Sample records for highly oriented mg3vo42

  1. London forces in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Poperenko


    Full Text Available Surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with terrace steps was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy with high spatial resolution. Spots with positive and negative charges were found in the vicinity of the steps. Values of the charges depended both on the microscope needle scan velocity and on its motion direction. The observed effect was theoretically explained with account of London forces that arise between the needle tip and the graphite surface. In this scheme, a terrace step works as a nanoscale diode for surface electric currents.

  2. Object-Oriented Programming in High Schools the Turing Way. (United States)

    Holt, Richard C.

    This paper proposes an approach to introducing object-oriented concepts to high school computer science students using the Object-Oriented Turing (OOT) language. Students can learn about basic object-oriented (OO) principles such as classes and inheritance by using and expanding a collection of classes that draw pictures like circles and happy…

  3. Strain induced highly oriented graphene wrinkles (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Yang, Shudu; Wang, Ashu


    Graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) material, is an important constituent part for the development of mechanic, electronic and photonic systems due to its remarkable properties, however, wrinkling is a ubiquitous phenomenon in 2D membranes. As a 2D material with atomic thickness, graphene is found to be wrinkled easily because of its relatively low bending rigidity, and besides, wrinkle affects graphene’s remarkable physical property severely. Despite their prevalence and potential impact on large-scale graphene properties, only a several approaches have been dedicated to control their structural morphology and orientation by transferring graphene onto polymer substrates. Here we report a new route to control the orientation of wrinkles by directly applying external mechanical strains to metal substrates until plastic deformation happens. By changing direction and magnitude of tension strain, wrinkles with different spacing but all with orientations perpendicular to the tensile direction can be obtained.

  4. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.


    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  5. High Performance Object-Oriented Scientific Programming in Fortran 90 (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Decyk, Viktor K.; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.


    We illustrate how Fortran 90 supports object-oriented concepts by example of plasma particle computations on the IBM SP. Our experience shows that Fortran 90 and object-oriented methodology give high performance while providing a bridge from Fortran 77 legacy codes to modern programming principles. All of our object-oriented Fortran 90 codes execute more quickly thatn the equeivalent C++ versions, yet the abstraction modelling capabilities used for scentific programming are comparably powereful.

  6. Experimental and modeling analysis of highly oriented octithiophene thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videlot, C; Grayer, [No Value; Ackermann, J; El Kassmi, A; Fichou, D; Hadziioannou, G


    We present a detailed study on the structure and morphology of highly oriented thin films of octithiophene (8T), the longest non-substituted oligothiophene so far. 8T thin films are vacuum-deposited on glass substrates and oriented either vertically by adjusting deposition rate and substrate

  7. Extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kirshbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei


    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (pig hearts.

  8. Dependence of dislocation structure on orientation and slip systems in highly oriented nanotwinned Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Qiuhong; You, Zesheng; Huang, Xiaoxu


    To explore the correlation between orientation, active slip systems and dislocation structure, highly oriented nanotwinned Cu has been deformed in compression to 2% and 6% strain. The compression directions are 90°, 0° and 45° with respect to the twin boundaries (TBs) of the almost parallel twins....... The dislocation structures are analyzed by the two-beam diffraction imaging in a transmission electron microscope and by a Schmid factor analysis. In structures deformed at 90° a high density of long straight dislocation lines with both slip plane and Burgers vectors inclined to the twin plane (slip Mode I......) are observed; they transmit across multiple TBs at a strain of 2% and form a high density of dislocations on TBs at a strain of 6%. In structures deformed at 0° dislocations with Burgers vectors parallel to the twin plane (slip Mode II) are confined within Twin/Matrix lamellae and the analysis shows that both...

  9. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.


    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  10. Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high speed MOSFETs. T K MAITI and C K MAITI. ∗. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur 721 302, India. MS received 27 March 2012. Abstract. We report here RF MOSFET performance ...

  11. High quality image oriented telemedicine with multimedia technology. (United States)

    Takeda, H; Minato, K; Takahasi, T


    Researchers at Osaka and Kyoto University hospital performed three experiments, beginning in 1995, which looked at high quality-oriented telemedicine. This paper describes the system design for the three projects. Experiment 1 applied high-definition TV images and B-ISDN for distance learning and medical information exchange. Experiment 2 developed a super high-definition medical image filing system and the images were transmitted via B-ISDN for teleconferences and experiment 3 utilized digital, high-definition, TV images and communication satellites for teleconferences. Multimedia and communication technologies were considered to be fundamental components of telemedicine. The three projects were evaluated initially for quality of images, operability and utility. The experimental design and its implementation showed that it was possible to provide high quality image-oriented telemedicine in the health care environment. Obstacles to establishing practical telemedicine are also discussed.

  12. Crystalline, Highly Oriented MOF Thin Film: the Fabrication and Application. (United States)

    Fu, Zhihua; Xu, Gang


    The thin film of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is a rapidly developing research area which has tremendous potential applications in many fields. One of the major challenges in this area is to fabricate MOF thin film with good crystallinity, high orientation and well-controlled thickness. In order to address this challenge, different appealing approaches have been studied intensively. Among various oriented MOF films, many efforts have also been devoted to developing novel properties and broad applications, such as in gas separator, thermoelectric, storage medium and photovoltaics. As a result, there has been a large demand for fundamental studies that can provide guidance and experimental data for further applications. In this account, we intend to present an overview of current synthetic methods for fabricating oriented crystalline MOF thin film and bring some updated applications. We give our perspective on the background, preparation and applications that led to the developments in this area and discuss the opportunities and challenges of using crystalline, highly oriented MOF thin film. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Early adolescent peer orientation and adjustment during high school. (United States)

    Fuligni, A J; Eccles, J S; Barber, B L; Clements, P


    The long-term consequences of early adolescents' orientation toward peers for their adjustment during high school were assessed. Approximately 1,200 adolescents completed questionnaires in the 7th grade and in the 10th or 12th grades; course grades were also obtained from the students' school records. Early adolescents who were willing to sacrifice their talents, school performance, and parents' rules engaged in greater problem behavior and evidenced lower academic achievement than did other adolescents during high school. The poorer adjustment of adolescents with this extreme orientation toward peers was mediated by their reported involvement in deviant peer groups. In contrast, a tendency to seek advice from peers more than from parents during early adolescence had little implication for later adjustment. Discussion focuses on the need to consider the role of peer dependence along with the effects of supportive friendships during adolescence.

  14. Orientation and length scale effects on dislocation structure in highly oriented nanotwinned Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Qiuhong; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels


    boundaries dominate the deformation of twin/matrix (T/M) lamellae with thickness less than 500 nm. In 45 degrees compressed samples, Mode III dislocations, especially partial dislocations moving along the twin boundaries, dominate the deformation of fine T/M lamellae with thickness less than 100 nm, while......Highly oriented nanotwinned Cu has been compressed to 6% strain in directions 90 degrees, 0 degrees and 45 degrees with respect to the twin boundaries of the almost parallel twins. In the 90 degrees and 0 degrees compressed samples Mode I and Mode II dislocations and their interactions with twin...... dislocations from slip Modes I, II and III are identified in T/M lamellae more than 100 nm thick, where these dislocations extensively interact in the T/M lamellae with thicknesses more than 200 nm. Dislocation cells are observed in a twin lamella with a thickness of about 500 nm....

  15. Orientation and length scale effects on dislocation structure in highly oriented nanotwinned Cu (United States)

    Lu, Qiuhong; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels; Lu, Lei


    Highly oriented nanotwinned Cu has been compressed to 6% strain in directions 90°, 0° and 45° with respect to the twin boundaries of the almost parallel twins. In the 90° and 0° compressed samples Mode I and Mode II dislocations and their interactions with twin boundaries dominate the deformation of twin/matrix (T/M) lamellae with thickness less than 500 nm. In 45° compressed samples, Mode III dislocations, especially partial dislocations moving along the twin boundaries, dominate the deformation of fine T/M lamellae with thickness less than 100 nm, while dislocations from slip Modes I, II and III are identified in T/M lamellae more than 100 nm thick, where these dislocations extensively interact in the T/M lamellae with thicknesses more than 200 nm. Dislocation cells are observed in a twin lamella with a thickness of about 500 nm.

  16. Laser-assisted control of molecular orientation at high temperatures (United States)

    Zhdanov, Dmitry V.; Zadkov, Victor N.


    A method of laser-assisted field-free dynamic molecular orientation employing a short, moderately intense three-color phase-locked laser pulse is proposed. Numerical simulations show that it provides an exceedingly effective control of orientation in molecular gases even at room temperatures. The underlying mechanism is based on the specific laser-induced orientation-dependent selective excitation of molecules and subsequent self-transformation of the induced geometrical orientation into a dynamical one. It is shown that this mechanism is significantly more powerful than the widely investigated kick mechanism.

  17. Comparison between strong η-fiber-oriented high-silicon steel and grain-oriented high-silicon steel on magnetic properties (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Yue, Ye; Zhang, Yinghui; Cao, Yanyan; Yang, Ping


    Two kinds of 0.23 mm-thick high-silicon steel sheets with strong η-fiber texture and Goss texture were produced by rolling methods. Their final microstructures, textures and magnetic properties were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and classical loss separation. The results showed that the core loss of strong η-fiber-oriented high-silicon steel was lower than that of grain-oriented high-silicon steel at frequencies ranging from 40 Hz to 20 kHz, and their differences in core loss were more obvious at 400 Hz and higher frequencies. The hysteresis losses and anomalous losses of the strong η-fiber-oriented high-silicon steel were lower than that of grain-oriented high-silicon steel at frequencies ranging from 40 Hz to 1000 Hz, and the losses were closely related to final cleanness and grain sizes. A few stable remained nitride precipitates increased the hysteresis loss of the grain-oriented high-silicon steel. The effect of decreasing grain sizes on decreasing core losses at high frequencies was significant, and the strong η-fiber-oriented high-silicon steel was more suitable for high frequency applications because of smaller grain sizes compared to the grain-oriented high-silicon steel.

  18. Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report here RF MOSFET performance in sub-45-nm hybrid orientation CMOS technology. Based on the combination of hybrid orientation technology (HOT) and process-induced local strain engineering,MOSFET RF performance is investigated using CAD (TCAD) technology. Transistor optimization on (100) substrate ...

  19. Magnetic field alignment of randomly oriented, high aspect ratio silicon microwires into vertically oriented arrays. (United States)

    Beardslee, Joseph A; Sadtler, Bryce; Lewis, Nathan S


    External magnetic fields have been used to vertically align ensembles of silicon microwires coated with ferromagnetic nickel films. X-ray diffraction and image analysis techniques were used to quantify the degree of vertical orientation of the microwires. The degree of vertical alignment and the minimum field strength required for alignment were evaluated as a function of the wire length, coating thickness, magnetic history, and substrate surface properties. Nearly 100% of 100 μm long, 2 μm diameter, Si microwires that had been coated with 300 nm of Ni could be vertically aligned by a 300 G magnetic field. For wires ranging from 40 to 60 μm in length, as the length of the wire increased, a higher degree of alignment was observed at lower field strengths, consistent with an increase in the available magnetic torque. Microwires that had been exposed to a magnetic sweep up to 300 G remained magnetized and, therefore, aligned more readily during subsequent magnetic field alignment sweeps. Alignment of the Ni-coated Si microwires occurred at lower field strengths on hydrophilic Si substrates than on hydrophobic Si substrates. The magnetic field alignment approach provides a pathway for the directed assembly of solution-grown semiconductor wires into vertical arrays, with potential applications in solar cells as well as in other electronic devices that utilize nano- and microscale components as active elements.

  20. Mental Health Issues Related to Sexual Orientation in a High School Setting (United States)

    Williams, Susan G.


    High school students are maturing physically, psychosocially, and sexually. Some may be unsure of their sexual orientation. The purpose of the study was to determine whether students who self-identified as homosexual-lesbian/gay, bisexual (LGB), and unsure of sexual orientation had more stressful life events (SLEs), perceived stress, bullying…

  1. Fatigued and dissatisfied or fatigued but satisfied? Goal orientations and responses to high job demands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Janssen, O.


    The present study tested dispositional goal orientation as an explanation for variation in responses to high job demands. Survey data from 322 university employees demonstrated that job demands were positively related to fatigue, for all combinations of goal orientation. In line with our main

  2. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students (United States)

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.


    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  3. Synergistic reinforcement of highly oriented poly(propylene) tapes by sepiolite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilotti, E.; Deng, H.; Zhang, R.; Lu, D.; Bras, W.; Fischer, H.R.; Peijs, T.


    This paper reports the properties of highly oriented nanocomposite tapes based on isotactic PP and needle-like sepiolite nanoclay, obtained by a solid state drawing process. The intrinsic 1D character of sepiolite allows its exploitation in 1D objects, such as oriented polymer fibres and tapes,

  4. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School – Including Sexual Orientation (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — High School Dataset – Including Sexual Orientation. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among...

  5. Sound velocities in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite shocked to 18 GPa: Orientational order dependence and elastic instability (United States)

    Lucas, Marcel; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.


    Previous reports of rapid phase transformation above 18 GPa [Erskine and Nellis, Nature 349, 317 (1991)] and large elastic waves below 18 GPa [Lucas et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 093515 (2013)] for shock-compressed ZYB-grade highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), but not for less oriented ZYH-grade HOPG, indicated a link between the orientational order dependence of the HOPG response above and below the phase transformation stress. To gain insight into this link and into the mechanical response of HOPG shocked to peak stresses approaching the phase transformation onset, the compressibility of ZYB- and ZYH-grade HOPG in the shocked state was examined using front surface impact experiments. Particle velocity histories and sound velocities were measured for peak stresses reaching 18 GPa. Although the locus of the measured peak stress-particle velocity states is indistinguishable for the two grades of HOPG, the measured sound velocities in the peak state reveal significant differences between the two grades. Specifically (1) the measured sound velocities are somewhat higher for ZYH-grade HOPG compared with ZYB-grade HOPG; (2) the measured sound velocities for ZYH-grade HOPG increase smoothly with compression, whereas those for ZYB-grade HOPG exhibit a significant reduction in the compression dependence from 12 GPa to 17 GPa and an abrupt increase from 17 GPa to 18 GPa; and (3) the longitudinal moduli, determined from the measured sound velocities, are smaller than the calculated bulk moduli for ZYB-grade HOPG shocked to peak stresses above 15 GPa, indicating the onset of an elastic instability. The present findings demonstrate that the softening of the longitudinal modulus (or elastic instability) presented here is linked to the large elastic waves and the rapid phase transformation reported previously—all observed only for shocked ZYB-grade HOPG. The elastic instability in shocked ZYB-grade HOPG is likely a precursor to the rapid phase transformation observed

  6. When do high-context communicators speak up? Exploring contextual communication orientation and employee voice. (United States)

    Ward, Anna-Katherine; Ravlin, Elizabeth C; Klaas, Brian S; Ployhart, Robert E; Buchan, Nancy R


    Past research suggests that individuals oriented toward high-context communication are less likely than are others to voice (i.e., speak up) at work. In the current article, we rely on high-/low-context theory to explore potential boundary conditions of this relationship. We conducted 2 studies exploring the relationship between contextual communication orientation and 2 distinct types of voice (prohibitive and promotive). As hypothesized, both studies showed that the negative relationship between contextual communication orientation and voice was weaker for prohibitive (compared with promotive) voice. Results of Study 1 showed that, as hypothesized, leader-member exchange (LMX) moderated the relationship between contextual communication orientation and promotive voice, such that the relationship was negative when LMX was low but not significant when high. The interaction was not significant in predicting prohibitive voice in Study 1 or in predicting either voice type in Study 2. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Highly oriented surface-growth and covalent dye labeling of mesoporous metal-organic frameworks.


    Hinterholzinger, Florian M.; Wuttke, Stefan; Roy, Pascal; Preuße, Thomas; Schaate, Andreas; Behrens, Peter; Godt, Adelheid; Bein, Thomas


    Mesoporous amino-functionalized metal–organic framework thin films with the UiO-68 topology were grown in a highly oriented fashion on two different self-assembled monolayers on gold. The oriented MOF films were covalently modified with the fluorescent dye Rhodamine B inside the pore system, as demonstrated with size-selective fluorescence quenching studies. Our study suggests that mesoporous metal–organic frameworks are promising hosts for the covalent attachment of numerous functional moiet...

  8. High spectral resolution x-ray optics with highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. (United States)

    Legall, H; Stiel, H; Arkadiev, V; Bjeoumikhov, A A


    Thin films of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) give the opportunity to realize crystal optics with arbitrary geometry by mounting it on a mould of any shape. A specific feature of HOPG is its mosaicity accompanied by a high integral reflectivity, which is by an order of magnitude higher than that of all other known crystals in an energy range between 2 keV up to several 10 keV. These characteristics make it possible to realize highly efficient collecting optics, which could be also relevant for compact x-ray diagnostic tools and spectrometers. For these applications the achievable spectral resolution of the crystal optics is of interest. In this article measurements with a spectral resolution of E/DeltaE=2900 in the second order reflection and E/DeltaE=1800 in the first order reflection obtained with HOPG crystals are presented. These are by far the highest spectral resolutions reported for HOPG crystals. The integral reflectivity of these very thin films is still comparable with that of ideal Ge crystals. The trade-off between energy resolution and high integral reflectivity for HOPG is demonstrated by determining these parameters for HOPG films of different thickness.

  9. Observation of a distinct surface molecular orientation in films of a high mobility conjugated polymer. (United States)

    Schuettfort, Torben; Thomsen, Lars; McNeill, Christopher R


    The molecular orientation and microstructure of films of the high-mobility semiconducting polymer poly(N,N-bis-2-octyldodecylnaphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis-dicarboximide-2,6-diyl-alt-5,5-2,2-bithiophene) (P(NDI2OD-T2)) are probed using a combination of grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. In particular a novel approach is used whereby the bulk molecular orientation and surface molecular orientation are simultaneously measured on the same sample using NEXAFS spectroscopy in an angle-resolved transmission experiment. Furthermore, the acquisition of bulk-sensitive NEXAFS data enables a direct comparison of the information provided by GIWAXS and NEXAFS. By comparison of the bulk-sensitive and surface-sensitive NEXAFS data, a distinctly different molecular orientation is observed at the surface of the film compared to the bulk. While a more "face-on" orientation of the conjugated backbone is observed in the bulk of the film, consistent with the lamella orientation observed by GIWAXS, a more "edge-on" orientation is observed at the surface of the film with surface-sensitive NEXAFS spectroscopy. This distinct edge-on surface orientation explains the high in-plane mobility that is achieved in top-gate P(NDI2OD-T2) field-effect transistors (FETs), while the bulk face-on texture explains the high out-of-plane mobilities that are observed in time-of-flight and diode measurements. These results also stress that GIWAXS lacks the surface sensitivity required to probe the microstructure of the accumulation layer that supports charge transport in organic FETs and hence may not necessarily be appropriate for correlating film microstructure and FET charge transport.

  10. Research On The Classification Of High Resolution Image Based On Object-oriented And Class Rule (United States)

    Li, C. K.; Fang, W.; Dong, X. J.


    With the development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution, spectral resolution and time resolution of remote sensing data is greatly improved. How to efficiently process and interpret the massive high resolution remote sensing image data for ground objects, which with spatial geometry and texture information, has become the focus and difficulty in the field of remote sensing research. An object oriented and rule of the classification method of remote sensing data has presents in this paper. Through the discovery and mining the rich knowledge of spectrum and spatial characteristics of high-resolution remote sensing image, establish a multi-level network image object segmentation and classification structure of remote sensing image to achieve accurate and fast ground targets classification and accuracy assessment. Based on worldview-2 image data in the Zangnan area as a study object, using the object-oriented image classification method and rules to verify the experiment which is combination of the mean variance method, the maximum area method and the accuracy comparison to analysis, selected three kinds of optimal segmentation scale and established a multi-level image object network hierarchy for image classification experiments. The results show that the objectoriented rules classification method to classify the high resolution images, enabling the high resolution image classification results similar to the visual interpretation of the results and has higher classification accuracy. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the object-oriented rules classification method were 97.38%, 0.9673; compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 6.23%, 0.078; compared with object-oriented KNN method, respectively more than 7.96%, 0.0996. The extraction precision and user accuracy of the building compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 18.39%, 3.98%, respectively better than the object-oriented KNN method 21

  11. Student Engagement in High School Physical Education: Do Social Motivation Orientations Matter? (United States)

    Garn, Alex; Ware, David R.; Solmon, Melinda A.


    High school physical education classes provide students with numerous opportunities for social interactions, but few studies have explored how social strivings impact class engagement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among 2 x 2 achievement goals, social motivation orientations, and effort in high school physical…

  12. The Influence of Personality, Parenting Styles, and Perfectionism on Performance Goal Orientation in High Ability Students (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.


    The current study explores relationships among gender, perceived parenting style, the personality traits of conscientiousness and neuroticism, perfectionism, and achievement goal orientation in a high ability and high achieving young adult population. Using data from Honors College students at a Midwestern university, a path model suggests that…

  13. Fabrication of highly oriented nanoporous fibers via airflow bubble-spinning (United States)

    Liu, Fujuan; Li, Shaokai; Fang, Yue; Zheng, Fangfang; Li, Junhua; He, Jihuan


    Highly oriented Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers with nanoporous structures has been successfully fabricated via airflow bubble-spinning without electrostatic hazard. In this work, the volatile solvent was necessary for preparing the nanoporous fiber, which was attributed to the competition between phase separation and solvent evaporation. The interconnected porous structures were affected by the processing variables of solution concentration, airflow temperature, collecting distance and relative humidity (RH). Besides, the rheological properties of solutions were studied and the highly oriented PLA nanofibers with nanoporous structure were also completely characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study provided a novel technique that successfully gets rid of the potential safety hazards caused by unexpected static to prepare highly oriented nanoporous fibers, which would demonstrate an impressive prospect for the fields of adsorption and filtration.

  14. Relationship Between Market Orientation and Business Performance in Czech and German High-Tech Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Jangl


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to find out an index of market orientation, and explore the relationship between four components of market orientation in high-tech firms and their business performance. Business performance was studied as a one-dimensional construct. Market orientation in this study is defined as a process of intelligence generation about customers and competitors, intelligence dissemination and integration within the company across teams, and responsiveness to market intelligence in the form of coordinated action. The statistical sample was represented by 164 Czech and 187 German high-tech firms in the manufacturing industry. Respondents (sales and marketing managers completed a questionnaire and marked their rate of approval with individual statements on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7. Market orientation and business performance level was determined as the arithmetic mean (x̄ of the measured values. Depending on the size of the total market orientation index (MOI, Czech (x̄=5.2 and German (x̄=5.14 high-tech firms are medium market-oriented. The business performance index (BPI reached a slightly higher value in Germany (x̄=5.22 as compared to the Czech Republic (x̄=5.13. The main method to reach the target was correlation and regression analysis. This study confirmed a hypothesis about the existence of a correlation between components of market orientation and business performance. Three of the four relationships in the multiple regression model were significant. On the other hand, the study found no positive significant correlation between competitor intelligence generation and business performance.

  15. Impacts of orientation on daylighting in high-rise office buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdolHamid Mahdavi


    Full Text Available Orientation is one of the important factors in building design to use daylight and ‎conserve energy. Well-orientated buildings maximise daylight reception through ‎building facades and reduce the need for artificial lighting. Reasonable daylighting usage in office buildings is an important part of an architect’s designing process, which leads to lesser electricity consumption as well as providing a visual and thermal comfort for the occupants. Orientation is an important factor in passive design strategies. This paper focuses on the orientation effect on daylighting into office rooms. The research method of this study was simulation which is performed on a hypothetical model on a 25 storey high-rise office building in Malaysia. All simulations were carried out in the IES-VE software that uses RADIANCE program for illuminance calculations. To evaluate the daylight in various conditions, a new index SAZ was introduced which assesses daylight factor (DF and absolute Lux. Results showed similar SAZ in CIE overcast sky in various orientations; whereas, in sunny sky due to sun path in Malaysia, different results showed northern and southern rooms have the best illuminance distribution. However, the similar window form and size in four orientations lead to more energy consumption for artificial lighting and cooling loads.

  16. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetization at the interfacesof highly spin-polarized manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Y.


    We have probed the nature of magnetism at the surface of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. The spin polarization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is not intrinsically suppressed at all surfaces and interfaces but is highly sensitive to both the epitaxial strain state as well as the substrate orientation. Through the use of soft x-ray spectroscopy, the magnetic properties of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces have been investigated and compared to bulk magnetometry and resistivity measurements. The magnetization of (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces are more bulk-like as a function of thickness whereas the magnetization at the (001)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface is suppressed significantly below a layer thickness of 20 nm. Such findings are correlated with the biaxial strain state of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films; for a given film thickness it is the tetragonal distortion of (001) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} that severely impacts the magnetization, whereas the trigonal distortion for (111)-oriented films and monoclinic distortion for (110)-oriented films have less of an impact. These observations provide evidence that surface magnetization and thus spin polarization depends strongly on the crystal surface orientation as well as epitaxial strain.

  17. High-Oriented Thermoelectric Nano-Bulk Fabricated from Thermoelectric Ink (United States)

    Koyano, M.; Mizutani, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Nishino, S.; Miyata, M.; Tanaka, T.; Fukuda, K.


    Printing technology is expected to provide innovative and environmentally friendly processes for thermoelectric (TE) module fabrication. As described in this paper, we propose an orientation control process using plastic deformation at high temperatures and present high-oriented TE nano-bulks fabricated from bismuth telluride (Bi-Te) TE inks using this process. In the case of n-type Bi-Te, surface x-ray diffraction reveals that crystalline grains in the plastic-deformed nano-bulk demonstrate a c-plane orientation parallel to the pressed face. According to the high orientation, electrical resistivity ρ, thermal conductivity κ, and figure of merit ZT show anisotropic behavior. It is noteworthy that ( ZT)// almost reaches unity ( ZT)// ˜1 at 340 K, even at low temperatures of the plastic deformation process. In contrast, the ZT of plastic-deformed p-type nano-bulk indicates isotropic behavior. The difference in the process temperature dependence of ZT suggests that n-type and p-type nano-bulk orientation mechanisms mutually differ.

  18. The effect of build orientation and surface modification on mechanical properties of high speed sintered parts (United States)

    Ellis, Adam; Brown, Ryan; Hopkinson, Neil


    High speed sintering is a novel additive manufacturing technology that uses inkjet printing and infra-red energy to selectively sinter polymeric powder. The research presented here investigates the effect of build orientation on dimensional accuracy, density, mechanical properties and surface roughness of high speed sintered parts. Tensile specimens were built through seven different angles between and including the XY (horizontal) and ZY (vertical) planes and analysed. The effect of the PUSh™ process was also investigated across this range of build orientations. The results show that build orientation does infuence the properties of the parts. A number of mechanical properties showed a relationship with build orientation. Density was seen to decrease as the angle increased from XY towards ZY. This increase in angle was shown to increase surface roughness while ultimate tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. At all build orientations, the PUSh™ process significantly reduces surface roughness, mildly increases part density and had a small effect on ultimate tensile strength whilst showing a small but consistent increase in elongation at break.

  19. Structure and blood compatibility of highly oriented PLA/MWNTs composites produced by solid hot drawing. (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiu; Zhao, Xiaowen; Ye, Lin; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel


    Highly oriented poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composites were fabricated through solid hot drawing technology in an effort to improve the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA as blood-contacting medical devices. It was found that proper MWNTs content and drawing orientation can improve the tensile strength and modulus of PLA dramatically. With the increase in draw ratio, the cold crystallization peak became smaller, and the glass transition and the melting peak of PLA moved to high temperature, while the crystallinity increased, and the grain size decreased, indicating the stress-induced crystallization of PLA during drawing. MWNTs showed a nucleation effect on PLA, leading to the rise in the melting temperature, increase in crystallinity and reduction of spherulite size for the composites. Moreover, the intensity of (002) diffraction of MWNTs increased with draw ratio, indicating that MWNTs were preferentially aligned and oriented during drawing. Microstructure observation demonstrated that PLA matrix had an ordered fibrillar bundle structure, and MWNTs in the composite tended to align parallel to the drawing direction. In addition, the dispersion of MWNTs in PLA was also improved by orientation. Introduction of MWNTs and drawing orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging kinetic clotting time, reducing hemolysis ratio and platelet activation.

  20. Influence of austenitic orientation on martensitic transformations in a compressed high manganese steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.-Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xue Yuan Rd. 30, 100083, Beijing (China); Yang, P., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xue Yuan Rd. 30, 100083, Beijing (China); Meng, L.; Lu, F.-Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xue Yuan Rd. 30, 100083, Beijing (China)


    Highlights: > Parent orientation affects product kinetics, variant, size and orientation. > Martensite, like austenite twinning, forms fastest in compressed <1 0 0> austenite. > The only one martensite variant formed in <1 0 0> austenite leads to grain coarsening. > Both transformation and deformation contribute to final <1 0 0> texture in martensite. - Abstract: High manganese TRIP/TWIP steels contain two types of martensite and the morphology, size, variant selection and texture of both types of martensite are influenced by the parent austenite grain orientation. In the present paper the TRIP effect was investigated in a compressed high manganese steel, focusing on the crystallographic behavior by means of X-ray diffraction and the electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. It is observed that {gamma} austenite oriented with <1 0 0> close to the compression axis (CA) transformed more easily into {alpha}'-martensite with only one variant, whereas the transformation in CA//<1 1 0> and <1 1 1>-oriented austenite was sluggish and often yielded several variants. This orientation dependency was ascribed to the ease of either deformation twinning or Shockley dislocation movement. Similarly, {epsilon}-M was also observed to transform smoothly into {alpha}'-M in nearly <1 0 0>-oriented austenite and more sluggishly in other austenite grains of other orientations. However, the number of {epsilon}-M variants detected by EBSD was higher than direct observation. In contrast to thermally induced martensitic transformations, the TRIP effect during compression failed to cause grain refinement in the transformed {alpha}'-M. The rapid formation of {alpha}'-M in <1 0 0>-oriented {gamma} promoted the formation of a <1 0 0> texture of the {alpha}'-M, whereas the <1 1 0> texture developed in the austenite at high level of compression led to a restricted transformation into martensite. The reasons for the occurrence of a <1 0 0> texture in the {alpha

  1. A High Performance Target Tracing Transmission Model Oriented to Lifecycle Maximization


    Zhong-Nan Zhao; Pei-Li Qiao; Jian Wang


    For the high speed sensor networks applications such as Internet of Things, multimedia transmission, the realization of high-rate transmission under limited resources has become a problem to be solved. A high speed transmission and energy optimization model oriented to lifecycle maximization is proposed in this paper. Based on information-directed mechanism, the energy threshold set and the relay node distance selection will be done in the process of target tracing, as a result, retaining a b...

  2. [Relationship between support reciprocity and stress responses among elementary, junior high, and senior high school students: moderating effects of underbenefitting and overbenefitting exchange orientations]. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Koji


    This study examined moderating effects of underbenefitting and overbenefitting exchange orientations on the relationship between support reciprocity in friendships and mood among elementary, junior high, and senior high school students. The participants were 262 first-year senior high school students, 223 second-year junior high school students, and 248 sixth-year elementary school students. The participants completed questionnaires regarding mutual support in friendships, stress responses, and two types of exchange orientations (underbenefitting and overbenefitting exchange orientation). For senior high school students, an underbenefitting orientation had a moderating effect on the relationships between support reciprocity and depression. Among senior high school students low in underbenefitting orientation, individuals who felt slightly underbenefitted regarding support exchange in friendships reported the lowest degree of depression. In addition, individuals high in underbenefitting orientation tended to express a higher level of depression than those low in underbenefitting orientation when they felt slightly underbenefitted.

  3. Carbonado revisited: Insights from neutron diffraction, high resolution orientation mapping and numerical simulations (United States)

    Piazolo, Sandra; Kaminsky, Felix V.; Trimby, Patrick; Evans, Lynn; Luzin, V.


    One of the most controversial diamond types is carbonado, as its origin and geological history are still under debate. Here, we investigate selected carbonado samples using neutron diffraction and high resolution orientation mapping in combination with numerical simulations. Neutron diffraction analyses show that fine grained carbonado samples exhibit a distinct lack of crystallographic preferred orientation. Quantitative crystallographic orientation analyses performed on transmission electron microscope (TEM) sections reveal that the 2-10 μm grains exhibit locally significant internal deformation. Such features are consistent with crystal plastic deformation of a grain aggregate that initially formed by rapid nucleation, characterized by a high number of nucleation sites and no crystallographic preferred orientation. Crystal plastic deformation resulted in high stress heterogeneities close to grain boundaries, even at low bulk strains, inducing a high degree of lattice distortion without significant grain size reduction and the development of a crystallographic preferred orientation. Observed differences in the character of the grain boundary network and internal deformation structures can be explained by significant post-deformation annealing occurring to variable degrees in the carbonado samples. Differences in intensity of crystal bending and subgrain boundary sharpness can be explained by dislocation annihilation and rearrangement, respectively. During annealing grain energy is reduced resulting in distinct changes to the grain boundary geometry. Grain scale numerical modelling shows that anisotropic grain growth, where grain boundary energy is determined by the orientation of a boundary segment relative to the crystallographic orientation of adjacent grains results in straight boundary segments with abrupt changes in orientation even if the boundary is occurring between two triple junctions forming a ;zigzag; pattern. In addition, in diamond anisotropic

  4. Measuring myofiber orientations from high-frequency ultrasound images using multiscale decompositions (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Fei, Baowei


    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) has the ability to image both skeletal and cardiac muscles. The quantitative assessment of these myofiber orientations has a number of applications in both research and clinical examinations; however, difficulties arise due to the severe speckle noise contained in the HFU images. Thus, for the purpose of automatically measuring myofiber orientations from two-dimensional HFU images, we propose a two-step multiscale image decomposition method. It combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter and a coherence enhancing diffusion filter to extract myofibers. This method has been verified by ultrasound data from simulated phantoms, excised fiber phantoms, specimens of porcine hearts, and human skeletal muscles in vivo. The quantitative evaluations of both phantoms indicated that the myofiber measurements of our proposed method were more accurate than other methods. The myofiber orientations extracted from different layers of the porcine hearts matched the prediction of an established cardiac mode and demonstrated the feasibility of extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from HFU images ex vivo. Moreover, HFU also demonstrated the ability to measure myofiber orientations in vivo.

  5. High resolution orientation mapping of secondary phases in ATI 718Plus® alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakow Robert


    Full Text Available The polycrystalline superalloy ATI 718Plus ® (hereafter 718Plus has been developed to replace the established alloy Inconel 718 by offering higher temperature capability for applications in gas turbines. The alloy exhibits two secondary phases in the austenitic matrix; it is strengthened by the γ′-phase with η-phase discontinuously precipitated at the grain boundaries. It can be utilized to control grain growth during forging. Generally, hexagonal η phase has been reported to possess a defined crystallographic orientation with the matrix. However, the material studied here exhibits blocky η-phase that has been precipitated and grown during thermo-mechanical processing. Therefore a measurable change in orientation relationship is expected. The standard technique for orientation mapping is electron back-scattered diffraction with spatial resolution of 100 nm. That is insufficient for studying η-phase in 718Plus. By applying high resolution orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope (Philips CM 300 FEGTEM equipped with a Nanomegas ASTARTM system a resolution of 3 nm was achieved. The indexed diffraction data was analysed using the Matlab Toolbox Mtex. The analysis included grain reconstruction and exclusion of low confidence measurements. The data set allows generating phase boundary maps indicating interfaces characteristics. Quantitative assessment shows that only 19% of the γ-η-interfaces fulfil the orientation relationship.

  6. Novel design of highly [110]-oriented barium titanate nanorod array and its application in nanocomposite capacitors. (United States)

    Yao, Lingmin; Pan, Zhongbin; Zhai, Jiwei; Chen, Haydn H D


    Nanocomposites in capacitors combining highly aligned one dimension ferroelectric nanowires with polymer would be more desirable for achieving higher energy density. However, the synthesis of the well-isolated ferroelectric oxide nanorod arrays with a high orientation has been rather scant, especially using glass-made substrates. In this study, a novel design that is capable of fabricating a highly [110]-oriented BaTiO3 (BT) nanorod array was proposed first, using a three-step hydrothermal reaction on glass-made substrates. The details for controlling the dispersion of the nanorod array, the orientation and the aspect ratio are also discussed. It is found that the alkaline treatment of the TiO2 (TO) nanorod array, rather than the completing transformation into sodium titanate, favors the transformation of the TO into the BT nanorod array, as well as protecting the glass-made substrate. The dispersity of the nanorod array can be controlled by the introduction of a glycol ether-deionized water mixed solvent and soluble salts. Moreover, the orientation of the nanorod arrays could be tuned by the ionic strength of the solution. This novel BT nanorod array was used as a filler in a nanocomposite capacitor, demonstrating that a large energy density (11.82 J cm-3) can be achieved even at a low applied electric field (3200 kV cm-1), which opens us a new application in nanocomposite capacitors.

  7. Effects of High Molecular Weight Species on Shear-Induced Orientation and Crystallization of Isotactic Polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somani,R.; Yang, L.; Hsiao, B.


    In situ rheo-SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) and rheo-WAXD (wide-angle X-ray diffraction) techniques were used to investigate the role of high molecular weight species on the evolution of oriented microstructure in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) melt under shear flow. The two iPP samples, designated as PP-A and PP-B, respectively, had the same number-average (M{sub n}) but different weight-average (M{sub w}) and Z-average (M{sub z}) molecular weights. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) of PP-A and PP-B was such that for MW<10{sup 5} the MWD curves overlapped; whereas in the high MW tail region, the amount of high molecular weight species was higher in PP-B than PP-A. Both samples were subjected to an identical shear condition (rate=60 s{sup -1}, duration=5 s, T=155 degC). In situ 2D SAXS and WAXD images allowed the tracking of shear-induced oriented structures in the melt. It was found that the shish structures evolved much earlier, and the degree of crystal orientation and oriented crystal fractions were higher in PP-B than PP-A. Moreover, PP-B exhibited faster crystallization kinetics than PP-A. These results, along with the predictions of double reptation models of chain motion and experimental studies of chain conformation dynamics in dilute solutions under flow, suggest the following: When a polymer melt that consists of entangled chains of different lengths is deformed, the chain segments aligned with the flow eigenvector can undergo the abrupt coil-stretch-like transition, while other segments would remain in the coiled state. Since, flow-induced orientation decays much more slowly for long chains than for short chains, oriented high molecular weight species play a prominent role in formation of the stretched sections, where shish originates. Our experimental results are strong evidence of the hypothesis that even a small increase in the concentration of high molecular weight species causes a significant increase in the formation, stability and

  8. The mid-infrared biconical reflectance of thin films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (United States)

    Anderson, M. S.


    Measurements are reported of the biconical reflectance of pyrolytic graphite in the spectral region between 4000 and 600/cm. The measurements are conducted with an FTIR spctrometer with the beam focused to a 1-mm-diam focal point on the sample surface. The highly oriented pyrolytic graphite has a high biconical reflectance as compared to other graphitic materials and does not cause significant beam scattering.

  9. Highly sensitive integrated pressure sensor with horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network. (United States)

    Mohammad Haniff, Muhammad Aniq Shazni; Lee, Hing Wah; Bien, Daniel Chia Sheng; Teh, Aun Shih; Azid, Ishak Abdul


    This paper presents a functionalized, horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network as a sensing element to enhance the sensitivity of a pressure sensor. The synthesis of horizontally oriented nanotubes from the AuFe catalyst and their deposition onto a mechanically flexible substrate via transfer printing are studied. Nanotube formation on thermally oxidized Si (100) substrates via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition controls the nanotube coverage and orientation on the flexible substrate. These nanotubes can be simply transferred to the flexible substrate without changing their physical structure. When tested under a pressure range of 0 to 50 kPa, the performance of the fabricated pressure sensor reaches as high as approximately 1.68%/kPa, which indicates high sensitivity to a small change of pressure. Such sensitivity may be induced by the slight contact in isolated nanotubes. This nanotube formation, in turn, enhances the modification of the contact and tunneling distance of the nanotubes upon the deformation of the network. Therefore, the horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network has great potential as a sensing element for future transparent sensors.

