WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly penetrating space

  1. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  2. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  3. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Fedorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation-and-theory-based research results to examine the possibility for using the jet thrust impulse to increase a penetration depth of high-velocity penetrator modules. Such devices can be used for studies of Earth surface layer composition, and in the nearest future for other Solar system bodies too. Research equipment (sensors and different instruments is housed inside a metal body of the penetrator with a sharpened nose that decreases drag force in soil. It was assumed, that this penetrator is additionally equipped with the pulse jet engine, which is fired at a certain stage of penetrator motion into target.The penetrator is considered as a rigid body of variable mass, which is subjected to drag force and reactive force applied at the moment the engine fires. A drag force was represented with a binomial empirical law, and penetrator nose part was considered to be conical. The jet thrust force was supposed to be constant during its application time. It was in accordance with assumption that mass flow and flow rate of solid propellant combustion products were constant. The amount of propellant in the penetrator was characterized by Tsiolkovsky number Z, which specifies the ratio between the fuel mass and the penetrator structure mass with no fuel.The system of equations to describe the penetrator dynamics was given in dimensionless form using the values aligned with penetration of an equivalent inert penetrator as the time and penetration depth scales. Penetration dynamics of penetrator represented in this form allowed to eliminate the influence of penetrator initial mass and its cross-section diameter on the solution results. The lack of such dependency is convenient for comparing the calculation results since they hold for penetrators of various initial masses and cross-sections.To calculate the penetration a lunar regolith was taken as a soil material. Calculations were carried out for initial velocities of

  4. Opportunities for high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.; Hansen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is today a mature technology, which at windy locations, is economically competitive to conventional power generation technologies. This and growing global environmental concerns have led governments to encourage and plan for wind energy development, a typical aim being 10% of electricity...... consumption. The successful operation of the three major power systems of Cape Verde, with a total wind energy penetration of about 15% since December 1994, demonstrates that power systems can be operated with high penetration of wind energy by adding simple control and monitoring systems only. Thorough...... analyses conclude that expanding to even above 15% wind energy penetration in the Cape Verde power systems is economical. Worldwide, numerous locations with favorable wind conditions and power systems similar to the Capeverdean provide good opportunities for installing wind farms and achieving high wind...

  5. High-Penetration Photovoltaic Planning Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-24

    The main objective of this report is to provide an overview of select U.S. utility methodologies for performing high-penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) system planning and impact studies. This report covers the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's orders related to photovoltaic (PV) power system interconnection, particularly the interconnection processes for the Large Generation Interconnection Procedures and Small Generation Interconnection Procedures. In addition, it includes U.S. state interconnection standards and procedures. The procedures used by these regulatory bodies consider the impacts of HPPV power plants on the networks. Technical interconnection requirements for HPPV voltage regulation include aspects of power monitoring, grounding, synchronization, connection to the overall distribution system, back-feeds, disconnecting means, abnormal operating conditions, and power quality. This report provides a summary of mitigation strategies to minimize the impact of HPPV. Recommendations and revisions to the standards may take place as the penetration level of renewables on the grid increases and new technologies develop in future years.

  6. Eddy current testing with high penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M.

    1999-01-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [de

  7. Penetrative convection at high Rayleigh numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2018-04-01

    We study penetrative convection of a fluid confined between two horizontal plates, the temperatures of which are such that a temperature of maximum density lies between them. The range of Rayleigh numbers studied is Ra=[0.01 ,4 ]106,108 and the Prandtl numbers are Pr=1 and 11.6. An evolution equation for the growth of the convecting region is obtained through an integral energy balance. We identify a new nondimensional parameter, Λ , which is the ratio of temperature difference between the stable and unstable regions of the flow; larger values of Λ denote increased stability of the upper stable layer. We study the effects of Λ on the flow field using well-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations and show that the characteristics of the flow depend sensitively upon it. For the range Λ = , we find that for a fixed Ra the Nusselt number, Nu, increases with decreasing Λ . We also investigate the effects of Λ on the vertical variation of convective heat flux and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Our results clearly indicate that in the limit Λ →0 the problem reduces to that of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  8. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical......This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  9. Final Technical Report: Distributed Controls for High Penetrations of Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rashkin, Lee J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trudnowski, Daniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this effort was to apply four potential control analysis/design approaches to the design of distributed grid control systems to address the impact of latency and communications uncertainty with high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generation. The four techniques considered were: optimal fixed structure control; Nyquist stability criterion; vector Lyapunov analysis; and Hamiltonian design methods. A reduced order model of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) developed for the Matlab Power Systems Toolbox (PST) was employed for the study, as well as representative smaller systems (e.g., a two-area, three-area, and four-area power system). Excellent results were obtained with the optimal fixed structure approach, and the methodology we developed was published in a journal article. This approach is promising because it offers a method for designing optimal control systems with the feedback signals available from Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data as opposed to full state feedback or the design of an observer. The Nyquist approach inherently handles time delay and incorporates performance guarantees (e.g., gain and phase margin). We developed a technique that works for moderate sized systems, but the approach does not scale well to extremely large system because of computational complexity. The vector Lyapunov approach was applied to a two area model to demonstrate the utility for modeling communications uncertainty. Application to large power systems requires a method to automatically expand/contract the state space and partition the system so that communications uncertainty can be considered. The Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) design methodology was selected to investigate grid systems for energy storage requirements to support high penetration of variable or stochastic generation (such as wind and PV) and loads. This method was applied to several small system models.

  10. Southern California Edison High Penetration Photovoltaic Project - Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-06-01

    This report discusses research efforts from the first year of a project analyzing the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) resources interconnected onto Southern California Edison's (SCE's) distribution system. SCE will be interconnecting a total of 500 MW of commercial scale PV within their service territory by 2015. This Year 1 report describes the need for investigating high-penetration PV scenarios on the SCE distribution system; discusses the necessary PV system modeling and distribution system simulation advances; describes the available distribution circuit data for the two distribution circuits identified in the study; and discusses the additional inverter functionality that could be implemented in order to specifically mitigate some of the undesirable distribution system impacts caused by high-penetration PV installations.

  11. Fault Analysis and Detection in Microgrids with High PV Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khatib, Mohamed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez Alvidrez, Javier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In this report we focus on analyzing current-controlled PV inverters behaviour under faults in order to develop fault detection schemes for microgrids with high PV penetration. Inverter model suitable for steady state fault studies is presented and the impact of PV inverters on two protection elements is analyzed. The studied protection elements are superimposed quantities based directional element and negative sequence directional element. Additionally, several non-overcurrent fault detection schemes are discussed in this report for microgrids with high PV penetration. A detailed time-domain simulation study is presented to assess the performance of the presented fault detection schemes under different microgrid modes of operation.

  12. [Congenital valvular heart disease with high familial penetrance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Giuseppe; Lamari, Annalisa; Tulino, Viviana; Scarano, Michele; De Luca, Eleonora; Mutone, Daniela; Busacca, Paolo

    2012-12-01

    Bicuspid valve aortic (BVA) is one of the most common congenital malformations. Only 20% of patients preserves a normal valve function throughout life. There are sporadic and familial forms, the latter to autosomal dominant. We present a case of familiarity of BVA high penetrance. Patient with aortic stenosis by BVA, is the father of two children with BVA.

  13. Assessment of high penetration of solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Kevin S.; Klein, Sanford A.; Reindl, Douglas T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the large-scale implementation of distributed solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin with regard to its interaction with the utility grid, economics of varying levels of high penetration, and displaced emissions. These assessment factors are quantified using simulations with measured hourly solar radiation and weather data from the National Solar Radiation Database as primary inputs. Hourly utility load data for each electric utility in Wisconsin for a complete year were used in combination with the simulated PV output to quantify the impacts of high penetration of distributed PV on the aggregate Wisconsin electric utility load. As the penetration rate of distributed PV systems increases, both economic and environmental benefits experience diminishing returns. At penetration rates exceeding 15-20% of the aggregate utility load peak, less of the PV-energy is utilized and the contribution of the aggregate electricity generated from PV approaches a practical limit. The limit is not affected by costs, but rather by the time-distribution of available solar radiation and mismatch with the coincidence of aggregate utility electrical loads. The unsubsidized levelized cost of electricity from PV is more than four times greater than the current market price for electricity, based on time-of-use rates, in Wisconsin. At the present time, the investment in solar PV as a cost-effective means to reduce emissions from traditional electricity generation sources is not justified. (author)

  14. Are high penetrations of commercial cogeneration good for society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jeremy F.; Apt, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Low natural gas prices, market reports and evidence from New York State suggest that the number of commercial combined heat and power (CHP) installations in the United States will increase by 2%-9% annually over the next decade. We investigate how increasing commercial CHP penetrations may affect net emissions, the distribution network, and total system energy costs. We constructed an integrated planning and operations model that maximizes owner profit through sizing and operation of CHP on a realistic distribution feeder in New York. We find that a greater penetration of CHP reduces both total system energy costs and network congestion. Commercial buildings often have low and inconsistent heat loads, which can cause low fuel utilization efficiencies, low CHP rates-of-return and diminishing avoided emissions as CHP penetration increases. In the northeast, without policy intervention, a 5% penetration of small commercially owned CHP would increase CO2 emissions by 2% relative to the bulk power grid. Low emission CHP installations can be encouraged with incentives that promote CHP operation only during times of high heat loads. Time-varying rates, such as time-of-day and seasonal rates, are one option and were shown to reduce customer emissions without reducing profits. In contrast, natural gas rate discounts, a common incentive for industrial CHP in some states, can encourage CHP operation during low heat loads and thus increase emissions.

  15. Predicting the Consequences of MMOD Penetrations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.; Evans

    2018-01-01

    The threat from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on space vehicles is often quantified in terms of the probability of no penetration (PNP). However, for large spacecraft, especially those with multiple compartments, a penetration may have a number of possible outcomes. The extent of the damage (diameter of hole, crack length or penetration depth), the location of the damage relative to critical equipment or crew, crew response, and even the time of day of the penetration are among the many factors that can affect the outcome. For the International Space Station (ISS), a Monte-Carlo style software code called Manned Spacecraft Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) is used to predict the probability of several outcomes of an MMOD penetration-broadly classified as loss of crew (LOC), crew evacuation (Evac), loss of escape vehicle (LEV), and nominal end of mission (NEOM). By generating large numbers of MMOD impacts (typically in the billions) and tracking the consequences, MSCSurv allows for the inclusion of a large number of parameters and models as well as enabling the consideration of uncertainties in the models and parameters. MSCSurv builds upon the results from NASA's Bumper software (which provides the probability of penetration and critical input data to MSCSurv) to allow analysts to estimate the probability of LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM. This paper briefly describes the overall methodology used by NASA to quantify LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM with particular emphasis on describing in broad terms how MSCSurv works and its capabilities and most significant models.

  16. High Penetrated Wind Farm Impacts on the Electricity Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Yousefi, G. R.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    of the high penetrated wind farm integration into electricity markets. Then, stochastic programming approach is employed to compare the volume of trades for a typical wind farm in a high and low wind penetrated market. Although increasing price spikes and volatility was reported in the literature......Energy trading policies, intermittency of wind farm output power, low marginal cost of the production, are the key factors that cause the wind farms to be effective on the electricity price. In this paper, the Danish electricity market is studied as a part of Nord Pool. Considering the completely...... fossil fuel free overview in Danish energy policies, and the currently great share of wind power (more than 100% for some hours) in supplying the load, it is an interesting benchmark for the future electricity markets. Negative prices, price spikes, and price volatility are considered as the main effects...

  17. Microgrid optimal scheduling considering impact of high penetration wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdulaziz

    The objective of this thesis is to study the impact of high penetration wind energy in economic and reliable operation of microgrids. Wind power is variable, i.e., constantly changing, and nondispatchable, i.e., cannot be controlled by the microgrid controller. Thus an accurate forecasting of wind power is an essential task in order to study its impacts in microgrid operation. Two commonly used forecasting methods including Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have been used in this thesis to improve the wind power forecasting. The forecasting error is calculated using a Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and is improved using the ANN. The wind forecast is further used in the microgrid optimal scheduling problem. The microgrid optimal scheduling is performed by developing a viable model for security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) based on mixed-integer linear programing (MILP) method. The proposed SCUC is solved for various wind penetration levels and the relationship between the total cost and the wind power penetration is found. In order to reduce microgrid power transfer fluctuations, an additional constraint is proposed and added to the SCUC formulation. The new constraint would control the time-based fluctuations. The impact of the constraint on microgrid SCUC results is tested and validated with numerical analysis. Finally, the applicability of proposed models is demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  18. Study on Penetration Characteristics of Tungsten Cylindrical Penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Shin; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Woon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The design of missile require extremely small warheads that must be highly efficient and lethal. The penetration characteristics of each penetrator and the total number of penetrators on the warhead are obvious key factors that influence warhead lethality. The design of the penetrator shape and size are directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. The design of the penetrator L/D was directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. L and D are the length and the diameter of the projectile, respectively. The AUTODYN-3a code was used to study the effect of penetrator penetration. The objective of numerical analysis was to determine the penetration characteristics of penetrator produced by hypervelocity impacts under different initial conditions such as initial velocity, obliquity angle and L/D of penetrator. The residual velocity and residual mass were decreased with increasing initial impact velocity under L/D{<=}4.

  19. Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies its capital costs and inefficiencies. It is shown that the uncertainty of wind makes the option of storage more attractive. The size of the energy store has an impact on results. At lower levels of installed wind (up to approximately 50% of energy from wind in Ireland), the reduction in curtailment is insufficient to justify building storage. At greater levels of wind, storage reduces curtailment sufficiently to justify the additional capital costs. It can be seen that if storage replaces OCGTs in the plant mix instead of CCGTs, then the level at which it justifies itself is lower. Storage increases the level of carbon emissions at wind penetration below 60%. - Research highlights: → Examines operation of pumped storage unit in a system with levels of wind from 34%-68% of energy. → High capital cost of storage is not justified until system has high (approx. 45%) wind penetration. → Results are driven by the amount of wind curtailment avoided and plant mix of system. → Other flexible options (e.g. interconnection) offer many of the same benefits as storage.

  20. Net load forecasting for high renewable energy penetration grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Nonnenmacher, Lukas; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss methods for net load forecasting and their significance for operation and management of power grids with high renewable energy penetration. Net load forecasting is an enabling technology for the integration of microgrid fleets with the macrogrid. Net load represents the load that is traded between the grids (microgrid and utility grid). It is important for resource allocation and electricity market participation at the point of common coupling between the interconnected grids. We compare two inherently different approaches: additive and integrated net load forecast models. The proposed methodologies are validated on a microgrid with 33% annual renewable energy (solar) penetration. A heuristics based solar forecasting technique is proposed, achieving skill of 24.20%. The integrated solar and load forecasting model outperforms the additive model by 10.69% and the uncertainty range for the additive model is larger than the integrated model by 2.2%. Thus, for grid applications an integrated forecast model is recommended. We find that the net load forecast errors and the solar forecasting errors are cointegrated with a common stochastic drift. This is useful for future planning and modeling because the solar energy time-series allows to infer important features of the net load time-series, such as expected variability and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Net load forecasting methods for grids with renewable energy generation are discussed. • Integrated solar and load forecasting outperforms the additive model by 10.69%. • Net load forecasting reduces the uncertainty between the interconnected grids.

  1. Potential of ultrafine grained materials as high performance penetrator materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The shear formability and the metal jet formability are important for the kinetic energy penetrator and the chemical energy penetrator, respectively. The shear formability of ultrafine grained (UFG steel was examined, mainly focusing on the effects of the grain shape on the shear characteristics. For this purpose, UFG 4130 steel having the different UFG structures, the lamellar UFG and the equiaxed UFG, was prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP. The lamellar UFG steel exhibited more sharper and localized shear band formation than the equiaxed UFG steel. This is because a lamellar UFG structure was unfavourable against grain rotation which is a main mechanism of the band propagation in UFG materials. Meanwhile, the metal jet formability of UFG OFHC Cu also processed by ECAP was compared to that of coarse grained (CG one by means of dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE tests. CG OFHC Cu exhibited the higher DTE ductility, i.e. better metal jet stability, than UFG OFHC Cu. The initial high strength and the lack of strain hardenability of UFG OFHC Cu were harmful to the metal jet formability.

  2. Wind power bidding in electricity markets with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, Michael; Botterud, Audun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the pricing systems and wind power trading in electricity markets. • We propose a model that captures the relation between market prices and wind power. • A probabilistic bidding model can increase profits for wind power producers. • Profit maximizing bidding strategies carry risks for power system operators. • We conclude that modifications of current market designs may be needed. - Abstract: Objective: The optimal day-ahead bidding strategy is studied for a wind power producer operating in an electricity market with high wind penetration. Methods: A generalized electricity market is studied with minimal assumptions about the structure of the production, bidding, or consumption of electricity. Two electricity imbalance pricing schemes are investigated, the one price and the two price scheme. A stochastic market model is created to capture the price effects of wind power production and consumption. A bidding algorithm called SCOPES (Supply Curve One Price Estimation Strategy) is developed for the one price system. A bidding algorithm called MIMICS (Multivariate Interdependence Minimizing Imbalance Cost Strategy) is developed for the two price system. Results: Both bidding strategies are shown to have advantages over the assumed “default” bidding strategy, the point forecast. Conclusion: The success of these strategies even in the case of high deviation penalties in a one price system and the implicit deviation penalties of the two price system has substantial implications for power producers and system operators in electricity markets with a high level of wind penetration. Practice implications: From an electricity market design perspective, the results indicate that further penalties or regulations may be needed to reduce system imbalance

  3. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, Rich [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Woyak, Jeremy [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Costyk, David [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Hambrick, Josh [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Mather, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as part of a five-year research project which began in 2010. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed together to analyze the impacts of high-penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to leverage the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the significant installation of 500 MW of commercial scale PV systems (1-5 MW typically) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE’s service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC).

  4. Risk assessment of electric generation systems with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado Duarte, Yorlandys; Castillo Serpa, Alfredo M. del

    2017-01-01

    The research evaluates the risk function of an Electric Generation System (SGE) with high wind power penetration using the Sequential Monte Carlo Simulation (SMCS) method, which allows calculating indicators that characterize the performance of the SGE with expected average values. The research uses a Markov model of two states or four states according to the characteristics of the generator to simulate the instantaneous capacity. The primary sources of each conventional generator are assumed to be always available; however, wind power depends on the wind behavior in each analyzed region. In this research, the Chronological Series and Weibull models are used to model the wind behavior, and the analyzes are performed in the IEEE-RTS system. The work shows that the behavior of the probabilistic indicators used to analyze the static capacity of the SGE is determined by the model used to simulate the stochastic of the generators and by the primary energy source. (author)

  5. Update on the Management of High-Risk Penetrating Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbehdari, Sayena; Rafii, Alireza Baradaran; Yazdanpanah, Ghasem; Hamrah, Pedram; Holland, Edward J; Djalilian, Ali R

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we review the indications and latest management of high-risk penetrating keratoplasty. Despite the immune-privilege status of the cornea, immune-mediated graft rejection still remains the leading cause of corneal graft failure. This is particularly a problem in the high-risk graft recipients, namely patients with previous graft failure due to rejection and those with inflamed and vascularized corneal beds. A number of strategies including both local and systemic immunosuppression are currently used to increase the success rate of high-risk corneal grafts. Moreover, in cases of limbal stem cell deficiency, limbal stem cells transplantation is employed. Corticosteroids are still the top medication for prevention and treatment in cases of corneal graft rejection. Single and combined administration of immunosuppressive agents e.g. tacrolimus, cyclosporine and mycophenolate are promising adjunctive therapies for prolonging graft survival. In the future, cellular and molecular therapies should allow us to achieve immunologic tolerance even in high-risk grafts.

  6. Development of high-performance concrete having high resistance to chloride penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Byung Hwan; Cha, Soo Won; Jang, Bong Seok; Jang, Seung Yup

    2002-01-01

    The resistance to chloride penetration is one of the simplest measures to determine the durability of concrete, e.g. resistance to freezing and thawing, corrosion of steel in concrete and other chemical attacks. Thus, high-performance concrete may be defined as the concrete having high resistance to chloride penetration as well as high strength. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the resistance to chloride penetration of different types of concrete and to develop high-performance concrete that has very high resistance to chloride penetration, and thus, can guarantee high durability. A large number of concrete specimens have been tested by the rapid chloride permeability test method as designated in AASHTO T 277 and ASTM C 1202. The major test variables include water-to-binder ratios, type of cement, type and amount of mineral admixtures (silica fume, fly ash and blast-furnace slag), maximum size of aggregates and air-entrainment. Test results show that concrete containing optimal amount of silica fume shows very high resistance to chloride penetration, and high-performance concrete developed in this study can be efficiently employed to enhance the durability of concrete structures in severe environments such as nuclear power plants, water-retaining structures and other offshore structures

  7. Mastering wireless penetration testing for highly secured environments

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for security professionals who want to enhance their wireless penetration testing skills and knowledge. Since this book covers advanced techniques, you will need some previous experience in computer security and networking.

  8. High Kinetic Energy Penetrator Shielding and High Wear Resistance Materials Fabricated with Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTS) and BNNT Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Bryant, Robert George (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphites, or combinations, are incorporated into matrices of polymer, ceramic or metals. Fibers, yarns, and woven or nonwoven mats of BNNTs are used as toughening layers in penetration resistant materials to maximize energy absorption and/or high hardness layers to rebound or deform penetrators. They can be also used as reinforcing inclusions combining with other polymer matrices to create composite layers like typical reinforcing fibers such as Kevlar.RTM., Spectra.RTM., ceramics and metals. Enhanced wear resistance and usage time are achieved by adding boron nitride nanomaterials, increasing hardness and toughness. Such materials can be used in high temperature environments since the oxidation temperature of BNNTs exceeds 800.degree. C. in air. Boron nitride based composites are useful as strong structural materials for anti-micrometeorite layers for spacecraft and space suits, ultra strong tethers, protective gear, vehicles, helmets, shields and safety suits/helmets for industry.

  9. Improved Modeling Tools Development for High Penetration Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washom, Byron [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Meagher, Kevin [Power Analytics Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-12-11

    One of the significant objectives of the High Penetration solar research is to help the DOE understand, anticipate, and minimize grid operation impacts as more solar resources are added to the electric power system. For Task 2.2, an effective, reliable approach to predicting solar energy availability for energy generation forecasts using the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager technology has been demonstrated. Granular cloud and ramp forecasts for the next 5 to 20 minutes over an area of 10 square miles were developed. Sky images taken every 30 seconds are processed to determine cloud locations and cloud motion vectors yielding future cloud shadow locations respective to distributed generation or utility solar power plants in the area. The performance of the method depends on cloud characteristics. On days with more advective cloud conditions, the developed method outperforms persistence forecasts by up to 30% (based on mean absolute error). On days with dynamic conditions, the method performs worse than persistence. Sky Imagers hold promise for ramp forecasting and ramp mitigation in conjunction with inverter controls and energy storage. The pre-commercial Sky Imager solar forecasting algorithm was documented with licensing information and was a Sunshot website highlight.

  10. High-pressure-induced water penetration into 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagae, Takayuki; Kawamura, Takashi; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Niwa, Ken; Hasegawa, Masashi; Kato, Chiaki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase were determined at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa. Comparison of these structures gives a detailed picture of the swelling of a cavity at the dimer interface and the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface, which are accompanied by water penetration. Hydrostatic pressure induces structural changes in proteins, including denaturation, the mechanism of which has been attributed to water penetration into the protein interior. In this study, structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were determined at about 2 Å resolution under pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Although most of the protein cavities are monotonically compressed as the pressure increases, the volume of one particular cavity at the dimer interface increases at pressures over 340 MPa. In parallel with this volume increase, water penetration into the cavity could be observed at pressures over 410 MPa. In addition, the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface accompanied by water penetration could also be observed at pressures over 580 MPa. These water-penetration phenomena are considered to be initial steps in the pressure-denaturation process of IPMDH

  11. Economic viability of transmission capacity expansion at high wind penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    investments and analyses of the Nord Pool price variations. The analyses are done for varying degrees of wind power penetrations ranging from 20% of the West Danish electricity demand up to 100% of the demand. The analyses demonstrate, that while there is an economic potential for some expansion in some years......With growing wind power penetrations in many countries, grid and system integration becomes more and more important issues. This is particularly the case in countries or regions with good wind resources as well as substantial installed wind power capacity as found in e.g. Northern Europe. At 20......% penetration in Western Denmark, the issue is pertinent here in relation to future plans of further expansion which is planned in accordance with the Danish Government’s climate change mitigation initiatives. This paper analyses the potential economic benefit of selling excess electricity production...

  12. Distribution Networks Management with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic solar panels penetration increases significantly in recent years in several European countries, mainly in the low voltage and medium voltage networks supported by governmental policies and incentives. Consequently, the acquisition and installation costs of PV panels decrease...... and the know–how increase significantly. Presently is important the use of new management methodologies in distribution networks to support the growing penetration of PV panels. In some countries, like in Germany and in Italy, the solar generation based in photovoltaic panels supply 40% of the demand in some...

  13. Operation of Power Grids with High Penetration of Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awami, Ali Taleb

    The integration of wind power into the power grid poses many challenges due to its highly uncertain nature. This dissertation involves two main components related to the operation of power grids with high penetration of wind energy: wind-thermal stochastic dispatch and wind-thermal coordinated bidding in short-term electricity markets. In the first part, a stochastic dispatch (SD) algorithm is proposed that takes into account the stochastic nature of the wind power output. The uncertainty associated with wind power output given the forecast is characterized using conditional probability density functions (CPDF). Several functions are examined to characterize wind uncertainty including Beta, Weibull, Extreme Value, Generalized Extreme Value, and Mixed Gaussian distributions. The unique characteristics of the Mixed Gaussian distribution are then utilized to facilitate the speed of convergence of the SD algorithm. A case study is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Then, the SD algorithm is extended to simultaneously optimize the system operating costs and emissions. A modified multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is suggested to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions defined by the two conflicting objectives. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the effect of changing load level and imbalance cost factors on the Pareto front. In the second part of this dissertation, coordinated trading of wind and thermal energy is proposed to mitigate risks due to those uncertainties. The problem of wind-thermal coordinated trading is formulated as a mixed-integer stochastic linear program. The objective is to obtain the optimal tradeoff bidding strategy that maximizes the total expected profits while controlling trading risks. For risk control, a weighted term of the conditional value at risk (CVaR) is included in the objective function. The CVaR aims to maximize the expected profits of the least profitable scenarios, thus

  14. Regularities of magnetic field penetration into half-space in type-II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Yu.V.; Krasnyuk, I.B.

    2003-01-01

    The equations, modeling the distributions of the magnetic field induction and current density in the half-space with an account of the exponential volt-ampere characteristics, are obtained. The velocity of the magnetization front propagation by the assigned average rate of the change by the time of the external magnetic field at the sample boundary is determined. The integral condition for the electric resistance, nonlinearly dependent on the magnetic field, by accomplishing whereof the magnetic flux penetrates into the sample with the finite velocity is indicated. The analytical representation of the equation with the exponential boundary mode, which models the change in the magnetic field at the area boundary, is pointed out [ru

  15. Storage Application in Smart Grid with High PV and EV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Yang, Guangya; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    grids with residential PVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The effect of EV home charging on EESS capacity in high PV penetration is also addressed. The results indicate that increasing the EV penetration in the network can decrease the EESS capacity need. This decrease is highest in situations with low PV...

  16. Studies on penetration of antibiotic in bacterial cells in space conditions (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Cytos 2 experiment was performed aboard Salyut 7 in order to test the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria cultivated in vitro in space. An increase of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) in the inflight cultures (i.e., an increase of the antibiotic resistance) was observed. Complementary studies of the ultrastructure showed a thickening of the cell envelope. In order to confirm the results of the Cytos 2 experiment, we performed the ANTIBIO experiment during the D1 mission to try to differentiate, by means of the 1 g centrifuge in the Biorack, between the biological effects of cosmic rays and those caused by microgravity conditions. The originality of this experiment was in the fact that it was designed to test the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria cultivated in vitro during the orbital phase of the flight. The results show an increase in resistance to Colistin in in-flight bacteria. The MIC is practically double in the in-flight cultures. A cell count of living bacteria in the cultures containing the different Colistin concentrations showed a significant difference between the cultures developed during space flight and the ground based cultures. The comparison between the 1 g and 0 g in-flight cultures show similar behavior for the two sets. Nevertheless, a small difference between the two sets of ground based control cultures was noted. The cultures developed on the ground centrifuge (1.4 g) present a slight decrease in comparison with the cultures developed in the static rack (1 g). In order to approach the mechanisms of the increase of antibiotic resistance on bacteria cultivated in vitro in space, we have proposed the study on penetration of antibiotics in bacterial cells in space conditions. This experiment was selected for the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission.

  17. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2017-01-19

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  18. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV......The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  19. Price Forecasting of Electricity Markets in the Presence of a High Penetration of Wind Power Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Talari; Miadreza Shafie-khah; Gerardo J. Osório; Fei Wang; Alireza Heidari; João P. S. Catalão

    2017-01-01

    Price forecasting plays a vital role in the day-ahead markets. Once sellers and buyers access an accurate price forecasting, managing the economic risk can be conducted appropriately through offering or bidding suitable prices. In networks with high wind power penetration, the electricity price is influenced by wind energy; therefore, price forecasting can be more complicated. This paper proposes a novel hybrid approach for price forecasting of day-ahead markets, with high penetration of wind...

  20. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator (EKIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity...

  1. High Penetration of Electrical Vehicles in Microgrids: Threats and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khederzadeh, Mojtaba; Khalili, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    Given that the microgrid concept is the building block of future electric distribution systems and electrical vehicles (EVs) are the future of transportation market, in this paper, the impact of EVs on the performance of microgrids is investigated. Demand-side participation is used to cope with increasing demand for EV charging. The problem of coordination of EV charging and discharging (with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) functionality) and demand response is formulated as a market-clearing mechanism that accepts bids from the demand and supply sides and takes into account the constraints put forward by different parts. Therefore, a day-ahead market with detailed bids and offers within the microgrid is designed whose objective is to maximize the social welfare which is the difference between the value that consumers attach to the electrical energy they buy plus the benefit of the EV owners participating in the V2G functionality and the cost of producing/purchasing this energy. As the optimization problem is a mixed integer nonlinear programming one, it is decomposed into one master problem for energy scheduling and one subproblem for power flow computation. The two problems are solved iteratively by interfacing MATLAB with GAMS. Simulation results on a sample microgrid with different residential, commercial and industrial consumers with associated demand-side biddings and different penetration level of EVs support the proposed formulation of the problem and the applied methods.

  2. Effects of Tryptophan Content and Backbone Spacing on the Uptake Efficiency of Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A.; Matson, Maria; Å mand, Helene L.; Esbjö rner, Elin K.; Nordé n, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to traverse cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo. Uptake occurs through both endocytotic and nonendocytotic pathways, but the molecular requirements for efficient internalization are not fully understood. Here we investigate how the presence of tryptophans and their position within an oligoarginine influence uptake mechanism and efficiency. Flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence imaging are used to estimate uptake efficiency, intracellular distribution and toxicity in Chinese hamster ovarian cells. Further, membrane leakage and lipid membrane affinity are investigated. The peptides contain eight arginine residues and one to four tryptophans, the tryptophans positioned either at the N-terminus, in the middle, or evenly distributed along the amino acid sequence. Our data show that the intracellular distribution varies among peptides with different tryptophan content and backbone spacing. Uptake efficiency is higher for the peptides with four tryptophans in the middle, or evenly distributed along the peptide sequence, than for the peptide with four tryptophans at the N-terminus. All peptides display low cytotoxicity except for the one with four tryptophans at the N-terminus, which was moderately toxic. This finding is consistent with their inability to induce efficient leakage of dye from lipid vesicles. All peptides have comparable affinities for lipid vesicles, showing that lipid binding is not a decisive parameter for uptake. Our results indicate that tryptophan content and backbone spacing can affect both the CPP uptake efficiency and the CPP uptake mechanism. The low cytotoxicity of these peptides and the possibilities of tuning their uptake mechanism are interesting from a therapeutic point of view. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Effects of Tryptophan Content and Backbone Spacing on the Uptake Efficiency of Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A.

    2012-07-10

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to traverse cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo. Uptake occurs through both endocytotic and nonendocytotic pathways, but the molecular requirements for efficient internalization are not fully understood. Here we investigate how the presence of tryptophans and their position within an oligoarginine influence uptake mechanism and efficiency. Flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence imaging are used to estimate uptake efficiency, intracellular distribution and toxicity in Chinese hamster ovarian cells. Further, membrane leakage and lipid membrane affinity are investigated. The peptides contain eight arginine residues and one to four tryptophans, the tryptophans positioned either at the N-terminus, in the middle, or evenly distributed along the amino acid sequence. Our data show that the intracellular distribution varies among peptides with different tryptophan content and backbone spacing. Uptake efficiency is higher for the peptides with four tryptophans in the middle, or evenly distributed along the peptide sequence, than for the peptide with four tryptophans at the N-terminus. All peptides display low cytotoxicity except for the one with four tryptophans at the N-terminus, which was moderately toxic. This finding is consistent with their inability to induce efficient leakage of dye from lipid vesicles. All peptides have comparable affinities for lipid vesicles, showing that lipid binding is not a decisive parameter for uptake. Our results indicate that tryptophan content and backbone spacing can affect both the CPP uptake efficiency and the CPP uptake mechanism. The low cytotoxicity of these peptides and the possibilities of tuning their uptake mechanism are interesting from a therapeutic point of view. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Highly penetrative liposome nanomedicine generated by a biomimetic strategy for enhanced cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Sheng, Zonghai; Hu, Dehong; Yan, Fei; Zhu, Mingting; Gao, Guanhui; Wang, Pan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Xiaobing; Zheng, Hairong

    2018-04-25

    Liposome nanomedicine has been successfully applied for cancer chemotherapy in patients. However, in general, the therapeutic efficacy is confined by its limited accumulation and penetration in solid tumors. Here, we established a biomimetic strategy for the preparation of highly penetrative liposome nanomedicine for enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy. By applying this unique type of nanomedicine, membrane proteins on the cancer cells are used as highly penetrative targeting ligands. Biomimetic liposomes are highly stable, exhibiting a superior in vitro homologous targeting ability, and a 2.25-fold deeper penetration in 3D tumor spheroids when compared to conventional liposome nanomedicine. The fluorescence/photoacoustic dual-modal imaging approach demonstrated enhanced tumor accumulation and improved tumor penetration of the biomimetic liposome in C6 glioma tumor-bearing nude mice. Following the intravenous administration of biomimetic liposome nanomedicine, the tumor inhibition rate reached up to 93.3%, which was significantly higher when compared to that of conventional liposome nanomedicine (69.3%). Moreover, histopathological analyses demonstrated that biomimetic liposome nanomedicine has limited side effects. Therefore, these results suggested that a cancer cell membrane-based biomimetic strategy may provide a breakthrough approach for enhancing drug penetration and improving treatment efficacy, holding a great promise for further clinical studies.

  5. Sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg; Florita, Anthony; Heaney, Michael; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hummon, Marissa; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE, Wexford, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Until recently, it has been difficult to study the impacts of significant penetrations of hypothetical, utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) plants over large geographic regions. This was because of the lack of credible data to simulate the output of these plants with appropriate spatial and temporal correlation, especially on a sub-hourly basis. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (WWSIS2), we used new technigues to synthesize sub-hourly high-resolution solar output for PV rooftops, utility-scale PV, and concentrating solar power (CSP). This allowed us to examine implications of 25 % solar (60/40 split of PV and CSP) and 8 % wind. In this paper, we present results of analysis on the sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations. Extreme event analysis showed that most of the large ramps were because of sunrise and sunset events, which have a significant predictability component. Variability in general was much higher with high penetrations of solar than with high penetrations of wind. Reserve methodologies that had already been developed for wind were therefore modified to take into account the predictability component of solar variability. Significantly less transmission was required for high solar penetrations than wind and significantly less curtailment occurred in the high solar cases. (orig.)

  6. High filler concrete using fly ash. Chloride penetration and microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Leegwater, G.A.; Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high filler concrete studies are based on relatively high contents of powder (cement + filler) (>400 kg m-3). This paper aims to increase the total fly ash content relative to the clinker content, while simultaneously minimizing the total powder content in the concrete to values lower than 300

  7. High filler concrete using fly ash : Chloride penetration and microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Leegwater, G.A.; Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high filler concrete studies are based on relatively high contents of powder (cement + filler) (>400 kg m-3). This paper aims to increase the total fly ash content relative to the clinker content, while simultaneously minimizing the total powder content in the concrete to values lower than 300

  8. High-velocity Penetration of Concrete Targets with Three Types of Projectiles: Experiments and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Abstract This study conducted high-velocity penetration experiments using conventional ogive-nose, double-ogive-nose, and grooved-tapered projectiles of approximately 2.5 kg and initial velocities between 1000 and 1360 m/s to penetrate or perforate concrete targets with unconfined compressive strengths of nominally 40MPa. The penetration performance data of these three types of projectiles with two different types of materials (i.e., AerMet100 and DT300 were obtained. The crater depth model considering both the projectile mass and the initial velocity was proposed based on the test results and a theoretical analysis. The penetration ability and the trajectory stability of these three projectile types were compared and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that, under these experimental conditions, the effects of these two different kinds of projectile materials on the penetration depth and mass erosion rate of projectile were not obvious. The existing models could not reflect the crater depths for projectiles of greater weights or higher velocities, whereas the new model established in this study was reliable. The double-ogive-nose has a certain effect of drag reduction. Thus, the double-ogive-nose projectile has a higher penetration ability than the conventional ogive-nose projectile. Meanwhile, the grooved-tapered projectile has a better trajectory stability, because the convex parts of tapered shank generated the restoring moment to stabilize the trajectory.

  9. Final Technical Report: Integrated Distribution-Transmission Analysis for Very High Penetration Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmintier, Bryan [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hale, Elaine [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hansen, Timothy M. [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Jones, Wesley [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Biagioni, David [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Baker, Kyri [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Wu, Hongyu [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Giraldez, Julieta [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Sorensen, Harry [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Lunacek, Monte [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Merket, Noel [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Jorgenson, Jennie [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hodge, Bri-Mathias [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States))

    2016-01-29

    Transmission and distribution simulations have historically been conducted separately, echoing their division in grid operations and planning while avoiding inherent computational challenges. Today, however, rapid growth in distributed energy resources (DERs)--including distributed generation from solar photovoltaics (DGPV)--requires understanding the unprecedented interactions between distribution and transmission. To capture these interactions, especially for high-penetration DGPV scenarios, this research project developed a first-of-its-kind, high performance computer (HPC) based, integrated transmission-distribution tool, the Integrated Grid Modeling System (IGMS). The tool was then used in initial explorations of system-wide operational interactions of high-penetration DGPV.

  10. Electricity demand profile with high penetration of heat pumps in Nordic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the heat pump (HP) demand profile with high HP penetration in the Nordic area in order to achieve the carbon neutrality power system. The calculation method in the European Standard EN14825 was used to estimate the HP electricity demand profile. The study results show...... there will be high power demand from HPs and the selection of supplemental heating for heat pumps has a big impact on the peak electrical power load of heating. The study in this paper gives an estimate of the scale of the electricity demand with high penetration of heat pumps in the Nordic area....

  11. LCA of electricity systems with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; O' Dwyer, C. O.; Flynn, D.

    Electricity systems are shifting from being based on fossil fuels towards renewable sources to enhance energy security and mitigate climate change. However, by introducing high shares of variable renewables - such as wind and solar - dispatchable power plants are required to vary their output...... to fulfill the remaining electrical demand, potentially increasing their environmental impacts [1,2]. In this study the environmental impacts of potential short-term future electricity systems in Ireland with high shares of wind power (35-50% of total installed capacity) were evaluated using life cycle...... considered: while not outweighing the benefits from increasing wind energy, cycling emissions are not negligible and should thus be systematically included (i.e. by using emission factors per unit of fuel input rather than per unit of power generated). Cycling emissions increased with the installed wind...

  12. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  13. Chloride Penetration through Cracks in High-Performance Concrete and Surface Treatment System for Crack Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For enhancing the service life of concrete structures, it is very important to minimize crack at surface. Even if these cracks are very small, the problem is to which extend these cracks may jeopardize the durability of these decks. It was proposed that crack depth corresponding with critical crack width from the surface is a crucial factor in view of durability design of concrete structures. It was necessary to deal with chloride penetration through microcracks characterized with the mixing features of concrete. This study is devoted to examine the effect of high strength concrete and reinforcement of steel fiber on chloride penetration through cracks. High strength concrete is regarded as an excellent barrier to resist chloride penetration. However, durability performance of cracked high strength concrete was reduced seriously up to that of ordinary cracked concrete. Steel fiber reinforcement is effective to reduce chloride penetration through cracks because steel fiber reinforcement can lead to reduce crack depth significantly. Meanwhile, surface treatment systems are put on the surface of the concrete in order to seal the concrete. The key-issue is to which extend a sealing is able to ensure that chloride-induced corrosion can be prevented. As a result, penetrant cannot cure cracks, however, coating and combined treatment can prevent chloride from flowing in concrete with maximum crack width of 0.06 mm and 0.08 mm, respectively.

