biofertilization using plant probiotics is a reliable alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, but there are few studies about the effects of plant probiotics on the yield of functional fruits and, especially, on the content of bioactive compounds. In the present work we reported that a strain of genus Phyllobacterium able to produce biofilms and to colonize strawberry roots is able to increase the yield and quality of strawberry plants. In addition, the fruits from plants inoculated with this strain have significantly higher content in vitamin C, one of the most interesting bioactive compounds in strawberries. Therefore the use of selected plant probiotics benefits the environment and human health without agronomical losses, allowing the production of highly functional foods. PMID:25874563
Golden, K D; Williams, O J; Bailey-Shaw, Y
High-performance liquid chromatography is used to determine the amino acid content of ripe and unripe ackee fruit. Specific emphasis is placed on the level of the toxic amino acid hypoglycin A (hyp-A) in the unripe and ripe ackee fruit and seed. Unripe samples are found to contain significantly higher quantities (P < 0.05) of hyp-A when compared with ripe samples. Uncooked unripe fruit is found to contain 124.4 +/- 6.7 mg/100 g fresh weight and uncooked ripe fruit 6.4 +/- 1.1 mg/100 g fresh weight. The seed of the uncooked unripe fruit is found to contain 142.8 +/- 8.8 mg/100 g fresh weight, and the seed of uncooked ripe fruit has 106.0 +/- 5.4 mg/100 g fresh weight. Boiling fruit in water for approximately 30 min is efficient in removing hyp-A from the edible arilli; however, low levels of 0.54 +/- 0.15 mg/200 mL are detected in the water that was used to cook the ripe fruit. The average %recovery of the amino acids was 80.34%.
Ban, Simone D; Boesch, Christophe; Janmaat, Karline R L
The use of spatio-temporal memory has been argued to increase food-finding efficiency in rainforest primates. However, the exact content of this memory is poorly known to date. This study investigated what specific information from previous feeding visits chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, take into account when they revisit the same feeding trees. By following five adult females for many consecutive days, we tested from what distance the females directed their travels towards previously visited feeding trees and how previous feeding experiences and fruit tree properties influenced this distance. To exclude the influence of sensory cues, the females' approach distance was measured from their last significant change in travel direction until the moment they entered the tree's maximum detection field. We found that chimpanzees travelled longer distances to trees at which they had previously made food grunts and had rejected fewer fruits compared to other trees. In addition, the results suggest that the chimpanzees were able to anticipate the amount of fruit that they would find in the trees. Overall, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzees act upon a retrieved memory of their last feeding experiences long before they revisit feeding trees, which would indicate a daily use of long-term prospective memory. Further, the results are consistent with the possibility that positive emotional experiences help to trigger prospective memory retrieval in forest areas that are further away and have fewer cues associated with revisited feeding trees.
Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemysław; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof
Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm that may cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most dangerous parasitic zoonoses. As in the case of other foodborne diseases, unwashed fruits and vegetables, contaminated with dispersed forms of E. multilocularis, may serve as an important transmission route for this parasite. In this article, we reply to the incorrect interpretation of results of our study concerning the detection of E. multilocularis DNA in fresh fruit, vegetable and mushroom samples collected from the highly endemic areas of the Warmia-Masuria Province, Poland, to dispel any doubts. The accusations formulated by the commentators concerning our paper are unfounded; moreover, these commentators demand information which was beyond the purview of our study. Making generalisations and drawing far-reaching conclusions from our work is also unjustified. The majority of positive samples were found in only a few hyperendemic communities; this information corresponds with the highest number of both infected foxes and AE cases in humans recorded in this area. Our findings indicate that E. multilocularis is present in the environment and may create a potential risk for the inhabitants. These people should simply be informed to wash fruits and vegetables before eating. No additional far-reaching conclusions should be drawn from our data. We believe these commentators needlessly misinterpreted our results and disseminated misleading information. Nevertheless, we would like to encourage any readers simply to contact us if any aspects of our study are unclear.
Ferrentino, Giovanna; Asaduzzaman, Md; Scampicchio, Matteo Mario
The recovery of high valuable compounds from food waste is becoming a tighten issue in food processing. The large amount of non-edible residues produced by food industries causes pollution, difficulties in the management, and economic loss. The waste produced during the transformation of fruits includes a huge amount of materials such as peels, seeds, and bagasse, whose disposal usually represents a problem. Research over the past 20 years revealed that many food wastes could serve as a source of potentially valuable bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants and vitamins with increasing scientific interest thanks to their beneficial effects on human health. The challenge for the recovery of these compounds is to find the most appropriate and environment friendly extraction technique able to achieve the maximum extraction yield without compromising the stability of the extracted products. Based on this scenario, the aim of the current review is twofold. The first is to give a brief overview of the most important bioactive compounds occurring in fruit wastes. The second is to describe the pro and cons of the most up-to-dated innovative and environment friendly extraction technologies that can be an alternative to the classical solvent extraction procedures for the recovery of valuable compounds from fruit processing. Furthermore, a final section will take into account published findings on the combination of some of these technologies to increase the extracts yields of bioactives.
Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi
Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence.
M T Sampathkumar
Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia contributes significantly in the manifestation and development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD. Although synthetic lipid-lowering drugs are useful in treating hyperlipidemia, there are number of adverse effects. So the current interest has stimulated the search for new lipid-lowering agents with minimal side effects from natural sources. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potentiality of ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida fruits in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. T. pallida fruits ethanolic extract (TPEt was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. Sprague-Dawley male rats were made hyperlipidemic by giving high fat diet, supplied by NIN (National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. TPEt was administered in a dose of 100 mg/kg.b.w./day for 30 days in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The body weights, plasma lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured before and after the treatment. TPEt showed significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities as evidenced by significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and diminution of atherogenic index in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There was a significantly reduced body weight gain in TPEt-treated hyperlipidemic rats than in the control group. The present study demonstrates that TPEt possesses significant antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, thus suggesting its beneficial effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis
The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gut of most insects harbours nonpathogenic microorganisms. Recent work suggests that gut microbiota not only provide nutrients, but also involve in the development and maintenance of the host immune system. However, the complexity, dynamics and types of interactions between the insect hosts and their gut microbiota are far from being well understood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the composition of the gut microbiota of two lepidopteran pests, Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera, we applied cultivation-independent techniques based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and microarray. The two insect species were very similar regarding high abundant bacterial families. Different bacteria colonize different niches within the gut. A core community, consisting of Enterococci, Lactobacilli, Clostridia, etc. was revealed in the insect larvae. These bacteria are constantly present in the digestion tract at relatively high frequency despite that developmental stage and diet had a great impact on shaping the bacterial communities. Some low-abundant species might become dominant upon loading external disturbances; the core community, however, did not change significantly. Clearly the insect gut selects for particular bacterial phylotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their importance as agricultural pests, phytophagous Lepidopterans are widely used as experimental models in ecological and physiological studies. Our results demonstrated that a core microbial community exists in the insect gut, which may contribute to the host physiology. Host physiology and food, nevertheless, significantly influence some fringe bacterial species in the gut. The gut microbiota might also serve as a reservoir of microorganisms for ever-changing environments. Understanding these interactions might pave the way for developing novel pest control strategies.
Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T.; Schauss, Alexander G.; Zou, Sige
Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementat...
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the synergistic effect of Commiphora mukul (gum resin and Lagenaria siceraria (fruit extracts in high fat diet induced obese rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into seven groups: (i non-obese control (NOB, (ii Obese control (OB, (iii orlistat (50 mg/ kg; p.o. , (iv ethyl acetate extract of Commiphora mukul (gum resin (200 mg/kg; p.o. , (v ethanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (fruit (200 mg/kg; p.o. were examined individually, (vi C. mukul and L.siceraria (200 mg/kg; p.o. and (vii C. mukul and L.siceraria (400 mg/kg; p.o. extracts were administered in combination to the high fat-diet-induced obese rats for 30 days to evaluate its synergistic activity. Results: For synergistic effect, after combination treatment caused most significant (P<0.001 reduction in body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and increase levels of HDL. Conclusions: The result demonstrated that combination C.mukul and L.siceraria has ameliorated the high fat diet induced obesity.
Gonzalez, Maria E; Barrett, Diane M
Advanced food processing methods that accomplish inactivation of microorganisms but minimize adverse thermal exposure are of great interest to the food industry. High pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing are commercially applied to produce high quality fruit and vegetable products in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Both microbial and plant cell membranes are significantly altered following exposure to heat, HP, or PEF. Our research group sought to quantify the degree of damage to plant cell membranes that occurs as a result of exposure to heat, HP, or PEF, using the same analytical methods. In order to evaluate whether new advanced processing methods are superior to traditional thermal processing methods, it is necessary to compare them. In this review, we describe the existing state of knowledge related to effects of heat, HP, and PEF on both microbial and plant cells. The importance and relevance of compartmentalization in plant cells as it relates to fruit and vegetable quality is described and various methods for quantification of plant cell membrane integrity are discussed. These include electrolyte leakage, cell viability, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR).
Morrow, J L; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A; Riegler, M
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect 40-65% of arthropod species. They are primarily maternally inherited with occasional horizontal transmission for which limited direct ecological evidence exists. We detected Wolbachia in 8 out of 24 Australian tephritid species. Here, we have used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to further characterize these Wolbachia strains, plus a novel quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for allele assignment in multiple infections. Based on five MLST loci and the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp), five Bactrocera and one Dacus species harboured two identical strains as double infections; furthermore, Bactrocera neohumeralis harboured both of these as single or double infections, and sibling species B. tryoni harboured one. Two Bactrocera species contained Wolbachia pseudogenes, potentially within the fruit fly genomes. A fruit fly parasitoid, Fopius arisanus shared identical alleles with two Wolbachia strains detected in one B. frauenfeldi individual. We report an unprecedented high incidence of four shared Wolbachia strains in eight host species from two trophic levels. This suggests frequent exposure to Wolbachia in this tropical tephritid community that shares host plant and parasitoid species, and also includes species that hybridize. Such insect communities may act as horizontal transmission platforms that contribute to the ubiquity of the otherwise maternally inherited Wolbachia. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wynns, Anja Amtoft
Among the understudied fungi found in nature are those living in close association with social and solitary bees. The bee-specialist genera Bettsia, Ascosphaera and Eremascus are remarkable not only for their specialized niche but also for their simple fruiting bodies or ascocarps, which are morphologically anomalous in Pezizomycotina. Bettsia and Ascosphaera are characterized by a unicellular cyst-like cleistothecium known as a spore cyst, while Eremascus is characterized by completely naked asci, or asci not formed within a protective ascocarp. Before molecular phylogenetics the placement of these genera within Pezizomycotina remained tentative; morphological characters were misleading because they do not produce multicellular ascocarps, a defining character of Pezizomycotina. Because of their unique fruiting bodies, the close relationship of these bee-specialist fungi and their monophyly appeared certain. However, recent molecular studies have shown that Bettsia is not closely related to Ascosphaera. In this study, I isolated the very rare fungus Eremascus fertilis (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina) from the bee bread of honey bees. These isolates represent the second report of E. fertilis both in nature and in the honey bee hive. To establish the systematic position of E. fertilis and Bettsia alvei, I performed phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal LSU + SSU DNA sequences from these species and 63 additional ascomycetes. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that Eremascus is not monophyletic. Eremascus albus is closely related to Ascosphaera in Eurotiomycetes while E. fertilis belongs in Myxotrichaceae, a putative member of Leotiomycetes. Bettsia is not closely related to Ascosphaera and like E. fertilis apparently belongs in Leotiomycetes. These results indicate that both the naked ascus and spore cyst evolved twice in the Pezizomycotina and in distantly related lineages. The new genus Skoua is described to accommodate E. fertilis. The naked ascus and spore
Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Roselló, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando
In this work, an improved CE method for the medium-throughput determination of main organic acids (oxalate, malate, citrate), the amino acid glutamate and the sugars fructose, glucose and sucrose in several food matrices is described. These compounds have been identified as key components in the taste intensity of fruit and vegetable crops. Using a running buffer with 20 mM 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid pH 12.1 and 0.1% hexadimethrine bromide, replacing it every 5 h to avoid pH decrease, and optimizing capillary conditioning between runs with 58 mM SDS during 2 min at 20 psi, it is possible to effectively quantify these compounds while increasing medium throughput repeatability. This procedure resolves problems such as increases in migration time and reduction of resolution between problematic peaks (malate/citrate and fructose/glucose) detected in a previous method. The new procedure even considerably reduced time analysis down to 12 min. Under optimal conditions, a large number of injections (200) could be administered without any disturbances in the same capillary. The reliability of the proposed method was further investigated with several food matrix samples, including tomato, pepper, muskmelon, winter squash, and orange. This method is recommended for routine analysis of large number of samples typical of production quality systems or plant breeding programs. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Sugumaran, K R; Sindhu, R V; Sukanya, S; Aiswarya, N; Ponnusami, V
The purpose of the work was to optimize the medium variables for maximizing pullulan production using jack fruit seed as a low cost substrate by Aureobasidium pullulans in solid state fermentation. Effects of K2HPO4, KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4·5H2O, yeast extract, moisture content (%, w/w) in the production medium on pullulan production were studied using Plackett-Burman design. Production of pullulan was significantly affected by the medium variables namely KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, NaCl and moisture content (%, w/w). Then screened variables were optimized by Box Behnken experiment design. The pullulan obtained was characterized and confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan was found to be 1.733×10(6) g/mol by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...
Daccord, Nicolas; Celton, Jean-Marc; Linsmith, Gareth; Becker, Claude; Choisne, Nathalie; Schijlen, Elio; van de Geest, Henri; Bianco, Luca; Micheletti, Diego; Velasco, Riccardo; Di Pierro, Erica Adele; Gouzy, Jérôme; Rees, D Jasper G; Guérif, Philippe; Muranty, Hélène; Durel, Charles-Eric; Laurens, François; Lespinasse, Yves; Gaillard, Sylvain; Aubourg, Sébastien; Quesneville, Hadi; Weigel, Detlef; van de Weg, Eric; Troggio, Michela; Bucher, Etienne
Using the latest sequencing and optical mapping technologies, we have produced a high-quality de novo assembly of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome. Repeat sequences, which represented over half of the assembly, provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the uncharacterized regions of a tree genome; we identified a new hyper-repetitive retrotransposon sequence that was over-represented in heterochromatic regions and estimated that a major burst of different transposable elements (TEs) occurred 21 million years ago. Notably, the timing of this TE burst coincided with the uplift of the Tian Shan mountains, which is thought to be the center of the location where the apple originated, suggesting that TEs and associated processes may have contributed to the diversification of the apple ancestor and possibly to its divergence from pear. Finally, genome-wide DNA methylation data suggest that epigenetic marks may contribute to agronomically relevant aspects, such as apple fruit development.
Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Ren, Gang
Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recently, studies indicated free radical scavenging was one of the major pathways to alleviate hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hawthorn fruit is a rich source of phenols, which quench free radical and attenuate hyperlipidemia. However, the phenols vary with processing methods, especially solvent type. Our aim was to compare hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of hawthorn fruit in hyperlipidemia rats. After a 4-week treatment of high-fat emulsion, lipid profile levels and antioxidant levels of two extracts were determined using commercial analysis. Total phenols content in the extract of hawthorn fruit was determined colorimetrically by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possessed hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Simultaneously, stronger activities were observed in ethanol extract. Besides, total phenols content in ethanol extract from the same quality of hawthorn fruit was 3.9 times more than that in aqueous extract. The obvious difference of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of hawthorn fruit was probably due to the presence of total phenols content, under the influence of extraction solvent. Ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit exhibited more favorable hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects than aqueous extract. The higher effects could be due to the higher content of total phenols that varies with extraction solvent. Abbreviations used: TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, CAT: Catalase, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: Nitric oxide synthase, SR-BI: Scavenger receptor Class B Type I.
Jiang, Fan; Fu, Wei; Clarke, Anthony R; Schutze, Mark Kurt; Susanto, Agus; Zhu, Shuifang; Li, Zhihong
Invasive species can be detrimental to a nation's ecology, economy and human health. Rapid and accurate diagnostics are critical to limit the establishment and spread of exotic organisms. The increasing rate of biological invasions relative to the taxonomic expertise available generates a demand for high-throughput, DNA-based diagnostics methods for identification. We designed species-specific qPCR primer and probe combinations for 27 economically important tephritidae species in six genera (Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Carpomya, Ceratitis, Dacus and Rhagoletis) based on 935 COI DNA barcode haplotypes from 181 fruit fly species publically available in BOLD, and then tested the specificity for each primer pair and probe through qPCR of 35 of those species. We then developed a standardization reaction system for detecting the 27 target species based on a microfluidic dynamic array and also applied the method to identify unknown immature samples from port interceptions and field monitoring. This method led to a specific and simultaneous detection for all 27 species in 7.5 h, using only 0.2 μL of reaction system in each reaction chamber. The approach successfully discriminated among species within complexes that had genetic similarities of up to 98.48%, while it also identified all immature samples consistent with the subsequent results of morphological examination of adults which were reared from larvae of cohorts from the same samples. We present an accurate, rapid and high-throughput innovative approach for detecting fruit flies of quarantine concern. This is a new method which has broad potential to be one of international standards for plant quarantine and invasive species detection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fan, Kai; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S
Microwave heating has been applied in the drying of high-value solids as it affords a number of advantages, including shorter drying time and better product quality. Freeze-drying at cryogenic temperature and extremely low pressure provides the advantage of high product quality, but at very high capital and operating costs due partly to very long drying time. Freeze-drying coupled with a microwave heat source speeds up the drying rate and yields good quality products provided the operating unit is designed and operated to achieve the potential for an absence of hot spot developments. This review is a survey of recent developments in the modeling and experimental results on microwave-assisted freeze-drying (MFD) over the past decade. Owing to the high costs involved, so far all applications are limited to small-scale operations for the drying of high-value foods such as fruits and vegetables. In order to promote industrial-scale applications for a broader range of products further research and development efforts are needed to offset the current limitations of the process. The needs and opportunities for future research and developments are outlined.
Nur Akmal Ishak
Full Text Available Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P<0.05 increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL, insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats.
Christou, Anastasis; Georgiadou, Egli C; Filippou, Panagiota; Manganaris, George A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios
Strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. This work describes the successful modification of a total RNA extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total RNA from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of GAPDH housekeeping gene from isolated RNA further supports the proposed protocol efficiency and its use for downstream molecular applications. This novel procedure was also successfully followed using other fruit tissues, such as olive and kiwifruit. In addition, optional treatment with RNase A following initial nucleic acid extraction can provide sufficient quality and quality of genomic DNA for subsequent PCR analyses, as evidenced from PCR amplification of housekeeping genes using extracted genomic DNA as template. Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maldonado, Roberto; Molina-Garcia, Antonio D; Sanchez-Ballesta, Maria T; Escribano, Maria I; Merodio, Carmen
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 220.127.116.11.) activity, tanning ability, and polyphenols levels were measured in cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) fruit treated with 20% CO(2) + 20% O(2) + 60% N(2) for 1, 3, or 6 days during chilling temperature (6 degrees C) storage. The residual effect of CO(2) after transfer to air was also studied. These observations were correlated with texture and cellular characteristics, visualized by cryo-SEM. Tanning ability and the early increase in tannin polyphenols induced by chilling temperature were reduced by CO(2) treatment. Conversely, high CO(2) atmosphere enhanced the nontannin polyphenol fraction as compared with fruit stored in air. Lignin accumulation and PAL activation observed in untreated fruit after prolonged storage at chilling temperature were prevented by high CO(2). Moreover, the restraining effect on lignification was less effective when the CO(2) treatment was prolonged for 6 days. In addition, fruits held at these conditions had greater firmness and the histological characterization of the separation between cells was similar to that in untreated fruits. We conclude that CO(2) treatment modulates the phenolic response that seems to regulate the strength of cell adhesion and so to prevent hardening caused by chilling temperature storage.
Hurtado, Adriana; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Picouet, Pierre; Jofré, Anna; Ros, José María; Bañón, Sancho
Non-thermal pasteurisation by high-pressure processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing thermal processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. The resulting products need to be validated from a sensory and nutritional standpoint. The objective was to assess a mild HPP treatment to stabilise red fruit-based smoothies in a wide (sensory quality and major nutrients) study. HPP (350 MPa/ 10 °C/ 5 min) provided 'fresh-like' smoothies, free of cooked-fruit flavours, for at least 14 days at 4 °C, although their sensory stability was low compared with the TP-smoothies (85 °C/ 7 min). In HPP-smoothies, the loss of fresh fruit flavour and reduced sliminess were the clearest signs of sensory deterioration during storage. Furthermore, HPP permitted the higher initial retention of vitamin C, although this vitamin and, to a lesser extent, total phenols, had a higher degradation rate during storage. The content of sugar present was not affected by either processing treatment. Mild HPP treatment did not alter the sensory and nutritional properties of smoothies. The sensory and nutritional losses during storage were less than might be expected, probably due to the high antioxidant content and the natural turbidity provided by red fruits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Pan, Hao; Buenconsejo, Matthew; Reineke, Karl F; Shieh, Y Carol
High pressure processing (HPP) can inactivate pathogens and retain fruit qualities. Elevated HPP pressure or time increases virus inactivation, but the effect of temperature is not consistently observed for norovirus and hepatitis A virus. In the present study, the effectiveness of HPP holding temperatures (puree using a 24-liter HPP system. The holding temperature was established by setting the HPP initial temperature via pretrials. All trials were able to arrive at the designated holding pressure and holding temperature simultaneously. MNV inactivation in juices was conducted at 300 MPa for 3 min with various holding temperatures (10 to 30°C). A regression equation was derived, Y = -0.08 × X + 2.6 log PFU, R2 = 0.96, where Y is the log reduction and X is the holding temperature. The equation was used to predict a 2.6-log reduction in juices at 0°C holding temperature and indicated that MNV inactivation was inversely proportional to temperature increase. MNV survival during HPP did not differ significantly in pomegranate and strawberry juices. However, MS2 coliphage inactivation was greater as the holding temperature increased (from 15 to 38°C) at 600 MPa for 3 min. The increased inactivation trend is presumably similar to that for hepatitis A virus, but the holding temperature was not correlated with the reduction of HPP-resistant MS2 in strawberry puree. When the HPP holding pressure was evaluated independently in strawberry puree, a 5-log reduction of MNV was predicted through regression analysis at the holding pressure of 424 MPa for 3 min at 20°C. These parameters should inactivate >5 log PFU of MNV in juices, based upon a greater inactivation in berry juice than in puree (1.16-versus 0.74-log reduction at 300 MPa). This research illustrates use of predictive inactivation and a feasible means for manipulating HPP parameters for effective virus inactivation in fruit juices and puree.
Fang, B.; Zhu, X.
Food safety has become one of the main concerns of Chinese consumers. To establish the main sources of five heavy metals (chromium, copper, cadmium, mercury and lead) in four fruits (pear, grape, peach-shaped plum and orange), a study was conducted using samples collected from fruit farmers in
Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)
Graphical abstract: The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs was achieved using the extract of unripe P. mume fruit as a carbon precursor by a one-pot simple hydrothermal-carbonization method. The resulting N-CDs were used as a staining agent for the fluorescence imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs using the extract of unripe P. mume. • The N-CDs were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal-carbonization method. • This method of synthesis is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly route. • N-CDs will be a good alternative for fluorescent dyes and SQDs for bio-applications. - Abstract: Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.
Goñi, Oscar; Sanchez-Ballesta, María T; Merodio, Carmen; Escribano, María I
This study focuses on how the length of exposure to chilling temperature and atmosphere storage conditions regulate the hydrolytic activity and expression of chitinase (PR-Q) and 1,3-beta-glucanase (PR-2) isoenzymes in cherimoyas (Annona cherimola Mill.). Storage at 6 degrees C modified the expression of constitutive isoenzymes and induced the appearance of novel acidic chitinases, AChi26 and AChi24, at the onset of the storage period, and of a basic chitinase, BChi33, after prolonged storage. The induction of this basic isoenzyme was concomitant with the accumulation of basic constitutive 1,3-beta-glucanases. These low-temperature-induced chitinases modified the growth inhibition in vitro of Botrytis cinerea. Short-term high CO(2) treatment activated a coordinated response of acidic chitinases and 1,3-beta-glucanases after prolonged storage at chilling temperature. Moreover, the high in vitro cryoprotective activity of CO(2)-treated protein extracts was associated with the induction of two low molecular mass isoenzymes, AGlu19 and BChi14. Thus, exposure to high concentrations of CO(2) modified the response of fruit to low temperature, inducing the synthesis of cryoprotectant proteins such as specific pathogenesis-related isoenzymes that could be functionally associated with an increase in chilling tolerance in vivo.
Ahumada-Orellana, Luis E; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Searles, Peter S; Retamales, Jorge B
An increase in the land area dedicated to super-high density olive orchards has occurred in Chile in recent years. Such modern orchards have high irrigation requirements, and optimizing water use is a priority. Moreover, this region presents low water availability, which makes necessary to establish irrigation strategies to improve water productivity. An experiment was conducted during four consecutive growing seasons (2010-2011 to 2013-2014) to evaluate the responses of yield and water productivity to irrigation cut-off strategies. These strategies were applied after fruit set using midday stem water potential (Ψstem) thresholds in a super-high density olive orchard (cv. Arbequina), located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The experimental design was completely randomized with four irrigation cut-off treatments based on the Ψstem thresholds and four replicate plots per treatment (five trees per plot). Similar to commercial growing conditions in our region, the Ψstem in the T1 treatment was maintained between -1.4 and -2.2 MPa (100% of actual evapotranspiration), while T2, T3 and T4 treatments did not receive irrigation from fruit set until they reached a Ψstem threshold of approximately -3.5, -5.0, and -6.0 MPa, respectively. Once the specific thresholds were reached, irrigation was restored and maintained as T1 in all treatments until fruits were harvested. Yield and its components were not significantly different between T1 and T2, but fruit yield and total oil yield, fruit weight, and fruit diameter were decreased by the T3 and T4 treatments. Moreover, yield showed a linear response with water stress integral (SΨ), which was strongly influenced by fruit load. Total oil content (%) and pulp/stone ratio were not affected by the different irrigation strategies. Also, fruit and oil water productivities were significantly greater in T1 and T2 than in the T3 and T4. Moreover, the T2, T3, and T4 treatments averaged 37, 51, and 72 days without
Luis E. Ahumada-Orellana
Full Text Available An increase in the land area dedicated to super-high density olive orchards has occurred in Chile in recent years. Such modern orchards have high irrigation requirements, and optimizing water use is a priority. Moreover, this region presents low water availability, which makes necessary to establish irrigation strategies to improve water productivity. An experiment was conducted during four consecutive growing seasons (2010–2011 to 2013–2014 to evaluate the responses of yield and water productivity to irrigation cut-off strategies. These strategies were applied after fruit set using midday stem water potential (Ψstem thresholds in a super-high density olive orchard (cv. Arbequina, located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The experimental design was completely randomized with four irrigation cut-off treatments based on the Ψstem thresholds and four replicate plots per treatment (five trees per plot. Similar to commercial growing conditions in our region, the Ψstem in the T1 treatment was maintained between -1.4 and -2.2 MPa (100% of actual evapotranspiration, while T2, T3 and T4 treatments did not receive irrigation from fruit set until they reached a Ψstem threshold of approximately -3.5, -5.0, and -6.0 MPa, respectively. Once the specific thresholds were reached, irrigation was restored and maintained as T1 in all treatments until fruits were harvested. Yield and its components were not significantly different between T1 and T2, but fruit yield and total oil yield, fruit weight, and fruit diameter were decreased by the T3 and T4 treatments. Moreover, yield showed a linear response with water stress integral (SΨ, which was strongly influenced by fruit load. Total oil content (% and pulp/stone ratio were not affected by the different irrigation strategies. Also, fruit and oil water productivities were significantly greater in T1 and T2 than in the T3 and T4. Moreover, the T2, T3, and T4 treatments averaged 37, 51, and 72 days
Ahumada-Orellana, Luis E.; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Searles, Peter S.; Retamales, Jorge B.
An increase in the land area dedicated to super-high density olive orchards has occurred in Chile in recent years. Such modern orchards have high irrigation requirements, and optimizing water use is a priority. Moreover, this region presents low water availability, which makes necessary to establish irrigation strategies to improve water productivity. An experiment was conducted during four consecutive growing seasons (2010–2011 to 2013–2014) to evaluate the responses of yield and water productivity to irrigation cut-off strategies. These strategies were applied after fruit set using midday stem water potential (Ψstem) thresholds in a super-high density olive orchard (cv. Arbequina), located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The experimental design was completely randomized with four irrigation cut-off treatments based on the Ψstem thresholds and four replicate plots per treatment (five trees per plot). Similar to commercial growing conditions in our region, the Ψstem in the T1 treatment was maintained between -1.4 and -2.2 MPa (100% of actual evapotranspiration), while T2, T3 and T4 treatments did not receive irrigation from fruit set until they reached a Ψstem threshold of approximately -3.5, -5.0, and -6.0 MPa, respectively. Once the specific thresholds were reached, irrigation was restored and maintained as T1 in all treatments until fruits were harvested. Yield and its components were not significantly different between T1 and T2, but fruit yield and total oil yield, fruit weight, and fruit diameter were decreased by the T3 and T4 treatments. Moreover, yield showed a linear response with water stress integral (SΨ), which was strongly influenced by fruit load. Total oil content (%) and pulp/stone ratio were not affected by the different irrigation strategies. Also, fruit and oil water productivities were significantly greater in T1 and T2 than in the T3 and T4. Moreover, the T2, T3, and T4 treatments averaged 37, 51, and 72 days without
High-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry approach for the rapid analysis and characterization of multiple constituents of the fruit of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms.
Han, Yue; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Yingzhi; Meng, Xiangcai; Yan, Guangli; Liu, Liang; Wang, Xijun
Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to improve the function of skeleton, heart, spleen and kidney. This fruit is rich in nutrients, but the chemical constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus fruit are still unclear. A rapid method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the compound analysis of Acanthopanax senticosus fruit in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the Acanthopanax senticosus fruit could significantly increase the weight of immune organs, promote the proliferation of lymphatic T cells, regulate the lymphatic B cell function, and decrease the ability of natural killer cells. A total of 104 compounds of Acanthopanax senticosus fruit including lignans, flavones, triterpenoidsaponins, phenolic acids, and other constituents were identified. Among them, seven chemical compounds were reported for the first time in the Acanthopanax senticosus fruit. Compared with the serum sample of blank and dosed samples, 24 prototype compositions were characterized. The results of our experiment could be helpful to understand the complex compounds of Acanthopanax senticosus fruit in vitro and in vivo for further pharmacological activity studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Leth, Torben
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation method viith photo-diode array (PDA) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection was developed to determine and quantify flavonols, flavones, and flavanones in fruits, vegetables and beverages. The compounds were analysed as aglycones, obtained...
Mol, J.G.J.; Zomer, P.; Koning, de A.
The analytical capabilities of liquid chromatography with single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometry have been investigated with emphasis on qualitative aspects related to selective detection during screening and to identification. The study involved 21 different vegetable and fruit commodities,
Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M
Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.
Qiang XU,Chaoyang LIU,Manosh Kumar BISWAS,Zhiyong PAN,Xiuxin DENG
In recent years, dramatic progress has been made in the genomics of fruit crops. The publication of a dozen fruit crop genomes represents a milestone for both functional genomics and breeding programs in fruit crops. Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have revolutionized the manner and scale of genomics in fruit crops. Research on fruit crops is encompassing a wide range of biological questions which are unique and cannot be addressed in a model plant such as Arabidopsis....
Mu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Jin, Fuqiang
The anaerobic digestion of single fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) can be easily interrupted by rapid acidogenesis and inhibition of methanogen, and the digestion system tends to be particularly unstable at high solid content. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of FVW in batch experiments under mesophilic condition at a high solid concentration of 10% was successfully conducted to overcome the acidogenesis problem through several modifications. Firstly, compared with the conventional anaerobic sludge (CAS), the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was found to be a better inoculum due to its higher Archaea abundance. Secondly, waste activated sludge (WAS) was chosen to co-digest with FVW, because WAS had abundant proteins that could generate intermediate ammonium. The ammonium could neutralize the accumulated volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and prevent the pH value of the digestion system from rapidly decreasing. Co-digestion of FVW and WAS with TS ratio of 60:40 gave the highest biogas yield of 562 mL/g-VS and the highest methane yield of 362 mL/g-VS. Key parameters in the digestion process, including VFAs concentration, pH, enzyme activity, and microbial activity, were also examined.
Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Totušek, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Gabrovská, D.; Otová, B.; Gresová, P.
Roč. 27, č. 1 (2007), s. 157-162 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Vegetable juices * High pressure processing * Food safety * Anti-mutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2007
Harel-Beja, R; Tzuri, G; Portnoy, V; Lotan-Pompan, M; Lev, S; Cohen, S; Dai, N; Yeselson, L; Meir, A; Libhaber, S E; Avisar, E; Melame, T; van Koert, P; Verbakel, H; Hofstede, R; Volpin, H; Oliver, M; Fougedoire, A; Stalh, C; Fauve, J; Copes, B; Fei, Z; Giovannoni, J; Ori, N; Lewinsohn, E; Sherman, A; Burger, J; Tadmor, Y; Schaffer, A A; Katzir, N
A genetic map of melon enriched for fruit traits was constructed, using a recombinant inbred (RI) population developed from a cross between representatives of the two subspecies of Cucumis melo L.: PI 414723 (subspecies agrestis) and 'Dulce' (subspecies melo). Phenotyping of 99 RI lines was conducted over three seasons in two locations in Israel and the US. The map includes 668 DNA markers (386 SSRs, 76 SNPs, six INDELs and 200 AFLPs), of which 160 were newly developed from fruit ESTs. These ESTs include candidate genes encoding for enzymes of sugar and carotenoid metabolic pathways that were cloned from melon cDNA or identified through mining of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative database (http://www.icugi.org/). The map covers 1,222 cM with an average of 2.672 cM between markers. In addition, a skeleton physical map was initiated and 29 melon BACs harboring fruit ESTs were localized to the 12 linkage groups of the map. Altogether, 44 fruit QTLs were identified: 25 confirming QTLs described using other populations and 19 newly described QTLs. The map includes QTLs for fruit sugar content, particularly sucrose, the major sugar affecting sweetness in melon fruit. Six QTLs interacting in an additive manner account for nearly all the difference in sugar content between the two genotypes. Three QTLs for fruit flesh color and carotenoid content were identified. Interestingly, no clear colocalization of QTLs for either sugar or carotenoid content was observed with over 40 genes encoding for enzymes involved in their metabolism. The RI population described here provides a useful resource for further genomics and metabolomics studies in melon, as well as useful markers for breeding for fruit quality.
Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Lemtur, Moanaro
The study examined the genetic diversity and demographic history of Bactrocera dorsalis, a destructive and polyphagous insect pest of fruit crops in diverse geographic regions of India. 19 widely dispersed populations of the fly from India and other Asian countries were analysed using partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) genes to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history in the region. Genetic diversity indices [number of haplotypes (H), haloptype diversity (Hd), nucleotide diversity (π) and average number of nucleotide difference (k)] of populations revealed that B. dorsalis maintains fairly high level of genetic diversity without isolation by distance among the geographic regions. Demographic analysis showed significant (negative) Tajimas' D and Fu's F S with non significant sum of squared deviations (SSD) values, which indicate the possibility of recent sudden expansion of species and is further supported through distinctively star-like distribution structure of haplotypes among populations. Thus, the results indicate that both ongoing and historical factors have played important role in determining the genetic structure and diversity of the species in India. Consequently, sterile insect technique (SIT) could be a possible management strategy of species in the regions.
Hurtado, Adriana; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Picouet, Pierre; Jofré, Anna; Ros, José María; Bañón, Sancho
Non-thermal pasteurization by high-pressure processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing thermal processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. However, most of the research on HPP-fruit products only partially addresses fruit-pressure interaction, which limits its practical interest. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit-based smoothies (microbial, enzymatic, oxidative and physical stability). HPP (350 MPa/10 °C/5 min) was slightly less effective than TP (85 °C/7 min) in inactivating microbes (mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) in smoothies kept at 4 °C for up to 28 days. The main limitation of using HPP was its low efficacy in inactivating oxidative (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (pectin methyl esterase) enzymes. Data on antioxidant status, colour parameters, browning index, transmittance, turbidity and viscosity confirmed that the HPP-smoothies have a greater tendency towards oxidation and clarification, which might lead to undesirable sensory and nutritional changes (see Part B). The microbial quality of smoothies was adequately controlled by mild HPP treatment without affecting their physical-chemical characteristics; however, oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes are highly pressure-resistant, which suggests that additional strategies should be used to stabilize smoothies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Gómez-Ramos, M M; Ferrer, C; Malato, O; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R
This work reviews the current state-of-the-art of liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) techniques applied to the analysis of pesticides in fruit-based and vegetable-based matrices. Nowadays, simultaneous trace analysis of hundreds of pesticides from different classes is required, preferably in just one run. The most commonly used QqQ-MS technology presents certain limitations in its application in a cost and effective way when analyzing a large number of pesticides. Thus, this review includes HRMS technology as a reliable complementary alternative allowing the analysis of a wide range of pesticides in food. Its capabilities and limitations in identifying, confirming and quantifying pesticides are discussed. HRMS instruments can adequately address such issues; however, the main drawbacks are as a result of insufficient prior optimization of the operational parameters during non-target analysis in full-scan mode and due to software shortcomings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barba, Francisco José; Criado, María Nieves; Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Esteve, María José; Rodrigo, Dolores
Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500 MPa, 5-15 min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453 MPa for 5 min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kobylecki, Camilla J; Afzal, Shoaib; Davey Smith, George
BACKGROUND: High intake of fruit and vegetables as well as high plasma vitamin C concentrations have been associated with low risk of ischemic heart disease in prospective studies, but results from randomized clinical trials have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis...... that genetically high concentrations of plasma vitamin C, such as with high intake of fruit and vegetables, are associated with low risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: We used a Mendelian randomization approach and genotyped for solute carrier family 23 member 1 (SLC23A1) rs33972313...... in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 in 97,203 white individuals of whom 10,123 subjects had ischemic heart disease, and 8477 subjects died. We measured plasma vitamin C in 3512 individuals and included dietary information on 83,256 individuals. RESULTS: The SLC23A1 rs33972313 G allele was associated...
Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge
The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.
Ayman Abdel Ghafar
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum samples collected from city markets in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia, calculate their pungency in Scoville heat units (SHU and evaluate the average daily intake of capsaicin for the population of Riyadh. The investigated samples consisted of hot chillies, red chillies, green chillies, green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers. Extraction of capsaicinoids was done using ethanol as solvent, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for separation, identification and quantitation of the components. The limit of detection (LOD of the method was 0.09 and 0.10 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, while the limit of quantification (LOQ was 0.30 and 0.36 µg/g for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively. Hot chillies showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (4249.0 ± 190.3 µg/g and the highest pungency level (67984.60 SHU, whereas green peppers had the lowest detected concentration (1.0 ± 0.9 µg/g; green peppers, red peppers and yellow peppers were non pungent. The mean consumption of peppers for Riyadh city population was determined to be 15.5 g/person/day while the daily capsaicin intake was 7.584 mg/person/day.
Pedro José Almanza-Merchán
Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.
Castellanos-Santiago, Elena; Yahia, Elhadi M
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of betalain pigments in 10 cultivars/lines of prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) fruit grown in Mexico were conducted with reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Betacyanins and betaxanthins were identified by comparison with the UV/vis and mass spectrometric characteristics as well as the retention times of semisynthesized reference betaxanthins. Data revealed that the ratio and concentration of betalain pigments are responsible for the color in the different cultivars, showing the highest betalains content in the fruit of purple colored Camuesa (O. robusta Wendl.) (8.1 mg/g dry fruit), which is comparable to that found in red beet Beta vulgaris L. ssp. Var. Pablo) (8.6 mg/g dry tissue). Yellow betalains were absent in Reyna (O. alba-carpa) prickly pear cultivar. A total of 24 known/unknown betalains were present in the prickly pear fruit samples studied, including 18 betaxanthins and 6 betacyanins. Our results indicate that prickly pear cultivars can be considered as a potential source of yellow and red natural colorants.
Liang, Chih-Hung; Ho, Kung-Jui; Huang, Ling-Yi; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Lin, Shin-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun
The culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii is known to contain ergothioneine, and its products, including fruiting bodies, mycelia, and solid-state fermented products (adlay and buckwheat), were prepared to study their antioxidant properties. Fruiting bodies, regular and Hi-Ergo mycelia, and fermented products contained 2.05, 1.68, 5.76, 0.79-0.80 mg/g of ergothioneine, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained, P. eryngii products had effective antioxidant activity, reducing power, and scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions. Hi-Ergo mycelia was the most effective in the first 3 antioxidant properties in addition to its ergothioneine content. In addition, fruiting bodies were more effective in all antioxidant properties than regular mycelia. For ethanolic and hot water extracts from mycelia and fruiting bodies, the correlation coefficients between total phenol contents and each antioxidant attribute were 0.483-0.921. Overall, P. eryngii products with high amounts of ergothioneine could be used beneficially as a functional food.
Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Mroczek, Tomasz; Kozioł, Ewelina
For the first time, rare major and minor compounds from fruits of Peucedanum cervaria were isolated. High-performance countercurrent chromatography with two different solvent systems, heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (3:2:3:2 and 2:1:2:1, v/v), was successfully used in the reversed-phase mode. A scale-up process from analytical to semipreparative in a very short time was developed. The structures of isolated compounds were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. (8S,9R)-9-(3-Methylbutenoyloxy)-O-acetyl-8,9-dihydrooroselol (compound B), (8S,9R)-9-(2-methyl-Z-butenoyloxy)-O-acetyl-8,9-dihydrooroselol (edultin, compound C), and (8S,9R)-9-acetoxy-O-(2α-methylbutyryl)-8,9-dihydrooroselol (compound D) were obtained using heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:1:2:1, v/v) in isolation by countercurrent chromatography and the analysis of their relative stereochemistry by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy have been performed for the first time. Additionally, heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (3:2:3:2, v/v) led to the isolation of oxypeucedanin (1.2 mg; compound A). This is the first time that angular dihydrofuranocoumarin was isolated from plant extract by countercurrent chromatography. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
., Swetha; Chidangil, Santhosh; Karpate, Tanvi; Asundi, Anand
The ripening of fruits is associated with changes, in some cases subtle, in the color of the fruit. Traditionally spectroscopy used to measure these subtle changes and infer the ripeness of fruits. Spectrometers provides high-resolution but only measure a small area of the fruit. That might not be a good indicator of the overall ripeness. In this paper, we propose a compact tunable LED based hyper spectral imaging system that scans through a set of wavelengths and images, the reflectance from the whole fruit. Based on the type of fruit, only specific wavelengths need to be scanned. Following a validation using a Rubik's cube, an example banana going through its ripening cycles is used to demonstrate the system.
Morrow, J L; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A; Riegler, M
Tephritid fruit fly species display a diversity of host plant specialisation on a scale from monophagy to polyphagy. Furthermore, while some species prefer ripening fruit, a few are restricted to damaged or rotting fruit. Such a diversity of host plant use may be reflected in the microbial symbiont diversity of tephritids and their grade of dependency on their microbiomes. Here, we investigated the microbiome of six tephritid species from three genera, including species that are polyphagous pests (Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera neohumeralis, Bactrocera jarvisi, Ceratitis capitata) and a monophagous specialist (Bactrocera cacuminata). These were compared with the microbiome of a non-pestiferous but polyphagous tephritid species that is restricted to damaged or rotting fruit (Dirioxa pornia). The bacterial community associated with whole fruit flies was analysed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon pyrosequencing to detect potential drivers of taxonomic composition. Overall, the dominant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae and Acetobacteraceae (both Proteobacteria), and Streptococcaceae and Enterococcaceae (both Firmicutes). Comparisons across species and genera found different microbial composition in the three tephritid genera, but limited consistent differentiation between Bactrocera species. Within Bactrocera species, differentiation of microbial composition seemed to be influenced by the environment, possibly including their diets; beyond this, tephritid species identity or ecology also had an effect. The microbiome of D. pornia was most distinct from the other five species, which may be due to its ecologically different niche of rotting or damaged fruit, as opposed to ripening fruit favoured by the other species. Our study is the first amplicon pyrosequencing study to compare the microbiomes of tephritid species and thus delivers important information about the turnover of microbial diversity within and between fruit fly species and their potential
Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Vargas, Roger I
Shortly after its introduction into the Hawaiian Islands around 1895, the polyphagous, invasive fruit fly Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was provided the opportunity to expand its host range to include a novel host, papaya (Carica papaya). It has been documented that female B. cucurbitae rely strongly on vision to locate host fruit. Given that the papaya fruit is visually conspicuous in the papaya agro-ecosystem, we hypothesized that female B. cucurbitae used vision as the main sensory modality to find and exploit the novel host fruit. Using a comparative approach that involved a series of studies under natural and semi-natural conditions in Hawaii, we assessed the ability of female B. cucurbitae to locate and oviposit in papaya fruit using the sensory modalities of olfaction and vision alone and also in combination. The results of these studies demonstrate that, under a variety of conditions, volatiles emitted by the novel host do not positively stimulate the behavior of the herbivore. Rather, vision seems to be the main mechanism driving the exploitation of the novel host. Volatiles emitted by the novel host papaya fruit did not contribute in any way to the visual response of females. Our findings highlight the remarkable role of vision in the host-location process of B. cucurbitae and provide empirical evidence for this sensory modality as a potential mechanism involved in host range expansion.
Jaime C Piñero
Full Text Available Shortly after its introduction into the Hawaiian Islands around 1895, the polyphagous, invasive fruit fly Bactrocera (Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae was provided the opportunity to expand its host range to include a novel host, papaya (Carica papaya. It has been documented that female B. cucurbitae rely strongly on vision to locate host fruit. Given that the papaya fruit is visually conspicuous in the papaya agro-ecosystem, we hypothesized that female B. cucurbitae used vision as the main sensory modality to find and exploit the novel host fruit. Using a comparative approach that involved a series of studies under natural and semi-natural conditions in Hawaii, we assessed the ability of female B. cucurbitae to locate and oviposit in papaya fruit using the sensory modalities of olfaction and vision alone and also in combination. The results of these studies demonstrate that, under a variety of conditions, volatiles emitted by the novel host do not positively stimulate the behavior of the herbivore. Rather, vision seems to be the main mechanism driving the exploitation of the novel host. Volatiles emitted by the novel host papaya fruit did not contribute in any way to the visual response of females. Our findings highlight the remarkable role of vision in the host-location process of B. cucurbitae and provide empirical evidence for this sensory modality as a potential mechanism involved in host range expansion.
Aug 31, 2013 ... heat (boiling, pasteurization or sterilization) extractions of fruit juice though optimize their shelf life quality but controversially cause loss of their organoleptic property e.g. flavor, viscosity, taste, nutrient etc. Preservatives of chemical origins e.g. butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene,.
Benvenuti, Stefania; Brighenti, Virginia; Pellati, Federica
Anthocyanins represent the most abundant class of bioactive compounds present in Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit, conferring it several health-promoting properties. The content of anthocyanins in food products produced from bilberries can be affected by many parameters, making the study of their composition a critical issue. In this ambit, this work was aimed at a comprehensive profiling of anthocyanins in bilberry fruit and derivatives from the Italian Northern Apennines, including jam, juice, and liqueur ("Mirtillino"). Anthocyanins were extracted from the jams by means of a dynamic maceration with acidified methanol, while juice and liqueurs were directly analyzed. The analysis of anthocyanins in the extracts was carried out by means of HPLC-UV/DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and MS 2 , under gradient elution. As a comparison, authentic bilberry fruits were analyzed. The total anthocyanin content was in the range 582.4-795.2 mg/100 g (FW) for the fruit, 2.3-234.5 mg/100 g for the jams, 109.2-2252.2 mg/L for the juice, and 27.9-759.3 mg/L for the liqueurs. To deeper investigate the anthocyanin profile of the liqueurs that exhibited a remarkably different composition in comparison with the other products, an authentic bilberry liqueur was prepared in the lab, following a traditional recipe, and monitored weakly by HPLC. The percentage of degradation of 3-O-galactosides and 3-O-arabinosides of bilberry anthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of 3-O-glucosides. The results of this work demonstrated the importance of a suitable and reliable analysis of bilberry fruit and related food products to ensure their genuineness and quality. Graphical abstract Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit and food products analyzed in this work.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are master regulators of gene activity documented to play central roles in fruit ripening in model plant species, yet little is known of their roles in Lycium barbarum L. fruits. In this study, miRNA levels in L. barbarum fruit samples at four developmental stages, were assayed using Illumina HiSeqTM2000. This revealed the presence of 50 novel miRNAs and 38 known miRNAs in L. barbarum fruits. Of the novel miRNAs, 36 were specific to L. barbarum fruits compared with L. chinense. A number of stage-specific miRNAs were identified and GO terms were assigned to 194 unigenes targeted by miRNAs. The majority of GO terms of unigenes targeted by differentially expressed miRNAs are ‘intracellular organelle’, ‘binding’, ‘metabolic process’, ‘pigmentation’, and ‘biological regulation’. Enriched KEGG analysis indicated that nucleotide excision repair and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis were over-represented during the initial stage of ripening, with ABC transporters and sulfur metabolism pathways active during the middle stages and ABC transporters and spliceosome enriched in the final stages of ripening. Several miRNAs and their targets serving as potential regulators in L. barbarum fruit ripening were identified using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The miRNA-target interactions were predicted for L. barbarum ripening regulators including miR156/157 with LbCNR and LbWRKY8, and miR171 with LbGRAS. Additionally, regulatory interactions potentially controlling fruit quality and nutritional value via sugar and secondary metabolite accumulation were identified. These include miR156 targeting of fructokinase and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and miR164 targeting of beta-fructofuranosidase. In sum, valuable information revealed by small RNA sequencing in this study will provide a solid foundation for uncovering the miRNA-mediated mechanism of fruit ripening and quality in this
Zeng, Shaohua; Liu, Yongliang; Pan, Lizhu; Hayward, Alice; Wang, Ying
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are master regulators of gene activity documented to play central roles in fruit ripening in model plant species, yet little is known of their roles in Lycium barbarum L. fruits. In this study, miRNA levels in L. barbarum fruit samples at four developmental stages, were assayed using Illumina HiSeqTM2000. This revealed the presence of 50 novel miRNAs and 38 known miRNAs in L. barbarum fruits. Of the novel miRNAs, 36 were specific to L. barbarum fruits compared with L. chinense. A number of stage-specific miRNAs were identified and GO terms were assigned to 194 unigenes targeted by miRNAs. The majority of GO terms of unigenes targeted by differentially expressed miRNAs are "intracellular organelle," "binding," "metabolic process," "pigmentation," and "biological regulation." Enriched KEGG analysis indicated that nucleotide excision repair and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis were over-represented during the initial stage of ripening, with ABC transporters and sulfur metabolism pathways active during the middle stages and ABC transporters and spliceosome enriched in the final stages of ripening. Several miRNAs and their targets serving as potential regulators in L. barbarum fruit ripening were identified using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The miRNA-target interactions were predicted for L. barbarum ripening regulators including miR156/157 with LbCNR and LbWRKY8, and miR171 with LbGRAS. Additionally, regulatory interactions potentially controlling fruit quality and nutritional value via sugar and secondary metabolite accumulation were identified. These include miR156 targeting of fructokinase and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and miR164 targeting of beta-fructofuranosidase. In sum, valuable information revealed by small RNA sequencing in this study will provide a solid foundation for uncovering the miRNA-mediated mechanism of fruit ripening and quality in this nutritional food.
Alonso, Alvaro; de la Fuente, Carmen; Martín-Arnau, Ana M; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez, J Alfredo; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel
There is evidence that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces blood pressure (BP). Characteristically, the Mediterranean diet is rich in plant-derived foods and also in fat, but studies conducted in Mediterranean countries to relate diet to BP are scarce. We studied the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and BP in a cross-sectional analysis of 4393 participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study, an ongoing dynamic cohort study in Spain. Diet was measured using a food-frequency questionnaire previously validated in Spain. Fat represented more than 37 % total energy intake. Subjects were considered to have undiagnosed hypertension if they reported systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg, and not a medical diagnosis of hypertension. The adjusted prevalence odds ratio of undiagnosed hypertension (upper v. lowest quintile) was 0.58 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.91; P for trend 0.01) for vegetable consumption and 0.68 (95 % CI 0.43, 1.09; P for trend 0.10) for fruit consumption. Comparing those in the highest quintile of both fruit and vegetable consumption with those in the lowest quintile of both food groups, the prevalence odds ratio was 0.23 (95 % CI 0.10, 0.55; P = 0.001), after adjusting for risk factors for hypertension and other dietary exposures. In a Mediterranean population with an elevated fat consumption, a high fruit and vegetable intake is inversely associated with BP levels.
Kinoshita, Takafumi; Yano, Takayoshi; Sugiura, Makoto; Nagasaki, Yuji
To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF), we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI), fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS), summer-fall (SF), and fall-winter (FW) seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF) with constant electrical conductivity (EC) in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m2·m−2; the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32−46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method. PMID:25402478
Full Text Available To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF, we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI, fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS, summer-fall (SF, and fall-winter (FW seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF with constant electrical conductivity (EC in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m(2 · m(-2; the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32-46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method.
L'homme, C; Peschet, J L; Puigserver, A; Biagini, A
Fructans are food-grade non-digestible carbohydrates that exert beneficial nutritional effects. Their characterization and quantification is required for food-labeling purposes. We describe the suitability of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection for the identification and quantification of fructans in fresh fruits (various apple and pear cultivars, plum, banana) as well as in commercial stewed fruits obtained from a local manufacturer. After extraction with water and appropriate filtration, inulobiose [beta-D-Fru-(2-->1)-beta-D-fructofuranoside; F2], 1-kestose [beta-D-Fru-(2-->1)2-alpha-D-glucopyranoside; GF2] and nystose [beta-D-Fru-(2-->1)3-alpha-D-glucopyranoside; GF3] were completely separated in a single 36-min run using a Dionex CarboPac PA 100 column and the new quadruple-potential waveform, originally tailored for oligosaccharide separation. No measurable amounts of F3 and GF4 were detected within the group of studied fruit products. Peak identification was realized using standards. The method is easy, reproducible, and sensitive since as little as 28 microg of sugar per gram dry matter can be quantified. Banana and plum are the varieties containing the highest levels of fructans (about 6000 microg per gram dry matter). The maturity of the fruit appears to have a great influence on the level of GF2. Samples of apple-banana stewed fruits contained the highest total fructan concentration (about 700 microg per gram dry matter). Accurate quantification of fructans will allow more precise nutritional formulation and diet selection for higher fructan consumption.
Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Laglaoui, Amin; Mackey, Bernard M; Pagán, Rafael
This work addresses the inactivation achieved with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e by combined processes of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and essential oils (EOs) or their chemical constituents (CCs). HHP treatments (175-400 MPa for 20 min) were combined with 200 μL/L of each EO (Citrus sinensis L., Citrus lemon L., Citrus reticulata L., Thymus algeriensis L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Juniperus phoenicea L., and Cyperus longus L.) or each CC ((+)-limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, thymol, carvacrol, borneol, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, camphor, and (+)-pulegone) in buffer of pH 4.0 or 7.0. The tested combinations achieved different degrees of inactivation, the most effective being (+)-limonene, carvacrol, C. reticulata L. EO, T. algeriensis L. EO and C. sinensis L. EO which were capable of inactivating about 4-5 log(10) cycles of the initial cell populations in combination with HHP, and therefore showed outstanding synergistic effects. (+)-Limonene was also capable of inactivating 5 log(10) cycles of the initial E. coli O157:H7 population in combination with HHP (300 MPa for 20 min) in orange and apple juices, and a direct relationship was established between the inactivation degree caused by the combined process with (+)-limonene and the occurrence of sublethal injury after the HHP treatment. This work shows the potential of EOs and CCs in the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in combined treatments with HHP, and proposes their possible use in liquid food such as fruit juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Qiang XU,Chaoyang LIU,Manosh Kumar BISWAS,Zhiyong PAN,Xiuxin DENG
Full Text Available In recent years, dramatic progress has been made in the genomics of fruit crops. The publication of a dozen fruit crop genomes represents a milestone for both functional genomics and breeding programs in fruit crops. Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have revolutionized the manner and scale of genomics in fruit crops. Research on fruit crops is encompassing a wide range of biological questions which are unique and cannot be addressed in a model plant such as Arabidopsis. This review summarizes recent achievements of research on the genome, transcriptome, proteome, miRNAs and epigenome of fruit crops.
Karlova, R.B.; Haarst, van J.C.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Geest, van de H.C.; Bovy, A.G.; Lammers, M.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant development through regulation of gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. Despite the fact that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model system for studying fleshy fruit development and ripening, only a few experimentally
Background: This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. Methods: This cross-sectional study…
Pierce, John P.; Natarajan, Loki; Caan, Bette J.; Parker, Barbara A.; Greenberg, E. Robert; Flatt, Shirley W.; Rock, Cheryl L.; Kealey, Sheila; Al-Delaimy, Wael K.; Bardwell, Wayne A.; Carlson, Robert W.; Emond, Jennifer A.; Faerber, Susan; Gold, Ellen B.; Hajek, Richard A.; Hollenbach, Kathryn; Jones, Lovell A.; Karanja, Njeri; Madlensky, Lisa; Marshall, James; Newman, Vicky A.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Wasserman, Linda; Stefanick, Marcia L.
Context Evidence is lacking that a dietary pattern high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in total fat can influence breast cancer recurrence or survival. Objective To assess whether a major increase in vegetable, fruit, and fiber intake and a decrease in dietary fat intake reduces the risk of recurrent and new primary breast cancer and all-cause mortality among women with previously treated early stage breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants Multi-institutional randomized controlled trial of dietary change in 3088 women previously treated for early stage breast cancer who were 18 to 70 years old at diagnosis. Women were enrolled between 1995 and 2000 and followed up through June 1, 2006. Intervention The intervention group (n=1537) was randomly assigned to receive a telephone counseling program supplemented with cooking classes and newsletters that promoted daily targets of 5 vegetable servings plus 16 oz of vegetable juice; 3 fruit servings; 30 g of fiber; and 15% to 20% of energy intake from fat. The comparison group (n=1551) was provided with print materials describing the "5-A-Day" dietary guidelines. Main Outcome Measures Invasive breast cancer event (recurrence or new primary) or death from any cause. Results From comparable dietary patterns at baseline, a conservative imputation analysis showed that the intervention group achieved and maintained the following statistically significant differences vs the comparison group through 4 years: servings of vegetables, +65%; fruit, +25%; fiber, +30%, and energy intake from fat, −13%. Plasma carotenoid concentrations validated changes in fruit and vegetable intake. Throughout the study, women in both groups received similar clinical care. Over the mean 7.3-year follow-up, 256 women in the intervention group (16.7%) vs 262 in the comparison group (16.9%) experienced an invasive breast cancer event (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.80–1.14; P=.63), and 155 intervention group
Wybraniec, Sławomir; Stalica, Paweł; Jerz, Gerold; Klose, Bettina; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter; Spórna, Aneta; Szaleniec, Maciej; Mizrahi, Yosef
Polar betacyanin pigments together with betaxanthins from ripe cactus fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus (Cactaceae) were fractionated by means of preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) also using the elution-extrusion (EE) approach for a complete pigment recovery. HSCCC separations were operated in the classical 'head-to-tail' mode with an aqueous mobile phase. Different CCC solvent systems were evaluated in respect of influence and effectiveness of fractionation capabilities to separate the occurring pigment profile of H. polyrhizus. For that reason, the additions of two different volatile ion-pair forming perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCA) were investigated. For a direct comparison, five samples of Hylocereus pigment extract were run on preparative scale (900 mg) in 1-butanol-acetonitrile-aqueous TFA 0.7% (5:1:6, v/v/v) and the modified systems tert.-butyl methyl ether-1-butanol-acetonitrile-aqueous PFCA (2:2:1:5, v/v/v/v) using 0.7% and 1.0% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) in the aqueous phase, respectively. The chemical affinity to the organic stationary CCC solvent phases and in consequence the retention of these highly polar betalain pigments was significantly increased by the use of the more lipophilic fluorinated ion-pair reagent HFBA instead of TFA. The HFBA additions separated more effectively the typical cacti pigments phyllocactin and hylocerenin from betanin as well as their iso-forms. Unfortunately, similar K(D) ratios and selectivity factors alpha around 1.0-1.1 in all tested solvent systems proved that the corresponding diastereomers, 15S-type pigments cannot be resolved from the 15R-epimers (iso-forms). Surprisingly, additions of the stronger ion-pair reagent (HFBA) resulted in a partial separation of hylocerenin from phyllocactin which were not resolved in the other solvent systems. The pigments were detected by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS using also
Chaudhury, Rekha; Malik, S K; Rajan, S
An improved method for pollen collection from freshly dehiscing anthers of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) using the organic solvent cyclohexane has been devised. Using this method pollen quantity sufficient for large scale pollinations could be collected and stored for future use. Transport of pollen in viable conditions over long distances, from site of collection (field genebank) to cryolab was successfully devised for both these fruit species. Cryopreservation was successfully applied to achieve long-term pollen storage over periods of up to four years. Pollen viability was tested using in vitro germination, the fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) method and by fruit set following field pollination. On retesting, four year cryostored pollen of different mango and litchi varieties showed high percentage viability as good as fresh control pollens. Pollens of more than 180 cultivars of mango and 19 cultivars of litchi have been stored in the cryogenebank using the technology developed, thus facilitating breeding programmes over the long-term.
Besil, Natalia; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R
The matrix effects of ethyl acetate extracts from seven different citrus fruits on the determination of 80 pesticide residues using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)-HR-TOF) at 4 GHz resolution mode were studied. Only 20% of the evaluated pesticides showed noticeable matrix effects (ME) due to coelution with natural products between tR = 3 and 11 min. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the detected coextractives grouped the mandarins and the orange varieties, but separated lemon, oranges, and mandarins from each other. Matrix effects were different among species but similar between varieties, forcing the determination of pesticide residues through matrix-matched calibration curves with the same fruit. Twenty-three natural products (synephrine, naringin, poncirin, glycosides of hesperitin, limonin, nomilin, and a few fatty acids, among others) were identified in the analyzed extracts. Twelve of the identified compounds coeluted with 28 of the pesticides under study, causing different matrix effects.
Thornton, Christopher R; Slaughter, David C; Davis, R Michael
Geotrichum candidum is a common soil-borne fungus that causes sour-rot of tomatoes, citrus fruits and vegetables, and is a major contaminant on tomato processing equipment. The aim of this work was to produce a monoclonal antibody and diagnostic assay for its detection in tomato fruit and juice. Using hybridoma technology, a cell line (FE10) was generated that produced a monoclonal antibody belonging to the immunoglobulin class M (IgM) that was specific to G. candidum and the closely related teleomorphic species Galactomyces geotrichum and anamorphic species Geotrichum europaeum and Geotrichum pseudocandidum in the G. geotrichum/G. candidum complex. The MAb did not cross-react with a wide range of unrelated fungi, including some likely to be encountered during crop production and processing. The MAb binds to an immunodominant high molecular mass (> 200 kDa) extracellular polysaccharide antigen that is present on the surface of arthroconidia and hyphae of G. candidum. The MAb was used in a highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to accurately detect the fungus in infected tomato fruit and juice. Specificity of the ELISA was confirmed by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA-encoding regions of fungi isolated from naturally-infected tomatoes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, A; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Lopes, C
To study the associations of fruits, vegetables, antioxidant vitamins and fibre intake with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Existing literature on these associations is scarce and has rendered conflicting results. Cross-sectional study of 1060 individuals (675 women, 385 men), representative of the non-institutionalized population, aged >or=18 years, in Porto, Portugal (70% participation rate). Diet over the previous year was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Associations between diet and hs-CRP (categorized into 3 to intake, there was 30% less probability of changing of hs-CRP category (no risk to moderate risk, or moderate to high risk). Protective associations were also observed between hs-CRP and fruits (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.96 per 100 g/day), vegetables (OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.86 per 100 g/day), vitamin C (OR=0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.80 per 10 mg/day) and vitamin E (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.02-0.88 per 1000 retinol equivalents per day). Overall, associations tended to be weaker in overweight participants. In men (BMI >or=25.0 kg/m(2)), fibre was also negatively associated with hs-CRP. In women, no significant associations were found between dietary variables and hs-CRP. A significant modification effect of the evaluated associations was found by sex for fruits and vegetables, vitamin C and fibre, but not by BMI. Intake of fruits and vegetables, vitamin C, E and fibre were negatively associated with hs-CRP in men.
Nimmakayala, Padma; Tomason, Yan R; Abburi, Venkata L; Alvarado, Alejandra; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Vajja, Venkata G; Salazar, Germania; Panicker, Girish K; Levi, Amnon; Wechter, William P; McCreight, James D; Korol, Abraham B; Ronin, Yefim; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Reddy, Umesh K
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a phenotypically diverse eudicot diploid (2n = 2x = 24) has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and show wide variation for fruit firmness, an important trait for transportation and shelf life. We generated 13,789 SNP markers using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation indices (Fst) between various melon morphotypes and genomewide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. The FST between accessions of cantalupensis and inodorus was 0.23. The FST between cantalupensis and various agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.19-0.53 and between inodorus and agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.21-0.59 indicating sporadic to wide ranging introgression. The EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm was used for estimation of 1436 haplotypes. Average genome-wide LD decay for the melon genome was noted to be 9.27 Kb. In the current research, we focused on the genome-wide divergence underlying diverse melon horticultural groups. A high-resolution genetic map with 7153 loci was constructed. Genome-wide segregation distortion and recombination rate across various chromosomes were characterized. Melon has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and wide variation for fruit firmness, a very important trait for transportation and shelf life. Various levels of QTLs were identified with high to moderate stringency and linked to fruit firmness using both genome-wide association study (GWAS) and biparental mapping. Gene annotation revealed some of the SNPs are located in β-D-xylosidase, glyoxysomal malate synthase, chloroplastic anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase, and histidine kinase, the genes that were previously characterized for fruit ripening and softening in other crops.
Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. is a phenotypically diverse eudicot diploid (2n = 2x =24 has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and show wide variation for fruit firmness, an important trait for transportation and shelf life. We generated 13,789 SNP markers using genotyping-by-sequencing and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation indices (Fst between various melon morphotypes and genomewide linkage disequilibrium (LD decay. The FST between accessions of cantalupensis and inodorus was 0.23. The FST between cantalupensis and various agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.19 to 0.53 and between inodorus and agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.21 to 0.59 indicating sporadic to wide ranging introgression. The EM (Expectation Maximization algorithm was used for estimation of 1,436 haplotypes. Average genome-wide LD decay for the melon genome was noted to be 9.27 Kb. In the current research, we focused on the genome-wide divergence underlying diverse melon horticultural groups. A high-resolution genetic map with 7153 loci was constructed. Genome-wide segregation distortion and recombination rate across various chromosomes were characterized. Melon has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and wide variation for fruit firmness, a very important trait for transportation and shelf life. Various levels of QTLs were identified with high to moderate stringency and linked to fruit firmness using both genome-wide association study (GWAS and biparental mapping. Gene annotation revealed some of the SNPs are located in -D-xylosidase, glyoxysomal malate synthase, chloroplastic anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase, and histidine kinase, the genes that were previously characterized for fruit ripening and softening in other crops.
Dominique Alexandra Reinwand
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the transition from an intention to a change in health behaviour, action planning is a frequently used behavioural change method. The quality of action plans in terms of instrumentality and specificity is important in terms of supporting a successful change in health behaviour. Until now, little has been known about the predictors of action plan generation and the predictors of high quality action plans and, therefore, the current study investigates these predictors. Method A randomised controlled trial was conducted to improve physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable (FV consumption using a web-based computer tailored intervention. During the 8-week intervention period, participants in the intervention arm (n = 346 were guided (step-by-step to generate their own action plans to improve their health behaviours. Demographic characteristics, social cognitions, and health behaviour were assessed at baseline by means of self-reporting. Whether participants generated action plans was tracked by means of server registrations within two modules of the intervention. Results The action planning component of the intervention regarding physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption was used by 40.9 and 20.7 % of the participants, respectively. We found that participants who were physically active at baseline were less likely to generate action plans concerning physical activity. With regards to generating fruit and vegetable action plans, participants with a high risk perception and a strong intention to eat fruit and vegetables on a daily basis made more use of the action planning component for this behaviour. Finally, the large majority of the action plans for physical activity (96.6 % and fruit and vegetable consumption (100 % were instrumental and about half of the action plans were found to be highly specific (PA = 69.6 %/FV = 59.7 %. The specificity of the action plans is associated
Monika, Padmanabhan; Geetha, Arumugam
The fruits of Persea Americana Mill., commonly known as Avocado, are traditionally consumed for various health benefits including weight reduction. Here, we studied the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Persea americana (HAEPA) on high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats. Obesity was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding HFD for 14 wk. The hypolipidemic effect was evaluated by co-administering 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. of HAEPA. There was a significant increase in weight gain, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, low density lipoproteins (LDL), lipid peroxides (LPO) and serum transaminases in HFD fed rats. HFD+HAEPA fed rats showed a significant decrease in blood lipids, LPO, liver lipids and increase in antioxidant status when compared to HFD control rats. The activity of lipid metabolic key enzymes such as fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase in liver were also found to be decreased significantly in HAEPA co-administered rats. Lipoprotein lipase activity was found increased in HFD+HAEPA rats. Among the 4 doses studied, 100 mg of HAEPA/kg body wt. exhibited optimum hypolipidemic activity. Histopathological observations in liver and visceral adipose tissue added more evidence for the lipid lowering effect of HAEPA. It can be concluded that avocado fruit extract can act as hypolipidemic agent probably by modulating the activities of HMG CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase in liver.