  10. Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu


    Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.

  11. Assessment of High-Stakes Testing, Hopeful Thinking, and Goal Orientation among Baccalaureate Nursing Students. (United States)

    March, Alice L; Robinson, Cecil


    High-stakes didactic testing assesses competency. Exams are stressful, and decreasing anxiety may enhance learning. Academic progression and graduation rates may result when higher levels of hopeful thinking (the belief in one's ability to achieve desired goals), and certain achievement goal orientation (why one desires to succeed) are present. This non-experimental study engaged undergraduate nursing students via surveys to examined relationships among hopeful thinking, goal orientation, and scores on standardized high-stakes examination of students. Regression analyses (N = 151) indicated that hopeful thinking was significantly related to higher exam scores, and that performance-avoidance goal scores were significantly related to lower scores. The positive relationship between hopeful thinking and exam scores suggests the need to consider supporting hopeful thinking in nursing education. Additional research may explicate the relationship between performance-avoidance and scores on high-stakes exams.

  12. Highly resolved proton matrix ENDOR of oriented photosystem II membranes in the S2 state. (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroki; Mino, Hiroyuki


    Proton matrix ENDOR was performed to investigate the protons close to the manganese cluster in oriented samples of photosystem II (PS II). Eight pairs of ENDOR signals were detected in oriented PS II membranes. At an angle of θ=0° between the membrane normal vector n and the external field H0, five pairs of ENDOR signals were exchangeable in D2O medium and three pairs were not exchangeable in D2O medium. The hyperfine splitting of 3.60MHz at θ=0° increased to 3.80MHz at θ=90°. The non-exchangeable signals with 1.73MHz hyperfine splitting at θ=0°, which were assigned to a proton in an amino acid residue, were not detected at θ=90° in oriented PS II or in non-oriented PS II. Highly resolved spectra show that only limited numbers of protons were detected by CW-ENDOR spectra, although many protons were located near the CaMn4O5 cluster. The detected exchangeable protons were proposed to arise from the protons belonging to the water molecules, labeled W1-W4 in the 1.9Å crystal structure, directly ligated to the CaMn4O5 cluster, and nearby amino-acid residue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The study of microcurrent path of highly c-axis-oriented Bi(2223)/Ag tapes (United States)

    Sun, Yuping; Xu, Guoyang; Jiang, Liudi; Du, Jiaju; Zhang, Yuheng


    The microcurrent path of highly c-axis-oriented Bi(2223)/Ag tapes has been investigated by in-plane (I//ab plane) and out-of-plane (I//c axis) transport measurements. It includes the dependence of transport critical current on temperatures close to T c at different magnetic fields and the resistance transition broadening for applied fields H parallel to c-axis. It is found that the transport measurement results of in-plane and out-of-plane are quite different. We attribute the differences to the different microcurrent path. We think that the microcurrent path of the highly c-axis-oriented Bi(2223)/Ag tape is correlated with the direction of current injection.

  14. Highly oriented, free-standing, superconducting NbN films growth on chemical vapor deposited graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Saraswat


    Full Text Available NbN films are grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene using dc magnetron sputtering. The orientation and transition temperature of the deposited films is studied as a function of substrate temperature. A superconducting transition temperature of 14 K is obtained for highly oriented (111 films grown at substrate temperature of 150 °C, which is comparable to epitaxial films grown on MgO and sapphire substrates. These films show a considerably high upper critical field of ∼33 T. In addition, we demonstrate a process for obtaining flexible, free-standing NbN films by delaminating graphene from the substrate using a simple wet etching technique. These free-standing NbN layers can be transferred to any substrate, potentially enabling a range of novel superconducting thin-film applications.

  15. Viscoelastic relaxations of high alcohols and alkanes: Effects of heterogeneous structure and translation-orientation coupling (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi


    The frequency-dependent shear viscosity of high alcohols and linear alkanes, including 1-butanol, 1-octanol, 1-dodecanol, n-hexane, n-decane, and n-tetradecane, was calculated using molecular dynamics simulation. The relaxation of all the liquids was bimodal. The correlation functions of the collective orientation were also evaluated. The analysis of these functions showed that the slower relaxation mode of alkanes is assigned to the translation-orientation coupling, while that of high alcohols is not. The X-ray structure factors of all the alcohols showed prepeaks, as have been reported in the literature, and the intermediate scattering functions were calculated at the prepeak. Comparing the intermediate scattering function with the frequency-dependent shear viscosity based on the mode-coupling theory, it was demonstrated that the slower viscoelastic relaxation of the alcohols is assigned to the relaxation of the heterogeneous structure described by the prepeak.

  16. A Fast and High-precision Orientation Algorithm for BeiDou Based on Dimensionality Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Jiaojiao


    Full Text Available A fast and high-precision orientation algorithm for BeiDou is proposed by deeply analyzing the constellation characteristics of BeiDou and GEO satellites features.With the advantage of good east-west geometry, the baseline vector candidate values were solved by the GEO satellites observations combined with the dimensionality reduction theory at first.Then, we use the ambiguity function to judge the values in order to obtain the optical baseline vector and get the wide lane integer ambiguities. On this basis, the B1 ambiguities were solved. Finally, the high-precision orientation was estimated by the determinating B1 ambiguities. This new algorithm not only can improve the ill-condition of traditional algorithm, but also can reduce the ambiguity search region to a great extent, thus calculating the integer ambiguities in a single-epoch.The algorithm is simulated by the actual BeiDou ephemeris and the result shows that the method is efficient and fast for orientation. It is capable of very high single-epoch success rate(99.31% and accurate attitude angle (the standard deviation of pitch and heading is respectively 0.07°and 0.13°in a real time and dynamic environment.

  17. High catalytic activity of oriented 2.0.0 copper(I) oxide grown on graphene film


    Primo, Ana; Esteve-Adell, Ivan; Blandez, Juan F.; Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; ?lvaro, Mercedes; Candu, Natalia; Coman, Simona M.; Parvulescu, Vasile I.; Garc?a, Hermenegildo


    Metal oxide nanoparticles supported on graphene exhibit high catalytic activity for oxidation, reduction and coupling reactions. Here we show that pyrolysis at 900 C under inert atmosphere of copper(II) nitrate embedded in chitosan films affords 1.1.1 facet-oriented copper nanoplatelets supported on few-layered graphene. Oriented (1.1.1) copper nanoplatelets on graphene undergo spontaneous oxidation to render oriented (2.0.0) copper(I) oxide nanoplatelets on few-layered graphen...

  18. High-Precision Orientation of Three-Component Magnetic Downhole Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Leven


    Full Text Available The possible benefits of measuring the magnetic flux density in three components continuously along a borehole have been recognized a long time ago by researchers who developed models and interpretation schemes for 3-component magnetic borehole data (Parker and Daniell,1979; Gallet and Courtillot, 1989.Common borehole methods provide data not allowing for an orientation with respect to a global reference, since this requires a highly accurate orienta tion system independent of the magnetic measurements. A first attempt to obtain the orientation of the sonde was made by Bosum et al. (1988 using a mechanical gyro and accelerometers. However, at that time the data quality of the gyro did not allow for a continuous 3-component measurement. Steveling et al. (2003 provide an example from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP drill hole, where directional information of magnetization was used to separate massive lavas from hyaloclastites. However, their directional analysis was limited to the inclination because information on the tool rotation around the vertical axis was not available.Here, we describe the successful development of an orientation procedure with very high resolution independent of magnetic data. Test data were acquired in the 2.5-km-deep ICDP Outokumpu Research Hole in eastern Finland (Kukkonen, 2007 with the so-called Göttinger Borehole Magnetometer (GBM. The sonde uses three fiber optic gyros (FOGs exhibiting a small drift of 1.5°h-1 and a high resolution of 9x10-5 degrees. In combination with a built-in Förster magnetometer triplet, the GBM can record the magnetic field in three components as well as the tool orientation continuously. In the Outokumpu drill hole, errors (root mean square were 0.14° for the inclination and 1.4° for the declination of the magnetic flux density.

  19. Review - Fabrication of crystal-oriented barium-bismuth titanate ceramics in high magnetic field and subsequent reaction sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka, Yusuke Tomita, Ryoichi Furushima, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Yutaka Doshida and Keizo Uematsu


    Full Text Available High magnetic field was applied to fabricate novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a textured structure. A compact of crystallographically oriented grains was prepared by dry forming in a high magnetic field from a mixed slurry of bismuth titanate and barium titanate powders. Bismuth titanate particles with a size of about 1 μ m were used as the host material. In the forming process, the slurry was poured into a mold and set in a magnetic field of 10 T until completely dried. Bismuth titanate particles were highly oriented in the slurry under the magnetic field. The dried powder compact consisted of highly oriented bismuth titanate particles and randomly oriented barium titanate particles. Barium bismuth titanate ceramics with a- and b-axis orientations were successfully produced from the dried compact by sintering at temperatures above 1100 ° C.

  20. Model of Market Orientation of High-Tech Firms in Germany: Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Jangl


    Full Text Available The aim of this validation study was to verify a four-factor model of market orientation on a sample of German high-tech companies in the manufacturing industry. A modified version of the measuring scale (MMOS, composed of twelve items, was used for measurement. The target group consisted of business and marketing managers (N = 374 who recorded their answers on a seven-point Likert scale. The main methods used to achieve the objectives were exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Having verified the psychometric properties of the instrument, I proceeded to confirm the hypothesis of a four-factor solution model. Reliability and validity of the measuring instrument was also examined, which allowed a confirmation of the second hypothesis. The research may serve as the evidence of the instrument suitability for measuring market orientation in European cultural conditions. To obtain results from other sectors, the author recommends further research replication using the MMOS instrument.

  1. Object-oriented Approach to High-level Network Monitoring and Management (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi


    An absolute prerequisite for the management of large investigating methods to build high-level monitoring computer networks is the ability to measure their systems that are built on top of existing monitoring performance. Unless we monitor a system, we cannot tools. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the hope to manage and control its performance. In this underlying systems at NASA Langley Research Center, paper, we describe a network monitoring system that we use an object-oriented approach for the design, we are currently designing and implementing. Keeping, first, we use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to in mind the complexity of the task and the required model users' requirements. Second, we identify the flexibility for future changes, we use an object-oriented existing capabilities of the underlying monitoring design methodology. The system is built using the system. Third, we try to map the former with the latter. APIs offered by the HP OpenView system.

  2. High-current operation of vertical-type organic transistor with preferentially oriented molecular film (United States)

    Fukagawa, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyuki; Kudo, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Jun-ichi; Yamashita, Yoshiro; Fujikake, Hideo; Tokito, Shizuo; Yamamoto, Toshihiro


    A high-performance vertical-type organic transistor has been fabricated using bis(l,2,5-thiadiazolo)-p-quinobis(l,3-dithiole) (BTQBT) for the channel layer. The BTQBT molecules are oriented horizontally, with the molecular plane of each monolayer parallel to the substrate. The π-π stacking direction of the BTQBT molecules is aligned with the carrier transport direction in this vertical transistor. The modulated drain current density exceeded 1 A cm-2 upon the application of a gate voltage of less than 5 V. In addition, the device exhibits a high on/off current ratio of over 105.

  3. Sexual Orientation and Risk of Pregnancy Among New York City High-School Students. (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa L; Walsemann, Katrina M


    We examined associations between sexual orientation and pregnancy risk among sexually experienced New York City high-school students. We analyzed data from 2005, 2007, and 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We excluded students who had never engaged in sexual intercourse, only had same-gender sexual partners, or had missing data on variables of interest, resulting in a final sample of 4892 female and 4811 male students. We employed multivariable logistic regression to examine pregnancy risk by sexual orientation, measured as self-reported sexual identity and gender of sexual partners, with adjustment for demographics and sexual behaviors. We stratified analyses by gender. Overall, 14.3% of female and 10.8% of male students had experienced a pregnancy. Students who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or reported both male and female sexual partners had higher odds of pregnancy than heterosexual students or students who only had opposite-gender sexual partners. Sexual behaviors accounted for higher odds of pregnancy among female, but only partially accounted for higher odds of pregnancy involvement among male, sexual-minority students. Sexual orientation should be considered in future adolescent pregnancy-prevention efforts, including the design of pregnancy-prevention interventions.

  4. Convolutional Oriented Boundaries: From Image Segmentation to High-Level Tasks. (United States)

    Maninis, Kevis-Kokitsi; Pont-Tuset, Jordi; Arbelaez, Pablo; Van Gool, Luc


    We present Convolutional Oriented Boundaries (COB), which produces multiscale oriented contours and region hierarchies starting from generic image classification Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). COB is computationally efficient, because it requires a single CNN forward pass for multi-scale contour detection and it uses a novel sparse boundary representation for hierarchical segmentation; it gives a significant leap in performance over the state-of-the-art, and it generalizes very well to unseen categories and datasets. Particularly, we show that learning to estimate not only contour strength but also orientation provides more accurate results. We perform extensive experiments for low-level applications on BSDS, PASCAL Context, PASCAL Segmentation, and NYUD to evaluate boundary detection performance, showing that COB provides state-of-the-art contours and region hierarchies in all datasets. We also evaluate COB on high-level tasks when coupled with multiple pipelines for object proposals, semantic contours, semantic segmentation, and object detection on MS-COCO, SBD, and PASCAL; showing that COB also improves the results for all tasks.

  5. A semi-empirical approximation of static hysteresis for high flux densities in highly grain-oriented silicon iron (United States)

    Carrander, C.; Engdahl, G.


    In calculations and simulations regarding magnetic materials, it is important to have a have an accurate model of the hysteresis loop. The major loop, in particular, is used in many simulations. However, it is generally not possible to measure the true major loop, and it must therefore be approximated using a minor loop. There are several methods available for approximating magnetization curves, but they are primarily designed for paramagnetic materials, and are poorly suited to the highly grain-oriented steels used in modern transformers. Therefore, we propose two expressions for approximating the magnetization curves of grain-oriented silicon-iron steels. Both methods give close agreement with measurements and can be extrapolated to in order to describe the major loop.

  6. Matching Imitative Activity of High-Tech Firms with Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Najda-Janoszka


    Full Text Available As pointed by numerous scholars high technology sectors are very apt for studying entrepreneurial activities due to their high levels of innovativeness. However, taking into account the highly dynamic and substantially hostile environment in those sectors, innovation may often not be the best strategic choice for market entry. In fact, the business practice confirms the extensive utilization of imitation strategy by technology entrepreneurs Meanwhile, the literature on entrepreneurship focuses almost exclusively on original innovators, underestimating the importance of imitation in the growth process and indicating shortage of research on imitative activities of entrepreneurs. Therefore this article presents discussion on the applicability of entrepreneurial orientation to imitators from the high-tech industries.

  7. Easy growth of undoped and doped tungsten oxide nanowires with high purity and orientation (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Foord, David T.; Scipioni, Lawrence


    An economic method is presented to grow undoped/doped tungsten oxide nanowires with high purity and erect orientation, simply by heating a tungsten filament in a vacuum chamber with some room air leakage. Tungsten oxide nanowires were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Wires are found standing straight and clean on the filament, {\\sim }30 nm in diameter and up to a few tens of micrometres long. The composition along the wire is uniform for all elements including dopants.

  8. Specific heat of pristine and brominated graphite fibers, composites and HOPG. [Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Chen; Maciag, Carolyn


    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to obtain specific heat values of pristine and brominated P-100 graphite fibers and brominated P-100/epoxy composite as well as pristine and brominated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for comparison. Based on the experimental results obtained, specific heat values are calculated for several different temperatures, with a standard deviation estimated at 1.4 percent of the average values. The data presented here are useful in designing heat transfer devices (such as airplane de-icing heaters) from bromine fibers.

  9. Highly Developed Information-oriented Society and Humanity ; Medical Information Services and Library (United States)

    Wakimoto, Atsuko

    Change in social circumstances caused by arrival of highly developed information-oriented society has altered what information services in medical libraries should be dramatically. Keeping with complication and diversification of needs by users such as medical doctors, researchers, medical technicians and so on medical librarians have been playing important role in the information activities, and are required to master more specialized knowledge. This paper outlines changes in circumstances surrounding medical libraries, discusses role of medical librarians in online information retrieval services, and introduces various curriculum for library education. The author proposes that humanity of librarian him or herself is still a key factor for library services regardless of advancement of computerization.

  10. Field oriented control of an induction machine in a high frequency link power system (United States)

    Sul, Seung K.; Lipo, Thomas A.


    A field-oriented controlled induction machine drive operating with a high-frequency single-phase sinusoidal voltage link is presented. System performance is investigated by computer simulation and is verified by a test on a prototype system. A novel control loop to minimize the link voltage fluctuation is proposed. The capability of rapid demagnetization of the induction machine by current regulation is investigated. A current-modulation technique termed mode control is proposed, and its performance is compared with that of the conventional delta-modulation technique.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li


    Full Text Available Road roundabouts, a typical class of road facilities to avoid collision, are generally not directed extracted in existing road extraction methods. This paper presents a novel four-step approach for automatic vegetated roundabout extractions from high resolution multispectral satellite images, which combines object-oriented extraction, Support Vector Machine (SVM classification and spatial relationship estimation. Firstly, after proper preconditioning, the vegetated roundabouts are extracted by object-oriented extract algorithm in ENVI with rules that simultaneously taking area, roundness and vegetation index (NDVI into consideration. After a certain number of experiments, the set of three items’ thresholds can be found, which may stand as the general rules for vegetated roundabouts extraction in similar conditions. Next, the roads are classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM and the outputs are several band shaped polygons. Then, the holes in road polygons will be detected by examining the topological relation in ArcGIS. Lastly, since the margin of extracted roundabout and the biggest detected hole may not strictly coincide, by comparing the distance between central points of both the extracted roundabout and the hole with the threshold, convincing determination can be made. The proposed automatic approach has been proved to have very high production accuracy that all above 85 % in each case of the test set, which is good enough for automatic vegetated roundabouts extraction from high resolution remote sensing images without manual interpretation.

  12. Automatic Object-Oriented Roundabouts Extrction from High Resolution Multispectral Images (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, W.


    Road roundabouts, a typical class of road facilities to avoid collision, are generally not directed extracted in existing road extraction methods. This paper presents a novel four-step approach for automatic vegetated roundabout extractions from high resolution multispectral satellite images, which combines object-oriented extraction, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification and spatial relationship estimation. Firstly, after proper preconditioning, the vegetated roundabouts are extracted by object-oriented extract algorithm in ENVI with rules that simultaneously taking area, roundness and vegetation index (NDVI) into consideration. After a certain number of experiments, the set of three items' thresholds can be found, which may stand as the general rules for vegetated roundabouts extraction in similar conditions. Next, the roads are classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the outputs are several band shaped polygons. Then, the holes in road polygons will be detected by examining the topological relation in ArcGIS. Lastly, since the margin of extracted roundabout and the biggest detected hole may not strictly coincide, by comparing the distance between central points of both the extracted roundabout and the hole with the threshold, convincing determination can be made. The proposed automatic approach has been proved to have very high production accuracy that all above 85 % in each case of the test set, which is good enough for automatic vegetated roundabouts extraction from high resolution remote sensing images without manual interpretation.

  13. A High Performance Target Tracing Transmission Model Oriented to Lifecycle Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Nan Zhao


    Full Text Available For the high speed sensor networks applications such as Internet of Things, multimedia transmission, the realization of high-rate transmission under limited resources has become a problem to be solved. A high speed transmission and energy optimization model oriented to lifecycle maximization is proposed in this paper. Based on information-directed mechanism, the energy threshold set and the relay node distance selection will be done in the process of target tracing, as a result, retaining a balance between transmission rate and energy consumption. Meanwhile, multiagent coevolution is adopted to achieve the maximum of network lifecycle. Comparing with the relevant methods, indexes for network such as hops, throughput, and number of active nodes, standard deviation of remaining energy, and the network lifecycle are considered, and the simulated experiments show that the proposed method will promote the transmission rate effectively, prolong the network lifecycle, and improve network performance as a whole.

  14. High capacity color barcodes: per channel data encoding via orientation modulation in elliptical dot arrays. (United States)

    Bulan, Orhan; Sharma, Gaurav


    We present a new high capacity color barcode. The barcode we propose uses the cyan, magenta, and yellow (C,M,Y) colorant separations available in color printers and enables high capacity by independently encoding data in each of these separations. In each colorant channel, payload data is conveyed by using a periodic array of elliptically shaped dots whose individual orientations are modulated to encode the data. The orientation based data encoding provides beneficial robustness against printer and scanner tone variations. The overall color barcode is obtained when these color separations are printed in overlay as is common in color printing. A reader recovers the barcode data from a conventional color scan of the barcode, using red, green, and blue (R,G,B) channels complementary, respectively, to the print C, M, and Y channels. For each channel, first the periodic arrangement of dots is exploited at the reader to enable synchronization by compensating for both global rotation/scaling in scanning and local distortion in printing. To overcome the color interference resulting from colorant absorptions in noncomplementary scanner channels, we propose a novel interference minimizing data encoding approach and a statistical channel model (at the reader) that captures the characteristics of the interference, enabling more accurate data recovery. We also employ an error correction methodology that effectively utilizes the channel model. The experimental results show that the proposed method works well, offering (error-free) operational rates that are comparable to or better than the highest capacity barcodes known in the literature.

  15. Relative Orientation and Modified Piecewise Epipolar Resampling for High Resolution Satellite Images (United States)

    Gong, K.; Fritsch, D.


    High resolution, optical satellite sensors are boosted to a new era in the last few years, because satellite stereo images at half meter or even 30cm resolution are available. Nowadays, high resolution satellite image data have been commonly used for Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation and 3D reconstruction. It is common that the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs) provided by the vendors have rough precision and there is no ground control information available to refine the RPCs. Therefore, we present two relative orientation methods by using corresponding image points only: the first method will use quasi ground control information, which is generated from the corresponding points and rough RPCs, for the bias-compensation model; the second method will estimate the relative pointing errors on the matching image and remove this error by an affine model. Both methods do not need ground control information and are applied for the entire image. To get very dense point clouds, the Semi-Global Matching (SGM) method is an efficient tool. However, before accomplishing the matching process the epipolar constraints are required. In most conditions, satellite images have very large dimensions, contrary to the epipolar geometry generation and image resampling, which is usually carried out in small tiles. This paper also presents a modified piecewise epipolar resampling method for the entire image without tiling. The quality of the proposed relative orientation and epipolar resampling method are evaluated, and finally sub-pixel accuracy has been achieved in our work.

  16. Object oriented classification of high resolution data for inventory of horticultural crops (United States)

    Hebbar, R.; Ravishankar, H. M.; Trivedi, S.; Subramoniam, S. R.; Uday, R.; Dadhwal, V. K.


    High resolution satellite images are associated with large variance and thus, per pixel classifiers often result in poor accuracy especially in delineation of horticultural crops. In this context, object oriented techniques are powerful and promising methods for classification. In the present study, a semi-automatic object oriented feature extraction model has been used for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops using Erdas Objective Imagine. Multi-resolution data from Resourcesat LISS-IV and Cartosat-1 have been used as source data in the feature extraction model. Spectral and textural information along with NDVI were used as inputs for generation of Spectral Feature Probability (SFP) layers using sample training pixels. The SFP layers were then converted into raster objects using threshold and clump function resulting in pixel probability layer. A set of raster and vector operators was employed in the subsequent steps for generating thematic layer in the vector format. This semi-automatic feature extraction model was employed for classification of major fruit and plantations crops viz., mango, banana, citrus, coffee and coconut grown under different agro-climatic conditions. In general, the classification accuracy of about 75-80 per cent was achieved for these crops using object based classification alone and the same was further improved using minimal visual editing of misclassified areas. A comparison of on-screen visual interpretation with object oriented approach showed good agreement. It was observed that old and mature plantations were classified more accurately while young and recently planted ones (3 years or less) showed poor classification accuracy due to mixed spectral signature, wider spacing and poor stands of plantations. The results indicated the potential use of object oriented approach for classification of high resolution data for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops. The present methodology is applicable at

  17. Effects of DC bias on magnetic performance of high grades grain-oriented silicon steels (United States)

    Ma, Guang; Cheng, Ling; Lu, Licheng; Yang, Fuyao; Chen, Xin; Zhu, Chengzhi


    When high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission adopting mono-polar ground return operation mode or unbalanced bipolar operation mode, the invasion of DC current into neutral point of alternating current (AC) transformer will cause core saturation, temperature increasing, and vibration acceleration. Based on the MPG-200D soft magnetic measurement system, the influence of DC bias on magnetic performance of 0.23 mm and 0.27 mm series (P1.7=0.70-1.05 W/kg, B8>1.89 T) grain-oriented (GO) silicon steels under condition of AC / DC hybrid excitation were systematically realized in this paper. For the high magnetic induction GO steels (core losses are the same), greater thickness can lead to stronger ability of resisting DC bias, and the reasons for it were analyzed. Finally, the magnetostriction and A-weighted magnetostriction velocity level of GO steel under DC biased magnetization were researched.

  18. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)


    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  19. Reusable Object-Oriented Solutions for Numerical Simulation of PDEs in a High Performance Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lani


    Full Text Available Object-oriented platforms developed for the numerical solution of PDEs must combine flexibility and reusability, in order to ease the integration of new functionalities and algorithms. While designing similar frameworks, a built-in support for high performance should be provided and enforced transparently, especially in parallel simulations. The paper presents solutions developed to effectively tackle these and other more specific problems (data handling and storage, implementation of physical models and numerical methods that have arisen in the development of COOLFluiD, an environment for PDE solvers. Particular attention is devoted to describe a data storage facility, highly suitable for both serial and parallel computing, and to discuss the application of two design patterns, Perspective and Method-Command-Strategy, that support extensibility and run-time flexibility in the implementation of physical models and generic numerical algorithms respectively.

  20. High-quality a-axis oriented EuBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ films on sapphire substrates (United States)

    Wakana, Hironori; Michikami, Osamu


    The superconducting properties of a-axis oriented EuBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (EBCO) films on Al 2O 3(1 1¯ 0 2) substrates with CeO 2 buffer layers have been improved by introducing a template layer of PrBa 2Cu 3O x (PBCO). The a-axis oriented PBCO films were grown epitaxially on 50 Å thick CeO 2(0 0 1) buffer layers using DC magnetron sputtering. The high-quality a-axis oriented PBCO films grew under sputtering conditions of a substrate temperature ( Ts) of 620°C and a deposition rate ( Rd) of 35 Å/min. The a-axis oriented EBCO films were grown on the a-axis oriented PBCO template layers above 700 Å in thickness. The high-quality a-axis oriented EBCO films were deposited on sapphire⧹CeO 2(0 0 1) with a-axis oriented 1000 Å thick PBCO template layers at Ts=650°C and exhibited Tc endpoints ( Tce) of about 86.7 K.

  1. The effects of instructional organization and locus of control orientation on meaningful learning in high school biology students (United States)

    Sherris, Jacqueline D.; Butler Kahle, Jane

    This study investigated the effects on meaningful learning achievement of concept-related instructional organization and locus of control orientation. Two five-week instructional treatments were developed, one which explicitly stressed concept relationships and one which did not. Five hundred and forty-one subjects at six Indiana high schools were involved in the study. Analyses of covariance of posttest and six-week retention test scores with treatment as the independent variable showed no significant treatment effect. Analyses of variance of test scores with locus of control orientation as the independent variable resulted in highly statistically significant differences. Subjects with an internal locus of control orientation achieved more than externally oriented subjects. A two-way analysis of covariance by treatment and locus of control orientation resulted in a statistically significant treatment/locus of control interaction effect for retention test scores. Externally oriented subjects who were exposed to the concept-related treatment generally retained more than those in the comparison group. Internally oriented subjects retained about the same amount of information regardless of treatment group. When the male and female subjects were analyzed separately, the interaction effect appeared greater for females than for males.

  2. A New High Speed Induction Motor Drive based on Field Orientation and Hysteresis Current Comparison (United States)

    Ogbuka, Cosmas; Nwosu, Cajethan; Agu, Marcel


    This paper presents a new high speed induction motor drive based on the core advantage of field orientation control (FOC) and hysteresis current comparison (HCC). A complete closed loop speed-controlled induction motor drive system is developed consisting of an outer speed and an inner HCC algorithm which are optimised to obtain fast and stable speed response with effective current and torque tracking, both during transient and steady states. The developed model, being speed-controlled, was examined with step and ramp speed references and excellent performances obtained under full load stress. A speed response comparison of the model with the standard AC3 (Field-Oriented Control Induction Motor Drive) of MATLAB Simpower systems shows that the model achieved a rise time of 0.0762 seconds compared to 0.2930 seconds achieved by the AC3. Also, a settle time of 0.0775 seconds was obtained with the developed model while that of the AC3 model is 0.2986 seconds confirming, therefore, the superiority of the developed model over the AC3 model which, hitherto, served as a reference standard.

  3. Handspinning Enabled Highly Concentrated Carbon Nanotubes with Controlled Orientation in Nanofibers. (United States)

    Lee, Hoik; Watanabe, Kei; Kim, Myungwoong; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Song, Kyung-Hun; Lee, Jung Soon; Kim, Ick Soo


    The novel method, handspinning (HS), was invented by mimicking commonly observed methods in our daily lives. The use of HS allows us to fabricate carbon nanotube-reinforced nanofibers (CNT-reinforced nanofibers) by addressing three significant challenges: (i) the difficulty of forming nanofibers at high concentrations of CNTs, (ii) aggregation of the CNTs, and (iii) control of the orientation of the CNTs. The handspun nanofibers showed better physical properties than fibers fabricated by conventional methods, such as electrospinning. Handspun nanofibers retain a larger amount of CNTs than electrospun nanofibers, and the CNTs are easily aligned uniaxially. We attributed these improvements provided by the HS process to simple mechanical stretching force, which allows for orienting the nanofillers along with the force direction without agglomeration, leading to increased contact area between the CNTs and the polymer matrix, thereby providing enhanced interactions. HS is a simple and straightforward method as it does not require an electric field, and, hence, any kinds of polymers and solvents can be applicable. Furthermore, it is feasible to retain a large amount of various nanofillers in the fibers to enhance their physical and chemical properties. Therefore, HS provides an effective pathway to create new types of reinforced nanofibers with outstanding properties.

  4. Fabrication and Molecular Transport Studies of Highly c-Oriented AFI Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang


    The AFI membrane with one-dimensional straight channels is an ideal platform for various applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of a highly c-oriented, compact and stable AFI membrane by epitaxial growth from an almost close-packed and c-oriented monolayer of plate-like seeds that is manually assembled on a porous alumina support. The straight channels in the membrane are not only aligned vertically along the membrane depth, but are also continuous without disruption. The transport resistance is thus minimized and as a result, the membrane shows almost two orders of magnitude greater permeance in pervaporation of hydrocarbons compared to reported values in the literature. The selectivity of p-xylene to 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) is approximately 850. In addition, through gas permeation studies on a number of gas and liquid molecules, different transport mechanisms including activated Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion and molecular sieving were discovered for different diffusion species. The ratio of kinetic diameter to channel diameter, dm/dc, and the ratio of the Lennard-Jones length constant to channel diameter, σm/dc, are found very useful in explaining the different transport behaviors. These results should be useful not only for potential industrial applications of the AFI membranes but also for the fundamental understanding of transport in nanoporous structures.

  5. High molecular orientation in mono- and tri-layer polydiacetylene films imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Atomically flat monolayer and trilayer films of polydiacetylenes have been prepared on mica and silicon using a horizontal deposition technique from a pure water subphase. Langmuir films of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (I) and N-(2-ethanol)-10,12-pentacosadiynamide (II) were compressed to 20 mN/m and subsequently polymerized by UV irradiation at the air-water interface. Blue and red forms of the films were prepared by varying exposure times and incident power. Polymerization to the blue-phase films produced slight contractions in the film of 2 and 5% for the films of II and I, respectively. Longer UV exposures yielded red-phase films with dramatic film contraction of 15 and 32% for II and I, respectively. The horizontal deposition technique provided transfer ratios of unity with minimal film stress or structure modification. Atomic force microscopy images revealed nearly complete coverage of the substrate with atomically flat films. Crystalline domains of up to 100 microns of highly oriented polydiacetylene molecules were observed. The results reported herein provided insight into the roles of molecular packing and chain orientations in converting the monomeric film to the polymerized blue- and red-phases.

  6. The fcc-bcc crystallographic orientation relationship in AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, J. C.; Ocelik, V.; Vainchtein, D.; Tang, Z.; Liaw, P. K.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.


    This paper concentrates on the crystallographic-orientation relationship between the various phases in the Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni high-entropy alloys. Two types of orientation relationships of bcc phases (some with ordered B2 structures) and fcc matrix were observed in Al0.5CoCrFeNi and Al0.7CoCrFeNi alloys

  7. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) measurement in supersonic flow with 4K high-speed camera (United States)

    Ota, M.; Kurihara, K.; Arimoto, H.; Shida, K.; Inage, T.


    The Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique is one of the novel measurement techniques and its application range is very wide. The principle of BOS is similar to that of the conventional schlieren technique, it exploits the bending of light ray caused by a refractive-index change corresponding to the density change in the medium. The BOS technique allows the quantitative measurement of density with very simple experimental setup and proper image analysis. Only a background and a digital camera are required for the experiment, so that even the real scale experiments can be realized. In recent years, the development of the high-speed camera is remarkable and so many high-speed phenomena can now be captured. To realize the precise measurement with BOS technique using high-speed camera, higher resolution (larger number of pixels) is desirable. In this paper, with a technical support from Nobby Tech Ltd., a 4K high-speed camera (4096 × 2160 pixels) is applied to the BOS measurement of the lateral jet/cross flow interaction filed in the supersonic wind tunnel test as a trial of the quantitative density measurement with higher resolution. The measurement system consists of a 4K high-speed camera and a pulsed laser for background illumination. A telecentric optical system is also employed to improve the spatial resolution of the measurement. The measurement results of BOS technique up to 1000 fps with higher resolution are discussed.

  8. Edge-Oriented Graphene on Carbon Nanofiber for High-Frequency Supercapacitors (United States)

    Islam, Nazifah; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Fan, Zhaoyang


    High-frequency supercapacitors are being studied with the aim to replace the bulky electrolytic capacitors for current ripple filtering and other functions used in power systems. Here, 3D edge-oriented graphene (EOG) was grown encircling carbon nanofiber (CNF) framework to form a highly conductive electrode with a large surface area. Such EOG/CNF electrodes were tested in aqueous and organic electrolytes for high-frequency supercapacitor development. For the aqueous and the organic cell, the characteristic frequency at - 45° phase angle was found to be as high as 22 and 8.5 kHz, respectively. At 120 Hz, the electrode capacitance density was 0.37 and 0.16 mF cm-2 for the two cells. In particular, the 3 V high-frequency organic cell was successfully tested as filtering capacitor used in AC/DC converter, suggesting the promising potential of this technology for compact power supply design and other applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Atomic force microscopy study of anion intercalation into highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliata, D.; Haering, P.; Haas, O.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegenthaler, H. [University of Berne (Switzerland)


    In the context of ion transfer batteries, we studied highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in perchloric acid, as a model to elucidate the mechanism of electrochemical intercalation in graphite. Aim of the work is the local and time dependent investigation of dimensional changes of the host material during electrochemical intercalation processes on the nanometer scale. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM), combined with cyclic voltammetry, as in-situ tool of analysis during intercalation and expulsion of perchloric anions into the HOPG electrodes. According to the AFM measurements, the HOPG interlayer spacing increases by 32% when perchloric anions intercalate, in agreement with the formation of stage IV of graphite intercalation compounds. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Adaptively constrained convex optimization for accurate fiber orientation estimation with high order spherical harmonics. (United States)

    Tran, Giang; Shi, Yonggang


    Diffusion imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) provides a great opportunity to map the whole brain white matter connectivity to unprecedented resolution in vivo. In this paper we develop a novel method for accurately reconstruct fiber orientation distribution from cutting-edge diffusion data by solving the spherical deconvolution problem as a constrained convex optimization problem. With a set of adaptively selected constraints, our method allows the use of high order spherical harmonics to reliably resolve crossing fibers with small separation angles. In our experiments, we demonstrate on simulated data that our algorithm outperforms a popular spherical deconvolution method in resolving fiber crossings. We also successfully applied our method to the multi-shell and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) data from HCP to demonstrate its ability in using state-of-the-art diffusion data to study complicated fiber structures.

  11. Observation of Individual Fluorine Atom from Highly Oriented Poly (tetrafluoroethylene) Films by Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.,; Paley, Mark S.


    Direct observation of the film thickness, molecular structure and individual fluorine atoms from highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films were achieved using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A thin PTFE film is mechanically deposited onto a smooth glass substrate at specific temperatures by a friction transfer technique. Atomic resolution images of these films show that the chain-like helical structures of the PTFE macromolecules are aligned parallel to each other with an intermolecular spacing of 5.72 A, and individual fluorine atoms are clearly observed along these twisted molecular chains with an interatomic spacing of 2.75 A. Furthermore, the first direct AFM measurements for the radius of the fluorine-helix, and of the carbon-helix in sub-angstrom scale are reported as 1.70 A and 0.54 A respectively.

  12. Observation of Individual Fluorine Atoms from Highly Oriented Poly(Tetrafluoroethylene) Films by Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Lee, J. A.


    Direct observation of the film thickness, molecular structure, and individual fluorine atoms from highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films were achieved using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A thin PTFE film is mechanically deposited onto a smooth glass substrate at specific temperatures by a friction-transfer technique. Atomic resolution images of these films show that the chain-like helical structures of the PTFE macromolecules are aligned parallel to each other with an intermolecular spacing of 5.72 A, and individual fluorine atoms are clearly observed along these twisted molecular chains with an interatomic spacing of 2.75 A. Furthermore, the first direct AFM measurements for the radius of the fluorine-helix, and of the carbon-helix in sub-angstrom scale are reported as 1.7 and 0.54 A respectively.

  13. The C Object System: Using C as a High-Level Object-Oriented Language

    CERN Document Server

    Deniau, Laurent


    The C Object System (Cos) is a small C library which implements high-level concepts available in Clos, Objc and other object-oriented programming languages: uniform object model (class, meta-class and property-metaclass), generic functions, multi-methods, delegation, properties, exceptions, contracts and closures. Cos relies on the programmable capabilities of the C programming language to extend its syntax and to implement the aforementioned concepts as first-class objects. Cos aims at satisfying several general principles like simplicity, extensibility, reusability, efficiency and portability which are rarely met in a single programming language. Its design is tuned to provide efficient and portable implementation of message multi-dispatch and message multi-forwarding which are the heart of code extensibility and reusability. With COS features in hand, software should become as flexible and extensible as with scripting languages and as efficient and portable as expected with C programming. Likewise, Cos con...

  14. Object-oriented recognition of high-resolution remote sensing image (United States)

    Wang, Yongyan; Li, Haitao; Chen, Hong; Xu, Yuannan


    With the development of remote sensing imaging technology and the improvement of multi-source image's resolution in satellite visible light, multi-spectral and hyper spectral , the high resolution remote sensing image has been widely used in various fields, for example military field, surveying and mapping, geophysical prospecting, environment and so forth. In remote sensing image, the segmentation of ground targets, feature extraction and the technology of automatic recognition are the hotspot and difficulty in the research of modern information technology. This paper also presents an object-oriented remote sensing image scene classification method. The method is consist of vehicles typical objects classification generation, nonparametric density estimation theory, mean shift segmentation theory, multi-scale corner detection algorithm, local shape matching algorithm based on template. Remote sensing vehicles image classification software system is designed and implemented to meet the requirements .