  14. Hydrodynamic analysis and design of high-level radioactive waste disposal model penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visintini, L.; Mazazzi, R.; Murray, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is studying in the framework of the NEA/OECD Internationally Co-ordinational Seabed Programme the feasibility of using deep ocean sedimentary geological formations as a final disposal medium for vitrified high level waste and fuel elements. At present, two options are being considered for the embedment of such wastes in the sediment column, drilling and free fall penetrators. In the second case, the high level waste would be contained in specially designed drums which would be placed into torpedo-shaped projectiles. These penetrators would then be launched from a semi-submersible platform or ship and allowed to fall freely through the water column (≅ 5 km depth) and to bury themselves within the sediment column. The present article reports some work which has been carried out by the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Establishment on designing large model penetrators for tests at two sites in the North Atlantic

  15. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  16. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Hertwich, Edgar G; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO 2 -eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO 2 -eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120–140 Tg CO 2 -eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power. (letter)

  17. High-resolution mapping, modeling, and evolution of subsurface geomorphology using ground-penetrating radar techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.

    subsurface. It has been useful to decipher shallow geomorphic structures having various options to use different antennas for different depth penetration (0-30 m) with higher resolution.   7.2 Principles of GPR  Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was invented... about 90m. Flat and plain land is being used, at present, for agriculture (paddy cultivation) practice. Sand dunes are low lying and highly reworked due to social forestry plantation (acacia) activities. 13    7.8.6 Paleo­Lagoon  GPR data shows two...

  18. Penetration of Liquid Jets into a High-velocity Air Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelko, Louis J

    1950-01-01

    Data are presented showing the penetration characteristics of liquid jets directed approximately perpendicular to a high-velocity air stream for jet-nozzle-throat diameters from 0.0135 to 0.0625 inch, air stream densities from 0.0805 to 0.1365 pound per cubic foot, liquid jet velocities from 168.1 to 229.0 feet per second and a liquid jet density of approximately 62 pounds per cubic foot. The data were analyzed and a correlation was developed that permitted the determination of the penetration length of the liquid jet for any operation condition within the range of variables investigated.

  19. High performance ground penetrating radar survey of TA-49/Area 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Rangel, M.J. III

    1994-09-01

    The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory's continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site

  20. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    /conventional) which are likely to fuel these cars. The study was carried out considering the Danish electricity network state around 2025, when the EDV penetration levels would be significant enough to have an impact on the power system. Some of the interesting findings of this study are - EDV have the potential......This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the feasibility of integrating electric drive vehicles (EDV) in the Danish electricity network which is characterised by high wind power penetration. One of the main aims of this study was to examine the effect of electric drive...... vehicles on the Danish electricity network, wind power penetration and electricity market. In particular the study examined the effect of electric drive vehicles on the generation capacity constraints, load curve, cross border transmission capacity and the type of generating sources (renewable...

  1. A Dynamic Programming based method for optimizing power system restoration with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Li, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    and relatively low cost. Thus, many countries are increasing the wind power penetration in their power system step by step, such as Denmark, Spain and Germany. The incremental wind power penetration brings a lot of new issues in operation and programming. The power system sometimes will operate close to its...... stable limits. Once the blackout happens, a well-designed restoration strategy is significant. This paper focuses on how to ameliorate the power system restoration procedures to adapt the high wind power penetration and how to take full advantages of the wind power plants during the restoration....... In this paper, the possibility to exploit the stochastic wind power during restoration was discussed, and a Dynamic Programming (DP) method was proposed to make wind power contribute in the restoration rationally as far as possible. In this paper, the method is tested and verified by a modified IEEE 30 Buses...

  2. Managing high penetration of renewable energy in MV grid by electric vehicle storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent algorithm for dealing with high penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the medium voltage by intelligently managing electric vehicles (EVs), as one of the grid flexible loads. The MV grid used in this work is a CIGRE benchmark grid. Different...... residential and industrial loads are considered in this grid. The connection of medium voltage wind turbines to the grid is investigated. The solar panels in this study are residential panels. Also, EVs are located among the buses with residential demand. The study is done for different winter and summer...... scenarios, considering typical load profiles in Denmark. Different scenarios have been studied with different penetration level of RESs in the grid. The results show the capability of the proposed algorithm to reduce voltage deviations among the grid buses, as well as to increase the RES penetration...

  3. Energy Storage Options for Voltage Support in Low-Voltage Grids with High Penetration of Photovoltaic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Tarek Fawzy, Y.; Bülo, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    to be established. In the long term, these solutions should also aim to allow further more PV installed capacity, while meeting the power quality requirements. In this paper, different concepts of energy storage are proposed to ensure the voltage quality requirements in a LV grid with high PV penetration...

  4. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-04-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  5. Differences in Femoral Head Penetration Between Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Cemented Sockets and Uncemented Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Daigo; Seki, Taisuke; Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating differences in femoral head penetration between highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) cemented sockets and uncemented liners during 5 years postoperatively. Ninety-six patients (106 hips) with a mean age of 64.4 (range, 35-83) years underwent total hip arthroplasty using a HXLPE cemented socket or liner and were respectively divided into cemented (35 patients [37 hips]) and uncemented (61 patients [69 hips]) groups. Femoral head penetrations were evaluated on both anteroposterior (AP)-view and Lauenstein-view radiographs, and mean polyethylene (PE) wear rates were calculated based on femoral head penetration from 2 to 5 years. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for PE wear. At 5 years postoperatively, the cemented and uncemented groups exhibited proximal direction femoral head penetrations of 0.103 mm and 0.124 mm (P = .226) and anterior direction penetrations of 0.090 mm and 0.151 mm (P = .002), respectively. The corresponding mean PE wear rates were 0.004 mm/y and 0.009 mm/y in the AP-view (P = .286) and 0.005 mm/y and 0.012 mm/y in the Lauenstein-view (P = .168), respectively. Left-side operation and high activity were independent risk factors for PE wear on AP-view. When HXLPE was used, all mean PE wear rates were very low and those of cemented sockets and uncemented liners were very similar. PE particle theory suggests that the occurrence of osteolysis and related aseptic loosening might consequently decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Outlook and application analysis of energy storage in power system with high renewable energy penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junshu; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    To realize low-emission and low-carbon energy production and consumption, large-scale development and utilization of renewable energy has been put into practice in China. And it has been recognized that power system of future high renewable energy shares can operate more reliably with the participation of energy storage. Considering the significant role of storage playing in the future power system, this paper focuses on the application of energy storage with high renewable energy penetration. Firstly, two application modes are given, including demand side application mode and centralized renewable energy farm application mode. Afterwards, a high renewable energy penetration scenario of northwest region in China is designed, and its production simulation with application of energy storage in 2050 has been calculated and analysed. Finally, a development path and outlook of energy storage is given.

  7. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    elements (five SMGTs) for the S2E2 Mobile Ground System. ​ SBIRS Block Buy (GEO 5-6) The GEO 5-6 Tech Refresh (TR) Engineering Change Proposal was...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-210 Space Based Infrared System High ( SBIRS High) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 11:24:26 UNCLASSIFIED SBIRS High December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 11:24:26

  8. High penetration wind generation impacts on spot prices in the Australian national electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, Nicholas J.; Boerema, Nicholas D.; MacGill, Iain F.; Outhred, Hugh R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores wind power integration issues for the South Australian (SA) region of the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) by assessing the interaction of regional wind generation, electricity demand and spot prices over 2 recent years of market operation. SA's wind energy penetration has recently surpassed 20% and it has only a limited interconnection with other regions of the NEM. As such, it represents an interesting example of high wind penetration in a gross wholesale pool market electricity industry. Our findings suggest that while electricity demand continues to have the greatest influence on spot prices in SA, wind generation levels have become a significant secondary influence, and there is an inverse relationship between wind generation and price. No clear relationship between wind generation and demand has been identified although some periods of extremely high demand may coincide with lower wind generation. Periods of high wind output are associated with generally lower market prices, and also appear to contribute to extreme negative price events. The results highlight the importance of electricity market and renewable policy design in facilitating economically efficient high wind penetrations. - Highlights: → In South Australia (SA) wind generation is having an influence on market prices. → Little or no correlation is found between wind generation and demand. → Wind farms in SA are receiving a lower average price than in other States. → The results highlight the importance of appropriate electricity market design.

  9. Facing the challenges of distribution systems operation with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    power flow in 60kV distribution networks through controlling the ability of wind power plants (WPPs) to generate or absorb reactive power. This paper aims to understand the characteristics of a distribution network with high penetration of distributed generation. A detailed analysis of the active...... and reactive power flows in a real distribution network under different wind and load conditions based on actual measurements is performed in order to understand the correlation between the consumption, wind power production, and the network losses. Conclusive remarks are presented, briefly expressing......This paper addresses the challenges associated with the operation of a distribution system with high penetration of wind power. The paper presents some preliminary investigations of an ongoing Danish research work, which has as main objective to reduce the network losses by optimizing the reactive...

  10. Penetration of hydrogen isotopes through EhI 698 alloy at high pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritskij, V.M.; Voznyak, Ya.; Granovskij, V.B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper deals with investigations of the process of hydrogen and deuterium penetration through the high-temperature alloy EhI-698 at a pressure up to 1 kbar and temperature up to 1050 K. Parameters of the process obey Sieverts's law and can be described by Arrenius's and Vant-Goff's equations. The obtained results lead to a conclusion that the alloy EhI-698 is good for vessels to be employed in hydrogen media

  11. Electric Vehicles for Improved Operation of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Esben; Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible e...

  12. Review of Congestion Management Methods for Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing congestion management methods for distribution networks with high penetration of DERs documented in the recent research literatures. The congestion management methods for distribution networks reviewed can be grouped into two categories – market methods and direct...... control methods. The market methods consist of dynamic tariff, distribution capacity market, shadow price and flexible service market. The direct control methods are comprised of network reconfiguration, reactive power control and active power control. Based on the review of the existing methods...

  13. High Penetration Solar PV Deployment Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeker, Rick [Nhu Energy, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Steurer, Mischa [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Faruque, MD Omar [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Langston, James [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Schoder, Karl [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Ravindra, Harsha [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hariri, Ali [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Moaveni, Houtan [New York Power Authority (NYPA), New York (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (Unitied States); Click, Dave [ESA Renewables, LLC, Sanford, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Reedy, Bob [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The report provides results from the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) high penetration solar PV deployment project led by Florida State University’s (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS). FSU CAPS and industry and university partners have completed a five-year effort aimed at enabling effective integration of high penetration levels of grid-connected solar PV generation. SUNGRIN has made significant contributions in the development of simulation-assisted techniques, tools, insight and understanding associated with solar PV effects on electric power system (EPS) operation and the evaluation of mitigation options for maintaining reliable operation. An important element of the project was the partnership and participation of six major Florida utilities and the Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC). Utilities provided details and data associated with actual distribution circuits having high-penetration PV to use as case studies. The project also conducted foundational work supporting future investigations of effects at the transmission / bulk power system level. In the final phase of the project, four open-use models with built-in case studies were developed and released, along with synthetic solar PV data sets, and tools and techniques for model reduction and in-depth parametric studies of solar PV impact on distribution circuits. Along with models and data, at least 70 supporting MATLAB functions have been developed and made available, with complete documentation.

  14. Effect of Using Metakaolin on Chloride Ion Penetration in High Performance Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mohammed Shihab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to reduce the penetrability of high performance steel fiber reinforced concrete to chloride ions originating from external sources, by using High Reactivity Metakaolin (HRM as a highly active pozzolanic material, in order to prolong the time to initiation of the steel fibers corrosion and to minimize concrete damage that may occur due to the exposure to chloride ion penetration. According to pozzolanic activity index (P.A.I., 8% content of HRM was used as a partial replacement by weight of cement with 2% steel fibers by volume of concrete. During the exposure period of 300 days in 4.5% of NaCl solution, the total and free chloride contents (Cltotal, Clfree with the chloride profiles at the ages of 28 and 300 days were investigated. Also the rapid chloride penetrability test (RCPT, compressive and flexural strengths tests were conducted at the ages of 28, 90, 180 and 300 days. Results showed that the incorporation of 8% HRM caused a reduction in the (Clfree/Cltota ratio, the chloride penetration depth and the electrical conductivity with percentages of 21%, 40% and 43% respectively after 300 days exposure to chloride solution in comparing with the mix of 0% HRM. Results also indicated that the losses in compressive and flexural strengths after exposure of 300 days to chloride solution for the mix incorporating 8% HRM were by 5% and 5.8% respectively while they reached 9.5% and 11% respectively for the mix without HRM in relation to the correspondent test specimens cured in tap water.

  15. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, Claus; Ropenus, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm 3 . The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  16. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  17. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  18. High-accuracy defect sizing for CRDM penetration adapters using the ultrasonic TOFD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, I.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is the preferred technique for critical sizing of throughwall orientated defects in a wide range of components, primarily because it is intrinsically more accurate than amplitude-based techniques. For the same reason, TOFD is the preferred technique for sizing the cracks in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetration adapters, which have been the subject of much recent attention. Once the considerable problem of restricted access for the UT probes has been overcome, this inspection lends itself to very high accuracy defect sizing using TOFD. In qualification trials under industrial conditions, depth sizing to an accuracy of ≤ 0.5 mm has been routinely achieved throughout the full wall thickness (16 mm) of the penetration adapters, using only a single probe pair and without recourse to signal processing. (author)

  19. Large-scale, high-definition Ground Penetrating Radar prospection in archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, I.; Kucera, M.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Nau, E.; Neubauer, W.; Zitz, T.

    2012-04-01

    The future demands on professional archaeological prospection will be its ability to cover large areas in a time and cost efficient manner with very high spatial resolution and accuracy. The objective of the 2010 in Vienna established Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (LBI ArchPro) in collaboration with its eight European partner organisations is the advancement of state-of-the-art archaeological sciences. The application and specific further development of remote sensing, geophysical prospection and virtual reality applications, as well as of novel integrated interpretation approaches dedicated to non-invasive spatial archaeology combining near-surface prospection methods with advanced computer science is crucial for modern archaeology. Within the institute's research programme different areas for distinct case studies in Austria, Germany, Norway, Sweden and the UK have been selected as basis for the development and testing of new concepts for efficient and universally applicable tools for spatial, non-invasive archaeology. In terms of geophysical prospection the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes for the exploration and protection of Europe's buried cultural heritage requires new measurement devices, which are fast, accurate and precise. Therefore the further development of motorized, multichannel survey systems and advanced navigation solutions is required. The use of motorized measurement devices for archaeological prospection implicates several technological and methodological challenges. Latest multichannel Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) arrays mounted in front off, or towed behind motorized survey vehicles permit large-scale GPR prospection surveys with unprecedented spatial resolution. In particular the motorized 16 channel 400 MHz MALÅ Imaging Radar Array (MIRA) used by the LBI ArchPro in combination with latest automatic data positioning and navigation solutions permits the reliable high

  20. Penetrating bladder trauma: a high risk factor for associated rectal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, B M; Reis, L O; Calderan, T R; de Campos, C C; Fraga, G P

    2014-01-01

    Demographics and mechanisms were analyzed in prospectively maintained level one trauma center database 1990-2012. Among 2,693 trauma laparotomies, 113 (4.1%) presented bladder lesions; 51.3% with penetrating injuries (n = 58); 41.3% (n = 24) with rectal injuries, males corresponding to 95.8%, mean age 29.8 years; 79.1% with gunshot wounds and 20.9% with impalement; 91.6% arriving the emergence room awake (Glasgow 14-15), hemodynamically stable (average systolic blood pressure 119.5 mmHg); 95.8% with macroscopic hematuria; and 100% with penetrating stigmata. Physical exam was not sensitive for rectal injuries, showing only 25% positivity in patients. While 60% of intraperitoneal bladder injuries were surgically repaired, extraperitoneal ones were mainly repaired using Foley catheter alone (87.6%). Rectal injuries, intraperitoneal in 66.6% of the cases and AAST-OIS grade II in 45.8%, were treated with primary suture plus protective colostomy; 8.3% were sigmoid injuries, and 70.8% of all injuries had a minimum stool spillage. Mean injury severity score was 19; mean length of stay 10 days; 20% of complications with no death. Concomitant rectal injuries were not a determinant prognosis factor. Penetrating bladder injuries are highly associated with rectal injuries (41.3%). Heme-negative rectal examination should not preclude proctoscopy and eventually rectal surgical exploration (only 25% sensitivity).

  1. Economic Justification of Concentrating Solar Power in High Renewable Energy Penetrated Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Du, Ershun [Tsinghua University; Zhang, Ning [Tsinghua University; Kang, Chongqing [Tsinghua University; Xia, Qing [Tsinghua University

    2018-04-24

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are able to provide both renewable energy and operational flexibility at the same time due to its thermal energy storage (TES). It is ideal generation to power systems lacking in flexibility to accommodate variable renewable energy (VRE) generation such as wind power and photovoltaics. However, its investment cost currently is too high to justify its benefit in terms of providing renewable energy only. In this paper we evaluate the economic benefit of CSP in high renewable energy penetrated power systems from two aspects: generating renewable energy and providing operational flexibility to help accommodating VRE. In order to keep the same renewable energy penetration level during evaluation, we compare the economic costs between the system with a high share of VRE and another in which some part of the VRE generation is replaced by CSP generation. The generation cost of a power system is analyzed through chronological operation simulation over a whole year. The benefit of CSP is quantified into two parts: (1) energy benefit - the saving investment of substituted VRE generation and (2) flexibility benefit - the reduction in operating cost due to substituting VRE with CSP. The break-even investment cost of CSP is further discussed. The methodology is tested on a modified IEEE RTS-79 system. The economic justifications of CSP are demonstrated in two practical provincial power systems with high penetration of renewable energy in northwestern China, Qinghai and Gansu, where the former province has massive inflexible thermal power plants but later one has high share of flexible hydro power. The results suggest that the CSP is more beneficial in Gansu system than in Qinghai. The levelized benefit of CSP, including both energy benefit and flexibility benefit, is about 0.177-0.191 $/kWh in Qinghai and about 0.238-0.300 $/kWh in Gansu, when replacing 5-20% VRE generation with CSP generation.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Extended-Term Dynamic Simulations with High Penetrations of Photovoltaic Generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concepcion, Ricky James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Ryan Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Donnelly, Matt [Montana Tech., Butte, MT (United States); Sanchez-Gasca, Juan [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The uncontrolled intermittent availability of renewable energy sources makes integration of such devices into today's grid a challenge. Thus, it is imperative that dynamic simulation tools used to analyze power system performance are able to support systems with high amounts of photovoltaic (PV) generation. Additionally, simulation durations expanding beyond minutes into hours must be supported. This report aims to identify the path forward for dynamic simulation tools to accom- modate these needs by characterizing the properties of power systems (with high PV penetration), analyzing how these properties affect dynamic simulation software, and offering solutions for po- tential problems. We present a study of fixed time step, explicit numerical integration schemes that may be more suitable for these goals, based on identified requirements for simulating high PV penetration systems. We also present the alternative of variable time step integration. To help determine the characteristics of systems with high PV generation, we performed small signal sta- bility studies and time domain simulations of two representative systems. Along with feedback from stakeholders and vendors, we identify the current gaps in power system modeling including fast and slow dynamics and propose a new simulation framework to improve our ability to model and simulate longer-term dynamics.

  5. Voltage magnitude and margin controller for remote industrial microgrid with high wind penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yu; Lin, Jin; Song, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the remote industrial microgrid is located at the periphery of the grid, which is weakly connected to the main grid. In order to enhance the voltage stability and ensure a good power quality for industries, a voltage magnitude and margin controller based on wind turbines...... is proposed in this paper. This controller includes two parts to improve voltage stability in different time scales by using local measurements. Case studies conducted for a remote microgrid with high wind penetration have proved the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme....

  6. Optimal LFC SMC for three – area power system with high penetration of PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Klimontowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical power systems are subjected to new trends appearing in grid structuring, electrical power sources, new control strategies, etc. The introduction of inverterbased distributed energy resources to replace conventional synchronous machines depletes the mechanical inertia, and causing the system to become more sensitive to disturbances. This paper proposed a simple and reliable solution to assure sufficient frequency stability of electrical power systems when subjected to high penetration of decoupled distributed generation. To achieve this, a decentralized sliding mode control was designed to operate as a compensator for conventional load frequency controllers. Subsequently, PV farms and battery energy storage systems were interconnected. Simulated network under different configurations were conducted using MATLAB.

  7. High-resolution geophysical profiling using a stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noon, D; Longstaff, D [The University of Queensland, (Australia)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) system which uses stepped-frequency waveforms to obtain high-resolution geophysical profiles. The main application for this system is the high-resolution mapping of thin coal seam structures, in order to assist surface mining operations in open-cut coal mines. The required depth of penetration is one meter which represents the maximum thickness of coal seams that are designated `thin`. A resolution of five centimeters is required to resolve the minimum thickness of coal (or shale partings) which can be economically recovered in an open-cut coal mine. For this application, a stepped-frequency GPR system has been developed, because of its ultrawide bandwidth (1 to 2 GHz) and high external loop sensitivity (155 dB). The field test results of the stepped-frequency GPR system on a concrete pavement and at two Australian open-cut coal mines are also presented. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  8. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic energy penetrators must posses the best possible combination of hardness, stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness characteristics to be effective against modern armor systems. Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. Du and tungsten perform abut the same against semi-infinite targets, and DU outperforms tungsten penetrators in oblique, spaced array targets, but because of environmental and subsequent cost concerns, effort has focused on improving the performance of tungsten penetrators over the last few years. However, despite recent improvements in material properties, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms at the leading edge of the penetrator during the penetration process-DU alloys tend to shear band and sharpen as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom and blunt. As a first step to determine whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review of the fabrication, high strain-rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on material properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed

  9. Price Forecasting of Electricity Markets in the Presence of a High Penetration of Wind Power Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Talari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Price forecasting plays a vital role in the day-ahead markets. Once sellers and buyers access an accurate price forecasting, managing the economic risk can be conducted appropriately through offering or bidding suitable prices. In networks with high wind power penetration, the electricity price is influenced by wind energy; therefore, price forecasting can be more complicated. This paper proposes a novel hybrid approach for price forecasting of day-ahead markets, with high penetration of wind generators based on Wavelet transform, bivariate Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA method and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN. To this end, a weighted time series for wind dominated power systems is calculated and added to a bivariate ARIMA model along with the price time series. Moreover, RBFN is applied as a tool to correct the estimation error, and particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to optimize the structure and adapt the RBFN to the particular training set. This method is evaluated on the Spanish electricity market, which shows the efficiency of this approach. This method has less error compared with other methods especially when it considers the effects of large-scale wind generators.

  10. The role of hydrogen in high wind energy penetration electricity systems: the Irish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.; McKeogh, E.; Gallachoir, B.O.

    2004-01-01

    The deployment of wind energy is constrained by wind uncontrollability, which poses operational problems on the electricity supply system at high penetration levels, lessening the value of wind-generated electricity to a significant extent. This paper studies the viability of hydrogen production via electrolysis using wind power that cannot be easily accommodated on the system. The potential benefits of hydrogen and its role in enabling a large penetration of wind energy are assessed, within the context of the enormous wind energy resource in Ireland. The exploitation of this wind resource may in the future give rise to significant amounts of surplus wind electricity, which could be used to produce hydrogen, the zero-emissions fuel that many experts believe will eventually replace fossil fuels in the transport sector. In this paper the operation of a wind powered hydrogen production system is simulated and optimised. The results reveal that, even allowing for significant cost-reductions in electrolyser and associated balance-of-plant equipment, low average surplus wind electricity cost and a high hydrogen market price are also necessary to achieve the economic viability of the technology. These conditions would facilitate the installation of electrolysis units of sufficient capacity to allow an appreciable increase in installed wind power in Ireland. The simulation model was also used to determine the CO 2 abatement potential associated with the wind energy/hydrogen production. (author)

  11. A Distributed Robust Dispatch Approach for Interconnected Systems with a High Proportion of Wind Power Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed robust dispatch approach to solve the economic dispatch problem of the interconnected systems with a high proportion of wind power penetration. First of all, the basic principle of synchronous alternating direction method of multipliers (SADMM is introduced to solve the economic dispatch problem of the two interconnected regions. Next, the polyhedron set of the robust optimization method is utilized to describe the wind power output. To adjust the conservativeness of the polyhedron set, an adjustment factor of robust conservativeness is introduced. Subsequently, considering the operation characteristics of the DC tie line between the interconnected regions, an economic dispatch model with a high proportion of wind power penetration is established and parallel iteration based on SADMM is used to solve the model. In each iteration, the optimized power of DC tie lines is exchanged between the regions without requiring the participation of the superior dispatch center. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is verified by the examples of the 2-area 6-node interconnected system and the interconnection of several modified New England 39-node systems. The results show that the proposed model can meet the needs of the independent dispatch of regional power grids, effectively deal with the uncertainty of wind power output, and maximize the wind power consumption under the condition of ensuring the safe operation of the interconnected systems.

  12. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F. [and others

    1996-08-01

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  13. Highly accurate and fast optical penetration-based silkworm gender separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chanhorm, Sataporn

    2015-07-01

    Based on our research work in the last five years, this paper highlights our innovative optical sensing system that can identify and separate silkworm gender highly suitable for sericulture industry. The key idea relies on our proposed optical penetration concepts and once combined with simple image processing operations leads to high accuracy in identifying of silkworm gender. Inside the system, there are electronic and mechanical parts that assist in controlling the overall system operation, processing the optical signal, and separating the female from male silkworm pupae. With current system performance, we achieve a very highly accurate more than 95% in identifying gender of silkworm pupae with an average system operational speed of 30 silkworm pupae/minute. Three of our systems are already in operation at Thailand's Queen Sirikit Sericulture Centers.

  14. High-strength uranium-0.8 weight percent titanium alloy penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcutt, W.G.

    1978-09-01

    Long-rod kinetic-energy penetrators, produced from a uranium-0.8 titanium (U-0.8 Ti) alloy, are normally water quenched from the gamma phase (approximately 800 0 C) and aged to the desired hardness and strength levels. High cooling rates from 800 0 C in U-0.8 Ti alloy cylindrical bodies larger than about 13 mm in diameter cause internal voids, while slower rates of cooling can produce material that is unresponsive to aging. For the present study, elimination of quenching voids was of paramount importance; therefore, a process including the quenching of plate was explored. Vacuum-induction-cast ingots were forged and rolled into plate and cut into blanks from which the penetrators were obtained. Quenched U-0.8 Ti alloy blanks were aged at 350 to 500 0 C to determine the treatment that would provide maximum tensile and impact strengths. Both tensile and impact strengths were maximized by aging in vacuum for six hours at 450 0 C

  15. No novel, high penetrant gene might remain to be found in Japanese patients with unknown MODY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Yukio; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Enya, Mayumi; Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Sugano, Sumio; Inoue, Ituro; Takeda, Jun

    2018-07-01

    MODY 5 and 6 have been shown to be low-penetrant MODYs. As the genetic background of unknown MODY is assumed to be similar, a new analytical strategy is applied here to elucidate genetic predispositions to unknown MODY. We examined to find whether there are major MODY gene loci remaining to be identified using SNP linkage analysis in Japanese. Whole-exome sequencing was performed with seven families with typical MODY. Candidates for novel MODY genes were examined combined with in silico network analysis. Some peaks were found only in either parametric or non-parametric analysis; however, none of these peaks showed a LOD score greater than 3.7, which is approved to be the significance threshold of evidence for linkage. Exome sequencing revealed that three mutated genes were common among 3 families and 42 mutated genes were common in two families. Only one of these genes, MYO5A, having rare amino acid mutations p.R849Q and p.V1601G, was involved in the biological network of known MODY genes through the intermediary of the INS. Although only one promising candidate gene, MYO5A, was identified, no novel, high penetrant MODY genes might remain to be found in Japanese MODY.

  16. Revisiting long-run relations in power markets with high RES penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianfreda, Angelica; Parisio, Lucia; Pelagatti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Electricity generation from renewable energy resources (RES) has become increasingly significant to reach EU and emissions reduction targets. At the same time, one of the main EU policy goals has been the creation of a common internal energy market for Europe. In this paper, we focus on these two issues previously studied separately, considering their possible interactions. We first analyze the long-run relationship between day-ahead electricity prices and fuel prices (natural gas and coal) looking at two samples of years characterized by low and high RES penetration, then we explore the integration of EU markets. We show that the electricity–fuel nexus found over 2006–2008 changed dramatically over 2010–2014 for the majority of countries considered. In particular, the long-run dependence of electricity from gas and coal prices is much lower in recent years. Furthermore, our results confirm that the considered EU countries are becoming less integrated as RES-E increases. Our findings suggest that nationally implemented policies to support renewables are successful in increasing RES penetration, but they have lessened the linkage among EU markets, then making integration more difficult to obtain. - Highlights: •RES lower the intra-daily electricity dependence from coal and natural gas. •RES affect the EU wholesale electricity market integration, studied at hourly level. •Overlapping national and supranational policies tackle the achievement of EU targets. •Strong policy coordination is required to avoid that the “greens” promote the “dirtiest”.

  17. Climate and Water Vulnerability of the US Electricity Grid Under High Penetrations of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; O'Connell, M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Newmark, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The US power sector is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operations, primarily for thermoelectric cooling and hydropower technologies. Changes in the availability and temperature of water resources can limit electricity generation and cause outages at power plants, which substantially affect grid-level operational decisions. While the effects of water variability and climate changes on individual power plants are well documented, prior studies have not identified the significance of these impacts at the regional systems-level at which the grid operates, including whether there are risks for large-scale blackouts, brownouts, or increases in production costs. Adequately assessing electric grid system-level impacts requires detailed power sector modeling tools that can incorporate electric transmission infrastructure, capacity reserves, and other grid characteristics. Here, we present for the first time, a study of how climate and water variability affect operations of the power sector, considering different electricity sector configurations (low vs. high renewable) and environmental regulations. We use a case study of the US Eastern Interconnection, building off the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) that explored operational challenges of high penetrations of renewable energy on the grid. We evaluate climate-water constraints on individual power plants, using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model coupled with the PLEXOS electricity production cost model, in the context of broader electricity grid operations. Using a five minute time step for future years, we analyze scenarios of 10% to 30% renewable energy penetration along with considerations of river temperature regulations to compare the cost, performance, and reliability tradeoffs of water-dependent thermoelectric generation and variable renewable energy technologies under climate stresses. This work provides novel insights into the resilience and

  18. A novel drug delivery gel of terbinafine hydrochloride with high penetration for external use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Ou, Rujing; Guan, Shixia; Ye, Xiaoling; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Shufan; Zhou, Yubin; Yuan, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jun; Li, Qing-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Terbinafine hydrochloride is an antifungal drug for onychomycosis. Poor permeability of its external preparation leads to poor curative effect. Transfersomes, also known as flexible liposome, could improve transmission of drug for local external use. Terbinafine hydrochloride-loaded liposome is expected to become a breakthrough on the treatment of onychomycosis. This study is aimed to prepare high skin penetration terbinafine hydrochloride transfersomes with high encapsulation efficiency, appropriate drug loading and good stability. Taking entrapment efficiency as the main indicator, the formulations and the processes of preparation were investigated. Transfersomes with different surfactants were prepared in the optimization processes, and the formulations were optimized through the transdermal test in vitro. As a result, a gel contained transfersomes was obtained with a brief evaluation. Its pharmacokinetic properties of going through the skin were studied by using the micro dialysis technology and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to assay the penetration behavior of terbinafine. Mean particle size of the terbinafine hydrochloride transfersomes was 69.6 ± 1.23 nm, and the entrapment efficiency was 95.4% ± 0.51. The content of the gel was 4.45 ± 0.15 mg/g. The accumulated permeation of the transfersomes gel in 12 h was 88.52 ± 4.06 µg cm -2 and the intracutaneous drug detention was 94.38 ± 5.26 µg cm -2 . The results of pharmacokinetic studies showed the C max and area under the curve (AUC) were apparently higher than the commercial cream. The terbinafine hydrochloride transfersomes was highly absorbed by the skin. The absorption rate was significantly higher than that of the commercial cream either in the transdermal test in vitro or in the pharmacokinetic studies in vivo.

  19. Optimal Operation and Dispatch of Voltage Regulation Devices Considering High Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cho, Gyu-Jung [Sungkyunkwan University; Oh, Yun-Sik [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Min-Sung [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Ji-Soo [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Chul-Hwan [Sungkyunkwan University

    2017-06-29

    Voltage regulation devices have been traditionally installed and utilized to support distribution voltages. Installations of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution systems are rapidly increasing, and many of these generation resources have variable and uncertain power output. These generators can significantly change the voltage profile for a feeder; therefore, in the distribution system planning stage of the optimal operation and dispatch of voltage regulation devices, possible high penetrations of DERs should be considered. In this paper, we model the IEEE 34-bus test feeder, including all essential equipment. An optimization method is adopted to determine the optimal siting and operation of the voltage regulation devices in the presence of distributed solar power generation. Finally, we verify the optimal configuration of the entire system through the optimization and simulation results.

  20. Cost allocation model for distribution networks considering high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pereira, Fábio; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) in distribution networks and the competitive environment of electricity markets impose the use of new approaches in several domains. The network cost allocation, traditionally used in transmission networks, should be adapted and used...... in the distribution networks considering the specifications of the connected resources. The main goal is to develop a fairer methodology trying to distribute the distribution network use costs to all players which are using the network in each period. In this paper, a model considering different type of costs (fixed......, losses, and congestion costs) is proposed comprising the use of a large set of DER, namely distributed generation (DG), demand response (DR) of direct load control type, energy storage systems (ESS), and electric vehicles with capability of discharging energy to the network, which is known as vehicle...

  1. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

  2. Electric Vehicles for Improved Operation of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben; Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive...... vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible economical incentives for the vehicle owners will be shown. By control of EDV charging through a price...... signal from the day ahead market the economical incentives for an EDV-owner will be small. If the EDV's can participate in the regulation of the grid through ancillary services the incentives will be increased to an attractive level....

  3. Impacts of reserve methodology on production cost in high-penetration renewable scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.; Ibanez, E.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Prior to wind and solar penetration, electric power systems were designed to handle variability in system load, uncertainty in load forecasts, and contingency events. Frequency regulations reserve typically handles high frequency (less than 5-minute time scale) variability. Contingency reserves supply energy in the case of the loss of a generator or transmission line. Wind and solar photovoltaic generation and variability to electric power system generation that must be balanced by the system operator. New ancillary service products may be necessary to minimize the cost of integrating these variable renewable generators. For example, California ISO is studying incorporating a flexible ramping product to ensure sufficient ramping capability. A flexibility reserve product could help ensure that sufficient capacity is online to handle unexpected variability in wind and solar generation. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of distribution systems with a high penetration of distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten

    Since the mid eighties, a large number of wind turbines and distributed combined heat and power plants (CHPs) have been connected to the Danish power system. Especially in the Western part, comprising Jutland and Funen, the penetration is high compared to the load demand. In some periods the wind...... power alone can cover the entire load demand. The objective of the work is to investigate the influence of wind power and distributed combined heat and power production on the operation of the distribution systems. Where other projects have focused on the modeling and control of the generators and prime...... movers, the focus of this project is on the operation of an entire distribution system with several wind farms and CHPs. Firstly, the subject of allocation of power system losses in a distribution system with distributed generation is treated. A new approach to loss allocation based on current injections...

  5. Static Equivalent of Distribution Grids With High Penetration of PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samadi, Afshin; Söder, Lennart; Shayesteh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    High penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems within load pockets in distribution grids have changed pure consumers to prosumers. This can cause technical challenges in distribution and transmission grids, such as overvoltage and reverse power flow. Embedding voltage support schemes into PVs...... equivalent that can fairly capture the dominant behavior of the distribution grids. The aim of this paper is to use gray-box modeling concepts to develop a static equivalent of distribution grids comprising a large number of PV systems embedded with voltage support schemes. In the proposed model, the PV...... systems are aggregated as a separate entity, and not as a negative load, which is traditionally done. The results demonstrate the superior quality of the proposed model compared with the model with PV systems as the negative load....

  6. Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keane, A.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    part of the power system plant mix and contribute to the flexible operation of a power system. A model for demand side resources is proposed here that captures its key characteristics for commitment and dispatch calculations. The model is tested on the all island Irish power system, and the operation...... of the functions of conventional peaking plant. Demand side resources are also shown to be capable of improving the reliability of the system, with reserve capability identified as a key requirement in this respect....... of the model is simulated over one year in both a stochastic and deterministic mode, to illustrate the impact of wind and load uncertainty. The results illustrate that demand side resources can contribute to the efficient, flexible operation of systems with high penetrations of wind by replacing some...

  7. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    There is considerable debate about the degree to which restructured markets perform successfully in their use of capacity markets. In providing appropriate incentives for new and existing generation to meet reliability requirements, a variety of capacity market designs have developed across RTOs and ISOs in the United States and internationally. Growing levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because VREs suppress energy prices while providing relatively little capacity, with these effects increase with VRE penetration. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets under consideration using variable resource requirement (VRR) demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers, including where there substantive differences in opinion. Third, we consider some of the challenges that may be specific to higher penetration levels of VRE. While the well known 'merit order' effect from VRE can be expected to suppress wholesale energy prices and revenue, this may be partly mitigated by increased capacity payments and the greater importance of AS payments for flexible capacity. The potential for greater reliance on capacity markets for generator revenues may amplify any inefficiency and costs associated with capacity price volatility and other suboptimal market design choices. Regulatory intervention to ensure adequate capacity payments and ancillary service revenue may become more prevalent under current market designs as the timescale for market signals shifts increasingly from near term (e.g., day-ahead in wholesale electricity markets) to longer term (annual intervals in capacity markets). Our review and discussion with market participants suggest substantive challenges may

  8. Optimizing the U.S. Electric System with a High Penetration of Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2013-12-01

    As renewable energy generators are increasingly being installed throughout the U.S., there is growing interest in interconnecting diverse renewable generators (primarily wind and solar) across large geographic areas through an enhanced transmission system. This reduces variability in the aggregate power output, increases system reliability, and allows for the development of the best overall group of renewable technologies and sites to meet the load. Studies are therefore needed to determine the most efficient and economical plan to achieve large area interconnections in a future electric system with a high penetration of renewables. This research quantifies the effects of aggregating electric load together with diverse renewable generation throughout the ten Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous U.S. A deterministic linear program has been built in AMPL (A Mathematical Programming Language) to solve for the least-cost organizational structure and system (generators, transmission, and storage) for a highly renewable electric grid. The analysis will 1) examine a highly renewable 2006 electric system, including various sensitivity cases and additional system components such as additional load from electric vehicles, and 2) create a 'roadmap' from the existing 2006 system to a highly renewable system in 2030, accounting for projected price and demand changes and generator retirements based on age and environmental regulations. Ideally, results from this study will offer insight for a federal renewable energy policy (such as a renewable portfolio standard) and how to best organize U.S. regions for transmission planning.

  9. Ultra-rare mutation in long-range enhancer predisposes to thyroid carcinoma with high penetrance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling He

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC. This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.

  10. Correction of High Astigmatism after Penetrating Keratoplasty with Toric Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nuzzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After penetrating keratoplasty (PK, high astigmatism is often induced, being frequently about 4–6 dpt. According to the entity and typology of astigmatism, different methods of correction can be used. Selective suture removal, relaxing incisions, wedge resections, compression sutures, photorefractive keratectomy, and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis can reduce corneal astigmatism and ametropia, but meanwhile they can cause a reduction in the corneal integrity and cause an over- or undercorrection. In case of moderate-to-high regular astigmatisms, the authors propose a toric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL implantation to preserve the corneal integrity (especially in PK after herpetic corneal leukoma keratitis. We evaluated a 45-year-old patient who at the age of 30 was subjected to PK in his left eye due to corneal leukoma herpetic keratitis, which led to high astigmatism (7.50 dpt cyl. 5°. The patient was subjected to phacoemulsification and customized toric multifocal IOL implantation in his left eye. The correction of PK-induced residual astigmatism with a toric IOL implantation is an excellent choice but has to be evaluated in relation to patient age, corneal integrity, longevity graft, and surgical risk. It seems to be a well-tolerated therapeutic choice and with good results.

  11. High temperature superconductivity space experiment (HTSSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisenoff, M.; Gubser, D.V.; Wolf, S.A.; Ritter, J.C.; Price, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is exploring the feasibility of deploying high temperature superconductivity (HTS) devices and components in space. A variety of devices, primarily passive microwave and millimeter wave components, have been procured and will be integrated with a cryogenic refrigerator system and data acquisition system to form the space package, which will be launched late in 1992. This Space Experiment will demonstrate that this technology is sufficiently robust to survive the space environment and has the potential to significantly improved space communications systems. The devices for the initial launch (HTSSE-I) have been received by NRL and evaluated electrically, thermally and mechanically and will be integrated into the final space package early in 1991. In this paper the performance of the devices are summarized and some potential applications of HTS technology in space system are outlined

  12. Quantifying snow and vegetation interactions in the high arctic based on ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacitúa, G.; Bay, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic in Northeast Greenland. We used ground penetrating radar (GPR) for snow thickness measurements across the Zackenberg valley. Measurements were integrated to the physical conditions that support the vegetation distribution. Descriptive statistics and correlations of the distribution of each...

  13. Hermetic cable penetrations for containments of nuclear power reactors meet high safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusserow, J.; Gurr, W.; Pflug, H.