Full Text Available Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L. is potential as raw material for medicine, native in tropic areas, including Indonesia. According to other study report, starfruit leaves containing flavonoids apigenin and quercetin as potential anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. The raw material for the drug in Indonesia mostly obtained through imports from other countries. In order to support the independence of traditional medicine raw materials, it is important to standardize the quality of traditional medicine raw materials, in this case is star fruit leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. The sample used is star fruit leaves extract obtained from maceration process using ethanol 70%; water fraction, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions obtained from fractionation process of the ethanolic extract. Physical parameters analyzed in sample include appearance, color, odor, taste, extract yield, water content, loss of drying, total ash content, residual solvent. Chemical parameters analyzed include apigenin and quercetin contents. The results shows that star fruit leaves used in this study meet the standards of Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia with highest apigenin and quercetin content are in ethyl acetate fraction.
Full Text Available To optimize crop load of mangosteen, fruit density and leaf number: fruit were assessed using a framework of quadrat cube (0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m in 2 consecutive years (2004-2005. Twenty-four 14-year-old uniform trees, field grown at Songkhla province, were selected to arrange 4 levels of crop loads: 1 Extremely low crop load (T1 = 264±5 fruit pt-1, 2 Low crop load (T2 = 826±36 fruit pt-1, 3 Medium crop load (T3 = 1190±27 fruit pt-1 and 4 High crop load (T4 = 1719±36 fruit pt-1. By placing the quadrat cube on the tree canopy, leaves quadrat-1 and fruits quadrat-1 were counted. Relationship between fruits quadrat-1 and fruit number pt-1 was found, and leaf number: fruit was also related to fruit yield pt-1. These results indicate that the assessment of fruit density and leaf number: fruit is of benefit for crop load management. Thus, 9 fruits quadrat-1 and 18 leaves: fruit are recommended to optimize crop load of mangosteen.
Diboun, Ilhame; Mathew, Sweety; Al-Rayyashi, Maryam; Elrayess, Mohamed; Torres, Maria; Halama, Anna; Méret, Michaël; Mohney, Robert P; Karoly, Edward D; Malek, Joel; Suhre, Karsten
Dates are tropical fruits with appreciable nutritional value. Previous attempts at global metabolic characterization of the date metabolome were constrained by small sample size and limited geographical sampling. In this study, two independent large cohorts of mature dates exhibiting substantial diversity in origin, varieties and fruit processing conditions were measured by metabolomics techniques in order to identify major determinants of the fruit metabolome. Multivariate analysis revealed a first principal component (PC1) significantly associated with the dates' countries of production. The availability of a smaller dataset featuring immature dates from different development stages served to build a model of the ripening process in dates, which helped reveal a strong ripening signature in PC1. Analysis revealed enrichment in the dry type of dates amongst fruits with early ripening profiles at one end of PC1 as oppose to an overrepresentation of the soft type of dates with late ripening profiles at the other end of PC1. Dry dates are typical to the North African region whilst soft dates are more popular in the Gulf region, which partly explains the observed association between PC1 and geography. Analysis of the loading values, expressing metabolite correlation levels with PC1, revealed enrichment patterns of a comprehensive range of metabolite classes along PC1. Three distinct metabolic phases corresponding to known stages of date ripening were observed: An early phase enriched in regulatory hormones, amines and polyamines, energy production, tannins, sucrose and anti-oxidant activity, a second phase with on-going phenylpropanoid secondary metabolism, gene expression and phospholipid metabolism and a late phase with marked sugar dehydration activity and degradation reactions leading to increased volatile synthesis. These data indicate the importance of date ripening as a main driver of variation in the date metabolome responsible for their diverse nutritional and
Cesar A Marchioro
Full Text Available The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. carambolae have prompted much concern among government agencies and farmers with the potential spread of this pest. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. carambolae in a global scale and assess the extent of the fruit acreage that may be at risk of attack in Brazil. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics. Climatically suitable areas were identified in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, west and east coast of India and northern Australia. The suitability map of B. carambola was intersected against maps of fruit acreage in Brazil. The acreage under potential risk of attack varied widely among fruit species, which is expected because the production areas are concentrated in different regions of the country. The production of cashew is the one that is at higher risk, with almost 90% of its acreage within the suitable range of B. carambolae, followed by papaya (78%, tangerine (51%, guava (38%, lemon (30%, orange (29%, mango (24% and avocado (20%. This study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of B. carambolae, and the information generated here can be used by government agencies as a decision-making tool to prevent the carambola fruit fly spread across the world.
pulp proximate quality while highly valued nut has strong relationship with fat content. Thus, intra- and .... FRLT = Fruit length; FRDM = Fruit diameter; FSI = Fruit shape index; FRWT = Fruit weight; PUPWT = Pulp weight; PUPWT(%) = Percentage pulp weight ..... lingo-cellulose by Roberts (1976), it seems likely that the testa ...
Watanabe, Reiko; Hanamori, Kiyoko; Kadoya, Hiroko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Hideo
is not an important determinant of dietary intake among apparently healthy elderly Japanese people aged 74 y. In addition, the high intake of energy and protein in the Japanese dietary pattern, based upon high consumption of fish and/or shellfish, vegetables, and fruits, provide sufficient minerals and vitamins.
Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D
Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (pPiper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Takahashi, Azusa; Shimizu, Hisae; Okazaki, Yukako; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Taira, Toshio; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki
Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p phytochemicals in aronia fruits suppress visceral fat accumulation and hyperglycemia by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity and/or intestinal lipid absorption.
Knödler, Matthias; Reisenhauer, Katharina; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold
Despite a number of serious case reports of mango dermatitis, no attempts at the identification and quantification of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango fruits have so far been made. Therefore, total alk(en)ylresorcinol content and relative homologue composition in 13 mango peel samples and 7 samples of mango pulp were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Furthermore, mango puree and nectar prepared on pilot plant scale were also analyzed and compared with commercially available thermally preserved products. Depending on cultivar, alk(en)ylresorcinol contents ranged from 79.3 to 1850.5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) in mango peels and from 4.9 to 187.3 mg/kg of DM in samples of mango pulp. The profile of alk(en)ylresorcinols was found to be highly characteristic, with an average homologue composition of C15:0 (6.1%), C15:1 (1.7%), C17:0 (1.1%), C17:1 (52.5%), C17:2 (33.4%), C17:3 (2.4%), C19:1 (2.1%), and C19:2 (0.8%). Mango puree samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits revealed contents of 3.8 and 12.3 mg/kg of fresh weight, respectively. Content and homologue composition were not significantly affected during puree processing and thermal preservation. In nectar samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits, contents of 1.4 and 4.6 mg/L, respectively, were found.
Wei, Yun; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro
Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for isolation and purification of osthol and xanthotoxol from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson (Common Cnidium Fruit) using stepwise elution with a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v), and (5:5:6:4, v/v), which had been selected by analytical high-speed counter-current chromatography. Using a preparative unit of the HSCCC centrifuge, about a 308 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 88.3 mg of osthol and 19.4 mg of xanthotoxol at a high purity of over 98%.
Chalmers, D J; Rowan, K S
Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit.Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration.
Chalmers, David J.; Rowan, Kingsley S.
Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit. Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration. PMID:16657771
Tan, Si; Li, Mingxia; Ding, Xiaobo; Fan, Shengjie; Guo, Lu; Gu, Ming; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Li; Jiang, Dong; Li, Yiming; Xi, Wanpeng; Huang, Cheng; Zhou, Zhiqin
Obesity is a nutritional disorder associated with many health problems such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-metabolic disorder effects of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle) fruit extract (FME) on high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6 obese mice. The kumquat fruit was extracted with ethanol and the main flavonoids of this extract were analyzed by HPLC. For the preventive experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet (Chow), high-fat diet (HF), and high-fat diet with 1% (w/w) extract of kumquat (HF+FME) for 8 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 3 months to induce obesity. Then the obese mice were divided into two groups randomly, and fed with HF or HF+FME for another 2 weeks. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, serum and liver lipid levels were assayed and the white adipose tissues were imaged. The gene expression in mice liver and brown adipose tissues were analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay. In the preventive treatment, FME controlled the body weight gain and the size of white adipocytes, lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum total cholesterol (TC), serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels as well as liver lipid contents in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, FME decreased the serum triglyceride (TG), serum TC, serum LDL-c, fasting blood glucose levels and liver lipid contents, improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Compared with the HF group, FME significantly increased the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes. Our study suggests that FME may be a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating the obesity and obesity-related metabolic disturbances.
Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Semenov, Mikhail A; Boddy, Lynne; Halvorsen, Rune; Stige, Leif Chr; Sparks, Tim H; Gange, Alan C; Stenseth, Nils Chr
Most macrofungi produce ephemeral fruit bodies during autumn but some have adapted to spring fruiting. In this study, temporal changes in the time of spring fruiting in Norway and the UK during 1960-2007 have been investigated by statistical analyses of about 6000 herbarium and field records, covering 34 species. Nearly 30 per cent of the temporal variation in fruiting could be ascribed to spatial and species-specific effects. Correcting for these effects, linear trends towards progressively earlier fruiting were detected during the entire period in both Norway and the UK, with a change in average fruiting day of 18 days over the study period. Early fruiting was correlated with high winter temperatures in both countries, indicating that the observed phenological changes are likely due to earlier onset of spring. There were also significant correlations between climatic conditions in one year and timing of fruiting the following year, indicating that below-ground mycelia are influenced by climatic conditions over a longer time period before fruiting. Fruiting dates were, however, not strictly related to changes in vernal accumulated thermal time. Our results indicate that global warming has lead to progressively earlier fruiting of spring fungi in northwest Europe during the last half century.
Dos Santos, Layrana de Azevedo; Taveira, Gabriel Bonan; Ribeiro, Suzanna de Fátima Ferreira; Pereira, Lídia da Silva; Carvalho, André de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosana; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Araújo, Jucélia da Silva; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira
Proteins extracted from Capsicum annuum L. fruits were initially subjected to reversed-phase chromatography on HPLC, resulting in eight peptide-rich fractions. All the fractions obtained were tested for their ability to inhibit porcine trypsin and amylase from both human saliva and from larval insect in vitro. All fractions were also tested for their ability to inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungi. Several fractions inhibited the activity of human salivary amylase and larval insect amylase, especially fraction Fa5. No fraction tested was found to inhibit trypsin activity, being Fa2 fraction an exception. Interestingly fraction Fa5 also displayed high antimicrobial activity against the species of the Fusarium genus. Fraction Fa5 was found to have two major protein bands of 17 and 6.5 kDa, and these were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Two peptides were obtained from the 6.5-kDa band, which showed similarity to antimicrobial peptides. Fraction Fa5 was also tested for its ability to permeabilize membranes and induce ROS. Fraction Fa5 was able to permeabilize the membranes of all the fungi tested. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium also showed an increase in the endogenous production of ROS when treated with this fraction. Antimicrobial peptides were also identified in the fruits from other Capsicum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anthoula A. Argyri
Full Text Available In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22°Brix solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products.
Kalola, Jyoti; Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Srinivasa, Honnegowda; Rajani, Mandapati
Fruit pericarp of Sapindus species are reported to contain glycosides with hederagenin as an aglycone. To free the aglycone from the glycosides, they need to be hydrolyzed, and the commonly used method is hydrolysis with either hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. In the present work, we studied the effect of hydrolysis on the yield of hederagenin from the fruit pericarp of 3 species of Sapindus, viz., S. mukorossi, S. laurifolius, and S. emarginatus. A high-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometric method for the quantification of hederagenin was developed and validated. It involved automated application of samples as bands onto silica gel 60F254 plates, development with toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (7 + 3 + 5, v/v/v) mobile phase, detection with anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid reagent, and scanning at 595 nm. The yield of hederagenin ranged from 0.035 to 1.29% (w/w) with different methods of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis with 3.5 M aqueous sulfuric acid under reflux for 6 h gave the maximum yield of hederagenin in all 3 species, with the highest amount in S. emarginatus (1.29%, w/w).
Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of the greatest risk factors contributing to the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and potential mechanism of action of the Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in hamsters fed a high fat-diet (HFD. The n-butanol fraction of the P. tectorius fruit ethanol extract (PTF-b was rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs. Administration of PTF-b for 4 weeks effectively decreased retroperitoneal fat and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c and hepatic TC and TG. The lipid signals (fatty acids, and cholesterol in the liver as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were correspondingly reduced. Realtime quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of PPARα and PPARα-regulated genes such as ACO, CPT1, LPL and HSL were largely enhanced by PTF-b. The transcription of LDLR, CYP7A1, and PPARγ was also upregulated. Treatment with PTF-b significantly stimulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK as well as the activity of serum and hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL. Together, these results suggest that administration of the PTF-b enriched in CQAs moderates hyperlipidemia and improves the liver lipid profile. These effects may be caused, at least in part, by increasing the expression of PPARα and its downstream genes and by upregulation of LPL and AMPK activities.
Vollmer, Rachel L; Baietto, Jamey
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between food-related parenting practices and child fruit, vegetable, and high fat/sugar food preferences. Parents (n = 148) of children (3-7 years old) completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ), the Preschool Adapted Food Liking Scale (PALS), and answered demographic questions. Separate linear regressions were conducted to test relationships between the different food categories on PALS (fruits, vegetables, and high fat/sugar foods) and each food-related parenting practice using race, ethnicity, and income level, and child age and gender as covariates. It was found that when a parent allows a child to control eating, it was negatively associated with a child's preference for fruit (β = -0.15, p = 0.032) and parent encouragement of child involvement in meal preparation was positively related to child preference for vegetables (β = 0.14, p = 0.048). Children preferred high fat and sugar foods more if parents used food to regulate child emotions (β = 0.24, p = 0.007), used food as a reward (β = 0.32, p food (β = 0.16, p = 0.045), and restricted unhealthy food (β = 0.20, p = 0.024). Conversely, children preferred high fat and sugar foods less if parents made healthy food available in the home (β = -0.13, p = 0.05), modeled healthy eating in front of the child (β = -0.21, p = 0.021), and if parents explained why healthy foods should be consumed (β = -0.24, p = 0.011). Although it cannot be determined if the parent is influencing the child or vice versa, this study provides some evidence that coercive feeding practices are detrimental to a child's food preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schaefer, H. Martin
The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.
Taveira, Gabriel B; Mathias, Luciana S; da Motta, Olney V; Machado, Olga L T; Rodrigues, Rosana; Carvalho, André O; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Perales, Jonas; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Gomes, Valdirene M
Plants defend themselves against pathogens with production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Herein we describe the discovery of a new antifungal and antibacterial peptide from fruits of Capsicum annuum that showed similarity to an already well characterized family of plant AMPs, thionins. Other fraction composed of two peptides, in which the major peptide also showed similarity to thionins. Among the obtained fractions, fraction 1, which is composed of a single peptide of 7 kDa, was sequenced by Edman method and its comparative sequence analysis in database (nr) showed similarity to thionin-like peptides. Tests against microorganisms, fraction 1 presented inhibitory activity to the cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis and caused growth reduction to the bacteria species Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fraction 3 caused inhibitory activity only for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. This fraction was composed of two peptides of ∼7 and 10 kDa, and the main protein band correspondent to the 7 kDa peptide, also showed similarity to thionins. This plasma membrane permeabilization assay demonstrates that the peptides present in the fractions 1 and 3 induced changes in the membranes of all yeast strains, leading to their permeabilization. Fraction 1 was capable of inhibiting acidification of the medium of glucose-induced S. cerevisiae cells 78% after an incubation time of 30 min, and opposite result was obtained for C. albicans. Experiments demonstrate that the fraction 1 and 3 were toxic and induced changes in the membranes of all yeast strains, leading to their permeabilization. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sacks Frank M
Full Text Available Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pressure with lower sodium intake for both diet groups. Although some critics would argue otherwise, these findings provide important new evidence for the value of the DASH diet and sodium reduction in controlling blood pressure.
Chen, Yi; Fan, Guorong; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Wu, Huiling; Wu, Yutian
A method incorporating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS), with parallel analysis by HPLC with UV detection using a diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the qualitative characterization of coumarin and chromone constituents in the fruits of Cnidium monnieri. The chromatographic separations were performed on a Diamonsil C18 column (4.6 mm x 200 mm, 5 microm) with water with 50 mM ammonium acetate and 2% acetic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase. According to the characteristic UV spectra, the information of molecular weight and structure provided by ESI-MS/MS, 13 coumarin and 7 chromone components were detected and identified. This method is rapid and reliable for identification of the constituents in the complex herbal system, and the fragmentation patterns proposed could be extended to the similar compounds.
Full Text Available For modern food safety control are using techniques that allow to determinate a large number of components. So for determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables commonly used methods of gas and liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass-spectrometric detection. This system allows to carry out quantitative determination several hundreds of pesticides and their identification by the characteristic fragments of the mass spectrum. The main problem when using mass spectrometric detection is a matrix effect, which is caused by the influence of matrix components extracted with pesticides from the sample. In this work, attempts have been made to reduce the influence of the matrix in the analysis of pesticide residues by high performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC / TOFMS.
Rijnkels, J.M.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Alink, G.M.
The potential inhibitory effects of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis were examined in rats fed low- or high-fat diets. Rats were fed low-fat diets (20 energy percent, Diets A and B) or high-fat diets (40 energy
DeWitt, Emily; McGladrey, Margaret; Liu, Emily; Peritore, Nicole; Webber, Kelly; Butterworth, Brooke; Vail, Ann; Gustafson, Alison
Availability of farmers markets may increase fruit and vegetable consumption among rural residents of the United States. We conducted a community-based marketing campaign, Plate it Up Kentucky Proud (PIUKP), in 6 rural communities over 2 years to determine the association between exposure to the campaign and fruit and vegetable purchases, adjusted for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program recipient status. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds of the PIUKP campaign influencing purchases. Awareness of the PIUKP marketing campaign was significantly associated with a willingness to prepare fruits and vegetables at home. Using marketing strategies at farmers markets may be an effective way to improve fruit and vegetable purchases in rural communities.
El-Sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong
Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant 'Blondee' (BLO) and its red-skin parent 'Kidd's D-8' (KID), the original name of 'Gala', to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the DEGs uncovered a network module of 34 genes highly correlated (r=0.95, P=9.0×10(-13)) with anthocyanin contents. Although 12 of the 34 genes in the WGCNA module were characterized and known of roles in anthocyanin, the remainder 22 appear to be novel. Examining the expression of ten representative genes in the module in 14 diverse apples revealed that at least eight were significantly correlated with anthocyanin variation. MdMYB10 (MDP0000259614) and MdGST (MDP0000252292) were among the most suppressed module member genes in BLO despite being undistinguishable in their corresponding sequences between BLO and KID. Methylation assay of MdMYB10 and MdGST in fruit skin revealed that two regions (MR3 and MR7) in the MdMYB10 promoter exhibited remarkable differences between BLO and KID. In particular, methylation was high and progressively increased alongside fruit development in BLO while was correspondingly low and constant in KID. The methylation levels in both MR3 and MR7 were negatively correlated with anthocyanin content as well as the expression of MdMYB10 and MdGST. Clearly, the collective repression of the 34 genes explains the loss-of-colour in BLO while the methylation in MdMYB10 promoter is likely causal for the mutation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Jingming; Cheng, Zhan; Zhou, Ziying; Ma, Liyan
A simple, sensitive and reliable quantification and identification method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its related metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OTα), ochratoxin B (OTB) and mellein. The method was assessed by spiking analytes into blank culture media and dried vine fruits. Performance was tested in terms of accuracy, selectivity and repeatability. The method involves an ultrasonic extraction step for culture samples using methanol aqueous solution (7:3, v/v); the mycotoxin is quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were 74.5-108.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-8.4% for fungal culture. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.03-0.87 μg l(-)(1), and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.07 to 2.90 μg l(-)(1). In addition, the extraction solutions and clean-up columns were optimised specifically for dried vine fruit samples to improve the performance of the method. Methanol-1% sodium bicarbonate extraction solution (6:4, v/v) was determined to be the most efficient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed as a clean-up step prior to HPLC-MS/MS analysis to reduce matrix effects. Recoveries ranged from 80.1% to 110.8%. RSDs ranged from 0.1% to 3.6%. LODs and LOQs ranged from 0.06 to 0.40 μg kg(-)(1) and from 0.19 to 1.20 μg kg(-)(1), respectively. The analytical method was established and used to identify and quantify OTA and related compounds from Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in cultures and dried vine fruits. The results showed that A. carbonarius produced OTα, OTB and OTA, whereas A. ochraceus produced OTB, OTA and mellein after 7 days of cultivation. Of 30 commercial samples analysed, 10 were contaminated with ochratoxins; OTB, OTα and mellein were also detected in different samples.
Vicente Manuel Gómez-López
Full Text Available To expand the data bank on avocado (Persea americana Mill. varieties all over the world, and to select good varieties for commercial or improving purposes, a partial fruit characterization of 13 high oil content (11.23-18.80% was performed. The chosen varieties are growing in a Venezuelan germplasm bank: Fuerte, Peruano, Lula, Ortega, Red Collinson, Alcemio, Araira 1, Pope, Ettinger, Gripiña 5, Barker, Duke, and Ryan. They were characterized for pulp oil and moisture; weight (whole fruit, seed, pulp and peel; length, width and fruit shape; peel characteristics (roughness, color and hand peeling; and ripeness time. The variety Ryan showed the highest oil content (18.80% and calorific value (191 Kcal/100 g wet flesh. Avocado varieties grown in Venezuela have generally less oil content and are generally lighter than those from other countries. Most of the varieties had low pulp proportion, and were pyriform, with rough green peel and difficult to hand peel. Red Collinson had an uncommon reddish peel. The ripening time was between 4 and 10 days after harvest.O teor de óleo de abacates (Persea americana Mill.é uma característica importante para seu consumo in natura e para a indústria. Treze variedades de abacate de alto teor de óleo (11,23-18,80% de um pomar venezuelano: Fuerte, Peruano, Lula Ortega, Red Collison, Alcemio, Araira 1, Pope, Ettinger, Gripiña 5, Barker, Duke e Ryan, foram caracterizados pelo teor de óleo da polpa e umidade; peso (fruto inteiro, semente, polpa e casca; comprimento, largura e forma; características da casca (rugosidade, cor e soltura; e tempo de maturação. A variedade Ryan mostrou os maiores teor de óleo (18,80% e valor calórico (191 kcal/100 g de peso fresco. As variedades venezuelanas têm, em geral, teor mais baixo de gordura e proporção de polpa, e são em geral mais leves que aquelas de outros países. A maioria das variedades é periforme, com casca verde áspera e difíceis de serem descascadas
Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Binbin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Mingliang; Guo, Shaolei; Guo, Lei; Korir, Nicholas Kibet
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5' to the 3' end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage-specific. The
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5’ to the 3’ end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage
Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R
Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Hehe; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Dunming; Zhou, Yu; Luo, Jia; Li, Meiling; Chen, Shubin; Wang, Lianzhu
A method for the simultaneous detection of 21 plant growth regulators in fruits by QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were initially extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, followed by clean-up using the powder of magnesium sulfate and C18. The resulting samples were separated on a C18 column, and detected under positive and negative multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode through polarity switching between time segments. The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves were used for quantitative analysis. The linearities of chlormequat chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride, cyclanilide, forchlorfenuron, thidiazuron, inabenfide, paclobutrazol, uniconazole and triapenthenol were in the concentration range of 0.1-500 microg/L, daminozide and 6-benzylaminopurine in the concentration range of 1.0-500 microg/L, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, 2,4-D, cloprop, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) and trinexapac-ethyl in the concentration range of 2.0-1 000 microg/L, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA) in the concentration range of 10-1000 microg/L, with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.990. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification of the method were 0.020-6.0 microg/kg and 0.10-15.0 microg/kg, respectively. For all the samples, the average spiked recoveries ranged from 73.0% to 111.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were in the range of 3.0% - 17.2%. The method is quick, easy, effective, sensitive and accurate, and can meet the requirements for the determination of the 21 plant growth regulator residues in fruits.
Papanicolaou, Alexie; Schetelig, Marc F; Arensburger, Peter; Atkinson, Peter W; Benoit, Joshua B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Castañera, Pedro; Cavanaugh, John P; Chao, Hsu; Childers, Christopher; Curril, Ingrid; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dolan, Amanda; Dugan, Shannon; Friedrich, Markus; Gasperi, Giuliano; Geib, Scott; Georgakilas, Georgios; Gibbs, Richard A; Giers, Sarah D; Gomulski, Ludvik M; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Guillem-Amat, Ana; Han, Yi; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jones, Jeffery W; Karagkouni, Dimitra; Koskinioti, Panagiota; Lee, Sandra L; Malacrida, Anna R; Manni, Mosè; Mathiopoulos, Kostas; Meccariello, Angela; Murali, Shwetha C; Murphy, Terence D; Muzny, Donna M; Oberhofer, Georg; Ortego, Félix; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Poelchau, Monica; Qu, Jiaxin; Reczko, Martin; Robertson, Hugh M; Rosendale, Andrew J; Rosselot, Andrew E; Saccone, Giuseppe; Salvemini, Marco; Savini, Grazia; Schreiner, Patrick; Scolari, Francesca; Siciliano, Paolo; Sim, Sheina B; Tsiamis, George; Ureña, Enric; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Werren, John H; Wimmer, Ernst A; Worley, Kim C; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Richards, Stephen; Handler, Alfred M
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a major destructive insect pest due to its broad host range, which includes hundreds of fruits and vegetables. It exhibits a unique ability to invade and adapt to ecological niches throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, though medfly infestations have been prevented and controlled by the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated pest management programs (IPMs). The genetic analysis and manipulation of medfly has been subject to intensive study in an effort to improve SIT efficacy and other aspects of IPM control. The 479 Mb medfly genome is sequenced from adult flies from lines inbred for 20 generations. A high-quality assembly is achieved having a contig N50 of 45.7 kb and scaffold N50 of 4.06 Mb. In-depth curation of more than 1800 messenger RNAs shows specific gene expansions that can be related to invasiveness and host adaptation, including gene families for chemoreception, toxin and insecticide metabolism, cuticle proteins, opsins, and aquaporins. We identify genes relevant to IPM control, including those required to improve SIT. The medfly genome sequence provides critical insights into the biology of one of the most serious and widespread agricultural pests. This knowledge should significantly advance the means of controlling the size and invasive potential of medfly populations. Its close relationship to Drosophila, and other insect species important to agriculture and human health, will further comparative functional and structural studies of insect genomes that should broaden our understanding of gene family evolution.
The Mediterranean fruit fly is one of the most destructive agricultural pests throughout the world due to its broad host plant range that includes more than 260 different fruits, flowers, vegetables, and nuts. Host preferences vary in different regions of the world, which can be associated with its ...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a nutritional disorder associated with many health problems such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-metabolic disorder effects of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle fruit extract (FME on high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6 obese mice. METHODS: The kumquat fruit was extracted with ethanol and the main flavonoids of this extract were analyzed by HPLC. For the preventive experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet (Chow, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet with 1% (w/w extract of kumquat (HF+FME for 8 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet for 3 months to induce obesity. Then the obese mice were divided into two groups randomly, and fed with HF or HF+FME for another 2 weeks. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, serum and liver lipid levels were assayed and the white adipose tissues were imaged. The gene expression in mice liver and brown adipose tissues were analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS: In the preventive treatment, FME controlled the body weight gain and the size of white adipocytes, lowered the fasting blood glucose, serum total cholesterol (TC, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c levels as well as liver lipid contents in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, FME decreased the serum triglyceride (TG, serum TC, serum LDL-c, fasting blood glucose levels and liver lipid contents, improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Compared with the HF group, FME significantly increased the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that FME may be a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating the obesity and obesity-related metabolic disturbances.
Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G
A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.
Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T
No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.
Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova
Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar phenotype, i.e. seeded
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon
Winter, Carl K
Consumers are frequently urged to avoid imported foods as well as specific fruits and vegetables due to health concerns from pesticide residues and are often encouraged to choose organic fruits and vegetables rather than conventional forms. Studies have demonstrated that while organic fruits and vegetables have lower levels of pesticide residues than do conventional fruits and vegetables, pesticide residues are still frequently detected on organic fruits and vegetables; typical dietary consumer exposure to pesticide residues from conventional fruits and vegetables does not appear to be of health significance. Similarly, research does not demonstrate that imported fruits and vegetables pose greater risks from pesticide residues than do domestic fruits and vegetables or that specific fruits and vegetables singled out as being the most highly contaminated by pesticides should be avoided in their conventional forms.
Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan
Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tetens, Inge; Alinia, Sevil
The global obesity epidemic is associated with a sedentary lifestyle and diets rich in high-fat, high-energy foods. The potential role of fruit in preventing overweight and obesity is related to their relatively low energy density, high content of dietary fibre, and associated increasing satiety...... effect. The physical disruption of fruit is of considerable importance for satiety, as shown in studies in which fruit juices were less satisfying compared to sugar-equivalent intakes of purees and whole fruits. The potential role of fruit in the prevention of overweight and obesity may be connected...... to the dietary pattern of fruit intake, and with the possibility that fruit intake may substitute for other, more energy-dense foods. The majority of human prospective cohort studies in adults suggest a preventive effect of increased fruit intake oil body weight gain; whereas a few studies have suggested...
Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya
Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple.
Bellavia, Andrea; Stilling, Frej; Wolk, Alicja
High red meat consumption is associated with a shorter survival and higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is associated with a longer survival and lower mortality risk. Whether high FV consumption can counterbalance the negative impact of high red meat consumption is unknown. We evaluated 2 large prospective cohorts of Swedish men and women (the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men) to determine whether the association between red meat consumption and the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer-specific mortality differs across amounts of FV intake. The study population included 74,645 Swedish men and women. Red meat and FV consumption were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. We estimated HRs of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality according to quintiles of total red meat consumption. We next investigated possible interactions between red meat and FV consumption and evaluated the dose-response associations at low, medium, and high FV intake. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of total red meat consumption, those in the highest quintile had a 21% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.29), a 29% increased risk of CVD mortality (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.46), and no increase in the risk of cancer mortality (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.43). Results were remarkably similar across amounts of FV consumption, and no interaction between red meat and FV consumption was detected. High intakes of red meat were associated with a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. The increased risks were consistently observed in participants with low, medium, and high FV consumption. The Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127698 and NCT01127711, respectively. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed.
Osorio, Sonia; Scossa, Federico; Fernie, Alisdair R
Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed.
Yang Hee Jo
Full Text Available Obesity, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, is associated with several pathological disorders, including metabolic diseases. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 6,8-diprenylgenistein (DPG, a major isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata fruits was investigated using high fat-diet (HFD-induced obese mice at the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg for six week. The body weight of the DPG-treated groups was significantly lower compared to the HFD-treated group. In addition, fat accumulation in epididymal adipose tissue and liver was dramatically decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. The food efficiency ratios of the HFD + DPG groups were also lower compared to the HFD group with the same food intake. Metabolic parameters that had increased in the HFD group were decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. Further studies demonstrate that DPG efficiently reduces lipogenic genes by regulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, and hormones, such as leptin and adiponection. DPG also regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation. Taken together, DPG is beneficial for the regulation of obesity, especially resulting from high fat intake.
Intensidade de raleio de frutos em pessegueiros 'flordaprince' conduzidos em pomar com alta densidade de plantio Intensity of fruit thinning in peaches 'flordaprince' conducted in orchard of high density
JOÃO ALEXIO SCARPARE FILHO
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o comportamento de pessegueiros (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cultivar Flordaprince, conduzidos em pomar com alta densidade (3.333 plantas/ha, submetidos a diferentes intensidades de raleio manual de frutos. Os tratamentos utilizados foram 120, 100 e 80 frutos por planta, e o controle sem raleio (230 frutos por planta. As plantas submetidas ao raleio produziram frutos significativamente maiores e mais pesados do que os do controle. A produção por planta (kg e a produtividade estimada (t/ha foram maiores nas plantas sem raleio, mas a classificação comercial e a receita bruta (R$/ha desse tratamento foram menores, devido ao menor tamanho e peso dos frutos. Os tratamentos 100 e 80 frutos por planta (56,52% e 65,21% de raleio, respectivamente apresentaram os melhores resultadosThe objective of this paper was to test the behavior of peaches (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cultivar Flordaprince carried out in high dense orchard (3,333 plants/ha submitted to different intensities of hand thinning of fruits. The treatments tested were 120, 100 and 80 fruits per plant and without thinning (230 fruits per plant. The thinned plants produced larger and weightier fruits if compared with control plants. The yield per plant (kg and estimated productivity (ton/ha were higher in plants not thinned, but marketing classification and gross income were lower in this treatment due to small fruit size and weight. The treatments 100 and 80 fruits per plant (56.52% and 65.21% of thinning, respectively presented the best results.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.
Supaporn Wannasiri; Sunee Chansakaow; Seewaboon Sireeratawong
Objective: To study the effect of water extract of Solanum torvum (S. torvum) on blood lipid and sex hormone levels in high-fat diet (HFD) fed male rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were maintained on a standard diet or HFD for 10 weeks. During the last 4 weeks, the standard diet groups received distilled water or S. torvum (400 mg/kg) and the HFD groups received distilled water or S. torvum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). Body weight, lipid profiles, sex hormone, internal organs weight and liver ...
Xu, Xiangbin; Yin, Lili; Ying, Qicai; Song, Hongmiao; Xue, Dawei; Lai, Tongfei; Xu, Maojun; Shen, Bo; Wang, Huizhong; Shi, Xuequn
In non-climacteric fruits, the respiratory increase is absent and no phytohormone is appearing to be critical for their ripening process. They must remain on the parent plant to enable full ripening and be picked at or near the fully ripe stage to obtain the best eating quality. However, huge losses often occur for their quick post-harvest senescence. To understanding the complex mechanism of non-climacteric fruits post-harvest senescence, we constructed two small RNA libraries and one degradome from strawberry fruit stored at 20°C for 0 and 24 h. A total of 88 known and 1224 new candidate miRNAs, and 103 targets cleaved by 19 known miRNAs families and 55 new candidatemiRNAs were obtained. These targets were associated with development, metabolism, defense response, signaling transduction and transcriptional regulation. Among them, 14 targets, including NAC transcription factor, Auxin response factors (ARF) and Myb transcription factors, cleaved by 6 known miRNA families and 6 predicted candidates, were found to be involved in regulating fruit senescence. The present study provided valuable information for understanding the quick senescence of strawberry fruit, and offered a foundation for studying the miRNA-mediated senescence of non-climacteric fruits.