  15. Social Stress and Substance Use Disparities by Sexual Orientation Among High School Students. (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K


    Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (p<0.05 or 95% CI did not include 1.0) greater substance use among students who identified as lesbian/gay or bisexual than students who identified as heterosexual. APRs for injection drug use decreased substantially among lesbian/gay (PR=12.02 vs APR=2.14) and bisexual (PR=2.62 vs APR=1.18) students; the APR for bisexual students became nonsignificant. In addition, APRs among both lesbian/gay and bisexual students decreased substantially and were no longer statistically significant for cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin use. School-based substance use prevention programs might appropriately include strategies to reduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The relevance of goal-orientation for motivation in high versus low proneness to negative symptoms. (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Engel, Maike; Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M


    The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i.e., perceiving goals as less feasible and important and being less committed to them). Based on the continuum model of negative symptoms, we identified two parallelized extreme groups with high and low levels of NSLE (n = 37, respectively) in an ad-hoc online-sample of healthy individuals (N = 262) using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. In an online study, these participants were instructed to generate approach and avoidance goals and to rate each goal in terms of feasibility, importance and goal-commitment. Participants with low levels of NSLE generated more approach than avoidance goals. Participants with high levels of NSLE showed no such difference due to increased numbers of avoidance goals. Furthermore, avoidance goal-orientation predicted reduced subjective feasibility and importance of goals and less goal-commitment. Results are based on a healthy sample rather than people with psychosis. No longitudinal or behavioral data for goal-striving was collected. People with NSLE generate more avoidance goals than controls. This is dysfunctional because it correlates with feeling less committed to reach one's goals. Optimizing goal-setting could be a promising starting-point for psychological interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivational Orientations of High-Achieving Students as Mediators of a Positive Perception of a High-Achieving Classmate: results from a Cross-national Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyerim Oh

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore whether and in what ways high-achieving school students' motivational orientations influence their perceptions of a fictitious fUture high-achieving classmate. The final sample consisted of the 396 highest achieving students out of a sample from 1794 seventh and tenth graders from five countries: Australia, Peru, South Korea, Spain, and Vietnam. A series of stepwise regression models were used to test the hypothesis that positive perceptions of a high-achieving classmate might be mediated by an approach motivation, but not by an avoidance motivational orientation. The hypothesis was generally confirmed. Learning goal orientation and performance approach motivation predicted positive perceptions of a high-achieving classmate's intellectual ability, social qualities and popularity among peers, whereas a performance avoidance orientation was usually uncorrelated. However, sporadic exceptions have been found among the participants from Vietnam, South Korea, and Peru.

  18. Gender Differences in Self-Concept, Locus of Control, and Goal Orientation in Mexican High-Achieving Students (United States)

    Valdés-Cuervo, Angel Alberto; Sánchez Escobedo, Pedro Antonio; Valadez-Sierra, María Dolores


    The study compares self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation characteristics of male and female Mexican high school high-achieving students. Three scales were administered to 220 students; 106 (49%) were males and 114 (51%) females. By means of a discriminant analysis, both groups were compared in relation to the variables such as…

  19. Effects of a high-intensity task-oriented training on gait performance early after stroke: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outermans, J.C.; van Peppen, R.P.; Wittink, H.; Takken, T.; Kwakkel, G.


    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and the effects on gait of a high intensity task-oriented training, incorporating a high cardiovascular workload and large number of repetitions, in patients with subacute stroke, when compared to a low intensity physiotherapy-programme. Design and subjects:

  20. Language-mediated visual orienting behavior in low and high literates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk eHuettig


    Full Text Available The influence of formal literacy on spoken language-mediated visual orienting was investigated by using a simple look and listen task (cf. Huettig & Altmann, 2005 which resembles every day behavior. In Experiment 1, high and low literates listened to spoken sentences containing a target word (e.g., 'magar', crocodile while at the same time looking at a visual display of four objects (a phonological competitor of the target word, e.g., 'matar', peas; a semantic competitor, e.g., 'kachuwa', turtle, and two unrelated distractors. In Experiment 2 the semantic competitor was replaced with another unrelated distractor. Both groups of participants shifted their eye gaze to the semantic competitors (Experiment 1. In both experiments high literates shifted their eye gaze towards phonological competitors as soon as phonological information became available and moved their eyes away as soon as the acoustic information mismatched. Low literates in contrast only used phonological information when semantic matches between spoken word and visual referent were impossible (Experiment 2 but in contrast to high literates these phonologically-mediated shifts in eye gaze were not closely time-locked to the speech input. We conclude that in high literates language-mediated shifts in overt attention are co-determined by the type of information in the visual environment, the timing of cascaded processing in the word- and object-recognition systems, and the temporal unfolding of the spoken language. Our findings indicate that low literates exhibit a similar cognitive behavior but instead of participating in a tug-of-war among multiple types of cognitive representations, word-object mapping is achieved primarily at the semantic level. If forced, for instance by a situation in which semantic matches are not present (Experiment 2, low literates may on occasion have to rely on phonological information but do so in a much less proficient manner than their highly literate

  1. Scaling Features of High-Latitude Geomagnetic Field Fluctuations at Swarm Altitude: Impact of IMF Orientation (United States)

    De Michelis, Paola; Consolini, Giuseppe; Tozzi, Roberta; Marcucci, Maria Federica


    This paper attempts to explore the statistical scaling features of high-latitude geomagnetic field fluctuations at Swarm altitude. Data for this study are low-resolution (1 Hz) magnetic data recorded by the vector field magnetometer on board Swarm A satellite over 1 year (from 15 April 2014 to 15 April 2015). The first- and second-order structure function scaling exponents and the degree of intermittency of the fluctuations of the intensity of the horizontal component of the magnetic field at high northern latitudes have been evaluated for different interplanetary magnetic field orientations in the GSM Y-Z plane and seasons. In the case of the first-order structure function scaling exponent, a comparison between the average spatial distributions of the obtained values and the statistical convection patterns obtained using a Super Dual Auroral Radar Network dynamic model (CS10 model) has been also considered. The obtained results support the idea that the knowledge of the scaling features of the geomagnetic field fluctuations can help in the characterization of the different ionospheric turbulence regimes of the medium crossed by Swarm A satellite. This study shows that different turbulent regimes of the geomagnetic field fluctuations exist in the regions characterized by a double-cell convection pattern and in those regions near the border of the convective structures.

  2. Scanning near-field lithography with high precision flexure orientation stage control (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Haosen; Wang, Liang


    A new design of an orientation stage for scanning near-field lithography is presented based on flexure hinges. Employing flexure mechanisms in place of rigid-body mechanisms is one of the most promising techniques to efficiently implement high precision motion and avoid problems caused by friction. For near-field scanning lithography with evanescent wave, best resolution can be achieved in contact mode. However, if the mask is fixed on a rigid stage, contact friction will deteriorate the lithography surface. To reduce friction while maintaining good contact between the mask and the substrate, the mask should be held with high lateral stiffness and low torsion stiffness. This design can hold the mask in place during the scanning process and achieve passive alignment. Circular flexure hinges, whose parameters are determined by motion requirements based on Schotborgh's equation, are used as the basic unit of the stage to achieve passive alignment by compensating motions from elastic deformation. A finite-element analysis is performed to verify this property of the stage. With the aid of this stage, 21 nm resolution is achieved in static near-field lithography and 18 nm line-width in scanning near-field lithography.

  3. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks. (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron


    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  4. Self-assembly of thiophene derivatives on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: hydrogen bond effect. (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Liu, Yibiao; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Shuqi; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Zhang, Rui-Qin; Wen, Yongqiang; Du, Hongwu; Zhang, Xueji


    In this paper, to elucidate the hydrogen bond effect on the assembly behavior, we studied the assembly structures of two carboxylic substituted thiophene derivatives on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by scanning tunneling microscopy. Here thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (TCA) and thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (TDA) were employed. TDA molecules spontaneously adsorb on the HOPG surface and self-organize into a two-dimensional (2D) assembly with well-defined structure. Two types of domain could be observed. Each TDA molecule appears as a round circle with two small faint dots and forms hydrogen bonds with neighbours. Besides monolayer structure, a bilayer structure of TDA adlayer on HOPG was also observed in this research. Remnant TDA molecules adsorb on the monolayer of TDA and bilayer structure is formed. In contrast to TDA, no ordered structure of TCA on HOPG can be observed. TCA molecules have high propensity to form dimers through H-bond between carboxylic groups. But TCA dimer is not stable enough for either adsorption or imaging. Our result provides a new example for understanding hydrogen effect on stabilizing and controlling two-dimensional assembly structure and is helpful for surface nanofabrication and development of electric nanodevices.

  5. Fabrication of highly b-oriented MFI film with molecular sieving properties by controlled in-plane secondary growth. (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Yanshuo; Yang, Weishen


    Here we report a facile method to fabricate highly b-oriented and submicrometer thin MFI films on substrates. Neither an anhydrous environment nor a specifically designed structure-directing agent (SDA) is required in the whole process, and by innovation of the secondary growth process, twin growth of the b-oriented seed layer is effectively suppressed with TPAOH as the SDA for the first time. Furthermore, various substrates with different surface conditions can be directly used as substrates without premodification. A Pt electrode also was successfully used as a substrate to grow this high quality MFI film, showing excellent molecular sieving ability in aqueous solution.

  6. Highly controlled orientation of CaBi4Ti4O15 using a strong magnetic field (United States)

    Suzuki, Tohru S.; Kimura, Masahiko; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke; Ando, Akira; Sakka, Yoshio; Sakabe, Yukio


    The texture of feeble magnetic ceramics can be controlled by a strong magnetic field. When the magnetic susceptibility of the c axis is smaller than that of the other axes, the c axis aligns perpendicular to the magnetic field; however, the direction is randomly oriented on the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The authors demonstrate in this letter that a highly controlled texture in bismuth titanate, which has a c-axis susceptibility smaller than the other axes, can be achieved using a two-step magnetic field procedure. This highly controlled orientation is effective for improving the electromechanical coupling coefficient.

  7. Orientation relations during the α-ω phase transition of zirconium: in situ texture observations at high pressure and temperature. (United States)

    Wenk, H-R; Kaercher, P; Kanitpanyacharoen, W; Zepeda-Alarcon, E; Wang, Y


    Transition metals Ti, Zr, and Hf have a hexagonal close-packed structure (α) at ambient conditions, but undergo phase transformations with increasing temperature and pressure. Of particular significance is the high-pressure hexagonal ω phase which is brittle compared to the α phase. There has been a long debate about transformation mechanisms and orientation relations between the two crystal structures. Here we present the first high pressure experiments with in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction texture studies on polycrystalline aggregates. We follow crystal orientation changes in Zr, confirming the original suggestion by Silcock for an α→ω martensitic transition for Ti, with (0001)(α)||(1120)(ω), and a remarkable orientation memory when ω reverts back to α.

  8. Object-oriented regression for building predictive models with high dimensional omics data from translational studies. (United States)

    Zhao, Lue Ping; Bolouri, Hamid


    Maturing omics technologies enable researchers to generate high dimension omics data (HDOD) routinely in translational clinical studies. In the field of oncology, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) provided funding support to researchers to generate different types of omics data on a common set of biospecimens with accompanying clinical data and has made the data available for the research community to mine. One important application, and the focus of this manuscript, is to build predictive models for prognostic outcomes based on HDOD. To complement prevailing regression-based approaches, we propose to use an object-oriented regression (OOR) methodology to identify exemplars specified by HDOD patterns and to assess their associations with prognostic outcome. Through computing patient's similarities to these exemplars, the OOR-based predictive model produces a risk estimate using a patient's HDOD. The primary advantages of OOR are twofold: reducing the penalty of high dimensionality and retaining the interpretability to clinical practitioners. To illustrate its utility, we apply OOR to gene expression data from non-small cell lung cancer patients in TCGA and build a predictive model for prognostic survivorship among stage I patients, i.e., we stratify these patients by their prognostic survival risks beyond histological classifications. Identification of these high-risk patients helps oncologists to develop effective treatment protocols and post-treatment disease management plans. Using the TCGA data, the total sample is divided into training and validation data sets. After building up a predictive model in the training set, we compute risk scores from the predictive model, and validate associations of risk scores with prognostic outcome in the validation data (P-value=0.015). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Roles of Oxygen and Hydrogen in Crystal Orientation Transition of Copper Foils for High-Quality Graphene Growth (United States)

    Hu, Junxiong; Xu, Jianbao; Zhao, Yanfei; Shi, Lin; Li, Qi; Liu, Fengkui; Ullah, Zaka; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Yufen; Liu, Liwei


    The high-quality graphene film can be grown on single-crystal Cu substrate by seamlessly stitching the aligned graphene domains. The roles of O2 and H2 have been intensively studied in the graphene growth kinetics, including lowering the nucleation sites and tailoring the domain structures. However, how the O2 and H2 influence Cu orientations during recrystallization prior to growing graphene, still remains unclear. Here we report that the oxidation of Cu surface tends to stabilize the Cu(001) orientation while impedes the evolution of Cu(111) single domain during annealing process. The crystal orientation-controlled synthesis of aligned graphene seeds is further realized on the long-range ordered Cu(111) substrate. With decreasing the thickness of oxide layer on Cu surface by introducing H2, the Cu(001) orientation changes into Cu(111) orientation. Meanwhile, the average domain size of Cu foils is increased from 50 μm to larger than 1000 μm. The density functional theory calculations reveal that the oxygen increases the energy barrier for Cu(111) surface and makes O/Cu(001) more stable than O/Cu(111) structure. Our work can be helpful for revealing the roles of O2 and H2 in controlling the formation of Cu single-crystal substrate as well as in growing high-quality graphene films.

  10. Formation of Nanocones on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite by Oxygen Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Vesel


    Full Text Available Improvement in hemocompatibility of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG by formation of nanostructured surface by oxygen plasma treatment is reported. We have showed that by appropriate fine tuning of plasma and discharge parameters we are able to create nanostructured surface which is densely covered with nanocones. The size of the nanocones strongly depended on treatment time. The optimal results in terms of material hemocompatibility were obtained after treatment with oxygen plasma for 15 s, when both the nanotopography and wettability were the most favorable, since marked reduction in adhesion and activation of platelets was observed on this surface. At prolonged treatment times, the rich surface topography was lost and thus also its antithrombogenic properties. Chemical composition of the surface was always more or less the same, regardless of its morphology and height of the nanocones. Namely, on all plasma treated samples, only a few atomic percent of oxygen was found, meaning that plasma caused mostly etching, leading to changes in the surface morphology. This indicates that the main preventing mechanism against platelets adhesion was the right surface morphology.

  11. Electronic Transport and Raman Spectroscopy Characterization in Ion-Implanted Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (United States)

    de Jesus, R. F.; Turatti, A. M.; Camargo, B. C.; da Silva, R. R.; Kopelevich, Y.; Behar, M.; Balzaretti, N. M.; Gusmão, M. A.; Pureur, P.


    We report on Raman spectroscopy, temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity, and in-plane magnetoresistance experiments in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) implanted with As and Mn. A pristine sample was also studied for comparison. Two different fluences were applied, φ = 0.5× 10^{16} ions/cm2 and φ = 1.0× 10^{16} ions/cm2 . The implantations were carried out with 20 keV ion energy at room temperature. The Raman spectroscopy results reveal the occurrence of drastic changes of the HOPG surface as a consequence of the damage caused by ionic implantation. For the higher dose, the complete amorphization limit is attained. The resistivity and magnetoresistance results were obtained placing electrical contacts on the irradiated sample surface. Owing to the strong anisotropy of HOPG, the electrical current propagates mostly near the implanted surface. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were observed in the magnetoresistance at low temperatures. These results allow the extraction of the fundamental SdH frequencies and the carriers' effective masses. In general, the resistivity and magnetoresistance results are consistent with those obtained from Raman measurements. However, one must consider that the electrical conduction in our samples occurs as in a parallel association of a largely resistive thin sheet at the surface strongly modified by disorder with a thicker layer where damage produced by implantation is less severe. The SdH oscillations do not hint to significant changes in the carrier density of HOPG.

  12. [Cost-effectiveness of needs-oriented discharge planning in high utilizers of mental health care]. (United States)

    Puschner, Bernd; Baumgartner, Ildiko; Loos, Sabine; Völker, Kathleen A; Ramacher, Meike; Sohla, Katja; Grempler, Julia; Becker, Thomas; Kilian, Reinhold


    To establish the cost-effectiveness of needs-oriented discharge planning in high utilizers of mental health services. As part of a multicenter RCT (n = 458), costs were measured via the German version of the "Client Sociodemographic and Service Receipt Inventory" (CSSRI-EU), and the EQ-5 D was used to ascertain QALYs. Cost-effectiveness analysis included deriving incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and plotting them onto the cost-effectiveness plane as well as examining cost-effectiveness acceptability taking into account willingness-to-pay. During an 18-month period after discharge from inpatient psychiatric treatment, neither total direct and indirect costs (44,278 € vs. 43,302 €) nor quality-adjusted life years (0.960 vs. 0.958 QALYs) significantly differed by participant allocation to intervention or control groups. Also inspection of ICERs showed that the intervention had no economic advantage over standard care. The intervention is no cost-effective alternative to standard care. Future studies aiming to improve organization of mental care should be considerate of institutional context. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Recent progress concerning the production of controlled highly oriented electrospun nanofibrous arrays (United States)

    Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.; Leon, A. L.; Popa, A.


    Among the foreground domains of all the research-development programs at national and international level, a special place is occupied by that concerning the nanosciences, nanotechnologies, new materials and technologies. Electrospinning found a well-deserved place in this space, offering the preparation of nanomaterials with distinctive properties and applications in medicine, environment, photonic sensors, filters, etc. These multiple applications are generated by the fact that the electrospinning technology makes available the production of nanofibers with controllable characteristics (length, porosity, density, and mechanical characteristics), complexity and architecture. The apparition of 3D printing technology favors the production of complex nanofibrous structures, controlled assembly, self-assembly of electrospun nanofibers for the production of scaffolds used in various medical applications. The architecture of fibrous deposits has a special influence on the subsequent development of the cells of the reconstructed organism. The present work proposes to study of recent progress concerning the production of controlled highly oriented electrospun nanofibrous arrays and progress in research on the production of complex 2D and 3D structures.

  14. Low-bandgap, highly c-axis-oriented Al-doped ZnO thin films (United States)

    Wen, Long; Kumar, Manish; Cho, Hyung Jun; Leksakul, Komgrit; Geon Han, Jeon


    Low-bandgap transparent conductive oxides will be of interest to researchers who wish to address the health hazards of blue radiation emission from electronic displays. Here, we present a single-step, low-temperature fast enough (throughput  >  60 nm min-1) process to grow highly c-axis-oriented crystalline Al-doped ZnO thin films via advanced plasma processing. Dual-power DC-magnetron sputtering plasma was employed for the synthesis of thin films. The addition of top power to a pre-existing rectangular power pushed additional ions to a confined plasma and increased the plasma density and electron temperature. The effect of this additional-ion pushing was systematically studied using the microstructure, surface properties, and electronic properties. As a result, bandgap reduction from 3.35 eV to 3.10 eV and tailoring of electrical resistivity (4.89  ×  10-4-8.32  ×  10-3 Ω cm) and Seebeck coefficients (21-48 µV K-1) were achieved in addition to excellent transparency. Given their properties, the obtained films show promise for multifunctional applications, such as in UV and near-blue radiation shielding, transparent conductive electrodes and low-temperature thermoelectrics.

  15. Preparation of highly oriented poly-diacetylene LB films with ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoi, Fumio; Aoki, Yasushi; Okamoto, Jiro; Hagiwara, Miyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)


    Thin layer films of diacetylene compounds have great potential for many application in electronics and optoelectronics, because a conjugated double bond is formed with polymerization. However, the optoelectrical properties of organic compounds strongly depend on the morphology of the multilayers. We studied to the effect of ion beam irradiation onto 10,12-heptacosa-diynoic acid LB films. Fe{sup +} irradiation was carried out under the condition of 60keV of accelerating energy, 1nA of current. The X-ray diffraction pattern pattern of poly-10,12-heptacosadiynoic acid LB films became strong and narrow, and higher peak observed compared with original one. Furthermore, interlayer spacing of diynoic acid molecules increased about 2.9 angstrom with Fe{sup +} irradiation. These results show that the conformation of diynoic acid molecules varies with Fe{sup +} irradiation and diynoic acid molecules are rearranged in this process. The similar phenomena was observed when Cu particles sputtered with low energy of Ar{sup +} beam were deposited on LB films. On the other hand, the X-ray diffraction patterns of poly-diynoic acid LB films polymerized with UV irradiation became weak and broad, and higher order peaks disappeared with irradiation. The ion beam irradiation is very effective to obtain highly oriented multilayers. (author).

  16. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin. (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua


    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  17. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  18. Automatic Compilation from High-Level Biologically-Oriented Programming Language to Genetic Regulatory Networks (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron


    Background The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes () and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Conclusions/Significance Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems. PMID:21850228

  19. Optimization of sub-cells orientation for assembly of a high-quality transmission sphere (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Jei; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Huang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao


    The transmission sphere (TS) provides a high-quality reference wavefront which is common path with a test wavefront to generate interference fringes in a Fizeau interferometer. The optical path difference (OPD) of the reference wavefront should be controlled within peak-to-valley (PV) 5 λ (λ=0.6328 um), because too large OPD makes interference fringes distorted. Therefore, the tolerance analysis of the reference wavefront is very critical. Because the surface irregularity of lens can change the phase of a wavefront, surface deformation after mounting highly impacts on the wavefront error. For large optics, such as φ 6-inch in this study, surface deformation dominates the quality of the reference wavefront. For minimizing surface deformation after mounting, semi-kinematic mounting technology is used in sub-cells design to avoid over-constraint forces and unpredictable deformation. Then, the deformation due to gravity force of each surface can be constrained around PV 0.3 λ with Zernike trefoil in vertical setup TS; however, the superposition of the distorted wavefront may deteriorate the optical performance. A method of optimizing orientation of each lens around optical axis is presented in this paper. Sub-cells are designed to be rotational around optical axis respectively. The wavefront error of the reference beam of the worst case is improved significantly after optimization. Consequently, the method can effectively reduce the difficulty of lenses fabrication and mounting, and then the specification of the surface irregularity can be lower for cost saving. Based on the optimization in our study, a good reference wavefront can be acquired without any tight tolerance or complicated assembly.

  20. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Beal

    Full Text Available The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry.To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50% and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks.Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  1. Microstructural analyses, magnetic and magneto-optic effects in high oriented BaFe12O19 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lodder, J.C.


    Barium ferrite films applicable for data storage have been grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. BaFe12O19/Al2O3 films show a polycrystalline structure with high oriented perpendicular anisotropy. Large megneto-optic effects have been observed in the UV wavelength. The magnetic

  2. Using object-oriented classification and high-resolution imagery to map fuel types in a Mediterranean region. (United States)

    L. Arroyo; S.P. Healey; W.B. Cohen; D. Cocero; J.A. Manzanera


    Knowledge of fuel load and composition is critical in fighting, preventing, and understanding wildfires. Commonly, the generation of fuel maps from remotely sensed imagery has made use of medium-resolution sensors such as Landsat. This paper presents a methodology to generate fuel type maps from high spatial resolution satellite data through object-oriented...

  3. The Impact of Mandatory Community Service and Social Support on Urban High School Seniors' Civic Engagement Orientations (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey


    This study examined the efficacy of mandatory community service to prepare all high school students in a large urban school district for civic engagement. The principal hypothesis asserted that mandatory community service was insufficient in influencing students' civic engagement orientations (CEO) unless accompanied by opportunities for receiving…

  4. High piezoelectric response in polar-axis-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 ferroelectric thin films (United States)

    Fu, Desheng; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Kato, Kazumi


    We report on the piezoelectric properties of polar-axis-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 films detected by atomic force microscope (AFM). The sol-gel-derived films onto Pt foil show excellent switching properties, and can be uniformly polarized over large areas with a conductive AFM tip. The films have an extremely high piezoelectric coefficient of d33, and a value of 180pm /V has been detected. These results indicate that the oriented bismuth-layered films can be used as the lead-free piezoelectrics.

  5. High-throughput investigation of orientations effect on nanoscale magnetization reversal in cobalt ferrite thin films induced by electric field (United States)

    Dhanapal, Pravarthana; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Baomin; Yang, Huali; Agarwal, Sandeep; Zhan, Qingfeng; Li, Run-Wei


    The magnetoelectric device concept which enables the non-volatile electric field control of magnetism needs to be investigated for the development of practical information storage devices. In this aspect, the emerging field of magneto-ionics based on the modulation of magnetism by field-driven ion migration is promising because it only requires a simple sample structure in the solid state and has good cyclability. However, the degree of ion migration within the magnetic structure is strongly dependent on the crystal orientations. Since the epitaxial films growing on the commercial single crystal substrates have limited orientations, the ability of magnetism modulated by field-driven ion migration cannot be optimized and understood by using these data. In this work, we utilized the high-throughput synthesis approach, namely, combinatorial substrate epitaxy, which utilizes a polycrystalline substrate. This provides a platform to develop and understand the degree of ionic migration in different orientations of the model system CoFe2O4 (CFO) films. The library of electric driven nanoscale magnetization reversal data of CFO with different orientations was obtained by applying the electric field in the same region of known CFO grain orientations. It was determined from the analysis that the [110] crystal direction exhibits the maximum nanoscale magnetization reversal ratio. This is mainly attributed to the ease Co2+ migration in the [110] direction under the electric field assisted by a Fe3+ and oxygen vacancies.

  6. 3D highly oriented nanoparticulate and microparticulate array ofmetal oxide materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayssieres, Lionel; Guo, Jinghua; Nordgren, Joseph


    Advanced nano and micro particulate thin films of 3d transition and post-transition metal oxides consisting of nanorods and microrods with parallel and perpendicular orientation with respect to the substrate normal, have been successfully grown onto various substrates by heteronucleation, without template and/or surfactant, from the aqueous condensation of solution of metal salts or metal complexes (aqueous chemical growth). Three-dimensional arrays of iron oxide nanorods and zinc oxide nanorods with parallel and perpendicular orientation are presented as well as the oxygen K-edge polarization dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of anisotropic perpendicularly oriented microrod array of ZnO performed at synchrotron radiation source facility.

  7. Goal orientation, motivational climate, and dispositional flow of high school students engaged in extracurricular physical activity. (United States)

    Cervelló, Eduardo M; Moreno, Juan A; Villodre, Nestor Alonso; Iglesias, Damián


    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of goal orientation, motivational climate, and dispositional flow in physical education lessons on extracurricular involvement in physical activity. Questionnaires were administered to 1,103 (792 athletes; 311 nonathletes) secondary school students (M age = 14.3 yr., SD = 0.7). Analysis showed significant mean differences between groups on goal orientation and dispositional flow in physical education lessons, but none for perception of motivational climate. These findings suggest that dispositional variables are related to extracurricular involvement in physical activity.

  8. Esterification of oleic acid with methanol by immobilized lipase on wrinkled silica nanoparticles with highly ordered, radially oriented mesochannels. (United States)

    Pang, Jinli; Zhou, Guowei; Liu, Ruirui; Li, Tianduo


    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a wrinkled structure (wrinkled silica nanoparticles, WSNs) having highly ordered, radially oriented mesochannels were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The method used a mixture of cyclohexane, ethanol, and water as solvent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as source of inorganic silica, ammonium hydroxide as hydrolysis additive, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizing agent of particle growth. Particle size (240nm to 540nm), specific surface areas (490m(2)g(-1) to 634m(2)g(-1)), surface morphology (radial wrinkled structures), and pore structure (radially oriented mesochannels) of WSN samples were varied using different molar ratios of CTAB to PVP. Using synthesized WSN samples with radially oriented mesochannels as support, we prepared immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) as a new biocatalyst for biodiesel production through the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. These results suggest that WSNs with highly ordered, radially oriented mesochannels have promising applications in biocatalysis, with the highest oleic acid conversion rate of about 86.4% under the optimum conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Results on the Coherent Interaction of High Energy Electrons and Photons in Oriented Single Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballestrero, S.; Biino, C.; Birol, I.; Cenci, P.; Connell, S.H.; Eichblatt, S.; Fonseca, T.; Freund, A.; Gorini, B.; Groess, R.; Ispirian, K.; Ketel, T.J.; Kononets, Yu.V.; Lopez, A.; Mangiarotti, A.; van Rens, B.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Shieh, M.; Sona, P.; Strakhovenko, V.; Uggerhoj, E.; Uggerhj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.; Wessely, O.; Kononets, Yu.V.


    The CERN-NA-59 experiment examined a wide range of electromagnetic processes for multi-GeV electrons and photons interacting with oriented single crystals. The various types of crystals and their orientations were used for producing photon beams and for converting and measuring their polarisation. The radiation emitted by 178 GeV unpolarised electrons incident on a 1.5 cm thick Si crystal oriented in the Coherent Bremsstrahlung (CB) and the String-of-Strings (SOS) modes was used to obtain multi-GeV linearly polarised photon beams. A new crystal polarimetry technique was established for measuring the linear polarisation of the photon beam. The polarimeter is based on the dependence of the Coherent Pair Production (CPP) cross section in oriented single crystals on the direction of the photon polarisation with respect to the crystal plane. Both a 1 mm thick single crystal of Germanium and a 4 mm thick multi-tile set of synthetic Diamond crystals were used as analyzers of the linear polarisation. A birefringence ...

  10. High levels of absorption in orientation-unbiased, radio-selected 3CR Active Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Leipski, Christian; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Worrall, Diana; Birkinshaw, Mark; Willner, Steven P.

    A critical problem in understanding active galaxies (AGN) is the separation of intrinsic physical differences from observed differences that are due to orientation. Obscuration of the active nucleus is anisotropic and strongly frequency dependent leading to complex selection effects for observations

  11. Faculty Perceptions of Principal Support and Change Orientation in Virginia High Schools (United States)

    Cagle, Karen E.


    Similar to other organizations, change is a part of any school setting. In this time of necessary educational transformation, school principals must have the knowledge and skills to be change agents. This study sought to expand on existing research on change orientation by examining how principal support affects the faculty's receptivity to…

  12. Action-Oriented Population Nutrition Research: High Demand but Limited Supply. (United States)

    Pham, Judy; Pelletier, David


    The relatively rapid ascendancy of nutrition and health on policy agendas, along with greater emphasis on accountability and results, has stimulated interest in new forms of research to guide the development and implementation of effective policies, programs, and interventions-what we refer to as action-oriented research. To date, action-oriented research in the nutrition field is thought to be the exception rather than the rule, but empirical evidence to support this claim is lacking. We conducted a survey of selected journals in nutrition and public health to assess the extent and nature of population nutrition research published in 2012 that embodied 5 defined characteristics of action-oriented research in relation to: (1) topic(s) of study, (2) processes/influences, (3) actors, (4) methods, and (5) approaches. We identified 762 articles from the 6 selected nutrition journals and 77 nutrition-related articles from the 4 selected public health journals that met our search criteria. Only 7% of the 762 papers in nutrition journals had at least 1 of the 5 action-oriented research characteristics, compared with 36% of the 77 nutrition-related papers in the public health journals. Of all 80 articles that had at least 1 action-oriented research characteristic, only 5 articles (6.25%) embodied all 5 characteristics. Articles with action-oriented research covered a broad range of topics and processes/influences, including policy, workforce development, and schools, as well as actors, such as program staff, store owners, parents, and school staff. In addition, various research methods were used, such as stakeholder analysis, ethnographic narrative, iterative action research, and decision tree modeling, as well as different approaches, including participant-observer and community-based participatory research. Action-oriented research represents a small fraction of articles published in nutrition journals, especially compared with public health journals. This reinforces

  13. Eating disorder symptoms and obesity at the intersections of gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation in US high school students. (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Nelson, Lauren A; Birkett, Michelle A; Calzo, Jerel P; Everett, Bethany


    We examined purging for weight control, diet pill use, and obesity across sexual orientation identity and ethnicity groups. Anonymous survey data were analyzed from 24 591 high school students of diverse ethnicities in the federal Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System Survey in 2005 and 2007. Self-reported data were gathered on gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation identity, height, weight, and purging and diet pill use in the past 30 days. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of purging, diet pill use, and obesity associated with sexual orientation identity in gender-stratified models and examined for the presence of interactions between ethnicity and sexual orientation. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity was associated with substantially elevated odds of purging and diet pill use in both girls and boys (odds ratios [OR] range = 1.9-6.8). Bisexual girls and boys were also at elevated odds of obesity compared to same-gender heterosexuals (OR = 2.3 and 2.1, respectively). Interventions to reduce eating disorders and obesity that are appropriate for LGB youths of diverse ethnicities are urgently needed.

  14. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes (United States)

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.


    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other. 3 figs.

  15. Highly oriented, neutral and cation-free AlPO4 LTA: from a seed crystal monolayer to a molecular sieve membrane. (United States)

    Huang, Aisheng; Caro, Jürgen


    An oriented, neutral and cation-free AlPO(4) LTA molecular sieve membrane with high hydrogen selectivity was prepared on porous α-Al(2)O(3) supports through secondary growth of a highly oriented AlPO(4) LTA monolayer.

  16. Oriented graphene films for use as high-performance thermal and electrical interconnects (United States)

    Moafi, Ali; Wong, Kevin; Lau, Desmond; Partridge, Jim G.; McCulloch, Dougal G.


    Carbon thin films can be prepared with properties that make them suitable for applications in electronics including heat sinks, electrical interconnects transistors and chemical sensors. In this work, we examine the microstructure and normalised through film electrical resistance of oriented and non-oriented carbon films deposited onto silicon substrates at room temperature using a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA). Electrical measurements have also been performed on carbon films which were lithographically patterned to produce test structures resembling vertical interconnects. Twopoint, through-film current-voltage measurements of NiCr/Carbon/Si structures showed that the electrical resistance of the carbon films could be varied by several orders of magnitude simply by selecting different substrate bias voltages. Importantly, carbon films composed of vertically aligned graphene sheets were found to provide low resistance, linear current-voltage characteristics, indicating the formation of Ohmic junctions at the NiCr and Si interfaces of the NiCr/Carbon/Si structure.

  17. High Performance Discrete Cosine Transform Operator Using Multimedia Oriented Subword Parallelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Khan


    Full Text Available In this paper an efficient two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT operator is proposed for multimedia applications. It is based on the DCT operator proposed in Kovac and Ranganathan, 1995. Speed-up is obtained by using multimedia oriented subword parallelism (SWP. Rather than operating on a single pixel, the SWP-based DCT operator performs parallel computations on multiple pixels packed in word size input registers so that the performance of the operator is increased. Special emphasis is made to increase the coordination between pixel sizes and subword sizes to maximize resource utilization rate. Rather than using classical subword sizes (8, 16, and 32 bits, multimedia oriented subword sizes (8, 10, 12, and 16 bits are used in the proposed DCT operator. The proposed SWP DCT operator unit can be used as a coprocessor for multimedia applications.

  18. Dynamic Stability Improvement of Grid Connected DFIG Using Enhanced Field Oriented Control Technique for High Voltage Ride Through


    Ananth Duggirala, V.N.; Nagesh Kumar Gundavarapu, V.


    Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is a better alternative to increased power demand. Modern grid regulations force DFIG to operate without losing synchronism during overvoltages called high voltage ride through (HVRT) during grid faults. Enhanced field oriented control technique (EFOC) was proposed in Rotor Side Control of DFIG converter to improve power flow transfer and to improve dynamic and transient stability. Further electromagnetic oscillations are damped, improved voltage mitigati...

  19. High Genetic Diversity and Structured Populations of the Oriental Fruit Moth in Its Range of Origin


    Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua


    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected through...

  20. Effect of Fiber Orientation on Dynamic Compressive Properties of an Ultra-High Performance Concrete (United States)


    concrete (UHPC) tends to create preferential fiber alignment, which affects the strength and must be accounted for in design. To date , most work on...are most commonly used in UHPCs. Quantitative stereology, which uses geometric probability theory to deter- mine average properties of two- and...ERDC/GSL TR-17-23 31 X-ray CT has been used by a number of researchers, particularly for deter- mining fiber orientation (Schnell et al. 2008

  1. Development of probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools for probability materials at junior high school students (United States)

    Sari, Dwi Ivayana; Hermanto, Didik


    This research is a developmental research of probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools for probability materials at ninth grade students. This study is aimed to produce a good probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools. The subjects were IX-A students of MTs Model Bangkalan. The stages of this development research used 4-D development model which has been modified into define, design and develop. Teaching learning tools consist of lesson plan, students' worksheet, learning teaching media and students' achievement test. The research instrument used was a sheet of learning tools validation, a sheet of teachers' activities, a sheet of students' activities, students' response questionnaire and students' achievement test. The result of those instruments were analyzed descriptively to answer research objectives. The result was teaching learning tools in which oriented to probabilistic thinking of probability at ninth grade students which has been valid. Since teaching and learning tools have been revised based on validation, and after experiment in class produced that teachers' ability in managing class was effective, students' activities were good, students' responses to the learning tools were positive and the validity, sensitivity and reliability category toward achievement test. In summary, this teaching learning tools can be used by teacher to teach probability for develop students' probabilistic thinking.

  2. Processing and enhanced piezoelectric properties of highly oriented compositionally modified Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics fabricated by magnetic alignment (United States)

    Miwa, Yasunari; Kawada, Shinichiro; Kimura, Masahiko; Omiya, Suetake; Kubodera, Noriyuki; Ando, Akira; Suzuki, Tohru S.; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Sakka, Yoshio


    Highly oriented compositionally modified Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramics were successfully obtained by slip casting in a high magnetic field. PZT is a well-known superior ceramic with the highest piezoelectric properties, and these properties have been expected to be further improved through crystalline orientation. However, highly oriented PZT ceramics fabricated by slip casting in a high magnetic field have never been reported. We obtained oriented ceramics using compositionally modified PZT with Pb(Ni,Nb)O3, and their Lotgering factor was 0.77. The electromechanical coupling coefficient (k31) increased by 30%, and an extremely high value of 0.44 was achieved for the oriented ceramics.