    1985-05-01

    Different types of cable penetrations for containments of nuclear power reactors have been developed and fabricated in the GDR. The technical parameters achieved are in accordance with the radiation protection requirements

  14. Melting Penetration Simulation of Fe-U System at High Temperature Using MPS-LER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustari, A P A; Irwanto, Dwi; Yamaji, A

    2016-01-01

    Melting penetration information of Fe-U system is necessary for simulating the molten core behavior during severe accident in nuclear power plants. For Fe-U system, the information is mainly obtained from experiment, i.e. TREAT experiment. However, there is no reported data on SS304 at temperature above 1350°C. The MPS-LER has been developed and validated to simulate melting penetration on Fe-U system. The MPS-LER modelled the eutectic phenomenon by solving the diffusion process and by applying the binary phase diagram criteria. This study simulates the melting penetration of the system at higher temperature using MPS-LER. Simulations were conducted on SS304 at 1400, 1450 and 1500°C. The simulation results show rapid increase of melting penetration rate. (paper)

  15. Technical impacts of high penetration levels of wind power on power system stability

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Damian; Rather, Z.; Ardal, Atle; Darco, Salvatore; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Estanqueiro, Ana; Gomez, Emilio; Menemenlis, Nickie; Smith, Charlie; Wang, Ye

    2017-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind generation, based on power-electronic converters, power systems are transitioning away from well-understood synchronous generator-based systems, with growing implications for their stability. Issues of concern will vary with system size, wind penetration level, geographical distribution and turbine type, network topology, electricity market structure, unit commitment procedures, and other factors. However, variable-speed wind turbines, both onshore and con...

  16. Analysis of Carbon Policies for Electricity Networks with High Penetration of Green Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo, Felipe A.

    In recent decades, climate change has become one of the most crucial challenges for humanity. Climate change has a direct correlation with global warming, caused mainly by the green house gas emissions (GHG). The Environmental Protection Agency in the U.S. (EPA) attributes carbon dioxide to account for approximately 82% of the GHG emissions. Unfortunately, the energy sector is the main producer of carbon dioxide, with China and the U.S. as the highest emitters. Therefore, there is a strong (positive) correlation between energy production, global warming, and climate change. Stringent carbon emissions reduction targets have been established in order to reduce the impacts of GHG. Achieving these emissions reduction goals will require implementation of policies like as cap-and-trade and carbon taxes, together with transformation of the electricity grid into a smarter system with high green energy penetration. However, the consideration of policies solely in view of carbon emissions reduction may adversely impact other market outcomes such as electricity prices and consumption. In this dissertation, a two-layer mathematical-statistical framework is presented, that serves to develop carbon policies to reduce emissions level while minimizing the negative impacts on other market outcomes. The bottom layer of the two layer model comprises a bi-level optimization problem. The top layer comprises a statistical model and a Pareto analysis. Two related but different problems are studied under this methodology. The first problem looks into the design of cap-and-trade policies for deregulated electricity markets that satisfy the interest of different market constituents. Via the second problem, it is demonstrated how the framework can be used to obtain levels of carbon emissions reduction while minimizing the negative impact on electricity demand and maximizing green penetration from microgrids. In the aforementioned studies, forecasts for electricity prices and production cost

  17. Dynamic voltage stability of a distribution system with high penetration of grid-connected photovoltaic type solar generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Adibah Kamaruzzaman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV generator on dynamic voltage stability of a power distribution system by considering solar intermittency, PV penetration level, and contingencies such as line outage and load increase. The IEEE 13 node test feeder is used as a test system, and a solar PV of 0.48 kV/0.5 MVA is integrated into the test system. Test results show that system voltage is stable at high PV penetration levels. Increase in load causes voltage instability, in which voltage drops below its allowable operating limit. Thus, increase in PV penetration level does not improve system voltage stability because the system experiences voltage collapse during line outage.

  18. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  19. Highly variable penetrance of abnormal phenotypes in embryonic lethal knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert; Geyer, Stefan H.; Reissig, Lukas; Rose, Julia; Szumska, Dorota; Hardman, Emily; Prin, Fabrice; McGuire, Christina; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; White, Jacqui; Galli, Antonella; Tudor, Catherine; Tuck, Elizabeth; Mazzeo, Cecilia Icoresi; Smith, James C.; Robertson, Elizabeth; Adams, David J.; Mohun, Timothy; Weninger, Wolfgang J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying genes that are essential for mouse embryonic development and survival through term is a powerful and unbiased way to discover possible genetic determinants of human developmental disorders. Characterising the changes in mouse embryos that result from ablation of lethal genes is a necessary first step towards uncovering their role in normal embryonic development and establishing any correlates amongst human congenital abnormalities. Methods: Here we present results gathered to date in the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) programme, cataloguing the morphological defects identified from comprehensive imaging of 220 homozygous mutant and 114 wild type embryos from 42 lethal and subviable lines, analysed at E14.5. Results: Virtually all mutant embryos show multiple abnormal phenotypes and amongst the 42 lines these affect most organ systems. Within each mutant line, the phenotypes of individual embryos form distinct but overlapping sets. Subcutaneous edema, malformations of the heart or great vessels, abnormalities in forebrain morphology and the musculature of the eyes are all prevalent phenotypes, as is loss or abnormal size of the hypoglossal nerve. Conclusions: Overall, the most striking finding is that no matter how profound the malformation, each phenotype shows highly variable penetrance within a mutant line. These findings have challenging implications for efforts to identify human disease correlates. PMID:27996060

  20. Transactive Demand Side Management Programs in Smart Grids with High Penetration of EVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poria Hasanpor Divshali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to environmental concerns, economic issues, and emerging new loads, such as electrical vehicles (EVs, the importance of demand side management (DSM programs has increased in recent years. DSM programs using a dynamic real-time pricing (RTP method can help to adaptively control the electricity consumption. However, the existing RTP methods, particularly when they consider the EVs and the power system constraints, have many limitations, such as computational complexity and the need for centralized control. Therefore, a new transactive DSM program is proposed in this paper using an imperfect competition model with high EV penetration levels. In particular, a heuristic two-stage iterative method, considering the influence of decisions made independently by customers to minimize their own costs, is developed to find the market equilibrium quickly in a distributed manner. Simulations in the IEEE 37-bus system with 1141 customers and 670 EVs are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can better manage the EVs and elastic appliances than the existing methods in terms of power constraints and cost. Also, the proposed method can solve the optimization problem quick enough to run in real-time.

  1. Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, P.; Denny, E.; Flynn, D.; Mullane, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of demand side resources is set to increase over the coming years with the advent of advanced metering infrastructure, home area networks and the promotion of increased energy efficiency. Demand side resources are proposed as an energy resource that, through aggregation, can form part of the power system plant mix and contribute to the flexible operation of a power system. A model for demand side resources is proposed here that captures its key characteristics for commitment and dispatch calculations. The model is tested on the all island Irish power system, and the operation of the model is simulated over one year in both a stochastic and deterministic mode, to illustrate the impact of wind and load uncertainty. The results illustrate that demand side resources can contribute to the efficient, flexible operation of systems with high penetrations of wind by replacing some of the functions of conventional peaking plant. Demand side resources are also shown to be capable of improving the reliability of the system, with reserve capability identified as a key requirement in this respect. - Highlights: → Demand side resource model presented for use in unit commitment and dispatch calculations. → Benefits of demand side aggregation demonstrated specifically as a peaking unit and provider of reserve. → Potential to displace or defer construction of conventional peaking units.

  2. Bremsstrahlung-induced highly penetrating probes for nondestructive assay and defect analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Selim, F A; Harmon, J F; Kwofie, J; Spaulding, R; Erickson, G; Roney, T

    2002-01-01

    Nondestructive assay and defect analysis probes based on bremsstrahlung-induced processes have been developed to identify elements and probe defects in large volume samples. Bremsstrahlung beams from (electron accelerators) with end-point energies both above and below neutron emission threshold have been used. Below neutron emission threshold these beams (from 6 MeV small pulsed linacs), which exhibit high penetration, create positrons via pair production inside the material and produce X-ray fluorescence (XRF) radiation. Chemical assays of heavy elements in thick samples up to 10 g/cm sup 2 thick are provided by energy dispersive XRF measurements. The pair-produced positrons annihilate within the material, thereby emitting 511 keV gamma radiation. Doppler broadening spectroscopy of the 511 keV radiation can be performed to characterize the material and measure defects in samples of any desired thickness. This technique has successfully measured induced strain due to tensile stress in steel samples of 0.64 cm...

  3. High-velocity penetrating thoracic trauma with suspected cardiac involvement in a combat support hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, F.; Gentlesk, P.J.; Eckart, R.E.; Beekley, A.C.; Huffer, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    The most common cardiac injuries in the United States are blunt trauma from motor vehicle accidents or low-velocity trauma from stabbings. During military conflict, high-velocity injuries, including gunshot wounds (GSW) and fragment injury from improvised explosive devices (IED), are relatively more common. This is a retrospective review of cases with high-velocity penetrating injury and suspected myocardial involvement during a 6-month period in Baghdad, Iraq, at a United States Army hospital during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Eleven cases survived to admission (GSW in 5, IED in 6). The mean age of the all-male cohort was 27 years (range, 3-54 years). Eight of the 11 patients (73%) were victims of polytrauma. The entrance involved the right ventricle (n=3), right atrium (n=2), left ventricle (n=1), or mediastinum and pericardial reflections (n=5). Echocardiography was performed in all 11 patients. In 7 patients, no foreign body was identifiable, and in 2 patients the foreign body was identified within the pericardial fat pad. Three patients were identified as having a suspected ventricular septal defect, ranging in size from 2 to 8 mm. The most common electrocardiographic abnormality was atrioventricular block and right bundle branch block. In 4 patients, the management of the chest injury was nonsurgical, and in 1 patient the treatment was a chest tube only. Four of the patients underwent median sternotomy, 1 underwent emergent lateral thoracotomy, and 1 underwent an infradiaphragmatic approach. This case series is too small to draw definitive conclusions; however, a multidisciplinary approach to high-velocity injuries with potential for cardiac involvement augments preoperative assessment for myocardial injury and may allow selective nonoperative management. (author)

  4. Groundwater penetrating radar and high resolution seismic for locating shallow faults in unconsolidated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Faults in shallow, unconsolidated sediments, particularly in coastal plain settings, are very difficult to discern during subsurface exploration yet have critical impact to groundwater flow, contaminant transport and geotechnical evaluations. This paper presents a case study using cross-over geophysical technologies in an area where shallow faulting is probable and known contamination exists. A comparison is made between Wenner and dipole-dipole resistivity data, ground penetrating radar, and high resolution seismic data. Data from these methods were verified with a cone penetrometer investigation for subsurface lithology and compared to existing monitoring well data. Interpretations from these techniques are compared with actual and theoretical shallow faulting found in the literature. The results of this study suggests that (1) the CPT study, combined with the monitoring well data may suggest that discontinuities in correlatable zones may indicate that faulting is present (2) the addition of the Wenner and dipole-dipole data may further suggest that offset zones exist in the shallow subsurface but not allow specific fault planes or fault stranding to be mapped (3) the high resolution seismic data will image faults to within a few feet of the surface but does not have the resolution to identify the faulting on the scale of our models, however it will suggest locations for upward continuation of faulted zones (4) offset 100 MHz and 200 MHz CMP GPR will image zones and features that may be fault planes and strands similar to our models (5) 300 MHz GPR will image higher resolution features that may suggest the presence of deeper faults and strands, and (6) the combination of all of the tools in this study, particularly the GPR and seismic may allow for the mapping of small scale, shallow faulting in unconsolidated sediments

  5. Influence of Antenna Characteristics on Elevation Dependence of Building Penetration Loss for High Elevation Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kvicera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Building penetration loss models presented in our previous paper [1] were valid for various scenarios, propagation conditions, frequency bands and hemispherical receiving antenna pointing towards zenith. These models had a significantly rising trend of penetration loss with increasing elevation angle of the link in common. In this paper we show that when working with non-isotropic terminal antennas, this trend relates primarily to the elevation trend of the corresponding reference level dependent on the receiving antenna radiation pattern. This is demonstrated by the results of single-input multiple-output (SIMO measurement trials performed at L-band in an office building and a brick building in the city of Prague. Further, based on the detailed analysis, a method to modify the elevation trend of a particular penetration loss model for different receiving antenna radiation patterns is derived and experimentally validated.

  6. Transport mean free path related to trajectory patterns: Comparison of nonrelativistic and highly relativistic electron penetration through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljequist, D.; Ismail, M.

    1987-01-01

    This analysis is based on the similarity between multiple scattering and slowing down (random walk) processes described by the same transport mean-free-path function λ/sub tr/(s) (s = path length). We discuss the connection between λ/sub tr/(s) and the characteristic appearance and scale of the trajectory pattern. Straggling is considered by means by stochastically discontinuous λ/sub tr/(s) functions. In the application to electron penetration, we show that while nonrelativistic electron penetration is modeled by λ/sub tr/ = (r-s)/α, where r is the range and α is a material-dependent dimensionless constant, highly relativistic electron penetration is modeled by λ/sub tr/proportionalexp(-s/Λ), where Λ is a length characteristic for the penetrated material. The respective trajectory patterns are distinctly different. The effect of straggling on the trajectory pattern in the highly relativistic case is demonstrated by means of a simple model of the stochastic λ/sub tr/(s) behavior

  7. Analysis Methodology for Balancing Authority Cooperation in High Penetration of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Malhara, Sunita V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Du, Pengwei; Sastry, Chellury

    2010-02-01

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept means various forms of collaboration between individual BAs must manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as ACE diversity interchange (ADI), wind only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, regulation and load following sharing, extreme event impact study are discussed in this report. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other deal with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics — such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements — to evaluate the performances of different virtual BA strategies. The report builds a systematic framework for evaluating BA consolidation and coordination. Results for case studies show that significant economic and reliability benefits can be gained. The merits and limitation of each virtual BA strategy are investigated. The report provides guidelines for the power industry to evaluate the coordination or consolidation method. The application of the developed strategies in cooperation with several regional BAs is in progress for several off-spring projects.

  8. Self-association of a highly charged arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesei, G.; Vazdar, M.; Jensen, M. R.; Cragnell, C.; Mason, Philip E.; Heyda, J.; Skepö, M.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Lund, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 43 (2017), s. 11428-11433 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01074S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cell-penetrating peptide * self-association * MD simulations * SAXS * NMR Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  9. Size-Resolved Penetration Through High-Efficiency Filter Media Typically Used for Aerosol Sampling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2015), s. 239-249 ISSN 0278-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : filters * size-resolved penetration * atmospheric aerosol sampling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2015

  10. Space experiments with high stability clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessot, R.F.C.

    1993-01-01

    Modern metrology depends increasingly on the accuracy and frequency stability of atomic clocks. Applications of such high-stability oscillators (or clocks) to experiments performed in space are described and estimates of the precision of these experiments are made in terms of clock performance. Methods using time-correlation to cancel localized disturbances in very long signal paths and a proposed space borne four station VLBI system are described. (TEC). 30 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  11. Technical impacts of high penetration levels of wind power on power system stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Damian; Rather, Z.; Ardal, Atle

    2017-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind generation, based on power-electronic converters, power systems are transitioning away from well-understood synchronous generator-based systems, with growing implications for their stability. Issues of concern will vary with system size, wind penetration level......, geographical distribution and turbine type, network topology, electricity market structure, unit commitment procedures, and other factors. However, variable-speed wind turbines, both onshore and connected offshore through DC grids, offer many control opportunities to either replace or enhance existing...... capabilities. Achieving a complete understanding of future stability issues, and ensuring the effectiveness of new measures and policies, is an iterative procedure involving portfolio development and flexibility assessment, generation cost simulations, load flow, and security analysis, in addition...

  12. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Jenkin, Philipp Beiter, and Robert Margolis

    2016-02-01

    Growing levels of variable renewable energy resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because variable renewable energy suppresses wholesale energy prices while providing relatively little capacity. This effect becomes more pronounced the higher the variable renewable energy penetration in a market. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets using administratively determined capacity demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers. Third, we consider some of the challenges to capacity markets that arise with higher variable renewable energy penetration.

  13. Projectile Nose Mass Abrasion of High-Speed Penetration into Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dynamic spherical cavity expansion theory of concrete and the analysis of experimental data, a mass abrasion model of projectile considering the hardness of aggregates, the relative strength of target and projectile, and the initial impact velocity is constructed in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of mass abrasion on the penetration depth of projectile and the influence of hardness of aggregates and strength of projectile on penetration depth and mass loss are also analyzed. The results show that, for the ogive-nose projectile with the CRH of 3 and aspect ratio of 7 penetrating the concrete of 35 MPa, the “rigid-body penetration” model is available when the initial impact velocity is lower than 800 m/s. However, when the initial impact velocity is higher than 800 m/s, the “deforming/eroding body penetration” model should be adopted. Through theoretical analysis and numerical calculation, the results indicate that the initial impact velocity is the most important factor of mass abrasion. The hardness of aggregates and the strength of projectile are also significant factors. But relatively speaking, the sensitivity of strength of projectile to mass abrasion is higher, which indicates that the effect of projectile material on mass abrasion is more dramatic than the hardness of aggregates.

  14. Quantitative assessment of liquid Ga penetration into an aluminium alloy by high-resolution X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgaki, T.; Toda, H.; Sinclair, I.; Buffiere, J.-Y.; Ludwig, W.; Kobayashi, T.; Niinomi, M.; Akahori, T.

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the liquid Ga penetration into an aluminium alloy by high-resolution X-ray tomography. The 3D visualization of a crack together with its surrounding grain structure was performed with the help of the Ga penetration technique. It is found that the advance directions of the crack-tip were strongly influenced by the grain microstructure and the branching of the crack is affected by grain distribution. In this study, the liquid Ga not only acts as a contrast agent for grain boundaries, but also expands the volume of the Al alloy due to Ga diffusion and associated processes. The 3D strain between the grains has been determined by microstructural gauging technique, which uses micropores as marker points. The 3D expansion of the sample volume, the volume reduction of micropores and the brittle fracture were evidently observed

  15. Thermal control of high energy nuclear waste, space option. [mathematical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Problems related to the temperature and packaging of nuclear waste material for disposal in space are explored. An approach is suggested for solving both problems with emphasis on high energy density waste material. A passive cooling concept is presented which utilized conduction rods that penetrate the inner core. Data are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the rods and the limit of their capability. A computerized thermal model is discussed and developed for the cooling concept.

  16. Close-Spaced High Temperature Knudsen Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-15

    study of discharge processes in Knudsen mode (collisionless), thermionic energy converters. Areas of research involve mechanism for reducing the...The mechanisms we have chosen to study are: reduction of space-charge through a very close inter- electrode gap (less than 10 microns); transport and...AD-AI4U 471 :NNTIM R~ A Rl M ,i; ,11 , i J)W R8 1070 1 I~ "i E~Hhhh IIt Ll ~ : RASOR ASSOCIATES, INC.- AFOSR.TR. 84-1070 NSR-22-2 CLOSE -SPACED HIGH

  17. The impact of high penetration of wind energy on the vulnerability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Arroudi, K.; Joos, G.; McGillis, D. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This paper examined the impact of higher penetrations of wind energy installations on the vulnerability of power systems. Vulnerability was defined in terms of migration of system states based on the contingencies that might occur. It was noted that both the penetration levels and physical locations of wind energy installations in power systems have a strong influence on system vulnerability. A methodology was proposed to analyze the impacts of wind energy on power system vulnerability through the construction of a decision-tree classification model at the point of common coupling (PCC) bus. The aim of the model was to determine planning criteria for wind power interconnection and to ensure that design concepts are adequate and secure. The model was built by simulating a pre-specified range of system contingencies to generate patterns at the PCC bus. Actual measurements were then compared against known patterns, from which the stress levels of disturbances were estimated. Stress levels were defined in terms of the performance level measures delineated by National Electricity Reliability Council (NERC) planning standards. The methodology is a non-parametric learning technique able to produce classifiers about given problems in order to deduce information from new, unobserved cases. A case study consisting of a 4-machine system with a total generation of 2295 MW was presented where wind-based generation accounted for 450 MW. The decision-tree classifier was constructed by simulating 120 events generated by combinations of contingencies; seasonal wind patterns and different wind production levels per season. Results showed that with a knowledge of the total penetration level and location of wind power installations, it is possible to estimate the effect of wind energy on the vulnerability of a power system. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Customized photorefractive keratectomy to correct high ametropia after penetrating keratoplasty: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    De Rosa, Giuseppe; Boccia, Rosa; Santamaria, Carmine; Fabbozzi, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Luigi; Lanza, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate preliminarily the safety and efficacy of customized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) to correct ametropia and irregular astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Methods: This pilot study included five eyes of five patients with a mean spherical equivalent of −5.1 ± 1.46 D (range from −2.75 to −6.50 D). In all cases, ametropia and irregular astigmatism was corrected with topography-guided customized PRK. Ocular examinations with topographic analysis were perfor...

  19. Motion of gas in highly rarefied space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkunov, Yu A.

    2017-10-01

    A model describing a motion of gas in a highly rarefied space received an unlucky number 13 in the list of the basic models of the motion of gas in the three-dimensional space obtained by L.V. Ovsyannikov. For a given initial pressure distribution, a special choice of mass Lagrangian variables leads to the system describing this motion for which the number of independent variables is less by one. Hence, there is a foliation of a highly rarefied gas with respect to pressure. In a strongly rarefied space for each given initial pressure distribution, all gas particles are localized on a two-dimensional surface that moves with time in this space We found some exact solutions of the obtained system that describe the processes taking place inside of the tornado. For this system we found all nontrivial conservation laws of the first order. In addition to the classical conservation laws the system has another conservation law, which generalizes the energy conservation law. With the additional condition we found another one generalized energy conservation law.

  20. Index-Based Assessment of Voltage Rise and Reverse Power Flow Phenomena in a Distribution Feeder Under High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios G.; Salehi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    -based methodology for assessing the impact of high solar PV generation, considering the reverse power flow and voltage rise phenomena. Indices are defined that link these two phenomena and their impact on the voltage profile across the feeder. This assessment relies on detailed modeling of the network and the solar......The proliferation of photovoltaic (PV) generation in low- and medium-voltage distribution networks is expected to continue. Qualified studies can quantify adverse impacts of high PV penetration on distribution networks and assist utilities in decision making. This paper proposes an index...

  1. Participation of Flexible Loads in Load Frequency Control to Support High Wind Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uslu, Umur; Zhang, Boyang; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of fluctuating wind power penetration in power systems presents many challenges to its operation and control. The new wind power plants are replacing many of the conventional large power plants that ensure power balancing and ancillary services for stable and reliable...... operation of the grid. Therefore, new solutions for power balancing reserves have to be explored and utilized by the grid utilities. To meet these challenges, large sizable loads like alkaline electrolysers, heat pumps and electric vehicles which are gaining popularity can provide system support to the grid...... through their inherent flexibility and energy storage characteristics. This paper investigates the possibilities and potential of such flexible loads to participate in power system frequency regulation in a wind dominated power system. The results show that these consumption units provide better...

  2. Eddy current testing with high penetration; WS-Pruefungen mit grosser Eindringtiefe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das Niederfrequenz(NF)-Wirbelstrom(WS)-Verfahren wird eingesetzt, um eine grosse Eindringtiefe zu erzielen. Die erreichbare Tiefenreichweite wird u.a. durch die niedrigste Prueffrequenz bestimmt, die zusammen mit dem Wirbelstrom-Sensor realisiert werden kann. Bei Einsatz von induktiven Sensoren geht mit abnehmender Prueffrequenz der Messeffekt proportional zurueck (Induktionswirkung). Eine weitere Absenkung der Prueffrequenzen macht den Einsatz von andersartigen Sensoren notwendig, z.B. den GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), der eine gleichmaessige Messempfindlichkeit bis zum Gleichfeld besitzt. Das eingesetzte Mehrfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Pruefverfahren MFEC 3 des IZFP arbeitet mit drei gleichzeitig eingespeisten Prueffrequenzen. Dabei werden zwei Varianten von WS-Sensoren eingesetzt. Beide besitzen auf der Senderseite eine induktive Wicklung in der Art einer Tastsonde. Die Empfaengerseite ist entweder ebenfalls eine induktive Wicklung oder ein magnetfeldempfindlicher Widerstand (GMR). (orig./DGE)

  3. Stability analysis of transmission system with high penetration of distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza, M.

    2006-12-21

    Nowadays, interest in generating electricity using decentralized generators of relatively small scale ('distributed generation', DG) is increasing. This work deals with the impact of implementing DG on the transmission system transient stability, with the emphasis on a potential transition from a 'vertical power system' to a 'horizontal power system. A problem in power systems is maintaining synchronous operation of all (centralized) synchronous machines. This stability problem associated is called rotor angle stability. In this work, the impact of the DG implementation on this is investigated. The impact of DG levels on the system transient stability when the increasing DG level is followed by a reduction of centralized generators in service resulting in a 'vertical to horizontal' transformation of the power system is also investigated. Furthermore, a stochastic analysis is used to study the transient stability of the power systems. The results show that including the stochastic behavior of DG leads to a more complete and detailed view of the system performance. Finally, the situation when the power system is pushed towards a scenario, where DG penetration reaches a level that covers the total load of the original power system (100% DG level) is investigated. The research performed in this work indicates that from the transmission system stability point of view, if higher DG penetration levels are coming up, sufficient inertia and voltage support must be installed. Furthermore, one should be aware of the fact that the system behaves stochastically, especially with DG. To a certain extent regional balancing of power can be performed by local voltage control.

  4. A Scenario-Based Approach for Energy Storage Capacity Determination in LV Grids with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Yang, Guangya

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new method is proposed to determine the minimum energy storage required to be installed at different locations of a low voltage (LV) grid in order to prevent the overvoltage due to high residential photovoltaic (PV) penetration. The method is based on the voltage sensitivity...... with different occurrence probabilities without involving the time-series studies problems. The proposed method is capable of modeling output power of PV panels with different orientations as well as different electric vehicle (EV) charging patterns....

  5. Evidence of weak pair coupling in the penetration depth of bi-based high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Sun, Yang Ren; Ossandon, J.G.; Christen, D.K.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Sales, B.C.; Kerchner, H.R.; Sonder, E.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic penetration depth λ(T) has been investigated in Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO high-T c compounds having 2- and 3-layers of copper-oxygen per unit cell. Studies of the magnetization in the vortex state were employed and the results were compared with weak and strong coupling calculations. The temperature dependence of λ is described well by BCS theory in the clean limit, giving evidence for weak pair coupling in this family of materials. For the short component of the λ tensor, we obtain values of 292 and 220 nm (T = 0) for Bi-2212 and (BiPb)-2223, respectively

  6. High-Latitude Space Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.; Hagfors, T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the Nobel Symposium No. 54 on High Latitude Magnetospheric/Ionospheric Plasma Physics. The main purpose of the symposium was to prepare for the European research effort in space plasma physics in the mid-1980's, in which two major constituents are the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT) facilities and the Swedish satellite Viking. The physics of the high-latitude ionosphere and how this part of near space is affected by the properties of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field are explored. A detailed discussion is provided on high-latitude magnetospheric physics at altitudes of 1-2 earth radii, the main focus of the Viking project. Specific topics considered include the role of the auroral ionosphere in magnetospheric substorms, the low altitude cleft, ionospheric modification and stimulated emissions, plasma physics on auroral field lines, solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling, cold plasma distribution above a few thousand kilometers at high latitudes, hot electrons in and above the auroral ionosphere, the correlation of auroral kilometric radiation with visual auroras and with Birkeland currents, electrostatic waves in the topside ionosphere, solitary waves and double layers, and an Alfven wave model of auroral arcs

  7. Efficiency of low versus high airline pressure in stunning cattle with a pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; Gregory, Neville George; Dalla Costa, Filipe Antonio; Gibson, Troy John; Paranhos da Costa, Mateus José Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of stunning cattle was assessed in 443 animals (304 pure Zebu and 139 crossbred cattle), being mainly mature bulls and cows. Cattle were stunned using a Jarvis pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt gun operating with low (160-175psi, N=82) and high (190psi, N=363) airline pressure, which was within the manufactures specifications. Signs of brain function and the position of the shots on the heads were recorded after stunning. Velocity of the captive bolt and its physical parameters were calculated. Cattle shot with low pressures showed more rhythmic respiration (27 vs. 8%, P<0.001), less tongue protrusion (4 vs. 12%, P=0.03) and less masseter relaxation (22 vs. 48%, P<0.001). There was an increased frequency of shots in the ideal position when cattle were shot with the low compared to high airline pressures (15.3 vs. 3.1%). Bolt velocity and its physical parameters were significantly (P<0.01) higher when using high pressure. Airline pressures below 190psi are inappropriate when shooting adult Zebu beef cattle with pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt guns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  9. Winds of change: How high wind penetrations will affect investment incentives in the GB electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steggals, Will; Gross, Robert; Heptonstall, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Wind power is widely expected to expand rapidly in Britain over the next decade. Large amounts of variable wind power on the system will increase market risks, with prices more volatile and load factors for conventional thermal plant lower and more uncertain. This extra market risk may discourage investment in generation capacity. Financial viability for thermal plant will be increasingly dependent on price spikes during periods of low wind. Increased price risk will also make investment in other forms of low-carbon generation (e.g. nuclear power) more challenging. A number of policies can reduce the extent to which generators are exposed to market risks and encourage investment. However, market risks play a fundamental role in shaping efficient investment and dispatch patterns in a liberalised market. Therefore, measures to improve price signals and market functioning (such as a stronger carbon price and developing more responsive demand) are desirable. However, the scale of the investment challenge and increased risk mean targeted measures to reduce (although not eliminate) risk exposure, such as capacity mechanisms and fixed price schemes, may have increasing merit. The challenge for policy is to strike the right balance between market and planned approaches. - Research highlights: → Analyses how increases penetrations of wind power effect electricity market functioning. → Assesses the impacts of this on investment incentives for different technologies. → Discusses implications for policy and market design.

  10. Penetration of High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Into General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Georgakopoulos, Stavros V.; Panaretos, Anastasios H.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to design and achieve electromagnetic compatibility is becoming more challenging with the rapid development of new electronic products and technologies. The importance of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues stems from the fact that the ambient electromagnetic environment has become very hostile; that is, it increases both in density and intensity, while the current trend in technology suggests the number of electronic devices increases in homes, businesses, factories, and transportation vehicles. Furthermore, the operating frequency of products coming into the market continuously increases. While cell phone technology has exceeded 1 GHz and Bluetooth operates at 2.4 GHz, products involving satellite communications operate near 10 GHz and automobile radar systems involve frequencies above 40 GHz. The concern about higher frequencies is that they correspond to smaller wavelengths, therefore electromagnetic waves are able to penetrate equipment enclosure through apertures or even small cracks more easily. In addition, electronic circuits have become small in size, and they are usually placed on motherboards or housed in boxes in very close proximity. Cosite interference and coupling in all electrical and electronic circuit assemblies are two essential issues that have to be examined in every design.

  11. Incorporating Charging/Discharging Strategy of Electric Vehicles into Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow to Support High Renewable Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsung An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to improve the operational efficiency and security of electric power systems at high renewable penetration by exploiting the envisioned controllability or flexibility of electric vehicles (EVs; EVs interact with the grid through grid-to-vehicle (G2V and vehicle-to-grid (V2G services to ensure reliable and cost-effective grid operation. This research provides a computational framework for this decision-making process. Charging and discharging strategies of EV aggregators are incorporated into a security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF problem such that overall energy cost is minimized and operation within acceptable reliability criteria is ensured. Particularly, this SCOPF problem has been formulated for Jeju Island in South Korea, in order to lower carbon emissions toward a zero-carbon island by, for example, integrating large-scale renewable energy and EVs. On top of conventional constraints on the generators and line flows, a unique constraint on the system inertia constant, interpreted as the minimum synchronous generation, is considered to ensure grid security at high renewable penetration. The available energy constraint of the participating EV associated with the state-of-charge (SOC of the battery and market price-responsive behavior of the EV aggregators are also explored. Case studies for the Jeju electric power system in 2030 under various operational scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and improved operational flexibility via controllable EVs.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus penetrate the interkeratinocyte spaces created by skin-infiltrating neutrophils in a mouse model of impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Ichiro; Hattori, Shinpei; Hisatsune, Junzo; Ide, Kaori; Sugai, Motoyuki; Nishifuji, Koji

    2017-02-01

    Impetigo is a bacterial skin disease characterized by intraepidermal neutrophilic pustules. Previous studies have demonstrated that exfoliative toxin producing staphylococci are isolated in the cutaneous lesions of human and canine impetigo. However, the mechanisms of intraepidermal splitting in impetigo remain poorly understood. To determine how staphylococci penetrate the living epidermis and create intraepidermal pustules in vivo using a mouse model of impetigo. Three Staphylococcus aureus strains harbouring the etb gene and three et gene negative strains were epicutaneously inoculated onto tape-stripped mouse skin. The skin samples were subjected to time course histopathological and immunofluorescence analyses to detect intraepidermal neutrophils and infiltrating staphylococci. To determine the role of neutrophils on intraepidermal bacterial invasion, cyclophosphamide (CPA) was injected intraperitoneally into the mice to cause leucopenia before the inoculation of etb gene positive strains. In mice inoculated with etb gene positive S. aureus, intraepidermal pustules resembling impetigo were detected as early as 4 h post-inoculation (hpi). Neutrophils in the epidermis were detected from 4 hpi, whereas intraepidermal staphylococci was detected from 6 hpi. The dimensions of the intraepidermal clefts created in mice inoculated with etb gene positive strains at 6 hpi were significantly larger than those in mice inoculated with et gene negative strains. In CPA treated mice, staphylococci or neutrophils were not detected in the deep epidermis until 6 hpi. Our findings indicate that intraepidermal neutrophils play an important role in S. aureus invasion into the living epidermis in a mouse model of impetigo. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  14. Small high cooling power space cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, Ca, 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  15. BECCS Market Launch Strategy Aiming to Help Ensure Reliable Grid Power at High Penetrations of IRE (Intermittent Renewable Electricity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIlliams, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    Despite its recognized importance for carbon (C)-mitigation, progress in advancing biomass energy with CO2 capture and sequestration (BECCS) has been slow. A BECCS market launch strategy based on technologies ready for commercial-scale demonstration is discussed—based on co-gasification of coal and biomass to make H2 with CCS. H2 so produced would be a key element of a H2 balancing capacity (H2-BC) strategy for ensuring reliable grid power at high IRE penetrations. High grid penetrations of IRE must be complemented by fast-ramping balancing (backup and/or storage) capacity (BC) to ensure reliable grid power. BC provided now by natural gas-fired gas turbine combined cycle and combustion turbine units would eventually have to be decarbonized to realize C-mitigation goals, via CCS or other means. Capital-intensive CCS energy systems require baseload operation to realize favourable economics, but at high IRE penetrations, BC plants must be operated at low capacity factors. A H2-BC strategy is a promising way to address this challenge. The elements of a H2-BC system are: (a) H2 production from carbonaceous feedstocks in baseload plants with CCS; (b) H2 consumption in fast-ramping BC units that operate at low capacity factors; (c) Buffer underground H2 storage to enable decoupling baseload H2 production from highly variable H2 consumption by BC units. The concept is likely to "work" because underground H2 storage is expected to be inexpensive. A H2 production analysis is presented for a negative GHG-emitting H2-BC system based on cogasification of corn stover and coal, with captured CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery. The technical readiness of each system component is discussed, and preliminary insights are offered as to the conditions under which the corresponding H2-BC system might compete with natural gas in providing backup for IRE on US electric grids. Public policy to help advance this strategy might be forthcoming, because 2 US Senate bills with broad

  16. Penetrating heavy ion charge and velocity discrimination with a TimePix-based Si detector (for space radiation applications)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinsky, Lawrence S., E-mail: pinsky@uh.edu [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Blvd., Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Empl, Anton [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Blvd., Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Gutierrez, Andrea [University of Montreal, 2905 Chemin des services, Montreal, Que., H3T 1J4 (Canada); Jakubek, Jan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2-Albertov (Czech Republic); Kitamura, Hisashi [National Institute for Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Miller, Jack [Space Sciences Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leroy, Claude [University of Montreal, 2905 Chemin des services, Montreal, Que., H3T 1J4 (Canada); Stoffle, Nicholas [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Blvd., Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Pospisil, Stanislav [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2-Albertov (Czech Republic); Uchihori, Yukio; Yasuda, Nakahiro [National Institute for Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Zeitlin, Cary [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Rd., San Antonio, TX 78238-5166 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Exposures were made with Medipix2 TimePix-based Si detectors at the HIMAC facility in Japan to explore the potential for discrimination between tracks with differing charges and energies, but with very similar dE/dx values. Data were taken at 15 deg. increments for a number of different beams including 600 and 800 MeV/A Si, 180 MeV/A Ne and 100 MeV/A O. Data were also obtained for 400 MeV/A Si and 500 MeV/A Fe along with 290 and 180 MeV/A N. The TimePix chips have been calibrated to achieve the maximum resolution. Estimates for the angular resolution for these types of tracks are also possible from these data, which are essential in the development of a TimePix-based dosimetric device for use in a space radiation environment. One of the principal objectives of these data runs was to explore the resolution of TimePix-based Si detectors to discriminate between various ions with different energies and charges, but with similar dE/dx values in Si. Analysis of the images obtained shows the clear differences in the {delta}-ray halos for particles with similar dE/dx values but for differing charges and energies. These measurements are part of an ongoing program to explore the range of capabilities of the TimePix-based detector with respect to dosimetry uses in space.

  17. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  18. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  19. Electricity markets evolution with the changing generation mix: An empirical analysis based on China 2050 High Renewable Energy Penetration Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Peng; Chen, Qixin; Yu, Yang; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • How electricity markets are evolving with the changing generation mix is studied. • China 2050 High Renewable Energy Penetration Roadmap are empirically analysed. • A multi-period Nash-Cournot model is established to study the market equilibrium. • Energy storages are analysed and compared to reveal their impacts on the equilibrium. - Abstract: The power generation mix are significantly changing due to the growth of stricter energy policies. The renewables are increasingly penetrating the power systems and leading to more clean energy and lower energy prices. However, they also require much more flexibilities and ancillary services to handle their uncertainties and variabilities. Thus, the requirements for regulation and reserve services may dramatically increase while the supplies of these services, which are mainly from the traditional thermal plants, remain almost invariant. This changing situation will cause higher regulation and reserve prices and impact the profit models and revenue structures of the traditional plants. How electricity markets are actually evolving with the changing generation mix? Can enough backup power plants be given adequate economic incentives and thus remained with the increasing renewables and the decreasing energy prices and productions? Can de-carbonization be fully performed in power systems? To explicitly answer the question, this paper uses a multi-period Nash-Cournot equilibrium model to formulate the evolution of power markets incorporating different types of generators, including thermal units, hydro units, wind farms, solar stations and energy storage systems. The price changes in the co-optimized energy, regulation and reserve markets, and the profit changes of various generators are studied. And the variabilities and uncertainties of renewable generation sources are considered in dynamically determining the requirements of regulation and reserve services. Based on the China 2050 High Renewable Energy

  20. Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, Sivan, E-mail: sivan.isaacs@gmail.com; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering and TheIlse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); NEW CREATE Programme, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 CREATE Way, Research Wing, #02-06/08, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2015-05-11

    Using an insulator-metal-insulator structure with dielectric having refractive index (RI) larger than the analyte, long range surface plasmon (SP) resonance exhibiting ultra-high penetration depth is demonstrated for sensing applications of large bioentities at wavelengths in the visible range. Based on the diverging beam approach in Kretschmann-Raether configuration, one of the SP resonances is shown to shift in response to changes in the analyte RI while the other is fixed; thus, it can be used as a built in reference. The combination of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth and self-reference using the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth, self-reference, and the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected using large number of camera pixels with a smart algorithm for sub-pixel resolution, a sensor with ultra-low detection limit is demonstrated suitable for large bioentities.

  1. Short-Term and Medium-Term Reliability Evaluation for Power Systems With High Penetration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Singh, Chanan; Goel, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    reliability evaluation techniques for power systems are well developed. These techniques are more focused on steady-state (time-independent) reliability evaluation and have been successfully applied in power system planning and expansion. In the operational phase, however, they may be too rough......The expanding share of the fluctuating and less predictable wind power generation can introduce complexities in power system reliability evaluation and management. This entails a need for the system operator to assess the system status more accurately for securing real-time balancing. The existing...... an approximation of the time-varying behavior of power systems with high penetration of wind power. This paper proposes a time-varying reliability assessment technique. Time-varying reliability models for wind farms, conventional generating units, and rapid start-up generating units are developed and represented...

  2. Development of an Extraterrestrial Organic Analyzer (EOA) for Highly Sensitive Organic Detection on an Ice Shell Impact Penetrator (IceShIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, A. M.; Duca, Z. A.; Cato, M.; Cantrell, T.; Kim, J.; Putman, P.; Schmidt, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    Kinetic penetrators have the potential to enable low cost in situ measurements of the ice of worlds including Europa and Enceladus [1]. Their small size and mass, critical to limiting their kinetic energy, makes them ideal small landers riding on primarily orbiter missions, while enabling sampling at several m depth due to burial and excavation. In situ microfluidic-based organic analysis systems are a powerful, miniaturized approach for detecting markers of habitability and recent biological activity. Development of microfluidic technology, like that of the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) [2,3] and Enceladus Organic Analyzer (EOA), has led to an instrument capable of in situ organic chemical analysis compatible with a kinetic penetrator platform. This technology uses an integrated microfluidic processor to prepare samples for analysis via fluorescent derivatization prior to highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Selective derivatization in the presence of a chiral selector enables distinction between amino acid enantiomers. Finite element analysis of the core microfluidic processing and analytical device indicated that the device itself is more than capable of surviving the stresses associated with an impact acceleration of >50,000g. However, a number of developments were still required to enable a flight-ready system. Preliminary experiments indicated that moving from a pneumatically-actuated to a hydraulically-actuated microvalve system may provide better impact resistance. A hydraulically-actuated microvalve system was developed and tested. A modification of an established microfabricated LIF detection system would use indium bump bonding to permanently weld optical components using standard microfabrication techniques with perfect alignment. Recent work has also focused on developing and characterizing impact-resistant electronics. This work shows the low-TRL development of EOA's LIF and microfluidic subsystems for future planetary impact

  3. Implementation and Assessment of a Decentralized Load Frequency Control: Application to Power Systems with High Wind Energy Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Muñoz-Benavente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and assesses a decentralized solution based on a wireless sensor-actuator network to provide primary frequency control from demand response in power systems with high wind energy penetration and, subsequently, with relevant frequency excursions. The proposed system is able to modify the electrical power demand of a variety of thermostatically-controlled loads, maintaining minimum comfort levels and minimizing both infrastructure requirements and primary reserves from the supply side. This low-cost hardware solution avoids any additional wiring, extending the wireless sensor-actuator network technology towards small customers, which account for over a 30% share of the current power demand. Frequency excursions are collected by each individual load controller, considering not only the magnitude of the frequency deviation, but also their evolution over time. Based on these time-frequency excursion characteristics, controllers are capable of modifying the power consumption of thermostatically-controlled loads by switching them off and on, thus contributing to primary frequency control in power systems with higher generation unit oscillations as a consequence of relevant wind power integration. Field tests have been carried out in a laboratory environment to assess the load controller performance, as well as to evaluate the electrical and thermal response of individual loads under frequency deviations. These frequency deviations are estimated from power systems with a high penetration of wind energy, which are more sensitive to frequency oscillations and where demand response can significantly contribute to mitigate these frequency excursions. The results, also included in the paper, evaluate the suitability of the proposed load controllers and their suitability to decrease frequency excursions from the demand side in a decentralized manner.