Full Text Available In non-climacteric fruits, the respiratory increase is absent and no phytohormone is appearing to be critical for their ripening process. They must remain on the parent plant to enable full ripening and be picked at or near the fully ripe stage to obtain the best eating quality. However, huge losses often occur for their quick post-harvest senescence. To understanding the complex mechanism of non-climacteric fruits post-harvest senescence, we constructed two small RNA libraries and one degradome from strawberry fruit stored at 20°C for 0 and 24 h. A total of 88 known and 1224 new candidate miRNAs, and 103 targets cleaved by 19 known miRNAs families and 55 new candidatemiRNAs were obtained. These targets were associated with development, metabolism, defense response, signaling transduction and transcriptional regulation. Among them, 14 targets, including NAC transcription factor, Auxin response factors (ARF and Myb transcription factors, cleaved by 6 known miRNA families and 6 predicted candidates, were found to be involved in regulating fruit senescence. The present study provided valuable information for understanding the quick senescence of strawberry fruit, and offered a foundation for studying the miRNA-mediated senescence of non-climacteric fruits.
In this work, possibility of making jam from two underutilized fruits (baobab and pawpaw fruits) known to have high pectin content was investigated. Formulation was made in different proportions (100:0, 0:100, 70:30, 30:70, and 50:50) using both fruits. Granulated sugar solution and acidifying agent (lime) were added to the ...
Consequently, one suggestion is that because frugivores could use its odour to locate fruiting plants, they should show a preference for fruit with high ethanol ... Birds were provided with two artificial fruit diets in pairwise choice tests: an experimental diet containing 1% ethanol and a control diet with no ethanol. For all ...
Niu, C- S; Chen, C- T; Chen, L- J; Cheng, K- C; Yeh, C- H; Cheng, J- T
Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Agents for the treatment of hyperlipidemia are well-developed in the clinic while PPARα is a target for lipid-lowering agents. Shan-Zha (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to increase digestion. Also, Shan-Zha fruit extract showed merit to improve obesity and hyperlipidemia in hamsters; however, the mechanism remained obscure. In the present study, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were induced by high fat diet in C57BL/6 J male mice. Then, they were orally administered with Shan-Zha fruit extract at an effective dose of 250 mg/kg for 7 days. The liver was removed to estimate the expressions of PPARα and β-oxidation-related enzyme. Oral intake of Shan-Zha extract significantly improved hyperlipidemia in high fat diet-fed mice with an increase of PPARα expression in liver. Also, expression of PPARα-regulated β-oxidation-related enzymes was raised in liver by Shan-Zha extract. However, adipose tissue and others were not modified by this treatment of Shan-Zha fruit extract. Thus, Shan-Zha can increase the expression of PPARα to facilitate β-oxidation-related enzymes in liver for lipid degradation and blood lipid decrement. Also, this is the first report showing Shan-Zha fruit extract can influence liver to lower hyperlipidemia prior to the action in adipose tissue. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Yefei; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Shang, Erxin
In this study, a sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free amino acids without derivatization using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was developed. The method was performed on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation system coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQ-MS) instrument. Sufficient separation of 23 underivatized amino acids was achieved on an Acquity BEH Amide column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) in a single run of 12 min. Then the method was applied for the analysis of the free amino acids in 46 batches of Ziziphus jujuba fruits which comprised 39 cultivars from 26 cultivation regions. Multivariate statistical analysis was also used to investigate the differences in free amino acid profiles among the samples. This study showed that HILIC-UHPLC-TQ-MS is an effective technique to analyze underivatized amino acids in the food samples.
Jia, Licong; Su, Ming; Wu, Xingqiang; Sun, Hanwen
A selective accelerated solvent extraction procedure achieved one step extraction and cleanup for analysis of herbicide atrazine and its metabolites in fruit. Using a BEH C18 analytical column and the gradient mode with 2 mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution/acetonitrile as a mobile phase achieved effective chromatographic separation of the five analytes within 4 min. The calibration curves were linear over two orders of magnitude of concentration with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9996-0.9999. The method limit of quantification was 1, 2, 1.5, 3, and 2 μg/kg for atrazine, desethylatrazine, desisopropylatrazine, desethyldesisopropylatrazine, and hydroxyatrazine, respectively, in the case of atrazine it is at least two orders of magnitude lower than the maximum residue limit (0.25 mg/kg). The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the five analytes were in the range of 2.1-3.5 and 3.1-4.8 %, respectively. The recoveries of the five analytes at three spiked levels varied from 85.9 to 107% with a relative standard deviation of 1.8-4.9% for pear and apple samples. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection method was proved to be fast, inexpensive, selective, sensitive, and accurate for the quantification of the analytes in pear and apple samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available We studied the effect of continuous fermentation of high-sugar fruit must (containing about 320 g/L of total sugars on the viability and morphology of yeast cells. The process was carried out for 2.5 months in a 4-column bioreactor at 22 °C, using the Saccharomyces bayanus S.o./1AD wine yeast strain, which was immobilized on cubes of white foam glass. During the time of continuous fermentation, the apple wine contained 11.4–16.8 % (by volume of alcohol and a total sugar concentration of 49.2–115.4 g/L. Yeast cells isolated from the carrier at the end of continuous fermentation were bigger than the cells before immobilization and were characterized by various shapes, e.g. they were elongated, large and round or pear-shaped. Some cells were connected to other cells in the form of aggregates. Some yeast cells from the second, third and fourth columns showed a substantial number of wrinkles or folds. Moreover, it was observed that yeast from the carrier in the first column was characterized by the highest viability, 70 %. In the fourth column, the percentage of viable cells was only 11 %.
Solfrizzo, Michele; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Visconti, Angelo
A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of ochratoxin A in grapes, dried vine fruits, and winery byproducts was developed. A mixture of either acetonitrile/water or acetonitrile/water/methanol was used as an extraction solvent mixture. After immunoaffinity column cleanup, the final extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorometric detector (FLD). Mean recoveries from grapes, grape pomace, and lees samples spiked in the range of 1-200 microg/kg were 78, 86, and 88%, respectively, with a detection limit of 0.1 microg/kg and within-laboratory repeatability ranging from 6 to 15%. Tested on naturally contaminated samples of grapes, grape pomace, and sultanas, the method showed better performances as compared to two other methods also based on immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/FLD determination. Ochratoxin A was detected in samples of grape pomace (levels ranging from 34.2 to 456.8 microg/kg) and lees (levels ranging from 48.3 to 602.5 microg/kg) derived from the wine making of red grapes of 2004 and 2005 vintages in southern Italy. After distillation of contaminated grape pomace in a pilot-scale equipment to produce grappa, the toxin remained unchanged in the exhausted pomace and was not detected in any of the distilled fractions (detection limit of 0.02 microg/L).
Ruan, Chunqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Chenglan
In this study, a simple and low-organic-solvent-consuming method combining an acetonitrile-partitioning extraction procedure followed by "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" cleanup with ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in grapes and pears. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was performed using the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as the dispersive solvent. The main factors influencing the efficiency of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were evaluated, including the extractive solvent type and volume and the dispersive solvent volume. The validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of benzoylurea insecticides in a large number of samples. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 98.6 and 109.3% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.2%. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kg for the two insecticides. The proposed method was successfully used for the rapid determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron residues in real fruit samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is currently ranked among leading causes of death worldwide in which type 2 DM is reaching an epidemic proportion. Hypoglycemic medications for type 2 DM have either proven inadequate or posed adverse effects; therefore, the Chinese herbal products are under investigation as an alternative treatment. In this study, a novel combination of fruiting body and mycelia powder of herbal Cordyceps militaris number 1 (CmNo1 was administered to evaluate their potential hypoglycemic effects in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced type 2 DM in C57BL/6J mice. Body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood biochemistry indexes were measured. Results indicated that CmNo1 lowered the blood glucose level by increasing insulin sensitivity, while no change in body weight was observed. Increased protein expression of IRS-1, pIRS-1, AKT, pAKT, and GLUT-4 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was found indicating restoration of insulin signaling. Additionally, PPAR-γ expression in adipose tissue restored the triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Finally, our results suggest that CmNo1 possesses strong hypoglycemic, anticholesterolemic, and antihypertriglyceridemic actions and is more economical alternate for DM treatment.
Characterization of Polysaccharides from the Fruiting Bodies of Two Species of Genus Ganoderma (Agaricomycetes) and Determination of Water-Soluble β-D-Glucan Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.
Liu, Yanfang; Tang, Qingjiu; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Wu, Di; Tang, Chuanhong; Zhang, Zhong; Yan, Mengqiu; Feng, Jie; Zhang, Jing-Song
Molecular weight (Mw) distributions of polysaccharides from the fruiting bodies of different Ganoderma lucidum strains and G. sinense were investigated and compared using high-pressure size exclusion chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering/refractive index analysis. Results showed that there were big differences in the Mw distributions and characteristics of polysaccharides from 2 species of Ganoderma. All tested G. lucidum materials exhibited similar polysaccharide distributions and similar characteristics for each fraction. The fraction with highest Mw (peak 1) was identified as β-(1→3)-linked D-glucan with (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl side branches. G. sinense fruiting bodies did not include the β-D-glucan when compared with G. lucidum. A high-pressure size exclusion chromatography method was developed and applied to determine the amount of high-Mw β-D-glucan in G. lucidum fruiting bodies. Results indicated that there was no obvious relationship between β-D-glucan content and the genetic similarity of G. lucidum. The strain labeled "Longzhi no. 2" was determined to possess the largest amount of β-D-glucan: 8.2 mg/mL based on the dry weight of fruiting bodies. The β-D-glucan content in the hot water extract of Longzhi no. 2 reached 17.05%. For the "Hunong no. 1" strain, the β-D-glucan content in log-cultivated fruiting bodies was much higher than that in bag-cultivated ones. This method could be used to improve quality control of polysaccharides in G. lucidum.
Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis
The activity of endogenous deteriorative enzymes together with microbial growth (with associated enzymatic activity) and/or other non-enzymatic (usually oxidative) reactions considerably shorten the shelf life of fruits and vegetable products. Thermal processing is commonly used by the food industry for enzyme and microbial inactivation and is generally effective in this regard. However, thermal processing may cause undesirable changes in product's sensory as well as nutritional attributes. Over the last 20 years, there has been a great deal of interest shown by both the food industry and academia in exploring alternative food processing technologies that use minimal heat and/or preservatives. One of the technologies that have been investigated in this context is high-pressure processing (HPP). This review deals with HPP focusing on its effectiveness for controlling quality-degrading enzymes in horticultural products. The scientific literature on the effects of HPP on plant enzymes, mechanism of action, and intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the effectiveness of HPP for controlling plant enzymes is critically reviewed. HPP inactivates vegetative microbial cells at ambient temperature conditions, resulting in a very high retention of the nutritional and sensory characteristics of the fresh product. Enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and pectin methylesterase (PME) are highly resistant to HPP and are at most partially inactivated under commercially feasible conditions, although their sensitivity towards pressure depends on their origin as well as their environment. Polygalacturonase (PG) and lipoxygenase (LOX) on the other hand are relatively more pressure sensitive and can be substantially inactivated by HPP at commercially feasible conditions. The retention and activation of enzymes such as PME by HPP can be beneficially used for improving the texture and other quality attributes of processed horticultural products as well as
Alarcón-Flores, María Isabel; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido
In this study a simultaneous determination of several classes of phytochemicals (isoflavones, glucosinolates, flavones, flavonols and phenolic acids) in tomato, broccoli, carrot, eggplant and grape has been carried out by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Solid-liquid extraction assisted by rotary agitator was utilised, using a mixture of methanol:water (80:20, v/v) as solvent. The analytical procedure was validated in all the matrices, obtaining recoveries ranging from 60% to 120% with repeatability values (expressed as relative standard deviations, RSDs) lower than 25%. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were always equal or lower than 50μg/kg, except for some glucosinolates (125μg/kg). Finally the method was applied to different matrices such as tomato, broccoli, carrot, grape and eggplant, observing that chlorogenic acid was detected in most of the samples at higher concentrations in relation to the other compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Several field collecting trips in the 2009-2011 period confirmed that forest fruit species are an inexhaustible genofond of extremely important varieties that yield fruit of excellent quality and high nutritive value, with wide range of applications, including nutritional, medicinal and food production. The aim of this work was to develop long term interactive and integrated strategy for selection of wild fruit species through different breeding methods, as well as popularization of selected products and their integration into intensive fruit growing. The most important morphological, ecological, and biological characteristics were studied and presented for Cornus mas, Sambucus nigra, Morus sp. and Rosa sp. For each studied fruit species, advanced selections for cultivar release has been reported.
Impact assessment of mechanical harvest on fruit physiology and consequences on oil physicochemical and sensory quality from 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' super-high-density hedgerows. A preliminary study.
Morales-Sillero, Ana; García, José M
Super-intensive cultivation facilitates olive mechanized harvesting, allowing substantial savings in the production cost of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, the number of varieties adapted to this type of cultivation is small. This study explores the impact that harvesting with a grape straddle harvester of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' olives grown in super-intensive cultivation has on the physiology of the fruit and the quality of the oil subsequently extracted. For both cultivars, fruits harvested mechanically showed higher respiration and ethylene production and lower firmness than fruits harvested by hand. Their oils exhibited lower phenol contents, lower oxidative stability and lower presence of positive sensory attributes. However, in these oils the values of parameters used to assess the level of quality of VOO remained within the limits required for the best commercial category. Mechanical harvesting of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' super-high-density hedgerows induced physiological alterations in the fruits and a reduction in the contents of natural antioxidants and flavour components in the oils, though it did not result in a loss of the 'Extra' level of quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Modern diets containing high quantities of salt and cholesterol have exhibited to cause a considerable effect on our health. Such diets, when consumed in the long term, have also shown to be a precursor to several disorders such as the metabolic disorder and consequently, various other diseases, including cognitive deficits. In the present study, we used a high salt and cholesterol diet (HSCD to induce cognitive impairment in rats and also investigated the pharmacological action of tannins enriched fractions of Emblica officinalis (EOT – a fruit that has been traditionally used for the treatment of numerous disorders for centuries. Significant alterations in MDA, GSH, TBARS, GPx, mitochondrial ATP, and mitochondrial membrane potential levels were observed in rats fed HSCD, which indicated presence of oxidative stress. Moreover, classic signs of cognitive impairment and deficits in spatial learning and memory were observed in the neurobehavioral tests. E. officinalis tannins exhibited good affinity to Nrf2 receptors in in silico studies, significantly reversed the changes in the aforementioned biomarkers of oxidative stress which were altered in the model group, as well as improved the performance of rats in Morris water maze task. Our results also reflected that EOT supplementation significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 in the CA1 region of hippocampus and cortex. Additionally, TUNEL assay indicated that EOT supplementation led to reversal of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis caused by HSCD. Immunohistochemical analysis and western blot further revealed a surge in the nuclear location of Nrf2. Through our study, we have demonstrated that cognitive impairment can be caused in rats via HSCD as a result of the oxidative stress induced by the same. Additionally, we have investigated a novel mechanism of action for EOT (which strongly suggests to be via the Nrf2–ARE pathway and demonstrated that it has the potential to be used in the
Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum K68 (isolated from fu-tsai and fruit-vegetable ferment (FVF have been tested for antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in a rat model of insulin resistance, induced by chronic high fat-fructose diet. Fifty rats were equally assigned into control (CON, high fat-fructose diet (HFFD, HFFD plus K68, HFFD plus FVF, and HFFD plus both K68 and FVF (MIX groups. Respective groups were orally administered with K68 (1×109 CFU/0.5 mL or FVF (180 mg/kg or MIX for 8 weeks. We found that HFFD-induced increased bodyweights were prevented, and progressively increased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were reversed (P<0.01 by K68 and FVF treatments. Elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and HOMA-IR values were controlled in supplemented groups. Furthermore, dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs with HFFD, was significantly (P<0.01 attenuated with MIX. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, were controlled (P<0.01 by K68, FVF, and MIX treatments. Moreover, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were substantially (P<0.01 restored by all treatments. Experimental evidences demonstrate that K68 and FVF may be effective alternative medicine to prevent HFFD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, possibly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacies.
Omolola, Adewale O; Jideani, Afam I O; Kapila, Patrick F
The increasing consumption of dried fruits requires further attention on the quality parameters. Drying has become necessary because most fruits are highly perishable owing to their high moisture content and the need to make them available all year round and at locations where they are not produced. In addition to preservation, the reduced weight and bulk of dehydrated products decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. Quality changes associated with drying of fruit products include physical, sensory, nutritional, and microbiological. Drying gives rise to low or moderate glycemic index (GI) products with high calorie, vitamin and mineral contents. This review examines the nutritional benefits of dried fruits, protective compounds present in dried fruits, GI, overview of some fruit drying methods and effects of drying operations on the quality properties such as shrinkage, porosity, texture, color, rehydration, effective moisture diffusivity, nutritional, sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of fruits.
... to have a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. Fruits provide nutrients vital for health, such as potassium, ... Try dried fruits mixed with nuts or whole fruits like apples. They are easy to carry and store well. ...
Elaine Lanza; Binbing Yu; Gwen Murphy; Paul S. Albert; Bette Caan; James R. Marshall; Peter Lance; Electra D. Paskett; Joel Weissfeld; Marty Slattery; Randall Burt; Frank Iber; Moshe Shike; James W. Kikendall; Brenda K. Brewer; Arthur Schatzkin
.... Although intervention participants reported a significantly reduced intake of dietary fat, and increased fiber, fruit, and vegetable intakes, their risk of recurrent adenomas was not significantly...
CARLOS LACY SANTOS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate different fertilization-management strategies in ten progenies of passion fruit from the third recurrent selection cycle and their effects on yield and fruit-quality traits. For this purpose, we adopted the strategy of correlations analysis, using the phenotypic and path correlations in different environmental conditions characterized by three levels of fertilization. The trial was set up as a randomized-block design in a split-plot arrangement with progenies representing the plots and three levels of potassium-nitrogen fertilization as the sub-plots, with three replicates. Path analysis showed that number of fruits was the variable of highest correlation with fruit diameter at fertilization I. Fruit weight and pulp weight were correlated with each other and with other traits like fruit length and fruit diameter at the three fertilization levels, except for number of fruits, which was correlated with nitrogen and potassium only at fertilization II. Path analysis also revealed that fruit diameter (3.125 showed the highest direct effect on yield at fertilization I. However, fruit weight and number of fruits showed, at fertilization II, the highest direct effects of 2.964 and 1.134 on yield, respectively, and number of fruits had a high phenotypic correlation and direct effect on yield at the three fertilization levels: 0.528 at fertilization I; 2.206 at fertilization II; and 0.928 at fertilization III. The results demonstrate the greater direct effect obtained with fertilization II, suggesting that the level adopted at fertilization II can provide satisfactory gains in yield and is thus recommended for the population in question.
da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando
Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption.
Nowak, Kathrin; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Semmler, Torsten; Weiss, Sabrina; Mombouli, Jean-Vivien; Wieler, Lothar H.; Guenther, Sebastian
Bats are suspected to be a reservoir of several bacterial and viral pathogens relevant to animal and human health, but studies on Escherichia coli in these animals are sparse. We investigated the presence of E. coli in tissue samples (liver, lung and intestines) collected from 50 fruit bats of five different species (Eidolon helvum, Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, Myonycteris torquata, Rousettus aegyptiacus) of two different areas in the Republic of Congo between 2009 and 2010. To assess E. coli pathotypes and phylogenetic relationships, we determined the presence of 59 virulence associated genes and multilocus sequence types (STs). Isolates were further tested for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial substances by agar disk diffusion test and for the presence of an Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase phenotype. E. coli was detected in 60% of the bats analysed. The diversity of E. coli strains was very high, with 37 different STs within 40 isolates. Occasionally, we detected sequence types (e.g. ST69, ST127, and ST131) and pathotypes (e.g. ExPEC, EPEC and atypical EPEC), which are known pathogens in human and/or animal infections. Although the majority of strains were assigned to phylogenetic group B2 (46.2%), which is linked with the ExPEC pathovar, occurrence of virulence-associated genes in these strains were unexpectedly low. Due to this, and as only few of the E. coli isolates showed intermediate resistance to certain antimicrobial substances, we assume a rather naïve E. coli population, lacking contact to humans or domestic animals. Future studies featuring in depth comparative whole genome sequence analyses will provide insights into the microevolution of this interesting strain collection. PMID:28700648
Bounihi, Abdenour; Bitam, Arezki; Bouazza, Asma; Yargui, Lyece; Koceir, Elhadj Ahmed
Fruit vinegars (FVs) are used in Mediterranean folk medicine for their hypolipidemic and weight-reducing properties. To investigate the preventive effects of three types of FV, commonly available in Algeria, namely prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill (Cectaceae)], pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)], against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into 12 groups. The first group served as normal control (distilled water, 7 mL/kg bw), and the remaining groups were respectively treated with distilled water (7 mL/kg bw), acetic acid (0.5% w/v, 7 mL/kg bw) and vinegars of pomegranate, apple or prickly pear (at doses of 3.5, 7 and 14 mL/kg bw, acetic acid content as mentioned above) along with a high-fat diet (HFD). The effects of the oral administration of FV for 18 weeks on the body and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) weights, plasma inflammatory and cardiac enzymes biomarkers, and in heart tissue were evaluated. Vinegars treatments significantly (p < .05) attenuated the HFD-induced increase in bw (0.2-0.5-fold) and VAT mass (0.7-1.8-fold), as well as increase in plasma levels of CRP (0.1-0.3-fold), fibrinogen (0.2-0.3-fold), leptin (1.7-3.7-fold), TNF-α (0.1-0.6-fold), AST (0.9-1.4-fold), CK-MB (0.3-1.4-fold) and LDH (2.7-6.7-fold). Moreover, vinegar treatments preserved myocardial architecture and attenuated cardiac fibrosis. These findings suggest that pomegranate, apple and prickly pear vinegars may prevent HFD-induced obesity and obesity-related cardiac complications, and that this prevention may result from the potent anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity properties of these vinegars.
Full Text Available Obesity is becoming one of the global epidemics of the 21st century. In this study, the effects of citrange (Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata fruit extracts in high-fat (HF diet-induced obesity mice were studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed respectively a chow diet (control, an HF diet, HF diet supplemented with 1% w/w citrange peel extract (CPE or 1% w/w citrange flesh and seed extract (CFSE for 8 weeks. Our results showed that both CPE and CFSE regulated the glucose metabolic disorders of obese mice. In CPE and CFSE-treated groups, the body weight gain, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c levels were significantly (p < 0.05 reduced relative to those in the HF group. To explore the mechanisms of action of CPE and CFSE on the metabolism of glucose and lipid, related genes’ expressions in liver were assayed. In liver tissue, the expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and its target genes were down-regulated by CPE and CFSE supplementation as revealed by qPCR tests. In addition, both CPE and CFSE decreased the expression level of liver X receptor (LXR α and β, which are involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that CPE and CFSE administration could ameliorate obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF diet-induced obesity mice probably through the inhibition of PPARγ and LXRs gene expressions.
’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena
The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =
SILVA, E. P. da; Siqueira, H. H.; Lago, R. C. do; Rosell, Cristina M.; Vilas Boas, E. V. D. B.
BACKGROUND: Marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart) is a typical savannah fruit that is very nutritious and highly appreciated. However, its consumption has been limited to fresh fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of marolo flour in the production of healthy snack bars to valorise this fruit and provide an alternative ready-to-eat nutritious product. Snack bars containing increasing amounts of marolo flour (5 g 100 g-1, 10 g 100 g-1, 15 g 100 g-1, 20 g 100 g-1, expr...
The effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee growing in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, were studied during January-August 2013. The results showed that 50% fruit thinning by hand at 1 month after fruit set increased percent of fruit retention throughout fruit development. At 2 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave 62% of fruit ...
Hanson, Karla L.; Kolodinsky, Jane; Wang, Weiwei; Morgan, Emily H.; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Ammerman, Alice S.; Sitaker, Marilyn; Seguin, Rebecca A.
This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2–12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 (n = 41) and February 2016 (n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables. FVI relative to United States (US) recommendations and averages, and across seasons, were tested with non-parametric tests and paired t-tests (p < 0.05). Both adults and children in the CO-CSA had higher FVI than the US averages, and more often met recommendations for vegetables. Some summer fruits and vegetables were more often eaten when locally in-season. The CO-CSA model warrants further examination as an avenue for improving vegetable consumption among adults and children in low-income households. However, causality between CO-CSA participation and FVI cannot be inferred, as CO-CSA participants may be positive deviants with respect to FVI. A multi-state randomized controlled trial is currently underway to evaluate impacts of CO-CSAs on FVI and related outcomes. PMID:28698460
It can be concluded that the fruit of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul E. coli, and Streptobacillus. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.
Full Text Available Prepared slide of plant tissue needs to be staining to facilitate observations under microscope. Laboratorium activities in schools usually use synthetic dyes which expensive and can be damaged the student. Therefore the exploration of alternative dyes need to be established, such as utilizing of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus castaricensis Britt. Et R.. This study aims to (1 find out the best concentration of dragon fruit peel extract for staining plant tissue prepared slide and (2 to develop the practical guide related to plant tissue observation. The qualitative research used different concentration of red dragon fruit peel extract, namely: 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% with 3 repetitions. Data were obtained from observation photos of prepared slide. The result showed that the most contrast prepared slide was used red dragon fruit extract in 60% concentration. The result use to arrange practical guide in observation of plant tissues which is validated by material expert. The validation result showed “very good” criteria (86.01%.
Full Text Available Polyphenols are ubiquitous compounds in plants which are abundant micronutrients in our diet. They got more attention in recent years due to their bioactive functions and health effects on many diseases such as cancer. These components are secondary plant metabolites that function as antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds. Extraction of these compounds from plants and fruits and in vitro and in vivo study of their various health effects has been subject of many researches. The objective of this study was to investigate the profiles of polyphenolic compounds in apple, red grape, sour cherry and pomegranate fruit juices and comparison of the phenolic contents of various juices. Major polyphenolic compounds of four different concentrated fruit juices from various industries were analyzed and characterized by liquid chromatography. RP-HPLC-DAD was used in our study as powerful and accurate method. The total and individual polyphenolic compounds differed significantly among the four selected red fruit juices. Among the tested juices, sour cherry and apple juices had the highest and the lowest contents of phenolic compounds, respectively.
Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Thomas H. Spreen
Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...
Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D
We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight.
Huang, Huijian; Tunnicliffe, Mark; Shim, Young-Min; Bronlund, John E.
Optimisation of temperature management in postharvest operations, such as precooling, requires extensive experimental measurement. For this purpose, real fruit are used, but due to their relatively high cost and perishable nature, commercial scale trials are not easily conducted. In addition, significant variability between trials exists (Vigneault et al., 2005). Physical fruit analogues or simulators could provide a solution to overcome these issues. To be a solution the fruit simulators must be designed to mimic the relevant heat transfer modes and properties of individual and/or bulk fruit, ideally using an inexpensive and durable material that allows the fruit simulator to be mass produced (Redding et al., 2016). In this paper, we use a mathematical model to characterize the relative importance of the different heat transfer modes occurring during precooling. Based on this model, the modes of heat transfer that must be matched by the fruit simulator are identified. A simplified model is used, representing four fruit stacked on top of each other in a column. The contribution of each heat transfer mode can be evaluated by including or excluding terms in the model.
High prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from children with and without diarrhoea and their susceptibility to the antibacterial activity of extracts/fractions of fruits native to Mexico.
Uribe-Beltrán, Magdalena de Jesús; Ahumada-Santos, Yesmi Patricia; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Reyes-Valenzuela, Jesús Ernesto; Báez-Flores, María Elena; Osuna-Ramírez, Ignacio; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco
This paper aims to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Esherichia coli isolates from children under 5 years old, with and without diarrhoea, who were hospital outpatients in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. It also looks at the antimicrobial activity of fruit extracts against selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli strains. A total of 205 E. coli isolates from stool samples were collected from 94 children under 5 years old who were outpatients from two hospitals in the city of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, during the autumn/winter of 2003/04; their resistance profiles to 19 commercial antimicrobials were investigated using the Kirby-Bauer method. The antibacterial activities of extracts/fractions of fruits (i.e. uvalama, Vitex mollis; ayale, Crescentia alata; and arrayan, Psidium sartorianum) were evaluated using the broth microdilution method. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amikacin, nitrofurantoin and meropenem, and approximately 96 % were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, especially carbenicillin (93.2 %), cefuroxime sodium (53.7 %), ampicillin (40 %) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (35.1 %). Likewise, the frequency of MDR strains (44.9 %) was high, and no significant association with diarrhoea symptoms was found. Remarkably, all fruit extracts/fractions showed antibacterial activity against some, but not all, MDR isolates. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentration values were for the hexane fraction of arrayan (0.25 mg ml-1). A high number of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli (especially to β-lactams and sulfonamides) and MDR isolates were detected in children under 5 years old, irrespective of diarrhoea symptoms; this is novel information for Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. Moreover, our results showed that the studied fruit extracts/fractions are potential alternative or complementary treatments for MDR E. coli strains.
Few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. The marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the Maracá Ecological Station, a highly seasonal Amazonian rainforest. Specifically, it was hypothesised that primate distribution will track changes in fruit supply, resulting that sites with high fruit availability should be heavily used by primates. During a 1-year study, fruit supply (ground fruit surveys) and primate density (line-transects) were monitored in twelve 2 km-long transects at monthly intervals. Fruit supply varied seasonally, being low during the dry season. The density of Ateles belzebuth was positively related to fruit supply during fruit shortage, but Cebus olivaceus and Alouatta macconnelli did not follow the same pattern. The supply of Sapotaceae fruit was an important component determining local distribution of A. belzebuth during the overall fruit shortage. Highly frugivorous primates such as A. belzebuth respond to seasonal decline in fruit supply by congregating at places with high fruit supply in this forest, particularly, those with many individuals of species of Sapotaceae. This study underscores the importance of small-scale spatiotemporal changes of fruit supply as a key component of frugivorous primate ecology in highly seasonal environments.
Nevo, Omer; Orts Garri, Rosa; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Schulz, Stefan; Heymann, Eckhard W; Ayasse, Manfred; Laska, Matthias
Primates are now known to possess well-developed olfactory sensitivity and discrimination capacities that can play a substantial role in many aspects of their interaction with conspecifics and the environment. Several studies have demonstrated that olfactory cues may be useful in fruit selection. Here, using a conditioning paradigm, we show that captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) display high olfactory discrimination performance between synthetic odor mixtures mimicking ripe and unripe fruits of two wild, primate-consumed, Neotropical plant species. Further, we show that spider monkeys are able to discriminate the odor of ripe fruits from odors that simulate unripe fruits that become increasingly similar to that of ripe ones. These results suggest that the ability of spider monkeys to identify ripe fruits may not depend on the presence of any individual compound that mark fruit ripeness. Further, the results demonstrate that spider monkeys are able to identify ripe fruits even when the odor signal is accompanied by a substantial degree of noise.
Luiz José Rodrigues
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the development of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense of the Brazilian cerrado. It takes 84 days (12 weeks for pequi to develop with the onset of flowering in September and early fruit set in January. Pequi fruit showed a simple sigmoid growth curve, and its growth was characterized based on fresh mass and longitudinal and transverse diameters. The contents of titratable acidity, soluble solids, β-carotene, and vitamin C increased during fruit growth, reaching their maximum values at the 12th week (84 days after anthesis. Pequi is a fruit with an extremely high respiratory activity; its respiratory rate decreased during its development. Pequi fruit has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit due to the decrease of both respiration and ethylene production rates during maturation and ripening.
Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.
Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of
Blumenfeld, A.; Gazit, S.
The soybean callus bioassay was used to determine levels of cytokinin activity in avocado (Persea americana) seeds. In the embryo, levels are high during the early stages of development, but diminish as the fruit grows. The level of cytokinin activity in the endosperm is very high throughout the period that this tissue exists. The seed coats have very high activity levels while the fruit is young, reaching values comparable with those found in the endosperm. The activity level falls as the rate of fruit growth slows down and disappears completely by the time the seed coats shrivel at approximately the same time the fruit reaches “horticultural maturity”. PMID:16657459
Blumenfeld, A; Gazit, S
The soybean callus bioassay was used to determine levels of cytokinin activity in avocado (Persea americana) seeds.In the embryo, levels are high during the early stages of development, but diminish as the fruit grows. The level of cytokinin activity in the endosperm is very high throughout the period that this tissue exists. The seed coats have very high activity levels while the fruit is young, reaching values comparable with those found in the endosperm. The activity level falls as the rate of fruit growth slows down and disappears completely by the time the seed coats shrivel at approximately the same time the fruit reaches "horticultural maturity".
Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Yang, Baoru
Eleven major phenolic compounds (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, chlorogenic acid, ideain, epicatechin, two procyanidin (PA) dimers, three PA trimers and a PA dimer-hexoside) were quantified in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of the Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) by HPLC-ESI-MS-SIR. Hyperoside (0.1-0.8mg/g dry mass [DM]), isoquercitrin (0.1-0.3mg/g DM), chlorogenic acid (0.2-1.6mg/g DM), epicatechin (0.9-11.7mg/g DM), PA B2 (0.7-12.4mg/g DM), PA dimer II (0.1-1.5mg/g DM), PA trimer I (0.1-2.7mg/g DM), PA trimer II (0.7-6.9mg/g DM), PA trimer III (0.01-1.2mg/g DM) and a PA dimer-hexoside (trace-1.1mg/g DM) were detected in all the samples. Ideain (0.0-0.7mg/g DM) was found in all the samples except Crataegus scabrifolia. Significant correlations between the contents of individual PA aglycons were observed (r>0.9, P<0.01). A strong correlation between flavonols was also shown (r=0.71, P<0.01). Fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida var. major had higher contents of PAs but lower contents of flavonols compared with Crataegus brettschneideri. The fruits of C. scabrifolia contained the highest level of PA dimer-hexoside, which was present in trace amounts in the fruits of C. pinnatifida. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vasant Rupal A.; Narasimhacharya A. V. R. L.
Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit) is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and ox...
Kato, Kazuhisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Eiji; Ezura, Hiroshi
One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m(-2) s(-)1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity.
Lopez, Gerardo; Girona, Joan; Marsal, Jordi
Effect of water stress during stage III of peach fruit development on winter root starch concentration (RSC) and subsequent reproductive development was studied. Two irrigation treatments were applied in two consecutive seasons (2003-2004): full irrigation (FI) and no irrigation during stage III of fruit development until visible leaf wilting (LWI), which occurred when midday stem water potential reached -1.80 MPa. Three fruit thinning intensities were applied within each irrigation treatment. The year 2005 was a recovery year in which all trees received full irrigation and commercial fruit thinning. Water deficit and high fruit loads in the previous season significantly reduced the concentration of winter RSC. Fruit set and fruit growth from full bloom to 30 days after full bloom (30 DAFB) increased with increasing winter RSC before other factors, such as inter-fruit competition and availability of carbon from current photosynthesis, came into play. Consequently, severe water stress reduced the total number of fruits and fruit dry mass growth 30 DAFB. However, during the recovery year and after fruit thinning, fruit loads were similar between irrigation treatments and yield capacity remained unaffected. Peach fruit production recovered quickly from the deleterious effects of two consecutive years of water stress because of a combination of two factors: (1) reduced initial fruit set that was still adequate to achieve a commercial crop; and (2) the low sensitivity of fruit growth 30 DAFB to winter RSC.