  3. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students. (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Bakken, Nicholas W


    Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects--including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors--significantly differed based on gender and orientation. Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of highly c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes by secondary growth and their gas permeation properties

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yunyang


    A seeded growth procedure was successfully developed to synthesize highly c-oriented and well-intergrown zeolitic imidazolate framework-69 (ZIF-69) membranes on porous α-alumina substrates. The synthesis conditions were optimized both for seed preparation and for secondary growth. For seeding, a facile method was developed to prepare smaller and flat ZIF-69 microcrystals in order to make thin and c-oriented seed layers. While for secondary growth, a synthesis condition that favored the growth along the c-direction was chosen in order to form highly c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes after growth. As a result, the majority of ZIF-69 grains inside the membrane have their straight channels along the crystallographic c-axis aligned perpendicularly to the substrate surface. Such alignment was confirmed by both XRD and pole figure analysis. The mixture-gas separation studies that were carried out at room temperature and 1atm gave separation factors of 6.3, 5.0, 4.6 for CO2/N2, CO2/CO and CO2/CH4 respectively, and a permeance of ∼1.0×10-7molm-2s-1Pa-1 for CO2 in almost all mixtures. Both the separation factor and permeance were better than the performance of the ZIF-69 membranes prepared by the in situ solvothermal method due to improvement in the membrane microstructure by the seeded growth method. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes]. (United States)

    Grüttner, M


    Background: Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Method: Interview data on the 7th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). Results: The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; peating disorders. Conclusion: In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. MrBayes tgMC3++: A High Performance and Resource-Efficient GPU-Oriented Phylogenetic Analysis Method. (United States)

    Ling, Cheng; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Gao, Jingyang; Zhao, Guoguang; Sun, Donghong; Shi, Weifeng


    MrBayes is a widespread phylogenetic inference tool harnessing empirical evolutionary models and Bayesian statistics. However, the computational cost on the likelihood estimation is very expensive, resulting in undesirably long execution time. Although a number of multi-threaded optimizations have been proposed to speed up MrBayes, there are bottlenecks that severely limit the GPU thread-level parallelism of likelihood estimations. This study proposes a high performance and resource-efficient method for GPU-oriented parallelization of likelihood estimations. Instead of having to rely on empirical programming, the proposed novel decomposition storage model implements high performance data transfers implicitly. In terms of performance improvement, a speedup factor of up to 178 can be achieved on the analysis of simulated datasets by four Tesla K40 cards. In comparison to the other publicly available GPU-oriented MrBayes, the tgMC 3 ++ method (proposed herein) outperforms the tgMC 3 (v1.0), nMC 3 (v2.1.1) and oMC 3 (v1.00) methods by speedup factors of up to 1.6, 1.9 and 2.9, respectively. Moreover, tgMC 3 ++ supports more evolutionary models and gamma categories, which previous GPU-oriented methods fail to take into analysis.

  7. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, K.K.; Pandey, R.K. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub x} have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880{degrees}C) of Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (>860{degrees}C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} phase films on (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T{sub co}) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  8. High resolution probe of coherence in low-energy charge exchange collisions with oriented targets

    CERN Document Server

    Leredde, A; Cassimi, A; Hennecart, D; Pons, B


    The trapping lasers of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are used to bring Rb atoms into well defined oriented states. Coupled to recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS), this yields a unique MOTRIMS setup which is able to probe scattering dynamics, including their coherence features, with unprecedented resolution. This technique is applied to the low-energy charge exchange processes Na$^+$+Rb($5p_{\\pm 1}$) $\\rightarrow$ Na($3p,4s$)+Rb$^+$. The measurements reveal detailed features of the collisional interaction which are employed to improve the theoretical description. All of this enables to gauge the reliability of intuitive pictures predicting the most likely capture transitions.

  9. Background-Oriented Schlieren for Large-Scale and High-Speed Aerodynamic Phenomena (United States)

    Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Borg, Stephen; Danehy, Paul M.; Murman, Scott M.; Matsumura, Tomoharu; Wakabayashi, Kunihiko; Nakayama, Yoshio


    Visualization of the flow field around a generic re-entry capsule in subsonic flow and shock wave visualization with cylindrical explosives have been conducted to demonstrate sensitivity and applicability of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) for field experiments. The wind tunnel experiment suggests that BOS with a fine-pixel imaging device has a density change detection sensitivity on the order of 10(sup -5) in subsonic flow. In a laboratory setup, the structure of the shock waves generated by explosives have been successfully reconstructed by a computed tomography method combined with BOS.

  10. Observations of orientation dependence of surface morphology in tungsten implanted by low energy and high flux D plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H.Y.; Zhang, Yubin; Yuan, Y.


    〉 to the least in grains oriented close to 〈0 0 1〉. Three kinds of typical nanostructures were observed, with a clear dependence on grain orientation. Triangular structures were observed on grains oriented near the 〈1 1 1〉 corner of the inverse pole figure, with lamellar structures formed for grains oriented...

  11. On the Regulation of Cognitive Control: Action Orientation Moderates the Impact of High Demands in Stroop Interference Tasks (United States)

    Jostmann, Nils B.; Koole, Sander L.


    Previous research has established that people vary in action orientation, a tendency toward decisiveness and initiative, versus state orientation, a tendency toward indecisiveness and hesitation (J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann, 1994b). In the present 3 studies, the authors examined whether action orientation versus state orientation regulates cognitive…

  12. Photoirradiation Caused Controllable Wettability Switching of Sputtered Highly Aligned c-Axis-Oriented Zinc Oxide Columnar Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Chi


    Full Text Available This study presents the microstructure morphology and UV photoirradiation coupling effects of the c-axis-oriented zinc oxide (ZnO columnar films. Highly aligned c-axis-oriented films have been deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature by radio-frequency (RF magnetron sputtering without introducing any oxygen source under different sputtering powers ranging from 50 to 150 W. Self-assembled ZnO columnar structures that were successfully obtained belong to wurtzite structure, and the corresponding columnar structures and crystalline orientation were confirmed by the FE-SEM and XRD, respectively. All the ZnO columnar films exhibit good transparency with a visible light averaged transmittance over 82%. According to water contact angle (CA measurement, ZnO columnar films exhibit hydrophobic behavior. After exposing to photoirradiation under ultraviolet (UV environment, all the ZnO samples showed remarkable transition from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic surfaces and could return to their original hydrophobicity after being placed in the dark. It is demonstrated that the controllable wettability of ZnO columnar films under changing between the UV photoirradiation and dark storage is due to the surface charges accumulation and discharging processes. As a result, this study could provide important applications for many fields such as ZnO-based hybrid sensors/solar cells functional devices with photoirradiation disinfection surfaces accompanied with reversible wettability switches.

  13. Growth and physical properties of highly oriented La-doped (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} ferroelectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendrell, X., E-mail: [Departament de Química Inorgànica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Raymond, O. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 14, Ensenada 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Ochoa, D.A.; García, J.E. [Department of Applied Physics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya — BarcelonaTech, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Mestres, L. [Departament de Química Inorgànica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    Lead-free (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) and La doped (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN-La) thin films are grown on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates using the chemical solution deposition method. The effect of adding different amounts of Na and K excess (0–20 mol%) is investigated. The results confirm the necessity of adding 20 mol% excess amounts of Na and K precursor solutions in order to avoid the formation of the secondary phase, K{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 17}, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, when adding a 20 mol% of alkaline metal excess, the thin films are highly textured with out-of-plane preferential orientation in the [100] direction of the [100] orientation of the substrate. Doping with lanthanum results in a decrease of the leakage current density at low electric field, and an increase in the dielectric permittivity across the whole temperature range (80–380 K). Although the (100)-oriented KNN and KNN-La films exhibited rounded hysteresis loops, at low temperatures the films show the typical ferroelectric hysteresis loops. - Highlights: • (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} and [(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.985}La{sub 0.005}]NbO{sub 3} thin films have been prepared. • The obtained thin films show an excellent (100) preferred orientation. • Doping with lanthanum results in a decrease of the leakage current density. • The dielectric properties are enhanced when doping with lanthanum.

  14. QoS-Oriented High Dynamic Resource Allocation in Vehicular Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Bejaoui


    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs are emerging as new research area and attracting an increasing attention from both industry and research communities. In this context, a dynamic resource allocation policy that maximizes the use of available resources and meets the quality of service (QoS requirement of constraining applications is proposed. It is a combination of a fair packet scheduling policy and a new adaptive QoS oriented call admission control (CAC scheme based on the vehicle density variation. This scheme decides whether the connection request is to be admitted into the system, while providing fair access and guaranteeing the desired throughput. The proposed algorithm showed good performance in testing in real world environment.

  15. Relationship between Different Types of Educational, Emotional and Spiritual Intelligence and Second Grade High School Female Students’ Religious Orientation, in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Doustdar Toosi


    Full Text Available In the current research, we investigated how significantly the second grade high school female students’ educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence were associated with their religious orientation. This research is descriptive (non- experimental with a correlation design. The research population includes all of the second grade high school girl students, during the 2015-16 educational year in Sari, a city in the north of Iran.  In this research, 260 samples were selected randomly. Research results showed that educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence (independent variables had positive and significant relationship with internal and external religious orientation (dependent variable. As the levels of educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence increased, so did the level of religious orientation. Also the results of multiple regression analysis showed that educational, emotional, spiritual intelligence were anticipants of religious orientation and its dimensions (internal and external religious orientation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu


    Full Text Available To meet the requirement of high accuracy and high speed processing for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery under emergency situation in both ground processing system and on-board processing system. This paper proposed a ROI-orientated sensor correction algorithm based on virtual steady reimaging model for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery. Firstly, the imaging time and spatial window of the ROI is determined by a dynamic search method. Then, the dynamic ROI sensor correction model based on virtual steady reimaging model is constructed. Finally, the corrected image corresponding to the ROI is generated based on the coordinates mapping relationship which is established by the dynamic sensor correction model for corrected image and rigours imaging model for original image. Two experimental results show that the image registration between panchromatic and multispectral images can be well achieved and the image distortion caused by satellite jitter can be also corrected efficiently.

  17. A Study on Field Emission Characteristics of Planar Graphene Layers Obtained from a Highly Oriented Pyrolyzed Graphite Block.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seok Woo


    This paper describes an experimental study on field emission characteristics of individual graphene layers for vacuum nanoelectronics. Graphene layers were prepared by mechanical exfoliation from a highly oriented pyrolyzed graphite block and placed on an insulating substrate, with the resulting field emission behavior investigated using a nanomanipulator operating inside a scanning electron microscope. A pair of tungsten tips controlled by the nanomanipulator enabled electric connection with the graphene layers without postfabrication. The maximum emitted current from the graphene layers was 170 nA and the turn-on voltage was 12.1 V.

  18. A two-step process for growth of highly oriented Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} using sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yuta, E-mail:; Fons, Paul; Bolotov, Leonid; Miyata, Noriyuki; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Tominaga, Junji [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)


    A two-step growth method is proposed for the fabrication of highly-oriented Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and related superlattice films using sputtering. We report that the quality and grain size of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} as well as GeTe/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} superlattice films strongly depend on the thickness of the room-temperature deposited and subsequently by annealing at 523 K Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} seed layer. This result may open up new possibilities for the fabrication of two-dimensional electronic devices using layered chalcogenides.

  19. Preferentially Oriented Ag Nanocrystals with Extremely High Activity and Faradaic Efficiency for CO2 Electrochemical Reduction to CO. (United States)

    Peng, Xiong; Karakalos, Stavros G; Mustain, William E


    Selective electrochemical reduction of CO2 is one of the most important processes to study because of its promise to convert this greenhouse gas to value-added chemicals at low cost. In this work, a simple anodization treatment was devised that first oxidizes Ag to Ag2CO3, then uses rapid electrochemical reduction to create preferentially oriented nanoparticles (PONs) of metallic Ag (PON-Ag) with high surface area as well as high activity and very high selectivity for the reduction of CO2 to CO. The PON-Ag catalyst was dominated by (110) and (100) orientation, which allowed PON-Ag to achieve a CO Faradaic efficiency of 96.7% at an operating potential of -0.69 V vs RHE. This performance is not only significantly higher than that of polycrystalline Ag (60% at -0.87 V vs RHE) but also represents one of the best combinations of activity and selectivity achieved to date - all with a very simple, scalable approach to electrode fabrication.

  20. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber. (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun


    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  1. Using process-oriented interfaces for solving the automation paradox in highly automated navy vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Post, W.; Rakhorst, M.; Plasmeijer, R.; Staal, W. van


    This paper describes a coherent engineering method for developing high level human machine interaction within a highly automated environment consisting of sensors, actuators, automatic situation assessors and planning devices. Our approach combines ideas from cognitive work analysis, cognitive

  2. Achieving a Collapsible, Strong, and Highly Thermally Conductive Film Based on Oriented Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanosheets and Cellulose Nanofiber. (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Fang, Jinchao; Ma, Jinrui; Huang, Rui; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang


    Boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS) films receive wide attention in both academia and industry because of their high thermal conductivity (TC) and good electrical insulation capability. However, the brittleness and low strength of the BNNS film largely limit its application. Herein, functionalized BNNSs (f-BNNSs) with a well-maintained in-plane crystalline structure were first prepared utilizing urea in the aqueous solution via ball-milling for the purpose of improving their stability in water and enhancing the interaction with the polymer matrix. Then, a biodegradable and highly thermally conductive film with an orderly oriented structure based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and f-BNNSs was prepared just by simple vacuum-assisted filtration. The modification of the BNNS and the introduction of the CNF result in a better orientation of the f-BNNS, sufficient connection between f-BNNS themselves, and strong interaction between f-BNNS and CNF, which not only make the prepared composite film strong and tough but also possess higher in-plane TC. An increase of 70% in-plane TC, 63.2% tensile strength, and 77.8% elongation could be achieved for CNF/f-BNNS films, compared with that for CNF/BNNS films at the filler content of 70%. Although at such a high f-BNNS content, this composite film can be bended and folded. It is even more interesting to find that the in-plane TC could be greatly enhanced with the decrease of the thickness of the film, and a value of 30.25 W/m K can be achieved at the thickness of ∼30 μm for the film containing 70 wt % f-BNNS. We believe that this highly thermally conductive film with good strength and toughness could have potential applications in next-generation highly powerful and collapsible electronic devices.

  3. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data (United States)

    Bailey, Brian N.; Mahaffee, Walter F.


    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field.

  4. Improved ferroelectric property and domain structure of highly a-oriented polycrystalline CaBi2Nb2O9 thin film (United States)

    Ahn, Yoonho; Son, Jong Yeog


    A Lead-free ferroelectric CaBi2Nb2O9 (CBNO) thin film was deposited on Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition. TiO2 buffer layer was employed and Pt electrode was used for nano-scale capacitor. The x-ray diffraction reveals that the CBNO thin film has highly a-oriented polycrystalline structure. The highly a-oriented polycrystalline CBNO thin film significantly exhibit the enhanced ferroelectric property with a remnant polarization of 10 μC/cm2 compared to other values reported previously. In particular, the highly a-oriented polycrystalline CBNO thin film show faster ferroelectric switching characteristics than the epitaxially c-oriented CBNO thin film.

  5. On the regulation of cognitive control: Action orientation moderates the impact of high demands in Stroop interference tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jostmann, N.B.; Koole, S.L.


    Previous research has established that people vary in action orientation, a tendency toward decisiveness and initiative, versus state orientation, a tendency toward indecisiveness and hesitation (J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann, 1994b). In the present 3 studies, the authors examined whether action orientation

  6. Large and flat graphene flakes produced by epoxy bonding and reverse exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huc, Vincent [ICMMO-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Bendiab, Nedjma [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, Universite Joseph Fourier, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Rosman, Noel [LEPMI, ENSEEG, INPG, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Ebbesen, Thomas [ISIS, Universite Louis Pasteur, 8, Allee Gaspard Monge, BP 70028, F-67083 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Delacour, Cecile; Bouchiat, Vincent [Institut Neel, CNRS-Grenoble, 25 avenue des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex (France)


    We present a fabrication method producing large and flat graphene flakes that have a few layers down to a single layer based on substrate bonding of a thick sample of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), followed by its controlled exfoliation down to the few to single graphene atomic layers. As the graphite underlayer is intimately bonded to the substrate during the exfoliation process, the obtained graphene flakes are remarkably large and flat and present very few folds and pleats. The high occurrence of single-layered graphene sheets being tens of microns wide in lateral dimensions is assessed by complementary probes including spatially resolved micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy. This versatile method opens the way for deposition of graphene on any substrates, including flexible ones.

  7. Large and flat graphene flakes produced by epoxy bonding and reverse exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (United States)

    Huc, Vincent; Bendiab, Nedjma; Rosman, Noël; Ebbesen, Thomas; Delacour, Cécile; Bouchiat, Vincent


    We present a fabrication method producing large and flat graphene flakes that have a few layers down to a single layer based on substrate bonding of a thick sample of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), followed by its controlled exfoliation down to the few to single graphene atomic layers. As the graphite underlayer is intimately bonded to the substrate during the exfoliation process, the obtained graphene flakes are remarkably large and flat and present very few folds and pleats. The high occurrence of single-layered graphene sheets being tens of microns wide in lateral dimensions is assessed by complementary probes including spatially resolved micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy. This versatile method opens the way for deposition of graphene on any substrates, including flexible ones.

  8. Laser-high-speed-DSC: Process-oriented Thermal Analysis of PA 12 in Selective Laser Sintering (United States)

    Lanzl, Lydia; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar

    In the Selective Laser Sintering process very high heating rates occur due to the melting of the material by a laser. Extreme scanning rates could not be measured by conventional thermal analysis methods, since typical heating rates for DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) are between 5-20K min-1. By using a Laser-High-Speed-DSC, a self-developed combination of a Flash-DSC and a fitted laser head, the sample is directly heated by a CO2 laser like in the SLS process. These experiments allow a process-oriented thermal analyzation of the material. In this paper, the set-up and function of this new measuring method is introduced. Furthermore, the reliability of the measurements is evaluated by statistical design of experiment methods. By using this new measuring method, the time-dependent melting behavior of the polymer can be analyzed. Moreover, sample temperatures and heating rates dependent on laser exposure times can be quantified.

  9. Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films and nanodots grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog


    Multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films and nanodots are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates via a pulsed laser deposition technique, where the HOPG surface has a honeycomb lattice structure made of carbon atoms, similar to graphene. A graphene/BFO/HOPG capacitor exhibited multiferroic properties, namely ferroelectricity (a residual polarization of 26.8 μC/cm2) and ferromagnetism (a residual magnetization of 1.1 × 10-5 emu). The BFO thin film had high domain wall energies and demonstrated switching time of approximately 82 ns. An 8-nm BFO nanodot showed a typical piezoelectric hysteresis loop with an effective residual piezoelectric constant of approximately 110 pm/V and exhibited two clearly separated current curves depending on the ferroelectric polarization direction.

  10. Large and flat graphene flakes produced by epoxy bonding and reverse exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. (United States)

    Huc, Vincent; Bendiab, Nedjma; Rosman, Noël; Ebbesen, Thomas; Delacour, Cécile; Bouchiat, Vincent


    We present a fabrication method producing large and flat graphene flakes that have a few layers down to a single layer based on substrate bonding of a thick sample of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), followed by its controlled exfoliation down to the few to single graphene atomic layers. As the graphite underlayer is intimately bonded to the substrate during the exfoliation process, the obtained graphene flakes are remarkably large and flat and present very few folds and pleats. The high occurrence of single-layered graphene sheets being tens of microns wide in lateral dimensions is assessed by complementary probes including spatially resolved micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy. This versatile method opens the way for deposition of graphene on any substrates, including flexible ones.

  11. Implementing an Affordable High-Performance Computing for Teaching-Oriented Computer Science Curriculum (United States)

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Goldschmidt, Kathleen; Elleithy, Yasser; Lee, Jeongkyu


    With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However,…

  12. A High Performance Backend for Array-Oriented Programming on Next-Generation Processing Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Simon Andreas Frimann

    of benchmarks applications, implemented in these languages, demonstrate the high-level declarative form of the programming model. Performance studies show that the high-level declarative programming model can be used to not only match but also exceed the performance of hand-coded implementations in low......The financial crisis, which started in 2008, spawned the HIPERFIT research center as a preventive measure against future financial crises. The goal of prevention is to be met by improving mathematical models for finance, the verifiable description of them in domain-specific languages...... and the efficient execution of them on high performance systems. This work investigates the requirements for, and the implementation of, a high performance backend supporting these goals. This involves an outline of the hardware available today, in the near future and how to program it for high performance...

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN


    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  14. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School – Excluding Sexual Orientation (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  15. Object-oriented Markov random model for classification of high resolution satellite imagery based on wavelet transform (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Liu, Cun; Yang, Kun; Deng, Ming


    The high resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) have higher spatial resolution and less spectrum number, so there are some "object with different spectra, different objects with same spectrum" phenomena. The objective of this paper is to utilize the extracted features of high resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) obtained by the wavelet transform(WT) for segmentation. WT provides the spatial and spectral characteristics of a pixel along with its neighbors. The object-oriented Markov random Model in the wavelet domain is proposed in order to segment high resolution satellite imagery (HRSI). The proposed method is made up of three blocks: (1) WT-based feature extrcation.the aim of extraction of feature using WT for original spectral bands is to exploit the spatial and frequency information of the pixels; (2) over-segmentation object generation. Mean-Shift algorithm is employed to obtain over-segmentation objects; (3) classification based on Object-oriented Markov Random Model. Firstly the object adjacent graph (OAG) can be constructed on the over-segmentation objects. Secondly MRF model is easily defined on the OAG, in which WT-based feature of pixels are modeled in the feature field model and the neighbor system, potential cliques and energy functions of OAG are exploited in the labeling model. Experiments are conducted on one HRSI dataset-QuickBird images. We evaluate and compare the proposed approach with the well-known commercial software eCognition(object-based analysis approach) and Maximum Likelihood(ML) based pixels. Experimental results show that the proposed the method in this paper obviously outperforms the other methods.

  16. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    This study sheds light on the role that the competitive environment plays in determining how elements of market orientation and elements of entrepreneurial orientation interact to influence business success. We develop a model in which we postulate that market orientation, entrepreneurial...... orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientations. Also, these moderating effects are stronger for firms operating in highly competitive environments. For the innovativeness component of entrepreneurship, however, the positive relationship between innovativeness and ROA decreases as the competitive environment becomes more hostile....

  17. Oblique Orientation Discrimination Thresholds Are Superior in Those with a High Level of Autistic Traits (United States)

    Dickinson, Abigail; Jones, Myles; Milne, Elizabeth


    Enhanced low-level perception, although present in individuals with autism, is not seen in individuals with high, but non-clinical, levels of autistic traits (Brock et "Percept Lond" 40(6):739. doi:10.1068/p6953, 2011). This is surprising, as many of the higher-level visual differences found in autism have been shown to correlate…

  18. Sex Differences in Sex-Role Conceptions and Family Orientation of High School Students (United States)

    Angrist, Shirley S.; And Others


    Findings show that high school males are more sexist than females; and blacks, more so that whites. Women who are bright, from upper class backgrounds, and whose mothers work are more egalitarian in sex role conceptions. Unlike women, men's sex role attitudes have little connection to their family background. (Author/MV)

  19. Erythrocyte orientation and lung conductivity analysis with a high temporal resolution FEM model for bioimpedance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulbrich, M.; Paluchowski, P.; Muehlsteff, J.; Leonhardt, S.


    Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a simple and cheap method to acquirehemodynamic parameters. In this work, the influence of three dynamic physiological sources has been analyzed using a model of the humanthorax with a high temporal resolution. Therefore, simulations havebeen conducted using the

  20. Diversity-Oriented Enantioselective Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Cyclic and Bicyclic Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Bin; Fananas Mastral, Martin; Lutz, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    The copper-catalyzed hetero-allylic asymmetric alkylation (h-AAA) of functionalized Grignard reagents that contain alkene or alkyne moieties has been achieved with excellent regio-and enantioselectivity. The corresponding alkylation products were further transformed into a variety of highly

  1. High spatial resolution grain orientation and strain mapping in thin films using polychromatic submicron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Valek, B.C.; Bravman, J.C.; Spolenak, R.; Brown, W.L.; Marieb, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Batterman, B.W.; Patel, J.R.


    The availability of high brilliance synchrotron sources, coupled with recent progress in achromatic focusing optics and large area 2D detector technology, have allowed us to develop an X-ray synchrotron technique capable of mapping orientation and strain/stress in polycrystalline thin films with submicron spatial resolution. To demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument, we have employed it to study the microstructure of aluminum thin film structures at the granular and subgranular level. Owing to the relatively low absorption of X-rays in materials, this technique can be used to study passivated samples, an important advantage over most electron probes given the very different mechanical behavior of buried and unpassivated materials.

  2. High Spatial Resolution Grain Orientation and Strain Mapping in Thin Films using Polychromatic Submicron X-ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Jamshed R.


    The availability of high brilliance synchrotron sources, coupled with recent progress in achromatic focusing optics and large area 2D detector technology, have allowed us to develop a X-ray synchrotron technique capable of mapping orientation and strain/stress in polycrystalline thin films with submicron spatial resolution. To demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument, we have employed it to study the microstructure of aluminum thin film structures at the granular and subgranular level. Owing to the relatively low absorption of X-rays in materials, this technique can be used to study passivated samples, an important advantage over most electron probes given the very different mechanical behavior of buried and unpassivated materials.

  3. [Study on the relationships between cultural orientation, alcohol expectancy, self-efficacy and drinking behavior among senior high school students in two cities of Henan province]. (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Hu, Tao; Newman, Ian M; Hou, Pei-Sen


    To explore the relationships between alcohol expectancy,cultural orientation, self-efficacy and drinking behavior to provide theoretical support for the development of education programs aimed at preventing alcohol abuse among adolescents. An anonymous quantitative survey of 2756 tenth and eleventh grade students in six senior high schools in Zhengzhou and Xinyang city of Henan province was conducted in November 2005 and data was analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software. The overall rate of drinking alcohol among participants was 56.5%. The median score of cultural orientation was 3.25 (3.09, 3.42); of alcohol expectancy was 3.02 (2.81, 3.23); and 79.64 (60.36, 93.21) of alcohol self-efficacy. Direct or indirect relationships were found between Chinese traditional cultural orientation, western cultural orientation, alcohol positive expectancy, alcohol negative expectancy, alcohol self-efficacy and alcohol drinking behavior. Lower monthly drinking habit was directly associated with higher self-efficacy and higher negative expectancies,lower positive expectancies and lower western cultural orientation (coefficients = -0.346, -0.282, 0.234 and 0.162 respectively), but not with Chinese cultural orientation variables. The current situation of alcohol drinking among the participants was critical. Drinking behavior seemed most affected by drinking beliefs and cultural orientation, suggesting that the development of education programs should focus on students' beliefs.

  4. Orientational Coherent Effects of High-Energy Particles in a LiNbO3 Crystal. (United States)

    Bagli, E; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Bandiera, L; Germogli, G; Sytov, A I; De Salvador, D; Argiolas, A; Bazzan, M; Carnera, A; Berra, A; Bolognini, D; Lietti, D; Prest, M; Vallazza, E


    A bent lithium niobate strip was exposed to a 400-GeV/c proton beam at the external lines of CERN Super Proton Synchrotron to probe its capabilities versus coherent interactions of the particles with the crystal such as channeling and volume reflection. Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) exhibits an interplanar electric field comparable to that of Silicon (Si) and remarkable piezoelectric properties, which could be exploited for the realization of piezo-actuated devices for the control of high-energy particle beams. In contrast to Si and germanium (Ge), LiNbO3 shows an intriguing effect; in spite of a low channeling efficiency (3%), the volume reflection maintains a high deflection efficiency (83%). Such discrepancy was ascribed to the high concentration (10(4) per cm2) of dislocations in our sample, which was obtained from a commercial wafer. Indeed, it has been theoretically shown that a channeling efficiency comparable with that of Si or Ge would be attained with a crystal at low defect concentration (less than ten per cm2). To better understand the role of dislocations on volume reflection, we have worked out computer simulation via dynecharm++ Monte Carlo code to study the effect of dislocations on volume reflection. The results of the simulations agree with experimental records, demonstrating that volume reflection is more robust than channeling in the presence of dislocations.

  5. Structural and optical properties of highly (110)-oriented non-polar ZnO evaporated films on Si substrates (United States)

    Yang, Shang-Dong; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Yang, Liao; Liu, Zhun-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Wang, Song-You; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Chen, Liang-Yao


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films with thicknesses from (9.1 ± 0.7) to (145 ± 7) nm were deposited on silicon substrates by ion-assisted electron beam evaporation (EBE), and transformed to a highly (110)-oriented non-polar phase through thermal treatment at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 °C. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the ZnO thin films were systematically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD and AFM results illustrate that the deposited ZnO films evolved from an X-ray amorphous structure to the polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with increasing thickness and experienced a crystallographic plane improvement from (102) to the (110) non-polar phase during annealing. The dielectric functions of the whole layer are mainly affected by the dielectric responses near the surface of ZnO nanocrystals and show an upward trend with nanocrystal growth, induced by thickness and annealing temperature. The optical band gaps were also investigated and correlated with the structural properties. In the PL spectra, a strong ultraviolet luminescence (UVL) band and a weak visible green luminescence (GL) band were observed. The intensity ratio of UVL and GL-associated with crystal quality-agrees with the results acquired from other measurements. The two determinants for highly (110)-oriented non-polar ZnO films are the suppression of growth in the (002) direction by ion bombardment and the promotion of the (110) plane induced by diffusion energy during annealing.

  6. Image-guided spinal injection procedures in open high-field MRI with vertical field orientation: feasibility and technical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F.; Walter, T.; Wonneberger, U.; Wagner, M.; Hermann, K.G.; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U. [Charite, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Chopra, S. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Wichlas, F. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany)


    We prospectively evaluated the feasibility and technical features of MR-guided lumbosacral injection procedures in open high-field MRI at 1.0 T. In a CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O phantom and five human cadaveric spines, fluoroscopy sequences (proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE), T1w TSE, T2w TSE; balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), T1w gradient echo (GE), T2w GE) were evaluated using two MRI-compatible 20-G Chiba-type needles. Artefacts were analysed by varying needle orientation to B{sub 0}, frequency-encoding direction and slice orientation. Image quality was described using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subsequently, a total of 183 MR-guided nerve root (107), facet (53) and sacroiliac joint (23) injections were performed in 53 patients. In vitro, PDw TSE sequence yielded the best needle-tissue contrasts (CNR = 45, 18, 15, 9, and 8 for needle vs. fat, muscle, root, bone and sclerosis, respectively) and optimal artefact sizes (width and tip shift less than 5 mm). In vivo, PDw TSE sequence was sufficient in all cases. The acquisition time of 2 s facilitated near-real-time MRI guidance. Drug delivery was technically successful in 100% (107/107), 87% (46/53) and 87% (20/23) of nerve root, facet and sacroiliac joint injections, respectively. No major complications occurred. The mean procedure time was 29 min (range 19-67 min). MR-guided spinal injections in open high-field MRI are feasible and accurate using fast TSE sequence designs. (orig.)

  7. MGI-oriented High-throughput Measurement of Interdiffusion Coefficient Matrices in Ni-based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Ying


    Full Text Available One of the research hotspots in the field of high-temperature alloys was to search the substitutional elements for Re in order to prepare the single-crystal Ni-based superalloys with less or even no Re addition. To find the elements with similar or even lower diffusion coefficients in comparison with that of Re was one of the effective strategies. In multicomponent alloys, the interdiffusivity matrix were used to comprehensively characterize the diffusion ability of any alloying elements. Therefore, accurate determination of the composition-dependant and temperature-dependent interdiffusivities matrices of different elements in γ and γ' phases of Ni-based superalloys was high priority. The paper briefly introduces of the status of the interdiffusivity matrices determination in Ni-based superalloys, and the methods for determining the interdiffusivities in multicomponent alloys, including the traditional Matano-Kirkaldy method and recently proposed numerical inverse method. Because the traditional Matano-Kirkaldy method is of low efficiency, the experimental reports on interdiffusivity matrices in ternary and higher order sub-systems of the Ni-based superalloys were very scarce in the literature. While the numerical inverse method newly proposed in our research group based on Fick's second law can be utilized for high-throughput measurement of accurate interdiffusivity matrices in alloys with any number of components. After that, the successful application of the numerical inverse method in the high-throughput measurement of interdiffusivity matrices in alloys is demonstrated in fcc (γ phase of the ternary Ni-Al-Ta system. Moreover, the validation of the resulting composition-dependant and temperature-dependent interdiffusivity matrices is also comprehensively made. Then, this paper summarizes the recent progress in the measurement of interdiffusivity matrices in γ and γ' phases of a series of core ternary Ni-based superalloys achieved in

  8. High performance devices enabled by epitaxial, preferentially oriented, nanodots and/or nanorods (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN


    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic, superconducting and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  9. Summer diapause induced by high temperatures in the oriental tobacco budworm: ecological adaptation to hot summers (United States)

    Liu, Zhudong; Xin, Yucui; Zhang, Yanan; Fan, Jianting; Sun, Jianghua


    Summer diapause in Helicoverpa assulta (Hübner), which prolongs the pupal stage, particularly in males, is induced by high temperatures. In the laboratory, 3rd-, 4th-, 6th-instar and prepupal larvae were exposed to high temperatures – 33 and 35 °C with a photoperiod of LD16:8 – until pupation to induce summer diapause. The results showed that the incidence of summer diapause was influenced by temperature, stage exposed, and sex. The higher the temperature, the more often summer diapause was attained. Sixth-instar and prepupal larvae were the sensitive stages for summer diapause induction. H. assulta summer-diapausing pupae needed diapause development to resume development when temperatures became favorable. Furthermore, both body mass and energy storage capacity (lipid and glycogen) were significantly affected by diapause rather than sex, and were significantly higher in summer-diapausing pupae than in non-diapausing pupae. In addition, the body mass loss and respiration rate showed that the rate of metabolism in the summer-diapausing pupae was consistently lower than in non-diapausing pupae, which were significantly affected by diapause and pupal age. We conclude that summer diapause in H. assulta is a true diapause, and H. assulta has evolved mechanisms to accumulate energy storage and to lower its metabolism to adapt to hot summers. PMID:27271223

  10. Design and manufacture of ultra-high temperature ceramics with oriented strengthening and toughening phases (United States)

    Acosta, Manuel

    The Horizontal Dip-Spin Casting (HDSC) Process, a newly designed method for the fabrication of ceramic composites, affords alignment of a reinforcing high aspect ratio phase while attaining curvature in the specimen. In this process, highly loaded aqueous ceramic suspensions (>50 vol. %) are produced with a minimum amount of polymer (˜1-5 vol. %). During forming, cylindrical foam molds are dipped in the suspension and rotated uniaxially to produce the alignment of the reinforcing phase. Rheological studies using suspensions containing alumina powder and alumina powder/carbon-whiskers, the model material systems for the process design, revealed that suspensions containing Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a viscosity modifier follow a yield-pseudoplastic flow behavior. Green bodies have been fabricated with C-whiskers content <30 vol. % and considerable alignment of the strengthening phase has been achieved. Monolithic alumina green bodies fabricated from suspensions containing 2.6 and 5.1 vol. % polymer carrier can be machined and sintered. The same principals of fabrication have been applied to ZrB2 ultrahigh-temperature ceramic composites (UHTCCs). ZrB2 green bodies were produced after careful selection of polymer, dispersant and mold material to demonstrate the applicability of HDSC to UHTCCs.

  11. Geriatric-oriented high dose nutraceutical ODTs: Formulation and Physicomechanical characterization. (United States)

    Agiba, Ahmed M; Abdel-Hamid, Sameh; Nasr, Maha; Geneidi, Ahmed S


    Oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) represent a better option than conventional tablets for geriatric population, owing to their fast onset of action and their better patient compliance. Two principal therapeutic high-dose nutraceuticals; chondroitin sulphate and glucosamine were formulated into an oral disintegration tablet (ODT) intended for sublingual administration, and optimized to improve compliance and achieve rapid onset of action in osteoarthritis treatment. Different formulations were prepared either by melt granulation or direct compression techniques. Excipients at different ratios such as superdisintegrants, pharmaburstTM C1, spray-dried mannitol, and polyethylene glycols were used to enhance the disintegration time for the ODT systems. Although the ODT systems weighed around 1.3 gm with 60% drug load, some systems disintegrated within 2-3 min with 100% drug release. PharmaburstTM C1 turned out to be the key excipient responsible for the superdisintegration properties of the ODTs. Dissolution enhancement of the two nutraceuticals could be achieved compared to the marketed conventional tablets. The improved disintegration and dissolution properties of our prepared ODTs is expected to enhance the bioavailability of the high dose glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate in comparison with conventional tablets, which delineates them as a promising dosage form for the aforementioned nutraceuticals. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  12. Transportation-cyber-physical-systems-oriented engine cylinder pressure estimation using high gain observer (United States)

    Li, Yong-Fu; Xiao-Pei, Kou; Zheng, Tai-Xiong; Li, Yin-Guo


    In transportation cyber-physical-systems (T-CPS), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications play an important role in the coordination between individual vehicles as well as between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures, and engine cylinder pressure is significant for engine diagnosis on-line and torque control within the information exchange process under V2V communications. However, the parametric uncertainties caused from measurement noise in T-CPS lead to the dynamic performance deterioration of the engine cylinder pressure estimation. Considering the high accuracy requirement under V2V communications, a high gain observer based on the engine dynamic model is designed to improve the accuracy of pressure estimation. Then, the analyses about convergence, converge speed and stability of the corresponding error model are conducted using the Laplace and Lyapunov method. Finally, results from combination of Simulink with GT-Power based numerical experiments and comparisons demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with respect to robustness and accuracy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61304197), the Scientific and Technological Talents of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014kjrc-qnrc30002), the Key Project of Application and Development of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014yykfB40001), the Natural Science Funds of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014jcyjA60003), and the Doctoral Start-up Funds of Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China (Grant No. A2012-26).

  13. Characterizing Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel Sheet Using Automated High-Resolution Laue X-ray Diffraction (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Barnett, Matthew; Stevenson, Andrew; Hutchinson, Bevis


    Controlling texture in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel sheet is critical for optimization of its magnetization performance. A new automated laboratory system, based on X-ray Laue diffraction, is introduced as a rapid method for large scale grain orientation mapping and texture measurement in these materials. Wide area grain orientation maps are demonstrated for both macroetched and coated GO steel sheets. The large secondary grains contain uniform lattice rotations, the origins of which are discussed.

  14. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement. (United States)

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh


    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  15. Enhancing formation rate of highly-oriented silicon nanowire arrays with the assistance of back substrates. (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Wei, Ta-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Ting; Li, Jheng-Yi


    Facile, effective and reliable etching technique for the formation of uniform silicon (Si) nanowire arrays were realized through the incorporation of back substrates with metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE). In comparison with conventional MaCE process, a dramatic increase of etching rates upon MaCE process could be found by employing the conductive back substrates on p-type Si, while additionally prevented the creation of nanopores from catalytic etching reaction. Examinations on the involving etching kinetics, morphologies, wetting behaviors and surface structures were performed that validated the role of back substrates upon MaCE process. It was found that the involved two pathways for the extraction of electrons within Si favored the localized oxidation of Si at Si/Ag interfaces, thereby increasing the etching rate of MaCE process. This back-substrate involved MaCE could potentially meet the practical needs for the high-yield formation of Si nanowire arrays.

  16. Developing collective customer knowledge and service climate: The interaction between service-oriented high-performance work systems and service leadership. (United States)

    Jiang, Kaifeng; Chuang, Chih-Hsun; Chiao, Yu-Ching


    This study theorized and examined the influence of the interaction between Service-Oriented high-performance work systems (HPWSs) and service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate. Using a sample of 569 employees and 142 managers in footwear retail stores, we found that Service-Oriented HPWSs and service leadership reduced the influences of one another on collective customer knowledge and service climate, such that the positive influence of service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when Service-Oriented HPWSs were lower than when they were higher or the positive influence of Service-Oriented HPWSs on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when service leadership was lower than when it was higher. We further proposed and found that collective customer knowledge and service climate were positively related to objective financial outcomes through service performance. Implications for the literature and managerial practices are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Pulsed-laser deposition of vicinal and c-axis oriented high temperature superconducting thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, R


    respect to the temperature, oxygen pressure and laser fluence. (Re,Hg)Ba sub 2 Ca sub ( n-1)Cu sub n O sub x films are synthesized on (001) and vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates in a two step process employing pulsed-laser deposition of Hg-free precursor films and Hg-vapour annealing in a sealed quartz tube. The sealed quartz tube technique is described in detail and the thermodynamics and the phase formation are discussed. The influence of the Hg-vapour pressure and the annealing temperature on the film properties are investigated. The influence of Hg-vapour annealing on Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x films is described. YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x films with thicknesses 20 to 480 nm are deposited on vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates (10 degrees tilt angle). Variation of the resistivities and changes in the film morphology depending on film thickness are described. The influence of post-annealing treatments on the film properties is discussed. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of high temperature superconducting ...