  4. Control of Grid Interactive PV Inverters for High Penetration in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Demirok, Erhan

    2012-01-01

    Regarding of high density deployment of PV installations in electricity grids, new technical challenges such as voltage rise, thermal loading of network components, voltage unbalance, harmonic interaction and fault current contributions are being added to tasks list of distribution system operators (DSOs) in order to maintain at least the same power quality as before PVs were not revealed. Potential problems caused by high amount of PV installations can be avoided with technical study of both...

  5. Enhanced Local Grid Voltage Support Method for High Penetration of Distributed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Grid voltage rise and thermal loading of network components are the most remarkable barriers to allow high number of distributed generator (DG) connections on the medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) electricity networks. The other barriers such as grid power quality (harmonics, voltage...

  6. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  7. Storage coordination and peak-shaving operation in urban areas with high renewable penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulis, N.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    As renewable power generation gains importance, balancing of power demand and supply becomes more and more challenging. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring the potential of individually-owned storage units in decentralised power systems with a high share of renewables. The focus is

  8. Control of Grid Interactive PV Inverters for High Penetration in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan

    Regarding of high density deployment of PV installations in electricity grids, new technical challenges such as voltage rise, thermal loading of network components, voltage unbalance, harmonic interaction and fault current contributions are being added to tasks list of distribution system operators...... of these inverters may depend on grid connection rules which are forced by DSOs. Minimum requirement expected from PV inverters is to transfer maximum power by taking direct current (DC) form from PV modules and release it into AC grid and also continuously keep the inverters synchronized to the grid even under...... for this problem but PV inverters connected to highly capacitive networks are able to employ extra current and voltage harmonics compensation to avoid triggering network resonances at low order frequencies. The barriers such as harmonics interaction, flicker, fault current contribution and dc current injections...

  9. Storage coordination and peak-shaving operation in urban areas with high renewable penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Voulis, N.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    As renewable power generation gains importance, balancing of power demand and supply becomes more and more challenging. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring the potential of individually-owned storage units in decentralised power systems with a high share of renewables. The focus is on the influence of coordination and peak-shaving operation of these individual units in realistic urban areas. Currently extensive amount of research exits on specific applications related to storage ...

  10. The penetration, diffusion and energy deposition of high-energy photon in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhengming, Luo; Chengjun, Gou; Laub, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory for calculating the transport of high-energy photons and their secondary charged particles. We call this new algorithm characteristic line method, which is completely analytic. Using this new method we can not only accurately calculate the transport behavior of energetic photons, but also precisely describes the transport behavior and energy deposition of secondary electrons, photoelectrons, Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. Its calculation efficiency is much higher than the Monte Carlo method's. The theory can be directly applied to layered media situation and obtain a pencil-beam-modeled solution. Therefore, it may be applied to clinical applications for radiation therapy

  11. Anomalously deep penetration of hydrogen into niobium under action of pulse high temperature hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.

    2011-01-01

    The method of elastic recoil detection (ERD) has been used for the study of storage and redistribution processes of hydrogen atoms under the influence of pulse high temperature hydrogen plasma obtained using the 'Plasma Focus' PF-4 set-up in three high purity niobium foils. It was established that with an increase of number of PF-4 set-up pulses there occur spreading and transfer of implanted hydrogen atoms to large depths in three Nb-foils which are significantly larger than the projected range of hydrogen ions (with the velocity ∼ 10 8 cm/s). The maximum hydrogen concentration up to 60 at. % is reached in the nearest to Ph-4 surface of the third Nb-foil at 20 impulses of the Ph-4 set-up. The observed phenomenon can be described by transfer of implanted hydrogen atoms under the action of powerful shock waves, created by pulse hydrogen plasma and (or) by accelerating hydrogen atom diffusion under the influence of compression straining wave at the front of the shock wave at redistribution of hydrogen atoms at large depths. Similar behavior was discovered and described also in series of nickel, vanadium, niobium and tantalum foils (two or three foils and more in a series) including series of foils from heterogeneous (different) materials, which were studied, too

  12. Control Architecture for Intentional Island Operation in Distribution Network with High Penetration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu

    , the feasibility of the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to ICA is studied, in order to improve the computation efficiency for ISR calculation. Finally, the integration of ICA into Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA), the ICA implementation, and the development of ICA are discussed....... to utilize them for maintaining the security of the power supply under the emergency situations, has been of great interest for study. One proposal is the intentional island operation. This PhD project is intended to develop a control architecture for the island operation in distribution system with high...... amount of DGs. As part of the NextGen project, this project focuses on the system modeling and simulation regarding the control architecture and recommends the development of a communication and information exchange system based on IEC 61850. This thesis starts with the background of this PhD project...

  13. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  14. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  15. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Weckx

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to these prices. A distributed gradient algorithm automatically defines the locational prices that avoid voltage problems. Using these locational prices results in a minimum cost for the distribution operator to control the voltage. Locational prices can differ between the three phases in unbalanced grids. This is caused by a higher consumption or production in one of the phases compared to the other phases and provides the opportunity for arbitrage, where power is transferred from a phase with a low price to a phase with a high price. The effect of arbitrage is analyzed. The proposed algorithm is applied to an existing three-phase four-wire radial grid. Several simulations with realistic data are performed.

  16. Kita driven expression of oncogenic HRAS leads to early onset and highly penetrant melanoma in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santoriello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Because of the increasing incidence and high lethality of melanoma, animal models for continuously observing melanoma formation and progression as well as for testing pharmacological agents are needed.Using the combinatorial Gal4-UAS system, we have developed a zebrafish transgenic line that expresses oncogenic HRAS under the kita promoter. Already at 3 days transgenic kita-GFP-RAS larvae show a hyper-pigmentation phenotype as earliest evidence of abnormal melanocyte growth. By 2-4 weeks, masses of transformed melanocytes form in the tail stalk of the majority of kita-GFP-RAS transgenic fish. The adult tumors evident between 1-3 months of age faithfully reproduce the immunological, histological and molecular phenotypes of human melanoma, but on a condensed time-line. Furthermore, they show transplantability, dependence on mitfa expression and do not require additional mutations in tumor suppressors. In contrast to kita expressing melanocyte progenitors that efficiently develop melanoma, mitfa expressing progenitors in a second Gal4-driver line were 4 times less efficient in developing melanoma during the three months observation period.This indicates that zebrafish kita promoter is a powerful tool for driving oncogene expression in the right cells and at the right level to induce early onset melanoma in the presence of tumor suppressors. Thus our zebrafish model provides a link between kita expressing melanocyte progenitors and melanoma and offers the advantage of a larval phenotype suitable for large scale drug and genetic modifier screens.

  17. A highly penetrant form of childhood apraxia of speech due to deletion of 16p11.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Morgan, Angela; Murray, Elizabeth; Cardinaux, Annie; Mei, Cristina; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Fisher, Simon E; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with heterozygous 16p11.2 deletions reportedly suffer from a variety of difficulties with speech and language. Indeed, recent copy-number variant screens of children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), a specific and rare motor speech disorder, have identified three unrelated individuals with 16p11.2 deletions. However, the nature and prevalence of speech and language disorders in general, and CAS in particular, is unknown for individuals with 16p11.2 deletions. Here we took a genotype-first approach, conducting detailed and systematic characterization of speech abilities in a group of 11 unrelated children ascertained on the basis of 16p11.2 deletions. To obtain the most precise and replicable phenotyping, we included tasks that are highly diagnostic for CAS, and we tested children under the age of 18 years, an age group where CAS has been best characterized. Two individuals were largely nonverbal, preventing detailed speech analysis, whereas the remaining nine met the standard accepted diagnostic criteria for CAS. These results link 16p11.2 deletions to a highly penetrant form of CAS. Our findings underline the need for further precise characterization of speech and language profiles in larger groups of affected individuals, which will also enhance our understanding of how genetic pathways contribute to human communication disorders.

  18. Determination of penetration depth at high velocity impact using finite element method and artificial neural network tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık KılıÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of ballistic performance of an armor solution is a complicated task and evolved significantly with the application of finite element methods (FEM in this research field. The traditional armor design studies performed with FEM requires sophisticated procedures and intensive computational effort, therefore simpler and accurate numerical approaches are always worthwhile to decrease armor development time. This study aims to apply a hybrid method using FEM simulation and artificial neural network (ANN analysis to approximate ballistic limit thickness for armor steels. To achieve this objective, a predictive model based on the artificial neural networks is developed to determine ballistic resistance of high hardness armor steels against 7.62 mm armor piercing ammunition. In this methodology, the FEM simulations are used to create training cases for Multilayer Perceptron (MLP three layer networks. In order to validate FE simulation methodology, ballistic shot tests on 20 mm thickness target were performed according to standard Stanag 4569. Afterwards, the successfully trained ANN(s is used to predict the ballistic limit thickness of 500 HB high hardness steel armor. Results show that even with limited number of data, FEM-ANN approach can be used to predict ballistic penetration depth with adequate accuracy.

  19. Flexible fault ride through strategy for wind farm clusters in power systems with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Songyan; Chen, Ning; Yu, Daren; Foley, Aoife; Zhu, Lingzhi; Li, Kang; Yu, Jilai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A flexible fault ride through strategy is proposed. • The strategy comprises of grid code requirements and power restrictions. • Slight faults and moderate faults are the main defending objectives. • Temporary overloading capability of the doubly fed induction generator is considered. - Abstract: This paper investigates a flexible fault ride through strategy for power systems in China with high wind power penetration. The strategy comprises of adaptive fault ride through requirements and maximum power restrictions of the wind farms with weak fault ride through capabilities. The slight faults and moderate faults with high probability are the main defending objective of the strategy. The adaptive fault ride through requirement in the strategy consists of two sub fault ride through requirements, a temporary slight voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a slight fault incident, with a moderate voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a moderate fault. The temporary overloading capability of the wind farm is reflected in both requirements to enhance the capability to defend slight faults and to avoid tripping when the crowbar is disconnected after moderate faults are cleared. For those wind farms that cannot meet the adaptive fault ride through requirement, restrictions are put on the maximum power output. Simulation results show that the flexible fault ride through strategy increases the fault ride through capability of the wind farm clusters and reduces the wind power curtailment during faults

  20. Application of Phasor Measurement Units for Protection of Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskin, Matin

    The rate of the integration of distributed generation (DG) units to the distribution level to meet the growth in demand increases as a reasonable replacement for costly network expansion. This integration brings many advantages to the consumers and power grids, as well as giving rise to more challenges in relation to protection and control. Recent research has brought to light the negative effects of DG units on short circuit currents and overcurrent (OC) protection systems in distribution networks. Change in the direction of fault current flow, increment or decrement of fault current magnitude, blindness of protection, feeder sympathy trip, nuisance trip of interrupting devices, and the disruption of coordination between protective devices are some potential impacts of DG unit integration. Among other types of DG units, the integration of renewable energy resources into the electric grid has seen a vast improvement in recent years. In particular, the interconnection of photovoltaic (PV) sources to the medium voltage (MV) distribution networks has experienced a rapid increase in the last decade. In this work, the effect of PV source on conventional OC relays in MV distribution networks is shown. It is indicated that the PV output fluctuation, due to changes in solar radiation, causes the magnitude and direction of the current to change haphazardly. These variations may result in the poor operation of OC relays as the main protective devices in the MV distribution networks. In other words, due to the bi-directional power flow characteristic and the fluctuation of current magnitude occurring in the presence of PV sources, a specific setting of OC relays is difficult to realize. Therefore, OC relays may operate in normal conditions. To improve the OC relay operation, a voltage-dependent-overcurrent protection is proposed. Although, this new method prevents the OC relay from maloperation, its ability to detect earth faults and high impedance faults is poor. Thus, a

  1. The effect of high-pressure devitrification and densification on ballistic-penetration resistance of fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avuthu, Vasudeva Reddy

    perhaps alpha-quartz) within fused silica during ballistic impact. To rationalize the findings obtained, the all-atom molecular-level computational analysis is complemented by a series of quantum-mechanics density functional theory (DFT) computations. The latter computations enable determination of the relative potential energies of the fused silica, alpha-quartz and stishovite under ambient pressure (i.e. under their natural densities) as well as under imposed (as high as 50 GPa) pressures (i.e. under higher densities) and shear strains. In addition, the transition states associated with various fused-silica devitrification processes were identified. In the second part of the present work, the molecular-level computational results obtained in the first portion of the work are used to enrich a continuum-type constitutive model (that is, the so-called Johnson-Holmquist-2, JH2, model) for fused silica. Since the aforementioned devitrification and permanent-densification processes modify the response of fused silica to the pressure as well as to the deviatoric part of the stress, changes had to be made in both the JH2 equation of state and the strength model. To assess the potential improvements with respect to the ballistic-penetration resistance of this material brought about by the fused-silica devitrification and permanent-densification processes, a series of transient non-linear dynamics finite element analyses of the transverse impact of a fused-silica test plate with a solid right-circular cylindrical steel projectile was conducted. The results obtained revealed that, provided the projectile incident velocity and, hence, the attendant pressure, is sufficiently high, fused silica can undergo impact-induced energy-consuming devitrification, which improves its ballistic-penetration resistance.

  2. Miniaturized high performance sensors for space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    Operating under ever more constrained budgets, NASA has turned to a new paradigm for instrumentation and mission development in which smaller, faster, better, cheaper is of primary consideration for future space plasma investigations. The author presents several examples showing the influence of this new paradigm on sensor development and discuss certain implications for the scientific return from resource constrained sensors. The author also discusses one way to improve space plasma sensor performance which is to search out new technologies, measurement techniques and instrument analogs from related fields including among others, laboratory plasma physics

  3. Three-Phase Short-Circuit Current Calculation of Power Systems with High Penetration of VSC-Based Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niancheng Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-circuit current level of power grid will be increased with high penetration of VSC-based renewable energy, and a strong coupling between transient fault process and control strategy will change the fault features. The full current expression of VSC-based renewable energy was obtained according to transient characteristics of short-circuit current. Furtherly, by analyzing the closed-loop transfer function model of controller and current source characteristics presented in steady state during a fault, equivalent circuits of VSC-based renewable energy of fault transient state and steady state were proposed, respectively. Then the correctness of the theory was verified by experimental tests. In addition, for power grid with VSC-based renewable energy, superposition theorem was used to calculate AC component and DC component of short-circuit current, respectively, then the peak value of short-circuit current was evaluated effectively. The calculated results could be used for grid planning and design, short-circuit current management as well as adjustment of relay protection. Based on comparing calculation and simulation results of 6-node 500 kV Huainan power grid and 35-node 220 kV Huaisu power grid, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified.

  4. Highly variable penetrance of abnormal phenotypes in embryonic lethal knockout mice [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wilson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying genes that are essential for mouse embryonic development and survival through term is a powerful and unbiased way to discover possible genetic determinants of human developmental disorders. Characterising the changes in mouse embryos that result from ablation of lethal genes is a necessary first step towards uncovering their role in normal embryonic development and establishing any correlates amongst human congenital abnormalities. Methods: Here we present results gathered to date in the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD programme, cataloguing the morphological defects identified from comprehensive imaging of 220 homozygous mutant and 114 wild type embryos from 42 lethal and subviable lines, analysed at E14.5. Results: Virtually all mutant embryos show multiple abnormal phenotypes and amongst the 42 lines these affect most organ systems. Within each mutant line, the phenotypes of individual embryos form distinct but overlapping sets. Subcutaneous edema, malformations of the heart or great vessels, abnormalities in forebrain morphology and the musculature of the eyes are all prevalent phenotypes, as is loss or abnormal size of the hypoglossal nerve. Conclusions: Overall, the most striking finding is that no matter how profound the malformation, each phenotype shows highly variable penetrance within a mutant line. These findings have challenging implications for efforts to identify human disease correlates.

  5. Optimal Operation and Management for Smart Grid Subsumed High Penetration of Renewable Energy, Electric Vehicle, and Battery Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigenobu, Ryuto; Noorzad, Ahmad Samim; Muarapaz, Cirio; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2016-04-01

    Distributed generators (DG) and renewable energy sources have been attracting special attention in distribution systems in all over the world. Renewable energies, such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine generators are considered as green energy. However, a large amount of DG penetration causes voltage deviation beyond the statutory range and reverse power flow at interconnection points in the distribution system. If excessive voltage deviation occurs, consumer's electric devices might break and reverse power flow will also has a negative impact on the transmission system. Thus, mass interconnections of DGs has an adverse effect on both of the utility and the customer. Therefore, reactive power control method is proposed previous research by using inverters attached DGs for prevent voltage deviations. Moreover, battery energy storage system (BESS) is also proposed for resolve reverse power flow. In addition, it is possible to supply high quality power for managing DGs and BESSs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to maintain voltage, active power, and reactive power flow at interconnection points by using cooperative controlled of PVs, house BESSs, EVs, large BESSs, and existing voltage control devices. This paper not only protect distribution system, but also attain distribution loss reduction and effectivity management of control devices. Therefore mentioned control objectives are formulated as an optimization problem that is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Modified scheduling method is proposed in order to improve convergence probability of scheduling scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by case studies results and by using numerical simulations in MATLAB®.

  6. System behaviour of compressed-air energy-storage in Denmark with a high penetration of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgi, Georges; Lund, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, wind power supplied 19% of the 36 TWh annual electricity demand in Denmark, while 50% was produced at combined heat-and-power plants (CHP). The installed wind-turbine capacity in Western Denmark exceeds the local demand at certain points in time. So far, excess production has been exported to neighbouring countries. However, plans to expand wind power both in Denmark and in its neighbouring countries could restrain the export option and create transmission congestion challenges. This results in a need to increase the flexibility of the local electricity-system. Compressed-Air Energy-Storage (CAES) has been proposed as a potential solution for levelling fluctuating wind-power production and maintaining a system balance. This paper analyses the energy-balance effects of adding CAES to the Western Danish energy-system. Results show that even with an unlimited CAES plant capacity, excess power production is not eliminated because of the high percentage of CHP production. The optimal wind-power penetration for maximum CAES operation is found to be around 55%. The minimum storage size for CAES to fully eliminate condensing power plants operation in the optimized system is over 500 GWh, which corresponds to a cavern volume of around 234 Mm 3 at an average pressure of 60 bar. Such a storage size would be technically and economically unfeasible. The analysis, however, did not include the potential role of a CAES plant in regulating the power services. (author)

  7. A Hierarchical Optimal Operation Strategy of Hybrid Energy Storage System in Distribution Networks with High Photovoltaic Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hierarchical optimal operation strategy for a hybrid energy storage system (HESS is proposed, which is suitable to be utilized in distribution networks (DNs with high photovoltaic (PV penetration to achieve PV power smoothing, voltage regulation and price arbitrage. Firstly, a fuzzy-logic based variable step-size control strategy for an ultracapacitor (UC with the improvement of the lifetime of UC and tracking performance is adopted to smooth PV power fluctuations. The impact of PV forecasting errors is eliminated by adjusting the UC power in real time. Secondly, a coordinated control strategy, which includes centralized and local controls, is proposed for lithium-ion batteries. The centralized control is structured to determine the optimal battery unit for voltage regulation or price arbitrage according to lithium-ion battery performance indices. A modified lithium-ion battery aging model with better accuracy is proposed and the coupling relationship between the lifetime and the effective capacity is also considered. Additionally, the local control of the selected lithium-ion battery unit determines the charging/discharging power. A case study is used to validate the operation strategy and the results show that the lifetime equilibrium among different lithium-ion battery units can be achieved using the proposed strategy.

  8. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Fuzzy-Based Control Schemes for Small Power System with High-Penetration Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind is a clean, abundant, and inexhaustible source of energy. However, wind power is not constant, as windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed. As a result, the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs fluctuates significantly. Power fluctuation leads to frequency deviation and voltage flicker inside the system. This paper presents a new methodology for controlling system frequency and power. Two decentralized fuzzy logic-based control schemes with a high-penetration non-storage wind–diesel system are studied. First, one is implemented in the governor of conventional generators to damp frequency oscillation, while the other is applied to control the pitch angle system of wind turbines to smooth wind output power fluctuations and enhance the power system performance. A genetic algorithm (GA is employed to tune and optimize the membership function parameters of the fuzzy logic controllers to obtain optimal performance. The effectiveness of the suggested controllers is validated by time domain simulation for the standard IEEE nine-bus three-generator test system, including three wind farms. The robustness of the power system is checked under normal and faulty operating conditions.

  9. Convective transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs facilitates direct penetration into deep tissues after topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancik, Yuri; Anissimov, Yuri G; Jepps, Owen G; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To relate the varying dermal, subcutaneous and muscle microdialysate concentrations found in man after topical application to the nature of the drug applied and to the underlying physiology. METHODS We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in which transport to deeper tissues was determined by tissue diffusion, blood, lymphatic and intersitial flow transport and drug properties. The model was applied to interpret published human microdialysis data, estimated in vitro dermal diffusion and protein binding affinity of drugs that have been previously applied topically in vivo and measured in deep cutaneous tissues over time. RESULTS Deeper tissue microdialysis concentrations for various drugs in vivo vary widely. Here, we show that carriage by the blood to the deeper tissues below topical application sites facilitates the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs that penetrate the skin, leading to rapid and significant concentrations in those tissues. Hence, the fractional concentration for the highly plasma protein bound diclofenac in deeper tissues is 0.79 times that in a probe 4.5 mm below a superficial probe whereas the corresponding fractional concentration for the poorly protein bound nicotine is 0.02. Their corresponding estimated in vivo lag times for appearance of the drugs in the deeper probes were 1.1 min for diclofenac and 30 min for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS Poorly plasma protein bound drugs are mainly transported to deeper tissues after topical application by tissue diffusion whereas the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs is additionally facilitated by convective blood, lymphatic and interstitial transport to deep tissues. PMID:21999217

  10. Spinning reserve quantification by a stochastic–probabilistic scheme for smart power systems with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali, Amirhossein; Kalantar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic–probabilistic approach is proposed for spinning reserve quantification. • A new linearized formulation integrating reliability metrics is presented. • The framework manages the reserve provided by responsive loads and storage systems. • The proposed method is capable of detaching the spinning reserve for different uses. - Abstract: This paper introduces a novel spinning reserve quantification scheme based on a hybrid stochastic–probabilistic approach for smart power systems including high penetration of wind generation. In this research the required spinning reserve is detached into two main parts. The first part of the reserve is procured to overcome imbalances between load and generation in the system. The second part of the required spinning reserve is scheduled according to the probability of unit outages. In order to overcome uncertainties caused by wind generation and load forecasting errors different scenarios of wind generation and load uncertainties are generated. For each scenario the reserve deployed by different components are taken account as the first part of the required reserve which is used to overcome imbalances. The second part of the required reserve is based on reliability constraints. The total expected energy not supplied (TEENS) is the reliability criterion which determines the second part of the required spinning reserve to overcome unit outage possibilities. This formulation permits the independent system operator to purchase the two different types of reserve with different prices. The introduced formulation for reserve quantification is also capable of managing and detaching the reserve provided by responsive loads and energy storage devices. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem including linearized formulations for reliability metrics. Obtained results show the efficiency of the proposed approach compared with the conventional stochastic and deterministic

  11. High Available COTS Based Computer for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, J.; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The availability and reliability factors of a system are central requirements of a target application. From a simple fuel injection system used in cars up to a flight control system of an autonomous navigating spacecraft, each application defines its specific availability factor under the target application boundary conditions. Increasing quality requirements on data processing systems used in space flight applications calling for new architectures to fulfill the availability, reliability as well as the increase of the required data processing power. Contrary to the increased quality request simplification and use of COTS components to decrease costs while keeping the interface compatibility to currently used system standards are clear customer needs. Data processing system design is mostly dominated by strict fulfillment of the customer requirements and reuse of available computer systems were not always possible caused by obsolescence of EEE-Parts, insufficient IO capabilities or the fact that available data processing systems did not provide the required scalability and performance.

  12. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n=168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p<0.05). Both adaptation and sealer penetration in root canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p<0.05). It can be concluded that intracanal laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  13. High-resolution, real-time mapping of surface soil moisture at the field scale using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-12-01

    Measuring soil surface water content is essential in hydrology and agriculture as this variable controls important key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. We present a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method for automated, high-resolution, real-time mapping of soil surface dielectric permittivity and correlated water content at the field scale. Field scale characterization and monitoring is not only necessary for field scale management applications, but also for unravelling upscaling issues in hydrology and bridging the scale gap between local measurements and remote sensing. In particular, such methods are necessary to validate and improve remote sensing data products. The radar system consists of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground, ultra-wideband monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up a continuous-wave steeped-frequency GPR. Radar signal analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse modelling. The forward model accounts for all antenna effects, antenna-soil interactions, and wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. A fast procedure was developed to evaluate the involved Green's function, resulting from a singular, complex integral. Radar data inversion is focused on the surface reflection in the time domain. The method presents considerable advantages compared to the current surface characterization methods using GPR, namely, the ground wave and common reflection methods. Theoretical analyses were performed, dealing with the effects of electric conductivity on the surface reflection when non-negligible, and on near-surface layering, which may lead to unrealistic values for the surface dielectric permittivity if not properly accounted for. Inversion strategies are proposed. In particular the combination of GPR with electromagnetic induction data appears to be promising to deal with highly conductive soils

  14. Close-Spaced High Temperature Knudsen Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-15

    radiant heat source assembly was substituted for the brazed molybdenum one in order to achieve higher radiant heater temperatures . 2.1.4 Experimental...at very high temperature , and ground flat. The molybdenum is then chemically etched to the desired depth using an etchant which does not affect...RiB6 295 -CLSE PCED HIGH TEMPERATURE KNUDSEN FLOU(U) RASOR I AiASSOCIATES INC SUNNYVALE CA J 8 MCVEY 15 JUL 86 NSR-224 AFOSR-TR-87-1258 F49628-83-C

  15. The Norwegian PMS2 founder mutation c.989-1G > T shows high penetrance of microsatellite instable cancers with normal immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindedal, Eli Marie; Aarset, Harald; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Røyset, Elin; Mæhle, Lovise; Stormorken, Astrid; Heramb, Cecilie; Medvik, Heidi; Møller, Pål; Sjursen, Wenche

    2014-01-01

    Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to select cases for mismatch repair (MMR) genetic testing, we failed to identify a large kindred with the deleterious PMS2 mutation c.989-1G > T. The purpose of the study was to examine the sensitivity of IHC and microsatellite instability-analysis (MSI) to identify carriers of the mutation, and to estimate its penetrance and expressions. All carriers and obligate carriers of the mutation were identified. All cancer diagnoses were confirmed. IHC and MSI-analysis were performed on available tumours. Penetrances of cancers included in the Amsterdam and the Bethesda Criteria, for MSI-high tumours and MSI-high and low tumours were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier algorithm. Probability for co-segregation of the mutation and cancers by chance was 0.000004. Fifty-six carriers or obligate carriers were identified. There was normal staining for PMS2 in 15/18 (83.3%) of tumours included in the AMS1/AMS2/Bethesda criteria. MSI-analysis showed that 15/21 (71.4%) of tumours were MSI-high and 4/21 (19.0%) were MSI-low. Penetrance at 70 years was 30.6% for AMS1 cancers (colorectal cancers), 42.8% for AMS2 cancers, 47.2% for Bethesda cancers, 55.6% for MSI-high and MSI-low cancers and 52.2% for MSI-high cancers. The mutation met class 5 criteria for pathogenicity. IHC was insensitive in detecting tumours caused by the mutation. Penetrance of cancers that displayed MSI was 56% at 70 years. Besides colorectal cancers, the most frequent expressions were carcinoma of the endometrium and breast in females and stomach and prostate in males.

  16. ANTHEM simulation of the early time magnetic field penetration of the plasma surrounding a high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The early time penetration of magnetic field into the low density coronal plasma of a Z-pinch fiber is studied with the implicit plasma simulation code ANTHEM. Calculations show the emission of electrons from the cathode, pinching of the electron flow, magnetic insulation of the electrons near the anode, and low density ion blow off. PIC-particle ion calculations show a late time clumping of the ion density not seen with a fluid ion treatment. 4 refs., 4 figs

  17. Systematic Multi-variable H-infinity Control Design for Primary Frequency Regulation in Stand-alone Microgrids with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Lam , Quang Linh; Bratcu , Antoneta Iuliana; Riu , Delphine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a systematic design of a robust multi-variable control structure for primary frequency regulation in microgrids with high rate of renewable source penetration is proposed. The considered microgrid represents a diesel-photovoltaic-supercapacitor hybrid power generation system operating in stand-alone mode. The proposed control structure relies on a two-level architecture: classical PI-based current tracking controllers are placed on the low control level ...

  18. Effective Management of High-Use/High-Demand Space Using Restaurant-Style Pagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The library landscape is changing at a fast pace, with an increase in the demand for study space including quiet, individualized study space; open group study space; and as enclosed group study space. In large academic libraries, managing limited high-demand resources is crucial and is partially being driven by the greater emphasis on group…

  19. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n = 168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz); diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  20. High Performance Arm for an Exploration Space Suit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design (FFD) proposes to develop and deliver an advanced pressure garment arm with low torque and high Range of Motion (ROM), and increased...

  1. Extremely High Suction Performance Inducers for Space Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced pump inducer design technology that uses high inlet diffusion blades, operates at a very low flow coefficient, and employs a cavitation control and...

  2. Grid of the Future: Quantification of Benefits from Flexible Energy Resources in Scenarios With Extra-High Penetration of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebic, Jovan [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Hinkle, Gene [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Matic, Slobodan [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Schmitt, William [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting

    2015-01-15

    The main objective of this study is to quantify the entitlement for system benefits attainable by pervasive application of flexible energy resources in scenarios with extra-high penetration of renewable energy. The quantified benefits include savings in thermal energy and reduction of CO2 emissions. Both are primarily a result of displacement of conventional thermal generation by renewable energy production, but there are secondary improvements that arise from lowering operating reserves, removing transmission constraints, and by partially removing energy-delivery losses due to energy production by distributed solar. The flexible energy resources in the context of this study include energy storage and adjustable loads. The flexibility of both was constrained to a time horizon of one day. In case of energy storage this means that the state of charge is restored to the starting value at the end of each day, while for load this means that the daily energy consumed is maintained constant. The extra-high penetration of renewable energy in the context of this study means the level of penetration resulting in significant number of hours where instantaneous power output from renewable resources added to the power output from baseload nuclear fleet surpasses the instantaneous power consumption by the load.

  3. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  4. High Performance Computing Software Applications for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, C.; Schumacher, P.; Matson, C.; Chun, F.; Duncan, B.; Borelli, K.; Desonia, R.; Gusciora, G.; Roe, K.

    The High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute for Space Situational Awareness (HSAI-SSA) has completed its first full year of applications development. The emphasis of our work in this first year was in improving space surveillance sensor models and image enhancement software. These applications are the Space Surveillance Network Analysis Model (SSNAM), the Air Force Space Fence simulation (SimFence), and physically constrained iterative de-convolution (PCID) image enhancement software tool. Specifically, we have demonstrated order of magnitude speed-up in those codes running on the latest Cray XD-1 Linux supercomputer (Hoku) at the Maui High Performance Computing Center. The software applications improvements that HSAI-SSA has made, has had significant impact to the warfighter and has fundamentally changed the role of high performance computing in SSA.

  5. Collective space of high-rise housing complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakaeva Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of support of citizens a comfortable living environment in the conditions of the limited territory of the megalopolis, the typological principles of formation of space-planning structure high-rise residence complexes with public space. The collective space for residents of high-rise housing estates on the example of international experience of design and construction is in detail considered. The collective space and the area of the standard apartment are analysed on comfort classes: a social - complex Pinnacle @ Duxton, a business - Monde Condos and an elite - Hamilton Scotts. Interdependence the area of the standard flat and the total area of housing collective space, in addiction on the comfort level, is revealed. In the conditions of high-density urban development, the collective space allows to form the comfortable environment for accommodation. The recommendations for achievement of integrity and improvement of quality of the city environment are made. The convenient collective space makes a contribution to civil policy, it creates the socializing sense of interaction of residents, coagulates social effect.

  6. Collective space of high-rise housing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, Tatyana

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the problems of support of citizens a comfortable living environment in the conditions of the limited territory of the megalopolis, the typological principles of formation of space-planning structure high-rise residence complexes with public space. The collective space for residents of high-rise housing estates on the example of international experience of design and construction is in detail considered. The collective space and the area of the standard apartment are analysed on comfort classes: a social - complex Pinnacle @ Duxton, a business - Monde Condos and an elite - Hamilton Scotts. Interdependence the area of the standard flat and the total area of housing collective space, in addiction on the comfort level, is revealed. In the conditions of high-density urban development, the collective space allows to form the comfortable environment for accommodation. The recommendations for achievement of integrity and improvement of quality of the city environment are made. The convenient collective space makes a contribution to civil policy, it creates the socializing sense of interaction of residents, coagulates social effect.

  7. Measurement and modeling of the low-temperature penetration-depth anomaly in high-quality MgB{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agassi, Y.D. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States); Oates, D.E., E-mail: OATES@LL.MIT.EDU [MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420 (United States); Moeckly, B.H. [STI, Inc. Santa Barbara, CA 93111 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Based on our measurements of intermodulation distortion in MgB{sub 2}, we have previously proposed that the {pi} energy-gap in MgB{sub 2} entails six nodal lines [Y.D. Agassi, D.E. Oates, and B.H. Moeckly, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 174522]. Here we report high-precision measurements in MgB{sub 2} stripline resonators that show an increase of the penetration depth as the temperature is decreased below 5 K. This increase is consistent with the Script-Small-L = 6 symmetry of the {pi} energy gap that we have proposed. We interpret the increase as a manifestation of Andreev surface-attached states that are associated with the nodal lines of the {pi} energy gap. Penetration-depth calculations are in good agreement with our data. To reconcile the present interpretation with existing literature, we review other penetration-depth data, magnetic-impurity and tunneling experiments, and data on the paramagnetic Meissner effect. We conclude that these data do not rule out the interpretation of our experimental data based on a nodal {pi} energy gap.

  8. Transformation of localized necking of strain space into stress space for advanced high strength steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakwattanaset, Aeksuwat; Suranuntchai, Surasak

    2018-03-01

    Normally, Forming Limit Curves (FLCs) can’t explain for shear fracture better than Damage Curve, this article aims to show the experimental of Forming Limit Curve (FLC) for Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) sheets grade JAC780Y with the Nakazima forming test and tensile tests of different sample geometries. From these results, the Forming Limit Curve (strain space) was transformed to damage curve (stress space) between plastic strain and stress triaxiality. Therefore, Stress space transformed using by Hill-48 and von-Mises yield function. This article shows that two of these yield criterions can use in the transformation.

  9. Frozen-thawed rhesus sperm retain normal morphology and highly progressive motility but exhibit sharply reduced efficiency in penetrating cervical mucus and hyualuronic acid gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollner, Theodore L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of the genetic diversity of captive populations of rhesus monkeys is critical to the future of biomedical research. Cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm is relatively simple to perform, yields high post-thaw motility, and theoretically, provides via artificial insemination (AI) a way to easily transfer genetics among colonies of animals. In the interest of optimizing semen cryopreservation methods for use with vaginal AI, we evaluated the ability of frozen-thawed rhesus sperm to penetrate periovulatory cervical mucus (CM). Motile sperm concentration of pre–freeze (“fresh”) and post-thawed (“thawed”) samples from 5 different males were normalized for both computer assisted sperm motion analysis and CM penetration experiments. Sperm samples were deposited into slide chambers containing CM or gel composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) as a surrogate for CM and numbers of sperm were recorded as they entered a video field a preset distance from the sperm suspension-CM (or HA) interface. Fresh and thawed sperm were dried on glass slides, “Pap”-stained, and assessed for changes in head dimensions and head and flagellar shape. While retaining better than 80% of fresh sperm progressive motility, thawed sperm from the same ejaculate retained on average only 18.6% of the CM penetration ability. Experiments using HA gel yielded similar results only with reduced experimental error and thus improved detection of treatment differences. Neither the percentage of abnormal forms nor head dimensions differed between fresh and thawed sperm. While findings suggests that sperm-CM interaction is a prominent factor in previous failures of vaginal AI with cryopreserved macaque sperm, neither sperm motility nor morphology appears to account for changes in the ability of cryopreserved sperm to penetrate CM. Our data points to a previously unidentified manifestation of cryodamage which may have implications for assessment of sperm function beyond the cervix and

  10. Lipid shell-enveloped polymeric nanoparticles with high integrity of lipid shells improve mucus penetration and interaction with cystic fibrosis-related bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Nylander, Tommy; Klodzinska, Sylvia Natalie

    2018-01-01

    , we describe facile methods to prepare Lipid@NPs with high integrity of lipid shells and demonstrate the potential of Lipid@NPs in effective mucus penetration and interaction with cystic fibrosis-related bacterial biofilms. Lipid shell-enveloped polystyrene NPs with high integrity of lipid shells (c...... mediated layer-by layer approach. Our results suggest that the integrity of the lipid envelopes is crucial for enabling the diffusion of Lipid@PSNPs into the mucus layer and promoting the interaction of Lipid@PSNPs with a bacterial biofilm....

  11. Gamut mapping in a high-dynamic-range color space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Jens; Fairchild, Mark D.; Ferwerda, James A.; Urban, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach of tone mapping as gamut mapping in a high-dynamic-range (HDR) color space. High- and low-dynamic-range (LDR) images as well as device gamut boundaries can simultaneously be represented within such a color space. This enables a unified transformation of the HDR image into the gamut of an output device (in this paper called HDR gamut mapping). An additional aim of this paper is to investigate the suitability of a specific HDR color space to serve as a working color space for the proposed HDR gamut mapping. For the HDR gamut mapping, we use a recent approach that iteratively minimizes an image-difference metric subject to in-gamut images. A psychophysical experiment on an HDR display shows that the standard reproduction workflow of two subsequent transformations - tone mapping and then gamut mapping - may be improved by HDR gamut mapping.

  12. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  13. Space Theory and Strategy: War From the High Ground Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    M.V. “COYOTE” SMITH (Date) __________________________________________ COLONEL TIMOTHY CULLEN (Date) iii...reader, Colonel Timothy Cullen , I would like to express my gratitude for the insightful suggestions to this work. To the ultimate sounding board... William L. Shelton, “Military Space: A Strategic Crossroad,” Air & Space Power Journal (September-October 2013): 5-6, War From the High Ground Down

  14. Genetic diagnosis of high-penetrance susceptibility for colorectal cancer (CRC) is achievable for a high proportion of familial CRC by exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Daniel; Broderick, Peter; Frampton, Matthew; Kinnersley, Ben; Sherborne, Amy; Penegar, Steven; Lloyd, Amy; Ma, Yussanne P; Dobbins, Sara E; Houlston, Richard S

    2015-02-10

    Knowledge of the contribution of high-penetrance susceptibility to familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is relevant to the counseling, treatment, and surveillance of CRC patients and families. To quantify the impact of germline mutation to familial CRC, we sequenced the mismatch repair genes (MMR) APC, MUTYH, and SMAD4/BMPR1A in 626 early-onset familial CRC cases ascertained through a population-based United Kingdom national registry. In addition, we evaluated the contribution of mutations in the exonuclease domain (exodom) of POLE and POLD1 genes that have recently been reported to confer CRC risk. Overall mutations (pathogenic, likely pathogenic) in MMR genes make the highest contribution to familial CRC (10.9%). Mutations in the other established CRC genes account for 3.3% of cases. POLE/POLD1 exodom mutations were identified in three patients with family histories consistent with dominant transmission of CRC. Collectively, mutations in the known genes account for 14.2% of familial CRC (89 of 626 cases; 95% CI = 11.5, 17.2). A genetic diagnosis is feasible in a high proportion of familial CRC. Mainstreaming such analysis in clinical practice should enable the medical management of patients and their families to be optimized. Findings suggest CRC screening of POLE and POLD1 mutation carriers should be comparable to that afforded to those at risk of HNPCC. Although the risk of CRC associated with unexplained familial CRC is in general moderate, in some families the risk is substantive and likely to be the consequence of unidentified genes, as exemplified by POLE and POLD1. Our findings have utility in the design of genetic analyses to identify such novel CRC risk genes. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. On the synergy between large electric vehicle fleet and high wind penetration – An analysis of the Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the level of wind power penetration beyond the present level in the Danish power system implies large challenges when it comes to energy management and system stability. Plug-in electric vehicles promise to contribute to the flexibility of the energy system by creating a link between...... the power system and the transportation sector and provide the possibility to make use of the inherent energy storage of a large electric vehicle (EV) fleet. The present work investigates the effects of different EV charging strategies on the balance between wind power production and consumption in a future...... batteries are used as backup at times with little wind power production) will have very limited effects on the overall energy management and is more likely to be used only for regulation and reserve services, also in the longer perspective....