Borchert, Mark I; DeFalco, Lesley A
The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.
Joice Natali Miquelim
Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.
Indarwatmi, Murni; Dadang, Dadang; Ridwani, Sobir; Sri Ratna, Endang
The cocoa mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus Morrison (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is known to attack mangosteen, an important fruit export commodity for Indonesia. The mealybug is polyphagous, so alternative host plants can serve as a source of nourishment. This study aimed to record the bionomics of E. hispidus on mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and three alternative hosts, kabocha squash (Cucurbita maxima L.), soursop (Annona muricata, L.), and guava (Psidium guajava L.). First-instar nymphs of the E. hispidus were reared at room temperature on mangosteen, kabocha, soursop, and guava fruits until they developed into adults and produced nymphs. Female E. hispidus go through three instar stages before adulthood. The species reproduces by deuterotokous parthenogenesis. Exallomochlus hispidus successfully developed and reproduced on all four hosts. The shortest life cycle of the mealybug occurred on kabocha (about 32.4 days) and the longest was on guava (about 38.3 days). The highest fecundity was found on kabocha (about 100 nymphs/female) and the lowest on mangosteen (about 46 nymphs/female). The shortest oviposition period was 10 days on mangosteen and the longest, 10 days, on guava. These findings could be helpful in controlling E. hispidus populations in orchards. PMID:28757558
Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Büntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Dämon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Nordén, Jenni; Høiland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C.
In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970–2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function. PMID:22908273
Almanza Pedro Jose
Full Text Available Although native of temperate climates, grapevines are grown
in Colombia in the department of Boyaca, between 2,200 and
2,560 m a.s.l. Under these specific conditions, both the physicochemical
of the fruit and its optimum harvest time
as measured in growing degree days (GDD had remained unknown
so far. On these grounds, in the municipality of Nobsa
grapevines of the variety Pinot Noir were
physico-chemically characterized during their growth and
development. Since day 21 after anthesis (DAA until overripening,
the physicochemical characteristics
of 20 berries from
each of three clusters we collected every week were carefully
assessed. A total of 826.2 GDD accumulated during fruit growth
and development, thus completing 126 DAA . The accumulation
of both fresh and dry mass followed double sigmoid curves.
During early growth there was a decrease in pH, total soluble
solids (TSS and technological maturity index (TMI =TSS /
TTA , coupled to an increase in total titratable acidity (TTA .
After this period and until harvest, pH, TSS and TMI increased
while TTA declined. Based on fresh mass, SST and TMI it was
possible to set optimum harvest time at 800.6 GDD.
Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Dhanya Kumar, Gowri; Tyliszczak, Bozena; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka
Novel approaches for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are of great importance due to its vast spectrum of applications in diverse fields, including medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Te presented study reports the successful AuNPs' synthesis using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. extract, and provides detailed characterization and evaluation of its antibacterial potential. The aim was to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method of gold nanoparticles using aqueous fruit extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a reducing and capping agent, which has proven activity against human pathogens, such as microbial species E.coli and Streptobacillus sps. Characterizations were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). SEM images showed the formation of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 20-25 nm. Spectra collected while infra-red analysis contained broad peaks in ranges from 4000-400 cm -1 . It can be concluded that the fruit of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul E. coli, and Streptobacillus. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.
Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola
Full Text Available Growth and fruit development are conditioned by environmental factors such as solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, affecting phenology and metabolic processes, which are reflected in its quality and size. Besides the variety, the age of the plant species, cultural practices, the amount of CO2, plant growth regulators and nutrition also influence this process of maturation. Moreover, the photosynthetic process occurs in immature fruits same manner as in the leaves, however, when the ripening process starts it changes because chlorophyll is degraded and other pigments intervene such as carotenoids, α-carotene and β-carotene, which contain antioxidants good for human health.
A magnetic-based dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction method using the metal-organic framework HKUST-1 and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waters and fruit tea infusions.
Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Pino, Verónica; Ayala, Juan H; Pasán, Jorge; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Afonso, Ana M
A hybrid material composed by the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been synthetized in a quite simple manner, characterized, and used in a magnetic-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (M-d-μSPE) method in combination with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and fluorescence detection (FD). The application was devoted to the determination of 8 heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different aqueous samples, specifically tap water, wastewaters, and fruit tea infusion samples. The overall M-d-μSPE-UHPLC-FD method was optimized and validated. The method is characterized by: its simplicity in both the preparation of the hybrid material (simple mixing) and the magnetic-assisted approach (∼10min extraction time), the use of low sorbent amounts (20mg of HKUST-1 and 5mg of Fe3O4 MNPs), and the low organic solvent consumption in the overall M-d-μSPE-UHPLC-FD method (1.5mL of acetonitrile in the M-d-μSPE method and 2.8mL of acetonitrile in the UHPLC-FD run). The resulting method has high sensitivity, with LODs down to 0.8ngL(-1); adequate intermediate precision, with relative standard deviation values (RSD) always lower than 6.3% (being the range 5.9-9.0% in tap water for a spiked level of 45ngL(-1), 6.1-14% in wastewaters for a spiked level of 45ngL(-1), and 7.2-17% in fruit tea infusion samples for a spiked level of 45ngL(-1)); and adequate relative recoveries, with average values of 82% in tap water, and 94% and 75% in wastewater and fruit tea infusion samples, respectively, if using the proper matrix-matched calibration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Bagged fruits of green apple cultivar ‘Granny Smith’ have been found to turn cardinal red after debagging during fruit-ripening in the Loess Plateau region of China. To understand such phenomenon at post-transcriptional level, we have investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs in response to debagging. Three small RNA libraries were primarily constructed from peels of ‘Granny Smith’ apples subjected to bagging followed by sunlight re-exposure treatments (0h, 6h, 1d (debagging, and from peels of apples without any bagging treatments (0h, 6h, 1d. 201 known miRNAs belonging to 43 miRNA families and 220 novel miRNAs were identified via high-throughput sequencing. Some miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after debagging, which indicated that miRNAs affected anthocyanin accumulation through their target genes in mature apple. To further explore the effect of debagging on miRNAs regulating the expression of anthocyanin regulatory genes, four miRNAs and their target genes regulating anthocyanin accumulation, miR156, miR828, miR858 and miR5072, were compared between green cultivar ‘Granny Smith’ and red cultivar ‘Starkrimson’. Results showed that mdm-miR828 and mdm-miR858 regulated anthocyanin contents in both apple cultivars, while mdm-miR156 only affected anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Granny Smith’, and miR5072 affected anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Starkrimson’. Additional analysis of gene ontology for the differentially expressed miRNAs after debagging treatments and their predicted target genes showed that they were involved in photo-protective response after debagging from 0h to 1d; they might play important roles in fruit development and adaptation to high light stress.
Purpose: To investigate the hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea Linn. (Oleaceae) fruit pulp (OFP-EA) extract in experimental rats. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a normal diet, a high-cholesterol diet or high-cholesterol diets supplemented with OFP-EA extract (100 or 300 ...
Marian Guadalupe Hernández Arenas
Full Text Available Fruits of five regional selections of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. were characterized to identify those with international marketing quality to promote their propagation in Mexico, improvement and conservation in germoplasm bank. The fruits were harvested in June, July, and August 2008 and, after each harvest, were assessed for shape (length/diameter, firmness, fruit weight, number of fruits per kilogram, weight and percentage of pericarp, seed and aril, total soluble solids, total sugars, vitamin C content, pH, and titratable acidity. In addition, a sensorial evaluation was carried out with 31 panelists who graded each selection for color, sweetness, and acidity. Fruits of five selections were ovoid, and with the following characteristics: firmness values from 43.7 to 51.0 N, fruit weight ranged from 22.4 to 34.7 g, registering from 28.9 to 45.0 fruits per kg; pericarp weight from 10.5 to 17.3 g (45.9 to 49.9% of the total fruit weight; total seed weight from 2.2 to 2.5 g (7.0 to 10.0%; average arils weight from 8.9 to 13.1 g (37.5 to 41.4%. The fruits had high contents of total soluble solids (17.8 to 20.4 ºBrix, total sugars (211.95 to 242.70 mg/100g in the edible portion, vitamin C (37.9 to 69.1 mg/100 g, pH 5.0, and titratable acidity of 0.20 to 0.28%. The fruits from the RT-01 and RT-05 selections had better attributes in fruit weight, total soluble solids and titratable acidity and were better accepted by the panelists. Harvest date significantly affects rambutan fruit quality; at the middle and end of the season harvested fruits had better qualitative characteristics for the marketing.
Hung, C F; Berenbaum, M R; Schuler, M A
Papilio glaucus (tiger swallowtail) is a generalist that rarely encounters plants containing furanocoumarins yet is constitutively capable of metabolizing low levels of these highly toxic allelochemicals. In larvae of this species, metabolism of linear (xanthotoxin, bergapten), and angular (angelicin, sphondin), furanocoumarins can be induced up to 30-fold by the presence of xanthotoxin in their diet. Degenerate primers corresponding to conserved amino acid sequences in three insect P450s, Musca domestica (CYP6A1), Drosophila melanogaster (CYP6A2) and Papilio polyxenes (CYP6B1), were used to clone xanthotoxin-induced P450 transcripts from P. glaucus larvae by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy. Positive clones encoding the highly conserved F--G-R-C-G P450 signature motif were used to isolate a full-length CYP6B4v1 cDNA from a P. glaucus xanthotoxin-induced cDNA library. Sequence comparisons indicate the P. glaucus CYP6B4v1 protein sequence is 63% and 61% identical, respectively, to the P. polyxenes furanocoumarin-inducible CYP6B1v1 and CYP6B3v1 proteins. Northern analysis indicates that CYP6B4 and related transcripts are highly induced in response to xanthotoxin. Baculovirus-mediated expression of the CYP6B4v1 protein in lepidopteran cell lines demonstrates that this P450 isozyme metabolizes isopimpinellin, imperatorin, and bergapten at high rates, xanthotoxin and psoralen at intermediate rates and angelicin, sphondin, and trioxsalen only at very low rates.
The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly invasive species that is considered the most adaptable and polyphagous species of tephritid fruit fly due to its global distribution and its broad range of host plants, primarily tropical and subtropical fr...
Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but
, nectar, pollen and flowers. Frugivores may have difficulties in maintaining their protein requirements since fruit are generally high in sugar content but low in protein content. Some studies have found that fruit bats obtain most of their food ...
Cameron W Harvey
Full Text Available The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicellular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to limitations of different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT revealed previously unknown details of the internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative high and low spore density regions. To make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high-density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen in other biological systems such as dictyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions.
Peppelman, G.; Groot, M.J.
Het doel van dit onderzoek is inzicht te geven in de verwerking van fruit in Nederland, zowel grootschalig als kleinschalig en beoordelen van een aantal cases van kleinschalige verwerkers op hun score op verschillende beleidsthema’s van het ministerie van LNV. Tevens wordt een inschatting gegeven
Vortex-assisted low density solvent liquid-liquid microextraction and salt-induced demulsification coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of five organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits.
Seebunrueng, Ketsarin; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Srijaranai, Supalax
A simple and rapid microextraction method, vortex-assisted low density solvent liquid-liquid microextraction and salt-induced demulsification (VLLME-SID) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fruits. The studied OPPs were azinphos-methyl, parathion-methyl, fenitrothion, diazinon and chlorpyrifos. For VLLME-SID, a mixture of low density solvents (1-dodecanol and hexane) was used as the extraction solvent under vortex agitation for enhancing dispersion. After complete dispersion, the emulsion was formed and the OPPs were extracted into extraction solvent droplets. Then, the emulsion was quickly broken up into two clear phases after the addition of AlCl3 as a demulsifier. Centrifugation was not required in this procedure. Under the optimal conditions, high enrichment factors (180-282), low limit of detections (LODs) (0.05-1 ng mL(-1)) and good precision (RSD≤7% for retention time and peak area) were obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of OPP residues in fruit samples (watermelon, grape, and cantaloupe). The LODs for samples were in the range 0.0006-0.0015 mg kg(-1) which are below the established EU-MRLs (0.01-0.3 mg kg(-1)). Good recoveries were also obtained (80-104%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Novel approaches for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are of great importance due to its vast spectrum of applications in diverse fields, including medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Te presented study reports the successful AuNPs’ synthesis using [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. extract, and provides detailed characterization and evaluation of its antibacterial potential. [b]Objective[/b]. The aim was to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method of gold nanoparticles using aqueous fruit extract of [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. as a reducing and capping agent, which has proven activity against human pathogens, such as microbial species [i]E.coli[/i] and [i]Streptobacillus[/i] sps. [b]Materials and method[/b]. Characterizations were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR. [b]Results[/b]. SEM images showed the formation of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 20–25 nm. Spectra collected while infra-red analysis contained broad peaks in ranges from 4000–400 cm -1 . [b]Conclusions[/b]. It can be concluded that the fruit of [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul [i]E. coli[/i], and [i]Streptobacillus[/i]. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.
Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.
Major components of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit quality include pericarp hardening, and shrinkage of both the stem and the sepals (calyx). At room temperature in South-East Asia (29±308C) the fruit remains acceptable for about 6±8.d. To determine optimum storage temperature, fruit were
Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra
Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple
Chen, Wei; Li, Dunsong; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Yunlong; Wu, Wenjing; Zhang, Guren
In order to explore the role of heat shock proteins (Hsps) during thermal stress and development in the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans), we cloned and characterized five full-length Hsp genes. We investigated the expression levels of these genes by quantitative real-time PCR. The five genes characterized here were NcHsp90, NcHsp75, NcHsp70, NcHsp60, and NcHsp40. These Hsps showed high sequence conservation and had greatest identity with heat shock proteins of Metaseiulus occidentalis and other mite and insect species. All five NcHsp genes showed changes in their levels of expression during development. Higher levels of expression were observed in adult females than in adult males, but there were no significant changes between pre-oviposition and post-oviposition stages in the females. NcHsp90, NcHsp75, and NcHsp70 expression levels were up-regulated after a heat shock, and the increases in NcHsp75 and NcHsp70 expression levels were maintained for at least 3 h. Up-regulation of NcHsp60 and NcHsp40 was not detected after 1 h at a high temperature (35-45 °C); however, a significant down-regulation was observed after 3 h heat exposure at 35 °C and 3 h recovery at 25 °C. Cold shock treatment (-5 to 15 °C) for 1 h did not acute elicit changes in the expression levels of any of the genes. At 5 °C, the expression levels of NcHsp90 significantly increased after 6 or 24 h exposure compared to the levels after 1 h exposure. Thus, expression of Hsp genes in N. cucumeris reflected developmental changes, sexual difference, and variable induced response to thermal stress. Increased expression of Hsps might protect N. cucumeris individuals under extreme temperature conditions. Therefore, it may be possible to enhance the thermal tolerance of commercially available N. cucumeris using temperature acclimation. Treatment at 35 °C should be suitable for such acclimation.
Oh, Hee Duk; Yu, Duk Jun; Chung, Sun Woo; Chea, Sinath; Lee, Hee Jae
Non-climacteric blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits accumulate high levels of anthocyanins during ripening, which are a good source of dietary antioxidants. This study examined the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application on fruit characteristics and anthocyanin accumulation in a northern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum 'Jersey') during development. Fruits on shrubs were treated with 1gL-1 ABA before the initiation of fruit colouration. Application of ABA temporarily increased the level of ABA in the fruits during development. Exogenous ABA had no obvious effect on fruit growth, but stimulated fruit colouration by accelerating the accumulation of individual anthocyanins, mainly malvidin, delphinidin and petunidin glycosides. This is the first report to show that ABA promotes the accumulation of anthocyanins in blueberry fruits. However, exogenous ABA also promoted fruit softening, which is undesirable during harvest and shelf life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Khalighi, Mousaalreza; Pavlidi, Nena; Reubens, Wim; Baggerman, Geert; Tirry, Luc; Menschaert, Gerben; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas
The salivary protein repertoire released by the herbivorous pest Tetranychus urticae is assumed to hold keys to its success on diverse crops. We report on a spider mite-specific protein family that is expanded in T. urticae. The encoding genes have an expression pattern restricted to the anterior podocephalic glands, while peptide fragments were found in the T. urticae secretome, supporting the salivary nature of these proteins. As peptide fragments were identified in a host-dependent manner, we designated this family as the SHOT (secreted host-responsive protein of Tetranychidae) family. The proteins were divided in three groups based on sequence similarity. Unlike TuSHOT3 genes, TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 genes were highly expressed when feeding on a subset of family Fabaceae, while expression was depleted on other hosts. TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 expression was induced within 24 h after certain host transfers, pointing toward transcriptional plasticity rather than selection as the cause. Transfer from an 'inducer' to a 'noninducer' plant was associated with slow yet strong downregulation of TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2, occurring over generations rather than hours. This asymmetric on and off regulation points toward host-specific effects of SHOT proteins, which is further supported by the diversity of SHOT genes identified in Tetranychidae with a distinct host repertoire.
Monteiro (MUFAL), at the Museu de História. Natural, Universidade Federal de Alagoas. The seeds were separated from the fruits, which were dried in an oven at 45 ºC and powdered. Due to the high content of polyphenols, namely anthocyanins in S. cumini fruits , the powder. (950 g) was extracted with ethanol 90 % at ...
... using established standard procedures. The result of the study indicates that garden egg, pawpaw, orange, water melon and apple were relatively low in glucose, while banana, guava and mango fruits were high in glucose. The study therefore lends support to the consumption of some fruits by diabetes mellitus patients.
Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...
The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White is the key pest in the low and medium altitude areas. On the other hand, the Natal fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch is the key frugivorous pest in the high altitude areas. Other native species like C. capitata (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) were less ...
were carried out on contents of vitamin A and C. Results showed that all income groups did not consume recommended amounts of fruit products. Those who consumed processed fruit products consisted of 4.5% low income, 33% middle income and 62.5% high income households. Per capita annual consumption by the
UNAPAL -Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales UNAPAL - Abanico 75: new butternut squash cultivar, with high dry matter content in fruit for agribusiness purposes.
Diosdado Baena García
Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.Using three diallel crosses among populations of butternut squash, with different levels of inbreeding (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, two hybrids and two inbred lines of butternut squash were selected, for its high dry matter content in fruit and plant production. Seven hybrid populations were formed from the selected genotypes. They are genetically stabilized by fraternal crossing and were evaluated in different environments of Valle del Cauca. Population one was selected, which presented a plant production between 29 to 32 kg; average fruit weight between 5 -6 kg; 4-5 fruit per plant; dry matter in fruit among 24-26%; globular form ribbed bright green external color and deep yellow to orange flesh color (12 to 14 Roche Fan. This population was registered in Institute Colombian Agropecuario ICA, under the name UNAPAL-Abanico-75.
M.N. Mohd Naeem
Full Text Available Fruit jams are preserved fruits and sugars normally canned or sealed for long-term storage. Jam making involves the disruption of the fruit tissue followed by heating with added water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers. Processes that expose foods to high levels of heat may cause some nutrient loss. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of four commonly consumed fruit jams that are available in the Malaysian market. Different brands (n = 6 of each type of fruit jams (grape, apricot, blueberry and strawberry were sampled from supermarkets in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling. The fruit jams were analyzed for the presence of 27 important nutrients using Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC official methods of analysis. This study showed that fruit jams are a good source of energy and carbohydrate. The fruits jams have very low levels of fatty acids. Fruit jams may provide an affordable and convenient source of energy and carbohydrate. The data can be utilized to contribute to the enhancement of Malaysia Food Composition Database.
Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo
During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wellington dos Santos Melo
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the characterization of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa. Each part of the fruit (peel, pulp, and fibrous part was analyzed and their hygroscopic behavior was evaluated to establish the drying and storage conditions. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C to the monolayer value was estimated, and the application of the Halsey, Handerson, Kuhn, Mizrahi, Oswin, Smith, BET, and GAB models was evaluated to the prediction of the isotherms. The fruit pulp was classified as rich in high quality oil, and like the peel and the fibrous part, it was also considered as rich in dietary fiber. The isotherms of the fruit parts were classified as type II, and their microbiological stability (a w < 0.6 can be maintained at 25 °C if the moisture content is lower than 8.5, 7.3, and 11.0 g H2O.100 g-1 of dry matter (d.m., respectively. The hygroscopic behavior showed that in order to ensure stability, the fruit parts should be packaged with low water vapor permeability. The monolayer demonstrated that the peel, pulp, and the fibrous part cannot be dried under moisture content lower than 5.9, 5.0, and 6.4 g H2O.100 g-1 d.m., respectively. GAB was the most adequate model to describe their isotherms.
Shi, Zhihong; Li, Qi; Xu, Dan; Huai, Qingru; Zhang, Hongyi
Graphene-based pipette tip solid-phase extraction was combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of carbamate pesticide residues in fruit juice samples. Four milligrams of graphene was used as sorbent material to pack a 1000 μL pipette tip for the extraction of pirimicarb, propoxur, isoprocarb, fenobucarb, and diethofencarb from 3 mL of fruit juice sample. The whole extraction process was finished in 12 min, and the volume of eluent used was only 1.5 mL. Under the optimized conditions, good linear relationship (R > 0.999) and lower limits of detection (0.0022-0.033 ng/mL) were achieved. The recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 80.90 to 124.60% with relative standard deviations less than 4.88%. Compared with commercially available sorbents including propylsulfonic acid silica, graphitized carbon black, and C18 , graphene was superior in extraction efficiency. The proposed method is simple, rapid, sensitive, selective, and solvent saving. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen
Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Myxobacteria are social bacteria that swarm and glide on surfaces, and feed cooperatively. When starved, tens of thousands of cells change their movement pattern from outward spreading to inward concentration; they form aggregates that become fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into nonmotile, environmentally resistant spores. Traditionally, cell aggregation has been considered to imply chemotaxis, a long-range cell interaction mediated by diffusing chemicals. However, myxobacteria aggregation is the consequence of direct cell-contact interactions. I will review our recent efforts in modeling the fruiting body formation of Myxobacteria, using lattice gas cellular automata models that are based on local cell-cell contact signaling. These models have reproduced the individual phases in Myxobacteria development such as the rippling, streaming, early aggregation and the final sporulation; the models can be unified to simulate the whole developmental process of Myxobacteria.
Awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, knowledge of the fruit and vegetable recommendation, and fruit and vegetable intake of adults in the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors (FAB) Survey.
Erinosho, Temitope O; Moser, Richard P; Oh, April Y; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L
Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is recommended to reduce chronic disease risk. Few studies have examined awareness of the current fruit and vegetable campaign in the United States, Fruits and Veggies-More Matters. This study assessed awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign and knowledge of the 7-13 serving recommendation for fruit and vegetable consumption among adults, and determined whether these were associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Cross-sectional data from 3021 adults in the United States' National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey were analyzed. Few participants were aware of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign (2%) and the 7-13 recommendation (6%) for adults. More participants were aware of the former 5 A Day campaign (29%) and recommendation (30%). Thirty-nine percent reported consuming ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Participants were more likely to consume ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day if they were aware of the 5 A Day/Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and reported that the recommendation for adults was ≥5 servings/day. Findings suggest the need to increase awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and the 7-13 recommendation among adults to support high fruit and vegetable intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dragsted, Lars O; Krath, Britta; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Vogel, Ulla B; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bo Jensen, Per; Loft, Steffen; Rasmussen, Salka E; Sandstrom, The late BrittMarie; Pedersen, Anette
A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.
Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and
Tatiani A Modolon
Full Text Available Frutos de tomateiro são sensíveis ao manuseio e sua qualidade é afetada pelo sistema de cultivo e pelas práticas de conservação pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de preparados em altas diluições nos atributos indicadores da conservação pós-colheita de frutos de tomateiro. O trabalho consistiu em experimento a campo no ciclo produtivo 2009/2010 e ensaio de laboratório em pós-colheita. Os preparados avaliados, em aplicações a campo, foram os nosódios de tomateiro e de juá (Solanum aculeatissimum nas dinamizações 12 e 24DH e os preparados homeopáticos Arnica montana e Sulphur nas dinamizações 12DH e 24DH. Frutos provenientes de tomateiro não tratados foram submetidos a imersão em preparações de Calcarea carbonica nas dinamizações 6, 12 e 24CH. O nosódio de juá 12 e 24DH aumentaram o teor de SS (ºBrix, atributo que melhora a palatabilidade e a qualidade para a industrialização. Calcarea carbonica em tratamento pós-colheita não interferiu nos atributos químicos e físicos de frutos de tomate, embora Calcarea carbonica 24CH retardasse a formação de frutos tipo molho.Tomato fruits are sensitive to handling and its quality is determined by the crop system and the post-harvest conservation practices. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of high dilution preparations in the post-harvest attributes of tomato fruits. The research consisted of one field experiment in the 2009/2010 crop cycle and laboratory assay in post-harvest. The high dilution preparations studied under field conditions were nosodes of tomato plant and Solanum aculeatissimum at 12 and 24DH (decimal hahnemanian dilutions and the homeopathies Arnica montana and Sulphur at 12 and 24DH. In the post-harvest treatments, Calcarea carbonica was evaluated at 6, 12, and 24CH (centesimal hahnemanian dilution fruits being deaped into the respective treatment. The nosode of S. aculeatissimum at 12 and 24DH increased the
Full Text Available Continuous rain and an abnormally wet climate during harvest can easily lead to soybean plants being damaged by field mold (FM, which can reduce seed yield and quality. However, to date, the underlying pathogen and its resistance mechanism have remained unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fungal diversity of various soybean varieties and to identify and confirm the FM pathogenic fungi. A total of 62,382 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 164 operational taxonomic units (OTUs with 97% sequence similarity; 69 taxa were recovered from the samples by internal transcribed spacer (ITS region sequencing. The fungal community compositions differed among the tested soybeans, with 42 OTUs being amplified from all varieties. The quadratic relationships between fungal diversity and organ-specific mildew indexes were analyzed, confirming that mildew on soybean pods can mitigate FM damage to the seeds. In addition, four potentially pathogenic fungi were isolated from FM-damaged soybean fruits; morphological and molecular identification confirmed these fungi as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium moniliforme, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Further re-inoculation experiments demonstrated that F. moniliforme is dominant among these FM pathogenic fungi. These results lay the foundation for future studies on mitigating or preventing FM damage to soybean.
Riedel, W; Steenberg, T
. Generally the mortality was low in autumn and mid-winter, not exceeding 5%. A more pronounced post-winter mortality of up to 30% was observed at the end of hibernation. Only a negligible number were infected by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces farinosus. Infection experiments...
Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP, although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.
Mendoza, Irene; Peres, Carlos A.; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.
Organisms have different phases during their life cycles and their timing of occurrence is affected by a combination of both abiotic and biotic factors. In the case of plants, the timing of fruiting is very sensitive to environmental factors and subjected to a variable degree of seasonality (i.e. intra-annual changes), but we still lack of a clearer understanding of the triggers of their phenology over large geographic scales. This is particularly true for the tropics, where the high diversity of species magnifies the spectrum of phenological patterns. It has been pointed out that fruit production in the tropics is predominantly aseasonal, favoring that frugivore animals get resources all over the year. We present here the results of an extensive review of fruiting phenology all over the Neotropics based upon more than 200 datasets collected in different vegetation types, combining both published and unpublished data. Contrary to the hypothesis that fruiting in the tropics is commonly aseasonal, our results showed a marked seasonality for the majority of vegetation types, although there was a high degree of variability in fruiting patterns. Ongoing research is elucidating the latitudinal correlation of fruiting seasonality with climatic variables such as rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration, irradiance or daylength. The detection of the periods of fruits scarcity and abundance has a capital importance for the conservation of frugivore animals. A better understanding of the correlates between fruiting seasonality and climate helps in the forecasting of species' phenological responses to ongoing climate change
'the king of fruits' for remarkably high vitamin C content. However, pathogen infections have lowered the yield and quality of kiwi fruit (Ferrante and Scortichini 2010; Biondi et al. 2013; Li et al. 2013). Therefore, better understanding of resistance (R) genes in kiwi fruit could provide the strategy for improving resistance to ...
Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klopping-Ketelaars, W.A.; Klurft, C.; Berg, van den H.; Kok, F.J.; Poppel, van G.
Interventions: During 4 weeks 24 volunteers consumed a standardised meal, consisting of 500 g/day fruit and vegetables and 200 ml/day fruit juice ('high' group) and 23 volunteers consumed 100 g/day fruit and vegetables ('low' group) with an energy and fat controlled diet. Results: Final total
Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Akinleye, Margareth; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Aline A. Boligon; Margareth L. Athayde
Background: Studies have supported the protective effect of high fruit consumption in the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Methods: Thirteen fresh tropical fruits were sourced for and the fruits juices were extracted, freeze dried, and then reconstituted for analysis. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents as well as glycemic indices, antioxidant properties, and the ability of the fruits to inhibit starch-hydrolyzing enzymes were determined. Also, the phenolic...
Christensen, Allan S; Viggers, Lone; Hasselstr?m, Kjeld; Gregersen, S?ren
Background Medical nutrition therapy is recognized as an important treatment option in type 2 diabetes. Most guidelines recommend eating a diet with a high intake of fiber-rich food including fruit. This is based on the many positive effects of fruit on human health. However some health professionals have concerns that fruit intake has a negative impact on glycemic control and therefore recommend restricting the fruit intake. We found no studies addressing this important clinical question. Th...
Development and Validation of High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Method for Determination of α-Mangostin in Fruit Pericarp of Mangosteen Plant (Garcinia mangostana L. using Ultraviolet – Visible Detection
Full Text Available A simple, fast and precise quantitative high performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantitative estimation of α-mangostin in fruit pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. (Hypericaceae. Best solvent for extraction of a-mangostin optimized after screening with five solvents under same conditions using hot solid-liquid extraction through soxhlet apparatus. Methanol and chloroform gave highest and second highest recovery of a-mangostin, respectively. Plates were developed in chloroform-methanol in the ratio of 27-3 (v/v. Post-chromatographic derivatization performed using anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent and scanned at 382 nm in ultraviolet-visible mode. The developed method was found to be linear in the range 1.0 to 5.0 mg spot-1, limits of detection and quantitation were 150 and 450 ng spot-1. The developed method was validated in terms of system suitability, specificity and robustness.
Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages after derivatization with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate and high performance liquid chromatography.
Jain, Archana; Gupta, Manju; Verma, Krishna K
A new method for determining biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages is described involving reaction of biogenic amines with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate followed by extraction of 1-naphthylthiourea derivatives with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when solvents phase separation occurred using ammonium sulphate, a process called salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 254nm. The new reagent avoided many of the inconveniences as observed with existing derivatizing agents, such as dansyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, in regard to their inselectivity, instability, adverse effect of excess reagent, and necessity to remove excess reagent. The procedure has been optimized with respect to reaction time and temperature, water-miscible extraction solvent, and salt for solvents phase separation. Use of reagent as dispersed phase in aqueous medium produced derivatives in high yield. A linear calibration was obtained between the amount of biogenic amines in range 1-1000μgL(-1) and peak areas of corresponding thioureas formed; the correlation coefficient was 0.9965, and the limit of detection and limit of quantification found were 1.1μgL(-1) and 3.2μgL(-1), respectively. The pre-concentration method gave an average enrichment factor of 94. The application of the method has been demonstrated in the determination of biogenic amines in commercial samples of fruit juices and alcoholic beverages. In spiking experiments to real samples, the average recovery found by the present method was 94.5% that agreed well with 95.8% obtained by established comparison methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gutierrez, Enrique; Garc?a-Villaraco, Ana; Lucas, Jos? A.; Gradillas, Ana; Gutierrez-Ma?ero, F. Javier; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are among the high added value food products relevant for human health due to the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of polyphenols, which are very abundant in these fruits. Interestingly, these compounds also play a role on plant physiology, being especially relevant their role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stress. Hence, we hypothesize that since blackberry fruits have high amounts of flavonols and anthocyanins, leaves would also have high ...
Suryanti, V.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Rumingtyas, Y. S.
The objective of this work was to investigate the dietary fiber (DF) contents of Artocorpus camansi (breadnut) fruit and examine their physicochemical properties, such as water-holding capacity (WAC), oil-holding capacity (OHC) and water absorption capacity (WAC). This fruit flour contained of both water soluble fibers (SDF), such as pectin (1.95%) and gum (0.4%), and water insoluble fibers (IDF) (89.25%). The IDF content of this fruit was significantly high in respect to other DF sources. The WHC, OHC and WAC of IDF were 4.10, 2.60 and 4.0%, respectively. Moreover, the WHC, OHC and WHC of total dietary fibers (TDF) were 4.2, 4.3 and 4.6%, respectively. The results showed that the DF of fruit flour had good physicochemical properties. The findings suggested that there is a potential application of A. camansi of fruit as functional ingredients in the food industry.
Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth
Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (Pfruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (Pfruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (Pfruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trifilò, Patrizia; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria Assunta; Nardini, Andrea; Salleo, Sebastiano
Background and Aims The hydraulic architecture and water relations of fruits and leaves of Capsicum frutescens were measured before and during the fruiting phase in order to estimate the eventual impact of xylem cavitation and embolism on the hydraulic isolation of fruits and leaves before maturation/abscission. Methods Measurements were performed at three different growth stages: (1) actively growing plants with some flowers before anthesis (GS1), (2) plants with about 50 % fully expanded leaves and immature fruits (GS2) and (3) plants with mature fruits and senescing basal leaves (GS3). Leaf conductance to water vapour as well as leaf and fruit water potential were measured. Hydraulic measurements were made using both the high-pressure flow meter (HPFM) and the vacuum chamber (VC) technique. Key Results The hydraulic architecture of hot pepper plants during the fruiting phase was clearly addressed to favour water supply to growing fruits. Hydraulic measurements revealed that leaves of GS1 plants as well as leaves and fruit peduncles of GS2 plants were free from significant xylem embolism. Substantial increases in leaf petiole and fruit peduncle resistivity were recorded in GS3 plants irrespective of the hydraulic technique used. The higher fraction of resistivity measured using the VC technique compared with the HPFM technique was apparently due to conduit embolism. Conclusions The present study is the first to look at the hydraulics of leaves and fruits during growth and maturation through direct, simultaneous measurements of water status and xylem efficiency of both plant regions at different hours of the day. PMID:20525746
Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Chialva, Matteo; Novero, Mara; Miozzi, Laura; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic "signatures": genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions
Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida
Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.
Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida
Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.