  18. The role of regioregularity, crystallinity, and chain orientation on electron transport in a high-mobility n-type copolymer. (United States)

    Steyrleuthner, Robert; Di Pietro, Riccardo; Collins, Brian A; Polzer, Frank; Himmelberger, Scott; Schubert, Marcel; Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Shiming; Salleo, Alberto; Ade, Harald; Facchetti, Antonio; Neher, Dieter


    We investigated the correlation between the polymer backbone structural regularity and the charge transport properties of poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenediimide-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} [P(NDI2OD-T2)], a widely studied semiconducting polymer exhibiting high electron mobility and an unconventional micromorphology. To understand the influence of the chemical structure and crystal packing of conventional regioregular P(NDI2OD-T2) [RR-P(NDI2OD-T2)] on the charge transport, the corresponding regioirregular polymer RI-P(NDI2OD-T2) was synthesized. By combining optical, X-ray, and transmission electron microscopy data, we quantitatively characterized the aggregation, crystallization, and backbone orientation of all of the polymer films, which were then correlated to the electron mobilities in electron-only diodes. By carefully selecting the preparation conditions, we were able to obtain RR-P(NDI2OD-T2) films with similar crystalline structure along the three crystallographic axes but with different orientations of the polymer chains with respect to the substrate surface. RI-P(NDI2OD-T2), though exhibiting a rather similar LUMO structure and energy compared with the regioregular counterpart, displayed a very different packing structure characterized by the formation of ordered stacks along the lamellar direction without detectible π-stacking. Vertical electron mobilities were extracted from the space-charge-limited currents in unipolar devices. We demonstrate the anisotropy of the charge transport along the different crystallographic directions and how the mobility depends on π-stacking but is insensitive to the degree or coherence of lamellar stacking. The comparison between the regioregular and regioirregular polymers also shows how the use of large planar functional groups leads to improved charge transport, with mobilities that are less affected by chemical and structural disorder with respect to classic semicrystalline polymers such

  19. Strongly Coupled High-Quality Graphene/2D Superconducting Mo2C Vertical Heterostructures with Aligned Orientation. (United States)

    Xu, Chuan; Song, Shuang; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Wang, Libin; Fan, Dingxun; Kang, Ning; Ma, Xiuliang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai


    Vertical heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) crystals have led to the observations of numerous exciting physical phenomena and presented the possibilities for technological applications, which strongly depend on the quality, interface, relative alignment, and interaction of the neighboring 2D crystals. The heterostructures or hybrids of graphene and superconductors offer a very interesting platform to study mesoscopic superconductivity and the interplay of the quantum Hall effect with superconductivity. However, so far the heterostructures of graphene and 2D superconductors are fabricated by stacking, and consequently suffer from random relative alignment, weak interfacial interaction, and unavoidable interface contaminants. Here we report the direct growth of high-quality graphene/2D superconductor (nonlayered ultrathin α-Mo2C crystal) vertical heterostructures with uniformly well-aligned lattice orientation and strong interface coupling by chemical vapor deposition. In the heterostructure, both graphene and 2D α-Mo2C crystal show no defect, and the graphene is strongly compressed. Different from the previously reported graphene/superconductor heterostructures or hybrids, the strong interface coupling leads to a phase diagram of superconducting transition with multiple voltage steps being observed in the transition regime. Furthermore, we demonstrate the realization of highly transparent Josephson junction devices based on these strongly coupled high-quality heterostructures, in which a clear magnetic-field-induced Fraunhofer pattern of the critical supercurrent is observed.

  20. The Effect of Geometric Shape and Building Orientation on Minimising Solar Insolation on High-Rise Buildings in Hot Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Sok Ling


    Full Text Available High-rise buildings are experiencing overheating condition in hot humid climate. For a high-rise built form, vertical surfaces are the most critical to the impact of solar radiation. This study examines the effect of geometric shapes on the total solar insulation received by high-rise buildings. Two generic building shapes (square and circular have been studied with variations in width-to-length ratio (W/L ratio and building orientation using the computer simulation program ECOTECT V5.2. The results revealed that the circular shape with W/L ratio 1:1 is the most optimum shape in minimising total solar insulation. The square shape with W/L ratio 1:1 in a north-south orientation receives the lowest annual total solar insulation compared to other square shapes. This optimum shape (CC 1:1 receives the highest amount of solar insulation on the east-orientated wall, followed by the south-, west- and north-orientated walls respectively. This study guides designers on choosing optimum geometric shape and appropriate orientation for high-rise buildings.

  1. Intense Employment While in High School: Are Teachers, Guidance Counselors, and Parents Misguiding Academically-Oriented Adolescents? Graduate Institute for Policy Education and Research Working Paper. (United States)

    Wirtz, Philip W.; And Others

    Recent research links intense (more than 20 hours per week) part-time employment of high school students with lower grade point averages. This study questions students' awareness of such findings. A sample of 446 college-oriented high school students who hold jobs in fast food restaurants were studied. The findings confirmed the negative…

  2. Different Gender Students' Participation in the High- and Low-achieving Middle School Questioning-orientated Biology Classrooms in Taiwan (United States)

    She, Hsiao-Ching


    This case study investigated gender-based differences in classroom participation through examining teacher-student interactions between a female biology teacher and two groups of middle school students, namely high achievers and low achievers. The female teacher used a questioning-orientated instructional strategy as her major teaching style which creates greater opportunities for student participation in biology learning. Classroom sessions were videotaped for one school year, then analysed for gender differences in question-and-answer patterns. The results showed that more teacher-initiated questions, teacher-directed interactions, and teacher feedback were given to males than females in both groups, but a large difference was found between the two groups of students. Girls in the low-achieving biology class (LABC) were more likely to participate at a rate comparable with their male classmates; girls answered more procedure questions and an equal percentage of process questions, called out approximately the same percentage of answers to undirected teacher-initiated questions, and received more instances of praise and follow-up questions. Contrary to what was observed in the high-achieving biology class (HABC), LABC girls initiated more questions than LABC boys.

  3. The Molecular Structure of Human Red Blood Cell Membranes from Highly Oriented, Solid Supported Multi-Lamellar Membranes (United States)

    Himbert, Sebastian; Alsop, Richard J.; Rose, Markus; Hertz, Laura; Dhaliwal, Alexander; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.; Verschoor, Chris P.; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.; Kaestner, Lars; Wagner, Christian; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.


    We prepared highly oriented, multi-lamellar stacks of human red blood cell (RBC) membranes applied on silicon wafers. RBC ghosts were prepared by hemolysis and applied onto functionalized silicon chips and annealed into multi-lamellar RBC membranes. High resolution X-ray diffraction was used to determine the molecular structure of the stacked membranes. We present direct experimental evidence that these RBC membranes consist of nanometer sized domains of integral coiled-coil peptides, as well as liquid ordered (lo) and liquid disordered (ld) lipids. Lamellar spacings, membrane and hydration water layer thicknesses, areas per lipid tail and domain sizes were determined. The common drug aspirin was added to the RBC membranes and found to interact with RBC membranes and preferably partition in the head group region of the lo domain leading to a fluidification of the membranes, i.e., a thinning of the bilayers and an increase in lipid tail spacing. Our results further support current models of RBC membranes as patchy structures and provide unprecedented structural details of the molecular organization in the different domains.

  4. Understanding Nonlinear Dielectric Properties in a Biaxially Oriented Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film at Both Low and High Electric Fields. (United States)

    Li, Yue; Ho, Janet; Wang, Jianchuan; Li, Zhong-Ming; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Zhu, Lei


    Understanding nonlinear dielectric behavior in polar polymers is crucial to their potential application as next generation high energy density and low loss dielectrics. In this work, we studied nonlinear dielectric properties of a biaxially oriented poly(vinylidene fluoride) (BOPVDF) film under both low and high electric fields. For fundamental nonlinear dielectric constants at low fields (dielectric spectroscopy (HVBDS) was accurate enough to measure up to the third harmonics. It was observed that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity for the BOPVDF disappeared above 10 Hz at room temperature, suggesting that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity originated from ionic migration of impurity ions rather than dipolar relaxation of the amorphous segments. Above the coercive field (EC ≈ 70 MV/m), bipolar electric displacement-electric field (D-E) loop tests were used to extract the nonlinear behavior for pure PVDF crystals, which had a clear origin of ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains and nonpolar-to-polar (α → δ → β) phase transformations. By using HVBDS, it was observed that the ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains in BOPVDF above the EC always took place between 20 and 500 Hz regardless of a broad range of temperature from -30 to 100 °C. This behavior was drastically different from that of the amorphous PVDF dipoles, which had a strong dependence on frequency over orders of magnitude.

  5. High temperature and pressure influence the interdomain orientation of Nip7 proteins from P. abyssi and P. furiosus: MD simulations. (United States)

    Medvedev, Kirill E; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Afonnikov, Dmitry A


    Interactions between protein domains and their position and movement relative to each other are essential for the stability and normal functioning of a protein molecule. Features of the movement of domains may define the mechanism of enzymatic reactions. Therefore, the description of this motion is an important task in the analysis of the structures and functions of multidomain proteins. In the current work, we investigated the influence of pressure and temperature on changes in the movement of the two domains of the protein Nip7, expressed by deep-water (Pyrococcus abyssi) and shallow-water (Pyrococcus furiosus) archaea. The results of the present study show that the interdomain interfaces of the Nip7 proteins of P. abyssi and P. furiosus are formed by stable hydrophobic interactions. It was shown that high pressure and high temperature significantly changed the orientation of domains in Nip7 proteins which perhaps was connected with functional features of these domains. It was found that increasing the pressure significantly changed the angle of rotation of these domains, to a greater extent in the shallow-water protein, while an increase in temperature slightly reduced the angle of rotation of these domains. Moreover, the results suggest that the type of motion of the domains under study is similar to shear motion.

  6. Highly Oriented Growth of Piezoelectric Thin Films on Silicon Using Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Growth Template Layer. (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Yuan, Huiyu; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Koster, Gertjan; Ten Elshof, Johan E; Rijnders, Guus


    Ca2Nb3O10 (CNOns) and Ti0.87O2 (TiOns) metal oxide nanosheets (ns) are used as a buffer layer for epitaxial growth of piezoelectric capacitor stacks on Si and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (Pt/Si) substrates. Highly (001)- and (110)-oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films are achieved by utilizing CNOns and TiOns, respectively. The piezoelectric capacitors are characterized by polarization and piezoelectric hysteresis loops and by fatigue measurements. The devices fabricated with SrRuO3 top and bottom electrodes directly on nanosheets/Si have ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties well comparable with devices that use more conventional oxide buffer layers (stacks) such as YSZ, CeO2/YSZ, or SrTiO3 on Si. The devices grown on nanosheets/Pt/Si with Pt top electrodes show significantly improved polarization fatigue properties over those of similar devices grown directly on Pt/Si. The differences in properties are ascribed to differences in the crystalline structures and the density of the films. These results show a route toward the fabrication of single crystal piezoelectric thin films and devices with high quality, long-lifetime piezoelectric capacitor structures on nonperovskite and even noncrystalline substrates such as glass or polished metal surfaces.

  7. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried


    radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of

  8. Oriented Pt Nanoparticles Supported on Few-Layers Graphene as Highly Active Catalyst for Aqueous-Phase Reforming of Ethylene Glycol. (United States)

    Esteve-Adell, Iván; Bakker, Nadia; Primo, Ana; Hensen, Emiel; García, Hermenegildo


    Pt nanoparticles (NPs) strongly grafted on few-layers graphene (G) have been prepared by pyrolysis under inert atmosphere at 900 °C of chitosan films (70-120 nm thickness) containing adsorbed H2PtCl6. Preferential orientation of exposed Pt facets was assessed by X-ray diffraction of films having high Pt loading where the 111 and 222 diffraction lines were observed and also by SEM imaging comparing elemental Pt mapping with the image of the 111 oriented particles. Characterization techniques allow determination of the Pt content (from 45 ng to 1 μg cm(-2), depending on the preparation conditions), particle size distribution (9 ± 2 nm), and thickness of the films (12-20 nm). Oriented Pt NPs on G exhibit at least 2 orders of magnitude higher catalytic activity for aqueous-phase reforming of ethylene glycol to H2 and CO2 compared to analogous samples of randomly oriented Pt NPs supported on preformed graphene. Oriented [Formula: see text]/fl-G undergoes deactivation upon reuse, the most probable cause being Pt particle growth, probably due to the presence of high concentrations of carboxylic acids acting as mobilizing agents during the course of the reaction.

  9. Women's Representation in 60 Occupations from 1972 to 2010: More Women in High-Status Jobs, Few Women in Things-Oriented Jobs (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A.; Preston, Kathleen; Penner, John


    To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades) remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation. PMID:24788710

  10. Women's representation in 60 occupations from 1972 to 2010: more women in high-status jobs, few women in things-oriented jobs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Lippa

    Full Text Available To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

  11. Incidence and Outcomes of Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Youth: The Role of Gender and Sexual Orientation. (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M


    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of dating violence (DV) victimization and DV victimization outcomes as a function of sex and sexual orientation. Participants were 25,122 high school students who participated in the 2013 New Hampshire Youth Risk Behavior Survey study. Heterosexual youth, especially heterosexual male youth, were less likely to report experiencing physical and sexual DV victimization than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) girls and boys. Among LGBQ girls and boys, there was little variability in rates of DV victimization with the exception of questioning boys being significantly more likely to experience physical and sexual DV victimization than several other LGBQ sub-groups. Furthermore, LGBQ DV victims reported worse outcomes than heterosexual DV victims on measures of depression, binge drinking, and poor academic performance. At the sub-group level, bisexual and questioning female victims were most at risk for depression; bisexual and questioning male victims were most at risk for binge drinking; bisexual male victims were most at risk for poor academic performance. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding variability in DV incidence and outcomes within the LGBQ population and using this information to inform clinical intervention and prevention efforts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Seasonal variations of rotifers from a high altitude urban shallow water body, La Cantera Oriente (Mexico City, Mexico) (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sergio González; Sarma, S. S. S.; Nandini, S.


    La Cantera Oriente is a shallow freshwater volcanic water body located at an altitude of 2 270 m above sea level in the Ecological Reserve of San Angel Pedregal of Mexico City (Mexico). In order to ensure the conservation of its biological heritage including zooplankton, the present work was undertaken to quantify the seasonal changes in the diversity and density of rotifers and the selected physico-chemical variables during 2013-2014. Qualitative analysis of the zooplankton samples yielded 68 rotifer species which represented 24 genera in 15 families. B rachionus calyciflorus Pallas, 1766, B. quadridentatus Hermann, 1783, Polyarthra vulgaris Carlin, 1943, Lecane closterocerca (Schmarda, 1859) and Keratella cochlearis (Gosse, 1851) were the most common species. Preston plots of species frequency-density revealed that as many as 30% of the rotifer taxa were dominant throughout the year. The species with high population densities were Brachionus quadridentatus, Lecane closterocerca, Keratella cochlearis, and Lepadella patella; their peak densities were 2 000, 1 000, 180 and 90 ind./L, all occurring in summer. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Platyias quadricornis was related to the concentration of phosphates available in the environment and the conductivity, while B. quadridentatus was positively correlated with chlorophyll- a. The trophic status of the lake was eutrophic based on Chl- a content but oligotrophic with relation to the Brachionus: Trichocerca ratio.

  13. Developing mathematics learning set for special-needs junior high school student oriented to learning interest and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Sadidah


    Full Text Available This study aims to produce a mathematics learning set for special-needs students (mathematical learning disability and mathematically gifted of Junior High School Grade VIII Second Semester oriented to learning interests and achievement which is valid, practical, and effective. This study was a research and development study using the Four-D development model consisting of four stages: (1 define, (2 design, (3 develop, and (4 disseminate. The quality of learning set consisting of the following three criterions: (1 validity, (2 practicality, and (3 effectiveness.  The data analysis technique used in this study is a descriptive quantitative analysis. The research produced learning set consisting of lesson plans and student worksheets. The result of the research shows that: (1 the learning set fulfill the valid criteria base on experts’ appraisal; (2 the learning set fulfill the practical criterion base on teacher’s and students’ questionnaire, and observation of learning implementation; (3 the learning set fulfill the effectiveness criterion base on learning interest and achievement.

  14. Highly anisotropic magneto-transport and field orientation dependent oscillations in aligned carbon nanotube/epoxy composites (United States)

    Wells, Brian; Kumar, Raj; Reynolds, C. Lewis; Peters, Kara; Bradford, Philip D.


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely investigated as additive materials for composites with potential applications in electronic devices due to their extremely large electrical conductivity and current density. Here, highly aligned CNT composite films were created using a sequential layering fabrication technique. The degree of CNT alignment leads to anisotropic resistance values which varies >400× in orthogonal directions. Similarly, the magnetoresistance (MR) of the CNT composite differs depending upon the relative direction of current and the applied magnetic field. A suppression of negative to positive MR crossover was also observed. More importantly, an overall positive magnetoresistance behavior with localized +/- oscillations was discovered at low fields which persists up to room temperature when the current (I) and in-plane magnetic field (B) were parallel to the axis of CNT (B∥I∥CNT), which is consistent with Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in our CNT/epoxy composites. When the current, applied magnetic field, and nanotube axis are aligned, the in-plane MR is positive instead of negative as observed for all other field, current, and tube orientations. Here, we provide in-depth analysis of the conduction mechanism and anisotropy in the magneto-transport properties of these aligned CNT-epoxy composites.

  15. Oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite: One-step processing and tunable high-frequency magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sai, Ranajit, E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Endo, Yasushi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Masahiro [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Shivashankar, S. A. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)


    In this work, it is demonstrated that the in situ growth of oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite can potentially pave a way to alter and tune magnetocrystalline anisotropy that, in turn, dictates ferromagnetic resonance frequency (f{sub FMR}) by inducing strain due to aggregation. Furthermore, the influence of interparticle interaction on magnetic properties of the aggregates is investigated. Mono-dispersed zinc ferrite nanoparticles (<5 nm) with various degrees of aggregation were prepared through decomposition of metal-organic compounds of zinc (II) and iron (III) in an alcoholic solution under controlled microwave irradiation, below 200 °C. The nanocrystallites were found to possess high degree of inversion (>0.5). With increasing order of aggregation in the samples, saturation magnetization (at 5 K) is found to decrease from 38 emu/g to 24 emu/g, while coercivity is found to increase gradually by up to 100% (525 Oe to 1040 Oe). Anisotropy-mediated shift of f{sub FMR} has also been measured and discussed. In essence, the result exhibits an easy way to control the magnetic characteristics of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite, boosted with significant degree of inversion, at GHz frequencies.

  16. Hydrogen bonds induced supramolecular self-assembly of azobenzene derivatives on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface (United States)

    Miao, Xinrui; Cheng, Zhiyu; Ren, Biye; Deng, Wenli


    The self-assembly of azobenzene derivatives (CnAzCOOH) with various lengths of peripheral alkyl chains (with carbon number of n = 8, 10, 12, 14, 16) were observed by scanning tunneling microscopy on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface. The effect of van der Waals interactions and the intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the two-dimensional self-assembly was systematically studied. No alkyl-chain length effect was observed according to the STM images. All kinds of CnAzCOOH adopting the same pattern self-assembled on the HOPG surface, suggesting the formation of the two-dimensional structures was dominated by the hydrogen bonding of the functional groups. It could be found that two CnAzCOOH molecules formed a hydrogen-bonded dimer with “head-to-head” fashion as expected; however, the dimers organized themselves in the form of relative complex lamellae. Three dimers as a group arranged side by side and formed a well-defined stripe with periodic dislocations due to the registry mechanism of the alkyl chain with the underlying HOPG surface. The hydrogen bonds between the adjacent dimers in one lamella were formed and dominated the self-assembled pattern.

  17. Dynamic Stability Improvement of Grid Connected DFIG Using Enhanced Field Oriented Control Technique for High Voltage Ride Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Ananth Duggirala


    Full Text Available Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is a better alternative to increased power demand. Modern grid regulations force DFIG to operate without losing synchronism during overvoltages called high voltage ride through (HVRT during grid faults. Enhanced field oriented control technique (EFOC was proposed in Rotor Side Control of DFIG converter to improve power flow transfer and to improve dynamic and transient stability. Further electromagnetic oscillations are damped, improved voltage mitigation and limit surge currents for sustained operation of DFIG during voltage swells. The proposed strategy has advantages such as improved reactive power control, better damping of electromagnetic torque oscillations, and improved continuity of voltage and current from stator and rotor to grid during disturbance. In EFOC technique, rotor flux reference changes its value from synchronous speed to zero during fault for injecting current at the rotor slip frequency. In this process, DC-Offset component of stator flux is controlled so that decomposition during overvoltage faults can be minimized. The offset decomposition of flux will be oscillatory in a conventional FOC, whereas in EFOC it is aimed to be quick damping. The system performance with overvoltage of 1.3 times, 1.62 times, and 2 times the rated voltage occurring is analyzed by using simulation studies.

  18. Diffeomorphic metric mapping of high angular resolution diffusion imaging based on Riemannian structure of orientation distribution functions. (United States)

    Du, Jia; Goh, Alvina; Qiu, Anqi


    In this paper, we propose a novel large deformation diffeomorphic registration algorithm to align high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI) characterized by orientation distribution functions (ODFs). Our proposed algorithm seeks an optimal diffeomorphism of large deformation between two ODF fields in a spatial volume domain and at the same time, locally reorients an ODF in a manner such that it remains consistent with the surrounding anatomical structure. To this end, we first review the Riemannian manifold of ODFs. We then define the reorientation of an ODF when an affine transformation is applied and subsequently, define the diffeomorphic group action to be applied on the ODF based on this reorientation. We incorporate the Riemannian metric of ODFs for quantifying the similarity of two HARDI images into a variational problem defined under the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping framework. We finally derive the gradient of the cost function in both Riemannian spaces of diffeomorphisms and the ODFs, and present its numerical implementation. Both synthetic and real brain HARDI data are used to illustrate the performance of our registration algorithm.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Highly Oriented N-Doped ZnO Nanorods by Selective Area Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang


    Full Text Available High-quality nitrogen-doped ZnO nanorods have been selectively grown on patterned and bare ZnO templates by the combination of nanoimprint lithography and chemical vapor transport methods. The grown nanorods exhibited uniformity in size and orientation as well as controllable density and surface-to-volume ratio. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods and the behaviour of N dopants have been investigated by means of the scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence (PL spectra, and Raman scattering spectra. The additional vibration modes observed in Raman spectra of N-doped ZnO nanorods provided solid evidence of N incorporation in ZnO nanorods. The difference of excitonic emissions from ZnO nanorods with varied density and surface-to-volume ratio suggested the different spatial distribution of intrinsic defects. It was found that the defects giving rise to acceptor-bound exciton (A0X emission were most likely to distribute in the sidewall surface with nonpolar characteristics, while the donor bound exciton (D0X emission related defects distributed uniformly in the near top polar surface.

  20. The Erosion of Diamond and Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure (United States)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.


    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. The Polymers Experiment was developed to determine the AO Ey of various polymers and other materials flown in ram and wake orientations in LEO. The experiment was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). As part of the experiment, a sample containing Class 2A diamond (100 plane) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG, basal and edge planes) was exposed to ram AO and characterized for erosion. The materials were salt-sprayed prior to flight to provide isolated sites of AO protection. The Ey of the samples was determined through post-flight electron microscopy recession depth measurements. The experiment also included a Kapton H witness sample for AO fluence determination. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiment, the characterization techniques used, the mission AO fluence, and the LEO Ey results for diamond and HOPG (basal and edge planes). The data is compared to the Ey of pyrolytic graphite exposed to four years of space exposure as part of the MISSE 2 mission. The results indicate that diamond erodes, but with a very low Ey of 1.58 +/- 0.04 x 10(exp -26) cm(exp 3)/atom. The different HOPG planes displayed significantly different amounts of erosion from each other. The HOPG basal plane had an Ey of 1.05 +/- 0.08 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp 3)/atom while the edge plane had a lower Ey of only 5.38 +/- 0.90 x 10(exp -25) -cm(exp 3)/atom. The Ey data from this ISS spaceflight experiment provides valuable information for understanding of chemistry

  1. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia. (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon


    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia and provides an effective and reliable clinical database for future improvement of motor performances skills. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly assigned seven children with spastic diplegia to each intervention group including that of a control group, task-oriented training group, and a high-variability practice group. The control group only received neurodevelopmental treatment for 40 minutes, while the other two intervention groups additionally implemented a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program for 8 weeks (twice a week, 60 min per session). To compare intra and inter-relationships of the three intervention groups, this study measured gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) before and after 8 weeks of training. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the amount of change before and after the training among the three intervention groups for the gross motor performance measure and functional independence measure. [Conclusion] Applying high-variability practice in a task-oriented training course may be considered an efficient intervention method to improve motor performance skills that can tune to movement necessary for daily livelihood through motor experience and learning of new skills as well as change of tasks learned in a complex environment or similar situations to high-variability practice.

  2. Highly oriented δ-Bi2O3 thin films stable at room temperature synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunca Popa, P.; Sønderby, S.; Kerdsongpanya, S.


    We report the synthesis by reactive magnetron sputtering and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented thin films of δ–Bi2O3. This phase is obtained at a substrate temperature of 150–200 °C in a narrow window of O2/Ar ratio in the sputtering gas (18%–20%). Transmission electron...

  3. Deformation patterns in a high-viscosity lava flow inferred from the crystal preferred orientation and imbrication structures: an example from Salina (Aeolian Islands, southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) (United States)

    Ventura, Guido; Rosa, Rosanna De; Colletta, Elena; Mazzuoli, Roberto


    Shape-preferred orientation and imbrication structures of crystals have been measured on samples representative of the base, centre and top of a highly viscous lava flow on Salina (Aeolian Islands, southern Tyrrhenian Sea). The data allow zones with different deformation patterns to be identified. In the base and top of the flow, deformation leads to the development of discrete preferred orientation and imbrication of the elongate crystals. The sense of shear is right-lateral at the base and left-lateral at the top of the flow. Shear strain can be estimated by the analysis of crystal preferred orientation. Deformation increases from the flow centre to the outer, more viscous boundary layers. Random orientation of crystals in the inner zone supports the presence of plug flow in a pseudoplastic lava. The textural features of the studied lava may be related to different mechanisms (i.e. lateral expansion). We conclude that the observed crystal alignments and imbrication structures may be related to a plug flow moving between two non-deforming walls. The walls are represented by the solidified, broken upper and basal crust of the flow. The low shear strain values calculated in the outer margins of the flow are indicative of the last deformation event. Crystal preferred orientation and imbrication structures may be related to the occurrence of velocity gradients existing between the inner zone of the flow and its solidus or near-solidus outer margins.

  4. In situ synthesis of oriented NiS nanotube arrays on FTO as high-performance counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Chang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Zhao, Yun [Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-wei [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China)


    Oriented nickel sulfide (NiS) nanotube arrays were successfully in-situ fabricated on conductive glass substrate and used directly as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells without any post-processing. Compared with Pt counter electrode, for the beneficial effect of electronic transport along the axial direction through the arrays to the substrate, oriented NiS nanotube arrays exhibit both higher electrocatalytic activity for I{sub 3}{sup −} reduction and better electrochemical stability, resulting in a significantly improved power conversion efficiency of 9.8%. Such in-situ grown oriented sulfide semiconductor nanotube arrays is expected to lead a new class structure of composites for highly efficient cathode materials. - Highlights: • In-situ synthesis strategy was proposed to construct oriented NiS nanotube arrays. • Such oriented tube nanostructure benefits the electronic transport along the axial direction of the arrays. • As CE of DSSCs, NiS nanotube arrays exhibit both higher efficiency (9.8%) and electrochemical stability than Pt.

  5. High coupling and high velocity surface acoustic waves using a c-axis oriented ZnO film on translucent Al2O3 ceramics (United States)

    Takeda, Fumio; Shiosaki, Tadashi; Kawabata, Akira


    The layered structure comprising a c-axis normally oriented ZnO piezoelectric film and a translucent Al2O3 ceramic substrate which has a high surface-acoustic-wave velocity and a small surface roughness has given both a high phase velocity Vp and a high coupling k2 for the 0th (Rayleigh) mode, 1st (Sezawa) mode, and leaky mode surface acoustic waves. The measured maximum values of k2 are 3.6% for the 0th mode at h/λ=0.45 where Vp is 3.2 km/s, 5.7% for the 1st mode at h/λ=0.21 where Vp is 5.6 km/s, and 6.7% for the leaky mode at h/λ=0.16 where Vp is 6.2 km/s, where the interdigital transducers are located at the interface in measuring the above values, and also electrically floating plane metals are on top of the ZnO film for the last two values.

  6. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments (United States)

    Simimol, A.; Manikandanath, N. T.; Anappara, Aji A.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C.


    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (TA = 100-500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (VO), zinc interstitial (Zni), and oxygen interstitial (Oi) defects and these can be reduced significantly by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for TA greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for TA ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of Oi defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with VO is dominant in the vacuum annealed (TA = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.

  7. Effect of scanline orientation on ventricular flow propagation: assessment using high frame-rate color Doppler echocardiography (United States)

    Greenberg, N. L.; Castro, P. L.; Drinko, J.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.


    Color M-mode echocardiography has recently been utilized to describe diastolic flow propagation velocity (Vp) in the left ventricle. While increasing temporal resolution from 15 to 200 Hz, this M-mode technique requires the user to select a single scanline, potentially limiting quantification of Vp due to the complex three-dimensional inflow pattern. We previously performed computational fluid dynamics simulations to demonstrate the insignificance of the scanline orientation, however geometric complexity was limited. The purpose of this study was to utilize high frame-rate 2D color Doppler images to investigate the importance of scanline selection in patients for the quantification of Vp. 2D color Doppler images were digitally acquired at 50 frames/s in 6 subjects from the apical 4-chamber window (System 5, GE/Vingmed, Milwaukee, WI). Vp was determined for a set of scanlines positioned through 5 locations across the mitral annulus (from the anterior to posterior mitral annulus). An analysis of variance was performed to examine the differences in Vp as a function of scanline position. Vp was not effected by scanline position in sampled locations from the center of the mitral valve towards the posterior annulus. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend to slower propagation velocities on the anterior side of the valve (60.8 +/- 16.7 vs. 54.4 +/- 13.6 cm/s). This study clinically validates our previous numerical experiment showing that Vp is insensitive to small perturbations of the scanline through the mitral valve. However, further investigation is necessary to examine the impact of ventricular geometry in pathologies including dilated cardiomyopathy.

  8. Owlready: Ontology-oriented programming in Python with automatic classification and high level constructs for biomedical ontologies. (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste


    Ontologies are widely used in the biomedical domain. While many tools exist for the edition, alignment or evaluation of ontologies, few solutions have been proposed for ontology programming interface, i.e. for accessing and modifying an ontology within a programming language. Existing query languages (such as SPARQL) and APIs (such as OWLAPI) are not as easy-to-use as object programming languages are. Moreover, they provide few solutions to difficulties encountered with biomedical ontologies. Our objective was to design a tool for accessing easily the entities of an OWL ontology, with high-level constructs helping with biomedical ontologies. From our experience on medical ontologies, we identified two difficulties: (1) many entities are represented by classes (rather than individuals), but the existing tools do not permit manipulating classes as easily as individuals, (2) ontologies rely on the open-world assumption, whereas the medical reasoning must consider only evidence-based medical knowledge as true. We designed a Python module for ontology-oriented programming. It allows access to the entities of an OWL ontology as if they were objects in the programming language. We propose a simple high-level syntax for managing classes and the associated "role-filler" constraints. We also propose an algorithm for performing local closed world reasoning in simple situations. We developed Owlready, a Python module for a high-level access to OWL ontologies. The paper describes the architecture and the syntax of the module version 2. It details how we integrated the OWL ontology model with the Python object model. The paper provides examples based on Gene Ontology (GO). We also demonstrate the interest of Owlready in a use case focused on the automatic comparison of the contraindications of several drugs. This use case illustrates the use of the specific syntax proposed for manipulating classes and for performing local closed world reasoning. Owlready has been successfully

  9. Understanding the Merits and Demerits of High and Low Context Oriented Communication Cultures in Intercultural Business Conflict : the case of Fukushima and Japanese communication schema


    Ryan, Stephen B.


    This paper shall highlight the merits and demerits of both high and low context oriented communication cultures - particularly in cross-cultural business contexts. Intercultural Communication (IC) theories such as high . low context, universalism . particularism and monochromic . polychromic time are meant to serve as guideposts for the international sojourner to communicate effectively in the host country. We shall also briefly discuss the idea that the English language serves as a low conte...

  10. Grain orientation distribution and development of grain line in highly ordered Bi4Si3O12 micro-crystals


    Zhang Z.G.; Wang X.F.; Tian Q.Q.


    Bismuth silicate (Bi4Si3O12) micro-crystals with a grain line structure were grown by a sintering method under atmosphere pressure. The as-grown products were studied using Xray diffraction (XRD) and Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The grain orientation law was tested by the One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test. The result shows Bi4Si3O12 grains are always distributed in pairs on both sides of a stable line. On one side of a line, the angle between grain orientation and...

  11. Moving Virtual Research Environments from high maintenance Stovepipes to Multi-purpose Sustainable Service-oriented Science Platforms (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Fraser, Ryan; Wyborn, Lesley; Friedrich, Carsten; Squire, Geoffrey; Barker, Michelle; Moloney, Glenn


    The researcher of today is likely to be part of a team distributed over multiple sites that will access data from an external repository and then process the data on a public or private cloud or even on a large centralised supercomputer. They are increasingly likely to use a mixture of their own code, third party software and libraries, or even access global community codes. These components will be connected into a Virtual Research Environments (VREs) that will enable members of the research team who are not co-located to actively work together at various scales to share data, models, tools, software, workflows, best practices, infrastructures, etc. Many VRE's are built in isolation: designed to meet a specific research program with components tightly coupled and not capable of being repurposed for other use cases - they are becoming 'stovepipes'. The limited number of users of some VREs also means that the cost of maintenance per researcher can be unacceptably high. The alternative is to develop service-oriented Science Platforms that enable multiple communities to develop specialised solutions for specific research programs. The platforms can offer access to data, software tools and processing infrastructures (cloud, supercomputers) through globally distributed, interconnected modules. In Australia, the Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) was initially built to enable a specific set of researchers in government agencies access to specific data sets and a limited number of tools, that is now rapidly evolving into a multi-purpose Earth science platform with access to an increased variety of data, a broader range of tools, users from more sectors and a diversity of computational infrastructures. The expansion has been relatively easy, because of the architecture whereby data, tools and compute resources are loosely coupled via interfaces that are built on international standards and accessed as services wherever possible. In recent years, investments in

  12. Fabrication and orientation control of highly cation-ordered epitaxial PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 thin films on Si (100) (United States)

    Chopra, Anuj; Alexe, Marin; Hesse, Dietrich


    Highly cation-ordered (100) and (110)-oriented PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 (PST) films were deposited on buffered Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Switching of crystal orientation from (100) to (110) was achieved by replacing the Si (100)/ZrO2:Y2O3 (100)/CeO2 (100)/LaNiO3 (100)/PST (100) heterostructure with Si (100)/ZrO2:Y2O3 (YSZ) (100)/SrRuO3 (110)/PST (110). The out-of-plane and in-plane crystal orientation and internal microstructure of (001) and (110) PST films were analyzed in detail by X-ray diffraction, pole figure measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. XRD superstructure reflections indicate that both (100) and (110) PST films are highly cation-ordered and transmission electron microscopy measurements show nano-domains of 15 nm size. The electrical measurements show that the PST films are ferroelectric and that the ferroelectric properties are linked to the microstructure. We have demonstrated the successful integration of PST films on Si substrates with control on growth orientation; this approach can be extended to other oxides to be integrated on silicon substrates for future device applications.

  13. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization. (United States)

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O


    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and morphologic studies of Ru nanoparticles deposited onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (United States)

    Bavand, R.; Yelon, A.; Sacher, E.


    Ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) function as effective catalysts in specific reactions, such as methanation and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses. It is our purpose to physicochemically characterize their surfaces, at which catalysis occurs, by surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), using the symmetric peak component anaylsis technique developed in our laboratory to reveal previously hidden components. Ru NPs were deposited by evaporation (0.25-1.5 nm nominal deposition range) onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). In addition to their surfaces being characterized by XPS, an indication of morphology was obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our use of symmetric peak component XPS analysis has revealed detailed information on a previously unidentified surface oxide initially formed, as well as on the valence electronic structure and its variation with NP size, information that is of potential importance in the use of these NPs in catalysis. Each of the several Ru core XPS spectra characterized (3d, 3p and 3s) was found to be composed of three symmetric components. Together with two metal oxide O1s components, these give evidence of a rather complex, previously unidentified oxide that is initially formed. The Ru valence band (4d and 5s) spectra clearly demonstrate a loss of metallicity, a simultaneous increase of the Kubo gap, and an abrupt transfer in valence electron density from the 4d to the 5s orbitals (known as electron spill-over), as the NP size decreases below 0.5 nm. TEM photomicrographs, as a function of deposition rate, show that, at a rate that gives insufficient time for the NP condensation energy to dissipate, the initially well-separated NPs are capable of diffusing laterally and aggregating. This indicates weak NP bonding to the HOPG substrate. Carbide is formed, at both high and low deposition rates, at Ru deposition thicknesses greater than 0.25 nm, its formation explained by Ru NPs reacting with residual

  15. Low temperature growth of highly transparent c-axis oriented ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirhaghi, S.; Craciun, V.; Craciun, D.; Elders, J.; Boyd, I.W.


    The effects of the oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature and laser wavelength on the structural and optical properties of thin films of ZnO grown on silicon and glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition have been studied. Regardless of thickness, all the grown layers are c-axis oriented


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla M. Hrushchenko


    Full Text Available In the article the reasons of increase of public requirement for expansion of psychology-pedagogical component in the general contents of modern higher education in the context of Ukraine’s joining to Bologna process are revealed. The results of experiments aimed to increase the professionally oriented attitude of KNUE students to psychology-pedagogical cycle of subjects are generalized.

  17. Influence of Perceived Parenting Styles: Goal Orientations and Career Aspirations of High School Science Students in Thailand (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut


    There has been considerable research interest into the relationship between the parenting styles of Asians, and student motivation and achievement. The investigation presented in this paper contributes to the literature in this area by examining the influence of perceived parenting style on goal orientations and career aspirations of a sample of…

  18. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.