  16. Penetrating ureteral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Fraga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in managing ureteral trauma, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis, correct treatment, and the impact of associated injuries on the management and morbid-mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, 1487 laparotomies for abdominal trauma were performed and 20 patients with ureteral lesions were identified, all of them secondary to penetrating injury. Medical charts were analyzed as well as information about trauma mechanisms, diagnostic routine, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: All patients were men. Mean age was 27 years. The mechanisms of injury were gunshot wounds in 18 cases (90% and stab wounds in two (10%. All penetrating abdominal injuries had primary indication of laparotomy, and neither excretory urography nor computed tomography were used in any case before surgery. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intra-operatively in 17 cases (85%. Two ureteral injuries (10% were initially missed. All patients had associated injuries. The treatment was dictated by the location, extension and time necessary to identify the injury. The overall incidence of complications was 55%. The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, Abdominal Trauma Index > 25, Injury Severity Score > 25 and colon injuries were associated to a high complication rate, however, there was no statistically significant difference. There were no mortalities in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of ureteral injuries. A thorough exploration of all retroperitoneal hematoma after penetrating trauma should be an accurate method of diagnosis; even though it failed in 10% of our cases.

  17. High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile......-deformed copper, individual, almost dislocation-free subgrains are identified from high-intensity peaks and distinguished by their unique combination of orientation and elastic strain; dislocation walls manifest themselves as a smooth cloud of lower intensity. The elastic strain shows only minor variations within...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...

  18. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    other analyses. In this study, ETAP, OpenDSS, and GridLab-D are considered, and PSCMD transfer applications written in MATLAB have been developed for each of these to read the circuit model data provided in the UP spreadsheet. In order to test the developed PSCMD transfer applications, circuit model data of a test circuit and a power distribution circuit from Southern California Edison (SCE) - a utility company - both built in CYME, were exported into the spreadsheet file according to the UP format. Thereafter, circuit model data were imported successfully from the spreadsheet files into above mentioned software using the PSCMD transfer applications developed for each software. After the SCE studied circuit is transferred into OpenDSS software using the proposed UP scheme and developed application, it has been studied to investigate the impacts of large-scale solar energy penetration. The main challenge of solar energy integration into power grid is its intermittency (i.e., discontinuity of output power) nature due to cloud shading of photovoltaic panels which depends on weather conditions. In order to conduct this study, OpenDSS time-series simulation feature, which is required due to intermittency of solar energy, is utilized. In this study, the impacts of intermittency of solar energy penetration, especially high-variability points, on voltage fluctuation and operation of capacitor bank and voltage regulator is provided. In addition, the necessity to interpolate and resample unequally spaced time-series measurement data and convert them to equally spaced time-series data as well as the effect of resampling time-interval on the amount of error is discussed. Two applications are developed in Matlab to do interpolation and resampling as well as to calculate the amount of error for different resampling time-intervals to figure out the suitable resampling time-interval. Furthermore, an approach based on cumulative distribution, regarding the length for lines/cables types

  19. Live Ultra-High Definition from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney; George, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    The first ever live downlink of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) video from the International Space Station (ISS) was the highlight of a 'Super Session' at the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in April 2017. The Ultra-High Definition video downlink from the ISS all the way to the Las Vegas Convention Center required considerable planning, pushed the limits of conventional video distribution from a space-craft, and was the first use of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) from a space-craft. The live event at NAB will serve as a pathfinder for more routine downlinks of UHD as well as use of HEVC for conventional HD downlinks to save bandwidth. HEVC may also enable live Virtual Reality video downlinks from the ISS. This paper will describe the overall work flow and routing of the UHD video, how audio was synchronized even though the video and audio were received many seconds apart from each other, and how the demonstration paves the way for not only more efficient video distribution from the ISS, but also serves as a pathfinder for more complex video distribution from deep space. The paper will also describe how a 'live' event was staged when the UHD coming from the ISS had a latency of 10+ seconds. Finally, the paper will discuss how NASA is leveraging commercial technologies for use on-orbit vs. creating technology as was required during the Apollo Moon Program and early space age.

  20. A High-power Electric Propulsion Test Platform in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew J.; Reed, Brian; Chavers, D. Greg; Sarmiento, Charles; Cenci, Susanna; Lemmons, Neil

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe the results of the preliminary phase of a NASA design study for a facility to test high-power electric propulsion systems in space. The results of this design study are intended to provide a firm foundation for subsequent detailed design and development activities leading to the deployment of a valuable space facility. The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate is sponsoring this design project. A team from the NASA Johnson Space Center, Glenn Research Center, the Marshall Space Flight Center and the International Space Station Program Office is conducting the project. The test facility is intended for a broad range of users including government, industry and universities. International participation is encouraged. The objectives for human and robotic exploration of space can be accomplished affordably, safely and effectively with high-power electric propulsion systems. But, as thruster power levels rise to the hundreds of kilowatts and up to megawatts, their testing will pose stringent and expensive demands on existing Earth-based vacuum facilities. These considerations and the human access to near-Earth space provided by the International Space Station (ISS) have led to a renewed interest in space testing. The ISS could provide an excellent platform for a space-based test facility with the continuous vacuum conditions of the natural space environment and no chamber walls to modify the open boundary conditions of the propulsion system exhaust. The test platform could take advantage of the continuous vacuum conditions of the natural space environment. Space testing would provide open boundary conditions without walls, micro-gravity and a realistic thermal environment. Testing on the ISS would allow for direct observation of the test unit, exhaust plume and space-plasma interactions. When necessary, intervention by on-board personnel and post-test inspection would be possible. The ISS can provide electrical power, a location for

  1. Space-to-Space Power Beaming Enabling High Performance Rapid Geocentric Orbit Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Vassallo, Corinne; Tadge, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The use of electric propulsion is more prevalent than ever, with industry pursuing all electric orbit transfers. Electric propulsion provides high mass utilization through efficient propellant transfer. However, the transfer times become detrimental as the delta V transitions from near-impulsive to low-thrust. Increasing power and therefore thrust has diminishing returns as the increasing mass of the power system limits the potential acceleration of the spacecraft. By using space-to-space power beaming, the power system can be decoupled from the spacecraft and allow significantly higher spacecraft alpha (W/kg) and therefore enable significantly higher accelerations while maintaining high performance. This project assesses the efficacy of space-to-space power beaming to enable rapid orbit transfer while maintaining high mass utilization. Concept assessment requires integrated techniques for low-thrust orbit transfer steering laws, efficient large-scale rectenna systems, and satellite constellation configuration optimization. This project includes the development of an integrated tool with implementation of IPOPT, Q-Law, and power-beaming models. The results highlight the viability of the concept, limits and paths to infusion, and comparison to state-of-the-art capabilities. The results indicate the viability of power beaming for what may be the only approach for achieving the desired transit times with high specific impulse.

  2. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Astronaut Project Division, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk [Korea Astronaut Project Division, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods (Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 {sup o}C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  3. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods ( Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  4. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods (Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 o C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  5. When Physics Meets Biology: Low and High Velocity Penetration, Blunt Trauma and Blast Injuries to the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne eYoung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of TBI in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems.

  6. Management of Extreme Ametropia after Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Series of Surgical Procedures for High Myopia and Astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Valdez-Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of surgical interventions - relaxing corneal incisions, intraocular lens, and intrastromal rings - were used to correct a case of extreme ametropia in a thin cornea after a penetrating keratoplasty in an 18-year-old patient who presented with a -10.25 -8.50 × 120 preoperative refraction and 20/200 best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA. After a series of surgical procedures, the patient's BCVA in his left eye improved to 20/30 with +0.50 -1.00 × 170, the slit lamp examination showed no significant findings, and the patient's visual complaints disappeared. At the 1-year follow-up, the BCVA was 20/25, without visual complaints. The process of individualizing the surgical procedure in the present case was employed in an outcome-based approach, that is, the next surgical procedure was defined after the surgery and postoperative evaluation. The patient did not present complications during the follow-up period of 2.5 years.

  7. Operational Simulation Tools and Long Term Strategic Planning for High Penetrations of PV in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuohy, Aidan [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Smith, Jeff [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rylander, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Singhvi, Vikas [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Coley, Steven [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Roark, Jeff [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lannoye, Eamonn [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pilbrick, Charles Russ [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rudkevich, Alex [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hansen, Cliff [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Increasing levels of distributed and utility scale Solar Photovoltaics (PV) will have an impact on many utility functions, including distribution system operations, bulk system performance, business models and scheduling of generation. In this project, EPRI worked with Southern Company Services and its affiliates and the Tennessee Valley Authority to assist these utilities in their strategic planning efforts for integrating PV, based on modeling, simulation and analysis using a set of innovative tools. Advanced production simulation models were used to investigate operating reserve requirements. To leverage existing work and datasets, this last task was carried out on the California system. Overall, the project resulted in providing useful information to both of the utilities involved and through the final reports and interactions during the project. The results from this project can be used to inform the industry about new and improved methodologies for understanding solar PV penetration, and will influence ongoing and future research. This report summarizes each of the topics investigated over the 2.5-year project period.

  8. Planning for high-energy physics in space

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    NASA has drawn up a proposal for a space observatory to study X-rays, gamma rays and the cosmic ray spectrum. The spacecraft would have a payload of six tons and could go into a 250-mile-high orbit in 1974 (1/2 page).

  9. Low temperature high frequency coaxial pulse tube for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrier, Aurelia; Charles, Ivan; Rousset, Bernard; Duval, Jean-Marc [SBT, UMR-E CEA / UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, F-38054 (France); Daniel, Christophe [CNES, 18, avenue Edouard Belin, Toulouse, F-31401 (France)

    2014-01-29

    The 4K stage is a critical step for space missions. The Hershel mission is using a helium bath, which is consumed day by day (after depletion, the space mission is over) while the Plank mission is equipped with one He4 Joule-Thomson cooler. Cryogenic chain without helium bath is a challenge for space missions and 4.2K Pulse-Tube working at high frequency (around 30Hz) is one option to take it up. A low temperature Pulse-Tube would be suitable for the ESA space mission EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, expected launch in 2022), which requires around 30mW cooling power at 6K; and for the ESA space mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics), to pre-cool the sub-kelvin cooler (few hundreds of mW at 15K). The test bench described in this paper combines a Gifford-McMahon with a coaxial Pulse-Tube. A thermal link is joining the intercept of the Pulse-Tube and the second stage of the Gifford-McMahon. This intercept is a separator between the hot and the cold regenerators of the Pulse-Tube. The work has been focused on the cold part of this cold finger. Coupled with an active phase shifter, this Pulse-Tube has been tested and optimized and temperatures as low as 6K have been obtained at 30Hz with an intercept temperature at 20K.

  10. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predicability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed

  11. Quasi-static time-series simulation using OpenDSS in IEEE distribution feeder model with high PV penetration and its impact on solar forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Touseef Ahmed Faisal

    Since 2000, renewable electricity installations in the United States (excluding hydropower) have more than tripled. Renewable electricity has grown at a compounded annual average of nearly 14% per year from 2000-2010. Wind, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) and solar Photo Voltaic (PV) are the fastest growing renewable energy sectors. In 2010 in the U.S., solar PV grew over 71% and CSP grew by 18% from the previous year. Globally renewable electricity installations have more than quadrupled from 2000-2010. Solar PV generation grew by a factor of more than 28 between 2000 and 2010. The amount of CSP and solar PV installations are increasing on the distribution grid. These PV installations transmit electrical current from the load centers to the generating stations. But the transmission and distribution grid have been designed for uni-directional flow of electrical energy from generating stations to load centers. This causes imbalances in voltage and switchgear of the electrical circuitry. With the continuous rise in PV installations, analysis of voltage profile and penetration levels remain an active area of research. Standard distributed photovoltaic (PV) generators represented in simulation studies do not reflect the exact location and variability properties such as distance between interconnection points to substations, voltage regulators, solar irradiance and other environmental factors. Quasi-Static simulations assist in peak load planning hour and day ahead as it gives a time sequence analysis to help in generation allocation. Simulation models can be daily, hourly or yearly depending on duty cycle and dynamics of the system. High penetration of PV into the power grid changes the voltage profile and power flow dynamically in the distribution circuits due to the inherent variability of PV. There are a number of modeling and simulations tools available for the study of such high penetration PV scenarios. This thesis will specifically utilize OpenDSS, a open source

  12. High data rate coding for the space station telemetry links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, D. R.; Viterbi, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Coding systems for high data rates were examined from the standpoint of potential application in space-station telemetry links. Approaches considered included convolutional codes with sequential, Viterbi, and cascaded-Viterbi decoding. It was concluded that a high-speed (40 Mbps) sequential decoding system best satisfies the requirements for the assumed growth potential and specified constraints. Trade-off studies leading to this conclusion are viewed, and some sequential (Fano) algorithm improvements are discussed, together with real-time simulation results.

  13. Teamwork in high-risk environments analogous to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.

  14. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, Michael F.; Bruhwiler, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach

  15. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, M.F.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Computer Accelerator Physics Conference Williamsburg, Virginia 1996)

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Regional PV power estimation and forecast to mitigate the impact of high photovoltaic penetration on electric grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Marco; De Felice, Matteo; Maggioni, Enrico; Moser, David; Perotto, Alessandro; Spada, Francesco; Cornaro, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The growing photovoltaic generation results in a stochastic variability of the electric demand that could compromise the stability of the grid and increase the amount of energy reserve and the energy imbalance cost. On regional scale, solar power estimation and forecast is becoming essential for Distribution System Operators, Transmission System Operator, energy traders, and aggregators of generation. Indeed the estimation of regional PV power can be used for PV power supervision and real time control of residual load. Mid-term PV power forecast can be employed for transmission scheduling to reduce energy imbalance and related cost of penalties, residual load tracking, trading optimization, secondary energy reserve assessment. In this context, a new upscaling method was developed and used for estimation and mid-term forecast of the photovoltaic distributed generation in a small area in the north of Italy under the control of a local DSO. The method was based on spatial clustering of the PV fleet and neural networks models that input satellite or numerical weather prediction data (centered on cluster centroids) to estimate or predict the regional solar generation. It requires a low computational effort and very few input information should be provided by users. The power estimation model achieved a RMSE of 3% of installed capacity. Intra-day forecast (from 1 to 4 hours) obtained a RMSE of 5% - 7% while the one and two days forecast achieve to a RMSE of 7% and 7.5%. A model to estimate the forecast error and the prediction intervals was also developed. The photovoltaic production in the considered region provided the 6.9% of the electric consumption in 2015. Since the PV penetration is very similar to the one observed at national level (7.9%), this is a good case study to analyse the impact of PV generation on the electric grid and the effects of PV power forecast on transmission scheduling and on secondary reserve estimation. It appears that, already with 7% of PV

  17. Evaluation of the effect of media velocity on filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Steven L; Parsons, Michael S; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Waggoner, Charles A

    2008-11-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are widely used to control particulate matter emissions from processes that involve management or treatment of radioactive materials. Section FC of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers AG-1 Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment currently restricts media velocity to a maximum of 2.5 cm/sec in any application where this standard is invoked. There is some desire to eliminate or increase this media velocity limit. A concern is that increasing media velocity will result in higher emissions of ultrafine particles; thus, it is unlikely that higher media velocities will be allowed without data to demonstrate the effect of media velocity on removal of ultrafine particles. In this study, the performance of nuclear grade HEPA filters, with respect to filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size, was evaluated as a function of media velocity. Deep-pleat nuclear grade HEPA filters (31 cm x 31 cm x 29 cm) were evaluated at media velocities ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 cm/sec using a potassium chloride aerosol challenge having a particle size distribution centered near the HEPA filter most penetrating particle size. Filters were challenged under two distinct mass loading rate regimes through the use of or exclusion of a 3 microm aerodynamic diameter cut point cyclone. Filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size measurements were made throughout the duration of filter testing. Filter efficiency measured at the onset of aerosol challenge was noted to decrease with increasing media velocity, with values ranging from 99.999 to 99.977%. The filter most penetrating particle size recorded at the onset of testing was noted to decrease slightly as media velocity was increased and was typically in the range of 110-130 nm. Although additional testing is needed, these findings indicate that filters operating at media velocities up to 4.5 cm/sec will meet or exceed current filter efficiency requirements. Additionally

  18. Acoustic levitation for high temperature containerless processing in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. A.; Sisler, R.; Merkley, D. R.; Danley, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    New facilities for high-temperature containerless processing in space are described, including the acoustic levitation furnace (ALF), the high-temperature acoustic levitator (HAL), and the high-pressure acoustic levitator (HPAL). In the current ALF development, the maximum temperature capabilities of the levitation furnaces are 1750 C, and in the HAL development with a cold wall furnace they will exceed 2000-2500 C. The HPAL demonstrated feasibility of precursor space flight experiments on the ground in a 1 g pressurized-gas environment. Testing of lower density materials up to 1300 C has also been accomplished. It is suggested that advances in acoustic levitation techniques will result in the production of new materials such as ceramics, alloys, and optical and electronic materials.

  19. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) testing, and Li-ion battery design. In summary, the authors have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). Finally, the authors are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  20. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP2-05: Feasibility Demonstration of High-Voltage Clinical CT and Impact On X-Ray Penetration Through Metal Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y; De Man, B; Robinson, V; Gjesteby, L; Wang, G; Verburg, J; Giantsoudi, D; Paganetti, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the possibility and quantify the impact of operating a clinical CT scanner at exceptionally high x-ray tube voltage for better penetration through metal objects and facilitating metal artifact reduction. Methods: We categorize metal objects according to the data corruption severeness (level of distortion and complete photon starvation fraction). To demonstrate feasibility and investigate the impact of high voltage scanning we modified a commercial GE LightSpeed VCT scanner (generator and software) to enable CT scans with x-ray tube voltages as high as 175 kVp. A 20 cm diameter water phantom with two metal rods (10 mm stainless and 25 mm titanium) and a water phantom with realistic metal object (spine cage) were used to evaluate the data corruption and image artifacts in the absence of any algorithm correction. We also performed simulations to confirm our understanding of the transmitted photon levels through metal objects with different size and composition. Results: The reconstructed images at 175 kVp still have significant dark shading artifacts, as expected since no special scatter correction or beam hardening was performed but show substantially lower noise and photon starvation than at lower kVp due to better beam penetration. Analysis of the raw data shows that the photon starved data is reduced from over 4% at 140 kVp to below 0.2% at 175 kVp. The simulations indicate that for clinically relevant titanium and stainless objects a 175 kVp tube voltage effectively avoids photon starvation. Conclusion: The use of exceptionally high tube voltage on a clinical CT system is a practical and effective solution to avoid photon starvation caused by certain metal implants. Sparse and hybrid high-voltage protocols are being considered to maintain low patient dose. This opens the door to algorithmic physics-based corrections rather than treating the data as missing and relying on missing data algorithms. Some of the authors are employees of General

  1. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP2-05: Feasibility Demonstration of High-Voltage Clinical CT and Impact On X-Ray Penetration Through Metal Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y; De Man, B [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Robinson, V [GE, Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Gjesteby, L [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Wang, G [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY (United States); Verburg, J [Massachusetts, General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Giantsoudi, D; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the possibility and quantify the impact of operating a clinical CT scanner at exceptionally high x-ray tube voltage for better penetration through metal objects and facilitating metal artifact reduction. Methods: We categorize metal objects according to the data corruption severeness (level of distortion and complete photon starvation fraction). To demonstrate feasibility and investigate the impact of high voltage scanning we modified a commercial GE LightSpeed VCT scanner (generator and software) to enable CT scans with x-ray tube voltages as high as 175 kVp. A 20 cm diameter water phantom with two metal rods (10 mm stainless and 25 mm titanium) and a water phantom with realistic metal object (spine cage) were used to evaluate the data corruption and image artifacts in the absence of any algorithm correction. We also performed simulations to confirm our understanding of the transmitted photon levels through metal objects with different size and composition. Results: The reconstructed images at 175 kVp still have significant dark shading artifacts, as expected since no special scatter correction or beam hardening was performed but show substantially lower noise and photon starvation than at lower kVp due to better beam penetration. Analysis of the raw data shows that the photon starved data is reduced from over 4% at 140 kVp to below 0.2% at 175 kVp. The simulations indicate that for clinically relevant titanium and stainless objects a 175 kVp tube voltage effectively avoids photon starvation. Conclusion: The use of exceptionally high tube voltage on a clinical CT system is a practical and effective solution to avoid photon starvation caused by certain metal implants. Sparse and hybrid high-voltage protocols are being considered to maintain low patient dose. This opens the door to algorithmic physics-based corrections rather than treating the data as missing and relying on missing data algorithms. Some of the authors are employees of General

  2. [National and regional market penetration rates of generic's high dosage buprenorphine: its evolution from 2006 to 2008, using reimbursed drug database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczek, Christelle; Frauger, Elisabeth; Micallef, Joëlle; Allaria-Lapierre, Véronique; Reggio, Patrick; Sciortino, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    To assess the national market penetration rate (PR) of generic high-dosage buprenorphine (HDB) in 2008 and its evolution since their marketing (2006), and making a point for each dosage and at regional level. Retrospective study over data using national and regional health reimbursement database over three years (2006-2008). In 2008, the generic HDB's national MPR was 31%. The PR for each dosage were 45% for 0.4 mg, 36% for 2 mg and 19% for 8 mg. The (PR) based on Defined Daily Dose (DDD) was 23% in 2008, 15% in 2007 and 4% in 2006. In 2008, at the regional level, disparities were observed in the adjusted penetration rate from 15% in Île de France to 39% in Champagne Ardennes Lorraine. The national PR of generic HDB has increased. There are differences in MPR in terms of dosage and area. However, this PR is still low (in 2008, 82% of the delivered drugs are generics). © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Oscillating thermionic conversion for high-density space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, D.L.; Morris, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The compactness, maneuverability, and productive weight utilization of space nuclear reactors benefit from the use of thermionic converters at high temperature. Nuclear-thermionic-conversion power requirements are discussed, and the role of oscillations in thermionic energy conversion (TEC) history is examined. Proposed TEC oscillations are addressed, and the results of recent studies of TEC oscillations are reviewed. The possible use of high-frequency TEC oscillations to amplify low-frequency ones is considered. The accomplishments of various programs studying the use of high-temperature thermionic oscillators are examined. 16 references

  4. Enabling kinetic micro-penetrator technology for Solar System research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Whilst the concept of high speed impacting penetrator probes is not new, recent highly successful ground test results have considerably improved the perception that these can be a viable and useful addition to the current toolbox of planetary probes. Previous developments only led to a single deployment (Deep Space-2 to Mars on the ill fated NASA Mars Polar Lander mission in 1999) where neither the soft lander nor penetrator was ever heard from, which is not a logical basis for dismissing penetrator technology. Other space penetrator programmes have included the Russian Mars'96 ~80m/s penetrators for which the whole mission was lost before the spacecraft left Earth orbit, and the Japanese Lunar-A program which was cancelled after a lengthy development program which however saw multiple successful ground trials. The Japanese penetrators were designed for ~300m/s impact. The current UK penetrator developments are actively working towards full space qualification for a Lunar penetrators (MoonLITE mission), which would also provide a significant technical demonstration towards the development of smaller, shorter lived penetrators for exploring other solar system objects. We are advocating delivered micro-penetrators in the mass range ~4-10Kg, (preceded by ~13Kg Lunar penetrator MoonLITE development program), impacting at around 100-500m/s and carrying a scientific payload of around 2Kg. Additional mass is required to deliver the probes from `orbit' to surface which is dependent upon the particular planetary body in question. The mass per descent module therefore involves and additional element which, for a descent through an atmosphere could be quite modest, while for a flyby deployment, can be substantial. For Europa we estimate a descent module mass of ~13 Kg, while for Enceladus the value is ~40Kg for Enceladus since a deceleration of ~3.8 kms-1 is needed from a Titan orbit. The delivery system could consist of a rocket deceleration motor and attitude control system

  5. Penetrating Osseous Spicules Causing High-Flow Ventral CSF Leaks in the Setting of Relatively Low BMI : A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Richard E; Diehn, Felix E; Luetmer, Patrick H; Wald, John T; Lane, John I; Morris, Jonathan M; Lehman, Vance T; Carr, Carrie M; Mokri, Bahram; Thielen, Kent R

    2017-05-16

    We have anecdotally observed patients with high-flow ventral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks resulting from penetrating osseous spicules or calcified discs to be relatively thin. The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of this observation and determine if a potential association exists between low body mass index (BMI) and high-flow spinal ventral CSF leaks resulting from such dura-penetrating lesions. Sixteen consecutive patients with precisely localized high-flow ventral spinal CSF leaks on dynamic myelography were identified. The cause of the CSF leak was determined. The BMI on the date nearest to and within 2 weeks of myelography was recorded. Utilizing exact sign test, the body mass index was compared to the average BMI from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Centers for Disease Control), matched to sex and age-range. The cohort consisted of 10 males (63%) and 6 females with a mean age of 54 years (range 37-72 years). In all patients, a spiculated osteophyte/calcified disc was identified at the site of the leak. Fourteen patients (88%) had a BMI below the matched national average, while only two patients (13%) had values above the national average (p = 0.004). Patients with high-flow ventral CSF leaks resulting from spiculated osteophyte or calcified disc as identified by dynamic myelography are more likely to have a BMI below the U.S. national average, matched for gender and age-range. This exploratory analysis requires confirmation as well as further characterization of potential pathophysiologic mechanisms and impact on radiographic and clinical assessments.

  6. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Jenkin, T.; Milford, J.; Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Evans, D.; Lieberman, E.; Goldstein, G.; Wright, E.; Jayaraman, K.; Venkatech, B.; Kleiman, G.; Namovicz, C.; Smith, B.; Palmer, K.; Wiser, R.; Wood, F.

    2009-09-30

    and/or different answers in response to a set of focused energy-related questions. The focus was on understanding reasons for model differences, not on policy implications, even though a policy of high renewable penetration was used for the analysis. A group process was used to identify the potential question (or questions) to be addressed through the project. In late 2006, increasing renewable energy penetration in the electricity sector was chosen from among several options as the general policy to model. From this framework, the analysts chose a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) as the way to implement the required renewable energy market penetration in the models. An RPS was chosen because it was (i) of interest and represented the group's consensus choice, and (ii) tractable and not too burdensome for the modelers. Because the modelers and analysts were largely using their own resources, it was important to consider the degree of effort required. In fact, several of the modelers who started this process had to discontinue participation because of other demands on their time. Federal and state RPS policy is an area of active political interest and debate. Recognizing this, participants used this exercise to gain insight into energy model structure and performance. The results are not intended to provide any particular insight into policy design or be used for policy advocacy, and participants are not expected to form a policy stance based on the outcomes of the modeling. The goals of this REMAP project - in terms of the main topic of renewable penetration - were to: (1) Compare models and understand why they may give different results to the same question, (2) Improve the rigor and consistency of assumptions used across models, and (3) Evaluate the ability of models to measure the impacts of high renewable-penetration scenarios.

  7. Thermionic integrated circuit technology for high power space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadavalli, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic triode and integrated circuit technology is in its infancy and it is emerging. The Thermionic triode can operate at relatively high voltages (up to 2000V) and at least tens of amperes. These devices, including their use in integrated circuitry, operate at high temperatures (800 0 C) and are very tolerant to nuclear and other radiations. These properties can be very useful in large space power applications such as that represented by the SP-100 system which uses a nuclear reactor. This paper presents an assessment of the application of thermionic integrated circuitry with space nuclear power system technology. A comparison is made with conventional semiconductor circuitry considering a dissipative shunt regulator for SP-100 type nuclear power system rated at 100 kW. The particular advantages of thermionic circuitry are significant reductions in size and mass of heat dissipation and radiation shield subsystems

  8. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers

  9. NASA space applications of high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Sokoloski, Martin M.; Aron, Paul R.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1992-01-01

    The application of superconducting technology in space has been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. The only means of attaining these temperatures has been with cryogenic fluids which severely limits mission lifetime. The development of materials with superconducting transition temperatures (T sub c) above 77 K has made superconducting technology more attractive and feasible for employment in aerospace systems. Potential applications of high-temperature superconducting technology in cryocoolers and remote sensing, communications, and power systems are discussed.

  10. High-resolution lattice-spacing comparator using SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami

    2004-01-01

    A novel lattice spacing measurement using a high-resolution self-reference d-spacing comparator has been described. Self selection of monochromatic synchrotron x-rays by a monolithic double channel-cut-crystal monochromator (MDCM) comprising silicon 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 reflections may lead to a stable, highly-collimated and narrow bandwidth beam. Also if utilizing 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 Bragg planes of a silicon sample, the interval between two associated Bragg peaks for the X-rays with wavelength of 0.13438 nm can be extremely small, so that the diffraction angle can be determined with high precision and the traveling time from one peak to the other can be marvelously reduced by the order of at least three compared to the established classical methods such as the Bond method. Thus this so-called self-reference comparator method can dramatically save measurement time and provide an absolute measurement on the basis of the x-ray wavelength of the MDCM, therefore a lattice spacing measurement with uncertainty of 10 -8 , for the 1mm 2 area on a silicon crystal within measurement time of a few ten seconds and has been achieved. (author)

  11. Manifold learning to interpret JET high-dimensional operational space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannas, B; Fanni, A; Pau, A; Sias, G; Murari, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of visualization and exploration of JET high-dimensional operational space is considered. The data come from plasma discharges selected from JET campaigns from C15 (year 2005) up to C27 (year 2009). The aim is to learn the possible manifold structure embedded in the data and to create some representations of the plasma parameters on low-dimensional maps, which are understandable and which preserve the essential properties owned by the original data. A crucial issue for the design of such mappings is the quality of the dataset. This paper reports the details of the criteria used to properly select suitable signals downloaded from JET databases in order to obtain a dataset of reliable observations. Moreover, a statistical analysis is performed to recognize the presence of outliers. Finally data reduction, based on clustering methods, is performed to select a limited and representative number of samples for the operational space mapping. The high-dimensional operational space of JET is mapped using a widely used manifold learning method, the self-organizing maps. The results are compared with other data visualization methods. The obtained maps can be used to identify characteristic regions of the plasma scenario, allowing to discriminate between regions with high risk of disruption and those with low risk of disruption. (paper)

  12. Customer-economics of residential photovoltaic systems (Part 1): The impact of high renewable energy penetrations on electricity bill savings with net metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Given the uncertainty in future retail rates and the inherent links between rates and the customer–economics of behind-the-meter PV, there is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. In this article, we first use a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under two potential electricity market scenarios, including a reference and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, we develop retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV is estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. We find that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of high renewables on customer economics of solar. • We model three types of residential retail electricity rates. • Based on the rates, we calculate the bill savings from photovoltaic (PV) generation. • High renewables penetration can lead to lower bill savings with time-varying rates. • There is substantial uncertainty in the future bill savings from residential PV

  13. Historical space steps of Turkey: It is high time to establish the Turkish space agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Cihan; Kale, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of space in today's space driven world, the current space activities of Turkey, its space organizations with legislation background information and calls for the necessity for the establishment of the Turkish Space Agency (TSA). Firstly, the importance of space is given which is followed by a brief background and current space activities in Turkey. Then, the answers to why Turkey needs a National Space Agency are outlined by stating its expected role and duties. Additionally, the framework for space policy for Turkey is proposed and the findings are compared with other developing regional space actors. Lastly, it is proposed and demonstrated that Turkey is on the right track with its space policy and it is suggested that the establishment of the TSA is critical both for a coherent space policy and progress as well as the successful development of its national space industry, security and international space relations.

  14. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  15. 3D detectors with high space and time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, A.

    2018-01-01

    For future high luminosity LHC experiments it will be important to develop new detector systems with increased space and time resolution and also better radiation hardness in order to operate in high luminosity environment. A possible technology which could give such performances is 3D silicon detectors. This work explores the possibility of a pixel geometry by designing and simulating different solutions, using Sentaurus Tecnology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) as design and simulation tool, and analysing their performances. A key factor during the selection was the generated electric field and the carrier velocity inside the active area of the pixel.

  16. High current density aluminum stabilized conductor concepts for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Hilal, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Lightweight conductors are needed for space magnets to achieve values of E/M (energy stored per unit mass) comparable to the or higher than advanced batteries. High purity aluminum stabilized NbTi composite conductors cooled by 1.8 K helium can provide a winding current density up to 15 kA/cm/sup 2/ at fields up to 10 tesla. The conductors are edge cooled with enough surface area to provide recovery following a normalizing disturbance. The conductors are designed so that current diffusion time in the high purity aluminum is smaller than thermal diffusion time in helium. Conductor design, stability and current diffusion are considered in detail

  17. Optimal placement, sizing, and daily charge/discharge of battery energy storage in low voltage distribution network with high photovoltaic penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jannesar, Mohammad Rasol; Sedighi, Alireza; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    when photovoltaic penetration is increased in low voltage distribution network. Local battery energy storage system can mitigate these disadvantages and as a result, improve the system operation. For this purpose, battery energy storage system is charged when production of photovoltaic is more than...... consumers’ demands and discharged when consumers’ demands are increased. Since the price of battery energy storage system is high, economic, environmental, and technical objectives should be considered together for its placement and sizing. In this paper, optimal placement, sizing, and daily (24 h) charge......Proper installation of rooftop photovoltaic generation in distribution networks can improve voltage profile, reduce energy losses, and enhance the reliability. But, on the other hand, some problems regarding harmonic distortion, voltage magnitude, reverse power flow, and energy losses can arise...

  18. Comparison of high speed movie and flash x-ray measurement of the translational and rotational motions of projectiles penetrating gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roecker, E.T.

    1979-01-01

    Projectiles penetrating a gelatin block were simultaneously measured by a high speed movie camera, Dynafax, and by a sequential, orthogonal, flash x-ray system. The eight orthogonal views of the x-ray system provided position and orientation of the projectiles vs. time. From onset of tumble in the gelatin, owing to gyroscopic instability, the growth of yaw was the same for each round in a replicated set. This phenomenon provided a legitimate procedure for pooling the x-ray data, giving well determined curves of velocity decay and yaw growth. The movie camera observed the progress of the cavity formed by the projectile. The resulting velocity decay of the cavity tip was compared to that of the projectile as measured by the x-ray technique. (author)

  19. Astrobiology in an Urban New York City High School: John Dewey High School's Space Science Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, B.; Dash, H. B.

    2010-04-01

    John Dewey High School's participation in NASA's MESDT and DLN projects and other partnerships provide opportunities for our diverse population, focusing particular attention to under-represented and under-served groups in the field of Space Science.

  20. Impact of High Levels of Wind Penetration on the Exercise of Market Power in the Multi-Area Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseeva, E.

    2017-01-01

    New European energy policies have set a goal of a high share of renewable energy in electricity markets. In the presence of high levels of renewable generation, and especially wind, there is more uncertainty in the supply. It is natural, that volatility in energy production induces the volatility in

  1. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  2. Case Study of Using High Performance Commercial Processors in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Olivas, Zulema

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade project (1999 2004) was to reduce crew workload and improve situational awareness. The upgrade was to augment the Shuttle avionics system with new hardware and software. A major success of this project was the validation of the hardware architecture and software design. This was significant because the project incorporated new technology and approaches for the development of human rated space software. An early version of this system was tested at the Johnson Space Center for one month by teams of astronauts. The results were positive, but NASA eventually cancelled the project towards the end of the development cycle. The goal to reduce crew workload and improve situational awareness resulted in the need for high performance Central Processing Units (CPUs). The choice of CPU selected was the PowerPC family, which is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) known for its high performance. However, the requirement for radiation tolerance resulted in the re-evaluation of the selected family member of the PowerPC line. Radiation testing revealed that the original selected processor (PowerPC 7400) was too soft to meet mission objectives and an effort was established to perform trade studies and performance testing to determine a feasible candidate. At that time, the PowerPC RAD750s were radiation tolerant, but did not meet the required performance needs of the project. Thus, the final solution was to select the PowerPC 7455. This processor did not have a radiation tolerant version, but had some ability to detect failures. However, its cache tags did not provide parity and thus the project incorporated a software strategy to detect radiation failures. The strategy was to incorporate dual paths for software generating commands to the legacy Space Shuttle avionics to prevent failures due to the softness of the upgraded avionics.

  3. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical

  4. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. High-capacity Free-space Optical Communications with Orbital Angular Momentum

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the demand for high data returns from space science missions continues, significant improvements over the current radiofrequency (RF) communications architectures...

  6. Ballistic-type field penetration into metals illustrated by high- and low-frequency size-effect measurements in silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantmakher, V. F.; Lebech, Jens; Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1979-01-01

    Radio-frequency size-effect experiments were performed on silver plane-parallel plates at high, 45 GHz, and low, 3 MHz, frequencies. By investigation of size-effect structures we show the influence of frequency on the field distribution inside the metal. When the frequency increases, the splash...

  7. Radiation doses at high altitudes and during space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    2001-01-01

    There are three main sources of radiation exposure during space flights and at high altitudes--galactic cosmic radiation, solar cosmic radiation and radiation of the earth's radiation belt. Their basic characteristics are presented in the first part of this paper.Man's exposure during space flights is discussed in the second part of the paper. Particular attention is devoted to the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the radiation exposure on near-earth orbits: both theoretical estimation as well as experimental data are presented. Some remarks on radiation protection rules on-board space vehicles are also given.The problems connected with the radiation protection of air crew and passengers of subsonic and supersonic air transport are discussed in the last part of the paper. General characteristics of on-board radiation fields and their variations with flight altitude, geomagnetic parameters of a flight and the solar activity are presented, both based on theoretical estimates and experimental studies. The questions concerning air crew and passenger radiation protection arising after the publication of ICRP 60 recommendation are also discussed. Activities of different institutions relevant to the topic are mentioned; strategies to manage and check this type of radiation exposure are presented and discussed. Examples of results based on the author's personal experience are given, analyzed and discussed. (author)

  8. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  9. UNH Project SMART 2017: Space Science for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Goelzer, S.; Levergood, R.; Lugaz, N.; Moebius, E.

    2017-12-01

    Every summer for the past 26 years the University of New Hampshire (UNH) has run a month-long, residential outreach program for high school students considering careers in mathematics, science, or engineering. Space science is one of the modules. Students work directly with UNH faculty performing original work with real spacecraft data and hardware and present the results of that effort at the end of the program. This year the student research projects used data from the Messenger, STEREO, and Triana missions. In addition, the students build and fly a high-altitude balloon payload with instruments of their own construction. Students learn circuit design and construction, microcontroller programming, and core atmospheric and space science along with fundamental concepts in space physics and engineering. Our payload design has evolved significantly since the first flight of a simple rectangular box and now involves a stable descent vehicle that does not require a parachute. Our flight hardware includes an on-board flight control computer, in-flight autonomous control and data acquisition of multiple student-built instruments, and real-time camera images sent to ground. This year we developed, built and flew a successful line cutter based on GPS location information that prevents our payload from falling into the ocean while also separating the payload from the balloon remains for a cleaner descent. We will describe that new line cutter design and implementation along with the shielded Geiger counters that we flew as part of our cosmic ray air shower experiment. This is a program that can be used as a model for other schools to follow and that high schools can initiate. More information can be found at .

  10. Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald A.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    1999-01-01

    Portable electromagnetic antiproton traps are now in a state of realization. This allows facilities like NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to conduct antimatter research remote to production sites. MSFC is currently developing a trap to store 10(exp 12) antiprotons for a twenty-day half-life period to be used in future experiments including antimatter plasma guns, antimatter-initiated microfusion, and the synthesis of antihydrogen for space propulsion applications. In 1998, issues including design, safety and transportation were considered for the MSFC High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT). Radial diffusion and annihilation losses of antiprotons prompted the use of a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet and a 20 KV electrostatic potential at 10(exp -12) Torr pressure. Cryogenic fluids used to maintain a trap temperature of 4K were sized accordingly to provide twenty days of stand-alone storage time (half-life). Procurement of the superconducting magnet with associated cryostat has been completed. The inner, ultra-high vacuum system with electrode structures has been fabricated, tested and delivered to MSFC along with the magnet and cryostat. Assembly of these systems is currently in progress. Testing under high vacuum conditions, using electrons and hydrogen ions will follow in the months ahead.

  11. Penetration of fast projectiles into resistant media: From macroscopic to subatomic projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaite, José

    2017-09-01

    The penetration of a fast projectile into a resistant medium is a complex process that is suitable for simple modeling, in which basic physical principles can be profitably employed. This study connects two different domains: the fast motion of macroscopic bodies in resistant media and the interaction of charged subatomic particles with matter at high energies, which furnish the two limit cases of the problem of penetrating projectiles of different sizes. These limit cases actually have overlapping applications; for example, in space physics and technology. The intermediate or mesoscopic domain finds application in atom cluster implantation technology. Here it is shown that the penetration of fast nano-projectiles is ruled by a slightly modified Newton's inertial quadratic force, namely, F ∼v 2 - β, where β vanishes as the inverse of projectile diameter. Factors essential to penetration depth are ratio of projectile to medium density and projectile shape.