L. A. Lobosova
Full Text Available Studied the technology of getting jelly fruit marmalade on pectin with the sugar replacement to fructose and 30% apple puree to pureed fruits of chokeberry molded by “extrusion” by the vacuum filler in a continuous metallized film of the type “flow-pack”. Studied the gelation process of jelly masses. Investigated rheological characteristics of jelly mass with fruit and pureed fruits of chokeberry. Determined that the effective viscosity of marmalade mass decreases with increasing shear rate, with adding fructose. The greater the content of fructose in the formulations, the less the viscosity change with increasing shear rate. Replacing sugar with fructose allows to get jelly masses with lower viscosity. Determined values of plastic strength of jelly masses. It was found that replacement of sugar to fructose reduces the plastic strength, but in spite of this strength is sufficient to maintain a good jelly structure. Defined organoleptic and physical-chemical indicators of marmalade quality. In formulation was saddled pureed fruits of chokeberry, which significantly increase the nutritional value of products. Presented an innovative production line of fruit-jelly marmalade with a vacuum syringe of continuous action, delivering high performance with minimal cost of products, simplifies the manufacturing process because drying step is eliminated, shortened processes of curing and cooling. Fruit-jelly marmalade on fructose and pectin with pureed fruit of chokeberry is diabetic and functional.
Ibrahim, U. K.; Kamarrudin, N.; Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Hashib, S. Abd
Food industry in Malaysia which used fruits as one of the raw material such as the production of fruit juices, concentrates, jams and dried fruits, the main wastes of the production are the peel and the seed of the fruit. Nowadays, people have shown the interests to study the antioxidant content in the fruit wastes. All kind of fruits are believed to contain high amount of natural antioxidant properties such as vitamins, phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid. Thus, this paper presented the work done by researcher on antioxidant activity in the peel especially on local fruit such as mango peel, watermelon rind, banana peel and mangosteen pericarp. The review shows that the peel of the fruit is a good source of antioxidant and other bioactive compounds which have many benefits especially towards human health.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a group of endogenous small non-coding RNAs, play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress response processes. Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (hardy rubber tree is one of the few woody plants capable of producing trans-1, 4-polyisoprene (TPI, also known as Eu-rubber, which has been utilized as an industrial raw material and is extensively cultivated in China. However, the mechanism of TPI biosynthesis has not been identified in E. ulmoides. To characterize small RNAs and their targets with potential biological roles involved in the TPI biosynthesis in E. ulmoides, in the present study, eight small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from young and mature leaves and fruits of E. ulmoides. Further analysis identified 34 conserved miRNAs belonging to 20 families (two unclassified families, and 115 novel miRNAs seemed to be specific to E. ulmoides. Among these miRNAs, fourteen conserved miRNAs and 49 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and identified as Eu-rubber accumulation related miRNAs. Based on the E. ulmoides genomic data, 202 and 306 potential target genes were predicted for 33 conserved and 94 novel miRNAs, respectively; the predicted targets are mostly transcription factors and functional genes, which were enriched in metabolic pathways and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Noticeably, based on the expression patterns of miRNAs and their target genes in combination with the Eu-rubber accumulation, the negative correlation of expression of six miRNAs (Eu-miR14, Eu-miR91, miR162a, miR166a, miR172c, and miR396a and their predicted targets serving as potential regulators in Eu-rubber accumulation. This study is the first to detect conserved and novel miRNAs and their potential targets in E. ulmoides and identify several candidate genes potentially controlling rubber accumulation, and thus provide molecular evidence for understanding the roles of miRNAs in regulating the TPI
Kauserud, Håvard; Stige, Leif Christian; Vik, Jon Olav; Okland, Rune H; Høiland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr
Many species of fungi produce ephemeral autumnal fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic importance, little is known about the phenology of fruiting bodies. Using approximately 34,500 dated herbarium records we analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940-2006. We show that the time of fruiting has changed considerably over this time period, with an average delay in fruiting since 1980 of 12.9 days. The changes differ strongly between species and groups of species. Early-fruiting species have experienced a stronger delay than late fruiters, resulting in a more compressed fruiting season. There is also a geographic trend of earlier fruiting in the northern and more continental parts of Norway than in more southern and oceanic parts. Incorporating monthly precipitation and temperature variables into the analyses provides indications that increasing temperatures during autumn and winter months bring about significant delay of fruiting both in the same year and in the subsequent year. The recent changes in autumnal mushroom phenology coincide with the extension of the growing season caused by global climate change and are likely to continue under the current climate change scenario.
Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi
To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hylocereus polyrhizus) and to further investigate the antioxidant properties in this fruit. Pigment was identified using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and results confirmed the presence of betanin in sample at a retention time ...
Gutierrez, Enrique; García-Villaraco, Ana; Lucas, José A; Gradillas, Ana; Gutierrez-Mañero, F Javier; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz
Blackberries ( Rubus spp.) are among the high added value food products relevant for human health due to the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of polyphenols, which are very abundant in these fruits. Interestingly, these compounds also play a role on plant physiology, being especially relevant their role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stress. Hence, we hypothesize that since blackberry fruits have high amounts of flavonols and anthocyanins, leaves would also have high amounts of these compounds, and can be studied as a source of active molecules; furthermore, leaf synthesis would support their high contents in fruits. To explore this hypothesis, the present study reports a de novo transcriptome analysis on field grown blackberry leaves and fruits at the same time point, to establish the metabolic relationship of these compounds in both organs. Transcripts were aligned against Fragaria vesca genome, and genes were identified and annotated in different databases; tissue expression pattern showed 20,463 genes common to leaves and fruits, while 6,604 genes were significantly overexpressed only in fruits, while another 6,599 genes were significantly overexpressed in leaves, among which flavonol-anthocyanin transporter genes were present. Bioactives characterization indicated that total phenolics in leaves were three-fold, and flavonols were six-fold than in fruits, while concentration of anthocyanins was higher in fruits; HPLC-MS analysis indicated different composition in leaves and fruits, with cyanidin-3-glucoside as the only common compound identified. Next, RT-qPCR of the core genes in the flavonol anthocyanin pathway and regulatory MYB genes were carried out. Interestingly, genes in the flavonol-anthocyanin pathway and flavonol-transport families were overexpressed in leaves, consistent with the higher bioactive levels. On the other hand, transcription factors were overexpressed in fruits anticipating an active anthocyanin biosynthesis
Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B
Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit butters...
Ntagkas, N.; Min, Q.; Woltering, E.J.; Labrie, C.; Nicole, C.C.S.; Marcelis, L.F.M.
L-ascorbate (AsA; Vitamin C) is an anti-and pro-oxidant phytochemical essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Field grown tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) contain substantial amounts of AsA. When grown in the greenhouse, tomato fruit typically have low levels of AsA. Light is
Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka
Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit (n = 64) or non-food products (n = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake (P = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas (P = 0.015) and mandarins (P = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples (P > 0.05) and grapes (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way. Nederlands Trial Register TC = 5687.
Saito, Takeshi; Yin, Yong-Gen; Matsuoka, Mizuki; Watanabe, Shinya; Matsukura, Chiaki; Fukuda, Naoya
.... In this study, we investigated differences between the Japanese common cultivar 'Reiyou' and the Dutch high-yielding cultivar 'Levanzo' in fruit yield and components contributing to an increase...
Ramos-Ordoñez, María F; Arizmendi, M Del Coro; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith
The deterioration of seasonally tropical dry forests will stop with the implementation of management plans for this ecosystem. To develop these plans, we require information regarding aspects such as germination and the presence of 'empty seeds' of representative species-like, for example, Bursera, a genus with a high number of endemic species of the Mesoamerican Hotspot-that would enable us to propagate its species. The main purpose of this study is to describe the phenological and structural characteristics of fruits of 12 Bursera species and provide useful data for future studies on germination and seed dispersal, and to acquire new and useful information to understand the phylogenetic relationships of the Burseraceae family. We described the phenology of fruit ripening in 12 species of Bursera. Fruits were collected from the study sites in three different stages of development. The histochemical and anatomical characteristics of fruits of all species were described with the use of inclusion techniques and scanning microscopy. There is a time gap between the development of the ovary and the development of the ovule in the 12 studied species. The exposed pseudoaril during the dispersion stage is an indicator of the seed's maturity and the fruit's viability. The Bursera fruit shows the same structural pattern as that of Commiphora, as well as many similarities with species of the Anacardiaceae family. All species develop parthenocarpic fruits that retain the structural characteristics of the immature fruits: soft tissues rich in nitrogen compounds and few chemical and physical defences. Insects were found mainly inside the parthenocarpic fruits in eight species of Bursera. The dispersion unit in Bursera consists of a seed, a lignified endocarp that protects the seed, and a pseudoaril that helps attract seed dispersers. The production of parthenocarpic fruits is energy saving; however, it is necessary to evaluate the potential benefits of this phenomenon.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fruit and sugarcane juices are nutritious drinks with great taste and health benefits. Food borne illnesses associated with consumption of Fruit and sugarcane juices at several places in India and elsewhere. Fruit juices were served with added ice pieces. Hygienic standards are not maintained while transporting from the field to the place of extraction and preparation. Hence a rapid review of the fruit juices from street vendors has been undertaken along with sugarcane juice. Raw sugarcane juice is a refreshing juice in many parts of Andhra Pradesh. The present study is to assess the prevalence of different organisms from different fruit juices collected from street vendors. METHODS Fruit juices are collected namely sugarcane, sweet lemon, orange, grape apple, pineapple pomegranate. A total 100 samples of fruit juices were collected from road side from different vendors. 150 ml of each variety of fruit juices were collected from different vendors in screw capped bottles and subjected to microbial analysis, processed with in 30mts in the department of microbiology at KIMS by standard methods. RESULTS The analysed samples of fruit juices are found to be contaminated with different bacteria, Escherichia coli 30% Klebsiella pneumoniae 10% Staphylococcus aureus 20% Enterococcus faecalis 04% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10% ASB 04% (aerobic spore bearers Micrococci 02% Proteus 20% Salmonella. Shigella and Vibrios were not isolated. CONCLUSION It is high time that street vendors should have health education by volunteers, health workers from PHC (primary health centers and people well versed with community medicine practice for implementation of standard hygienic protocols may reduce contamination of fruit and sugarcane juices The concerned health authorities need to ensure and insist to follow the protocols by the vendors and license holders to the vendors.
Bierema, Andrea; Schwartz, Renee
The fruit fly ("Drosophila melanogaster") is an ideal subject for studying inheritance patterns, Mendel's laws, meiosis, Punnett squares, and other aspects of genetics. Much of what we know about genetics dates to evolutionary biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan's work with mutated fruit flies in the early 1900s. Many genetic laboratories…
Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology. Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. In the past decade or so, genetic theories of the evolution of ageing and studies on populations of fruit flies (Dro- sophila spp.) in the laboratory have provided a new per- spective on the phenomenon of ageing ...
Full Text Available Samples of leaflets and fruits at different stages were collected from 6 “on-palms” and 6 “off-palms” (15-16 years of the Fard Cultivar. Samples were dried, ashed and digested. Macro and micronutrient concentrations of K, Ca, Mg,Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mg were determined by ICP-AES and N was measured by Kjeldhal method. Significant changes in the elemental concentrations of leaf and fruit occurred between Kimri (green color and Bisir (yellowish-red color development stages. Potassium and Mg concentration was reduced in leaf and fruit. Calcium and Na were reduced in the fruit and increased in the leaf. Iron, Zn and Mn were not significantly different between Bisir and Kimi. However, Fe in the fruit and leaf increased between Kimri and Bisir and decreased from Bisir to Rutab stages. The concentration of Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn was higher in the leaf than fruit. In contrast K, Zn and Cu were higher in the fruit. Higher Ca and Mg in leaves through the developmental stages were associated with higher concentration of K in the fruit than the leaf. These variations in the leaf and fruit elemental concentration were associated with physiological and biochemical changes during fruit development. Significant differences in the fruit elemental concentrations between the “on” (high yield producing and “off” (low yield producing palms during the developmental stages were in Ca, K, Mn and Fe and in the leaf in Mg and K. However, the general trend during Rutab (honey color, soft tissue indicates that “off-palm” leaves have higher N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn than “on-palm” leaves. Potassium and Na were higher in the “on-palm” leaves than “off-palm” leaves. But in the fruit, Rutab Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn content followed similar trends as in the “off-palm” leaves; in contrast to leaves, K and Na were higher in “off-palms” fruits and Cu and Mn higher in “on-palm” fruits. The results indicate the need for further research.
Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir
During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.
Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.
Katz, E; Fon, M; Lee, Y J; Phinney, B S; Sadka, A; Blumwald, E
Fruit development and ripening are key processes in the production of the phytonutrients that are essential for a balanced diet and for disease prevention. The pathways involved in these processes are unique to plants and vary between species. Climacteric fruit ripening, especially in tomato, has been extensively studied; yet, ripening of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood. Although the different species share common pathways; developmental programs, physiological, anatomical, biochemical composition and structural differences must contribute to the operation of unique pathways, genes and proteins. Citrus has a non-climacteric fruit ripening behavior and has a unique anatomical fruit structure. For the last few years a citrus genome-wide ESTs project has been initiated and consists of 222,911 clones corresponding to 19,854 contigs and 37,138 singletons. Taking advantage of the citrus database we analyzed the citrus proteome. Using LC-MS/MS we analyzed soluble and enriched membrane fractions of mature citrus fruit to identify the proteome of fruit juice cells. We have identified ca. 1,400 proteins from these fractions by searching NCBI-nr (green plants) and citrus ESTs databases, classified these proteins according to their putative function and assigned function according to known biosynthetic pathways.
Gamze Uysal Seçkin
Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.
High-fruit and high-vegetable diets are known to have ameliorating effects on many diseases and their complications. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of high fruit and high vegetable diets on the electrolytes and blood pressure of hypertensive patients. This experimental study was conducted at Olabisi ...
During the last decade peach and nectarine fruit have lost considerable market share, due to increased consumer dissatisfaction with quality at retail markets. This is mainly due to harvesting of too immature fruit and high ripening heterogeneity. The main problem is that the traditional used maturity indexes are not able to objectively detect fruit maturity stage, neither the variability present in the field, leading to a difficult post-harvest management of the product and to high fruit los...
Fernando Angelo Piotto
Full Text Available Xenia, the transmission of traits from the pollinizer to the female's tissues, is a phenomenon hitherto unknown in tomatoes. Here, we describe xenia effects on the seeds and fruits of Solanum lycopersicum, the tomato, elicited by S. galapagense. The wild tomatoes, such as S. galapagense, have highly pilose fruit surface and minute seeds, unlike the domesticated species. Crossings between S. galapagense (pollinizer and two large-seeded, glabrous cultivars of S. lycopersicum (females tested the former's ability to raise the trichome density and trichome-to-1000-cell ratio and to reduce the seed weight in the latter's fruits. Selfed fruits of the two cultivars, Micro-Tom and Pusa Ruby, were compared to the crossed fruits. The pollen of S. galapagense was able to raise pilosity and to reduce seed weight in the crossed fruits of both cultivars, but with different magnitudes: seed reduction was more intense in Pusa Ruby, while pilosity increase was greater in Micro-Tom, both of which characterize xenia. Pilosity increase is not completely dependent on variation in epidermal cell density, which displayed no xenia effect. The difference between the maternal cultivars in the magnitude of pilosity increase may be due to the higher dilution of a putative male chemical signal (either hormone or RNA in the larger fruits of Pusa Ruby. However, one cannot use the signal diffusion hypothesis to explain the xenia effects on seed weight.
Flávia Aparecida de Carvalho Mariano-Nasser
Full Text Available The increased consumption of acerola in Brazil was triggered because it is considered as a functional food mainly for its high ascorbic acid content, but the fruit also has high nutritional value, high levels of phenolic compounds, total antioxidant activity, anthocyanins and carotenoids in its composition. The objective was to evaluate the chemical, physical-chemical and antioxidant activity of eight varieties of acerola tree. The acerolas used in the research were the harvest 2015, 8 varieties: BRS 235 - Apodi, Mirandópolis, Waldy - CATI 30, BRS 238 - Frutacor, Okinawa, BRS 236 - Cereja, Olivier and BRS 237 - Roxinha, from the Active Bank Germplasm APTA Regional Alta Paulista in Adamantina - SP. Avaluated the following attributes: pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, reducing sugar, instrumental color, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The design was completely randomized, 8 varieties and 3 replications of 20 fruits each. Acerola fruit of the analyzed varieties prove to be good sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, ensuring its excellent nutritional quality relative to combat free radicals. The variety BRS 236 - Cereja presents higher ascorbic acid content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, and the lowest value for flavonoid, which was higher than the other cultivars, especially Olivier and Waldy CATI-30.
Mariana Barboza Vinha; Cláudia Lúcia de Oliveira Pinto; Cleide Maria Ferreira Pinto; Caroline Franco de Souza; Maria Regina de Miranda Souza; Letícia Loures de Oliveira
The indiscriminate use of pesticides in fruit and vegetables can have serious public health problems and environmental issues. There is a lack of information on security measures for handling these products and their adverse effects on the entire production chain. The aim was to report the impact of indiscriminate use of pesticides in fruits and vegetables based on survey of scientific literature and data from National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The results indicate a high percentag...
Misigo Ronald; Miriti Evans
Manual sorting of apple fruit varieties results to high cost, subjectivity, tediousness and inconsistency associated with human beings. A means for distinguishing apple varieties is needed and therefore, some reliable technique is needed to discriminate varieties rapidly and non-destructively. The main objective of this research was to investigate the applicability and performance of Naive Bayes algorithm in the classification of apple fruit varieties. The methodology involved image acquisiti...
M. M. Akhmedova
Full Text Available In work results of researches on improvement of technological process of production of tinned compote from pears with use of EMP microwave oven and high-temperature sterilization are presented.On the basis of the conducted pilot researches and with use of mathematical planning the approximation equation for determination of reference temperature of a product in bank before sterilization (T, °C, depending on three factors is received: container volume (V, k, microwave heating capacities (Р, kW and processing durations (t, c:New modes of high-temperature sterilization of compote from pears in various container are developed and offered.
Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Torjusen, Hanne; Trogstad, Lill; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete
Several dietary substances have been hypothesized to influence the risk of preeclampsia. Our aim in this study was to estimate the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Women participating in MoBa answered questionnaires at gestational wk 15 (a general health questionnaire) and 17-22 (a FFQ). The pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Principal component factor analysis identified 4 primary dietary patterns that were labeled: vegetable, processed food, potato and fish, and cakes and sweets. Relative risks of preeclampsia were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils were at decreased risk [relative risk (OR) for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by processed meat, salty snacks, and sweet drinks were at increased risk [OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42]. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils decreases the risk of preeclampsia, whereas a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of processed meat, sweet drinks, and salty snacks increases the risk.
Full Text Available Ethylene has long been known to be a critical signal controlling the ripening of climacteric fruits; however, the signaling mechanism underlying ethylene production during fruit development is unknown. Here, we report that two FERONIA-like receptor kinases (FERLs regulate fruit ripening by modulating ethylene production in the climacteric fruit, apple (Malus×domestica. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the apple genome contains 14 members of the FER family (MdFERL1–17, of these 17 FERLs, MdFERL6 was expressed at the highest level in fruit. Heterologous expression of MdFERL6 or MdFERL1, the apple homolog of Arabidopsis FER, in another climacteric fruit, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit delayed ripening and suppressed ethylene production. Overexpression and antisense expression of MdFERL6 in apple fruit calli inhibited and promoted ethylene production, respectively. Additionally, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS of SlFERL1, the tomato homolog of FER, promoted tomato fruit ripening and ethylene production. Both MdFERL6 and MdFERL1 physically interacted with MdSAMS (S-adenosylmethionine synthase, a key enzyme in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. MdFERL6 was expressed at high levels during early fruit development, but dramatically declined when fruit ripening commenced, implying that MdFERL6 might limit ethylene production prior to fruit development and the ethylene production burst during fruit ripening. These results indicate that FERLs regulate apple and tomato fruit ripening, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms underlying ripening in climacteric fruit.
Jia, Meiru; Du, Ping; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qing; Xing, Sinian; Wei, Lingzhi; Zhao, Yaoyao; Mao, Wenwen; Li, Jizheng; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo
Ethylene has long been known to be a critical signal controlling the ripening of climacteric fruits; however, the signaling mechanism underlying ethylene production during fruit development is unknown. Here, we report that two FERONIA-like receptor kinases (FERLs) regulate fruit ripening by modulating ethylene production in the climacteric fruit, apple (Malus×domestica). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the apple genome contains 14 members of the FER family (MdFERL1-17), of these 17 FERLs, MdFERL6 was expressed at the highest level in fruit. Heterologous expression of MdFERL6 or MdFERL1, the apple homolog of Arabidopsis FER, in another climacteric fruit, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit delayed ripening and suppressed ethylene production. Overexpression and antisense expression of MdFERL6 in apple fruit calli inhibited and promoted ethylene production, respectively. Additionally, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of SlFERL1, the tomato homolog of FER, promoted tomato fruit ripening and ethylene production. Both MdFERL6 and MdFERL1 physically interacted with MdSAMS (S-adenosylmethionine synthase), a key enzyme in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. MdFERL6 was expressed at high levels during early fruit development, but dramatically declined when fruit ripening commenced, implying that MdFERL6 might limit ethylene production prior to fruit development and the ethylene production burst during fruit ripening. These results indicate that FERLs regulate apple and tomato fruit ripening, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms underlying ripening in climacteric fruit.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive (Olea europaea L. fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF, suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the
Giubileo, G.; Lai, A.; Piccinelli, D.; Puiu, A.
The emission of ethylene from climacteric fruit banana (Musa x paradisiaca L.) and non climacteric fruits lemon (Citrus limon Burm. F.) at different stages of ripening (from a few days after setting to full maturity stage) by the Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy System, developed in ENEA Frascati, was measured. A high ethylene production rate from mature banana fruit was found, as expected for climacteric fruit. Significant differences between ethylene emitted by the lemon after setting stage and by the young fruit were observed. Also ethylene emission from lemon fruits at different ripening stages (from light green to turning and full ripe) was detected. Depending on the ripening stage, differences in ethylene emission rates were found, although the emissions were low as expected for non-climacteric fruit.
Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte
, providing 600hairspg fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit......A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants......, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers...
Kitajima, J; Ishikawa, T; Aoki, Y
From the fruit of Cnidium monnieri Cusson (Umbelliferae), two glucides were isolated together with other known glucides. Their structures were clarified as glycerol 2-O-alpha-L-fucopyranoside and D-quinovitol (6-deoxy-D-glucitol), respectively.
Richardson, Annette C; Boldingh, Helen L; McAtee, Peter A; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Luo, Zhiwei; Atkinson, Ross G; David, Karine M; Burdon, Jeremy N; Schaffer, Robert J
With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'). Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric). Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.
Richardson Annette C
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'. Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric. Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.
Jörg U Ganzhorn
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ecological factors contributing to the evolution of tropical vertebrate communities are still poorly understood. Primate communities of the tropical Americas have fewer folivorous but more frugivorous genera than tropical regions of the Old World and especially many more frugivorous genera than Madagascar. Reasons for this phenomenon are largely unexplored. We developed the hypothesis that Neotropical fruits have higher protein concentrations than fruits from Madagascar and that the higher representation of frugivorous genera in the Neotropics is linked to high protein concentrations in fruits. Low fruit protein concentrations in Madagascar would restrict the evolution of frugivores in Malagasy communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature for nitrogen concentrations in fruits from the Neotropics and from Madagascar, and analyzed fruits from an additional six sites in the Neotropics and six sites in Madagascar. Fruits from the Neotropical sites contain significantly more nitrogen than fruits from the Madagascar sites. Nitrogen concentrations in New World fruits are above the concentrations to satisfy nitrogen requirements of primates, while they are at the lower end or below the concentrations to cover primate protein needs in Madagascar. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fruits at most sites in the Neotropics contain enough protein to satisfy the protein needs of primates. Thus, selection pressure to develop new adaptations for foods that are difficult to digest (such as leaves may have been lower in the Neotropics than in Madagascar. The low nitrogen concentrations in fruits from Madagascar may contribute to the almost complete absence of frugivorous primate species on this island.
Simpson, Craig G; Cullen, Danny W; Hackett, Christine A; Smith, Kay; Hallett, Paul D; McNicol, Jim; Woodhead, Mary; Graham, Julie
QTL mapping identifies a range of underlying and unrelated genes with apparent roles in raspberry fruit ripening and softening that show characteristic developing fruit expression profiles. Fruit softening is an important agronomical trait that involves a complex interaction of plant cell processes. We have used both qualitative and quantitative scoring of fruit firmness, length, mass, and resistance to applied force to identify QTL in a raspberry mapping population. QTLs were located primarily on linkage group (LG) 3 with other significant loci on LG 1 and LG 5 and showed mostly additive effects between the two parents. The expression of key genes that underlie these QTLs with roles in cell-wall solubility, water uptake, polyamine synthesis, transcription, and cell respiration was tested across five stages of fruit development, from immature green to red ripe fruit, using real-time RT-qPCR. Gene expression patterns showed variable expression patterns across fruit development with a highly significant positive and negative correlation between genes, supporting precise regulation of expression of different cell processes throughout raspberry fruit development. Variable timing in expression was also found in some genes at different fruit development stages between soft and firm cultivars. Multiple processes have a role to play in fruit softening and this will require development of multiple marker combinations to genes that characterise raspberry fruit softening.
Rossetto, Maurizio; Kooyman, Robert; Yap, Jia-Yee S; Laffan, Shawn W
Seed dispersal is a key process in plant spatial dynamics. However, consistently applicable generalizations about dispersal across scales are mostly absent because of the constraints on measuring propagule dispersal distances for many species. Here, we focus on fleshy-fruited taxa, specifically taxa with large fleshy fruits and their dispersers across an entire continental rainforest biome. We compare species-level results of whole-chloroplast DNA analyses in sister taxa with large and small fruits, to regional plot-based samples (310 plots), and whole-continent patterns for the distribution of woody species with either large (more than 30 mm) or smaller fleshy fruits (1093 taxa). The pairwise genomic comparison found higher genetic distances between populations and between regions in the large-fruited species (Endiandra globosa), but higher overall diversity within the small-fruited species (Endiandra discolor). Floristic comparisons among plots confirmed lower numbers of large-fruited species in areas where more extreme rainforest contraction occurred, and re-colonization by small-fruited species readily dispersed by the available fauna. Species' distribution patterns showed that larger-fruited species had smaller geographical ranges than smaller-fruited species and locations with stable refugia (and high endemism) aligned with concentrations of large fleshy-fruited taxa, making them a potentially valuable conservation-planning indicator. © 2015 The Author(s).
Tabita Teodora Lisandru
Full Text Available Fruit trees are essential components of different types of greenery, including not only private gardens but also historical and modern public parks and gardens of many other cities. The research was carried out in spring 2016 by visiting different parks. Fruit trees were identified in 22 public parks of Warsaw situated in different districts of the city and picked up randomly for preliminary study. Observations were made by photographic documentation and mapping of the fruit trees on park plans using GPS coordinates which were taken during the site visit and Google Earth maps. According to the observations, selected fruit trees compositions have been recognized in public parks of Warsaw. The compositional structures that have been observed consist of solitaire fruit trees, groups of trees (containing fruit trees, but mostly composed of fruit trees and ornamental shrubs and linear structures of fruit trees (rows and alleys. The results of the preliminary study show that the most frequent fruit tree compositions used in the structure of selected public parks of Warsaw represent groups of trees - groups that consist of fruit trees and different species of ornamental shrubs. The undertaken study confirmed that fruit trees planted in the public parks of Warsaw have a high compositional value. They play an important role in the spatial arrangement of the parks selected, but also define the scope and borders of the selected garden interiors and create attractive sites.
GUS expression decreased with the process of fruit ripening and increased from fruit shoulder (close to the end of the stem) to fruit top (blossom end). The highest number of blue spots was 2456.91/ cm2 and was observed in the area of fruit separation zone. As such, the optimized conditions of particle bombardment in this ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...
The physico-chemical characteristics of carambola (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice were determined to assess the suitability of the fruit as raw material for local wine production. Fresh ripe fruits of the carambola tree (Averrhoa carambola) were processed into a fruit juice. The juice was analysed to determine moisture, fat, ...
A group of eighteen fruits cultivated in Ecuador were evaluated for their total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and attempts were made to identify the group and content of phenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity. In terms of total phenolic content, three groups (with 1000 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW) were clearly distinguishable. RP-HPLC-DAD and/or LC-MS/MS were used to study the phenolic compounds in four Rosaceae fruits (Andean blackberry, str...
Yu, Shunli; Katz, Ofir; Fang, Weiwei; Li, Danfeng; Sang, Weiguo; Liu, Canran
Plant communities differ in their fruit type spectra, especially in the proportions of fleshy and non-fleshy fruit types. However, which abiotic and biotic factors drive this variability along elevation gradient and what drives the evolution of fruit type diversity still are puzzling. We analyzed the variations in proportions and richness of fleshy-fruited species and their correlations to various abiotic and biotic variables along elevation gradients in three mountains in the Beijing region, northeast China. Fleshy-fruited species, which are characterized by high fruit water contents, were found in great proportion and richness at relatively low elevations, where soil water content is low compared to high elevations. High temperatures in low elevations increase water availability for plants. Plants that grow in the shaded low-elevation thick-canopy forests are less exposed to evapotranspiration and thus possess water surpluses that can be invested in fleshy fruits. Such an investment in fleshy fruits is beneficial for these species because it makes the fruits more attractive to frugivores that act as seed dispersers in the close-canopied environments, where dispersion by wind is less effective. A hypothesis is proposed that plant internal water surpluses are the prerequisite conditions that permit evolution of fleshy fruits to occur.
Steyn, Catharina E; Cameron, Michelle; Witthuhn, R Corli
Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for reconstituted fruit beverages to compete with beverages that are made from fresh fruits. In recent years, Alicyclobacillus spp. have become a major concern to the beverage industry worldwide as many high-acid, concentrated fruit products have been found to be contaminated with these spoilage microbes. The thermo-acidophilic nature of alicyclobacilli and highly resistant endospores allows for their survival during the production of concentrated fruit products. Under favourable conditions, endospores can germinate and multiply to numbers high enough to cause spoilage and product deterioration through the production of chemical taint compounds. It is imperative to understand the nature of Alicyclobacillus within the fruit concentrate processing environment so as to develop effective control strategies and to prevent spoilage in juice and beverage products that are reconstituted from fruit concentrates. This paper reviews the occurrence of alicyclobacilli in the fruit processing environment, control measures, as well as detection, identification and standardised test methods that are currently used for Alicyclobacillus in concentrated fruit products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Suk-Hee; Oh, Angela; Shin, Seo-Hee; Kim, Ha-Na; Kang, Woo-Won; Chung, Shin-Kyo
Amygdalin contents of the seeds, endocarps, and mesocarps from three peach cultivars (i.e., Stone Peach, Hikawa Hakuho, and Bakhyang) were measured at three stages of fruit development (stone-hardening, fruit enlargement, and ripening). The peach samples were dried and defatted with a Soxhlet apparatus, reflux extracted with methanol, and analyzed using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. During all fruit development stages, the amygdalin contents in the seeds were higher than those in the endocarps and mesocarps. The amygdalin contents of the Stone Peach were comparatively higher than the Hikawa Hakuho and Bakhyang (Pamygdalin contents during ripening were very low or not detected. Overall, the amygdalin contents of the three peach cultivar samples (seed, endocarp, and mesocarp) increased until the fruit enlargement stage and either remained constant or decreased during ripening.
Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia
Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barcelos, Aliny Oliveira; Perônico, Clayton; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob
Fruit color and odor are the main features regulating the rate of fruit predation and dispersal. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of odor and color on fruit predators and dispersers. The present study was conducted in a 30ha area of secondary forest in Southeastern Atlantic Brazil. This area was divided into two transects, in which four points were marked with a 30m distance from each other. Each sampling point contained a total of 30 artificial fruit which belong to six different treatment groups, with five artificial fruit per group. Each group was randomly placed on the ground and that artificial fruit was checked every seven days. For each group of five fruit, 5mL of essence (vanilla or pineapple) were placed, and no essence was used in the control group. Artificial fruit was made with green and red nontoxic modeling clay, as well as artificial essences (vanilla and pineapple). A total of 960 fruits were used. Predated fruit equaled 26.9% (258 units), from which the red/pineapple had the highest predation rate (81.9%), followed by red/vanilla (46.3%), while green/control fruits were not predated. Throughout the experiment, bitten fruit and pecked fruit equaled 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. No significant differences were recorded (x2=7.57, df=5, p=0.182) between bitten and pecked fruit. Fruit color and odor are important in attracting predators and dispersers, which explains the high rate of predation of red/ vanilla and red/pineapple, and the absence of predated fruits in the green/control group. Regarding the potential disperser, there was no statistically significant difference between pecked fruit and bitten fruit. As a result, it should be taken into consideration that zoochory (mammalochory and ornithochory) is the most important dispersal; therefore, it should be concluded that birds are more attracted by color and mammals by odor.
Rodrigues, Jéssica Ferreira; Andrade, Rafaela da Silva; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Coelho, Sandra Bragança; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques
High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests. For this, unsweetened lemonade and lemonades with sugar, sucralose and previous miracle fruit ingestions were evaluated. We noted that the dynamic profile of lemonade ingested after miracle fruit ingestion indicates that it seems to be a good sugar substitute, since it provides high sweetness intensity and persistence, reduced product sourness and an absence of aftertastes. The miracle fruit also provided a sensory profile similar to that of sucralose, an established and recognized sugar substitute. The results of this study provide important information for future applications of miracle fruit as a sugar substitute in sour beverages, providing an alternative use for a natural substance as a sweetening agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gutensohn, M; Dudareva, N
Terpenoids are a large and diverse class of plant metabolites including mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes. They have numerous functions in basic physiological processes as well as the interaction of plants with their biotic and abiotic environment. Due to the tight regulation of biosynthetic pathways and the resulting limited natural availability of terpenes, there is a strong interest in increasing their production in plants by metabolic engineering for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications. The tomato fruit system was developed as a platform for metabolic engineering of terpenes to overcome detrimental effects on overall plant growth and photosynthesis traits, which are affected when terpenoid engineering is performed in vegetative tissues. Here we describe how the use of fruit-specific promoters for transgene expression can avoid these unwanted effects. In addition, targeting the expression of the introduced terpene biosynthetic gene to fruit tissue can take advantage of the large precursor pool provided by the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, which is highly active during tomato fruit ripening to facilitate the accumulation of carotenoids. We also discuss how the production of high levels of target terpene compounds can be achieved in fruits by the expression of individual or a combination of (i) the MEP or mevalonic acid pathway enzymes, (ii) prenyltransferases, and/or (iii) terpene synthases. Finally, we provide a brief outline of how the emitted as well as internal pools of terpenes can be analyzed in transgenic tomato fruits. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of paper is to investigate the market and traffic flows of organic fruit, respectively factors that determine demand, customer attitudes and their motives for purchase. From methods that are applied, the key methods are questionnaire and interview, and statistical, graphical and logical methods are used. Organic fruits market has begun to be developed in recent years, there is a demand, but on a small scale. Sustainability and further development of organic fruit production is largely caused by demand. Employed woman, with good financial condition, with children, higher or high educated, ages between 30 and 50 years, with a place of residence in the city, buys organic fruits. Health safety, quality, production area and care for the environment are the most important motives for purchase of organic fruits. Certificate, recommendations, appearance and taste of product, curiosity and packaging have secondary importance. The key factors, because of which the customers do not buy organic fruits, are unavailability in sales channels, high price, lack of confidence in organic products and low incomes.