    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the

  19. Elastic anisotropies modeled from crystallographic preferred orientations from high- to ultrahigh-pressure rocks of the Adula Nappe (Switzerland) (United States)

    Keppler, Ruth; Stipp, Michael; Froitzheim, Niko


    As methods of seismic imaging are rapidly advancing, knowledge of elastic anisotropies of rocks in collisional orogens becomes of increasing importance. The Alps in particular have a complicated tectonic history and there are many uncertainties concerning the structures at depth. So far most elastic anisotropy data come from monomineralic rocks whereas the crust, however, is largely composed of polymineralic rocks. From the latter crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and elastic anisotropy data are mostly lacking. We analyzed micaschists, quartzites, ortho- and paragneisses from the Adula Nappe, a high- to ultrahigh-pressure unit of the Central Alps. They serve as an analogue for deep-seated rocks in continental collision zones. The CPO was determined from time-of-flight neutron diffraction at the SKAT diffractometer in Dubna (Russia). From the CPO, 3D models for P-wave velocity (Vp) anisotropies were calculated. Micaschists show a large spectrum of Vp anisotropies (2.5-11.2%) due to variable mineral composition, volume percentages and CPO strength. Highest Vp is distributed within the foliation plane caused by high elastic anisotropy of mica and its alignment in the foliation. Vp/Vs ratios are 1.56 to 1.63. Orthogneisses also show a relatively wide range of Vp anisotropies (2.5-7.5%). Single maxima are at the periphery of the pole figure in some samples, while in others three maxima are located between the periphery and the center. The latter is due to the alignment of the highest Vp normal to the rhombohedral planes of quartz single crystals. Samples with high mica content show a distribution of highest Vp perpendicular to the foliation. Vp/Vs ratios are 1.51-1.58, whereas values are highest in samples with high volume percentage and CPO strength of quartz. Vp anisotropy of quartzites is about 4% in all of the samples. Even if mica is present no influence on elastic anisotropy of the samples is observed. Single maxima lie at the periphery of the pole

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and morphologic studies of Ru nanoparticles deposited onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavand, R.; Yelon, A.; Sacher, E., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Ru nanoparticle 3d, 3p, and 3s core XPS spectra were found to be composed of three symmetric components. The first component, Ru1, is due to zerovalent R, while components Ru2 and Ru3 are attributed to surface oxide species. • The nanoparticle surface additionally possesses a carbon-rich surface, from residual gas hydrocarbons present in the vacuum. • TEM photomicrographs show the aggregation and partial coalescence of nanoparticles deposited at high deposition rates, provoked by the high rate of release of the heat of condensation, indicating weak bonding to the HOPG substrate. • The analysis of the valence band indicates an increase of the Kubo gap with decreasing NP size, accompanied by an abrupt electron spill-over from the 4d to the 5s orbital. - Abstract: Ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) function as effective catalysts in specific reactions, such as methanation and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses. It is our purpose to physicochemically characterize their surfaces, at which catalysis occurs, by surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), using the symmetric peak component anaylsis technique developed in our laboratory to reveal previously hidden components. Ru NPs were deposited by evaporation (0.25–1.5 nm nominal deposition range) onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). In addition to their surfaces being characterized by XPS, an indication of morphology was obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our use of symmetric peak component XPS analysis has revealed detailed information on a previously unidentified surface oxide initially formed, as well as on the valence electronic structure and its variation with NP size, information that is of potential importance in the use of these NPs in catalysis. Each of the several Ru core XPS spectra characterized (3d, 3p and 3s) was found to be composed of three symmetric components. Together with two metal oxide O1s components, these give evidence of a rather complex

  1. Role of coronal high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging in acute optic neuritis: a comparison with axial orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping [Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institution of Medical Imaging, Shanghai (China); Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Sha, Yan; Wan, Hailin; Wang, Feng [Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Tian, Guohong [Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai (China)


    Through a comparison with the axial orientation, we aimed to evaluate the role of coronal high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in acute optic neuritis based on diagnostic accuracy and the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Orbital DWI, using readout-segmented, parallel imaging, and 2D navigator-based reacquisition (RESOLVE-DWI), was performed on 49 patients with acute vision loss. The coronal (thickness = 3 mm) and axial (thickness = 2 mm) diffusion images were evaluated by two neuroradiologists retrospectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated through diagnostic test; the inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were assessed with a weighted Cohen's kappa test. In addition, the agreement of ADC measurement among observers was evaluated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and Bland-Altman plots. Comparison of ADC values was also performed by unpaired t test. Among the 49 patients, 47 clinically positive optic nerves and 51 clinically negative optic nerves were found. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 85.1/87.2%, 90.2/94.12%, and 87.8/90.8%, respectively, for coronal RESOLVE-DWI and 83.0/85.1%, 66.7/76.5%, and 75.5/79.6%, respectively, for axial RESOLVE-DWI. The inter-observer kappa values were 0.710 and 0.806 for axial and coronal RESOLVE-DWI, respectively, and the intra-observer kappa values were 0.822 and 0.909, respectively (each P < 0.0001). Regarding the reproducibility of ADC measurements on axial and coronal RESOLVE-DWI, the ICCs among observers were 0.846 and 0.941, respectively, and the CV values were 7.046 and 4.810%, respectively. Bland-Altman plots revealed smaller inter-observer variability on coronal RESOLVE-DWI. ADC values were significantly lower in positive group (each P < 0.0001). Higher specificity and better reproducibility of ADC measurements were found for coronal RESOLVE-DWI, which demonstrated the

  2. Influence of the magnetic field orientation on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconductors: an ac shielding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, B


    This work deals with the influence of the orientation of an applied static magnetic field on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconducting cuprates. The mixed state is characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux). Their properties have been tested via the dynamic approach of the shielding of an ac magnetic field. In pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} crystals the first order transition of the vortex system from an ordered to a disordered state has been studied. It has been found that in the material the transition is mainly determined by the component of the field perpendicular to the superconducting copper oxide layers. However, the value of this component at the transition diminishes with the increase of the field component parallel to the layers. This is explained by the decrease of the Josephson coupling between 2D vortices in neighbouring planes in the presence of a parallel component. In heavy ion irradiated Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the subject under investigation has been the pinning of the vortices by the irradiation tracks. These defects push the irreversibility line towards higher fields. In the field range that has become irreversible after irradiation pinning by columnar defects is anisotropic. This anisotropy in pinning indicates that a coupling exists between the 2D vortices that form a vortex line, in contrast to the behaviour in the pristine material in the same field range. HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} with columnar defects shows essentially the same behaviour as Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, the differences being well explained by the lower anisotropy of HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} which leads to a more linear character of the vortices. Finally, it has been shown that in pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the concentration of the vortices in the center of the sample is explained by the surface barrier alone. (author)

  3. Improvement in Predicting the Post-Cracking Tensile Behavior of Ultra-High Performance Cementitious Composites Based on Fiber Orientation Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Sung Choi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the post-cracking tensile behavior of Ultra-High Performance Cementitious Composites (UHPCC was studied and an improved analytical model to predict the behavior depending on the fiber orientation distribution was proposed. Two different casting methods were adopted to estimate the influence of the casting method on the tensile behavior. The direct tensile test results showed that the post-cracking tensile behavior was considerably dependent on the casting method. The influence of the casting method was quantified by image analysis of the fiber distribution. The fiber orientation distribution obtained by image analysis may sometimes include considerable error according to the image resolution, which may cause inaccuracy when predicting the post-cracking tensile behavior based on the fiber orientation distribution. To overcome this dependency, the tensile bridging behavior by the fibers in UHPCC was simulated considering the obtained fiber orientation distribution as well as the number of fibers detected. The post-cracking behavior was then simulated by combining the bridging behavior and tension softening behavior of the matrix. The approach adopted in this study to simulate the post-cracking behavior of UHPCC showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  5. Livestock Farming Systems and Cattle Production Orientation in Eastern High Plains of Algeria, Cattle Farming System in Algerian Semi Arid Region


    Lounis Semara; Charefeddine Mouffok; Toufik Madani


    This study was an attempt to devise productive orientations of cattle herds in eastern high plains of Algeria. In this regard, 165 farms randomly identified were investigated. The selection of breeders was based to existence of cattle on the farm, and the farmer proposed to investigation must have at least two cows. The approach taken was to identify all systems adopted by farmers in a region through the analysis of the relationship between the maintenance of different types of cattle and pre...

  6. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: The effects of body orientation and language on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Vinson


    Full Text Available Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person’s body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings replicate are in line with previous work on spatial displacement task that used a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory.

  7. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Compatible, High-Mobility, ⟨111⟩-Oriented GaSb Nanowires Enabled by Vapor-Solid-Solid Chemical Vapor Deposition. (United States)

    Yang, Zai-Xing; Liu, Lizhe; Yip, SenPo; Li, Dapan; Shen, Lifan; Zhou, Ziyao; Han, Ning; Hung, Tak Fu; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Wu, Xinglong; Song, Aimin; Ho, Johnny C


    Using CMOS-compatible Pd catalysts, we demonstrated the formation of high-mobility ⟨111⟩-oriented GaSb nanowires (NWs) via vapor-solid-solid (VSS) growth by surfactant-assisted chemical vapor deposition through a complementary experimental and theoretical approach. In contrast to NWs formed by the conventional vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, cylindrical-shaped Pd5Ga4 catalytic seeds were present in our Pd-catalyzed VSS-NWs. As solid catalysts, stoichiometric Pd5Ga4 was found to have the lowest crystal surface energy and thus giving rise to a minimal surface diffusion as well as an optimal in-plane interface orientation at the seed/NW interface for efficient epitaxial NW nucleation. These VSS characteristics led to the growth of slender NWs with diameters down to 26.9 ± 3.5 nm. Over 95% high crystalline quality NWs were grown in ⟨111⟩ orientation for a wide diameter range of between 10 and 70 nm. Back-gated field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the Pd-catalyzed GaSb NWs exhibit a superior peak hole mobility of ∼330 cm2 V-1 s-1, close to the mobility limit for a NW channel diameter of ∼30 nm with a free carrier concentration of ∼1018 cm-3. This suggests that the NWs have excellent homogeneity in phase purity, growth orientation, surface morphology and electrical characteristics. Contact printing process was also used to fabricate large-scale assembly of Pd-catalyzed GaSb NW parallel arrays, confirming the potential constructions and applications of these high-performance electronic devices.

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Courses d’orientation Une bonne dizaine de clubs étaient représentés samedi dernier à La Faucille pour participer à la  2e manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club du CERN. Les 120 coureurs ont pu découvrir des parcours classés "technique". Ceux du Haut-Jura familiarisés à ce type de terrain ont pu sortir leur épingle du jeu et se sont octroyé la victoire sur 4 des 5 circuits. Samedi 21 septembre, la montagne du Haut-Jura était encore plébiscitée puisque les coureurs étaient attendus à Saint Cergue sur la carte des Pralies. Pour les résultats complets de La Faucille et les informations sur la prochaine étape, consultez le site du club

  9. Fabrication and non-covalent modification of highly oriented thin films of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama


    Here we report the fabrication of the first thin film of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology (rho-ZMOF-1, ([In48(HImDC)96]48-)n) in a highly oriented fashion on a gold-functionalized substrate. The oriented rho-ZMOF-1 film was functionalized by non-covalent modification via post-synthetic exchange of different probe molecules, such as acridine yellow, methylene blue, and Nile red. In addition, encapsulation of a porphyrin moiety was achieved via in situ synthesis and construction of the rho-ZMOF. Adsorption kinetics of volatile organic compounds on rho-ZMOF-1 thin films was also investigated. This study suggests that rho-ZMOF-1 thin films can be regarded as a promising platform for various applications such as sensing and catalysis. This journal is

  10. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  12. Biodynamics of climbing: effects of substrate orientation on the locomotion of a highly arboreal lizard (Chamaeleo calyptratus). (United States)

    Krause, Cornelia; Fischer, Martin S


    Arboreal substrates differ not only in diameter, but also in continuity and orientation. To gain more insight into the dynamics of small-branch locomotion in tetrapods we studied the veiled chameleon walking on inclined and declined perches of up to 60 deg slope. We found that forelimbs and hindlimbs contribute equally to the body's progression along inclines and declines. The higher-positioned limb's vertical impulses decreased with slope. And although vertical impulses in the lower-positioned limb increased with substrate slope, peak vertical forces decreased. The decrease in peak vertical forces in the lower-positioned limb can be explained by a considerable increase of tensile forces in the higher-positioned limb as the slope increases. In addition, limbs were more crouched on slopes whereas no changes in forward and backward reach were observed. Mediolateral impulses were the smallest amongst the force components, and lateral impulses (medially directed limb forces) exceeded medial impulses (laterally directed limb forces). On inclines and declines, limb placement was more variable than on level substrates. The tail never contacted the substrate during level locomotion; however, on inclines and declines, the tail was held closer to the substrate, with short substrate contacts in one-third of the analyzed trials. Regardless of substrate orientation the tail was always held straight above the branch; therefore, rotational moments induced by the tail were minimized.

  13. Sexual orientation, gender, and racial differences in illicit drug use in a sample of US high school students. (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Birkett, Michelle; Corliss, Heather L; Mustanski, Brian


    We evaluated drug use differences between sexual minority and heterosexual students, including interactions with gender and race/ethnicity. We used 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data pooled from Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Delaware; Maine; Massachusetts; New York City, New York; Rhode Island; and Vermont to evaluate drug use (marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, heroin, methamphetamine, and MDMA [Ecstasy]) using 2 aspects of sexual orientation (identity and sex of sexual partners). Sexual minority students had higher prevalence of drug use than did heterosexuals on both sexual orientation dimensions, and differences were particularly pronounced among bisexual students on both dimensions. Differences between sexual minority and heterosexual male students in prevalence were generally larger than were differences between sexual minority and heterosexual female students. Racial minority students generally reported lower prevalence of drug use. However, the protective effect of African American race was less pronounced for some sexual minorities. Sexual minority youths are at increased risk for drug use. Intervention is needed at the institutional and individual levels to address these disparities.

  14. A new highly adaptable design of shear-flow device for orientation of macromolecules for Linear Dichroism (LD) measurement

    KAUST Repository

    Lundahl, P. Johan


    This article presents a new design of flow-orientation device for the study of bio-macromolecules, including DNA and protein complexes, as well as aggregates such as amyloid fibrils and liposome membranes, using Linear Dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. The design provides a number of technical advantages that should make the device inexpensive to manufacture, easier to use and more reliable than existing techniques. The degree of orientation achieved is of the same order of magnitude as that of the commonly used concentric cylinders Couette flow cell, however, since the device exploits a set of flat strain-free quartz plates, a number of problems associated with refraction and birefringence of light are eliminated, increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of measurement. The device provides similar shear rates to those of the Couette cell but is superior in that the shear rate is constant across the gap. Other major advantages of the design is the possibility to change parts and vary sample volume and path length easily and at a low cost. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer (United States)

    Muhammed, M. M.; Roldan, M. A.; Yamashita, Y.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Ajia, I. A.; Iizuka, K.; Kuramata, A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Roqan, I. S.


    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1-xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm-2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1-xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1-xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  16. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila


    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1−xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm−2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1−xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1−xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  17. High-Hall-Mobility Al-Doped ZnO Films Having Textured Polycrystalline Structure with a Well-Defined (0001) Orientation. (United States)

    Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya


    Five hundred-nanometer-thick ZnO-based textured polycrystalline films consisting of 490-nm-thick Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on 10-nm-thick Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films exhibited a high Hall mobility (μ H) of 50.1 cm(2)/Vs with a carrier concentration (N) of 2.55 × 10(20) cm(-3). Firstly, the GZO films were prepared on glass substrates by ion plating with dc arc discharge, and the AZO films were then deposited on the GZO films by direct current magnetron sputtering (DC-MS). The GZO interface layers with a preferential c-axis orientation play a critical role in producing AZO films with texture development of a well-defined (0001) orientation, whereas 500-nm-thick AZO films deposited by only DC-MS showed a mixture of the c-plane and the other plane orientation, to exhibit a μ H of 38.7 cm(2)/Vs with an N of 2.22 × 10(20) cm(-3).

  18. Large Energy Storage Density and High Thermal Stability in a Highly Textured (111)-Oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 Relaxor Thin Film with the Coexistence of Antiferroelectric and Ferroelectric Phases. (United States)

    Peng, Biaolin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xing; Sun, Tieyu; Fan, Huiqing; Ke, Shanming; Ye, Mao; Wang, Yu; Lu, Wei; Niu, Hanben; Zeng, Xierong; Huang, Haitao


    A highly textured (111)-oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 (PBZ) relaxor thin film with the coexistence of antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric (FE) phases was prepared on a Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si(100) substrate by using a sol-gel method. A large recoverable energy storage density of 40.18 J/cm(3) along with an efficiency of 64.1% was achieved at room temperature. Over a wide temperature range of 250 K (from room temperature to 523 K), the variation of the energy density is within 5%, indicating a high thermal stability. The high energy storage performance was endowed by a large dielectric breakdown strength, great relaxor dispersion, highly textured orientation, and the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The PBZ thin film is believed to be an attractive material for applications in energy storage systems over a wide temperature range.

  19. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN


    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l...


    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN


      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  1. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN


    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge ...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN


    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge...

  4. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  5. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Et c’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison! Pour cette coupe de printemps 2010, le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose le calendrier suivant: – samedi 20 mars : Cossonay (Vd) – samedi 10 avril : Echallens (Vd) – samedi 17 avril : Trélex (Vd) – samedi 24 avril : Genolier (Vd) – samedi 1 mai : Vulbens/Valleiry (74) – samedi 8 mai : Bois de la Rippe (Vd) – samedi 29 mai : Sauvabellin (Vd) : relais – samedi 5 juin: St Cergue (Vd) : grande finale Les courses populaires ont lieu en général le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour cela, divers types de parcours sont &agr...

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Courses d’orientation Le soleil enfin de retour a incité nombre de sportifs et promeneurs à nous rejoindre dans la belle forêt de Challex /Pougny pour la deuxième étape de notre coupe de printemps 2013. Certains sont revenus crottés et fourbus alors que d’autres avaient les joues bien roses après un grand bol d’air frais. Mais tous avaient passé un agréable moment dans la nature. Nous rappelons que nos activités sont ouvertes à tous, jeunes, moins jeunes, sportifs, familles, du CERN ou d’ailleurs, et que le seul inconvénient est que si vous goûtez à la course d’orientation, il vous sera difficile de ne pas y revenir ! Samedi 20 avril 2013, nous serons sur le Mont Mourex (entre Gex et Divonne) pour notre prochaine épreuve et vous y serez les bienvenus. Les inscriptions et les départ...

  7. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club


    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  8. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN


    Courses d’orientation Nouvelle saison nouveau programme Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses populaires comptant pour la coupe Genevoise de printemps: samedi 28 mars: Vernand Dessus samedi 18 avril: Pougny/Challex samedi 25 avril: Chancy/Valleiry samedi 2 mai: Mauvernay samedi 9 mai: Longchaumois samedi 16 mai: Genolier samedi 30 mai: Prevondavaux samedi 6 juin: Biere-Ballens samedi 13 juin: Haut-Jura samedi 20 juin: Bonmont - Finale Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Les inscriptions se font sur place le jour de l’épreuve. Si vous êtes débutant, vous pouvez profiter d’une initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Le club propose aussi...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation


    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation


     Course d’orientation C’est sous un magnifique soleil que s’est tenue la 7e épreuve de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. Les organisateurs avaient concocté des parcours assez techniques sur le site de La Faucille. Sur le parcours technique long, beau podium avec la victoire de Domenico Lepori (double médaillés aux championnats du monde en 2010 en vétéran) du club Care Vevey en 1:00:23, juste devant Jürg Niggli du club O’Jura en 1:00:56 puis Beat Mueller du club Lausanne-Jorat en 1:04:28. Sur le parcours technique moyen, Franck Longchampt s’est octroyé la première place, sur le parcours technique court, le jeune Julien Vuitton, qui n’a pas tout à fait 11 ans, a remporté son circuit. Coté parcours facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov a une fois de plus gagn&eacut...

  11. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Reprise fin août Le Club d’orientation, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une nouvelle série de courses pour cet automne. Le calendrier à retenir est le suivant : Samedi 27 août : Granges Malval (GE) – type classique Samedi 10 septembre : Lamoura (39) – type classique Samedi 17 septembre : La Dôle (F/VD) – type classique Samedi 24 septembre : Monteret (VD) – relais Samedi 8 octobre : Saint Cergue (VD) – type classique Vendredi 14 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) – nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Grand Jorat (VD) – type classique Samedi 22 octobre : Pomier (74) – type classique Samedi 5 novembre : Echallens (VD) – type classique Samedi 12 novembre : CERN (GE) - sprint - Finale Généralement cinq circuits sont disponibles : ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapt&eacu...

  12. Orienting hypnosis. (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I


    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  13. Orientation games in kindergarten


    Pišek, Anja


    The thesis presents the area of general orientation and orientation of the child. The focus is placed on orientation games for preschool children. The first part outlines different definitions of orientation, types of orientation, accessories for orientation and major errors in orientation. It also presents the development of spatial orientation of preschool children, the development of the concept of space according to the level of cognitive development in line with the theory by Piaget,...

  14. Applying DTI white matter orientations to finite element head models to examine diffuse TBI under high rotational accelerations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colgan, Niall C


    The in-vivo mechanical response of neural tissue during impact loading of the head is simulated using geometrically accurate finite element (FE) head models. However, current FE models do not account for the anisotropic elastic material behaviour of brain tissue. In soft biological tissue, there is a correlation between internal microscopic structure and macroscopic mechanical properties. Therefore, constitutive equations are important for the numerical analysis of the soft biological tissues. By exploiting diffusion tensor techniques the anisotropic orientation of neural tissue is incorporated into a non-linear viscoelastic material model for brain tissue and implemented in an explicit FE analysis. The viscoelastic material parameters are derived from published data and the viscoelastic model is used to describe the mechanical response of brain tissue. The model is formulated in terms of a large strain viscoelastic framework and considers non-linear viscous deformations in combination with non-linear elastic behaviour. The constitutive model was applied in the University College Dublin brain trauma model (UCDBTM) (i.e. three-dimensional finite element head model) to predict the mechanical response of the intra-cranial contents due to rotational injury.

  15. Orienting the Microstructure Evolution of Copper Phthalocyanine as an Anode Interlayer in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells for High Performance. (United States)

    Li, Zhiqi; Liu, Chunyu; Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Xulin; Guo, Jiaxin; Guo, Wenbin; Zhang, Liu; Ruan, Shengping


    Recent advances in the interfacial modification of inverted-type polymer solar cells (PSCs) have resulted from controlling the surface energy of the cathode-modified layer (TiO2 or ZnO) to enhance the short-circuit current (Jsc) or optimizing the contact morphology of the cathode (indium tin oxide or fluorine-doped tin oxide) and active layer to increase the fill factor. Herein, we report that the performance enhancement of PSCs is achieved by incorporating a donor macromolecule copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as an anode modification layer. Using the approach based on orienting the microstructure evolution, uniformly dispersed island-shaped CuPc spot accumulations are built on the top of PTB7:PC71BM blend film, leading to an efficient spectral absorption and photogenerated exciton splitting. The best power conversion efficiency of PSCs is increased up to 9.726%. In addition to the enhanced light absorption, the tailored anode energy level alignment and optimized boundary morphology by incorporating the CuPc interlayer boost charge extraction efficiency and suppress the interfacial molecular recombination. These results demonstrate that surface morphology induction through molecular deposition is an effective method to improve the performance of PSCs, which reveals the potential implications of the interlayer between the organic active layer and the electrode buffer layer.

  16. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  17. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation


    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  18. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation


     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  19. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Course d'orientation Vers les dernières courses de printemps Une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés sur le site de la Roche Fendue prés de Morez pour gouter à un des 5 parcours proposés par le club du O’Jura. Le terrain était gras mais que peut-on trouver d’autre avec cette météo! Les vainqueurs de chaque circuit sont : Alina Niggli (O’Jura) facile court, Natalja Niggli (O’Jura) facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ) technique court, Yves Rousselot (Balise 25) technique moyen et pour finir François Gonon (O’Jura) avec une victoire haut la main sur le technique long. Il ne reste plus que deux épreuves pour la coupe genevoise de printemps : à savoir samedi 8 juin, course de type longue distance organisée par le club de Lausanne Jorat (COLJ) dans le bois de Seyte sur Mutrux/Concise, inscription de 12h &...

  20. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée ce samedi 2 novembre avec une course au score dans le bois Tollot (GE). Les concurrents disposaient d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises différemment placées selon le circuit choisi. Juerg Niggli (club O’Jura) a remporté le parcours technique long. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O’Jura), 2e Jirden Lennart, 3e Daria Niggli. Circuit technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ), 2e N...

  1. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  2. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  3. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  4. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Finale de la coupe d’automne   La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 10 novembre avec une course sprint à Prévessins. C’était la 12e épreuve de la saison. En stage dans la région, Tanya Ryabkina, championne d’Europe en titre et médaillée de bronze en moyenne distance lors des championnats du monde à La Givrine cet été, a fait l’honneur de sa présence et termine 2e à 8 secondes de Trygve Buanes, norvégien du club de Bergen. A l’issue de cette dernière épreuve, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 8 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Jurg Niggli (O&rsqu...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation


    Course d'orientation Ces deux dernières semaines, le club a organisé la troisième puis la quatrième étape de la coupe de printemps, une dans la forêt de Collogny/Moissey près de Vulbens, l’autre vers le parcours vita de Trélex. Les résultats sont: Facile court Vulbens : 1er Léo Lonchampt, O’Jura (16:04), 2e Timothée Bazin (23:07), 3e Francesco Pieri (26:57) Trélex : 1er Noora Maurent (23:11), 2e Sarah Stuber, COLJ (26:51), 3e T. Bazin (28:17) Facile moyen Vulbens : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, CO CERN (25:36), 2e Didier Descourvières (28:03), 3e Konstantinos Haider, CO CERN (36:53) Trélex : 1er V. Kuznetsov, COLJ (38:01), 2e K. Haider, CO CERN (43:15), 3e ex aequo Olivia Nguyen et Sven Vietmeier (58:11) Technique court Vulbens : 1er Benoit Bazin (41:21), 2e Colas Gintzburger (55:12), 3e Nathan Freydoz (55:48) Trélex : 1...

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation


    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server



    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation


    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation


    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  12. A comparison of treatment effects after sensor- and robot-based task-oriented arm training in highly functional stroke patients. (United States)

    Timmermans, Annick A A; Lemmens, Ryanne J M; Geers, Richard P J; Smeets, Rob J E M; Seelen, Henk A M


    A large number of rehabilitation technologies for stroke patients has been developed in the last decade. To date it is insufficiently clear what the strengths of these different technologies are in relation to certain patient characteristics, such as the level of muscle strength and/or functional ability. One of the reasons is that research protocols differ so much that comparison of treatment results is impossible. This paper compares, while using the same patient inclusion criteria and training protocol, the effectivity of a sensor-supported versus robot-supported task-oriented arm training for highly functional chronic stroke patients. It appeared that individual improvements over time and Hedges's g effect sizes were twice as large for the sensor-based training compared to the robot-supported training in stroke patients with high functional levels. New research is planned to compare both therapy approaches for stroke patients with low and average functional levels.

  13. Structural properties and parameters of epitaxial silicon carbide films, grown by atomic substitution on the high-resistance (111) oriented silicon (United States)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Nussupov, K. Kh.; Osipov, A. V.; Beisenkhanov, N. B.; Bakranova, D. I.


    The structure, composition and physical parameters of multilayer silicon carbide system synthesized by atom substitution method on the surface of low-dislocation single-crystal (111) oriented silicon were studied by Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, X-ray reflectometry, electron diffraction, IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, AFM and profilometry. It was revealed that SiC films consist of layers, differing in SiyC composition, structure and thickness. The upper layers is a single-crystal 3C-SiC and the lower layers lying in depth of the substrate contain silicon carbide nanocrystals with a high degree of structure perfection and average size of 3-7 nm capable of preferential orientation (311), as well as large crystals (60-260 μm). The presence of cubic (3C-SiC) and hexagonal (mainly, 2H-SiC) polytypes with largest content of crystalline SiC phases in films with the composition closest to stoichiometric was established. In all samples there is carbon in super stoichiometric state, and its structure depends on the synthesis conditions.

  14. EX6AFS: A data acquisition system for high-speed dispersive EXAFS measurements implemented using object-oriented programming techniques (United States)

    Jennings, Guy; Lee, Peter L.


    In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a computerized data-acquisition system for high-speed energy-dispersive EXAFS experiments on the X6A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The acquisition system drives the stepper motors used to move the components of the experimental setup and controls the readout of the EXAFS spectra. The system runs on a Macintosh IIfx computer and is written entirely in the object-oriented language C++. Large segments of the system are implemented by means of commercial class libraries, specifically the MacApp application framework from Apple, the Rogue Wave class library, and the Hierarchical Data Format datafile format library from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. This reduces the amount of code that must be written and enhances reliability. The system makes use of several advanced features of C++: Multiple inheritance allows the code to be decomposed into independent software components and the use of exception handling allows the system to be much more reliable in the event of unexpected errors. Object-oriented techniques allow the program to be extended easily as new requirements develop. All sections of the program related to a particular concept are located in a small set of source files. The program will also be used as a prototype for future software development plans for the Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team beamlines being designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source.

  15. Role of laser energy density on growth of highly oriented topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai – 400076 (India); Saha, B.; Saha, D.; Ganguly, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai – 400076 (India)


    Topological insulators (TIs) are very promising in the field of nanoelectronics due to their exotic properties. Bismuth Selenide, a 3D Topological insulator is considered as reference TI owing to its simple band structure and large bandgap. However, the presence of unintentional doping, which masks the metallic surface states, is still a major concern. In this work, we report the effect of laser energy density on the growth of highly oriented and stoichiometric thin films of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy confirms the c-axis orientation and good crystallinity of films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study shows the increase in average grain size and rms roughness (from 3.1 nm to 5.1 nm) with the decrease in laser energy density. Compositional study by X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurement is found to be in agreement with AFM results. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements confirm the desired stoichiometry of the samples.

  16. Exceptionally High Piezoelectric Coefficient and Low Strain Hysteresis in Grain-Oriented (Ba, Ca)(Ti, Zr)O3through Integrating Crystallographic Texture and Domain Engineering. (United States)

    Liu, Yingchun; Chang, Yunfei; Li, Fei; Yang, Bin; Sun, Yuan; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Shantao; Wang, Ruixue; Cao, Wenwu


    Both low strain hysteresis and high piezoelectric performance are required for practical applications in precisely controlled piezoelectric devices and systems. Unfortunately, enhanced piezoelectric properties were usually obtained with the presence of a large strain hysteresis in BaTiO 3 (BT)-based piezoceramics. In this work, we propose to integrate crystallographic texturing and domain engineering strategies into BT-based ceramics to resolve this challenge. [001] c grain-oriented (Ba 0.94 Ca 0.06 )(Ti 0.95 Zr 0.05 )O 3 (BCTZ) ceramics with a texture degree as high as 98.6% were synthesized by templated grain growth. A very high piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) of 755 pC/N, and an extremely large piezoelectric strain coefficient (d 33 * = 2027 pm/V) along with an ultralow strain hysteresis (H s ) of 4.1% were simultaneously achieved in BT-based systems for the first time, which are among the best values ever reported on both lead-free and lead-based piezoceramics. The exceptionally high piezoelectric response is mainly from the reversible contribution, and can be ascribed to the piezoelectric anisotropy, the favorable domain configuration, and the formation of smaller sized domains in the BCTZ textured ceramics. This study paves a new pathway to develop lead-free piezoelectrics with both low strain hysteresis and high piezoelectric coefficient. More importantly, it represents a very exciting discovery with potential application of BT-based ceramics in high-precision piezoelectric actuators.

  17. A Crafts-Oriented Approach to Computing in High School: Introducing Computational Concepts, Practices, and Perspectives with Electronic Textiles (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Lee, Eunkyoung; Searle, Kristin; Fields, Deborah; Kaplan, Eliot; Lui, Debora


    In this article, we examine the use of electronic textiles (e-textiles) for introducing key computational concepts and practices while broadening perceptions about computing. The starting point of our work was the design and implementation of a curriculum module using the LilyPad Arduino in a pre-AP high school computer science class. To…

  18. A High Performance Remote Sensing Product Generation System Based on a Service Oriented Architecture for the Next Generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Kalluri


    Full Text Available The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES series R, S, T, U (GOES-R will collect remote sensing data at several orders of magnitude compared to legacy missions, 24 × 7, over its 20-year operational lifecycle. A suite of 34 Earth and space weather products must be produced at low latency for timely delivery to forecasters. A ground system (GS has been developed to meet these challenging requirements, using High Performance Computing (HPC within a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA. This approach provides a robust, flexible architecture to support the operational GS as it generates remote sensing products by ingesting and combining data from multiple sources. Test results show that the system meets the key latency and availability requirements for all products.

  19. Microstructure and Sn crystal orientation evolution in Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solders in high temperature packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Bite [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Leslie, Dr Scott [Powerex Inc; Bieler, T. R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing


    Understanding the reliability of eutectic Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solders in high temperature packaging applications is of significant interest in power electronics for the next generation electric grid. Large area (2.5mm 2.5mm) Sn-3.5Ag solder joints between silicon dies and direct bonded copper substrates were thermally cycled between 5 C and 200 C. Sn crystal orientation and microstructure evolution during thermal cycling were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in scanning electron microscope (SEM). Comparisons are made between observed initial texture and microstructure and its evolution during thermal cycling. Gradual lattice rotation and grain boundary misorientation evolution suggested the continuous recrystallization mechanism. Recrystallization behavior was correlated with dislocation slip activities.

  20. Highly oriented ferroelectric CaBi2Nb2O9 thin films deposited on Si(100) by pulsed laser deposition (United States)

    Desu, S. B.; Cho, H. S.; Joshi, P. C.


    We report the successful deposition of highly c-axis oriented CaBi2Nb2O9 (CBN) thin films directly on p-type Si(100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The CBN thin films exhibited good structural, dielectric, and CBN/Si interface characteristics. The electrical measurements were conducted on CBN thin films in a metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) capacitor configuration. The typical measured small signal dielectric constant and the dissipation factor at a frequency of 100 kHz were 80 and 0.051, respectively. The leakage current of the MFS capacitor structure was governed by the Schottky barrier conduction mechanism and the leakage current density was lower than 10-7A/cm2 at an applied electric field of 100 kV/cm. The capacitance-voltage measurements on MFS capacitors established good ferroelectric polarization switching characteristics.

  1. High temperature fracture mechanisms non-oriented electrical steels; Mecanismos de fractura a alta temperatura en aceros electricos no-orientados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, E. O.; Trevino-Luna, E. A.; Salinas-Rodriguez, A.; Leduc-Lezama, L. A.


    In this research work the effect of deformation temperature on the hot ductility of non-oriented electrical steels (0.6% Si-0.3 Al%) was studied using high temperature tensile tests. The specimens were machined from two thin slabs (50 mm thickness) produced by CSP process (Compact Strip Process), one of then using 100% sponge iron and the other using 67% scrap and 33% sponge iron. the tensile tests were carried out at constant strain rate (5x10{sup -}4 s{sup -}1). and a temperature range from 850 to 1.200 degree centigree. The results showed that the ductility decreased with the increment in the temperature until approximately 1,000 degree centigree. At higher temperatures, a ductility recovery was observed only in the steel fabricated without scrap. Scanning Electron Microscopy on fracture surfaces showed that the loss of ductility is associated with intergranular cracking promoted by the austenitic transformation and AIN grain boundaries precipitation. (Author)

  2. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students


    Whitney DeCamp; Bakken, Nicholas W.


    Abstract: Background: Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may hel...

  3. Observations of Glide and Decomposition of a Dislocations at High Temperatures in Ni-Al Single Crystals Deformed along the Hard Orientation (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Daw, M. S.; Noebe, R. D.; Mills, M. J.


    Ni-44at.% Al and Ni-50at.% single crystals were tested in compression in the hard (001) orientations. The dislocation processes and deformation behavior were studied as a function of temperature, strain and strain rate. A slip transition in NiAl occurs from alpha(111) slip to non-alphaaaaaaaaaaa9111) slip at intermediate temperatures. In Ni-50at.% Al single crystal, only alpha(010) dislocations are observed above the slip transition temperature. In contrast, alpha(101)(101) glide has been observed to control deformation beyond the slip transition temperature in Ni-44at.%Al. alpha(101) dislocations are observed primarily along both (111) directions in the glide plane. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations show that the core of the alpha(101) dislocations along these directions is decomposed into two alpha(010) dislocations, separated by a distance of approximately 2nm. The temperature window of stability for these alpha(101) dislocations depends upon the strain rate. At a strain rate of 1.4 x 10(exp -4)/s, lpha(101) dislocations are observed between 800 and 1000K. Complete decomposition of a alpha(101) dislocations into alpha(010) dislocations occurs beyond 1000K, leading to alpha(010) climb as the deformation mode at higher temperature. At lower strain rates, decomposition of a alpha(101) dislocations has been observed to occur along the edge orientation at temperatures below 1000K. Embedded-atom method calculations and experimental results indicate that alpha(101) dislocation have a large Peieris stress at low temperature. Based on the present microstructural observations and a survey of the literature with respect to vacancy content and diffusion in NiAl, a model is proposed for alpha(101)(101) glide in Ni-44at.%Al, and for the observed yield strength versus temperature behavior of Ni-Al alloys at intermediate and high temperatures.

  4. Orientation: the key to successful, engaged staff. (United States)

    Blackhurst, Kristi; Dowd, Terry


    Orientation programs are an important component of employee retention and engagement, yet the importance of orientation is often overlooked by many organizations. A lack of an adequate orientation program can result in new employees finding it difficult to adapt to the organization's culture,and may lead to high turnover rates. This article relates the story of Banner Baywood Medical Center's quest to cultivate an effective orientation program and increase retention of quality, engaged employees.

  5. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo


    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  6. High Job Demands and Low Job Control Increase Nurses' Professional Leaving Intentions: The Role of Care Setting and Profit Orientation. (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias


    We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: Spatial Distribution of Molecular Orientation and Shape Recovery Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Takahashi


    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA. The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020, consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  8. High Performance Human Resource Practices, Identification with Organizational Values and Goals, and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Review of Literature and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.


    Full Text Available Increasing competition within the hospitality industry has recognized the importance of service quality as a key business differentiation strategy. Proactive involvement of employees is a vital component of the service delivery, which in turn, enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty. Hence, hospitality organizations, particularly hotels, need to encourage their employees to perform voluntary behaviors that go “beyond their call of duty”. These behaviors are referred to as service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (hereafter labeled as SO-OCBs. A review of the literature indicates that an organization’s human resource management (henceforth labeled as HRM practices are instrumental in establishing the tone of the employee-employer relationship, which subsequently affects employees’ display of discretionary functional service-related behaviors. Specifically, high-performance HRM practices can nurture a relational employment relationship, leading to internalization of organizational values and goals. This, in turn, would induce employees to engage in greater SO-OCBs. However, conceptual and empirical work explaining the mechanism by which high-performance HRM practices relate to SO-OCBs remains scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to construct a model linking a set of high-performance HRM practices (selective hiring, communication, appraisal, and reward and SO-OCBs. Identification with organizational values and goals is posited as a mediator in the proposed relationship. A discussion of the literature to support the proposed framework is furnished.

  9. Studies on dielectric, optical, magnetic, magnetic domain structure, and resistance switching characteristics of highly c-axis oriented NZFO thin films (United States)

    Pradhan, Dhiren K.; Kumari, Shalini; Li, Linglong; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Das, Proloy T.; Puli, Venkata S.; Pradhan, Dillip K.; Kumar, Ashok; Misra, Pankaj; Pradhan, A. K.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Katiyar, Ram S.


    With the rapid development of new device miniaturization technology, there is invigorated interest in magnetic nanostructures for potential application in novel multifunctional devices. In continuation to our search for a suitable magnetic material having Curie temperature (Tc) well above room temperature for multifunctional applications, we have studied the dielectric, optical, magnetic, and resistance switching characteristics of Ni0.65Zn0.35Fe2O4 (NZFO) thin films. The observation of only (004) reflection in the X-ray diffraction patterns confirms the c-axis orientation and high quality growth of NZFO thin films. The presence of mixed valences of Fe2+/Fe3+ cations is probed by X-ray photon spectroscopy, which supports the cationic ordering-mediated large dielectric response. Our investigations reveal NZFO to be an indirect band gap material (˜1.8 eV) with a direct gap at ˜2.55 eV. These nanostructures exhibit high saturation magnetization and a low coercive field with a ferrimagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition of ˜713 K. Magnetic force microscopy studies revealed the stripe-like domain structure of the investigated thin films. In addition, these thin films exhibit reliable and repeatable unipolar resistive switching characteristics. The observed high dielectric permittivity with low loss tangent, large magnetization with soft magnetic behavior, striped magnetic domain structure and reliable resistance switching in NZFO thin films above room temperature suggest potential application in memory, spintronics, and multifunctional devices.