  12. High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

    1988-01-01

    A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

  13. Highly Adjustable Systems: An Architecture for Future Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Conti, Alberto; Redding, David; Lawrence, Charles R.; Hachkowski, Roman; Laskin, Robert; Steeves, John

    2017-06-01

    Mission costs for ground breaking space astronomical observatories are increasing to the point of unsustainability. We are investigating the use of adjustable or correctable systems as a means to reduce development and therefore mission costs. The poster introduces the promise and possibility of realizing a “net zero CTE” system for the general problem of observatory design and introduces the basic systems architecture we are considering. This poster concludes with an overview of our planned study and demonstrations for proving the value and worth of highly adjustable telescopes and systems ahead of the upcoming decadal survey.

  14. Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Begg, L.L.; Koester, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed. 10 references

  15. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    NASA's human space program has developed considerable experience with near Earth space operations. Although NASA has experience with deep space robotic missions, NASA has little substantive experience with human deep space operations. Even in the Apollo program, the missions lasted only a few weeks and the communication latencies were on the order of seconds. Human missions beyond the relatively close confines of the Earth-Moon system will involve missions with durations measured in months and communications latencies measured in minutes. To minimize crew risk and to maximize mission success, NASA needs to develop a better understanding of the implications of these types of mission durations and communication latencies on vehicle design, mission design and flight controller interaction with the crew. To begin to address these needs, NASA performed a study using a physics-based subsystem simulation to investigate the interactions between spacecraft crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation, built with a subsystem modeling tool developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, models the life support system of a Mars transit vehicle. The simulation contains models of the cabin atmosphere and pressure control system, electrical power system, drinking and waste water systems, internal and external thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the vehicle subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minutes each way; 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface that can be use to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission between July 18th and Aug 3rd of year 2016. The NEEMO

  16. Single-point reactive power control method on voltage rise mitigation in residential networks with high PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios; Ahmadi, Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise by ...... system with high r/x ratio. Efficacy, effectiveness and cost study of SPRPC is compared to droop control to evaluate its advantages.......Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise...... by absorbing adequate reactive power from one selected point. The proposed index utilizes short circuit analysis to select the best point to apply this Volt/Var control method. SPRPC is supported technically and financially by distribution network operator that makes it cost effective, simple and efficient...

  17. The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1992-02-01

    The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria in 1991 shows a high interest for solar systems as well as for swimming-pool heating as for domestic hot-water preparation and also an increase in the field of heat pumps especially for space heating. (author)

  18. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  19. Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors for High-Data-Rate Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High data rate deep space optical communication (DSOC) links for manned and unmanned space exploration have been identified by NASA as a critical future capability,...

  20. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to utilize quantum dots to develop a super high-efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for space. In metamorphic triple junction space solar...

  1. Geometry of power flows and convex-relaxed power flows in distribution networks with high penetration of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energies are increasingly integrated in electric distribution networks and will cause severe overvoltage issues. Smart grid technologies make it possible to use coordinated control to mitigate the overvoltage issues and the optimal power flow (OPF) method is proven to be efficient...... in the applications such as curtailment management and reactive power control. Nonconvex nature of the OPF makes it difficult to solve and convex relaxation is a promising method to solve the OPF very efficiently. This paper investigates the geometry of the power flows and the convex-relaxed power flows when high...

  2. Investigations into the penetration and pressure drop of HEPA filter media during loading with submicron particle aerosols at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, H; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are typically employed in particle removal and retention within the air cleaning systems of clean rooms in the pharmaceutical, nuclear and semiconductor industries for dust concentrations of some μg/m 3 . Their extremely high removal efficiencies for submicron particles make them attractive candidates in complying with increasingly lower emission limits for industrial processes that involve dust concentrations of up to several g/m 3 . Cost-effective operation under such conditions requires the filter units to be recleanable. The recleanability of HEPA filter media depends not only on the operating conditions during the cleaning process but also on the filtration conditions during particle loading. The structure and location of the particles captured by the glass fiber matrix greatly affect the degree to which they can be subsequently dislodged and removed from the filter medium. Changes in filtration efficiency with service time for various particle diameters in the critical submicron size range, as well as the effects of filtration velocity on the increase in pressure drop, are important criteria with regard to recleaning HEPA filter units. Of special significance for the recleanability of HEPA filter media is knowledge of how operating conditions affect dust cake formation. (author)

  3. Convective penetration in a young sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group

    2018-01-01

    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  4. Influence of structural disorder on low-temperature behavior of penetration depth in electron-doped high-TC thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanfredi, A.J.C.; Sergeenkov, S.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    To probe the influence of structural disorder on low-temperature behavior of magnetic penetration depth, λ(T), in electron-doped high-T C superconductors, a comparative study of high-quality Pr 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4 (PCCO) and Sm 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4 (SCCO) thin films is presented. The λ(T) profiles are extracted from conductance-voltage data using a highly-sensitive home-made mutual-inductance technique. The obtained results confirm a d-wave pairing mechanism in both samples (with nodal gap parameter Δ 0 /k B T C =2.0 and 2.1 for PCCO and SCCO films, respectively), substantially modified by impurity scattering (which is more noticeable in less homogeneous SCCO films) at the lowest temperatures. More precisely, Δλ(T)=λ(T)-λ(0) is found to follow the Goldenfeld-Hirschfeld interpolation formulae Δλ(T)/λ(0)=AT 2 /(T+T 0 ) with T 0 =ln(2)k B Γ 1/2 Δ 0 1/2 being the crossover temperature which demarcates pure and impure scattering processes (T 0 /T C =0.13 and 0.26 for PCCO and SCCO films, respectively). The value of the extracted impurity scattering rate Γ correlates with the quality of our samples and is found to be much higher in less homogeneous films with lower T C

  5. High Resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements at the laboratory scale to model porosity and permeability in the Miami Limestone in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, G. J.; Comas, X.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface water flow within the Biscayne aquifer is controlled by the heterogeneous distribution of porosity and permeability in the karst Miami Limestone and the presence of numerous dissolution and mega-porous features. The dissolution features and other high porosity areas can create preferential flow paths and direct recharge to the aquifer, which may not be accurately conceptualized in groundwater flow models. As hydrologic conditions are undergoing restoration in the Everglades, understanding the distribution of these high porosity areas within the subsurface would create a better understanding of subsurface flow. This research utilizes ground penetrating radar to estimate the spatial variability of porosity and dielectric permittivity of the Miami Limestone at centimeter scale resolution at the laboratory scale. High frequency GPR antennas were used to measure changes in electromagnetic wave velocity through limestone samples under varying volumetric water contents. The Complex Refractive Index Model (CRIM) was then applied in order to estimate porosity and dielectric permittivity of the solid phase of the limestone. Porosity estimates ranged from 45.2-66.0% from the CRIM model and correspond well with estimates of porosity from analytical and digital image techniques. Dielectric permittivity values of the limestone solid phase ranged from 7.0 and 13.0, which are similar to values in the literature. This research demonstrates the ability of GPR to identify the cm scale spatial variability of aquifer properties that influence subsurface water flow which could have implications for groundwater flow models in the Biscayne and potentially other shallow karst aquifers.

  6. High & mighty: Implicit associations between space and social status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eGagnon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Figurative language, the built environment, and our perceptuo-motor experiences frequently associate social status with physical space. Linguistic references such as high status or climbing the corporate ladder, and built places such as the U.S. Capitol building link social and physical hierarchies. In three experiments we examine the source and extent of these associations by testing whether people implicitly associate abstract social status indicators with concrete representations of spatial topography (level versus mountainous land and relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north. Experiment 1 demonstrates speeded performance during an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998 when average social status is paired with level topography and high status with mountainous topography. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate a similar effect but with relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north, with speeded performance when average and powerful social status are paired with south and north coordinate space, respectively. Abstract concepts of social status are perceived and understood in an inherently spatial world, resulting in powerful associations between abstract social concepts and concrete and abstract notions of physical axes. These associations may prove influential in guiding daily judgments and actions.

  7. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  8. Penetration testing with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  9. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  10. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  11. Stochastic scheduling of local distribution systems considering high penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaee, Sajad; Mortazavi, Seyed Saeedallah; Niknam, Taher

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal scheduling of electric power units in the renewable based local distribution systems considering plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The appearance of PEVs in the electric grid can create new challenges for the operation of distributed generations and power units inside the network. In order to deal with this issue, a new stochastic optimization method is devised to let the central controll manage the power units and charging behavior of PEVs. The problem formulation aims to minimize the total cost of the network including the cost of power supply for loads and PEVs as well as the cost of energy not supplied (ENS) as the reliability costs. In order to make PEVs as opportunity for the grid, the vehicle-2-grid (V2G) technology is employed to reduce the operational costs. To model the high uncertain behavior of wind turbine, photovoltaics and the charging and discharging pattern of PEVs, a new stochastic power flow based on unscented transform is proposed. Finally, a new optimization algorithm based on bat algorithm (BA) is proposed to solve the problem optimally. The satisfying performance of the proposed stochastic method is tested on a grid-connected local distribution system. - Highlights: • Introduction of stochastic method to assess Plug-in Electric Vehicles effects on the microgrid. • Assessing the role of V2G technology on battery aging and degradation costs. • Use of BA for solving the proposed problem. • Introduction of a new modification method for the BA.

  12. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  13. High-temperature turbopump assembly for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a practical, high-performance nuclear rocket by the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program places high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio. The operating parameters arising from these goals drive the propellant-pump design. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is effected by rapid heating of the propellant from 100 K to thousands of degrees in the particle-bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. One approach to achieve high performance is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. The high-temperature capability is obtained by using carbon-carbon throughout the TPA hot section. Carbon-carbon components in development include structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines plus a wide variety of other turbomachinery applications.

  14. High-temperature turbopump assembly for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overholt, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a practical, high-performance nuclear rocket by the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program places high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio. The operating parameters arising from these goals drive the propellant-pump design. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is effected by rapid heating of the propellant from 100 K to thousands of degrees in the particle-bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. One approach to achieve high performance is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. The high-temperature capability is obtained by using carbon-carbon throughout the TPA hot section. Carbon-carbon components in development include structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines plus a wide variety of other turbomachinery applications

  15. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  16. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  17. A modified space charge routine for high intensity bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.; Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 a space charge calculation for bunched beam with a three-dimensional ellipsoid was proposed, replacing the usual SCHEFF routines. It removes the cylindrical symmetry required in SCHEFF and avoids the point to point interaction computation, whose number of simulation points is limited. This routine has now been improved with the introduction of two or three ellipsoids giving a good representation of the complex non-symmetrical form of the bunch (unlike the 3-d ellipsoidal assumption). The ellipsoidal density distributions are computed with a new method, avoiding the difficulty encountered near the centre (the axis in 2-d problems) by the previous method. It also provides a check of the ellipsoidal symmetry for each part of the distribution. Finally, the Fourier analysis reported in 1991 has been replaced by a very convenient Hermite expansion, which gives a simple but accurate representation of practical distributions. Comparisons with other space charge routines have been made, particularly with the ones applying other techniques such as SCHEFF. Introduced in the versatile beam dynamics code DYNAC, it should provide a good tool for the study of the various parameters responsible for the halo formation in high intensity linacs. (orig.)

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  19. Space-charge effects in high-energy photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verna, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.verna@uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Greco, Giorgia [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Scuola Dottorale in Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Offi, Francesco; Stefani, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • N-body simulations of interacting photoelectrons in hard X-ray experiments. • Secondary electrons have a pivotal role in determining the energy broadening. • Space charge has negligible effects on the photoelectron momentum distribution. • A simple model provides the characteristic time for energy-broadening mechanism. • The feasibility of time-resolved high-energy experiments with FELs is discussed. - Abstract: Pump-and-probe photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) with femtosecond pulsed sources opens new perspectives in the investigation of the ultrafast dynamics of physical and chemical processes at the surfaces and interfaces of solids. Nevertheless, for very intense photon pulses a large number of photoelectrons are simultaneously emitted and their mutual Coulomb repulsion is sufficiently strong to significantly modify their trajectory and kinetic energy. This phenomenon, referred as space-charge effect, determines a broadening and shift in energy for the typical PES structures and a dramatic loss of energy resolution. In this article we examine the effects of space charge in PES with a particular focus on time-resolved hard X-ray (∼10 keV) experiments. The trajectory of the electrons photoemitted from pure Cu in a hard X-ray PES experiment has been reproduced through N-body simulations and the broadening of the photoemission core-level peaks has been monitored as a function of various parameters (photons per pulse, linear dimension of the photon spot, photon energy). The energy broadening results directly proportional to the number N of electrons emitted per pulse (mainly represented by secondary electrons) and inversely proportional to the linear dimension a of the photon spot on the sample surface, in agreement with the literature data about ultraviolet and soft X-ray experiments. The evolution in time of the energy broadening during the flight of the photoelectrons is also studied. Despite its detrimental consequences on the energy

  20. Penetration pattern of rhodamine dyes into enamel and dentin: confocal laser microscopy observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S R; Wertz, P W; Li, Y; Chan, D C N

    2012-02-01

    Enamel and dentin are susceptible to extrinsic and intrinsic stains. The purposes of this study were to determine the penetration pattern of Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B into the enamel and dentin as observed by confocal laser microscopy and to relate it to the penetration pattern of hydrogen peroxide commonly used as an active ingredient in tooth-whitening agents and high-molecular-weight staining molecules. Eighteen recently extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were used. Teeth were cleaned and painted with nail varnish except for the crown area above the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The painted teeth were then immersed in Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B (70 000 MW) for 4, 7, 10 and 15 days. Teeth were sliced to 3 mm thickness in transverse plane and mounted on a glass slide just prior to observation with confocal laser microscopy. Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B readily penetrated into the enamel and dentin when exposed for 4 and 7 days, respectively. Rhodamine B penetrated along the interprismatic spaces of the enamel into the dentin. The penetration was accentuated in sections with existing crack lines in the enamel. Rhodamine B was readily absorbed into the dentinal tubules at the dentino-enamel junction and continued to penetrate through the dentin via the dentinal tubules into the pre-dentin. Within the limitations of this study, it is concluded that Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B when applied to the external surface of the tooth readily penetrate into the enamel and dentin via the interprismatic spaces in the enamel and dentinal tubules in the dentin, suggesting that stain molecules and bleaching agents possibly exhibit similar penetration pathways. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Estimating porosity and solid dielectric permittivity in the Miami Limestone using high-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements at the laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Gregory J.; Comas, Xavier

    2014-10-01

    Subsurface water flow in South Florida is largely controlled by the heterogeneous nature of the karst limestone in the Biscayne aquifer and its upper formation, the Miami Limestone. These heterogeneities are amplified by dissolution structures that induce changes in the aquifer's material and physical properties (i.e., porosity and dielectric permittivity) and create preferential flow paths. Understanding such patterns are critical for the development of realistic groundwater flow models, particularly in the Everglades, where restoration of hydrological conditions is intended. In this work, we used noninvasive ground penetrating radar (GPR) to estimate the spatial variability in porosity and the dielectric permittivity of the solid phase of the limestone at centimeter-scale resolution to evaluate the potential for field-based GPR studies. A laboratory setup that included high-frequency GPR measurements under completely unsaturated and saturated conditions was used to estimate changes in electromagnetic wave velocity through Miami Limestone samples. The Complex Refractive Index Model was used to derive estimates of porosity and dielectric permittivity of the solid phase of the limestone. Porosity estimates of the samples ranged between 45.2 and 66.0% and showed good correspondence with estimates of porosity using analytical and digital image techniques. Solid dielectric permittivity values ranged between 7.0 and 13.0. This study shows the ability of GPR to image the spatial variability of porosity and dielectric permittivity in the Miami Limestone and shows potential for expanding these results to larger scales and other karst aquifers.

  2. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  3. Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...

  4. Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...

  5. Large motion high cycle high speed optical fibers for space based applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, Peter G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tandon, Rajan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Cory S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rasberry, Roger David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohr, Garth David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Future remote sensing applications will require higher resolution and therefore higher data rates (up to perhaps 100 gigabits per second) while achieving lower mass and cost. A current limitation to the design space is high speed high bandwidth data does not cross movable gimbals because of cabling issues. This requires the detectors to be off gimbal. The ability to get data across the gimbal would open up efficiencies in designs where the detectors and the electronics can be placed anywhere on the system. Fiber optic cables provide light weight high speed high bandwidth connections. Current options are limited to 20,000 cycles as opposed to the 1,000,000 cycles needed for future space based applications. To extend this to the million+ regime, requires a thorough understanding of the failure mechanisms and the materials, proper selection of materials (e.g., glass and jacket material) allowable geometry changes to the cable, radiation hardness, etc.

  6. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  7. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  8. Skull penetrating wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Yvei; Junco Martin, Reinel; Rojas Manresa, Jorge; Duboy Limonta, Victor; Matos Herrera, Omar; Saez Corvo, Yunet

    2011-01-01

    The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.(author)

  9. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. However, despite improvements in mechanical properties in recent years, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms- DU alloys tend to shear band as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom. As a first step to determining whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review and summary of the available information was performed. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the formulation, high strain- rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on mechanical properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed. Penetration data and models for penetration mechanisms (in particular shear banding) are also presented, as well as the applicability of these models and their salient features

  10. Site-specific epsilon-NH2 monoacylation of pancreatic phospholipase A2. 2. Transformation of soluble phospholipase A2 into a highly penetrating "membrane-bound" form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wiele, F C; Atsma, W; Roelofsen, B; van Linde, M; Van Binsbergen, J; Radvanyi, F; Raykova, D; Slotboom, A J; De Haas, G H

    1988-03-08

    Long-chain lecithins present in bilayer structures like vesicles or membranes are only very poor substrates for pancreatic phospholipases A2. This is probably due to the fact that pancreatic phospholipases A2 cannot penetrate into the densely packed bilayer structures. To improve the weak penetrating properties of pancreatic phospholipases A2, we prepared and characterized a number of pancreatic phospholipase A2 mutants that have various long acyl chains linked covalently to Lys116 in porcine and to Lys10 in bovine phospholipase A2 [Van der Wiele, F.C., Atsma, W., Dijkman, R., Schreurs, A.M.M., Slotboom, A.J., & De Haas, G.H. (1988) Biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)]. When monomolecular surface layers of L- and D-didecanoyllecithin were used, it was found that the introduction of caprinic, lauric, palmitic, and oleic acid at Lys116 in the porcine enzyme increases its penetrating power from 13 to about 17, 20, 32, and 22 dyn/cm, respectively, before long lag periods were obtained. Incorporation of a palmitoyl moiety at Lys10 in the bovine enzyme shifted the penetrating power from 11 to about 25 dyn/cm. Only the best penetrating mutant, viz., porcine phospholipase A2 having a palmitoyl moiety at Lys116, was able to cause complete leakage of 6-carboxyfluorescein entrapped in small unilamellar vesicles of egg lecithin under nonhydrolytic conditions. Similarly, only this latter palmitoylphospholipase A2 completely hydrolyzed all lecithin in the outer monolayer of the human erythrocyte at a rate much faster than Naja naja phospholipase A2, the most powerful penetrating snake venom enzyme presently known.

  11. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed electromagnets only. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  12. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed only electromagnets. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  13. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  14. On High Dimensional Searching Spaces and Learning Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Choros, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    , and similarity functions and discuss the pros and cons of using each of them. Conventional similarity functions evaluate objects in the vector space. Contrarily, Weighted Feature Distance (WFD) functions compare data objects in both feature and vector spaces, preventing the system from being affected by some...

  15. Space qualification of high capacity grooved heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M; Mullender, B; Druart, J [SABCA, Societe Anomyme Belgel de Construction Aeronautique (Belgium); Supper, W; Beddows, A [ESTEC-The (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Based on the thermal requirements of the future telecommunication satellites, the development of a High Capacity Grooved Heat Pipe (HPG), was contracted by ESA to SABCA leading to an aluminium extruded heat pipe (outer diameter of 25 mm) based on a multi re-entrant grooves design. After an intensive acceptance test campaign whose results showed a good confidence in the design and the fulfillment of the required specifications of heat transport and on tilt capability (experimental maximum heat transport capability of 1500 Watt metres for a vapour temperature of 20 deg C), similar heat pipes have been developed with various outer diameters (11 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm) and with various shapes (circular outer shapes, integrated saddles). Several of these heat pipes were tested during two parabolic flight campaigns, by varying the heat loads during the micro-gravity periods. This HGP heat pipe family is now being submitted to a space qualification program according to ESA standards (ESA PSS-49), both in straight and bent configuration. Within this qualification, the heat pipes are submitted to an extended test campaign including environmental (random/sinus vibration, constant acceleration) and thermal tests (thermal performance, thermal cycle, thermal soak, ageing). (authors) 9 refs.

  16. Space qualification of high capacity grooved heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.; Mullender, B.; Druart, J. [SABCA, Societe Anomyme Belgel de Construction Aeronautique (Belgium); Supper, W.; Beddows, A. [ESTEC-The (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the thermal requirements of the future telecommunication satellites, the development of a High Capacity Grooved Heat Pipe (HPG), was contracted by ESA to SABCA leading to an aluminium extruded heat pipe (outer diameter of 25 mm) based on a multi re-entrant grooves design. After an intensive acceptance test campaign whose results showed a good confidence in the design and the fulfillment of the required specifications of heat transport and on tilt capability (experimental maximum heat transport capability of 1500 Watt metres for a vapour temperature of 20 deg C), similar heat pipes have been developed with various outer diameters (11 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm) and with various shapes (circular outer shapes, integrated saddles). Several of these heat pipes were tested during two parabolic flight campaigns, by varying the heat loads during the micro-gravity periods. This HGP heat pipe family is now being submitted to a space qualification program according to ESA standards (ESA PSS-49), both in straight and bent configuration. Within this qualification, the heat pipes are submitted to an extended test campaign including environmental (random/sinus vibration, constant acceleration) and thermal tests (thermal performance, thermal cycle, thermal soak, ageing). (authors) 9 refs.

  17. Effects of space weather on high-latitude ground systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Risto

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological systems, such as power grids, pipelines, cables and railways, are a ground manifestation of space weather. The first GIC observations were already made in early telegraph equipment more than 150 years ago. In power networks, GIC may saturate transformers with possible harmful consequences extending even to a collapse of the whole system or to permanent damage of transformers. In pipelines, GIC and the associated pipe-to-soil voltages may enhance corrosion or disturb surveys associated with corrosion control. GIC are driven by the geoelectric field induced by a geomagnetic variation at the Earth’s surface. The electric and magnetic fields are primarily produced by ionospheric currents and secondarily affected by the ground conductivity. Of great importance is the auroral electrojet with other rapidly varying currents indicating that GIC are a particular high-latitude problem. In this paper, we summarize the GIC research done in Finland during about 25 years, and discuss the calculation of GIC in a given network. Special attention is paid to modelling a power system. It is shown that, when considering GIC at a site, it is usually sufficient to take account for a smaller grid in the vicinity of the particular site. Modelling GIC also provides a basis for developing forecasting and warning methods of GIC.

  18. The literary uses of high-dimensional space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Underwood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Debates over “Big Data” shed more heat than light in the humanities, because the term ascribes new importance to statistical methods without explaining how those methods have changed. What we badly need instead is a conversation about the substantive innovations that have made statistical modeling useful for disciplines where, in the past, it truly wasn’t. These innovations are partly technical, but more fundamentally expressed in what Leo Breiman calls a new “culture” of statistical modeling. Where 20th-century methods often required humanists to squeeze our unstructured texts, sounds, or images into some special-purpose data model, new methods can handle unstructured evidence more directly by modeling it in a high-dimensional space. This opens a range of research opportunities that humanists have barely begun to discuss. To date, topic modeling has received most attention, but in the long run, supervised predictive models may be even more important. I sketch their potential by describing how Jordan Sellers and I have begun to model poetic distinction in the long 19th century—revealing an arc of gradual change much longer than received literary histories would lead us to expect.

  19. Penetrators for delivering Scientific equipment to minor bodies by flying-pass missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Martynov, Maxim; Pichkhadze, Konstantin M.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Sysoev, Valentin

    Many space missions are planned to have close encounters with Solar system minor bodies as a pass-fly. Short time of such close encounters were effectively used for photographing of these bodies, i.e. for distant investigations only because of large velocities of the encounter. We propose to use high-velocity penetrators to provide contact investigations of the minor bodies in situ. These devices were designed by Lavochkin Association for lunar missions. They were designed for long lived scientific equipment to be placed under surface up to depth 2...3 m. Penetrators could survive under 500 g shock, so the contact velocity was from 90 to 250 m/s, so each of them had booster engine to decelerate orbital velocity. As flying-pass velocity near minor body can be more then 10 km/s, penetrators would hit target at speed above 1 km/s and successfully bear 1500 g. To do so we propose to fulfill whole internal space inside penetrator with distilled water and froze it to temperature - 80°C or lower. At this temperature water ice is as hard as steel, so penetrator will plunge into target like armour-piercing shell. After landing protective ice will be evaporated (particularly due to heating from collision) and all sensitive mechanics will be set free.

  20. Benchmarking of 3D space charge codes using direct phase space measurements from photoemission high voltage dc gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Bazarov

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between space charge calculations and direct measurements of the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron bunches from a high voltage dc photoemission gun followed by an emittance compensation solenoid magnet. The measurements were performed using a double-slit emittance measurement system over a range of bunch charge and solenoid current values. The data are compared with detailed simulations using the 3D space charge codes GPT and Parmela3D. The initial particle distributions were generated from measured transverse and temporal laser beam profiles at the photocathode. The beam brightness as a function of beam fraction is calculated for the measured phase space maps and found to approach within a factor of 2 the theoretical maximum set by the thermal energy and the accelerating field at the photocathode.

  1. Penetrance of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 families : high cancer incidence at older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Dorina M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Leegte, Beike K.; Schaapveld, Michael; Mourits, Marian J. E.; de Vries, J; van der Hout, Annemieke H.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.

    Accurate estimations of lifetime risks of breast and ovarian cancer are crucial for counselling women from BRCA1/2 families. We therefore determined breast and ovarian cancer penetrance in BRCA1/2 mutation families in the northern Netherlands and compared them with the incidence of cancers in the

  2. Extremely High Suction Performance Inducers for Space Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation provides a way to design low flow coefficient inducers that have higher cavitation breakdown margin, larger blade angles, thicker more...

  3. Development Of Very-High-Strength and High-Performance Concrete Materials for Improvement of Barriers Against Blast and Projectile Penetration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neill, E. F., III; Cummins, T. K; Durst, B. P; Kinnebrew, P. G; Boone, R. N; Torres, R. X

    2004-01-01

    .... S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) is developing several high-performance concretes to mitigate the effects of blast and ballistic threats from conventional and asymmetric weapons...

  4. Space Link Extension Protocol Emulation for High-Throughput, High-Latency Network Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchorowski, Nicole; Murawski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    New space missions require higher data rates and new protocols to meet these requirements. These high data rate space communication links push the limitations of not only the space communication links, but of the ground communication networks and protocols which forward user data to remote ground stations (GS) for transmission. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, (CCSDS) Space Link Extension (SLE) standard protocol is one protocol that has been proposed for use by the NASA Space Network (SN) Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) program. New protocol implementations must be carefully tested to ensure that they provide the required functionality, especially because of the remote nature of spacecraft. The SLE protocol standard has been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center's SCENIC Emulation Lab in order to observe its operation under realistic network delay conditions. More specifically, the delay between then NASA Integrated Services Network (NISN) and spacecraft has been emulated. The round trip time (RTT) delay for the continental NISN network has been shown to be up to 120ms; as such the SLE protocol was tested with network delays ranging from 0ms to 200ms. Both a base network condition and an SLE connection were tested with these RTT delays, and the reaction of both network tests to the delay conditions were recorded. Throughput for both of these links was set at 1.2Gbps. The results will show that, in the presence of realistic network delay, the SLE link throughput is significantly reduced while the base network throughput however remained at the 1.2Gbps specification. The decrease in SLE throughput has been attributed to the implementation's use of blocking calls. The decrease in throughput is not acceptable for high data rate links, as the link requires constant data a flow in order for spacecraft and ground radios to stay synchronized, unless significant data is queued a the ground station. In cases where queuing the data is not an option

  5. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  6. Python penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  7. Operating methods to remove the excess of penetrant in surface. Preponderant and characteristic part of water for water washable penetrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubosc, P.

    1985-01-01

    Penetrant use for quality control, although very well known (nuclear, space industries, offshore platforms) is often poorly practiced. This is largely due to a lack of understanding by the users the way that the different components of the system (penetrants, solvents, emulsifiers, and developers) function. In this talk, we shall explain a particular characteristic that the manufacturers of reputable penetrant seek to build into their water washable penetrants. It is a viscosity curve which has the function of keeping water in a well defined form. We show why the form of the curve is crucial, which reaction between water and penetrant it corresponds to, and we deduce the practical consequences of bringing into play procedures for removing excess penetrant with or without water [fr

  8. A modified space charge routine for high intensity bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.; Lombardi, A.M.; Tanke, E.; Valero, S.; Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    A new routine and a computer code (DYNAC) for the calculation of space charge densities in a new generation of linear accelerators for various industrial applications is presented. The new beam dynamics method used in this code, employs a set of quasi-Liouvillian equations, allowing beam dynamics computations in long and complex structures for electrons, as well as protons and ions. With this new beam dynamics method, the coordinates of particles are known at any position in the accelerating elements, allowing multistep space charge calculations. (K.A.)

  9. High density storage of antimatter for space propulsion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Gerald A.; Coughlin, Dan P.

    2001-01-01

    The specific energy of antimatter is 180 MJ/μg, making it the largest specific energy density material known to humankind. Three challenges remain to be solved for space propulsion applications: first, sufficient amounts must be made to permit missions into deep space; second, efficient methods must be found to turn the antimatter into thrust and Isp; and third, the antimatter must be stored for long periods of time. This paper addresses the third issue. We discuss conventional (electromagnetic) methods of confining antimatter, as well as unconventional concepts, including the use of quantum effects in materials and antimatter chemistry

  10. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  11. High Penetration Photovoltaic Power Electronics and Energy Management Technology Research, Development and Demonstration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-517

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudgins, Andrew P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-25

    Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., will partner with DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct research and development to demonstrate technologies that will increase the penetration of photovoltaic (PV) technologies for commercial and utility applications. Standard PV power control systems use simple control techniques that only provide real power to the grid. A focus of this partnership is to demonstrate how state of the art control and power electronic technologies can be combined to create a utility interactive control platform.

  12. Space station high gain antenna concept definition and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    The layout of a technology base is reported from which a mechanically gimballed, directional antenna can be developed to support a manned space station proposed for the late 1970's. The effort includes the concept definition for the antenna assembly, an evaluation of available technology, the design of critical subassemblies and the design of critical subassembly tests.

  13. Aspects of high-dimensional theories in embedding spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.; Mecklenburg, W.

    1983-01-01

    The question of whether physical meaning may be attributed to the extra dimensions provided by embedding procedures as applied to physical space-times is discussed. The similarities and differences of the present picture to that of conventional Kaluza-Klein pictures are commented. (Author) [pt

  14. High-resolution methods for fluorescence retrieval from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzoni, M.; Falorni, P.; Verhoef, W.

    2010-01-01

    The retrieval from space of a very weak fluorescence signal was studied in the O2A and O2B oxygen atmospheric absorption bands. The accuracy of the method was tested for the retrieval of the chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance terms contributing to the sensor signal. The radiance at the top of

  15. Innovative Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for High Accuracy Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future science and exploratory missions will require much lighter, smaller, and longer life rate sensors that can provide high accuracy navigational...

  16. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  17. Study of Penetration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    srecimens fabricated at the AFATL, AISI-01 oil quenched bar stock was used. Three of the projectiles used in the Eglin penetration experiments are shown...in the Mathema- tical Laboratory at Eglin AFB, is essencially a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method for solving simultaneous differential...C9G. VEL. X-COMPo (M4/5): d!10. I oil 140. 107. 82. RmCC~kr’ED TIME OF MAXIftjM/MINIM94U COIL VOLTAGE tSI MAX 0040 A 55 *.03J04A 0 0 05ji6 .000634 MIN

  18. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  19. High and Mighty: Implicit Associations between Space and Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-10

    manipulated space at both small and large scales, from footwear to city planning, to convey social sta- tus (Hodder, 1987; Bourdieu , 1989; Margolies, 2003...posit that associ- ations between abstract concepts and physical percepts develop in response to everyday experiences (e.g., Hebb, 1949; Bourdieu ...The United States Capitol building was intentionally placed atop Jenkin’s Hill, described by the original architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant as a

  20. Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Due to High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in Electric Grid Systems Using Three-Phase APF/STATCOM Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajahat Ullah Khan Tareen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes an analytical review on the comparison of three-phase static compensator (STATCOM and active power filter (APF inverter topologies and their control schemes using industrial standards and advanced high-power configurations. Transformerless and reduced switch count topologies are the leading technologies in power electronics that aim to reduce system cost and offer the additional benefits of small volumetric size, lightweight and compact structure, and high reliability. A detailed comparison of the topologies, control strategies and implementation structures of grid-connected high-power converters is presented. However, reducing the number of power semiconductor devices, sensors, and control circuits requires complex control strategies. This study focuses on different topological devices, namely, passive filters, shunt and hybrid filters, and STATCOMs, which are typically used for power quality improvement. Additionally, appropriate control schemes, such as sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM and space vector PWM techniques, are selected. According to recent developments in shunt APF/STATCOM inverters, simulation and experimental results prove the effectiveness of APF/STATCOM systems for harmonic mitigation based on the defined limit in IEEE-519.

  1. Fractal space frames and metamaterials for high mechanical efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, R. S.; Mao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    A solid slender beam of length $L$, made from a material of Young's modulus $Y$ and subject to a gentle compressive force $F$, requires a volume of material proportional to $L^{3}f^{1/2}$ [where $f\\equiv F/(YL^{2})\\ll 1$] in order to be stable against Euler buckling. By constructing a hierarchical space frame, we are able to systematically change the scaling of required material with $f$ so that it is proportional to $L^{3}f^{(G+1)/(G+2)}$, through changing the number of hierarchical levels $...

  2. High-Speed Data Recorder for Space, Geodesy, and Other High-Speed Recording Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveniku, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed data recorder and replay equipment has been developed for reliable high-data-rate recording to disk media. It solves problems with slow or faulty disks, multiple disk insertions, high-altitude operation, reliable performance using COTS hardware, and long-term maintenance and upgrade path challenges. The current generation data recor - ders used within the VLBI community are aging, special-purpose machines that are both slow (do not meet today's requirements) and are very expensive to maintain and operate. Furthermore, they are not easily upgraded to take advantage of commercial technology development, and are not scalable to multiple 10s of Gbit/s data rates required by new applications. The innovation provides a softwaredefined, high-speed data recorder that is scalable with technology advances in the commercial space. It maximally utilizes current technologies without being locked to a particular hardware platform. The innovation also provides a cost-effective way of streaming large amounts of data from sensors to disk, enabling many applications to store raw sensor data and perform post and signal processing offline. This recording system will be applicable to many applications needing realworld, high-speed data collection, including electronic warfare, softwaredefined radar, signal history storage of multispectral sensors, development of autonomous vehicles, and more.

  3. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  4. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  5. Innovative Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for High Accuracy Space Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to develop a compact, highly innovative Inertial Reference/Measurement Unit (IRU/IMU) that pushes the state-of-the-art in high accuracy performance...

  6. New approach to 3-D, high sensitivity, high mass resolution space plasma composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of 3-D space plasma composition analyzer. The design combines high sensitivity, high mass resolution measurements with somewhat lower mass resolution but even higher sensitivity measurements in a single compact and robust design. While the lower resolution plasma measurements are achieved using conventional straight-through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions reflected in a linear electric field (LEF), where the restoring force that an ion experiences is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region. Consequently, the ion's equation of motion in that dimension is that of a simple harmonic oscillator and its travel time is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). While in an ideal LEF, the m/q resolution can be arbitrarily high, in a real device the resolution is limited by the field linearity which can be achieved. In this paper we describe how a nearly linear field can be produced and discuss how the design can be optimized for various different plasma regimes and spacecraft configurations

  7. High-Efficiency, High-Power Laser Transmitter for Deep-Space Communication, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is demand for vastly improved deep space satellite communications links. As data rates dramatically increase due to new sensor technologies and the desire to...

  8. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  9. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  10. Penetrating chest injury: A miraculous life salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh B Dalavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual penetrating chest injury was caused by high velocity road traffic accident. An 18-year-old had a four wheeler accident and was brought in emergency department with a ′bamboo′ stick on the left side chest exiting through back. After the stabilization of vital parameters, an inter-costal tube drainage was done on the left side. Except the minor brochopleural fistula which healed by 10 th day, his recovery was uneventful. The outcome was consistent with current aggressive management of penetrating chest injuries. Management of penetrating chest injury involving pulmonary trauma is based on three principles. One is stabilization of hemodynamics of patient with proper clinical evaluation. Second, a mere intercostal tube drainage sufficient for majority of the cases. Third, post-operative active as well as passive physiotherapy is necessary for speedy recovery.

  11. Variable kernel density estimation in high-dimensional feature spaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, Christiaan M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the joint probability density function of a dataset is a central task in many machine learning applications. In this work we address the fundamental problem of kernel bandwidth estimation for variable kernel density estimation in high...

  12. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly

  13. Influence of fillers on hydrogen penetration properties and blister fracture of rubber composites for O-ring exposed to high-pressure hydrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamabe, Junichiro; Nishimura, Shin [Department of Mechanical Science Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage (HYDROGENIUS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) composites having carbon black, silica, and no fillers were exposed to hydrogen gas at a maximum pressure of 10 MPa; then, blister tests and the measurement of hydrogen content were conducted. The hydrogen contents of the composites were proportional to the hydrogen pressure, i.e., the behavior of their hydrogen contents follows Henry's law. This implies that hydrogen penetrates into the composite as a hydrogen molecule. The addition of carbon black raised the hydrogen content of the composite, while the addition of silica did not. Based on observations, the blister damages of composites with silica were less pronounced, irrespective of the hydrogen pressures. This may be attributed to their lower hydrogen content and relatively better tensile properties than the others. (author)

  14. Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, R. W.; Tomboulian, B. N.; Crave, Paul D.; Rogers, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    For high-power nuclear-electric spacecraft, the radiator can account for 40% or more of the power system mass and a large fraction of the total vehicle mass. Improvements in the heat rejection per unit mass rely on lower-density and higher-thermal conductivity materials. Current radiators achieve near-ideal surface radiation through high-emissivity coatings, so improvements in heat rejection per unit area can be accomplished only by raising the temperature at which heat is rejected. We have been investigating materials that have the potential to deliver significant reductions in mass density and significant improvements in thermal conductivity, while expanding the feasible range of temperature for heat rejection up to 1000 K and higher. The presentation will discuss the experimental results and models of the heat transfer in matrix-free carbon fiber fins. Thermal testing of other carbon-based fin materials including carbon nanotube cloth and a carbon nanotube composite will also be presented.

  15. The penetrating depth analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard Chang’e-3 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shu-Guo; Su, Yan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Ding, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Lai

    2017-04-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) has successfully been used to acquire a large amount of scientific data during its in-situ detection. The analysis of penetrating depth can help to determine whether the target is within the effective detection range and contribute to distinguishing useful echoes from noise. First, this study introduces two traditional methods, both based on a radar transmission equation, to calculate the penetrating depth. The only difference between the two methods is that the first method adopts system calibration parameters given in the calibration report and the second one uses high-voltage-off radar data. However, some prior knowledge and assumptions are needed in the radar equation and the accuracy of assumptions will directly influence the final results. Therefore, a new method termed the Correlation Coefficient Method (CCM) is provided in this study, which is only based on radar data without any a priori assumptions. The CCM can obtain the penetrating depth according to the different correlation between reflected echoes and noise. To be exact, there is a strong correlation in the useful reflected echoes and a random correlation in the noise between adjacent data traces. In addition, this method can acquire a variable penetrating depth along the profile of the rover, but only one single depth value can be obtained from traditional methods. Through a simulation, the CCM has been verified as an effective method to obtain penetration depth. The comparisons and analysis of the calculation results of these three methods are also implemented in this study. Finally, results show that the ultimate penetrating depth of Channel 1 and the estimated penetrating depth of Channel 2 range from 136.9 m to 165.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=6.6) and from 13.0 m to 17.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=2.3), respectively.

  16. High efficiency thin-film solar cells for space applications: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leest, R.H. van

    2017-01-01

    In theory high efficiency thin-film III-V solar cells obtained by the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique offer excellent characteristics for application in space solar panels. The thesis describes several studies that investigate the space compatibility of the thin-film solar cell design developed

  17. A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high-energy x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; WESTERGAARD, NJ

    1992-01-01

    A high energy telescope design is presented which combines grazing incidence geometry with Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multilayer coating to obtain significant sensitivity up to --6O keV. The concept utilizes total reflection and first order Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multi...

  18. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  19. Development Of The Nuclear Optical Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.; Koike, K.; Imada, Y.

    1984-10-01

    We have developed the nuclear optical penetration to be incorporated in the wall penetration of the shell to introduce a data transmission system using optical fibers into a nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor. Radiation-induced coloration in optical glass seriously affects transmission characteristics of optical fibers, whereas it has been revealed that the pure-silica core optical fiber without any dopant in the core has wide applicability in radiation fields thanks to its very low radiation-induced attenuation. The wall penetration of the shell should have airtightness and resistivity to heat, vibration, and pressure, let alone radiation, excellent enough to be invariable in data transmission efficiency even when subjected to severe environmental tests. The sealing modules of this newly developed nuclear optical penetration are hermetically sealed. The gap between the optical fiber rod (100 pm in core diameter and 5 mm in rod diameter) and stainless steel tube is sealed with lamingted glass layer. As the result of He gas leakage test, high airtightness of less than 10 cc/sec was achieved. No thermal deformation of the core was caused by sealing with laminated glass layer, nor was observed transmission loss. Then the sealiing modules were subjected to the irradiation test using 60 Co gamma ray exposure of 2 x 10 rads. Though silica glass layer supporting the fiber rod and sealing glass portion turned blackish purple, transparency of the fiber was not affected. Only less than 0.5 dB of connecting loss was observed at the connecting point with the optical fiber cable. The sealing modules were also found to have resistivity to vibration and pressure as excellent as that of existing nuclear electric penetrations. We expect the nuclear optical fiber penetration will be much effective in improving reliability of data transmission systems using optical fibers in radiation fields.