Groot, M.J.; Peppelman, G.
Due to the poor financial results of the fruit industry in the last decade, the changing trade structures and more consumer-driven fruit chains, Dutch fruit growers change their market behaviour. In these circumstances, the fruit industry itself and the applied fruit research are also changing.
Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.
Five feeding tests were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the value or dwarf and smooth sumac fruits as the sole diet of quail, as well as a supplement to other feedstuffs.....When whole sumac fruits were force-fed quail, either alone or in combination with millet seed, many of the sumac seed were defecated undigested, whereas the millet seed was digested. Likewise, many sumac seed passed through the quail undigested when sumac fruit was fed ad libitum subsequent to a fasting period.....The quail did not relish sumac fruit as the sole article of diet. They lost weight nearly as rapidly on the fruit, ground or whole, 'the ground seed, or the pulp as they did when not given any food....Quail maintained their weight for 14 weeks during the late fall and winter in outdoor pens on a diet containing 50 per cent sumac fruit-pulp and other feedstuffs of high feeding value. A severe neck molt, however, occurred during the ninth week.....Quail lost weight rapidly on a diet containing 75 per cent sumac even though kept away from adverse weather conditions. A severe neck molt took place during the first week of this high-sumac diet. Heavy mortality occurred during the third and fourth weeks....Where the birds had a choice of many feedstuffs, they made sumac fruit 2 to 4 per cent of their diet....Therefore, it must be concluded, that even though sumac fruit is eaten by quail, and as a small percentage of the diet it may have a definite nutritional value, nevertheless as the sole or primary article of diet, it cannot be expected to maintain quail through a critical period in the winter.
Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J; Mallinger, R E; Epstein, D; Reed, T P; Miller, J R
. Paraffin wax drops are a promising technology for moth mating disruption. They are cheaper and easier to produce, require less total pheromone per annual application, and produce better mating disruption at appropriate deployment densities compared with Isomate M-Rosso dispensers under high G. molesta population densities. The cost-effectiveness of this approach will require an appropriate mechanized applicator for wax drops.
This report is concerned with an investigation of the major markets for processed tropical or exotic fruit. The markets studied are France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, the United States and Japan. Tropical fruit and their products are many and diverse; the study is concentrated on the more dynamic sectors of the market: that is, pulps, juices and canned fruits. The processed fruit for which there is significant demand are passion fruit, g...
Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate
Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and...
da Silva, Edson P; Siqueira, Heloisa H; do Lago, Rafael Carvalho; Rosell, Cristina M; Vilas Boas, Eduardo V de Barros
Marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart) is a typical savannah fruit that is very nutritious and highly appreciated. However, its consumption has been limited to fresh fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of marolo flour in the production of healthy snack bars to valorise this fruit and provide an alternative ready-to-eat nutritious product. Snack bars containing increasing amounts of marolo flour (5 g 100 g(-1), 10 g 100 g(-1), 15 g 100 g(-1), 20 g 100 g(-1), expressed in w/w) were produced and the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics were determined. Levels up to 20% marolo flour can be incorporated in snack bars with some minor changes in pH and moisture content but with an increase of 2.4-fold in dietary fibre content and also 1.3-fold of vitamin C, minerals and antioxidant activity. In addition, up to 10% marolo flour improves significantly the sensory properties of the snack bars, namely appearance, taste, texture and overall acceptance. Marolo flour can be considered an alternative flour for obtaining healthy snack bars, with increased nutritional and sensory quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario
To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.
Moyle, Richard L; Koia, Jonni H; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James; Botella, Jose R
A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of ethylene in climacteric tomato. LeMADS-RIN has been proposed to be a global ripening regulator shared among climacteric and non-climacteric species, although few functional homologs of LeMADS-RIN have been identified in non-climacteric species. AcMADS1 shares 67 % protein sequence similarity and a similar expression pattern in ripening fruits as LeMADS-RIN. However, in this study AcMADS1 was not able to complement the tomato rin mutant phenotype, indicating AcMADS1 may not be a functionally conserved homolog of LeMADS-RIN or has sufficiently diverged to be unable to act in the context of the tomato network of interacting proteins. The AcMADS1 promoter directed strong expression of the GUS reporter gene to fruits and developing floral organs in tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting AcMADS1 may play a role in flower development as well as fruitlet ripening. The AcMADS1 promoter provides a useful molecular tool for directing transgene expression, particularly where up-regulation in developing flowers and fruits is desirable.
Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz, Michaela; Blanke, Michael
Trade and consumers alike require premium-quality cherries with high nutritional and health values preferably of local origin. While early fruit imports cannot supply such fruit, a new technology of forcing cherry emerged for an early local supply by covering the crop in spring. In the apparent scarcity of data on the resulting fruit quality, fruit characteristics of forced cherries were compared with those without cover. Size and weight of forced cherry fruit were successfully increased by 6-14%. The less negative osmotic potential of the forced fruit (-3 to -2 MPa Ψπ ) indicates less water stress under spring cover compared with field-grown fruit (-4 MPa Ψπ ), as confirmed by the larger fruit size and weight. Greater antioxidative potentials in the lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts (control min. 185 mE vs max. 365 mE under cover) of forced fruit of two cultivars showed their healthier attribute in terms of bioactive compounds, supported also by an average 14% increase in phenolics, as a response to the modified environmental conditions, which has not been investigated before. The new technology of covering cherry trees in spring to force flowering and enhance ripening can improve the synthesis of bioactive compounds and provide the consumer with early high-quality fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Cory Silas Sheffield
Full Text Available The orchard crop pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae was evaluated for apple pollination in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada during 2000-2001. Resulting pollination levels (measured as pollen grains on floral stigmas, percent fruit set, mature fruit weight and seed yield were evaluated against an attempted gradient of Osmia bee density. In addition, fruit quality was assessed using two symmetry indices, one based on fruit diameter, the second on fruit height. Pollination levels, percent fruit set and mature fruit quality were much higher than minimums required for adequate crop production, and all but pollination levels showed weak but significant decreases at increased distance from the established nests, suggesting that even at low numbers these bees may have been making significant contributions to apple production. Fruit were typically of better quality in areas of the orchard adjacent to Osmia nests, having fewer empty carpels and greater symmetry; fruit quality (i.e., symmetry is typically most reduced when two or more adjacent carpels are empty. Empty carpels reduce growth in fruit height rather than diameter, suggesting that symmetry indices using fruit diameter are not sensitive enough to evaluate fruit quality. Evidencing this, fruit without mature seeds observed in this study showed high symmetry based on diameter, but were greatly asymmetric with respect to fruit height. Further discussion on Osmia bees as apple pollinators and on methods of evaluating apple fruit quality with respect to seed distribution within the apple fruit are provided.
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a highly polyphagous pentatomid that is native to Eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan). Its pest status stems from feeding damage on a wide range of vegetable crops, fruit trees, and ornamentals. The first...
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous species native to Asia that has become a serious invasive agricultural and nuisance pest across North America. Its ability to feed on over 120 plant species, ranging from field crops and orchard fruit to ornamentals and nativ...
Plaete, Jolien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté
The first aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test over time and whether the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test are capable of measuring fruit and vegetable intake with consistency. Second, the study aimed to examine criterion (concurrent) validity of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test by testing their agreement with 7-day food diary-derived measures of fruit and vegetable intake. In total 58 adults (31% male, mean age = 30.0±12.09y) completed the Flemish Fruit and Vegetable test by indicating the frequency of days that they ate fruit and vegetables and the number of portions during the past week. Validity was tested by using a 7-day food diary as a golden standard. Adults were asked to register their fruit and vegetable intake daily in a diary during one week. Spearman correlations were measured to compare total intake reported in the Fruit and Vegetable Test and in the 7-day diary. Agreement plots were used to illustrate absolute agreement. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having participants completing the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test twice. The Fruit Test (ICC = 0.81) and Vegetable Test (ICC = 0.78) showed excellent and substantial reliability. The Fruit Test (ρ = 0.73) and Vegetable Test showed good validity. Agreement plots showed modest variability in differences between vegetable and fruit intake as measured by the Vegetable and Fruit Test and the 7-day food diary. Also a small underestimation of fruit intake in the Fruit test and vegetable intake in the Vegetable test against the 7-day food diary was shown. Based on the results, it is suggested to include portion size pictures and consumption of mixed vegetables to prevent underestimation. To prevent overestimation, it is concluded to add a moderate number of representative fruit and vegetable items, questions on portion size, household sizes with sufficient detail and food items highly tailored to the dietary behaviors and local food items of the
Rust, Petra; Elmadfa, Ibrahim
Epidemiological studies confirm that high fruit and vegetable intake correlates with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, various kinds of cancer and other disease. Based on these results authorized bodies worldwide recommend to eat more fruits and vegetables, e.g., the 'five a day' campaign. Through 24-hour dietary recalls (studies 2000-02) the intake of 2,318 Austrian adults (19-65 years) were examined. 38.5% participants were male and 61.5% female. Austrian adults consume on average 248 +/- 316 g vegetables per day. The most popular vegetables are leafy, fruit and root vegetables. Pulses are seldom eaten. Women consume (252 +/- 184 g) slightly more vegetables than men (242 +/- 192 g). One fourth (26%) of the investigated subjects eat lower than 100 g vegetables, 21% consume amounts between 100 and 200 g and more than half (53%) eat more than 200g daily. Approximately half of the vegetable intake is consumed fresh and the other cooked, frozen vegetables are not often used by our study subjects. The daily intake of fruit is about 119 +/- 156 g. Men consume significantly lower quantities (107 +/- 159 g) of fruits than women (127 +/- 154 g) (p fruit per day, 23% between 100 and 200 g and only 26% more than the recommended 200 g. Most of the fruit is consumed fresh, frozen fruits and fruits in cans are not very popular. The favorite fruits are stone fruits, followed by citrus and berry fruits. Juice of fruits and vegetables was consumed in amounts of 56.7 +/- 151.3 ml/day. The daily intake of fruit and vegetable nectar is about 130.0 +/- 264.9 ml. If the amounts of juice and nectar are added to the average intake of fruit and vegetables, the whole quantity of fruit and vegetable intake is satisfying. Our survey shows that the investigated Austrian adults are not far away from reaching the minimum goal of 400 g fruit and vegetable intake per day. Nevertheless, 16% consumed less than 200 g vegetables and fruit. To improve health benefits, a higher intake of varied
Full Text Available The paper describes the plentitude of genetic resources of indigenous varieties of fruit species and their importance for further development of fruit growing, especially from the aspect of breeding new varieties resistant to pathogens and abiotic stress conditions (frost, drought, sunburns, etc.. Economic significance and importance in the human nutrition, as a raw or processed fruitage, were stated as well. Based on the unique biodiversity, the Balkan Peninsula can be considered as a secondary center of divergence for a large number of fruit species, such as Malus x domestica, Malus sylvestris, Pyrus communis, Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. fruticosa, P. amygdalus, P. nana, Juglans regia, Corilus colurna, Corilus avellana, Castanea sativa, Fragaria vesca, Cornus mas. The old indigenous and domesticated varieties and natural populations of fruit species on the Balkan Peninsula have never been the subject of comprehensive research work on their collecting and studying. Serbia has no national scientific institution that takes care of genetic resources. Nowadays, the issue of preserving genetic resources is of great importance because, due to the intensification and modernization of plant production, many local populations have disappeared or are reduced to a small number of biotypes. The varieties with huge genetic and breeding value have disappeared forever without any possibility of their return. By importing high quality fruit varieties, we imported many diseases and various pests as well. New varieties intended for intensive cultivation require the application of expensive growing technologies. The systematic scientific work on the study of wild fruit species and autochthonous varieties is of the great interest for fruit science and practice in the future. The establishment of in situ collections with the aim to preserve valuable genetic material is mandatory. In the following period, indigenous and domesticated varieties
Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S
The availability of many genomic resources such as genome sequences, functional genomics resources including microarrays and RNA-seq, sufficient numbers of molecular markers, express sequence tags (ESTs) and high-density genetic maps is causing a rapid acceleration of genetics and genomic research of many fruit plants. This is leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to many horticultural and agronomically important traits. Recently, some progress has also been made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in some fruit plants. This is one of the most active research fields in plant sciences. The last decade has witnessed development of genomic resources in many fruit plants such as apple, banana, citrus, grapes, papaya, pears, strawberry etc.; however, many of them are still not being exploited. Furthermore, owing to lack of resources, infrastructure and research facilities in many lesser-developed countries, development of genomic resources in many underutilized or less-studied fruit crops, which grow in these countries, is limited. Thus, research emphasis should be given to those fruit crops for which genomic resources are relatively scarce. The development of genomic databases of these less-studied fruit crops will enable biotechnologists to identify target genes that underlie key horticultural and agronomical traits. This review presents an overview of the current status of the development of genomic resources in fruit plants with the main emphasis being on genome sequencing, EST resources, functional genomics resources including microarray and RNA-seq, identification of quantitative trait loci and construction of genetic maps as well as efforts made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in fruit plants.
Pramanick, K K; Kashyap, Poonam; Kishore, D K; Sharma, Y P
A field experiment was conducted on bearing vines of kiwifruit cv. Abbott to find the effect of CPPU (N-(2- chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea) and summer pruning on fruit yield, fruit size and quality. CPPU greatly stimulated fruit growth indicating that it can be a powerful tool for improving kiwifruit cropping. Application of CPPU at 10 ppm concentration was done by dipping the fruits for 10 sec in the aqueous solution of compound at petal fall and 30 days after petal fall. CPPU applied fruits increased size by 20-70 g over control. Summer pruning along with CPPU application proved to be more effective in obtaining fruits of high grades with increased fruit weight (95.37 g fruit(-1)) and high quality. Summer pruning, when done by pinching 1/5th at Petal Fall stage + CPPU dipping (10 ml(-1)) and pinching 1/5th continued till harvest, at one month interval resulted in increased fruit yield (54.80 kg vine(-1)), high TSS (17.60 Brix), high total sugar (9.85%), advanced ripening by one week and reduced flesh firmness.
Domínguez, Eva; Fernández, María Dolores; Hernández, Juan Carlos López; Parra, Jerónimo Pérez; España, Laura; Heredia, Antonio; Cuartero, Jesús
Fruit cuticle composition and their mechanical performance have a special role during ripening because internal pressure is no longer sustained by the degraded cell walls of the pericarp but is directly transmitted to epidermis and cuticle which could eventually crack. We have studied fruit growth, cuticle modifications and its biomechanics, and fruit cracking in tomato; tomato has been considered a model system for studying fleshy fruit growth and ripening. Tomato fruit cracking is a major disorder that causes severe economic losses and, in cherry tomato, crack appearance is limited to the ripening process. As environmental conditions play a crucial role in fruit growing, ripening and cracking, we grow two cherry tomato cultivars in four conditions of radiation and relative humidity (RH). High RH and low radiation decreased the amount of cuticle and cuticle components accumulated. No effect of RH in cuticle biomechanics was detected. However, cracked fruits had a significantly less deformable (lower maximum strain) cuticle than non-cracked fruits. A significant and continuous fruit growth from mature green to overripe has been detected with special displacement sensors. This growth rate varied among genotypes, with cracking-sensitive genotypes showing higher growth rates than cracking-resistant ones. Environmental conditions modified this growth rate during ripening, with higher growing rates under high RH and radiation. These conditions corresponded to those that favored fruit cracking. Fruit growth rate during ripening, probably sustained by an internal turgor pressure, is a key parameter in fruit cracking, because fruits that ripened detached from the vine did not crack. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.
Wubs, A.M.; Ma, Y.T.; Hemerik, L.; Heuvelink, E.
Fruit set and yield patterns were studied in detail in six pepper cultivars. Fruit set differed largely between the cultivars: cultivars with small fruits (fruit fresh weight 20 to 40 g) showed higher fruit set (50%) than cultivars with large fruits (fruit fresh weight 120 to 200 g; 11% to 19%). The
Alsharairi, Naser A; Somerset, Shawn M
This study investigated associations between children's fruit and vegetable intake and their parents' parenting style (i.e., authoritative: high warmth-high control; authoritarian: low warmth-high control; permissive: high warmth-low control; and disengaged: low warmth-low control). Data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children K cohort, comprising approximately 5,000 children, were used for analyses in wave 1 (4-5 years), wave 2 (6-7 years), and wave 3 (8-9 years). Fruit and vegetable intake patterns were extracted through exploratory factor analysis. Boys with authoritarian mothers were found less likely to consume fruits and vegetables at 6-9 years. Children of both genders with authoritative and permissive fathers, and girls with authoritative mothers at 4-5 years were found most likely to consume fruits and vegetables two and four years later. Exploring possible mechanisms underlying such associations may lead to interventions aimed at increasing children's consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A
A study was done to determine the ability of Salmonella to survive on dried cranberries, raisins, and strawberries and in date paste, as affected by storage temperature. Acid-adapted Salmonella, initially at 6.57 to 7.01 log CFU/g, was recovered from mist-inoculated cranberries (water activity [aw] 0.47) and raisins (aw 0.46) stored at 25°C for 21 days but not 42 days, strawberries (aw 0.21) for 42 days but not 84 days, and date paste (aw 0.69) for 84 days but not 126 days. In contrast, the pathogen was detected in strawberries stored at 4°C for 182 days (6 months) but not 242 days (8 months) and in cranberries, date paste, and raisins stored for 242 days. Surface-grown cells survived longer than broth-grown cells in date paste. The order of rate of inactivation at 4°C was cranberry > strawberry > raisin > date paste. Initially at 2.18 to 3.35 log CFU/g, inactivation of Salmonella on dry (sand)&ndash inoculated fruits followed trends similar to those for mist-inoculated fruits. Survival of Salmonella in aqueous homogenates of dried fruits as affected by fruit concentration and temperature was also studied. Growth was not observed in 10% (aw 0.995 to 0.999) and 50% (aw 0.955 to 0.962) homogenates of the four fruits held at 4°C, 50% homogenates at 25°C, and 10% cranberry and strawberry homogenates at 25°C. Growth of the pathogen in 10% date paste and raisin homogenates stored at 25°C was followed by rapid inactivation. Results of these studies suggest the need to subject dried fruits that may be contaminated with Salmonella to a lethal process and prevent postprocess contamination before they are eaten out-of-hand or used as ingredients in ready-to-eat foods. Observations showing that Salmonella can grow in aqueous homogenates of date paste and raisins emphasize the importance of minimizing contact of these fruits with high-moisture environments during handling and storage.
Alexander M Piper
Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is a major orchard pest in Australia. Adult flies lay their eggs into ripe fruit, resulting in larval infestation and the spread of bacterial and fungal rots. The role of these microbes in fruit fly ecology is only now being elucidated, with much of the emphasis to date focusing on bacterial communities. In our study, we explored the diversity of yeast species associated with B. tryoni adults and larvae. We found larvae were highly assoc...
Wubs, A. M.; Ma, Y.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L. F. M.
Background and Aims Fruit set in indeterminate plant species largely depends on the balance between source and sink strength. Plants of these species show fluctuations in fruit set during the growing season. It was tested whether differences in fruit sink strength among the cultivars explained the differences in fruit-set patterns. Methods Capsicum was chosen as a model plant. Six cultivars with differences in fruit set, fruit size and plant growth were evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. Fruit-set patterns, generative and vegetative sink strength, source strength and the source : sink ratio at fruit set were determined. Sink strength was quantified as potential growth rate. Fruit set was related to total fruit sink strength and the source : sink ratio. The effect of differences observed in above-mentioned parameters on fruit-set patterns was examined using a simple simulation model. Key Results Sink strengths of individual fruits differed greatly among cultivars. Week-to-week fruit set in large-fruited cultivars fluctuated due to large fluctuations in total fruit sink strength, but in small-fruited cultivars, total fruit sink strength and fruit set were relatively constant. Large variations in week-to-week fruit set were correlated with a low fruit-set percentage. The source : sink threshold for fruit set was higher in large-fruited cultivars. Simulations showed that within the range of parameter values found in the experiment, fruit sink strength and source : sink threshold for fruit set had the largest impact on fruit set: an increase in these parameters decreased the average percentage fruit set and increased variation in weekly fruit set. Both were needed to explain the fruit-set patterns observed. The differences observed in the other parameters (e.g. source strength) had a lower effect on fruit set. Conclusions Both individual fruit sink strength and the source : sink threshold for fruit set were needed to explain the differences observed between fruit
Parsons, Eugene P.
To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.
Lewis, David E; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K
Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.
Ishibashi, Misaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Uno, Yuichi
Strawberry fruit contain the allergenic Fra a proteins, members of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein family that causes oral allergic syndrome symptoms. Fra a proteins are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which might be important for color development in fruits. Auxin is an important plant hormone in strawberry fruit that controls fruit fleshiness and ripening. In this study, we treated strawberry fruits with exogenous auxin or auxin inhibitors at pre- and post-harvest stages, and analyzed Fra a transcriptional and translational expression levels during fruit development by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Pre-harvest treatment with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) alone did not affect Fra a expression, but applied in conjunction with achene removal NAA promoted fruit pigmentation and Fra a protein accumulation. The response was developmental stage-specific: Fra a 1 was highly expressed in immature fruit, whereas Fra a 2 was expressed in young to ripe fruit. In post-harvest treatments, auxin did not contribute to Fra a induction. Auxin inhibitors delayed fruit ripening; as a result, they seemed to influence Fra a 1 expression. Thus, Fra a expression was not directly regulated by auxin, but might be associated with the ripening process and/or external factors in a paralog-specific manner.
McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M
More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment.
Legland, D; Devaux, M-F; Bouchet, B; Guillon, F; Lahaye, M
In fleshy fruits, the variability of cell morphology at the fruit scale is largely unknown. It presents both a huge variability and a high level of organization. Better knowledge of cell morphology heterogeneity within the fruit is necessary to understand fruit development, to model fruit mechanical behaviour, or to investigate variations of physico-chemical measurements. A generic approach is proposed to build cartographies of cell morphology at the fruit scale, which depict regions corresponding to different cell morphologies. The approach is based on: (1) sampling the whole fruit at known positions; (2) imaging and quantifying local cell morphology; (3) pooling measurements to take biological variability into account and (4) projecting results in a morphology model of the whole fruit. The result is a synthetic representation of cell morphology variations within the whole fruit. The method was applied to the characterization of cell morphology in tomato pericarp. Two different imaging scales that provided complementary descriptions were used: 3D confocal microscopy and macroscopy. The approach is generic and can be adapted to other fruits or other products. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.
Full Text Available N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl-N'-phenylurea (CPPU is a highly active cytokinin-like plant growth regulator that promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell division, and cell expansion. It also increases fruit set and accelerates fruit enlargement. However, there has been no report about the effect of CPPU on fruit development and its physiological mechanism in macadamia. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPPU treatment at early fruit development via foliar spray or raceme soaking at 20 mg·L-1 on fruit set and related physiology in macadamia. Changes in carbohydrate contents and endogenous hormones in leaves, bearing shoots and fruit were also examined. Results showed that CPPU significantly reduced young fruit drop and delayed the wave of fruit drop by 1-2 weeks. The treatment significantly decreased the contents of total soluble sugars and starch in the leaves, but increased them in the bearing shoots and total soluble sugars in the husk (pericarp and seeds. These findings suggested that CPPU promoted carbohydrate mobilization from the leaves to the fruit. In addition, CPPU increased the contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellin acid (GA3, and zeatin riboside (ZR and decreased the abscisic acid (ABA in the husk. Therefore, CPPU treatment reduced the early fruit drop by increasing carbohydrate availability and by modifying the balance among endogenous hormones.
Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.
Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel
In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez
Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Radunić, Mira; Jukić Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan
The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7 mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
La pollinisation est le transfert du pollen des étamines aux pistils suivi de l’acheminement des gamètes mâles (les noyaux spermatiques) via le pollen jusqu’aux ovules. Autrement dit, à part chez les espèces parthénocarpiques (qui produisent des fruits sans fécondation, et donc sans graine, comme le bananier) et les rares espèces apomictiques (qui produisent des graines sans fécondation comme certains agrumes), la pollinisation est un préambule clé à la production de fruits et de graines....
Anália Lúcia Vieira Pacheco
Full Text Available Growing yellow passion fruit is a profitable activity, with a high demand for labor, and it is practiced especially by family-based farmers. However, the production cost is rather high and a significant part of this cost is associated with the expenses related to fertilization and phytosanitary treatments necessary for obtaining satisfactory yields and high commercial quality fruit. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using organic compound in fertilization of plants and alternative products in phytosanitary treatments on the yield and quality of fruits. Yellow passion fruits were submitted to three types of fertilization (mineral, organic and organic-mineral and two types of phytosanitary treatment (‘conventional’ and ‘alternative’. This experiment evaluated fruit yield (kg/plant and fruit quality by using the following evaluations: seedless pulp yield, soluble solids content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio and vitamin C content. The different types of fertilization did not interfere in fruit yield, however, plants under conventional phytosanitary treatment displayed higher yields. The SS content and TA of the fruits were influenced only by fertilization, where plants that received mineral and organic-mineral fertilization produced fruit with higher contents of SS and TA. Pulp yield, SS/TA ratio and vitamin C content were not influenced by any of the evaluated factors. Regarding cultivation of passion fruit, it is possible to substitute some mineral fertilizers for organic fertilizers with no negative effects on the fruit yield or quality. However, the substitution of pesticides for alternative products compromises fruit yield.
Heim, Stephanie; Stang, Jamie; Ireland, Marjorie
Fruit and vegetable intake among children is inadequate. Garden-based nutrition education programs may offer a strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable intake in children. A 12-week pilot intervention was designed to promote fruit and vegetable intake among 4th to 6th grade children (n=93) attending a YMCA summer camp. Children participated in garden-based activities twice per week. Weekly educational activities included fruit and vegetable taste tests, preparation of fruit and vegetable snacks, and family newsletters sent home to parents. The pilot intervention was evaluated using a pre and post survey to determine participant satisfaction and the short-term impacts of the program. The process evaluation focused on program satisfaction, whereas the short-term impact evaluation assessed fruit and vegetable exposure, preference, self-efficacy, asking behavior, and availability of fruits and vegetables in the home. Data from the impact evaluation were compared from baseline to follow-up using McNemar's test (dichotomous variables) and Wilcoxon signed rank test (scales/continuous variables). Children reported high levels of enjoyment in the intervention activities. Most children (97.8%) enjoyed taste-testing fruits and vegetables. Children also liked preparing fruit and vegetable snacks (93.4%), working in their garden (95.6%), and learning about fruits and vegetables (91.3%). Impact data suggest that the intervention led to an increase in the number of fruits and vegetables ever eaten (Pprograms can increase fruit and vegetable exposure and improve predictors of fruit and vegetable intake through experiential learning activities. Participation in the "seed to table" experience of eating may help promote healthful eating behaviors among youth. Food and nutrition professionals should consider garden-based nutrition education programs that connect children with healthful foods through fun, hands-on activities.
Rossetto, Maria Rosecler Miranda; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Fabi, João Paulo; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana
Papaya is a climacteric fruit that has high amounts of benzylglucosinolates (BG) and benzylisothiocyanates (BITC), but information regarding levels of BG or BITC during fruit development and ripening is limited. Because BG and BITC are compounds of importance from both a nutritional and a crop yield standpoint, the aim of this work was to access data on the distribution and changes of BG and BITC levels during fruit development and ripening. BG and BITC levels were quantified in peel, pulp, and seeds of papaya fruit. Volatile BITC was also verified in the internal cavity of the fruit during ripening. The influence of the ethylene in BG and BITC levels and mirosinase activity was tested by exposing mature green fruits to ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The highest BG levels were detected in seeds, followed by the peel and pulp being decreased in all tissues during fruit development. Similarly, the levels of BITC were much higher in the seeds than the peel and pulp. The levels of BG for control and ethylene-treated fruit were very similar, increasing in the pulp and peel during late ripening but not changing significantly in seeds. On the other hand, fruit exposed to 1-MCP showed a decrease in BG amount in the pulp and accumulation in seed. The treatments did not result in clear differences regarding the amount of BITC in the pulp and peel of the fruit. According to the results, ethylene does not have a clear effect on BITC accumulation in ripening papaya fruit. The fact that BG levels in the pulp did not decrease during ripening, regardless of the treatment employed, and that papaya is consumed mainly as fresh fruit, speaks in favor of this fruit as a good dietary source for glucosinolate and isothiocyanates.
Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Kruger, Marlena C
The positive link between bone health and fruit/vegetable consumption has been attributed to the lower renal acid load of a diet high in alkaline-forming fruit/vegetables. Other important dietary determinants of bone health include micronutrients and bioactives found in fruit/vegetables. We hypothesized that increased intake of fruit/vegetables to 9 or more servings a day would lower net endogenous acid production (NEAP) significantly (~20 mEq/d) and increase urine pH (0.5 pH units). This 8-week feasibility study investigated if 21 midlife women (age, 40-65 years) currently consuming 5 or less servings a day of fruit/vegetables could increase their intake to 9 or more servings a day to substantially lower NEAP and include specific vegetables daily. Three-day diet diaries were completed at baseline and the end of the study and assessed for NEAP (estimated) and number of servings from all food groups. Urine pH dipsticks were provided for the participants to assess and record their fasting urine pH daily (second void). Seventy-six percent of women achieved the study aim, which was to increase to 9 or more servings of fruit/vegetables for at least 5 d/wk. There was a reduction in the number of bread/cereal servings. Net endogenous acid production (estimated) was reduced significantly, with a mean urine pH increase of 0.68 pH units (95% confidence interval, 0.46-1.14); however, daily urine pH measures showed high variability. This study demonstrated that a group of midlife women can change their diet for 8 weeks by significantly increasing fruit/vegetable servings and include specific "bone friendly" vegetables daily, resulting in a significant decrease in estimated dietary NEAP and an increase in urine pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matsuo, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Kaori; Fukuda, Machiko; Honda, Ichiro; Imanishi, Shunsuke
Cytokinins (CKs) are thought to play important roles in fruit development, especially cell division. However, the mechanisms and regulation of CK activity have not been well investigated. This study analysed CK concentrations and expression of genes involved in CK metabolism in developing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ovaries. The concentrations of CK ribosides and isopentenyladenine and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT3, SlIPT4, SlLOG6, and SlLOG8 were high at anthesis and decreased immediately afterward. In contrast, trans-zeatin concentration and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT1, SlIPT2, SlCYP735A1, SlCYP735A2, and SlLOG2 increased after anthesis. The expression of type-A response regulator genes was high in tomato ovaries from pre-anthesis to early post-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the CK signal transduction pathway is active in the cell division phase of fruit development. This study also investigated the effect of CK application on fruit set and development. Application of a synthetic CK, N-(2-chloro-pyridin-4-yl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU), to unpollinated tomato ovaries induced parthenocarpic fruit development. The CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits were smaller than pollinated fruits, because of reduction of pericarp cell size rather than reduced cell number. Thus, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was attributable to the promotion of cell division, not cell expansion. Overall, the results provide evidence that CKs are involved in cell division during development of tomato fruit.
de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G; Schaefer, H Martin; Habermann, Gustavo; Cazetta, Eliana; Soares, Natalia Costa; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia C
Most bird-dispersed fruits are green when unripe and become colored and conspicuous when ripe, signaling that fruits are ready to be consumed and dispersed. The color pattern for fruits of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae), however, is the opposite, with reddish unripe and green ripe fruits. We (1) verified the maintenance over time of its bicolored display, (2) tested the communicative function of unripe fruits, (3) tested the photoprotective role of anthocyanins in unripe fruits, and (4) verified whether green ripe fruits can assimilate carbon. Using a paired experiment, we tested whether detection of ripe fruits was higher on infructescences with unripe and ripe fruits compared with infructescences with only ripe fruits. We also measured and compared gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and heat dissipation of covered (to prevent anthocyanin synthesis) and uncovered ripe and unripe fruits. Although the bicolored display was maintained over time, unripe fruits had no influence on bird detection and removal of ripe fruits. Ripe and unripe fruits did not assimilate CO2, but they respired instead. Since the communicative function of unripe fruits was not confirmed, seed dispersers are unlikely to select the display with bicolored fruits. Because of the absence of photosynthetic activity in ripe and unripe fruits and enhanced photoprotective mechanisms in ripe fruits rather than in unripe fruits, we could not confirm the photoprotective role of anthocyanins in unripe fruits. As an alternative hypothesis, we suggest that the bicolored fruit display could be an adaptation to diversify seed dispersal vectors instead of restricting dispersal to birds and that anthocyanins in unripe fruits may have a defense role against pathogens. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.
Asif, Mehar Hasan; Lakhwani, Deepika; Pathak, Sumya; Gupta, Parul; Bag, Sumit K; Nath, Pravendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar
Banana is one of the most important crop plants grown in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is a climacteric fruit and undergoes ethylene dependent ripening. Once ripening is initiated, it proceeds at a fast rate making postharvest life short, which can result in heavy economic losses. During the fruit ripening process a number of physiological and biochemical changes take place and thousands of genes from various metabolic pathways are recruited to produce a ripe and edible fruit. To better understand the underlying mechanism of ripening, we undertook a study to evaluate global changes in the transcriptome of the fruit during the ripening process. We sequenced the transcriptomes of the unripe and ripe stages of banana (Musa accuminata; Dwarf Cavendish) fruit. The transcriptomes were sequenced using a 454 GSFLX-Titanium platform that resulted in more than 7,00,000 high quality (HQ) reads. The assembly of the reads resulted in 19,410 contigs and 92,823 singletons. A large number of the differentially expressed genes identified were linked to ripening dependent processes including ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signalling, cell wall degradation and production of aromatic volatiles. In the banana fruit transcriptomes, we found transcripts included in 120 pathways described in the KEGG database for rice. The members of the expansin and xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene families were highly up-regulated during ripening, which suggests that they might play important roles in the softening of the fruit. Several genes involved in the synthesis of aromatic volatiles and members of transcription factor families previously reported to be involved in ripening were also identified. A large number of differentially regulated genes were identified during banana fruit ripening. Many of these are associated with cell wall degradation and synthesis of aromatic volatiles. A large number of differentially expressed genes did not align with any of the databases and
Ana Carolina de Almeida Lins
Full Text Available The technology for the production of restructured fruit with high contents of fruit pulp using hydrocolloids as binding agents has not been fully developed. This study evaluated the effect of mixtures of sodium alginate, low methoxy pectin, and gelatin on the characteristics of yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L. fruit gels. The results of the central composite design showed that the models obtained, except for those of water activity and soluble solids, were predictive. Gelatin was the most important factor affecting firmness, pH, and the color parameters of the structured fruit pulp.
... HealthDay News) -- Fresh fruits are loaded with fiber, antioxidants and other great nutrients. And studies show that ... t forget to eat a fruit's peel or skin when edible -- it's a powerhouse of nutrients. None ...
Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion, auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) production as it
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be ...
... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO... the following citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus grandis, Osbeck, commonly called grapefruit, and (b) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called oranges. ...
Ugolini, Luisa; Righetti, Laura; Carbone, Katya; Paris, Roberta; Malaguti, Lorena; Di Francesco, Alessandra; Micheli, Laura; Paliotta, Mariano; Mari, Marta; Lazzeri, Luca
The use of natural compounds to preserve fruit quality and develop high value functional products deserves attention especially in the growing industry of processing and packaging ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit...
Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocké, M.C.; Verschuren, W.M.M.
Background - Prospective cohort studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Whether food processing affects this association is unknown. Therefore, we quantified the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with
Full Text Available Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5 mg GAE/g, flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1 RE/g, and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78±1.2% and 85±2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550±123, when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729±172. Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant.
Full Text Available Most of the volatile flavoring substances are formed during maturation of fruit when it ripens. In this study, the mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes fruit was harvested at half-ripe and ripe stages of maturity and analyzed for its volatile components. The extracts were obtained from the fruit pulp by using simultaneous distillation and extraction technique. Several extraction parameters such as weight of the pulp, dilution with water, solvent volume and extraction period were standardized to obtain highly characteristic fruit aroma extracts. The extracts were analyzed for the identification of volatile compounds by using a system of high resolution gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer. Eighty-six components were separated out of which 46 compounds were positively identified. The volatile flavoring substances pertaining to classes of esters and terpenes increased from 6.19 to 35.487% and from 7.51 to 10.40%, respectively. The principal volatile compounds present in the pulp of ripe mangaba fruit were isopropyl acetate (19.23%, 3-hexanol (10.74%, linalool (7.38%, ä-limonene (2.43%, 3-pentanol (3.80%, 3-ethyl 2-buten-1-ol (2.53% and furfural (1.52%. Biogeneration of mangaba flavor is mainly characterized due to the presence of compounds pertaining to esters, aldehydes and terpenes.
This factsheet corrects several popular media inaccuracies about Rubus fruit. Supplying the public with scientific facts is part of our continued efforts to assist consumers in making sound health conscious decisions. This project was partially funded by a Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant fr...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the ... Author Affiliations. Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Jakkur P.O. Bangalore 560 064, India ...
Oliveira, M; Viñas, I; Colàs, P; Anguera, M; Usall, J; Abadias, M
Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen and new strategies to control it in food are needed. Among them, bacteriophages hold attributes that appear to be attractive. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the bacteriophage Listex P100 to control L. monocytogenes growth on melon, pear and apple products (juices and slices) stored at 10 °C. L. monocytogenes grew well in untreated fruit slices. In juices, the pathogen grew in untreated melon, survived in untreated pear and decreased in untreated apple. Phage treatment was more effective on melon followed by pear, but no effect on apple products was observed. Reductions of about 1.50 and 1.00 log cfu plug(-1) for melon and pear slices were found, respectively. In juices, higher reductions were obtained in melon (8.00 log cfu mL(-1)) followed by pear (2.10 log cfu mL(-1)) after 8 days of storage. L. monocytogenes in apple juice was unaffected by phage treatment in which the phage decreased to almost undetectable numbers. These results highlight that Listex P100 could avoid pathogen growth on fresh-cut and in fruit juices with high pH during storage at 10 °C. The combination with other technologies may be required to improve the phage application on high acidity fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dr. M. Nejat SEFERCIOĞLU
Full Text Available About 80 divans were studied and poems with fruitnames as a refrain were specified. In the Divan poetry,fruit names as a refrain were used rarely. In these poems,the similes about fruits are concerned with their colours,shapes and tastes. In these ghazels, some similes weremade with fruit names which were used as a refrain, forexample bitter orange - lover, aggrieved, deus exmachina; citrus fruit - lover; peach - lovers lips. Alsothese refrains’s importance was emphasized.
Granatstein, David; Kirby, Elisabeth; Ostenson, Harold; Willer, Helga
Consumer demand for organic tree fruit products in Europe and North America, the dominant organic food markets, has spurred increases in organic area and production globally. From 2008–2013, the area of production grew 109%, 42%, and 53% for organic temperate tree fruits, citrus, and tropical/subtropical fruits, respectively, with much lower growth for total area (non-organic plus organic) in these categories. Most organic tree fruits represent approximately 1–2% of total production area for ...
Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...
Ding, Shenghua; Wang, Rongrong; Shan, Yang; Li, Gaoyang; Ou, Shiyi
Pectin is related to fruit maturation and loss of flesh firmness. In this research, changes in pectin characteristics, including pectin content, neutral sugar composition, molecular weight (Mw ) distribution and degree of methylesterification (DM), in six different growth stages (S1 to S6) of jujube fruit were assessed. The growth of jujube fruit corresponded to an increase in water-soluble pectin (WSP) and a decrease in sodium carbonate-soluble pectin (SSP). The chelate-soluble pectin (CSP) content reached a maximum level at S3 but decreased significantly from S3 to S4. Arabinose proved to be the principal branched neutral monosaccharide in pectin during growth and was lost from WSP, CSP and SSP in S4 to S6. The ratios of (arabinose + galactose)/rhamnose indicated that the branched chains of WSP, CSP and SSP degraded in S2, S3 and S4 respectively. SSP depolymerized from S2 and increased as jujube fruit ripened. By contrast, WSP depolymerized throughout ripening. The DM of pectins ranged from 45.38 to 92.21%. Among the obtained DMs, the lowest was observed in WSP from ripened jujube fruit (S6). The content, neutral sugar composition, DM and Mw distribution of pectins changed markedly as jujube fruit ripened. Jujube fruit could be a promising alternative source of pectins in terms of maturation degree. WSP from S6 and CSP from S1 or S2 could be used as gelling agents in low-sugar-containing products because of their low methoxyl pectin contents. WSP from S1 could also be applied as a thickener or emulsifier owing to its high Mw distribution. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon
We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried fruit. 24.202... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.202 Dried fruit. In the production of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that of...
Fruit development and ripening represent the terminal phase of plant development. It is during this phase that fleshy fruits are enriched with sensory and nutritional quality attributes. Fruits are a dietary source of vitamins, minerals and fibre but, due to their short postharvest life, a large por...
Full Text Available Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. is an important non-climacteric fruit and rich in essential nutrients such as minerals and carotenoids. During fruit development and ripening, thousands of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs from various metabolic pathways cause a series of physiological and biochemical changes. To better understand the underlying mechanism of fruit development, the Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the global changes of gene transcription levels. More than 51,610,234 high quality reads from ten runs of fruit development were sequenced and assembled into 48,838 unigenes. Among 3256 DEGs, 2304 unigenes could be annotated to the Gene Ontology database. These DEGs were distributed into 119 pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database. A large number of DEGs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone signaling, and cell-wall degradation. The real-time reverse transcription (qRT-PCR analyses revealed that several genes related to cell expansion, auxin signaling and ethylene response were differentially expressed during fruit development. Other members of transcription factor families were also identified. There were 952 DEGs considered as novel genes with no annotation in any databases. These unigenes will serve as an invaluable genetic resource for loquat molecular breeding and postharvest storage.
Song, Huwei; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Hu, Weicheng; Wang, Xinfeng; Shen, Ting; Yang, Liming
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important non-climacteric fruit and rich in essential nutrients such as minerals and carotenoids. During fruit development and ripening, thousands of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from various metabolic pathways cause a series of physiological and biochemical changes. To better understand the underlying mechanism of fruit development, the Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the global changes of gene transcription levels. More than 51,610,234 high quality reads from ten runs of fruit development were sequenced and assembled into 48,838 unigenes. Among 3256 DEGs, 2304 unigenes could be annotated to the Gene Ontology database. These DEGs were distributed into 119 pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. A large number of DEGs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone signaling, and cell-wall degradation. The real-time reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analyses revealed that several genes related to cell expansion, auxin signaling and ethylene response were differentially expressed during fruit development. Other members of transcription factor families were also identified. There were 952 DEGs considered as novel genes with no annotation in any databases. These unigenes will serve as an invaluable genetic resource for loquat molecular breeding and postharvest storage.
Vine balance metrics have been determined in hot climates to help growers quantify vine growth in relation to crop level to produce high quality fruit. A study was implemented in a commercial vineyard to evaluate a range of crop loads in relation to vine growth and fruit quality. Vegetative vigor wa...
A germplasm collection block of guava containing nine accessions was established in Ibadan to assess variations in metrical, visual and other fruit yield characters for the purpose of selection for good quality fruit. The results showed that four years after planting only accessions TB85/2885 and TB85/2887 had high survival ...
Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Schuurman, C.R.W.C.; Verhagen, H.; Berg, H. van den; Kok, F.J.; Poppel, G. van
Observational epidemiologic studies have shown that a high consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases. Little is known about the bioavailability of constituents from vegetables and fruits and the effect of these constituents on markers for disease
van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Ros, Martine M.; Casagrande, Corinne; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Noethlings, Ute; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Misirli, Gesthimani; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Ocke, Marga C.; Lund, Eiliv; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Rodriguez Suarez, Laudina; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Hallmans, Goran; Palmqvist, Richard; Bingham, Sheila A.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Boffetta, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio
Background: A high consumption of fruit and vegetables is possibly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the findings to date are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the relation between self-reported usual consumption of fruit and vegetables and the incidence of
Jesionkowska, K.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Konopacka, D.; Symoneaux, R.
Modern drying technology provides the opportunity to obtain dried fruits with high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Such products may also be fortified with functional ingredients. The adoption of dried fruit as a carrier of functional ingredients for consumers is indispensable to launch this
Chee Yen, Wong; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir
Understanding individual's intention, action and maintenance to increase fruit and vegetable intake is an initial step in designing nutrition or health promotion programs. This study aimed to determine stages of change to increase fruit and vegetable intake and its relationships with fruit and vegetable intake, self-efficacy, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 348 public university staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire and two days 24-hour diet recall were used. Half of the respondents (50%) were in preparation stage, followed by 43% in action/maintenance, 7% in pre-contemplation/contemplation stages. Respondents in action/maintenance stages had significantly higher self-efficacy (F = 9.17, P stages had significantly higher perceived barriers (F = 4.83, P stages had the highest adjusted mean serving of fruit and vegetable intake (F = 4.52, P changes in having high fruit and vegetable intake.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Olea europaea L. is a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean basin with a worldwide economical high impact. Differently from other fruit tree species, little is known about the physiological and molecular basis of the olive fruit development and a few sequences of genes and gene products are available for olive in public databases. This study deals with the identification of large sets of differentially expressed genes in developing olive fruits and the subsequent computational annotation by means of different software. Results mRNA from fruits of the cv. Leccino sampled at three different stages [i.e., initial fruit set (stage 1, completed pit hardening (stage 2 and veraison (stage 3] was used for the identification of differentially expressed genes putatively involved in main processes along fruit development. Four subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed: forward and reverse between stage 1 and 2 (libraries A and B, and 2 and 3 (libraries C and D. All sequenced clones (1,132 in total were analyzed through BlastX against non-redundant NCBI databases and about 60% of them showed similarity to known proteins. A total of 89 out of 642 differentially expressed unique sequences was further investigated by Real-Time PCR, showing a validation of the SSH results as high as 69%. Library-specific cDNA repertories were annotated according to the three main vocabularies of the gene ontology (GO: cellular component, biological process and molecular function. BlastX analysis, GO terms mapping and annotation analysis were performed using the Blast2GO software, a research tool designed with the main purpose of enabling GO based data mining on sequence sets for which no GO annotation is yet available. Bioinformatic analysis pointed out a significantly different distribution of the annotated sequences for each GO category, when comparing the three fruit developmental stages. The olive fruit-specific transcriptome dataset was
Folkvord, F.; Anastasiadou, D.T.; Anschutz, D.J.
Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of
Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M
and followed until 2010. Hazard ratios, rate advancement periods, and preventable proportions to respectively compare risk of death between quartiles of consumption, to estimate the period by which the risk of death was postponed among high consumers, and to estimate proportions of deaths that could...... be prevented if all participants would shift their consumption 1 quartile upward. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94), with a rate advancement period of 1.12 years (95......% CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high...
... through the importation of litchi fruit, including 3 fruit flies, 7 lepidopteran pests, 2 scales, 2 insect pests, and 1 mite. Fruit flies Jarvis's fruit fly (Bactrocera jarvisi). Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni). Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Lepidopteran pests Yellow peach moth (Conogethes...
Jan 11, 2010 ... Winter squash populations show great diversity in morphological characteristics, particularly fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit ... fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, length of seed cavity and flesh thickness. This evaluation .... Winter squash seeds from four provinces (Samsun, Amasya, Sinop and Bolu) of the ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be
Kamal Rai Aneja
Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.
Aune, D; Chan, D S M; Vieira, A R; Rosenblatt, D A Navarro; Vieira, R; Greenwood, D C; Norat, T
Evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. To clarify the association, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence from prospective studies. We searched PubMed for prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk until April 30, 2011. We included fifteen prospective studies that reported relative risk estimates and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks. The summary relative risk (RR) for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.89 (95 % CI: 0.80-0.99, I (2) = 0 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.92 (95 % CI: 0.86-0.98, I (2) = 9 %) for fruits, and 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.92-1.06, I (2) = 20 %) for vegetables. In dose-response analyses, the summary RR per 200 g/day was 0.96 (95 % CI: 0.93-1.00, I (2) = 2 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.94 (95 % CI: 0.89-1.00, I (2) = 39 %) for fruits, and 1.00 (95 % CI: 0.95-1.06, I (2) = 17 %) for vegetables. In this meta-analysis of prospective studies, high intake of fruits, and fruits and vegetables combined, but not vegetables, is associated with a weak reduction in risk of breast cancer.
Fang, Ting; Zhen, Qiaoling; Liao, Liao; Owiti, Albert; Zhao, Li; Korban, Schuyler S; Han, Yuepeng
Ascorbic acid (AsA) content in mature fruits of 457 apple accessions were measured, and a great variation in AsA concentration was detected. Wild fruits showed significantly higher level of AsA than cultivated fruits. Fruit AsA content was positively correlated with malic acid content, but negatively correlated with fruit weight and soluble solid content. Thus, the difference in AsA content between the wild and cultivated fruits could be attributed to an indirect consequence of human selection for larger fruit size, less acidity, and increased sweetness during apple domestication. Additionally, AsA concentration was extremely high in fruit at the juvenile stage, but dramatically decreased at the expanding and mature stages. The expression levels of three genes controlling AsA accumulation, MdGGP1, MdDHAR3-3, and MdNAT7-2, were significantly negatively correlated with AsA contents in fruits, suggesting a feedback regulation mechanism in AsA-related gene expression. Our results could be helpful for future apple breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Capel, Carmen; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; López-Casado, Gloria; Angosto, Trinidad; Heredia, Antonio; Cuartero, Jesús; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Lozano, Rafael; Capel, Juan
Agronomical characterization of a RIL population for fruit mineral contents allowed for the identification of QTL controlling these fruit quality traits, flanked by co-dominant markers useful for marker-assisted breeding. Tomato quality is a multi-variant attribute directly depending on fruit chemical composition, which in turn determines the benefits of tomato consumption for human health. Commercially available tomato varieties possess limited variability in fruit quality traits. Wild species, such as Solanum pimpinellifolium, could provide different nutritional advantages and can be used for tomato breeding to improve overall fruit quality. Determining the genetic basis of the inheritance of all the traits that contribute to tomato fruit quality will increase the efficiency of the breeding program necessary to take advantage of the wild species variability. A high-density linkage map has been constructed from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between tomato Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-relative species S. pimpinellifolium. The RIL population was evaluated for fruit mineral contents during three consecutive growing seasons. The data obtained allowed for the identification of main QTL and novel epistatic interaction among QTL controlling fruit mineral contents on the basis of a multiple-environment analysis. Most of the QTL were flanked by candidate genes providing valuable information for both tomato breeding for new varieties with novel nutritional properties and the starting point to identify the genes underlying these QTL, which will help to reveal the genetic basis of tomato fruit nutritional properties.
Vasant, Rupal A; Narasimhacharya, A V R L
Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit) is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in laboratory rats. A four-week exposure to fluoride caused sustained hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and, when the diet was supplemented with star fruit powder, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were restored significantly. It is surmised that the antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of star fruit in fluoride exposed rats could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit, which are all well known regulators of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. These findings suggest that star fruit can be used as a dietary supplement in fluoride endemic regions to contain fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress.
Jimenez-Jimenez, F.; Castro-Garcia, S.; Blanco-Roldan, G. L.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, E. J.; Gil-Ribes, J. A.
The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the Manzanilla variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of bruise 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations. (Author) 34 refs.
Vasant Rupal A.
Full Text Available Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in laboratory rats. A four-week exposure to fluoride caused sustained hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and, when the diet was supplemented with star fruit powder, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were restored significantly. It is surmised that the antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of star fruit in fluoride exposed rats could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit, which are all well known regulators of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. These findings suggest that star fruit can be used as a dietary supplement in fluoride endemic regions to contain fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress
Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish
Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.
Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti
The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.
Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.
In the EU-funded CROPS (Clever Robots for Crops) project high tech robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit and fruit vegetables. The harvesting robots are being designed to harvest high-value crops such as greenhouse vegetables, fruits in orchards and grapes
Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satya Vir
The main cause of perishability of fruits and vegetables are their high water content. To increase the shelf life of these fruits and vegetables many methods or combination of methods had been tried. Osmotic dehydration is one of the best and suitable method to increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. This process is preferred over others due to their vitamin and minerals, color, flavor and taste retention property. In this review different methods, treatments, optimization and effects of osmotic dehydration have been reviewed. Studied showed that combination of different osmotic agents were more effective than sucrose alone due to combination of properties of solutes. During the experiments it was found that optimum osmosis was found at approximately 40 °C, 40 °B of osmotic agent and in near about 132 min. Pretreatments also leads to increase the osmotic process in fruits and vegetables. Mass transfer kinetics study is an important parameter to study osmosis. Solids diffusivity were found in wide range (5.09-32.77 kl/mol) studied by Fick's laws of diffusion. These values vary depending upon types of fruits and vegetables and osmotic agents.
Luty Gomez Caceres
Full Text Available Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is an Amazonian Basin native fruit. Its importance comes from its high contents of pectin. Currently, processing technologies are necessary for the substitution of the traditional system (small crops and small-scale processing for a larger scale system and thus increase the use of biodiversity and promote the implementation of Local Productive Arrangements of agribusiness in the Amazon. This research aims to evaluate the methods of peeling cubiu. Ripe fruits were divided into lots (150 each and subjected to the following treatments: immersion in 2.5% NaOH boiling solution for 5 minutes, exposure to water vapor, and immersion in water at 96 ºC for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. The peel released during heat treatment and immediately removed under running tap water. In the control treatment, the fruits were manually peeled (unheated with a stainless steel knife. The treatments were evaluated for completeness and ease of peeling, tissue integrity, texture, and peroxidase activity. The immersion in 2.5% NaOH boiling solution (5 minutes stood out as the best treatment since it inhibited the enzymatic browning and intensified the natural yellow color of the cubiu fruit and easily and fully peeled the whole fruit more rapidly without damaging its tissues. This treatment was chosen as the most advantageous because it can promote simultaneous peeling and bleaching. Therefore, it is recommended for cubiu industrial processing.
Full Text Available Yield and fruit quality (fruit weight, reducing sugar content, sucrose content and total acids content were studied in 20 introduced peach cultivars. To evaluate the stability of those characteristics in the agro-ecological conditions of Belgrade surroundings, bi and S2di were applied. ‘Adriana’ had the highest yield and content of reducing sugars, ‘Aurelia’ the highest fruit weight, ‘Pegaso’ the highest sucrose content, and ‘Croce del Sud’ the highest total acids content. Values of bi coeffi cient indicated that ‘Sirio’ had the highest stability of yield ‘Iris Rosso’ the highest stability of fruit weight and content of reducing sugars, ‘Aurelia’ the highest stability of sucrose content, and ‘Emilia’ the highest stability of total acids content. Values of S2di, despite being relatively high, did not show any statistical signifi cance, which indicates a more signifi cant deviation from regression and unsatisfactory stability of the studied genotypes. The results of the present work confi rm that bi, being a stability parameter, is more important than S2di in heterozygous genotypes, the genotype of a majority of fruit cultivars, therefore of peach itself.
Lu, Peng-Fei; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu
Plant volatiles play a key role in host plant location of phytophagous insects. Cydia molesta is an important pest of pear fruit late in the growing season. We identified and quantified volatiles from immature and mature fruits of six pear varieties by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Attractiveness of synthetic blends to adults based on gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) activity was investigated in both field and laboratory. Consistent electroantennographic activity was obtained for 12 compounds from headspace collections of the mature fruits of the six pear varieties. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among six odor profiles. Among the six mixtures, the mixture of 1-hexanol, nonanal, ethyl butanoate, butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, hexyl butanoate, and farnesene (different isomers) with a 1:1:100:70:7:5:1:4 ratio from the variety Jimi and the mixture of nonanal, ethyl butanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and farnesene with a 1:100:1:32:1:2 ratio from the variety Huangjin were highly attractive to both sexes in the field. However, male captures were much higher than those of females. Further wind tunnel tests proved that both sexes exhibited upwind flight to the lures, but only males landed on the source. Our finding indicates that mixtures mimicking Jimi and Huangjin volatiles attract both females and males of C. molesta, and these host volatiles may be involved in mate finding behavior.
Optimization of the Extraction of Anthocyanins from the Fruit Skin of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait. Hassk and Identification of Anthocyanins in the Extract Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS
Full Text Available Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants. In this study, the extraction of anthocyanins from freeze-dried fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait. Hassk var. Gangren was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Using 60% ethanol containing 0.1% (v/v hydrochloric acid as extraction solvent, the optimal conditions for maximum yields of anthocyanin (4.358 ± 0.045 mg/g were 15.7:1 (v/w liquid to solid ratio, 64.38 °C with a 116.88 min extraction time. The results showed good fits with the proposed model for the anthocyanin extraction (R2 = 0.9944. Furthermore, the results of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the anthocyanins extracted from the fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle revealed the presence of five anthocyanin components, which were tentatively identified as delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside.
Nuâman Abdul Hadi; Ng Mei Han; Choo Yuen May; Ma Ah Ngan
This study reports on the effects of dry heating of oil palm fruits for the purpose of sterilization and solvent extraction with various oil parameters. Steam sterilization of oil palm fresh fruit bunches was required as a pre-treatment to deactivate enzymes that give rise to Free Fatty Acids (FFA) before the oil could be extracted. While the use of high-pressure steam was effective, large amount of water used ends up as palm oil mill effluent, which requires appropriate treatment. Dry heatin...
Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Marette, André
Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics. Yogurt's unique fermented food matrix provides added health benefits by enhancing nutrient absorption and digestion. Combining the intake of yogurt and fruit could provide probiotics, prebiotics, high-quality protein, important fatty acids, and a mixture of vitamins and minerals that have the potential to exert synergistic effects on health. Yogurt consumption has been associated with reduced weight gain and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, whereas fruits have established effects on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yogurt and fruits can be eaten together and may exert combined health benefits through potential prebiotic and probiotic effects. Furthermore, substituting high-energy, nutrient-deficient snacks with fruit and yogurt could reduce the intake of high-calorie obesogenic foods. In light of the positive cardiometabolic impacts of fruit and yogurt and their association with healthy dietary patterns, there is sufficient evidence to warrant further exploration into the potential synergistic health benefits of a combined intake of fruit and yogurt. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.
El Khaled, Dalia; Novas, Nuria; Gazquez, Jose A; Garcia, Rosa M; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco
The demand for improved food quality has been accompanied by a technological boost. This fact enhances the possibility of improving the quality of horticultural products, leading towards healthier consumption of fruits and vegetables. A better electrical characterization of the dielectric properties of fruits and vegetables is required for this purpose. Moreover, a focused study of dielectric spectroscopy and advanced dielectric sensing is a highly interesting topic. This review explains the dielectric property basics and classifies the dielectric spectroscopy measurement techniques. It comprehensively and chronologically covers the dielectric experiments explored for fruits and vegetables, along with their appropriate sensing instrumentation, analytical modelling methods and conclusions. An in-depth definition of dielectric spectroscopy and its usefulness in the electric characterization of food materials is presented, along with the various sensor techniques used for dielectric measurements. The collective data are tabulated in a summary of the dielectric findings in horticultural field investigations, which will facilitate more advanced and focused explorations in the future.
Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate
Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention.
Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon
We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540
Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate
Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986
Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio
At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening is considered to be the main process in fruit development, and all studies had been focused on this process which included physicochemical, biochemical, and molecular analysis. With the development of genomic analysis the strategies to study fruit ripening have been changing and now there are new perspectives and opportunities. The objective of this review is to describe the state of the art in the studies related to fruit ripening with emphasis in molecular studies.
J.I. van Hemert; J.A. La Poutré (Han)
textabstractWe introduce the concept of fruitful regions in a dynamic routing context: regions that have a high potential of generating loads to be transported. The objective is to maximise the number of loads transported, while keeping to capacity and time constraints. Loads arrive while the
Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...
paradoxa (The shea butter tree) by use of participatory rural appraisal (PRA), group discussions and personal interviews with sampled ... G-test of association in predicting fruit production using defoliation effect was highly significant between the ..... comments and suggestions have shaped this paper greatly. The study ...
Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...
The search for new trypanocides has not been keenly pursued due to high cost of design and development with no promise of financial returns. Momordica balsamina fruit pulp extract was screened for antitrypanosomal activity in experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in rabbits. The extract was administered ...
Pesticide residues like chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and dichlorvos were monitored by an improved extraction method from apple, peach and potato using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The selected pesticides were extracted from fruits and vegetable samples using smaller volume of ...
The berries (fruits) are green when unripe and of different shades of yellow when ripe. The various parts of the plant are reputed in indigenous Hindu Medicine to have high medicinal value in various diseases like cough, asthma, fever, heart disease, etc. The plant under investigation belongs to the natural order Solanacea.
Analysis of beta carotene contents indicated that kale and carrots contain high amounts (>4000µg/100gm), spinach, mango and papaya contain moderate amounts (500-800µg/100gm), while staple foods contain no or negligible amounts. Conclusions: Cultivation and consumption of vegetables and fruits is extremely ...
The results show that the aqueous fruit extract of the plant may be capable of reducing circulating lipids in high cholesterol-diet fed rats. However, more work still needs to be done on this as the changes in the serum lipid profile were not significant so as to determine whether the plant either inhibits lipid biosynthesis or ...
An experiment to investigate the replacement value of Terminalia catappa fruit waste (TCFW) for maize in the diet of pullet chicks was carried out. ... TCFW was subjected to povidone to detoxify the phytotoxins and supplemented with or without Xylanase to degrade the high fibre and included in diets at 0, 30.6 and 63.52% ...
'Kokanee' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station. 'Kokanee' is a high-yielding cultivar tha...
Ribeiro Jr, Hugo; Ribeiro, Tereza Cristina; Valois, Sandra; Mattos, Angela; Lifshitz, Fima
Texto completo: acesso restrito. p. 325–327 We carried out a double-blind, randomized study in 60 children with acute diarrhea to determine their capacity to tolerate commonly consumed fruit juices. Feedings of juice with high fructose/glucose ratios and sorbitol resulted in incomplete carbohydrate absorption and recurrence of diarrhea during the phase immediately after improvement of the illness.
Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.
Guzmán Padilla, Sonia; Roselló Araya, Marlene
The consumption of fruits and it relation with the health and socioeconomic condition of an adult Costa Rican population is described. The study included a cross sectional and descriptive analysis in men and women 18 years old or older. Ten-house blocks were selected by affinity in a community or neighborhood in Cartago. Data were collected in a survey using home direct structured interviews carried out in the afternoons or during the weekend in February, 2000. Eighty percent of the 161 people interviewed were women. Results showed that the higher consumption of fruits was described in women who were older that 60 years old and, who proceed from a medium-high economic stratum or have a high schooling condition (2.3 +/- 1.0, 2.50 +/- 1.3 y 2.0 +/- 1.3 portions, respectively). No statistical significant difference was found in any of the variables evaluated. Data also showed that, in contrast with what it was expected, people that considered their health condition as bad, suffered chronic diseases, practiced physical exercise, took vitamin supplement or smoke, showed a higher consumption of fruits that those who do not have those conditions. The difference, however, showed to be no significant and the consumption of fruit showed to be not adequate in both groups. In conclusion, the amount and frequency of fruit consumption were inadequate in the population studied. The necessity of developing nutritional education strategies to promote a gradual increment in the consumption of fruits to approach the recommendation of the National Alimentary Guidelines is recommended.
Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G
A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.
Full Text Available Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our
Full Text Available Both sorbitol and sucrose are imported into apple fruit from leaves. The metabolism of sorbitol and sucrose fuels fruit growth and development, and accumulation of sugars in fruit is central to the edible quality of apple. However, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple remains quite limited. We identified members of various gene families encoding key enzymes or transporters involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit using homology searches and comparison of their expression patterns in different tissues, and analyzed the relationship of their transcripts with enzyme activities and sugar accumulation during fruit development. At the early stage of fruit development, the transcript levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase, cell wall invertase, neutral invertase, sucrose synthase, fructokinase and hexokinase are high, and the resulting high enzyme activities are responsible for the rapid utilization of the imported sorbitol and sucrose for fruit growth, with low levels of sugar accumulation. As the fruit continues to grow due to cell expansion, the transcript levels and activities of these enzymes are down-regulated, with concomitant accumulation of fructose and elevated transcript levels of tonoplast monosaccharide transporters (TMTs, MdTMT1 and MdTMT2; the excess carbon is converted into starch. At the late stage of fruit development, sucrose accumulation is enhanced, consistent with the elevated expression of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS, MdSPS5 and MdSPS6, and an increase in its total activity. Our data indicate that sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit is developmentally regulated. This represents a comprehensive analysis of the genes involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple, which will serve as a platform for further studies on the functions of these genes and subsequent manipulation of sugar metabolism and fruit quality traits related to carbohydrates.
Li, Mingjun; Feng, Fengjuan; Cheng, Lailiang
Both sorbitol and sucrose are imported into apple fruit from leaves. The metabolism of sorbitol and sucrose fuels fruit growth and development, and accumulation of sugars in fruit is central to the edible quality of apple. However, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple remains quite limited. We identified members of various gene families encoding key enzymes or transporters involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit using homology searches and comparison of their expression patterns in different tissues, and analyzed the relationship of their transcripts with enzyme activities and sugar accumulation during fruit development. At the early stage of fruit development, the transcript levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase, cell wall invertase, neutral invertase, sucrose synthase, fructokinase and hexokinase are high, and the resulting high enzyme activities are responsible for the rapid utilization of the imported sorbitol and sucrose for fruit growth, with low levels of sugar accumulation. As the fruit continues to grow due to cell expansion, the transcript levels and activities of these enzymes are down-regulated, with concomitant accumulation of fructose and elevated transcript levels of tonoplast monosaccharide transporters (TMTs), MdTMT1 and MdTMT2; the excess carbon is converted into starch. At the late stage of fruit development, sucrose accumulation is enhanced, consistent with the elevated expression of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), MdSPS5 and MdSPS6, and an increase in its total activity. Our data indicate that sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit is developmentally regulated. This represents a comprehensive analysis of the genes involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple, which will serve as a platform for further studies on the functions of these genes and subsequent manipulation of sugar metabolism and fruit quality traits related to carbohydrates.
Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong
Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides
Jin, Alena L; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Kennedy, James A; Koerner-Smith, Jayma L; Botar, Gabor; Reinecke, Dennis M
Saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) are small fruits that contain substantial quantities of flavonoids. To further characterize and understand the role of these flavonoids during fruit development, anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins were identified, quantified, and localized over development in cultivars that produce blue-purple or white fruit at maturity. Anthocyanin content was low in young fruit and then dramatically increased as the fruit transitioned into ripening only in the pigmented-fruit (blue-purple) cultivars. Proanthocyanidins with both A-type and B-type linkages were detected in fruit, with (-)-epicatechin as the most abundant proanthocyanidin subunit. Flavonol and proanthocyanidin content was high in, and localized throughout, the tissues of young fruit and in the developing seed coats, with levels decreasing as the fruit expanded. Our data show that flavonoid type, content, and tissue localization vary throughout development in saskatoon fruit. These data can be used to target specific fruit developmental stages and flavonoid classes for optimization of health-beneficial flavonoid content.
Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Poggi, Isabelle; Urban, Laurent
The final contents of primary and secondary metabolites of the ripe fruit depend on metabolic processes that are tightly regulated during fruit ontogeny. Carbohydrate supply during fruit development is known to influence these processes but, with respect to secondary metabolites, we do not really know whether this influence is direct or indirect. Here, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of clementine fruit metabolism to carbohydrate supply was conditional on fruit developmental stage. We applied treatments increasing fruit load reversibly or irreversibly at three key stages of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) fruit development: early after cell division, at the onset of fruit coloration (color break) and near maturity. The highest fruit load obtained by early defoliation (irreversible) had the highest impact on fruit growth, maturity and metabolism, followed by the highest fruit load obtained by early shading (reversible). Final fruit size decreased by 21 and 18% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Soluble sugars decreased by 18% in the early irreversible treatment, whereas organic acids increased by 46 and 29% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Interestingly, total carotenoids increased by 50 and 18%, respectively. Changes in leaf starch content and photosynthesis supported that these early treatments triggered a carbon starvation in the young fruits, with irreversible effects. Furthermore, our observations on the early treatments challenge the common view that carbohydrate supply influences positively carotenoid accumulation in fruits. We propose that early carbon starvation irreversibly promotes carotenoid accumulation. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.
Loayza, Andrea P.; Squeo, Francisco A.
Scatter-hoarding rodents can act as both predators and dispersers for many large-seeded plants because they cache seeds for future use, but occasionally forget them in sites with high survival and establishment probabilities. The most important fruit or seed trait influencing rodent foraging behavior is seed size; rodents prefer large seeds because they have higher nutritional content, but this preference can be counterbalanced by the higher costs of handling larger seeds. We designed a cafeteria experiment to assess whether fruit and seed size of Myrcianthes coquimbensis, an endangered desert shrub, influence the decision-making process during foraging by three species of scatter-hoarding rodents differing in body size: Abrothrix olivaceus, Phyllotis darwini and Octodon degus. We found that the size of fruits and seeds influenced foraging behavior in the three rodent species; the probability of a fruit being harvested and hoarded was higher for larger fruits than for smaller ones. Patterns of fruit size preference were not affected by rodent size; all species were able to hoard fruits within the entire range of sizes offered. Finally, fruit and seed size had no effect on the probability of seed predation, rodents typically ate only the fleshy pulp of the fruits offered and discarded whole, intact seeds. In conclusion, our results reveal that larger M. coquimbensis fruits have higher probabilities of being harvested, and ultimately of its seeds being hoarded and dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents. As this plant has no other dispersers, rodents play an important role in its recruitment dynamics. PMID:27861550