  10. High-energy transmission Laue micro-beam X-ray diffraction: a probe for intra-granular lattice orientation and elastic strain in thicker samples. (United States)

    Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Abbey, Brian; Jun, Tea-Sung; Korsunsky, Alexander M


    An understanding of the mechanical response of modern engineering alloys to complex loading conditions is essential for the design of load-bearing components in high-performance safety-critical aerospace applications. A detailed knowledge of how material behaviour is modified by fatigue and the ability to predict failure reliably are vital for enhanced component performance. Unlike macroscopic bulk properties (e.g. stiffness, yield stress, etc.) that depend on the average behaviour of many grains, material failure is governed by `weakest link'-type mechanisms. It is strongly dependent on the anisotropic single-crystal elastic-plastic behaviour, local morphology and microstructure, and grain-to-grain interactions. For the development and validation of models that capture these complex phenomena, the ability to probe deformation behaviour at the micro-scale is key. The diffraction of highly penetrating synchrotron X-rays is well suited to this purpose and micro-beam Laue diffraction is a particularly powerful tool that has emerged in recent years. Typically it uses photon energies of 5-25 keV, limiting penetration into the material, so that only thin samples or near-surface regions can be studied. In this paper the development of high-energy transmission Laue (HETL) micro-beam X-ray diffraction is described, extending the micro-beam Laue technique to significantly higher photon energies (50-150 keV). It allows the probing of thicker sample sections, with the potential for grain-level characterization of real engineering components. The new HETL technique is used to study the deformation behaviour of individual grains in a large-grained polycrystalline nickel sample during in situ tensile loading. Refinement of the Laue diffraction patterns yields lattice orientations and qualitative information about elastic strains. After deformation, bands of high lattice misorientation can be identified in the sample. Orientation spread within individual scattering volumes is

  11. The Network Orientations of Highly Resilient Urban Minority Youth: A Network-Analytic Account of Minority Socialization and Its Educational Implications. (United States)

    Stanton-Salazar, Ricardo D.; Spina, Stephanie Urso


    Assesses characteristics of resiliency and help-seeking behavior among urban minority youth as related to issues of minority youth socialization and schooling. Discusses the role of help-seeking orientation in developing resiliency; developmental foundations of, and institutional influences on, help-seeking orientation; an integrated perspective…

  12. Implications of total content of silicon, aluminium, chromium and formation of thin ferrite films on low ductility at high temperature in non oriented electrical steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equihua-Guillén, F.


    Full Text Available This work shows evidence of the implications of total additions of silicon, aluminium and chromium on low ductility during hot rolling in non-oriented electrical steels. This paper explains the reason of ductility loss at temperatures between 950 - 1000°C in electrical steels which exhibit higher Ar3 transformation temperature than C-Mn and microalloyed steels. The empirical equations to determine Ar3 temperature do not consider silicon and aluminium elements. The results show that high content of silicon, aluminium and residual concentration of chromiun considerably increases Ar3 transformation temperature in non-oriented electrical steels. The low ductility at high temperature occurs between Ae3 and Ar3 transformation temperatures. In addition, the results of this work show evidence of thin ferrite films formed near Ar3 temperature and their implications on ductility loss at high temperature.

    Este trabajo muestra evidencia de las implicaciones de la cantidad total de silicio, aluminio y cromo sobre la baja ductilidad en aceros eléctricos durante la laminación en caliente. Este artículo explica la razón de la pérdida de ductilidad a temperaturas entre 950 y 1.000°C en aceros eléctricos. Las ecuaciones empíricas para determinar la temperatura Ar3 no consideran los elementos aluminio y silicio. Los resultados muestran que altos contenidos de silicio, aluminio y la concentración residual de cromo incrementan considerablemente la temperatura de transformación Ar3 en aceros eléctricos de grano no orientado. La baja ductilidad a elevada temperatura ocurre entre las temperaturas de transformación Ae3 y Ar3. Adicionalmente, los resultados de este trabajo muestran evidencia de películas delgadas de ferrita formadas a temperaturas cercanas a Ar3 y sus implicaciones sobre la pérdida de

  13. Effects of Low Ag Doping on Physical and Optical Waveguide Properties of Highly Oriented Sol-Gel ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dehimi


    Full Text Available A sol-gel dip-coating process was used to deposit almost stress-free highly c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO thin films onto glass substrates. The effects of low silver doping concentration (Ag/Zn < 1% on the structural, morphological, optical, and waveguide properties of such films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, and M-lines spectroscopy (MLS. XRD analysis revealed that all the films were in single phase and had a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The grain size values were calculated and found to be about 24–29 nm. SEM micrographs and AFM images have shown that film morphology and surface roughness were influenced by Ag doping concentration. According to UV-Vis. measurements all the films were highly transparent with average visible transmission values ranging from 80% to 86%. It was found that the Ag contents lead to widening of the band gap. MLS measurements at 632.8 nm wavelength put into evidence that all thin film planar waveguides demonstrate a well-guided fundamental mode for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized light. Moreover, the refractive index of ZnO thin films was found to increase by Ag doping levels.

  14. Oriented CuCo2S4 nanograss arrays/Ni foam as an electrode for a high-performance all-solid-state supercapacitor (United States)

    Wang, Yuqiao; Yang, Dawei; Zhou, Tianyue; Pan, Jie; Wei, Tao; Sun, Yueming


    An oriented nanograss array consisting of CuCo2S4 nanocrystallines was directly prepared on Ni foam by a hydrothermal method. The uniform arrays with a single blade diameter of ∼100 nm and length of ∼4 μm can grow tightly on Ni foam without any binders. The ordered one-dimensional structure facilitates the electron transport to Ni substrates along the axial direction. The electrochemical properties were presented in three- and two-electrode configurations, demonstrating an enhanced specific capacitance and a long-term cycling stability. As a practical all-solid-state device, it achieved a high energy density of 31.88 W h kg‑1 at a power density of 3.20 kW kg‑1. Even at a higher power density of 15.23 W h kg‑1, the device still had an energy density of 16.5 kW kg‑1. After 5000 cycles, the retention ratio was higher than 99% at high current density of 11.36 A g‑1.

  15. High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy (United States)


    funded Center of Excellence grant for Education , Research and Engineering: The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this...Tunneling Model," Computers, Materials and Continua , vol. 15, pp. 87-112, 2010.

  16. High Resolution Orientation Distribution Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren; Gade-Nielsen, Nicolai Fog; Høstergaard, Martin


    from the deformed material. The underlying mathematical formalism supports all crystallographic space groups and reduces the problem to solving a (large) set of linear equations. An implementation on multi-core CPUs and Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) is discussed along with an example on simulated...

  17. Arthroscopically assisted stabilization of acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint separations in a coracoclavicular Double-TightRope technique: V-shaped versus parallel drill hole orientation. (United States)

    Kraus, Natascha; Haas, Norbert P; Scheibel, Markus; Gerhardt, Christian


    The arthroscopically assisted Double-TightRope technique has recently been reported to yield good to excellent clinical results in the treatment of acute, high-grade acromioclavicular dislocation. However, the orientation of the transclavicular-transcoracoidal drill holes remains a matter of debate. A V-shaped drill hole orientation leads to better clinical and radiologic results and provides a higher vertical and horizontal stability compared to parallel drill hole placement. This was a cohort study; level of evidence, 2b. Two groups of patients with acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint instability (Rockwood type V) were included in this prospective, non-randomized cohort study. 15 patients (1 female/14 male) with a mean age of 37.7 (18-66) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique using a V-shaped orientation of the drill holes (group 1). 13 patients (1 female/12 male) with a mean age of 40.9 (21-59) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique with a parallel drill hole placement (group 2). After 2 years, the final evaluation consisted of a complete physical examination of both shoulders, evaluation of the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), Constant Score (CS), Taft Score (TF) and Acromioclavicular Joint Instability Score (ACJI) as well as a radiologic examination including bilateral anteroposterior stress views and bilateral Alexander views. After a mean follow-up of 2 years, all patients were free of shoulder pain at rest and during daily activities. Range of motion did not differ significantly between both groups (p > 0.05). Patients in group 1 reached on average 92.4 points in the CS, 96.2 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 75.9 points in the ACJI. Patients in group 2 scored 90.5 points in the CS, 93.9 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 84.5 points in the ACJI (p > 0.05). Radiographically, the coracoclavicular distance was found to be 13.9 mm (group 1) and 13.4 mm (group 2) on the affected side and 9.3 mm (group 1

  18. Hilbert-space treatment of incoherent, time-resolved spectroscopy. I. Formalism, a tensorial classification of high-order orientational gratings and generalized MUPPETS "echoes". (United States)

    Berg, Mark A


    Time-resolved spectroscopy that uses more than one incoherent excitation, and thus has multiple periods of time evolution, is becoming more common. A recent example is multiple population-period transient spectroscopy (MUPPETS), which is implemented as a high-order transient grating. In this paper, a formalism is developed to treat these types of incoherent spectroscopy in a manner that parallels the Liouville-pathway formalism used to treat multidimensional coherent spectroscopy. A Hilbert space of incoherent (population) states is defined and general expressions for transition and time-evolution operators acting on these states are derived from the corresponding quantum operators. This formalism describes incoherent experiments that involve an arbitrary number of temporal dimensions in terms of pathways through the Hilbert space. Each pathway is associated with a multiple-time rate-correlation function. Previous work has shown that these multiple-time correlation functions can measure heterogeneity in electronic-relaxation rates. Thus, they are an analog of coherent "echo" experiments, which measure heterogeneity in frequencies. We show that similar "MUPPETS echo" experiments can be done on any incoherent variable. For a dilute molecular solute, the Hilbert-space method leads to a systematic treatment of multidimensional transient gratings. The extension of irreducible-tensor methods to the incoherent Hilbert space results in a classification of orientational gratings of arbitrary order. The general methods developed in this paper are applied more specifically to single-photon, dipole transitions in the following paper.

  19. Effect of pretreatment and membrane orientation on fluxes for concentration of whey with high foulants by using NH3/CO2in forward osmosis. (United States)

    Seker, M; Buyuksari, E; Topcu, S; Babaoglu, D S; Celebi, D; Keskinler, B; Aydiner, C


    Usage of forward osmosis membrane in FO mode, in which active and support layers of the membrane were in contact with the feed and the draw solutions respectively, provided higher initial water flux (12L/m 2 h) than the usage of membrane in PRO mode (6L/m 2 h) having opposite orientation but fluxes approached to each other after 4h during concentration of whey with NH 3 /CO 2 as draw salt. High organic and inorganic foulants of whey was considered as reason for observed result in addition to lower solute resistivity. Initial water flux (8,5L/m 2 h) was lower when pre-treatment was applied before forward osmosis process but final flux (4L/m 2 h) was equal flux of non pre-treatment. Reduction of solute resistivity or absence of hydraulic pressure can be reasons for lower initial flux. Detection of organic carbon but absence of lactose in draw solution showed passage of molecules being different than lactose into draw solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly c-axis-oriented one-inch square freestanding GaN grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy using an AIN deposited on Si

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, M H; Chung, S H; Moon, D C


    In this letter, we report on the growth and the properties of freestanding GaN substrates. Large areas of one-inch square with a thickness of a 0.5 mm were grown by the hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) method after a thick film of GaN was grown on an AIN buffer layer deposited on a sacrificial Si substrate which was subsequently chemically removed. The GaN substrate showed intensified X-ray diffraction from the (00.2) and the (00.4) planes, and the full width at half maximum of the double-crystal X-ray diffraction curve was as large as 4.2 degrees. The photoluminescence spectra measured at 10 K and at 300 K exhibited a sharp and strong excitonic emission without deep-level emission. They also showed n-type conduction with an electron concentration of approx 1x10 sup 1 sup 8 cm sup - sup 3 and a Hall mobility of 50 cm sup 2 / Vsec. The highly c-axis oriented large-area freestanding GaN prepared using a Si sacrificial substrate by HVPE through this work can be used for homoepitaxial growth of GaN-based optoel...

  1. Small plot trials documenting effective mating disruption of oriental fruit moth by using high densities of wax-drop pheromone dispensers. (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J; Mallinger, R E; Epstein, D; Reed, T P; Miller, J R


    In 2004 field experiments, we compared the effectiveness of various deployment densities of 0.1-ml paraffin wax drops containing 5% pheromone versus Isomate M-Rosso "rope" dispensers for disruption of Grapholita molesta (Busck). Treatments were evaluated in 0.05-ha (12-tree) plots of 'Delicious' apples receiving regular maintenance according to growers' standards, but not sprayed with insecticides. The application densities of 0.1-ml wax drops were 3 per tree (820/ha), 10 per tree (2,700/ha), 30 per tree (8,200/ha), and 100 per tree (27,300/ha). Wax drops were compared with 3-ml dispensers of pheromone-containing paraffin wax or Isomate M-Rosso ropes at 1.8 per tree (500/ha) and untreated control plots. Treatments were applied before the start of each of three moth generations. Orientational disruption, as measured by inhibition of moth captures in pheromone-baited delta traps, was greatest in plots that received 100 drops per tree (99.2%) and 30 drops per tree (99.4%). More than 55% of tethered, virgin females were mated in control plots after one night of deployment. However, no mating was recorded at the two highest application densities of wax drops where orientational disruption of traps exceeded 99%. Mating ranged from 7 to 20% among the other treatments, including Isomate rope dispensers. G. molesta males were observed closely approaching pheromone dispensers in plots containing ropes and wax drops, documenting competitive attraction between synthetic pheromone sources and feral females. The majority of observed G. molesta males approached within 60 cm of wax drops or pheromone ropes and departed within 20 s by flying upwind. Thirty wax drops per tree yielded higher mating disruption of G. molesta than did Isomate M-Rosso dispensers deployed at the recommended rate of 500/ha (1.8 per tree). Measurement of release rates confirmed behavioral data indicating that paraffin wax dispensers would need to be applied once per G. molesta generation in Michigan

  2. Teachers' orientations towards writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. McCarthey & Dumisile Mkhize


    Full Text Available This study of 29 teachers from four states in the US investigated teachers' orientations towards writing and the influences on their beliefs. Through interviews about writing instruction, the researchers found significant differences between teachers in high and low-income schools. While teachers in high-income schools valued rhetorical style, developing voice, and reading-writing connections, teachers in low-income schools focused on grammar, mechanics and sentence structure. Teachers in high-income schools appear to be exercising more choice in curricular materials and valuing quality of writing beyond grammar and mechanics, whereas teachers in low-income schools are using specific curriculum mandated by the districts. Influences on teachers' orientations included school context, programs and materials, and assessments. The study raises concerns that students in low-income schools are missing out on authentic, challenging, and meaningful writing opportunities since the focus is on skills-based instruction. The findings point to the need for teachers to provide all students with opportunities to develop rhetorical style, voice, and reading-writing connections in addition to grammar, mechanics, and sentence structure.

  3. Role of orientation of nucleus of crystal during the process of synthesis of fine crystalline oxides at high temperatures and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasyuk, G P; Belan, V N; Voroshilov, I L; Shabalin, D G [IGIC RAS, N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)], E-mail:


    The structural transformations of hydrargillite Al(OH){sub 3} and boehmite AlOOH were studied on thermovaporous autoclaving and on heat treatment. A special attention was paid to the morphology of initial flocculated and loose hydrargillite crystals, of the again segregating flocculi boehmite intermediate phase, and to the morphology of the end product - corundum single - or polycrystals. It is shown that on thermovaporous autoclaving the intraflocculi orientation of the boehmite crystals is decisive in the corundum single crystals formation. The degree of identity of the boehmite crystals orientation qualifies the sizes of the growing corundum crystals. It is shown, that after heat treatment in air at <1200 deg. C alpha-alumina forms, the habitus of the initial crystals remains unchanged, but at 1400-1500 deg. C in vacuum it alters, and equally oriented alumina grains sinter. Influence of the mutual crystals orientation at different stages of structural transformations is explored. Keywords: autoclaving, hydrargillite, boehmite, corundum.

  4. Enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties of (111)-oriented highly cation-ordered PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Anuj [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Birajdar, Balaji I. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Special Centre for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kim, Yunseok [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Alexe, Marin [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Hesse, Dietrich [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)


    Cation-ordered (111)-oriented epitaxial PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (PST) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on SrRuO{sub 3}-electroded SrTiO{sub 3} (111) substrates at three different temperatures of 525 °C, 550 °C, and 575 °C. All the films were well crystalline and (111)-oriented at all the three growth temperatures; however, the films deposited at the temperatures other than 550 °C exhibited the presence of a pyrochlore phase. X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that the films were epitaxial and highly cation-ordered. In comparison to (001)-oriented PST films, (111)-oriented films on SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (111) exhibited enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties with a broad size distribution of cation-ordered domains (5–100 nm). At a measurement temperature of 100 K, the remnant polarization of PST (111) films is almost √3 times larger than the remnant polarization observed for (001)-oriented PST films, which is attributed to the (111) orientation of the films, as the spontaneous polarization in PST lies close to the [111] direction. The observed dielectric constant and loss at 1 kHz were around 1145 and 0.11, respectively. The dielectric constant is thus almost three times higher than for previously reported (001)-oriented PST thin films, most probably due to the enhancement in cation-ordering.

  5. Factors associated with students' orientations to nursing. (United States)

    Vanhanen, L; Janhonen, S


    Factors associated with students' orientations to nursing This paper presents the results of a study focusing on the factors associated with orientations to nursing. Students' orientations to nursing have not as yet been a focus of nursing research. In some other professions, however, professional orientation has been associated with learning motivation and study performance, and has been seen as a predictor of work satisfaction. In this study, students' orientations to nursing were defined in terms of caring, nursing expertise and life orientation. The hypothesis of whether students' pre-educational experiences of nursing, gender, choice of nursing specialty, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing were associated with different orientations was tested. The extent to which students were orientated to caring, nursing expertise and their own life was also examined. The orientation to nursing measurement tool, which has been developed on the basis of a qualitative study, was used to collect the data. Nurse teachers collected the data from nursing students (n=184) who were studying in three different nursing programmes in Finland. Non-parametric assessments (Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test) of the differences between the students' orientations were carried out. A majority of the students were highly life-orientated, and two-thirds had average nursing expertise or caring orientation scores. The results supported the study hypothesis of an association between students' orientations and their gender, choice of nursing speciality, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing. However, the hypothesis of an association between students' pre-educational nursing experiences and orientation to nursing was not supported. The contradictions between students' orientation to nursing and the philosophy of nursing underlying the study programme may be a source of motivational problems and dissatisfaction with nursing education

  6. Automatic identification of agricultural terraces through object-oriented analysis of very high resolution DSMs and multispectral imagery obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle. (United States)

    Diaz-Varela, R A; Zarco-Tejada, P J; Angileri, V; Loudjani, P


    Agricultural terraces are features that provide a number of ecosystem services. As a result, their maintenance is supported by measures established by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the framework of CAP implementation and monitoring, there is a current and future need for the development of robust, repeatable and cost-effective methodologies for the automatic identification and monitoring of these features at farm scale. This is a complex task, particularly when terraces are associated to complex vegetation cover patterns, as happens with permanent crops (e.g. olive trees). In this study we present a novel methodology for automatic and cost-efficient identification of terraces using only imagery from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Using state-of-the-art computer vision techniques, we generated orthoimagery and digital surface models (DSMs) at 11 cm spatial resolution with low user intervention. In a second stage, these data were used to identify terraces using a multi-scale object-oriented classification method. Results show the potential of this method even in highly complex agricultural areas, both regarding DSM reconstruction and image classification. The UAV-derived DSM had a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.5 m when the height of the terraces was assessed against field GPS data. The subsequent automated terrace classification yielded an overall accuracy of 90% based exclusively on spectral and elevation data derived from the UAV imagery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrochemical Synthesis of Highly Oriented, Transparent, and Pinhole-Free ZnO and Al-Doped ZnO Films and Their Use in Heterojunction Solar Cells. (United States)

    Kang, Donghyeon; Lee, Dongho; Choi, Kyoung-Shin


    Electrochemical synthesis conditions using nonaqueous solutions were developed to prepare highly transparent (T > 90%) and crystalline ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films for use in solar energy conversion devices. A focused effort was made to produce pinhole-free films in a reproducible manner by identifying a key condition to prevent the formation of cracks during deposition. The polycrystalline domains in the resulting films had a uniform orientation (i.e., the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate), which enhanced the electron transport properties of the films. Furthermore, electrochemical Al doping of ZnO using nonaqueous media, which was demonstrated for the first time in this study, effectively increased the carrier density and raised the Fermi level of ZnO. These films were coupled with an electrodeposited p-type Cu2O to construct p-n heterojunction solar cells to demonstrate the utilization of these films for solar energy conversion. The resulting n-ZnO/p-Cu2O and n-AZO/p-Cu2O cells showed excellent performance compared with previously reported n-ZnO/p-Cu2O cells prepared by electrodeposition. In particular, replacing ZnO with AZO resulted in simultaneous enhancements in short circuit current and open circuit potential, and the n-AZO/p-Cu2O cell achieved an average power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.92 ± 0.09%. The electrodeposition condition reported here will offer a practical and versatile way to produce ZnO or AZO films, which play key roles in various solar energy conversion devices, with qualities comparable to those prepared by vacuum-based techniques.

  8. Femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: a green route for large-scale production of porous graphene and graphene quantum dots. (United States)

    Russo, Paola; Hu, Anming; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Duley, Walter W; Zhou, Norman Y


    Porous graphene (PG) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are attracting attention due to their potential applications in photovoltaics, catalysis, and bio-related fields. We present a novel way for mass production of these promising materials. The femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is employed for their synthesis. Porous graphene (PG) layers were found to float at the water-air interface, while graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were dispersed in the solution. The sheets consist of one to six stacked layers of spongy graphene, which form an irregular 3D porous structure that displays pores with an average size of 15-20 nm. Several characterization techniques have confirmed the porous nature of the collected layers. The analyses of the aqueous solution confirmed the presence of GQDs with dimensions of about 2-5 nm. It is found that the formation of both PG and GQDs depends on the fs-laser ablation energy. At laser fluences less than 12 J cm(-2), no evidence of either PG or GQDs is detected. However, polyynes with six and eight carbon atoms per chain are found in the solution. For laser energies in the 20-30 J cm(-2) range, these polyynes disappeared, while PG and GQDs were found at the water-air interface and in the solution, respectively. The origin of these materials can be explained based on the mechanisms for water breakdown and coal gasification. The absence of PG and GQDs, after the laser ablation of HOPG in liquid nitrogen, confirms the proposed mechanisms.

  9. Antidepressants differentially affect striatal amphetamine-stimulated dopamine and serotonin release in rats with high and low novelty-oriented behaviour. (United States)

    O'Leary, Aet; Kõiv, Kadri; Raudkivi, Karita; Harro, Jaanus


    In the studies of depression pathogenesis and antidepressant action, the monoaminergic hypothesis of depression has mainly focused on the serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms. However, dopaminergic neurotransmission is also linked to both depressive symptomatology as well as antidepressant effects. We have previously shown that persistent inter-individual differences in the rat behavioural activity in novel environments is associated with differences in the striatal extracellular levels of dopamine and serotonin, depressive-like behaviour and the expression of several depression-related genes. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relative potency of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine, and the selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor reboxetine (all drugs administered in the dose of 10mg/kg, i.p.) to enhance amphetamine-stimulated dopamine and serotonin release in the striatum using in vivo microdialysis in awake, freely-moving rats, categorized into high explorers (HE) and low explorers (LE) based on their spontaneous novelty-oriented behaviour. The basal extracellular dopamine and serotonin concentration in the striatum did not differ between the LE- and HE-rats. None of the antidepressants alone were able to modify baseline striatal dopamine levels, but the amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release was significantly higher in the HE-rats after acute and chronic imipramine (but not fluoxetine or reboxetine). Acute imipramine and fluoxetine, but not reboxetine, increased both the basal and amphetamine-stimulated levels of serotonin in the striatum. Again, the HE-rats had higher amphetamine-stimulated serotonin release after fluoxetine administration. These findings suggest that rats with depressive-like phenotype are less sensitive to the neurochemical effects of antidepressants in the striatum. These results may have relevance in understanding the neurobiological bases for inter

  10. Impact of High-Resolution Topographic Mapping on Beach Morphological Analyses Based on Terrestrial LiDAR and Object-Oriented Beach Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Meng


    Full Text Available This research applied terrestrial LiDAR for laboratory beach evolution experiments to quantify the impact of resolution on topographic mapping and change analyses. The multi-site registration and multi-temporal scanning processes produced high accuracy (−0.002 ± 0.003 m topographic models in a wave tank environment. Morphological analyses based on surface change and profiles showed that models of all resolutions were capable of capturing major sediment changes in relatively smooth areas. However, higher resolution models were necessary in areas with rough surfaces and sudden elevation changes, while coarser resolution models smoothed the roughness and underestimated feature height (e.g., peaks and troughs. Decreasing resolutions from 1 to 10 cm resulted in a 2% underestimation of erosional volumes with a linear regression of y = −0.0964x + 0.4185 (R2 = 0.9651 and 3.5% overestimation of depositional volumes with a linear regression of y = 0.0664x + 0.3308 (R2 = 0.3645. However, its impact on erosion and deposition volume assessment based on object-oriented beach evolution analysis is less significant, except when fragment objects dominate the sediment changes. For Coastal Morphology Analyst (CMA, the impact of resolution is more observable through 2D object mapping in terms of object size, number, and spatial distribution. Finally, wave modeling experiments proved that resolutions caused significant changes on the behavior of the maximum wave height, the shape of the wave fronts and magnitudes of the currents.

  11. The role of the P3 and CNV components in voluntary and automatic temporal orienting: A high spatial-resolution ERP study. (United States)

    Mento, Giovanni


    A main distinction has been proposed between voluntary and automatic mechanisms underlying temporal orienting (TO) of selective attention. Voluntary TO implies the endogenous directing of attention induced by symbolic cues. Conversely, automatic TO is exogenously instantiated by the physical properties of stimuli. A well-known example of automatic TO is sequential effects (SEs), which refer to the adjustments in participants' behavioral performance as a function of the trial-by-trial sequential distribution of the foreperiod between two stimuli. In this study a group of healthy adults underwent a cued reaction time task purposely designed to assess both voluntary and automatic TO. During the task, both post-cue and post-target event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded by means of a high spatial resolution EEG system. In the results of the post-cue analysis, the P3a and P3b were identified as two distinct ERP markers showing distinguishable spatiotemporal features and reflecting automatic and voluntary a priori expectancy generation, respectively. The brain source reconstruction further revealed that distinct cortical circuits supported these two temporally dissociable components. Namely, the voluntary P3b was supported by a left sensorimotor network, while the automatic P3a was generated by a more distributed frontoparietal circuit. Additionally, post-cue contingent negative variation (CNV) and post-target P3 modulations were observed as common markers of voluntary and automatic expectancy implementation and response selection, although partially dissociable neural networks subserved these two mechanisms. Overall, these results provide new electrophysiological evidence suggesting that distinct neural substrates can be recruited depending on the voluntary or automatic cognitive nature of the cognitive mechanisms subserving TO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect...

  13. An orientation-independent DIC microscope allows high resolution imaging of epithelial cell migration and wound healing in a cnidarian model. (United States)

    Malamy, J E; Shribak, M


    Epithelial cell dynamics can be difficult to study in intact animals or tissues. Here we use the medusa form of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, which is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells, to test the efficacy of an orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope for in vivo imaging of wound healing. Orientation-independent differential interference contrast provides an unprecedented resolution phase image of epithelial cells closing a wound in a live, nontransgenic animal model. In particular, the orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope equipped with a 40x/0.75NA objective lens and using the illumination light with wavelength 546 nm demonstrated a resolution of 460 nm. The repair of individual cells, the adhesion of cells to close a gap, and the concomitant contraction of these cells during closure is clearly visualized. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. A Study on the Effects of Marital Relationship on the Family Goal Structure, Personal Achievement Goal Orientations, Learning Strategies and Learning Competence in Junior High School Students : From the University Students' perception


    尾形, 和男


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of marital relationship on family goal structure, personal achievement goal orientations, learning strategies and learning competences in junior high school students. 244 university students completed questionnaires about their father and mother relationships, family goal structure, achievement goal structures, learning strategies and learning competences in their own junior high school course. Path analysis revealed that the good marital...

  15. Fabrication and orientation control of highly cation-ordered epitaxial PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} thin films on Si (100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Anuj, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Alexe, Marin [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Hesse, Dietrich [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)


    Highly cation-ordered (100) and (110)-oriented PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (PST) films were deposited on buffered Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Switching of crystal orientation from (100) to (110) was achieved by replacing the Si (100)/ZrO2:Y2O3 (100)/CeO2 (100)/LaNiO3 (100)/PST (100) heterostructure with Si (100)/ZrO2:Y2O3 (YSZ) (100)/SrRuO3 (110)/PST (110). The out-of-plane and in-plane crystal orientation and internal microstructure of (001) and (110) PST films were analyzed in detail by X-ray diffraction, pole figure measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. XRD superstructure reflections indicate that both (100) and (110) PST films are highly cation-ordered and transmission electron microscopy measurements show nano-domains of 15 nm size. The electrical measurements show that the PST films are ferroelectric and that the ferroelectric properties are linked to the microstructure. We have demonstrated the successful integration of PST films on Si substrates with control on growth orientation; this approach can be extended to other oxides to be integrated on silicon substrates for future device applications.

  16. A novel bioreactor for the generation of highly aligned 3D skeletal muscle-like constructs through orientation of fibrin via application of static strain. (United States)

    Heher, Philipp; Maleiner, Babette; Prüller, Johanna; Teuschl, Andreas Herbert; Kollmitzer, Josef; Monforte, Xavier; Wolbank, Susanne; Redl, Heinz; Rünzler, Dominik; Fuchs, Christiane


    The generation of functional biomimetic skeletal muscle constructs is still one of the fundamental challenges in skeletal muscle tissue engineering. With the notion that structure strongly dictates functional capabilities, a myriad of cell types, scaffold materials and stimulation strategies have been combined. To further optimize muscle engineered constructs, we have developed a novel bioreactor system (MagneTissue) for rapid engineering of skeletal muscle-like constructs with the aim to resemble native muscle in terms of structure, gene expression profile and maturity. Myoblasts embedded in fibrin, a natural hydrogel that serves as extracellular matrix, are subjected to mechanical stimulation via magnetic force transmission. We identify static mechanical strain as a trigger for cellular alignment concomitant with the orientation of the scaffold into highly organized fibrin fibrils. This ultimately yields myotubes with a more mature phenotype in terms of sarcomeric patterning, diameter and length. On the molecular level, a faster progression of the myogenic gene expression program is evident as myogenic determination markers MyoD and Myogenin as well as the Ca(2+) dependent contractile structural marker TnnT1 are significantly upregulated when strain is applied. The major advantage of the MagneTissue bioreactor system is that the generated tension is not exclusively relying on the strain generated by the cells themselves in response to scaffold anchoring but its ability to subject the constructs to individually adjustable strain protocols. In future work, this will allow applying mechanical stimulation with different strain regimes in the maturation process of tissue engineered constructs and elucidating the role of mechanotransduction in myogenesis. Mechanical stimulation of tissue engineered skeletal muscle constructs is a promising approach to increase tissue functionality. We have developed a novel bioreactor-based 3D culture system, giving the user the

  17. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal...... influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  18. Do blood plasma levels of oxytocin moderate the effect of nasally administered oxytocin on social orienting in high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Noltes, Henriette; Tucha, Oliver; Sweep, Fred C.; Calcagnoli, Federica; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    The study investigated whether baseline plasma oxytocin (OXT) concentrations might moderate the effects of nasally administered OXT on social orienting. Thirty-one males with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and thirty healthy males participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial.

  19. Learning Model of Unggah-Ungguh Basa Oriented to Noble Behavior in SMP (Junior High School) Jawa Timur (East Java) Indonesia (United States)

    Sudikan, Setya Yuwana


    Learning problem of "unggah-ungguh basa", is very complicated. It is needed reorientation and re-setting the approaches, strategies, methods, techniques, and learning contents that can give rise to a new model of learning of "unggah-ungguh basa" oriented to the character formation of children, especially in Jawa Timur. In…

  20. 'You know I hate it when people half ass things': A case study of a high school science student and the role of pre-instructional activities, goal orientation, and self-efficacy in learning with simulations (United States)

    Helms, Samuel Arthur

    This single subject case study followed a high school student and his use of a simulation of marine ecosystems. The study examined his metaworld, motivation, and learning before, during and after using the simulation. A briefing was conceptualized based on the literature on pre-instructional activities, advance organizers, and performance objectives. The briefing was a series of formal lessons before the participant began to use the simulation for the purposes of learning. The research questions focused on how the briefing influenced the participant's metaworld, self-efficacy, goal orientation, prerequisite knowledge, and the themes that emerged from the data, which helped explain how the briefing influenced the participant's learning. Results centered on four themes: (a) unanticipated or desired goal orientation; (b) perceptions of self-efficacy; (c) perceptions of quality work; and (d) lack of responsiveness. The literature on goal orientation and self-efficacy was used to explain and unite the themes. The data suggested that the participant's performance-avoidance goal mediated between his high self-efficacy and low performance. Also, in cases where the participant has a performance-avoidance goal, the briefing may have no influence on learning with a simulation. Lastly, the briefing may be defined in two ways: informal and formal. Future research could examine how metaworld can be formed outside of a formal briefing, and how prior experiences influence the formation of metaworld, goal orientation, and self-efficacy when learning with simulations. Researchers could also examine ways to strengthen a weak metaworld that does not inspire the learner to explore the simulation. Another area for future research is how goal orientation and self-efficacy influence the formation of metaworld.

  1. Gender Role Conflict and Coping Strategies of Leadership-Oriented Women


    Htun, Tin Tin; Yamamoto, Mariko


    The present study examines whether high leadership-oriented females have more gender role conflict than low leadership-oriented females. It also addresses what coping strategies high leadership-oriented females use to cop ...

  2. [Temporal orientation and cognitive impairment]. (United States)

    Fernandez-Turrado, T; Pascual-Millan, L F; Aguilar-Palacio, I; Burriel-Rosello, A; Santolaria-Martinez, L; Perez-Lazaro, C


    Temporal orientation is a component of most screening tests for diagnosing cognitive impairment. Correct temporal orientation involves activating both semantic information (concepts of the calendar date) and episodic information (remembering the current date). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of a technique for evaluating temporal orientation, which was open-ended, and scoring the semantic and episodic information thus generated (0-10 points). A total of 24 subjects without impairment, 77 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 62 patients with dementia were evaluated by means of a 30-point mini-mental/mini-examination, semantic verbal fluency test, global deterioration scale, mini-mental-type temporal orientation and open-ended temporal orientation tests. The areas under the curve (aROC), sensitivity and specificity for dementia and cognitive impairment at any degree (MCI and dementia) were analysed. Open-ended temporal orientation presented a greater area under the curve (aROC: 0.90) for discrimination between patients with dementia and without dementia (MCI and without impairment) and an aROC of 0.83 for discrimination between patients with MCI or dementia and without impairment. For dementia, with a cut-off point equal to or below 6, sensitivity was 0.96 and specificity was 0.68, and for MCI with dementia, with a cut-off point equal to or below 7, sensitivity was 0.72 and specificity was 0.92. The usefulness, conciseness and strategic position of this technique in examining mental status make it suitable as an instrument for screening for cognitive impairment. It has a high level of sensitivity with low specificity for dementia and low sensitivity with high specificity for any degree of impairment.

  3. Well-oriented ZZ–PS-tag with high Fc-binding onto polystyrene surface for controlled immobilization of capture antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jin-Bao, E-mail: [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Sun, Xi-Feng [Clinical Laboratory, Weifang People' s Hospital, Weifang 261041 (China); Yang, Hong-Ming [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Zhang, Bao-Gang [School of Basic Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Li, Zhi-Jian [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Lin, Zhi-Juan [School of Basic Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Gao, Zhi-Qin, E-mail: [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A versatile platform for immobilizing functionally intact IgG is proposed. •The mechanism relies on properly oriented ZZ–PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS surface. •The oriented ZZ–PS-tag presents ∼fivefold higher IgG-binding activity. •The platform shows tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range in ELISA. -- Abstract: The site specificity and bioactivity retention of antibodies immobilized on a solid substrate are crucial requirements for solid phase immunoassays. A fusion protein between an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding protein (ZZ protein) and a polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag) was constructed, and then used to develop a simple method for the oriented immobilization of the ZZ protein onto a PS support by the specific attachment of the PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS. The orientation of intact IgG was achieved via the interaction of the ZZ protein and the constant fragment (Fc), thereby displayed the Fab fragment for binding antigen. The interaction between rabbit IgG anti-horseradish peroxidase (anti-HRP) and its binding partner HRP was analyzed. Results showed that the oriented ZZ–PS-tag yielded an IgG-binding activity that is fivefold higher than that produced by the passive immobilization of the ZZ protein. The advantage of the proposed immunoassay strategy was demonstrated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in which monoclonal mouse anti-goat IgG and HRP-conjugated rabbit F(ab′){sub 2} anti-goat IgG were used to detect goat IgG. The ZZ–PS-tag presented a tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range than did the passively immobilized ZZ protein. The proposed approach may be an attractive strategy for a broad range of applications involving the oriented immobilization of intact IgGs onto PS supports, in which only one type of phi-PS (ZZ–PS-tag) surface is used.

  4. The deformation pattern of high-pressure exhumation in the Adula Nappe (Switzerland) - Preliminary results from crystallographic preferred orientations of quartz (United States)

    Keppler, Ruth; Stipp, Michael; Froitzheim, Niko


    The Adula Nappe in the central Alps forms the easternmost part of the Lepontine dome, which mainly consists of basement nappes and their Mesozoic cover. The Adula Nappe was originally part of the distal European continent and entered a south-dipping subduction zone experiencing high- to ultrahigh pressure peak conditions at about 38 Ma. The unit underwent several deformation phases after peak conditions including the Zapport phase, which accomplished the largest part of the exhumational deformation. Despite extensive research in the Adula Nappe, the internal deformation during exhumation is not completely understood. Especially the large pressure-temperature gradient from 12-17 kbar/500-600 C° in the north to 30 kbar/800-850 C° in the south is a topic of recent discussion. This phenomenon either originates from internal, heterogeneous deformation of the Adula Nappe during its exhumation, or it was caused by tectonic overpressure, which would indicate that the Adula Nappe was not as deeply subducted as previously assumed. In this study, we sampled quartzites, micaschists, para- and orthogneisses in a close-meshed net throughout the entire Adula Nappe. Only samples showing Zapport deformation without significant younger overprint were collected. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of all mineral phases in the samples were measured with time-of-flight neutron diffraction using the SKAT diffractometer at JINR, Dubna, Russia. Quartz CPOs show great variability. Most of the c-axis patterns yield an asymmetry charateristic of a top-to-the-north sense of shear, although there are few top-to-the-south samples. Most c-axes exhibit peripheral maxima at an angle to the foliation normal pointing to dominant basal slip, especially in the northern Adula Nappe. The samples from the central Adula Nappe show also maxima between Z and Y of the c-axis pole figure indicative of rhomb-, π- and prism slip. These maxima are usually combined with asymmetric crossed or single


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang


    Full Text Available Relative orientation is always considered as a key technique, not only in traditional photogrammetry, but also in low altitude photogrammetry. Low altitude images are mainly obtained by general digital cameras on UAV, they have characteristics of small format, large tilt angle and high-overlap in sequence. These distinctions from traditional images urgently call for a new reliable way to recover the relative pose between two adjacent images. For example, better initial values of relative orientation elements are required in the iteration process due to the large roll angle and yaw angle. Also, a more stable and efficient adjustment method should be proposed for the high-overlap images. In this paper, the Direct (D relative orientation method is firstly used to get coarse values of the relative orientation parameters, then the Conventional (C relative orientation process is implemented, using the coarse values as initial values in the first iterative calculation. And RANSAC (R algorithm is finally applied in locating and extracting gross errors in relative orientation. The three steps above form our execution—DCR—to solve relative orientation problem in low altitude photogrammetry. Practical images have been used later to test the DCR method on accuracy and precision of the relative orientation parameters. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach is feasible and can achieve more reliable relative orientation results than the conventional approach.