  20. Data analysis in high-dimensional sparse spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    classification techniques for high-dimensional problems are presented: Sparse discriminant analysis, sparse mixture discriminant analysis and orthogonality constrained support vector machines. The first two introduces sparseness to the well known linear and mixture discriminant analysis and thereby provide low...... are applied to classifications of fish species, ear canal impressions used in the hearing aid industry, microbiological fungi species, and various cancerous tissues and healthy tissues. In addition, novel applications of sparse regressions (also called the elastic net) to the medical, concrete, and food...

  1. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  2. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  3. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, P.M. (Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Power Sources Center, Horsham, PA (United States))

    1993-03-15

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thinoyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings (>40%) over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, (CoPC)[sub n], into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Finally, the results of testing a complete prototype battery are described in detail. (orig.)

  4. A comparison of base deficit and vital signs in the early assessment of patients with penetrating trauma in a high burden setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Mark Peter; Sartorius, Benn; Laing, Grant Llewellyn; Bruce, John Lambert; Clarke, Damian Luiz

    2017-09-01

    An assessment of physiological status is a key step in the early assessment of trauma patients with implications for triage, investigation and management. This has traditionally been done using vital signs. Previous work from large European trauma datasets has suggested that base deficit (BD) predicts clinically important outcomes better than vital signs (VS). A BD derived classification of haemorrhagic shock appeared superior to one based on VS derived from ATLS criteria in a population of predominantly blunt trauma patients. The initial aim of this study was to see if this observation would be reproduced in penetrating trauma patients. The power of each individual variable (BD, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), shock index(SI) (HR/SBP) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS)) to predict mortality was then also compared. A retrospective analysis of adult trauma patients presenting to the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service was performed. Patients were classified into four "shock" groups using VS or BD and the outcomes compared. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were then generated to compare the predictive power for mortality of each individual variable. 1863 patients were identified. The overall mortality rate was 2.1%. When classified by BD, HR rose and SBP fell as the "shock class" increased but not to the degree suggested by the ATLS classification. The BD classification of haemorrhagic shock appeared to predict mortality better than that based on the ATLS criteria. Mortality increased from 0.2% (Class 1) to 19.7% (Class 4) based on the 4 level BD classification. Mortality increased from 0.3% (Class 1) to 12.6% (Class 4) when classified based by VS. Area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve analysis of the individual variables demonstrated that BD predicted mortality significantly better than HR, GCS, SBP and SI. AUROC curve (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) for BD was 0.90 (0.85-0.95) compared to HR 0

  5. Status of High Data Rate Intersatellite Laser Communication as an Enabler for Earth and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, F.; Zech, H.; Motzigemba, M.

    2017-12-01

    Space based laser communication is supporting earth observation and science missions with Gbps data download capabilities. Currently the Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 spacecrafts from the Copernicus earth observation program of the European Commission are using the Gbps laser communication links developed by Tesat Spacecom to download low latency data products via a commercial geostationary laser relay station- the European Data Relay Service- (EDRS) as a standard data path, in parallel to the conventional radio frequency links. The paper reports on the status of high bandwidth space laser communication as an enabler for small and large space science missions ranging from cube sat applications in low earth orbit to deep space missions. Space based laser communication has left the experimental phase and will support space science missions with unprecedented data rates.

  6. Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Kevin B.

    1986-01-01

    The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.

  7. Ultra-Lightweight High Efficiency Nanostructured Materials and Coatings for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has developed a nanostructured spray self-assembly manufacturing method that has resulted in ultra-lightweight ( 1000%), and multi-layer, high efficiency...

  8. High Resolution, Radiation Tolerant Focal Plane Array for Lunar And Deep Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerius Photonics and its partners propose the development of a high resolution, radiation hardened 3-D FLASH Focal Plane Array (FPA), with performance expected to be...

  9. High Power (50W) WDM Space Lasercom 1.5um Fiber Laser Transmitter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to develop and demonstrate a spaceflight prototype of a wideband, high power (up to 50W), polarization maintaining (PM), 1.5-um fiber laser...

  10. Highly Efficient Closed-Loop CO2 Removal System for Deep-Space ECLSS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research Inc.(TDA) in collaboration with University of Puerto Rico ? Mayaguez (UPRM is proposing to develop a highly efficient CO2 removal system based on UPRM...

  11. High-Speed Fiber Optic Micromultiplexer for Space and Airborne Lidar, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for high-speed fiber optic multiplexers for next generation lidar systems, Luminit proposes to develop a new Fiber...

  12. Efficient and accurate nearest neighbor and closest pair search in high-dimensional space

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei; Yi, Ke; Sheng, Cheng; Kalnis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Nearest Neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. From the database perspective, a good solution needs to have two properties: (i) it can be easily incorporated in a relational database, and (ii

  13. A theory of ionospheric dynamo for complete model of terrestrial space at high and medium latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanyan, Yu.S.

    1992-01-01

    A multi-layer model of terrestrial cosmic space at high and medium latitudes is considered in the approximation of infinite conductivity of the Earth taking into account the ambipolar diffusion processes in upper layers of ionosphere. 14 refs

  14. High performance lithium sulfur battery with novel separator membrane for space applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's human and robotic mission, the battery with extremely high specific energy (>500 Wh/kg) and long cycle life are urgently sought after in order to...

  15. Dynamical evolution of space debris on high-elliptical orbits near high-order resonance zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Eduard; Zakharova, Polina

    Orbital evolution of objects on Molniya-type orbits is considered near high-order resonance zones. Initial conditions correspond to high-elliptical orbits with the critical inclination 63.4 degrees. High-order resonances are analyzed. Resonance orders are more than 5 and less than 50. Frequencies of perturbations caused by the effect of sectorial and tesseral harmonics of the Earth's gravitational potential are linear combinations of the mean motion of a satellite, angular velocities of motion of the pericenter and node of its orbit, and the angular velocity of the Earth. Frequencies of perturbations were calculated by taking into account secular perturbations from the Earth oblateness, the Moon, the Sun, and a solar radiation pressure. Resonance splitting effect leads to three sub-resonances. The study of dynamical evolution on long time intervals was performed on the basis of the results of numerical simulation. We used "A Numerical Model of the Motion of Artificial Earth's Satellites", developed by the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of the Tomsk State University. The model of disturbing forces taken into account the main perturbing factors: the gravitational field of the Earth, the attraction of the Moon and the Sun, the tides in the Earth’s body, the solar radiation pressure, taking into account the shadow of the Earth, the Poynting-Robertson effect, and the atmospheric drag. Area-to-mass ratio varied from small values corresponding to satellites to big ones corresponding to space debris. The locations and sizes of resonance zones were refined from numerical simulation. The Poynting-Robertson effect results in a secular decrease in the semi-major axis of a spherically symmetrical satellite. In resonance regions the effect weakens slightly. Reliable estimates of secular perturbations of the semi-major axis were obtained from the numerical simulation. Under the Poynting-Robertson effect objects pass through the regions of high

  16. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  17. Applications and Innovations for Use of High Definition and High Resolution Digital Motion Imagery in Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    The first live High Definition Television (HDTV) from a spacecraft was in November, 2006, nearly ten years before the 2016 SpaceOps Conference. Much has changed since then. Now, live HDTV from the International Space Station (ISS) is routine. HDTV cameras stream live video views of the Earth from the exterior of the ISS every day on UStream, and HDTV has even flown around the Moon on a Japanese Space Agency spacecraft. A great deal has been learned about the operations applicability of HDTV and high resolution imagery since that first live broadcast. This paper will discuss the current state of real-time and file based HDTV and higher resolution video for space operations. A potential roadmap will be provided for further development and innovations of high-resolution digital motion imagery, including gaps in technology enablers, especially for deep space and unmanned missions. Specific topics to be covered in the paper will include: An update on radiation tolerance and performance of various camera types and sensors and ramifications on the future applicability of these types of cameras for space operations; Practical experience with downlinking very large imagery files with breaks in link coverage; Ramifications of larger camera resolutions like Ultra-High Definition, 6,000 [pixels] and 8,000 [pixels] in space applications; Enabling technologies such as the High Efficiency Video Codec, Bundle Streaming Delay Tolerant Networking, Optical Communications and Bayer Pattern Sensors and other similar innovations; Likely future operations scenarios for deep space missions with extreme latency and intermittent communications links.

  18. Toward biotechnology in space: High-throughput instruments for in situ biological research beyond Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kianoosh; Pohorille, Andrew

    2017-11-15

    Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. A number of on-going efforts are aimed at developing instruments to carry out "omics" research in space, in particular on board the International Space Station and small satellites. For space applications these instruments require substantial and creative reengineering that includes automation, miniaturization and ensuring that the device is resistant to conditions in space and works independently of the direction of the gravity vector. Different paths taken to meet these requirements for different "omics" instruments are the subjects of this review. The advantages and disadvantages of these instruments and technological solutions and their level of readiness for deployment in space are discussed. Considering that effects of space environments on terrestrial organisms appear to be global, it is argued that high throughput instruments are essential to advance (1) biomedical and physiological studies to control and reduce space-related stressors on living systems, (2) application of biology to life support and in situ resource utilization, (3) planetary protection, and (4) basic research about the limits on life in space. It is also argued that carrying out measurements in situ provides considerable advantages over the traditional space biology paradigm that relies on post-flight data analysis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Research of narrow pulse width, high repetition rate, high output power fiber lasers for deep space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-feng; Li, Hong-zuo; Wang, Yan; Hao, Zi-qiang; Xiao, Dong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    As human beings expand the research in unknown areas constantly, the deep space exploration has become a hot research topic all over the world. According to the long distance and large amount of information transmission characteristics of deep space exploration, the space laser communication is the preferred mode because it has the advantages of concentrated energy, good security, and large information capacity and interference immunity. In a variety of laser source, fibre-optical pulse laser has become an important communication source in deep space laser communication system because of its small size, light weight and large power. For fiber lasers, to solve the contradiction between the high repetition rate and the peak value power is an important scientific problem. General Q technology is difficult to obtain a shorter pulse widths, This paper presents a DFB semiconductor laser integrated with Electro-absorption modulator to realize the narrow pulse width, high repetition rate of the seed source, and then using a two-cascaded high gain fiber amplifier as amplification mean, to realize the fibre-optical pulse laser with pulse width 3ns, pulse frequency 200kHz and peak power 1kW. According to the space laser atmospheric transmission window, the wavelength selects for 1.06um. It is adopted that full fibre technology to make seed source and amplification, pumping source and amplification of free-space coupled into fiber-coupled way. It can overcome that fibre lasers are vulnerable to changes in external conditions such as vibration, temperature drift and other factors affect, improving long-term stability. The fiber lasers can be modulated by PPM mode, to realize high rate modulation, because of its peak power, high transmission rate, narrow pulse width, high frequency stability, all technical indexes meet the requirements of the exploration of deep space communication technology.

  20. Very high temperature chemistry: Science justification for containerless experimentation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, William H.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the justification for application of containerless processing in space to high temperature science. Low earth orbit offers a gravitational environment that allows samples to be positioned in an experimental apparatus by very small forces. Well controlled experiments become possible on reactive materials at high temperatures in a reasonably quiescent state and without container contamination. This provides an opportunity to advance the science of high temperature chemistry that can only be realized with a commitment by NASA to provide advanced facilities for in-space containerless study of materials at very high temperature.

  1. Dried Colony in Cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 — Several high Space Environment Tolerances for ``Tanpopo'' Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Kimura, S.; Kimura, Y.; Igarashi, Y.; Ajioka, R.; Sato, S.; Katoh, H.; Baba, K.

    2013-11-01

    A cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01, has high several space environmental tolerance. Nostoc sp HK-01 would have high contribution for the “Tanpopo” mission in Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station.

  2. Preparation of All-Ceramic, High Performance Li-ion Batteries for Deep Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium (Li) ion batteries are among the most promising power sources for many civilian, military and space applications due to their high power and high energy...

  3. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Soil Penetration Resistance of Recultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadorozhnaya Galina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines changes in the spatial distribution of soil penetration resistance in ordinary chernozem (Calcic Chernozem and in the recultivated soil in 2012 and 2014. The measurements were carried out in the field using an Eijkelkamp penetrometer on a regular grid. The depth of measurement was 50 cm, the interval was 5 cm. The indices of variation of soil penetration resistance in space and time have been determined. The degree of spatial dependence of soil penetration resistance has been determined layer by layer. The nature of temporal dynamics of soil penetration resistance of chernozem and technical soil has been described. A significant positive relationship of the structure of chernozem in the two years of the research has been shown. Significant correlations between the data of different years in the technical soil were found to be mostly negative.

  4. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  5. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Space-charge compensation of highly charged ion beam from laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashev, S.A.; Collier, J.; Sherwood, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of matching an ion beam delivered by a high-intensity ion source with an accelerator is considered. The experimental results of highly charged ion beam transport with space-charge compensation by electrons are presented. A tungsten thermionic cathode is used as a source of electrons for beam compensation. An increase of ion beam current density by a factor of 25 is obtained as a result of space-charge compensation at a distance of 3 m from the extraction system. The process of ion beam space-charge compensation, requirements for a source of electrons, and the influence of recombination losses in a space-charge-compensated ion beam are discussed. (author)

  7. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  8. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography...... information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI...

  9. In-situ investigations of structural changes during cyclic loading by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika M.; Thiel, Felix; Lienert, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    dislocation structures can be identified using advanced electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques. A detailed characterization of the microstructure during cyclic loading by in-situ monitoring the internal structure within individual grains with high energy x-rays can help to understand and predict...... the materials behavior during cyclic deformation and to improve the material design. While monitoring macroscopic stress and strain during cyclic loading, reciprocal space maps of diffraction peaks from single grains are obtained with high resolution. High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping was applied...

  10. Experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center is described. A sensory evaluation of the high density foods was conducted first to test the acceptability of the products. A shelf-life study of the high density foods was also conducted for three different time lengths at three different temperatures. The nutritional analysis of the high density foods is at present incomplete.

  11. HMO penetration and the geographic mobility of practicing physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, D; Kletke, P R; Wozniak, G D; Escarce, J J

    2000-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of changes in health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration on the probability that established patient care physicians relocated their practices or left patient care altogether. For physicians who relocated their practices, we also assessed the impact of HMO penetration on their destination choices. We found that larger increases in HMO penetration decreased the probability that medical/surgical specialists in early career stayed in patient care in the same market, but had no impact on generalists, hospital-based specialists, or mid career medical/surgical specialists. We also found that physicians who relocated their practices were much more likely to choose destination markets with the same level of HMO penetration or lower HMO penetration compared with their origin markets than they were to choose destination markets with higher HMO penetration. The largely negligible impact of changes in HMO penetration on established physicians' decisions to relocate their practices or leave patient care is consistent with high relocation and switching costs. Relocating physicians' attraction to destination markets with the same level of HMO penetration as their origin markets suggests that, while physicians' styles of medical practice may adapt to changes in market conditions, learning new practice styles is costly.

  12. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  13. Large scale wind power penetration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    he Danish electricity generating system prepared to adopt nuclear power in the 1970s, yet has become the world's front runner in wind power with a national plan for 50% wind power penetration by 2020. This paper deploys a sociotechnical perspective to explain the historical transformation...... of "networks of power" via the interactions of politics, the techno-physics of electrons, and the market setting. The Danish case is about how an assemblage of new agencies has reorganized and reshaped society by building a new sociotechnical network. This has rendered developments highly unpredictable...... and highly experimental. The transformation process can be followed through the way successive technical engineering reports have represented the challenges associated with the penetration of wind power. The iteration shows how novel technical phenomena emerge and are assimilated, and how new engineering...

  14. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in Orange Farm Township. ... South African Journal of Education ... I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate ...

  15. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  16. Wavelet-space correlation imaging for high-speed MRI without motion monitoring or data segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wang, Hui; Tkach, Jean; Roach, David; Woods, Jason; Dumoulin, Charles

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to (i) develop a new high-speed MRI approach by implementing correlation imaging in wavelet-space, and (ii) demonstrate the ability of wavelet-space correlation imaging to image human anatomy with involuntary or physiological motion. Correlation imaging is a high-speed MRI framework in which image reconstruction relies on quantification of data correlation. The presented work integrates correlation imaging with a wavelet transform technique developed originally in the field of signal and image processing. This provides a new high-speed MRI approach to motion-free data collection without motion monitoring or data segmentation. The new approach, called "wavelet-space correlation imaging", is investigated in brain imaging with involuntary motion and chest imaging with free-breathing. Wavelet-space correlation imaging can exceed the speed limit of conventional parallel imaging methods. Using this approach with high acceleration factors (6 for brain MRI, 16 for cardiac MRI, and 8 for lung MRI), motion-free images can be generated in static brain MRI with involuntary motion and nonsegmented dynamic cardiac/lung MRI with free-breathing. Wavelet-space correlation imaging enables high-speed MRI in the presence of involuntary motion or physiological dynamics without motion monitoring or data segmentation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High Altitude Balloons as a Platform for Space Radiation Belt Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, L.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Johnson, W.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB)

    2011-12-01

    The goals of the University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons Program (UA-HAB) are to i) use low cost balloons to address space radiation science, and ii) to utilise the excitement of "space mission" involvement to promote and facilitate the recruitment of undergraduate and graduate students in physics, engineering, and atmospheric sciences to pursue careers in space science and engineering. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB) is a unique opportunity for University of Alberta students (undergraduate and graduate) to engage in the hands-on design, development, build, test and flight of a payload to operate on a high altitude balloon at around 30km altitude. The program development, including formal design and acceptance tests, reports and reviews, mirror those required in the development of an orbital satellite mission. This enables the students to gain a unique insight into how space missions are flown. UA-HAB is a one and half year program that offers a gateway into a high-altitude balloon mission through hands on experience, and builds skills for students who may be attracted to participate in future space missions in their careers. This early education will provide students with the experience necessary to better assess opportunities for pursuing a career in space science. Balloons offer a low-cost alternative to other suborbital platforms which can be used to address radiation belt science goals. In particular, the participants of this program have written grant proposal to secure funds for this project, have launched several 'weather balloon missions', and have designed, built, tested, and launched their particle detector called "Maple Leaf Particle Detector". This detector was focussed on monitoring cosmic rays and space radiation using shielded Geiger tubes, and was flown as one of the payloads from the institutions participating in the High Altitude Student Platform (HASP), organized by the Louisiana State University and the Louisiana

  18. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, "How do we know these meteorites are from Mars?" This question sets the stage for a three-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer "It's the chemistry of the rock", students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret real data, students realize that the research is an application of basic science concepts they should know, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes. They can understand the results without knowing how to do the research or operate the instruments.

  19. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Allen, J. S.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.; McReynolds, Julie; Porter, T. Todd; Veile, Jeri

    2005-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, "How do we know these meteorites are from Mars?" This question sets the stage for a six-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer "It's the chemistry of the rock", students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret authentic data, students realize that the research is an application of two basic science concepts taught in the classroom, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  20. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.; McReynolds, Julie; Porter, T. Todd; Veile, Jeri

    2004-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, How do we know these meteorites are from Mars? This question sets the stage for a six-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer It s the chemistry of the rock , students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret authentic data, students realize that the research is an application of two basic science concepts taught in the classroom, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes.

  1. The 1985 National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In 1985, a total of 126 talented high school students gained first hand knowledge about science and engineering careers by working directly with a NASA scientist or engineer during the summer. This marked the sixth year of operation for NASA's Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP). The major priority of maintaining the high standards and success of prior years was satisfied. The following eight sites participated in the Program: Ames Research Center, Ames' Dryden Flight Research Facility, Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard's Wallop Flight Facility, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. Tresp Associates served as the SHARP contractor and worked closely with NASA staff at headquarters and the sites just mentioned to plan, implement, and evaluate the program.

  2. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  3. Requirements for High Level Models Supporting Design Space Exploration in Model-based Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman, Steven P.; Bonnema, G. Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during detailed design. In this paper, we define requirements for a high level model that is firstly driven by key systems engineering challenges present in industry and secondly connects to several formal and d...

  4. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  5. Long-rod penetration: the transition zone between rigid and hydrodynamic penetration modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-feng Lou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-rod penetration in a wide range of velocity means that the initial impact velocity varies in a range from tens of meters per second to several kilometers per second. The long rods maintain rigid state when the impact velocity is low, the nose of rod deforms and even is blunted when the velocity gets higher, and the nose erodes and fails to lead to the consumption of long projectile when the velocity is very high due to instantaneous high pressure. That is, from low velocity to high velocity, the projectile undergoes rigid rods, deforming non-erosive rods, and erosive rods. Because of the complicated changes of the projectile, no well-established theoretical model and numerical simulation have been used to study the transition zone. Based on the analysis of penetration behavior in the transition zone, a phenomenological model to describe target resistance and a formula to calculate penetration depth in transition zone are proposed, and a method to obtain the boundary velocity of transition zone is determined. A combined theoretical analysis model for three response regions is built by analyzing the characteristics in these regions. The penetration depth predicted by this combined model is in good agreement with experimental result.

  6. Interpretation of Seismic Cone Penetration Testing in Silty Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    Five Seismic Cone Penetration Tests (SCPT) were conducted at a test site in northern Denmark where the subsoil consists primarily of sandy silt with clay bands. A portion of the test data were collected every 0.5 m to compare the efficacy of closely-spaced down-hole data collection on the computa...

  7. Ureteric transection secondary to penetrating handlebar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Debbink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ureteric trauma is rare, occurring in <1% of all traumas. We present a unique case of a 13 year old female who sustained a penetrating abdominal injury from a bicycle handlebar. Upon initial examination there was herniation of bowel through the abdominal wound, so exploratory laparotomy was performed. A serosal injury of the colon and bleeding mesenteric veins were encountered; the retroperitoneum was not explored at that time. Postoperative course was remarkable for a doubling of the serum creatinine, increasing abdominal distention and pain. Computed tomography on postoperative day five demonstrated a large amount of intra-abdominal fluid. The patient was taken for re-exploration. The left ureter was found to be completely transected. It was repaired over a double-J stent. This case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of ureteric injury. Keywords: Ureter, Bicycle, Handlebar, Penetrating

  8. Containment penetration design and analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Containment penetration designs which provide complete support to process piping containing high pressure and high temperature fluids and which do not employ cooling coils, require special provisions to sustain loadings associated with normal/abnormal conditions and to limit maximum temperature transmitted to the containment concrete wall. In order to accomodate piping loads and fluid temperatures within code and regulatory limitations, the containment penetration designs require careful analysis of two critical regions: 1) the portion of the penetration sleeve which is exposed to containment ambient conditions and 2) the portion of the penetration which connects the sleeve to process piping (flued head). Analytical models using finite element representation of process piping, penetration flued head, and exposed sleeve were employed to investigate the penetration assembly design. By application of flexible multi-step analyses, different penetration configurations were evaluated to determine the effects of key design parameters. Among the parameters studied were flued head angles with the process piping, sleeve length and wall thickness. Special designs employing fins welded to the sleeve to further lower the temperature at the concrete wall interface were also investigated and fin geometry effects reported. (Auth.)

  9. Space and place in researching male early high school leaving in Orange Farm Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangile Bingma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I reflect on the methodological processes underpinning a dissertation that investigated male learners' reasons for leaving high school early and the strategies they employed to negotiate everyday life. A qualitative case study was conducted with nine male early high school leavers between the ages of 18 and 25, as well as 12 stakeholders involved in the Orange Farm Township, south of Johannesburg. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, document reviews, and observations. Narrative analysis revealed complications related to the notions of space and place of the potential participants and the researcher. In the first place, the difficulty was not in identifying participants, but in establishing rapport to the extent that they agreed to participate in the research. Assumptions about space and place gave rise to expectations that had to be managed, and consequently the researcher had to rethink the methodological choices. In particular, participants' perceived real social positions and their relation to different social spaces had to be negotiated. It is suggested that relatively novice researchers, researching male early high school leaving in familiar spaces, can mitigate complications of space, place and stigma during fieldwork by using multiple sources of data and strategic, flexible interviewing techniques.

  10. Penetration shielding applications of CYLSEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, D.T.; Hathaway, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of penetration and discontinuity shielding is necessary to meet 10CFR20 regulations for ensuring personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Historically, those shielding evaluations have been done to some degree on all projects. However, many early plants used conservative methods due to lack of an economical computer code, resulting in costly penetration shielding programs. With the increased industry interest in cost effectively reducing personnel exposures to meet ALARA regulations and with the development of the CYLSEC gamma transport computer code at Bechtel, a comprehensive effort was initiated to reduce penetration and discontinuity shielding but still provide a prudent degree of protection for plant personnel from radiation streaming. This effort was more comprehensive than previous programs due to advances in shielding analysis technology and increased interest in controlling project costs while maintaining personnel exposures ALARA. Methodology and resulting cost savings are discussed

  11. High-Efficiency Rad-Hard Ultra-Thin Si Photovoltaic Cell Technology for Space, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improvements to solar cell efficiency that is consistent with low cost, high volume fabrication techniques are critical for future NASA space missions. In this...

  12. Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A total of 125 talented high school students had the opportunity to gain first hand experience about science and engineering careers by working directly with a NASA scientist or engineer during the summer. This marked the fifth year of operation for NASA's Summer High School Apprenticehsip Research Program (SHARP). Ferguson Bryan served as the SHARP contractor and worked closely with NASA staff at Headquarters and the eight participating sites to plan, implement, and evaluate the Program. The main objectives were to strengthen SHARP and expand the number of students in the Program. These eight sites participated in the Program: Ames Research Center North, Ames' Dryden Flight Research Facility, Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard's Wallops Flight Facility, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  14. Assessment of Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET in Transitional Spaces of a High-Rise Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooriati Taib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One passive approach that can significantly reduce energy usage in high-rise buildings is through the creation of non-air conditioned spaces such as transitional spaces. Optimizing passive design would reduce wastage associated with the building’s energy consumption. The study measures the thermal comfort of three types of transitional spaces (sky court, balcony, and rooftop in a high-rise office building. Based on the assessment of Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET, the outcome showed significant differences in PET in all locations in both wet and dry season. The effectiveness of such area can be improved with the contributions of landscape, maximizing natural ventilation and day lighting where possible.

  15. The longitudinal space charge problem in the high current linear proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a linear proton accelerator peak currents of 200 mA lead to high space charge densities and the resultant space charge forces reduce the effective focussing considerably. In particular the longitudinal focussing is affected. A new concept based on linear theory is proposed that restricts the influence of the space charge forces on the longitudinal focussing by increasing a, the mean transverse bunch radius, as a proportional(βγ)sup(3/8). This concept is compared with other concepts for the Alvarez (1 MeV - 100 MeV) and for the high energy part (100 MeV - 1100 MeV) of the SNQ linear accelerator. (orig.)

  16. DEEP SPACE: High Resolution VR Platform for Multi-user Interactive Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Daniela; Elias, Oliver; Martins, Ronald; Lindinger, Christopher; Pramböck, Andreas; Jalsovec, Andreas; Maresch, Pascal; Hörtner, Horst; Brandl, Peter

    DEEP SPACE is a large-scale platform for interactive, stereoscopic and high resolution content. The spatial and the system design of DEEP SPACE are facing constraints of CAVETM-like systems in respect to multi-user interactive storytelling. To be used as research platform and as public exhibition space for many people, DEEP SPACE is capable to process interactive, stereoscopic applications on two projection walls with a size of 16 by 9 meters and a resolution of four times 1080p (4K) each. The processed applications are ranging from Virtual Reality (VR)-environments to 3D-movies to computationally intensive 2D-productions. In this paper, we are describing DEEP SPACE as an experimental VR platform for multi-user interactive storytelling. We are focusing on the system design relevant for the platform, including the integration of the Apple iPod Touch technology as VR control, and a special case study that is demonstrating the research efforts in the field of multi-user interactive storytelling. The described case study, entitled "Papyrate's Island", provides a prototypical scenario of how physical drawings may impact on digital narratives. In this special case, DEEP SPACE helps us to explore the hypothesis that drawing, a primordial human creative skill, gives us access to entirely new creative possibilities in the domain of interactive storytelling.

  17. Transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velpandian T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to estimate transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C (MMC to Tenon′s tissue following application over the intact conjunctiva before routine trabeculectomy. Settings and Design: Institution-based case series. Materials and Methods: In 41 eyes of 41 patients, MMC (0.4 mg/ml for 3 min was applied over the intact conjunctiva before beginning trabeculectomy. Tenon′s capsule directly beneath the site of application was excised during trabeculectomy and was homogenized, centrifuged and MMC concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using stata0 8.0 version software (STATA Corporation, Houston, TX, USA. In this study, P -values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The average weight of the sample of Tenon′s tissue excised was 5.51 ± 4.42 mg (range: 0.9-17.1 and the average estimated MMC concentration found to be present in Tenon′s tissue using HPLC was 18.67 ± 32.36 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue (range: 0.38-197.05 x 10−6 . In 36 of the 41 patients (87.80%, the MMC concentration reached above 2 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue concentration required to inhibit human conjunctival fibroblasts. Conclusions: Mitomycin C does permeate into the subconjunctival tissue after supraconjunctival application for 3 min. Application of MMC over the conjunctiva may be a useful alternative to subconjunctival or subscleral application during routine trabeculectomy and as an adjunct for failing blebs.

  18. Profile of Secondary School Students with High Mathematics Ability in Solving Shape and Space Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Mulia; Novita, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the profile of secondary school students with high mathematics ability in solving shape and space problem in PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, in which the subjects in this study were students of class VIII SMP N 1 Banda Aceh. The results show…

  19. High Precision Optical Observations of Space Debris in the Geo Ring from Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.; Downes, J. J.; Casanova, D.; Tresaco, E.

    2018-01-01

    We present preliminary results to demonstrate that our method for detection and location of Space Debris (SD) in the geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) ring, based on observations at the OAN of Venezuela is of high astrometric precision. A detailed explanation of the method, its validation and first results is available in (Lacruz et al. 2017).

  20. Negotiating the Literacy Block: Constructing Spaces for Critical Literacy in a High Stakes Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugh, Patricia; Carey, Jane; King-Jackson, Valerie; Russell, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the evolution of the classroom literacy block as a learning space where teachers and students renegotiated activities for independent vocabulary and word work within a high-stakes reform environment. When a second grade classroom teacher and literacy support specialist decided to co-teach, they invited all students in the…

  1. Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Morio; Takenaka, Hideki; Shoji, Yozo; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kunimori, Hiroo

    2009-12-07

    The polarization characteristics of an artificial laser source in space were measured through space-to-ground atmospheric transmission paths. An existing Japanese laser communication satellite and optical ground station were used to measure Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization of the laser beam transmitted from the satellite. As a result, the polarization was preserved within an rms error of 1.6 degrees, and the degree of polarization was 99.4+/-4.4% through the space-to-ground atmosphere. These results contribute to the link estimation for quantum key distribution via space and provide the potential for enhancements in quantum cryptography worldwide in the future.

  2. Controlling nonlinear longitudinal space charge oscillations for high peak current bunch train generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Musumeci

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of picosecond modulations of the longitudinal profile of an electron beam generated in an rf photoinjector is analyzed and optimized with the goal of obtaining high peak current electron bunch trains at very high frequencies (≥THz. Taking advantage of nonlinear longitudinal space charge forces, it is found that more than 500 A peak current 1 THz bunch trains can be generated using a standard 1.6 cell SLAC/UCLA/BNL rf gun. Postacceleration is used to freeze the longitudinal phase space dynamics after one half plasma oscillation. Applications range from tunable narrow bandwidth THz radiation generation to drivers for high frequency high gradient accelerators.

  3. Intrapulmonary penetration of linezolid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybourne, David; Tobin, Caroline; Jevons, Gail; Andrews, Jenny; Wise, Richard

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to measure the concentrations of linezolid in bronchial mucosa, pulmonary macrophages and epithelial lining fluid and to compare them with simultaneous blood levels. Ten adult patients undergoing bronchoscopy for diagnostic purposes were given oral linezolid at a dosage of 600 mg twice a day for a total of six doses. Patients with active lung infection were excluded from the study. Flexible bronchoscopy was carried out between 2 and 8 h after the last dose of linezolid. Bronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage were carried out and a simultaneous blood sample obtained. Linezolid levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mean concentrations of linezolid were 13.4 mg/L in serum, 10.7 mg/kg in mucosa, 8.1 mg/L in alveolar macrophages and 25.1 mg/L in epithelial lining fluid. The mean site/serum concentration ratios were 0.79 for bronchial mucosa, 0.71 for macrophages and 8.35 for epithelial lining fluid. The MIC90 (< or =4 mg/L) of linezolid for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae was exceeded in serum and bronchial mucosa in all subjects, in epithelial lining fluid in nine subjects and in macrophages in six subjects.

  4. Cutaneous mucormycosis secondary to penetrative trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Bilal; Kent, Stephen; Wall, Daryl

    2016-07-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare but serious sequelae of penetrating trauma [1-5]. In spite of aggressive management, mortality remains high due to dissemination of infection. We completed a review of literature to determine the most optimal treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis which occurs secondary to penetrating trauma. We completed a review regarding the management of mucormycosis in trauma patients. We selected a total of 36 reports, of which 18 were case-based, for review. Surgical debridement is a primary predictor of improved outcomes in the treatment of mucormycosis [3,6,7]. Anti-fungal therapy, especially lipid soluble formulation of Amphotericin B, is helpful as an adjunct or when surgical debridement has been maximally achieved. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the impact of topical dressings; negative pressure wound therapy is helpful. An aggressive and early surgical approach, even at the expense of disfigurement, is necessary to reduce mortality in the setting of cutaneous mucormycosis that results from penetrating trauma [4,8,9]. Anti-fungal therapy and negative pressure wound therapy are formidable adjuncts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  6. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  7. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  8. Import market penetration in services

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  9. Emissions from cycling of thermal power plants in electricity systems with high penetration of wind power: Life cycle assessment for Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; O'Dwyer, C.; Flynn, D.

    2014-01-01

    demand. The environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Ireland for 2025 with high shares of wind power were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA), focusing on cycling emissions (due to part-load operation and start-ups) from dispatchable generators. Part-load operations...... significantly affect the average power plant efficiency, with all units seeing an average yearly efficiency noticeably less than optimal. In particular, load following units, on average, saw an 11% reduction. Given that production technologies are typically modeled assuming steady-state operation at full load...

  10. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  11. Implications of high renewable electricity penetration in the U.S. for water use, greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, and materials supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arent, Doug; Pless, Jacquelyn; Mai, Trieu; Wiser, Ryan; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam; Heath, Garvin; Macknick, Jordan; Bazilian, Morgan; Schlosser, Adam; Denholm, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable electricity generation could supply 80% of U.S. generation in 2050. • GHGs are reduced proportionally and water use is reduced by 50%. • Gross land-use impacts total less than 3% of land area of the contiguous U.S. • Some clean energy technologies rely on materials that face short-term risks. • No insurmountable long-term constraints to materials supply were identified. - Abstract: Recent work found that renewable energy could supply 80% of electricity demand in the contiguous United States in 2050 at the hourly level. This paper explores some of the implications of achieving such high levels of renewable electricity for supply chains and the environment in scenarios with renewable supply up to such levels. Expanding the renewable electricity supply at this scale by 2050 implies annual capacity additions of roughly 20 gigawatts per year (GW/year) over the next decade, rising to roughly 40 GW/year from 2040 to 2050. Given total 2012 renewable electricity capacity additions of slightly more than 16 GW, this suggests moderate growth of the related supply chains, averaging overall roughly 4% annual growth to 2040. Transitioning to high renewable electricity supply would lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and water use, with only modest land-use implications. While renewable energy expansion implies moderate growth of the renewable electricity supply chains, no insurmountable long-term constraints to renewable electricity technology manufacturing capacity or materials supply are identified

  12. Containment penetration design and analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Containment penetration designs which provide complete support to process piping containing high pressure and high temperature fluids and which do not employ cooling coils, require special provisions to sustain loadings associated with normal/abnormal conditions and to limit maximum temperature transmitted to the containment concrete wall. In order to accommodate piping imposed loads and fluid temperatures within code and regulatory limitations, the containment penetration designs require careful analysis of two critical regions: the portion of the penetration sleeve which is exposed to containment ambient conditions and the portion of the penetration which connects the sleeve to process piping (flued head). The length and thickness of the sleeve must be designed to provide maximum heat dissipation to the atmosphere and minimum heat conduction through the sleeve to meet concrete temperature limitations. The sleeve must have the capability to transmit the postulated piping loads to concrete embedments in the containment shell. The penetration flued head design must be strong enough to transfer high mechanical loads and be flexible enough to accommodate the thermal stresses generated by the high temperature fluid. Analytical models using finite element representations of process piping, penetration flued head, and exposed sleeve were employed to investigate the penetration assembly design. By application of flexible multi-step analyses, different penetration configurations were evaluated to determine the effects of key design parameters. Among the parameters studied were flued head profiles, flued head angles with the process piping, sleeve length and wall thickness. Special designs employing fins welded to the sleeve to lower the temperature at the concrete wall interface were investigated and fin geometry effects reported

  13. On the Fock space realizations of nonlinear algebras describing the high spin fields in AdS spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdik, C.; Navratil, O.; Pashnev, A.

    2002-01-01

    The method of construction of Fock space realizations of Lie algebras is generalized for nonlinear algebras. We consider as an example the nonlinear algebra of constraints which describe the totally symmetric fields with higher spins in the AdS space-time

  14. Fostering research aptitude among high school students through space weather competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Majid, R. A.; Bais, B.; Bahri, N. S.; Asillam, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    Cultivating research culture at an early stage is important for capacity building in a community. The high school level is the appropriate stage for research to be introduced because of students' competitive nature. Participation in the space weather competition is one of the ways in which research aptitude can be fostered in high school students in Malaysia. Accordingly, this paper presents how research elements were introduced to the students at the high school level through their participation in the space weather competition. The competition required the students to build a system to detect the presence of solar flares by utilizing VLF signals reflected from the ionosphere. The space weather competition started off with proposal writing for the space weather related project where the students were required to execute extensive literature review on the given topic. Additionally, the students were also required to conduct the experiments and analyse the data. Results obtained from data analysis were then validated by the students through various other observations that they had to carry out. At the end of the competition, students were expected to write a comprehensive technical report. Through this competition, the students learnt how to conduct research in accordance to the guidelines provided through the step by step approach exposed to them. Ultimately, this project revealed that the students were able to conduct research on their own with minimal guidance and that participation in the competition not only generated enjoyment in learning but also their interest in science and research.

  15. Smart Solar Grid. Integration of high penetration of photovoltaic in municipal low voltage distribution grids; Smart Solar Grid. Integration hoher Anteile von Photovoltaik in kommunalen Niederspannungsverteilnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruf, Holger; Heilscher, Gerd [Hochschule Ulm (Germany); Meier, Florian [SWU Netze GmbH, Ulm (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The high rate of decentralized generation in low voltage grids especially photovoltaic (PV) put the distribution grid operators to new challenges. Grid operation and grid planning have to respect the volatility and dynamic of decentralized generation now and in the future and adapt their previous proceedings. In the frame of the project Smart Solar Grid was a test site defined in the grid area of the DSO Stadtwerke Ulm/Neu-Ulm GmbH (SWU) to analyze the impact of the PV rise and possible solutions for the grid planning in the future. The first analysis based upon secondly measurements of the first test site. From this were statistical evaluation of the load flows and power variations done. Furthermore were the roof potential analysis results of the test site validated. These data are the base for the development of a forecast system for grid condition parameter. (orig.)

  16. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience of penetration needling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yu

    2016-08-12

    Professor WU Zhongchao has unique application of penetration needling in clinical treatment. Professor WU applies penetration needling along meridians, and the methods of penetration needling include self-meridian penetration, exterior-interior meridian penetration, identical-name meridian penetration, different meridian penetration. The meridian differentiation is performed according to different TCM syndromes, locations and natures of diseases and acupoint nature, so as to make a comprehensive assessment. The qi movement during acupuncture is focused. In addition, attention is paid on anatomy and long-needle penetration; the sequence and direction of acupuncture is essential, and the reinforcing and reducing methods have great originality, presented with holding, waiting, pressing and vibrating. Based on classical acupoint, the acupoint of penetration needling is flexible, forming unique combination of acupoints.

  17. Acoustic levitation technique for containerless processing at high temperatures in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Charles A.; Merkley, Dennis R.; Hammarlund, Gregory R.; Danley, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    High temperature processing of a small specimen without a container has been demonstrated in a set of experiments using an acoustic levitation furnace in the microgravity of space. This processing technique includes the positioning, heating, melting, cooling, and solidification of a material supported without physical contact with container or other surface. The specimen is supported in a potential energy well, created by an acoustic field, which is sufficiently strong to position the specimen in the microgravity environment of space. This containerless processing apparatus has been successfully tested on the Space Shuttle during the STS-61A mission. In that experiment, three samples wer successfully levitated and processed at temperatures from 600 to 1500 C. Experiment data and results are presented.

  18. Material Usage in High Pressure Oxygen Systems for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Michael; Sievers, D. Elliott

    2014-01-01

    The Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) for the International Space Station (ISS) Program was required as part of the Space Shuttle retirement efforts to sustain the ISS life support systems. The system is designed around a 7000 psia Oxygen or Nitrogen Recharge Tank Assembly which is able to be utilized both internally and externally to the ISS. Material selection and usage were critical to ensure oxygen compatibility for the design, while taking into consideration toxicity, weldability, brazability and general fabrication and assembly techniques. The system uses unique hardware items such a composite overwrap pressure vessel (COPV), high pressure mechanical gauges, compact regulators and valves, quick disconnects, metal tubing and flexhoses. Numerous challenges and anomalies were encountered due to the exotic nature of this project which will be discussed in detail. The knowledge gained from these anomalies and failure resolutions can be applied to more than space applications, but can also be applicable to industry pressurized systems.

  19. Study for the water penetration chemistry of bentonite under temperature gradation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Naohiro; Imakita, Tsuyoshi

    2003-02-01

    This work have been studied for the water fluctuation in time and space in case of the ground water penetration into the unsaturated bentonite with development of the necessary test equipment. The test equipment necessary for this test, was designed on consideration of the adiabatic condition, sensors for pH, salt and water measurement. The thickness of the bentonite specimen was set to 10 cm and the temperature slope was enable to set between 80degC and 100degC at the both end of the specimen. The water for penetration was pushed by gas constant pressure up to 1 MPa. The glass electrode for pH, electric conductivity for salinity and moisture sensor for lower water content and water sensor for higher were used as the sensors. The fluctuation of salt and water in the ground water penetration test to bentonite was estimated. The sensor data were treated as parametric data, because those data could not calibrated in those high temperature and under those high bentonite swollen pressure. For another development should be needed for water sensor. (author)

  20. A Concept of Constructing a Common Information Space for High Tech Programs Using Information Analytical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Alexandra A.; Kolegova, Olga A.; Nekrasova, Maria E.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the issues in program management used for engineering innovative products. The existing project management tools were analyzed. The aim is to develop a decision support system that takes into account the features of program management used for high-tech products: research intensity, a high level of technical risks, unpredictable results due to the impact of various external factors, availability of several implementing agencies. The need for involving experts and using intelligent techniques for information processing is demonstrated. A conceptual model of common information space to support communication between members of the collaboration on high-tech programs has been developed. The structure and objectives of the information analysis system “Geokhod” were formulated with the purpose to implement the conceptual model of common information space in the program “Development and production of new class mining equipment - “Geokhod”.

  1. An experimental study on inhibiting graft rejection following high-risk penetrating keratoplasty by CD25 siRNA nanocarrier in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-jie SHI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of CD25 siRNA nanoparticles against immune rejection and prolongation of corneal graft survival time after high-risk corneal grafting in rats. Methods Orthotopic corneal transplantation was performed in SD rats with alkali burned corneas to mimic high-risk rat models. Donor cornea (Wistar rats was grafted into the right cornea of SD recipients on day 14 after alkali burn. The grafted rats were randomly divided into control group (Group A, EntransterTM-control CD25siRNA instillation treatment (Group B, EntransterTM-CD25siRNA instillation treatment (Group C and EntransterTM-CD25siRNA twice instillation treatment (Group D, first administration at 2-hour post-surgery and second on day 7 post-surgery. The recipient eyes were examined using a slit lamp microscope. Then, the mean survival time and rejection index (RI were calculated. The morphologies of grafts were microscopically examined with HE staining, and TEM. CD25 expression after operation was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results The survival curves of transplanted cornea showed that the mean survival time in rats of groups C and D was significantly longer than that in groups A and B (P<0.05. No significant difference was found in survival time between group A and group B, and the same between group C and group D. The grafts in groups A and B showed obvious edema and thickening, with irregular arrangement of collagen fibers and infiltration of a large amount of inflammatory cells. Immunohistochemical results showed that expression of CD25 was found in the corneal epithelium, stroma and endothelium in all rats, and higher CD25 expression was observed in groups A and B. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the degree of stromal fibroblast apoptosis and necrosis in corneal graft was obviously lower in groups C and D than that of groups A and B, with a significant statistical difference. The expression of CD25 m

  2. Investigation of Υ Dor - δ Sct hybrid stars based on high precission space photometry and complementary ground based spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareter, M.

    2013-01-01

    Stellar pulsation carries information on the physical condition within the star. While pressure modes (p modes) probe the outer layers of a star, gravity modes (g modes) penetrate deep into the radiative zone and thus carry valuable information on the physical conditions there. gamma Dor stars are stars that pulsate in such modes, apart from white dwarfs and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars. Therefore, these stars are important test benches for stellar evolution and pulsation theory. delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrids are stars that pulsate like gamma Dor stars with g modes but also with p modes as the delta Sct stars do. This makes them even more suited for asteroseismology. The CoRoT long runs offer a great opportunity to analyse a large sample of stars observed homogeneously, uninterrupted and long time base of about 150 days, which is practically unachievable with ground based observation. Since space missions avoid the scintillation caused by the Earth's atmosphere, they allow to detect stellar oscillations on a sub-millimagnitude level even for stars as faint as 15th magnitude. The photometric data is supplemented by AAOmega classification spectroscopy, allowing to determine effective tem- peratures and surface gravity. With these data a statistical approach was adopted to describe the pulsation behaviour gamma Dor and delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid stars. A temperature - period relation was found for gamma Dor and delta Sct stars, but none for delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid stars, when considering their strongest g mode or p mode, respectively. The instability domain of hybrid stars is equal to that of delta Sct stars and is not con- fined to the overlapping region of the delta Sct and gamma Dor IS in the Hertzsprung- Russell diagram. Hybrid stars behave differently in the g mode regime than gamma Dor stars, which poses a serious question on how to define properly a delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid. The convective flux blocking mechanism is supposed to work for stars

  3. Development of a New Generation of High-Temperature Thermoelectric Unicouples for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Thierry; Gogna, P.; Sakamoto, J.; Jewell, A.; Cheng, J.; Blair, R.; Fleurial, J. -P.; Ewell, R.

    2006-01-01

    RTG's have enabled surface and deep space missions since 1961: a) 26 flight missions without any RTG failures; and b) Mission durations in excess of 25 years. Future NASA missions require RTG s with high specific power and high efficiency, while retaining long life (> 14 years) and high reliability, (i.e. 6-8 W/kg, 10-15% efficiency). JPL in partnership with NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, DOE, Universities and Industry is developing advanced thermoelectric materials and converters to meet future NASA needs.

  4. Investigation on the Combined Use of Ground Penetrating Radar, Cone Penetrometer and High Resolution Seismic Data for Near Surface and Vadose Zone Characterization in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    This study compares data from Cone Penetrometer Tests (CPT), high resolution surface reflection seismic (HRS) data and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data in the upper 120 feet (40 meters) of the A/M Area, Upper Three Runs Watershed at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The CPT, GPR, and HRS data were obtained along the Silverton Road in the western sector of the A/M Area groundwater plume, and adjacent to Geophysical Correlation Boring number-sign 1 (GCB-1). This location allows for multiple correlations to be made between the various data sources, and supports shallow investigations for near surface affects of the Crackerneck Fault, a major structural feature in the area. Borehole geophysical data from GCB-1 were used to provide subsurface constraints on the CPT, GPR, and HRS data. core data, natural gamma ray, spectral gamma data, multi-level induction resistivity, density and sonic data were utilized to distinguish clays, sands and silts. The CPT data provided tip bearing and sleeve stress, as an indicator of stratigraphy. Reflection seismic data provided continuous subsurface profiles of key marker horizons. Ground Penetrating Radar provided information on shallow subsurface geological features. Conclusions from this study suggest that there is a high degree of correlation between the CPT and borehole geophysical data, specifically, the Friction Ratio and gamma/spectral gamma curves. The Upland/Tobacco Road, Tobacco Road/Dry Branch, Dry Branch/Santee, Santee/Warley Hill and the Warley Hill/Congaree contacts are discernible. From these contacts it is possible to map structural relationships in the shallow subsurface that are tied to regional data. Because formation contacts are discernible, CPT, HRS, GPR, and geophysical log intra-formational anomalies are mappable. These features allow for stratigraphic and facies mapping using the GPR and HRS data for continuity and the CPT and geophysical data for lithofacies analysis. It is possible to use the

  5. Penetrating Cardiac and Hepatic Injury; Polytrauma of a Child After Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Akca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After a bombing attack, patients were brought into hospital suffering from a combination of injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries and burns which as a case of polytrauma. In penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries due to bombing possibility of cardiac injury should be kept in mind. Penetrating cardiac injuries in children are rare but has a high mortality and morbidity. In some cases there may be difficulty in diagnosis of penetrating cardiac injury. In this case we want to share the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up processes of penetrating cardiac and hepatic injury with burns of a politrauma child due to bombing.

  6. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  7. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  8. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  9. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  10. Mu-Spec - A High Performance Ultra-Compact Photon Counting spectrometer for Space Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Brown, A.; Benford, D.; Sadleir; U-Yen, I.; Ehsan, N.; Zmuidzinas, J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and are testing elements of a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology. The instrument can offer resolving power R approximately 1500, and its high frequency cutoff is set by the gap of available high performance superconductors. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using planar filter, and detected using photon counting MKID detector. This spectrometer promises to revolutionize submillimeter spectroscopy from space. It replaces instruments with the scale of 1m with a spectrometer on a 10 cm Si wafer. The reduction in mass and volume promises a much higher performance system within available resource in a space mission. We will describe the system and the performance of the components that have been fabricated and tested.

  11. Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.

    1997-07-01

    New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)

  12. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  13. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  14. Latest Progress in Research on the SpaceLiner High-Speed Passenger Transportation Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; van Foreest, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    A vision aimed at revolutionizing ultra-long distance travel between different points on earth could be realized by a high-speed intercontinental passenger transport using rocket based, suborbital launchers. The paper gives an overview on the latest progress in conceptual design of the DLR SpaceLiner presenting geometrical size and mass data and describing results of trajectory simulations. The rockets are based on an advanced but technically conservative approach not relying on e...

  15. Parametric analysis of diffuser requirements for high expansion ratio space engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Anderson, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    A supersonic diffuser ejector design computer program was developed. Using empirically modified one dimensional flow methods the diffuser ejector geometry is specified by the code. The design code results for calculations up to the end of the diffuser second throat were verified. Diffuser requirements for sea level testing of high expansion ratio space engines were defined. The feasibility of an ejector system using two commonly available turbojet engines feeding two variable area ratio ejectors was demonstrated.

  16. Highly-Expressive Spaces of Well-Behaved Transformations: Keeping It Simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freifeld, Oren; Hauberg, Søren; Batmanghelich, Kayhan

    We propose novel finite-dimensional spaces of Rn → Rn transformations, n ∈ {1, 2, 3}, derived from (continuously-defined) parametric stationary velocity fields. Particularly, we obtain these transformations, which are diffeomorphisms, by fast and highly-accurate integration of continuous piecewise...... transformations). Its applications include, but are not limited to: unconstrained optimization over monotonic functions; modeling cumulative distribution functions or histograms; time warping; image registration; landmark-based warping; real-time diffeomorphic image editing....

  17. Space charge and wake field analysis for a high brightness electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the formalism used, and some simulation results for transverse and longitudinal motion of a bunch of particles moving through a cavity (e.g., the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness photocathode gun), including effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g., arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch). 3 refs., 12 figs

  18. Gain reduction due to space charge at high counting rates in multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mathieson, E.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements with a small MWPC of gas gain reduction, due to ion space charge at high counting rates, have been compared with theoretical predictions. The quantity ln(q/q 0 )/(q/q 0 ), where (q/q 0 ) is the relative reduced avalanche charge, has been found to be closely proportional to count rate, as predicted. The constant of proportionality is in good agreement with calculations made with a modified version of the original, simplified theory

  19. Monitoring microstructural evolution in-situ during cyclic deformation by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika Martina; Thiel, Felix; Fischer, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The recently developed synchrotron technique High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping (HRRSM) is used to characterize the deformation structures evolving during cyclic deformation of commercially pure, polycrystalline aluminium AA1050. Insight into the structural reorganization within single grains...... is gained by in-situ monitoring of the microstructural evolution during cyclic deformation. By HRRSM, a large number of individual subgrains can be resolved within individual grains in the bulk of polycrystalline specimens and their fate, their individual orientation and elastic stresses, tracked during...

  20. Edge operational space for high density/high confinement ELMY H-modes in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, R.; Saibene, G.; Loarte, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses how the proximity to the L-H threshold affects the confinement of ELMy H-modes at high density. The largest reduction in confinement at high density is observed at the transition from the Type I to the Type III ELMy regime. At medium plasma triangularity, δ≅0.3 (where δ is the average triangularity at the separatrix), JET experiments show that by increasing the margin above the L-H threshold power and maintaining the edge temperature above the critical temperature for the transition to Type III ELMs, it is possible to avoid the degradation of the pedestal pressure with density, normally observed at lower power. As a result, the range of achievable densities (both in the core and in the pedestal) is increased. At high power above the L-H threshold power the core density was equal to the Greenwald limit with H97≅0.9. There is evidence that a mixed regime of Type I and Type II ELMs has been obtained at this intermediate triangularity, possibly as a result of this increase in density. At higher triangularity, δ≅0.5, the power required to achieve similar results is lower. (author)

  1. Efficient and accurate nearest neighbor and closest pair search in high-dimensional space

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei

    2010-07-01

    Nearest Neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. From the database perspective, a good solution needs to have two properties: (i) it can be easily incorporated in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should increase sublinearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is a well-known methodology fulfilling both requirements, but its current implementations either incur expensive space and query cost, or abandon its theoretical guarantee on the quality of query results. Motivated by this, we improve LSH by proposing an access method called the Locality-Sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) to enable fast, accurate, high-dimensional NN search in relational databases. The combination of several LSB-trees forms a LSB-forest that has strong quality guarantees, but improves dramatically the efficiency of the previous LSH implementation having the same guarantees. In practice, the LSB-tree itself is also an effective index which consumes linear space, supports efficient updates, and provides accurate query results. In our experiments, the LSB-tree was faster than: (i) iDistance (a famous technique for exact NN search) by two orders ofmagnitude, and (ii) MedRank (a recent approximate method with nontrivial quality guarantees) by one order of magnitude, and meanwhile returned much better results. As a second step, we extend our LSB technique to solve another classic problem, called Closest Pair (CP) search, in high-dimensional space. The long-term challenge for this problem has been to achieve subquadratic running time at very high dimensionalities, which fails most of the existing solutions. We show that, using a LSB-forest, CP search can be accomplished in (worst-case) time significantly lower than the quadratic complexity, yet still ensuring very good quality. In practice, accurate answers can be found using just two LSB-trees, thus giving a substantial

  2. THE APPLICATION OF MULTIVIEW METHODS FOR HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRIC SPACE VLBI AT LOW FREQUENCIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, R.; Rioja, M.; Imai, H.; Asaki, Y.; Hong, X.-Y.; Shen, Z.

    2013-01-01

    High-precision astrometric space very long baseline interferometry (S-VLBI) at the low end of the conventional frequency range, i.e., 20 cm, is a requirement for a number of high-priority science goals. These are headlined by obtaining trigonometric parallax distances to pulsars in pulsar-black hole pairs and OH masers anywhere in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. We propose a solution for the most difficult technical problems in S-VLBI by the MultiView approach where multiple sources, separated by several degrees on the sky, are observed simultaneously. We simulated a number of challenging S-VLBI configurations, with orbit errors up to 8 m in size and with ionospheric atmospheres consistent with poor conditions. In these simulations we performed MultiView analysis to achieve the required science goals. This approach removes the need for beam switching requiring a Control Moment Gyro, and the space and ground infrastructure required for high-quality orbit reconstruction of a space-based radio telescope. This will dramatically reduce the complexity of S-VLBI missions which implement the phase-referencing technique.

  3. THE APPLICATION OF MULTIVIEW METHODS FOR HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRIC SPACE VLBI AT LOW FREQUENCIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, R.; Rioja, M.; Imai, H. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Asaki, Y. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Hong, X.-Y.; Shen, Z., E-mail: richard.dodson@icrar.org [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, CAS, 200030 Shanghai (China)

    2013-06-15

    High-precision astrometric space very long baseline interferometry (S-VLBI) at the low end of the conventional frequency range, i.e., 20 cm, is a requirement for a number of high-priority science goals. These are headlined by obtaining trigonometric parallax distances to pulsars in pulsar-black hole pairs and OH masers anywhere in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. We propose a solution for the most difficult technical problems in S-VLBI by the MultiView approach where multiple sources, separated by several degrees on the sky, are observed simultaneously. We simulated a number of challenging S-VLBI configurations, with orbit errors up to 8 m in size and with ionospheric atmospheres consistent with poor conditions. In these simulations we performed MultiView analysis to achieve the required science goals. This approach removes the need for beam switching requiring a Control Moment Gyro, and the space and ground infrastructure required for high-quality orbit reconstruction of a space-based radio telescope. This will dramatically reduce the complexity of S-VLBI missions which implement the phase-referencing technique.

  4. Parameter space of experimental chaotic circuits with high-precision control parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Francisco F. G. de; Rubinger, Rero M. [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Sartorelli, José C., E-mail: sartorelli@if.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, Holokx A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Joinville, SC (Brazil); Baptista, Murilo S. [Institute of Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, SUPA, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    We report high-resolution measurements that experimentally confirm a spiral cascade structure and a scaling relationship of shrimps in the Chua's circuit. Circuits constructed using this component allow for a comprehensive characterization of the circuit behaviors through high resolution parameter spaces. To illustrate the power of our technological development for the creation and the study of chaotic circuits, we constructed a Chua circuit and study its high resolution parameter space. The reliability and stability of the designed component allowed us to obtain data for long periods of time (∼21 weeks), a data set from which an accurate estimation of Lyapunov exponents for the circuit characterization was possible. Moreover, this data, rigorously characterized by the Lyapunov exponents, allows us to reassure experimentally that the shrimps, stable islands embedded in a domain of chaos in the parameter spaces, can be observed in the laboratory. Finally, we confirm that their sizes decay exponentially with the period of the attractor, a result expected to be found in maps of the quadratic family.

  5. High Voltage Solar Concentrator Experiment with Implications for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Ishaque S.; George, Patrick J.; O'Neill, Mark; Matson, Robert; Brockschmidt, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, fabrication, and test of a high performance, high voltage solar concentrator array. This assembly is believed to be the first ever terrestrial triple-junction-cell solar array rated at over 1 kW. The concentrator provides over 200 W/square meter power output at a nominal 600 Vdc while operating under terrestrial sunlight. Space-quality materials and fabrication techniques were used for the array, and the 3005 meter elevation installation below the Tropic of Cancer allowed testing as close as possible to space deployment without an actual launch. The array includes two concentrator modules, each with a 3 square meter aperture area. Each concentrator module uses a linear Fresnel lens to focus sunlight onto a photovoltaic receiver that uses 240 series-connected triple-junction solar cells. Operation of the two receivers in series can provide 1200 Vdc which would be adequate for the 'direct drive' of some ion engines or microwave transmitters in space. Lens aperture width is 84 cm and the cell active width is 3.2 cm, corresponding to a geometric concentration ratio of 26X. The evaluation includes the concentrator modules, the solar cells, and the materials and techniques used to attach the solar cells to the receiver heat sink. For terrestrial applications, a finned aluminum extrusion was used for the heat sink for the solar cells, maintaining a low cell temperature so that solar cell efficiency remains high.

  6. Nurturing Soft Skills Among High School Students Through Space Weather Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardina; Abd Majid, Rosadah; Bais, Badariah; Syaidah Bahri, Nor

    2016-07-01

    Soft skills fulfill an important role in shaping an individual's personality. It is of high importance for every student to acquire adequate skills beyond academic or technical knowledge. The objective of this project was to foster students' enthusiasm in space science and develop their soft skills such as; interpersonal communication, critical thinking and problem-solving, team work, lifelong learning and information management, and leadership skills. This is a qualitative study and the data was collected via group interviews. Soft skills development among high school students were nurtured through space weather competition in solar flare detection. High school students (16 to 17 years old) were guided by mentors consisting of science teachers to carry out this project based on a module developed by UKM's researchers. Students had to acquire knowledge on antenna development and construct the antenna with recyclable materials. They had to capture graphs and identify peaks that indicate solar flare. Their findings were compared to satellite data for verification. They also presented their work and their findings to the panel of judges. After observation, it can be seen that students' soft skills and interest in learning space science had become more positive after being involved in this project.

  7. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  8. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Shamal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C.

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  9. Influence of the atmosphere on the space detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreggia, S.

    2007-06-01

    EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is a project of ultra-high energy (> 10 20 eV) cosmic rays detection from space. Its concept relies on the observation of fluorescence and Cerenkov photons emitted by extensive air showers from a telescope located on the International Space Station. A simulation software has been developed to study the characteristics of this innovative concept of detection. It deals with the different steps of the detection chain: extensive air shower development, emission of fluorescence and Cerenkov light, and radiative transfer to the telescope. A Monte-Carlo code has been implemented to simulate the propagation of photons through the atmosphere, dealing with multiple scattering in clear sky conditions as well as in presence of aerosols and clouds. With this simulation program, the impact of atmospheric conditions on the performance of a space-located detector has been studied. The precise treatment of photons propagation through the atmosphere has permitted to quantify the scattered light contribution to the detected signal. (author)

  10. Human and Robotic Space Mission Use Cases for High-Performance Spaceflight Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Raphael; Doyle, Richard; Bergman, Larry; Whitaker, William; Powell, Wesley; Johnson, Michael; Goforth, Montgomery; Lowry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight computing is a key resource in NASA space missions and a core determining factor of spacecraft capability, with ripple effects throughout the spacecraft, end-to-end system, and mission. Onboard computing can be aptly viewed as a "technology multiplier" in that advances provide direct dramatic improvements in flight functions and capabilities across the NASA mission classes, and enable new flight capabilities and mission scenarios, increasing science and exploration return. Space-qualified computing technology, however, has not advanced significantly in well over ten years and the current state of the practice fails to meet the near- to mid-term needs of NASA missions. Recognizing this gap, the NASA Game Changing Development Program (GCDP), under the auspices of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate, commissioned a study on space-based computing needs, looking out 15-20 years. The study resulted in a recommendation to pursue high-performance spaceflight computing (HPSC) for next-generation missions, and a decision to partner with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) in this development.

  11. Cell-Penetrating Ability of Peptide Hormones: Key Role of Glycosaminoglycans Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Tchoumi Neree

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the potential usage of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs for the intracellular delivery of various molecules has prompted the identification of novel peptidic identities. However, cytotoxic effects and unpredicted immunological responses have often limited the use of various CPP sequences in the clinic. To overcome these issues, the usage of endogenous peptides appears as an appropriate alternative approach. The hormone pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38 has been recently identified as a novel and very efficient CPP. This 38-residue polycationic peptide is a member of the secretin/glucagon/growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH superfamily, with which PACAP38 shares high structural and conformational homologies. In this study, we evaluated the cell-penetrating ability of cationic peptide hormones in the context of the expression of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Our results indicated that among all peptides evaluated, PACAP38 was unique for its potent efficiency of cellular uptake. Interestingly, the abilities of the peptides to reach the intracellular space did not correlate with their binding affinities to sulfated GAGs, but rather to their capacity to clustered heparin in vitro. This study demonstrates that the uptake efficiency of a given cationic CPP does not necessarily correlate with its affinity to sulfated GAGs and that its ability to cluster GAGs should be considered for the identification of novel peptidic sequences with potent cellular penetrating properties.

  12. Free-space optical communications with peak and average constraints: High SNR capacity approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-09-07

    The capacity of the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) free-space optical channel with both average and peak intensity constraints is studied. A new capacity lower bound is derived by using a truncated-Gaussian input distribution. Numerical evaluation shows that this capacity lower bound is nearly tight at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while it is shown analytically that the gap to capacity upper bounds is a small constant at high SNR. In particular, the gap to the high-SNR asymptotic capacity of the channel under either a peak or an average constraint is small. This leads to a simple approximation of the high SNR capacity. Additionally, a new capacity upper bound is derived using sphere-packing arguments. This bound is tight at high SNR for a channel with a dominant peak constraint.

  13. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Alamanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted at information security professionals, penetration testers and network/system administrators who want to get started with wireless penetration testing. No prior experience with Kali Linux and wireless penetration testing is required, but familiarity with Linux and basic networking concepts is recommended.

  14. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  15. Development of penetrant materials from used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Azhar Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of experiment to produce penetrant for nondestructive testing using used engine oil. The used engine oil was obtained from motor vehicle. It was mixed with kerosene at several mix proportion. The penetrability of these mixing were measured and compared with the penetrant available on the market. The results of measurement were explained and discussed. (author)

  16. Positivity-preserving space-time CE/SE scheme for high speed flows

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua

    2017-03-02

    We develop a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme using a simple slope limiter to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure in computations of inviscid and viscous high-speed flows. In general, the limiter works with all existing CE/SE schemes. Here, we test the limiter on a central Courant number insensitive (CNI) CE/SE scheme implemented on hybrid unstructured meshes. Numerical examples show that the proposed limiter preserves the positivity of the density and pressure without disrupting the conservation law; it also improves robustness without losing accuracy in solving high-speed flows.

  17. Positivity-preserving space-time CE/SE scheme for high speed flows

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua; Parsani, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    We develop a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme using a simple slope limiter to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure in computations of inviscid and viscous high-speed flows. In general, the limiter works with all existing CE/SE schemes. Here, we test the limiter on a central Courant number insensitive (CNI) CE/SE scheme implemented on hybrid unstructured meshes. Numerical examples show that the proposed limiter preserves the positivity of the density and pressure without disrupting the conservation law; it also improves robustness without losing accuracy in solving high-speed flows.

  18. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  19. Videofluoroscopic Predictors of Penetration-Aspiration in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show a high prevalence of swallowing disorders and tracheal aspiration of food. The videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) allows clinicians to visualize the visuoperceptual and temporal parameters associated with swallowing disorders in an attempt to predict aspiration risk. However, this subject remains understudied in PD populations. Our aim was to identify the predictors of penetration-aspiration in PD patients using the VFSS. Consecutive patients were evaluated using VFSS with different consistencies and volumes of food. A speech-language pathologist measured the type of intra-oral bolus organization, loss of bolus control, bolus location at the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow, the presence of multiple swallows, piecemeal deglutition, bolus residue in the pharyngeal recesses and temporal measures. Scores ≥3 on the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) indicated the occurrence of penetration-aspiration. Using logistic marginal regression, we found that residue in the vallecula, residue in the upper esophageal sphincter and piecemeal deglutition were associated with penetration-aspiration (odds ratio (OR) = 4.09, 2.87 and 3.83; P = 0.0040, 0.0071 and 0.0009, respectively). Penetration/aspiration occurred only with fluids (both of thin and thick consistency), and no significant differences were observed between fluid types or food volumes. The mechanisms underlying dysphagia and penetration/aspiration in PD patients and indications for further studies are discussed.

  20. Experimental investigation of high temperature high voltage thermionic diode for the space power nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onufriyev, Valery V.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the rise of arc from the dense glow discharge is connected with the thermion and secondary processes on the cathode surface (Granovsky, 1971; Leob, 1953; Engel, 1935). First model of breakdown of the cathode layer is connected with the increase of the cathode temperature in consequence of the ion bombardment that leads to the grows its thermo-emissive current. Other model shows the main role of the secondary effects on the cathode surface-the increase of the secondary ion emission coefficient--γ i with the grows of glow discharge voltage. But the author of this investigation work of breakdown in Cs vapor (a transmission the glow discharge into self-maintaining arc discharge) discovered the next peculiarity: the value of breakdown voltage is constant when the values of vapor temperature (its pressure p cs ) and cathode temperature T k is constant too (U b =constant with T k =constant and p cs =constant) and it is not a statistical value (Onufryev, Grishin, 1996) (that was observed in gas glow discharges other authors (Granovsky, 1971; Leob, 1953; Engel, 1935)). The investigations of thermion high voltage high temperature diode (its breakdown characteristics in closed state and voltage-current characteristics in disclosed state) showed that the value of the breakdown voltage is depended on the vapor pressure in inter-electrode gap (IEG)-p cs and cathode temperature-T k and is independent on IEG length--Δ ieg . On this base it was settled that the main role in transition of glow discharge to self-maintaining arc discharge plays an ion cathode layer but more exactly--the region of excited atoms--''Aston glow.''

  1. Experimental investigation of high temperature high voltage thermionic diode for the space power nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufriyev, Valery. V.

    2001-02-01

    It is well known that the rise of arc from the dense glow discharge is connected with the thermion and secondary processes on the cathode surface (Granovsky, 1971; Leob, 1953; Engel, 1935). First model of breakdown of the cathode layer is connected with the increase of the cathode temperature in consequence of the ion bombardment that leads to the grows its thermo-emissive current. Other model shows the main role of the secondary effects on the cathode surface-the increase of the secondary ion emission coefficient-γi with the grows of glow discharge voltage. But the author of this investigation work of breakdown in Cs vapor (a transmission the glow discharge into self-maintaining arc discharge) discovered the next peculiarity: the value of breakdown voltage is constant when the values of vapor temperature (its pressure pcs) and cathode temperature Tk is constant too (Ub=constant with Tk=constant and pcs=constant) and it is not a statistical value (Onufryev, Grishin, 1996) (that was observed in gas glow discharges other authors (Granovsky, 1971; Leob, 1953; Engel, 1935)). The investigations of thermion high voltage high temperature diode (its breakdown characteristics in closed state and voltage-current characteristics in disclosed state) showed that the value of the breakdown voltage is depended on the vapor pressure in inter-electrode gap (IEG)-pcs and cathode temperature-Tk and is independent on IEG length-Δieg. On this base it was settled that the main role in transition of glow discharge to self-maintaining arc discharge plays an ion cathode layer but more exactly-the region of excited atoms-``Aston glow.'' .

  2. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  3. High-dimensional free-space optical communications based on orbital angular momentum coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Gu, Xiaofan; Wang, Le

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a high-dimensional free-space optical communication scheme using orbital angular momentum (OAM) coding. In the scheme, the transmitter encodes N-bits information by using a spatial light modulator to convert a Gaussian beam to a superposition mode of N OAM modes and a Gaussian mode; The receiver decodes the information through an OAM mode analyser which consists of a MZ interferometer with a rotating Dove prism, a photoelectric detector and a computer carrying out the fast Fourier transform. The scheme could realize a high-dimensional free-space optical communication, and decodes the information much fast and accurately. We have verified the feasibility of the scheme by exploiting 8 (4) OAM modes and a Gaussian mode to implement a 256-ary (16-ary) coding free-space optical communication to transmit a 256-gray-scale (16-gray-scale) picture. The results show that a zero bit error rate performance has been achieved.

  4. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  5. Longitudinal motion in high current ion beams: a self-consistent phase space distribution with an envelope equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuffer, D.

    1979-03-01

    Many applications of particle acceleration, such as heavy ion fusion, require longitudinal bunching of a high intensity particle beam to extremely high particle currents with correspondingly high space charge forces. This requires a precise analysis of longitudinal motion including stability analysis. Previous papers have treated the longitudinal space charge force as strictly linear, and have not been self-consistent; that is, they have not displayed a phase space distribution consistent with this linear force so that the transport of the phase space distribution could be followed, and departures from linearity could be analyzed. This is unlike the situation for transverse phase space where the Kapchinskij--Vladimirskij (K--V) distribution can be used as the basis of an analysis of transverse motion. In this paper a self-consistent particle distribution in longitudinal phase space is derived which is a solution of the Vlasov equation and an envelope equation for this solution is derived

  6. High-Temperature, Wirebondless, Ultra-Compact Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Modules for Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicon carbide (SiC) and other wide band-gap semiconductors offer great promise of high power rating, high operating temperature, simple thermal management, and...

  7. Ultra High Temperature and Multifunctional Ceramic Matrix Composite – Coating Systems for Light-Weight Space and Aero Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Revolutionary ultra-high temperature, high mechanical loading capable, oxidation resistant, durable ceramic coatings and light-weight fiber-reinforced Ceramic Matrix...

  8. A study of changes in the primary dose penetrating the protective apron on SID in x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    This study is to figure out the amount of primary X-ray generated in SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m penetrating protective aprons in X-ray radiography for hands, skull, and lumbar spine. Results are as follows: Firstly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is low such as that of hand X-ray may be reduced by 270 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still slightly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Secondly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is moderate such as that of skull X-ray may be reduced by 22 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still fairly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Thirdly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is very high such as that of lumbar spine X-ray may be reduced b y 13 times if protective aprons a re worn, but it still penetrates a lot 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Therefore, people in X-ray room should not only wear protective aprons at any spaces that the primary X-ray can reach, but also need to stand behind the thick Pb shield to protect the body if it is inevitable to stay in the room

  9. A study of changes in the primary dose penetrating the protective apron on SID in x-ray radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong Kwan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Kwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study is to figure out the amount of primary X-ray generated in SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m penetrating protective aprons in X-ray radiography for hands, skull, and lumbar spine. Results are as follows: Firstly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is low such as that of hand X-ray may be reduced by 270 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still slightly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Secondly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is moderate such as that of skull X-ray may be reduced by 22 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still fairly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Thirdly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is very high such as that of lumbar spine X-ray may be reduced b y 13 times if protective aprons a re worn, but it still penetrates a lot 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Therefore, people in X-ray room should not only wear protective aprons at any spaces that the primary X-ray can reach, but also need to stand behind the thick Pb shield to protect the body if it is inevitable to stay in the room.

  10. Double ionization chamber survey meter for the separate measurement of penetrating and non-penetrating dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The full capabilities of an advanced 8-bit microprocessor have been utilized in construction of a wide range, multiplexing survey meter based on dual electrometers and ionization chambers. The ionization chambers are constructed of modular conducting and non-conducting parts in such a way that the angular dependence for measurement of beta radiation is controlled by design. Display functions for the high range instrument include logarithmic or linear analog display, digital display of rate or dose, SI or English units, optionally for either total, penetrating, or non-penetrating dose. The instrument is presently configured to operate in the range 0.1 R/hr to 50,000 R/hr in support of the requirements of Regulatory Guide 19.7

  11. Levitation characteristics of a high-temperature superconducting Maglev system for launching space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjiang; Liu Yu; Chen Xiaodong; Wen Zheng; Duan Yi; Qiu Ming

    2007-01-01

    Maglev launch assist is viewed as an effective method to reduce the cost of space launch. The primary aerodynamic characteristics of the Maglev launch vehicle and the space vehicle are discussed by analyzing their aerodynamic shapes and testing a scale mode in a standard wind tunnel. After analyzing several popular Maglev systems, we present a no-controlling Maglev system with bulk YBaCuO high-temperature superconductors (HTSs). We tested a HTS Maglev system unit, and obtained the levitation force density of 3.3 N/cm 2 and the lateral force density of 2.0 N/cm 2 . We also fabricated a freely levitated test platform to investigate the levitation characteristics of the HTS Maglev system in load changing processes. We found that the HTS system could provide the strong self-stable levitation performance due to the magnetic flux trapped in superconductors. The HTS Maglev system provided feasibility for application in the launch vehicle

  12. High Temporal Resolution Tropospheric Wind Profile Observations at NASA Kennedy Space Center During Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Huddleston, Lisa; Brauer, Thomas; Wilfong, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operates a 48-MHz Tropospheric/Stratospheric Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (TDRWP) on a continual basis generating wind profiles between 2-19 km in the support of space launch vehicle operations. A benefit of the continual operability of the system is the ability to provide unique observations of severe weather events such as hurricanes. Over the past two Atlantic Hurricane seasons the TDRWP has made high temporal resolution wind profile observations of Hurricane Irma in 2017 and Hurricane Matthew in 2016. Hurricane Irma was responsible for power outages to approximately 2/3 of Florida's population during its movement over the state(Stein,2017). An overview of the TDRWP system configuration, brief summary of Hurricanes Irma and Matthew storm track in proximity to KSC, characteristics of the tropospheric wind observations from the TDRWP during both events, and discussion of the dissemination of TDRWP data during the event will be presented.

  13. Distribution of high-dimensional entanglement via an intra-city free-space link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Ecker, Sebastian; Fink, Matthias; Liu, Bo; Bavaresco, Jessica; Huber, Marcus; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert

    2017-07-24

    Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource in quantum information processing and its distribution between distant parties is a key challenge in quantum communications. Increasing the dimensionality of entanglement has been shown to improve robustness and channel capacities in secure quantum communications. Here we report on the distribution of genuine high-dimensional entanglement via a 1.2-km-long free-space link across Vienna. We exploit hyperentanglement, that is, simultaneous entanglement in polarization and energy-time bases, to encode quantum information, and observe high-visibility interference for successive correlation measurements in each degree of freedom. These visibilities impose lower bounds on entanglement in each subspace individually and certify four-dimensional entanglement for the hyperentangled system. The high-fidelity transmission of high-dimensional entanglement under real-world atmospheric link conditions represents an important step towards long-distance quantum communications with more complex quantum systems and the implementation of advanced quantum experiments with satellite links.

  14. Case Study of Using High Performance Commercial Processors in a Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Olivas, Zulema

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade project was to reduce crew workload and improve situational awareness. The upgrade was to augment the Shuttle avionics system with new hardware and software. A major success of this project was the validation of the hardware architecture and software design. This was significant because the project incorporated new technology and approaches for the development of human rated space software. An early version of this system was tested at the Johnson Space Center for one month by teams of astronauts. The results were positive, but NASA eventually cancelled the project towards the end of the development cycle. The goal to reduce crew workload and improve situational awareness resulted in the need for high performance Central Processing Units (CPUs). The choice of CPU selected was the PowerPC family, which is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) known for its high performance. However, the requirement for radiation tolerance resulted in the reevaluation of the selected family member of the PowerPC line. Radiation testing revealed that the original selected processor (PowerPC 7400) was too soft to meet mission objectives and an effort was established to perform trade studies and performance testing to determine a feasible candidate. At that time, the PowerPC RAD750s where radiation tolerant, but did not meet the required performance needs of the project. Thus, the final solution was to select the PowerPC 7455. This processor did not have a radiation tolerant version, but faired better than the 7400 in the ability to detect failures. However, its cache tags did not provide parity and thus the project incorporated a software strategy to detect radiation failures. The strategy was to incorporate dual paths for software generating commands to the legacy Space Shuttle avionics to prevent failures due to the softness of the upgraded avionics.

  15. High resolution solar observations in the context of space weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo

    Space weather has a great impact on the Earth and human life. It is important to study and monitor active regions on the solar surface and ultimately to predict space weather based on the Sun's activity. In this study, a system that uses the full power of speckle masking imaging by parallel processing to obtain high-spatial resolution images of the solar surface in near real-time has been developed and built. The application of this system greatly improves the ability to monitor the evolution of solar active regions and to predict the adverse effects of space weather. The data obtained by this system have also been used to study fine structures on the solar surface and their effects on the upper solar atmosphere. A solar active region has been studied using high resolution data obtained by speckle masking imaging. Evolution of a pore in an active region presented. Formation of a rudimentary penumbra is studied. The effects of the change of the magnetic fields on the upper level atmosphere is discussed. Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) have a great impact on space weather. To study the relationship between CMEs and filament disappearance, a list of 431 filament and prominence disappearance events has been compiled. Comparison of this list with CME data obtained by satellite has shown that most filament disappearances seem to have no corresponding CME events. Even for the limb events, only thirty percent of filament disappearances are associated with CMEs. A CME event that was observed on March 20, 2000 has been studied in detail. This event did not show the three-parts structure of typical CMEs. The kinematical and morphological properties of this event were examined.

  16. Characteristics of rain penetration through a gravity ventilator used for natural ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyeung; Lee, Dong Ho; Ahn, Kwangseog; Ha, Hyunchul; Park, Heechang; Piao, Cheng Xu; Li, Xiaoyu; Seo, Jeoungyoon

    2008-01-01

    Gravity ventilators rely simply on air buoyancy to extract air and are widely used to exhaust air contaminants and heat from workplaces using minimal energy. They are designed to maximize the exhaust flow rate, but the rain penetration sometimes causes malfunctioning. In this study, the characteristics of rain penetration through a ventilator were examined as a preliminary study to develop a ventilator with the maximum exhaust capacity while minimizing rain penetration. A model ventilator was built and exposed to artificial rain and wind. The paths, intensities and amounts of penetration through the ventilator were observed and measured in qualitative and quantitative fashions. In the first phase, the pathways and intensities of rain penetration were visually observed. In the second phase, the amounts of rain penetration were quantitatively measured under the different configurations of ventilator components that were installed based on the information obtained in the first-phase experiment. The effects of wind speed, grill direction, rain drainage width, outer wall height, neck height and leaning angle of the outer wall from the vertical position were analyzed. Wind speed significantly affected rain penetration. Under the low crosswind conditions, the rain penetration intensities were under the limit of detection. Under the high crosswind conditions, grill direction and neck height were the most significant factors in reducing rain penetration. The installation of rain drainage was also important in reducing rain penetration. The experimental results suggest that, with proper configurations of its components, a gravity ventilator can be used for natural ventilation without significant rain penetration problems.

  17. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  18. Web penetration testing with Kali Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux contains various penetration testing methods using BackTrack that will be used by the reader. It contains clear step-by-step instructions with lot of screenshots. It is written in an easy to understand language which will further simplify the understanding for the user.""Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux"" is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning how to become a penetration tester. It will also help the users who are new to Kali Linux and want to learn the features and differences in Kali versus Backtrack, and seasoned penetration testers

  19. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  20. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761