  6. Evaluation of Head Orientation and Neck Muscle EMG Signals as Command Inputs to a Human-Computer Interface for Individuals with High Tetraplegia (United States)

    Williams, Matthew R.; Kirsch, Robert F.


    We investigated the performance of three user interfaces for restoration of cursor control in individuals with tetraplegia: head orientation, EMG from face and neck muscles, and a standard computer mouse (for comparison). Subjects engaged in a 2D, center-out, Fitts’ Law style task and performance was evaluated using several measures. Overall, head orientation commanded motion resembled mouse commanded cursor motion (smooth, accurate movements to all targets), although with somewhat lower performance. EMG commanded movements exhibited a higher average speed, but other performance measures were lower, particularly for diagonal targets. Compared to head orientation, EMG as a cursor command source was less accurate, was more affected by target direction and was more prone to overshoot the target. In particular, EMG commands for diagonal targets were more sequential, moving first in one direction and then the other rather than moving simultaneous in the two directions. While the relative performance of each user interface differs, each has specific advantages depending on the application. PMID:18990652

  7. Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, de H.


    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after

  8. On object-orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diertens, B.


    Although object-orientation has been around for several decades, its key concept abstraction has not been exploited for proper application of object-orientation in other phases of software development than the implementation phase. We mention some issues that lead to a lot of confusion and obscurity

  9. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge


    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  10. Physiological and biomechanical aspects of orienteering. (United States)

    Creagh, U; Reilly, T


    Orienteering is an endurance running event which differs from other running sports both in its cognitive element and in the type of terrain encountered. The demands of overcoming this terrain are not manifest in significant differences between orienteers and road runners in somatotype, though elite female orienteers have consistently been shown to have higher levels of adiposity (> 19%) than elite road runners. High aerobic power in orienteers (up to 63 and 76 ml/kg/min in women and men, respectively) is coupled with lower anaerobic performance. While leg strength is generally not high when compared with other athletic specialties, female orienteers have relatively good leg flexion strength. The energy cost of running is greatly increased in rough terrain. Oxygen cost was 26% higher while running in a forest when compared with road running. Biomechanical differences in stride pattern contribute towards this increased demand. Despite the high energy demands during competition, orienteers pace themselves such that their mean heart rate remains within the range of 167 to 172 beats/min, despite large fluctuations. The rough terrain encountered in orienteering results not only in a high energy cost but also in a higher incidence of sport-specific injuries, particularly to the ankle. Minor injuries such as cuts and bruises are common during competition.

  11. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard


    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...... the general public’s WVO can be used to check against the orientation of other specific groups such as landowners and hunters. It can also prove useful for developing specific hunting and wildlife policies such as certification of wildlife managers....

  12. Advanced Object-Oriented Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    Learn how to write object-oriented programs in R and how to construct classes and class hierarchies in the three object-oriented systems available in R. This book gives an introduction to object-oriented programming in the R programming language and shows you how to use and apply R in an object-oriented...... manner. You will then be able to use this powerful programming style in your own statistical programming projects to write flexible and extendable software. After reading Advanced Object-Oriented Programming in R, you'll come away with a practical project that you can reuse in your own analytics coding...... endeavors. You’ll then be able to visualize your data as objects that have state and then manipulate those objects with polymorphic or generic methods. Your projects will benefit from the high degree of flexibility provided by polymorphism, where the choice of concrete method to execute depends on the type...

  13. Sonicated sol–gel preparation of nanoparticulate ZnO thin films with various deposition speeds: The highly preferred c-axis (0 0 2) orientation enhances the final properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M.F., E-mail: [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M.H. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z. [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Sahdan, M.Z. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Centre (MiNT), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Musa, M.Z. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainun, A.R. [Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Suriani, A.B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia); Md Sin, N.D. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Abd Hamid, S.B. [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Universiti Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Highlights: • Minimum stress of highly c-axis oriented ZnO was grown at suitable deposition speed. • The ZnO crystal orientation was influenced by strain/stress of the film. • Minimum stress/strain of ZnO film leads to lower defects. • Bandgap and defects were closely intertwined with strain/stress. • We report additional optical and electrical properties based on deposition speed. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates at various deposition speeds by a sonicated sol–gel dip-coating technique. This work studies the effects of deposition speed on the crystallisation behaviour and optical and electrical properties of the resulting films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that thin films were preferentially oriented along the (0 0 2) c-axis direction of the crystal. The transformation sequence of strain and stress effects in ZnO thin films has also been studied. The films deposited at a low deposition speed exhibited a large compressive stress of 0.78 GPa, which decreased to 0.43 GPa as the deposition speed increased to 40 mm/min. Interestingly, the enhancement in the crystallinity of these films led to a significant reduction in compressive stress. All films exhibited an average transmittance of greater than 90% in the visible region, with absorption edges at ∼380 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicated that the intensity of the emission peaks varied significantly with deposition speed. The optical band gap energy (E{sub g}) was evaluated as 3.276–3.289 eV, which increased with decreasing compressive stress along the c-axis. The energy band gap of the resulting ZnO films was found to be strongly influenced by the preferred c-axis (0 0 2) orientation.


    CERN Multimedia



    Coupe d’automne Samedi 25 septembre, certains courageux ont osé affronter le temps pluvieux et frais et se sont rendus aux Pléiades pour participer à la quatrième étape de la coupe Genevoise d’automne. Le Club du CARE-Vevey avait préparé 5 jolis circuits : 3 techniques et 2 faciles. Félicitations à tous les concurrents et plus particulièrement aux vainqueurs de chaque parcours. Les résultats complets sont sur le site du club Technique long : 1. Samy Vaehaenen (CO CERN), 2. Clément Poncet (O’Jura), 3. Bernhard Wehrle (CO CERN). Technique moyen : 1. Sampo Vallotton (RTB), 2. Guillaume Ladine (RTB), 3. Anne Godel (CA Rosé). Technique court : 1. Miles Marston (Gimel), 2. Alison High (CARE Vevey), 3. Emese Szwuyog (CO CERN). Facile moyen : 1. Nicolas M&u...

  15. Conditions and features of students' motivation to physical activity of wellness orientation at the present stage of realization physical education in high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchyshyn Y.V.


    Full Text Available The efficiency of the valid content of physical education in shaping students' motivation for physical activity wellness direction is studied. In the questionnaire 300 students participated of the first year, the basis of questionnaires amounted questions of SMS technique, which involves determining the level of student's motivation to training exercises. Established the lack of effectiveness of valid content in solving the set task: majority of students actual motivation for such activity is low, as its expression occurs mainly during the mandatory classes, and its volume in off-hour time much less than the required minimum; formed motivation observed different priority purposes, but not related with physical activity of wellness orientation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanculea Liana


    Full Text Available Service-oriented architecture (SOA supply methods for systems development and integration where work interoperable services. A SOA suppose application functionality distribution in distinct units called services that communicate with each other. This ser

  17. Implementing Strategic Orientation (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah


    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  18. On the influence of the aliphatic linker on fabrication of highly ordered and orientated self-assembled monolayers of aromatic selenols on AU(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Azzam, Waleed


    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed by adsorption of 1,2-dibenzyldiselenide (DPMSe) and 1,2-diphenyldiselenide (DBSe) on Au(111) substrates at room temperature have been characterized using scanning tunnelling microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. Upon adsorption, the Se-Se bonds in DPMSe and DBSe were cleaved on the gold surface to form phenylmethaneselenolate (PMSe) and benzeneselenolate (BSe) species, respectively. Although both PMSe and BSe molecular entities only differ in their structure (an additional methyl group in PMSe), the resulting monolayer films revealed noteworthy dissimilarities regarding their adlayer SAM structure and surface morphology. The molecular adlayer structure and orientation of PMSe and BSe species were found to vary significantly with the immersion time (IT). The resulting PMSe films were poorly organized, and the structure was described by a (4√3 × 2) rectangular unit cell for the SAMs prepared with 24 h of IT. Moreover, the PMSe-SAMs were found to be unstable upon exposure to air for a long time. Our results showed that exposure to air for 48 h results in the formation of small bright ad-islands, which have a height corresponding to that of a single atomic step on the Au(111). Contrary, BSe-SAMs exhibited densely packed and well-ordered monolayers, and two different structural phases were resolved at short and long ITs. The most densely packed structure was obtained for SAMs prepared with very short ITs (10 min). Upon increasing the IT, the SAMs exhibited structural changes to a lower density of molecular packing structure. The spectroscopic data also confirmed this structural transformation by suggesting an upright orientation for BSe-SAMs prepared after short ITs and strongly inclined adsorption geometry for SAMs prepared after long ITs. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Intermittent spray pyrolytic growth of nanocrystalline and highly oriented transparent conducting ZnO thin films: Effect of solution spray rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, C.M., E-mail: [Department of Engineering Sciences and Humanities, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune 411 037 (India); School of Energy Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Takwale, M.G. [School of Energy Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)


    Highlights: • ZnO films show enhancement in structural, optical and electrical properties. • Film orientation is altered from [0 0 2] to [1 0 1] direction for higher S{sub f} > 5 ml/min. • E{sub g} (eV) is influenced by variation in crystallinity, grain size and film thickness. • Nanocrystalline ZnO films are superior for TCO and optoelectronic applications. • FE-SEM and AFM study reveal growth of an array of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods. -- Abstract: Uniformly distributed jet of fine droplets was created with control of spray rate (S{sub f}) to deposit nanocrystalline ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the polycrystalline film growth with most preferred orientation along c-axis [0 0 2] direction for S{sub f} ⩽ 4.5 ml/min, above which films favored [1 0 1] direction. FE-SEM and AFM analysis revealed the uniform vertical growth of ZnO nano-rods for S{sub f} = 2.5 ml/min and the film exhibited highest transmittance (95%) with lowest dark resistivity (∼10{sup −2} Ω-cm). The deposition rate increased due to rise in S{sub f}. Alteration of crystallinity, grain size and film thickness with variation in S{sub f} lead to variation of band-gap energy from 3.198 eV to 3.302 eV. ZnO film deposited at optimal S{sub f} = 2.5 ml/min exhibited maximum electrical conductivity σ = 78.8 Ω{sup −1}-cm{sup −1}, minimum sheet resistance R{sub s} = 2.04 × 10{sup 2} Ω/□ and highest figure of merit Φ{sub TC} = 2.93 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1}.

  20. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard


    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....

  1. Structural, microstructural, and transport properties of highly oriented LaNiO3 thin films deposited on SrTiO3 (100) single crystal (United States)

    Mambrini, G. P.; Leite, E. R.; Escote, M. T.; Chiquito, A. J.; Longo, E.; Varela, J. A.; Jardim, R. F.


    Electrical conductive textured LaNiO3/SrTiO3 (100) thin films were successfully produced by the polymeric precursor method. A comparison between features of these films of LaNiO3 (LNO) when heat treated in a conventional furnace (CF) and in a domestic microwave (MW) oven is presented. The x-ray diffraction data indicated good crystallinity and a structural orientation along the (h00) direction for both films. The surface images obtained by atomic force microscopy revealed similar roughness values, whereas films LNO-MW present slightly smaller average grain size (˜80 nm) than those observed for LNO-CF (60-150 nm). These grain size values were in good agreement with those evaluated from the x-ray data. The transport properties have been studied by temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity ρ(T ) which revealed for both films a metallic behavior in the entire temperature range studied. The behavior of ρ(T ) was investigated, allowing to a discussion of the transport mechanisms in these films.

  2. Towards a new orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Overgaard, Dorthe; Bestle, Morten H


    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the patient experience of ICU recovery from a longitudinal perspective by analysing follow-up consultations at three time-points. BACKGROUND: After a stay in the intensive care unit, patients risk physical and psychological problems during recovery. Follow-up after...... narrative of recovery was 'toward a trajectory of new orientation'. This narrative contained the chronological narratives of being 'at death's door', 'still not out of the woods' and 'on the road to recovery'. The road to recovery was described as downhill, steady-state or progressive. New orientation...... was obtained in steady-state or progressive recovery. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a contemporary understanding of the process of intensive care recovery. Recovery evolves through narratives of mortal danger, risk of relapse and moving forward towards a new orientation in life. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL...

  3. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand


    LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...... challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future...... technological and economic developments are indispensable in future technology assessments. The uncertainties in future-oriented LCAs are to a large extent qualitative and it is important to emphasise that LCA of future technologies will provide a set of answers and not ‘the’ answer....

  4. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva


    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  5. The effect of cation doping on the morphology, optical and structural properties of highly oriented wurtzite ZnO-nanorod arrays grown by a hydrothermal method (United States)

    Hassanpour, A.; Guo, P.; Shen, S.; Bianucci, P.


    Undoped and C-doped (C: Mg2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+) ZnO nanorods were synthesized by a hydrothermal method at temperatures as low as 60 °C. The effect of doping on the morphology of the ZnO nanorods was visualized by taking their cross section and top SEM images. The results show that the size of nanorods was increased in both height and diameter by cation doping. The crystallinity change of the ZnO nanorods due to each doping element was thoroughly investigated by an x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns show that the wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO nanorods was maintained after cation addition. The optical Raman-active modes of undoped and cation-doped nanorods were measured with a micro-Raman setup at room temperature. The surface chemistry of samples was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Finally, the effect of each cation dopant on band-gap shift of the ZnO nanorods was investigated by a photoluminescence setup at room temperature. Although the amount of dopants (Mg2+, Ni2+, and Co2+) was smaller than the amount of Mn2+, Cu2+, and Cr3+ in the nanorods, their effect on the band structure of the ZnO nanorods was profound. The highest band-gap shift was achieved for a Co-doped sample, and the best crystal orientation was for Mn-doped ZnO nanorods. Our results can be used as a comprehensive reference for engineering of the morphological, structural and optical properties of cation-doped ZnO nanorods by using a low-temperature synthesis as an economical mass-production approach.

  6. Structural and optical characteristics of in-situ sputtered highly oriented 15R-SiC thin films on different substrates (United States)

    Mourya, Satyendra; Jaiswal, Jyoti; Malik, Gaurav; Kumar, Brijesh; Chandra, Ramesh


    In this work, we have reported the in-situ fabrication of nanocrystalline rhombohedral silicon carbide (15R-SiC) thin films by RF-magnetron sputtering at 800 °C substrate temperature. The structural and optical properties were investigated for the films grown on four different substrates (ZrO2, MgO, SiC, and Si). The contact angle measurement was performed on all the substrates to investigate the role of interfacial surface energy in nucleation and growth of the films. The XRD measurement revealed the growth of (1 0 10) orientation for all the samples and demonstrated better crystallinity on Si substrate, which was further corroborated by the TEM results. The Raman spectroscopy confirmed the growth of rhombohedral phase with 15R polytype. Surface characteristics of the films have been investigated by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, FTIR, and atomic force microscope (AFM) to account for chemical composition, bonding, and root mean square surface roughness (δrms). The optical dispersion behavior of 15R-SiC thin films was examined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the wide spectral range (246-1688 nm), including the surface characteristics in the optical model. The non-linear optical parameters (χ3 and n2) of the samples have been calculated by the Tichy and Ticha relation using a single effective oscillator model of Wemple and Didomenico. Additionally, our optical results provided an alternative way to measure the ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass (N/m*). These investigated optical parameters allow one to design and fabricate optoelectronic, photonic, and telecommunication devices for deployment in extreme environment.

  7. PrevenTing Falls in a high-risk, vision-impaired population through specialist ORientation and Mobility services: protocol for the PlaTFORM randomised trial. (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Dillon, Lisa; Clemson, Lindy; Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; McCluskey, Peter; Ramulu, Pradeep; Jan, Stephen; Rogers, Kris; Martin, Jodi; Tinsley, Frances; Jakobsen, Kirsten Bonrud; Ivers, Rebecca Q


    Older people with vision impairment have significant ongoing morbidity, including risk of falls, but are neglected in fall prevention programmes. PlaTFORM is a pragmatic evaluation of the Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise fall prevention programme for older people with vision impairment or blindness (v-LiFE). Implementation and scalability issues will also be investigated. PlaTFORM is a single-blinded, randomised trial designed to evaluate the v-LiFE programme compared with usual care. Primary outcomes are fall rate over 12 months, measured using prospective monthly fall calendars, and function and participation assessed by the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (Late-Life FDI) Function component. The secondary outcome is rate of falls requiring medical care. Activity-normalised fall rate will be estimated using accelerometer-measured physical activity data. EuroQol 5-dimension 5-level questionnaire will measure quality of life and impact of falls. Health record linkage will estimate resource use associated with falls. v-LiFE cost-effectiveness will be determined compared with usual care. 500 participants (250 per group) can provide 90% power to detect a significant between-group difference in fall rates; 588 will be recruited to allow for drop-out. Falls per person-year and Late-Life FDI will be compared between groups. PlaTFORM will determine if falls can be prevented among older people with vision loss through a home-based exercise programme. v-LiFE embeds balance and strength training within everyday activities with the aim of preventing falls. The study will also determine whether the programme can be effectively delivered by personnel who provide Orientation and Mobility training for people with vision impairment. ACTRN12616001186448p. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  8. Spatial Orientation in Flight (United States)


    34 antigravity " muscles such as hip and knee extensors. These vestibular reflexes, of course, help keep the body upright with respect to the direction of...Vestibular-visual conflict need not even be in relation to motion but can be in relation to static orientation: some people become sick in " antigravity

  9. Social Workers’ Orientation Toward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deirdre Beneken genaamd Kolmer; René Schalk; Renske J.M. van der Zwet


    Objectives: This study assesses social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the

  10. Sexual Orientations in Perspective. (United States)

    Garnets, Linda D.


    Discuess how sexuality is determined by multiple influences, including sociocutural factors. Presents a new paradigm that analyzes categories of human sexual behavior. A model of sexual orientation is presented that is based on multiplicity and examines overlapping identities and statuses of culture, age, race, ethnicity, class, and disability.…

  11. Managing Entrepreneurial Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Doorn (Sebastiaan)


    textabstractIn this dissertation, we evaluate the roles senior management teams and individual middle managers play in realizing the performance benefits of entrepreneurial orientations. We investigate the role of senior management teams by focusing on a sample of 9.000 firms in the Netherlands. The

  12. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA


    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  13. Barriers to increasing market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    product development. Despite the increasing evidence of a positive relationship between above average business performance and a high level of market-oriented activity, normative recommendations on how to increase the level of market-oriented activity is sparse. The scientific contribution of the present......Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding...... innovation rather than supplying large volumes of consistent quality products. One recommendation from policy-makers and academia to industry is to increase its market-oriented activity. A major reason for the recommendation is that market-oriented activity is considered a major contributor to successful...



    Amjan.Shaik; Dr.C.R.K.Reddy; Dr.A.Damodaran


    In the last decade, empirical studies on object-oriented design metrics have shown some of them to be useful for predicting the fault-proneness of classes in object-oriented software systems. In the era of Computerization Object Oriented Paradigm is becoming more and more pronounced. This has provoked the need of high quality object oriented software, as the traditional metrics cannot be applied on the object-oriented systems. This paper gives the evaluation of CK suit of metrics. There are q...

  15. Action orientation, consistency and feelings of regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy


    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that consistency between people's behavior and their dispositions has predictive validity for judgments of regret. Research has also shown that differences in the personality variable of action orientation can influence ability to regulate negative affect. The present set of studies was designed to investigate how both consistency factors and action-state personality orientation influence judgments of regret. In Study 1, we used a recalled life event to provide a situation in which the person had experienced either an action or inaction. Individuals with an action orientation experienced more regret for situations involving inaction (staying home than situations involving action (going out. State-oriented individuals, however, maintained high levels of regret and did not differ in their regret ratings across either the action or inaction situations. In Study 2, participants made realistic choices involving either an action or inaction. Our findings revealed the same pattern of results: action-oriented individuals who chose an option that involved not acting (inaction had more regret that individuals who chose an option that involved acting (action. State-oriented individuals experienced high levels of regret regardless of whether they chose to act or not to act.

  16. Summary Time Oriented Record (STOR) (United States)

    O'Keefe, Q.E. Whiting; Simborg, Donald W.


    STOR is a computerized three component, time-oriented, summary, medical record designed to partially replace the traditional paper chart in the outpatient clinics at the University of California San Francisco. Information from at least four distributed databases functioning independently is brought together in a single paper document. Informationally, STOR is prioritized, displays inter-problem and chronological relationships, provides a high degree of physician control over the display and provides a great deal of information with little manual physician effort. Besides the usual issues of cost, impact, and acceptance, the evaluation will address the question of the informational competence of STOR in two single blind randomized controlled trials.

  17. Lack of Homeward Orientation and Increased Mobility Result in High Emigration Rates from Low-Quality Fragments in a Dune Wolf Spider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dries Bonte; Luc Lens; Jean-Pierre Maelfait


    1. Mobility and emigration were investigated for the wolf spider Pardosa monticola in grey dune fragments from two high-densiy and one low-density population, where population density was related to patch quality...

  18. Increasing the motivation of high school students to pursue engineering careers through an application-oriented active learning boot-camp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Dyrmann, Mads; Midtiby, Henrik Skov


    The main objective of this work is to increase the motivation of high school students to pursue a career in engineering. This is achieved through a 3-day university boot camp with a high focus on applying theoretical knowledge to real world problems, technology development and working in teams....... The learning outcomes are therefore both related to academic/technical topics and to career decisions....

  19. A Versatile, Production-Oriented Approach to High-Resolution Tree-Canopy Mapping in Urban and Suburban Landscapes Using GEOBIA and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath O'Neil-Dunne


    Full Text Available The benefits of tree canopy in urban and suburban landscapes are increasingly well known: stormwater runoff control, air-pollution mitigation, temperature regulation, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, neighborhood cohesion, and other social indicators of quality of life. However, many urban areas lack high-resolution tree canopy maps that document baseline conditions or inform tree-planting programs, limiting effective study and management. This paper describes a GEOBIA approach to tree-canopy mapping that relies on existing public investments in LiDAR, multispectral imagery, and thematic GIS layers, thus eliminating or reducing data acquisition costs. This versatile approach accommodates datasets of varying content and quality, first using LiDAR derivatives to identify aboveground features and then a combination of LiDAR and imagery to differentiate trees from buildings and other anthropogenic structures. Initial tree canopy objects are then refined through contextual analysis, morphological smoothing, and small-gap filling. Case studies from locations in the United States and Canada show how a GEOBIA approach incorporating data fusion and enterprise processing can be used for producing high-accuracy, high-resolution maps for large geographic extents. These maps are designed specifically for practical application by planning and regulatory end users who expect not only high accuracy but also high realism and visual coherence.

  20. Features of parallel processing of Russian language content using the basic characteristics of object-oriented high-level programming languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Евгеньевич Кошкин


    Full Text Available The article discusses the general features which are traceable in the Russian language and high-level programming languages, and offers an approach to identify the relationship between words in a sentence and proposals within the text. A matter may be interesting in terms of automatic semantic analysis of texts and for the systems of automatic translation.

  1. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke


    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep.......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...

  2. Aspect-Oriented Programming (United States)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)


    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  3. Oriented Fiber Filter Media


    R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.


    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  4. Orientation and position of avian leukosis virus DNA relative to the cellular oncogene c-myc in B-lymphoma tumors of highly susceptible 15I5 X 7(2) chickens. (United States)

    Fung, Y K; Crittenden, L B; Kung, H J


    We previously reported our characterizations of the B-lymphoma tumors induced in a highly susceptible line of chickens (15I5 X 7(2)) by the avian leukosis virus RAV-1 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 78:3418-3422, 1981). We demonstrated that in greater than 90% of the tumors, the RAV-1 provirus is integrated near a cellular oncogene, c-myc. In the present study, we devised a simple approach, relying on SalI digestion, for further defining the locations and orientations of the proviruses with respect to the c-myc gene. We report here that in the great majority of cases the provirus is situated upstream from and in the same transcriptional direction as the c-myc gene--a configuration compatible with the promoter-insertion model proposed by Hayward et al. (Nature [London] 290:475-480, 1981). Images PMID:6292531

  5. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation


    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve: facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes pour la coupe genevoise de printemps: Samedi 22 mars: Apples (...

  6. Measuring the Recovery Orientation of ACT (United States)

    Salyers, Michelle P.; Stull, Laura G.; Rollins, Angela L.; McGrew, John H.; Hicks, Lia J.; Thomas, Dave; Strieter, Doug


    Background Approaches to measuring recovery orientation are needed, particularly for programs that may struggle with implementing recovery-oriented treatment. Objective A mixed methods comparative study was conducted to explore effective approaches to measuring recovery orientation of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams. Design Two ACT teams exhibiting high and low recovery orientation were compared using surveys, treatment plan ratings, diaries of treatment visits, and team-leader-reported treatment control mechanisms. Results The recovery-oriented team differed on one survey measure (higher expectations for consumer recovery), treatment planning (greater consumer involvement and goal-directed content), and use of control mechanisms (less use of representative payee, agency-held lease, daily medication delivery, and family involvement). Staff and consumer diaries showed the most consistent differences (e.g., conveying hope and choice) and were the least susceptible to observer bias, but had the lowest response rates. Conclusions Several practices differentiate recovery orientation on ACT teams, and a mixed-methods assessment approach is feasible. PMID:23690285

  7. Super-resolution T1 estimation: Quantitative high resolution T1 mapping from a set of low resolution T1 -weighted images with different slice orientations. (United States)

    Van Steenkiste, Gwendolyn; Poot, Dirk H J; Jeurissen, Ben; den Dekker, Arnold J; Vanhevel, Floris; Parizel, Paul M; Sijbers, Jan


    Quantitative T1 mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique that estimates the spin-lattice relaxation time of tissues. Even though T1 mapping has a broad range of potential applications, it is not routinely used in clinical practice as accurate and precise high resolution T1 mapping requires infeasibly long acquisition times. To improve the trade-off between the acquisition time, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution, we acquire a set of low resolution T1 -weighted images and directly estimate a high resolution T1 map by means of super-resolution reconstruction. Simulation and in vivo experiments show an increased spatial resolution of the T1 map, while preserving a high signal-to-noise ratio and short scan time. Moreover, the proposed method outperforms conventional estimation in terms of root-mean-square error. Super resolution T1 estimation enables resolution enhancement in T1 mapping with the use of standard (inversion recovery) T1 acquisition sequences. Magn Reson Med 77:1818-1830, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Individual Differences in Spatial Orientation Performances: An Eye Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacide Güzin Mazman


    Full Text Available This paper includes two studies. In study 1, the computerized version of Spatial Orientation Test (Kozhevnikov & Hegarty, 2001 was standardized for determining the norm values for Turkish undergraduate students as well as demonstrating the reliability and validity of the test. In Study 1, 101 undergraduate students from two different departments were recruited and the data were collected with computerized spatial orientation test together with a demographic information form. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test and one way ANOVA were used in data analysis. Statistical analyses revealed out that gender and years of computer experience have significant effect on spatial orientation ability scores. Test-retest reliability coefficient was found for total accuracy score as r= .778 and r=.634 for total reaction time. As a result of discriminant validity study, the correlation between the spatial orientation and mental rotation test scores was found to be very low and not significant. In study 2, individual differences between low and high spatial orientation ability groups during performing “Spatial Orientation Test” were examined through eye movements. Five high and five low spatial orientation ability level students were asked to participate in the second study. While performing Spatial Orientation Test, their eye movements were recorded. The findings indicated that there were significant differences in eye movements between different spatial orientation ability levels in terms of fixation duration. Furthermore it was found that high and low level spatial orientation level groups solved problems with different solution patterns.

  9. Reality orientation for dementia. (United States)

    Spector, A; Orrell, M; Davies, S; Woods, B


    Reality Orientation (RO) was first described as a technique to improve the quality of life of confused elderly people, although its origins lie in an attempt to rehabilitate severely disturbed war veterans, not in geriatric work. It operates through the presentation of orientation information (eg time, place and person-related) which is thought to provide the person with a greater understanding of their surroundings, possibly resulting in an improved sense of control and self-esteem. There has been criticism of RO in clinical practice, with some fear that it has been applied in a mechanical fashion and has been insensitive to the needs of the individual. There is also a suggestion that constant relearning of material can actually contribute to mood and self-esteem problems. There is often little consistent application of psychological therapies in dementia services, so a systematic review of the available evidence is important in order to identify the effectiveness of the different therapies. Subsequently, guidelines for their use can be made on a sound evidence base. To assess the evidence of effectiveness for the use of Reality Orientation (RO) as a classroom-based therapy on elderly persons with dementia. Computerised databases were searched independently by 2 reviewers entering the terms 'Reality Orientation, dementia, control, trial or study'. Relevant websites were searched and some handsearching was conducted by the reviewer. Specialists in the field were approached for undocumented material, and all publications found were searched for additional references. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and all controlled trials with some degree of concealment, blinding or control for bias (second order evidence) of Reality Orientation as an intervention for dementia were included. The criteria for inclusion/exclusion involved systematic assessment of the quality of study design and the risk of bias, using a standard data extraction form. A measure of cognitive

  10. The algorithm of the formation and realization of the individually oriented physical preparedness of the future rescuers at the stages of studying at high military educational institution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonshovsky V.M.


    Full Text Available The theoretical and empiric facts for the projecting of the technology of the individualization of physical preparedness of the rescuers while studying at high military educational institution were studied. The algorithm of the formation and realization of the corresponding content was worked out. The facts concerning the principles of projecting of pedagogical technology, theory of adaptation, theory and methodology of physical education of students, specificity of professional activity of rescuers were used. The sequence and content of the projecting actions were set, realization of which will promote the formation of the effective physical preparedness in the solving tasks of the physical and military-professional preparedness of the future rescuers with different somatotypes at the stages of education.

  11. Diversity-oriented synthesis and preliminary biological screening of highly substituted five-membered lactones and lactams originating from an allyboration of aldehydes and imines. (United States)

    Elford, Tim G; Ulaczyk-Lesanko, Agnieszka; De Pascale, Gianfranco; Wright, Gerard D; Hall, Dennis G


    alpha-exo-Methylene-gamma-lactones and alpha-exo-methylene-gamma-lactams are key structural units in a wide variety of natural products. These substances exhibit a high degree of bioactivity against numerous biological targets that play important roles in several diseases. A library of functionalized gamma-lactones and gamma-lactams containing both unsaturated and saturated side chains at the alpha position of the ring was synthesized. The generation of this library first involves sequential allylation of aldehydes or imines with 2-alkoxycarbonyl allylboronates, followed by ring closure to give alpha-exo-methylene-gamma-lactones or alpha-exo-methylene-gamma-lactams, which are subjected to various transition metal catalyzed coupling reactions to introduce additional diversity. A subset of the library was screened for inhibition of homoserine transacetylase (HTA) from Haemophilus influenzae and showed promising initial activity profiles.

  12. Positive states in relation to entrepreneurship orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryll L. Shein


    Full Text Available Orientation: The main issue of this article concerns the construction and evaluation of an instrument measuring positive states and its relationship with entrepreneurship orientation.Research purpose: The principal objective of the study was the construction of a normative scale to measure the positive states associated with appreciative ability and to relate it to a scale of entrepreneurial orientation. A secondary objective was to determine whether there was a statistically significant relationship between the measures of the constructs and the biographical variables of gender and culture.Motivation: As appreciative ability is a relatively new construct and no instrument exists for measuring the positive states emanating from this construct, it was decided to develop such an instrument and to relate it to entrepreneurship orientation.Research design, approach and method: The primary data were obtained by means of the newly designed instrument, the Positive States Questionnaire and the Entrepreneurship Orientation Questionnaire. A convenience sample of 210 second year commerce students was drawn.Main findings: From a principal factor analysis applied to the two instruments, two factors each were obtained. A significantly high correlation was found, indicating a strong relationship between entrepreneurship orientation and the positive states. No significant differences were found between gender or population in the entrepreneurship orientation and positive states measures.Practical/managerial implications: The study produced an instrument with highly acceptable metrical properties which may be used in future studies and for entrepreneurship development.Contribution/value-add: The results of the study suggest that positive states are invaluable attributes for the entrepreneur and should be explored in the assessment and development of entrepreneurs.

  13. Control of Nanoplane Orientation in voBN for High Thermal Anisotropy in a Dielectric Thin Film: A New Solution for Thermal Hotspot Mitigation in Electronics. (United States)

    Cometto, Olivier; Samani, Majid K; Liu, Bo; Sun, Shuangxi; Tsang, Siu Hon; Liu, Johan; Zhou, Kun; Teo, Edwin H T


    High anisotropic thermal materials, which allow heat to dissipate in a preferential direction, are of interest as a prospective material for electronics as an effective thermal management solution for hot spots. However, due to their preferential heat propagation in the in-plane direction, the heat spreads laterally instead of vertically. This limitation makes these materials ineffective as the density of hot spots increases. Here, we produce a new dielectric thin film material at room temperature, named vertically ordered nanocrystalline h-BN (voBN). It is produced such that its preferential thermally conductive direction is aligned in the vertical axis, which facilitates direct thermal extraction, thereby addressing the increasing challenge of thermal crosstalk. The uniqueness of voBN comes from its h-BN nanocrystals where all their basal planes are aligned in the direction normal to the substrate plane. Using the 3ω method, we show that voBN exhibits high anisotropic thermal conductivity (TC) with a 16-fold difference between through-film TC and in-plane TC (respectively 4.26 and 0.26 W·m-1·K-1). Molecular dynamics simulations also concurred with the experimental data, showing that the origin of this anisotropic behavior is due to the nature of voBN's plane ordering. While the consistent vertical ordering provides an uninterrupted and preferred propagation path for phonons in the through-film direction, discontinuity in the lateral direction leads to a reduced in-plane TC. In addition, we also use COMSOL to simulate how the dielectric and thermal properties of voBN enable an increase in hot spot density up to 295% compared with SiO2, without any temperature increase.

  14. Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.


    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation. The relationships between different behavioural aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behaviour are analysed, and the study includes structural equation...... modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation...... on political market orientation. This lends support to the argument of 'looking beyond the customer' in political marketing research and practice. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature on political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  15. Object-oriented programming for the biosciences. (United States)

    Wiechert, W; Joksch, B; Wittig, R; Hartbrich, A; Höner, T; Möllney, M


    The development of software systems for the biosciences is always closely connected to experimental practice. Programs must be able to handle the inherent complexity and heterogeneous structure of biological systems in combination with the measuring equipment. Moreover, a high degree of flexibility is required to treat rapidly changing experimental conditions. Object-oriented methodology seems to be well suited for this purpose. It enables an evolutionary approach to software development that still maintains a high degree of modularity. This paper presents experience with object-oriented technology gathered during several years of programming in the fields of bioprocess development and metabolic engineering. It concentrates on the aspects of experimental support, data analysis, interaction and visualization. Several examples are presented and discussed in the general context of the experimental cycle of knowledge acquisition, thus pointing out the benefits and problems of object-oriented technology in the specific application field of the biosciences. Finally, some strategies for future development are described.

  16. Motif oriented high-resolution analysis of ChIP-seq data reveals the topological order of CTCF and cohesin proteins on DNA. (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Czipa, Erik; Steiner, László; Nagy, Tibor; Pongor, Sándor; Nagy, László; Barta, Endre


    ChIP-seq provides a wealth of information on the approximate location of DNA-binding proteins genome-wide. It is known that the targeted motifs in most cases can be found at the peak centers. A high resolution mapping of ChIP-seq peaks could in principle allow the fine mapping of the protein constituents within protein complexes, but the current ChIP-seq analysis pipelines do not target the basepair resolution strand specific mapping of peak summits. The approach proposed here is based on i) locating regions that are bound by a sufficient number of proteins constituting a complex; ii) determining the position of the underlying motif using either a direct or a de novo motif search approach; and iii) determining the exact location of the peak summits with respect to the binding motif in a strand specific manner. We applied this method for analyzing the CTCF/cohesin complex, which holds together DNA loops. The relative positions of the constituents of the complex were determined with one-basepair estimated accuracy. Mapping the positions on a 3D model of DNA made it possible to deduce the approximate local topology of the complex that allowed us to predict how the CTCF/cohesin complex locks the DNA loops. As the positioning of the proteins was not compatible with previous models of loop closure, we proposed a plausible "double embrace" model in which the DNA loop is held together by two adjacent cohesin rings in such a way that the ring anchored by CTCF to one DNA duplex encircles the other DNA double helix and vice versa. A motif-centered, strand specific analysis of ChIP-seq data improves the accuracy of determining peak positions. If a genome contains a large number of binding sites for a given protein complex, such as transcription factor heterodimers or transcription factor/cofactor complexes, the relative position of the constituent proteins on the DNA can be established with an accuracy that allow one to deduce the local topology of the protein complex. The

  17. Brain system for mental orientation in space, time, and person (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Salomon, Roy; Goldberg, Ilan; Blanke, Olaf; Arzy, Shahar


    Orientation is a fundamental mental function that processes the relations between the behaving self to space (places), time (events), and person (people). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have hinted at interrelations between processing of these three domains. To unravel the neurocognitive basis of orientation, we used high-resolution 7T functional MRI as 16 subjects compared their subjective distance to different places, events, or people. Analysis at the individual-subject level revealed cortical activation related to orientation in space, time, and person in a precisely localized set of structures in the precuneus, inferior parietal, and medial frontal cortex. Comparison of orientation domains revealed a consistent order of cortical activity inside the precuneus and inferior parietal lobes, with space orientation activating posterior regions, followed anteriorly by person and then time. Core regions at the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe were activated for multiple orientation domains, suggesting also common processing for orientation across domains. The medial prefrontal cortex showed a posterior activation for time and anterior for person. Finally, the default-mode network, identified in a separate resting-state scan, was active for all orientation domains and overlapped mostly with person-orientation regions. These findings suggest that mental orientation in space, time, and person is managed by a specific brain system with a highly ordered internal organization, closely related to the default-mode network. PMID:26283353

  18. Brain system for mental orientation in space, time, and person. (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Salomon, Roy; Goldberg, Ilan; Blanke, Olaf; Arzy, Shahar


    Orientation is a fundamental mental function that processes the relations between the behaving self to space (places), time (events), and person (people). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have hinted at interrelations between processing of these three domains. To unravel the neurocognitive basis of orientation, we used high-resolution 7T functional MRI as 16 subjects compared their subjective distance to different places, events, or people. Analysis at the individual-subject level revealed cortical activation related to orientation in space, time, and person in a precisely localized set of structures in the precuneus, inferior parietal, and medial frontal cortex. Comparison of orientation domains revealed a consistent order of cortical activity inside the precuneus and inferior parietal lobes, with space orientation activating posterior regions, followed anteriorly by person and then time. Core regions at the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe were activated for multiple orientation domains, suggesting also common processing for orientation across domains. The medial prefrontal cortex showed a posterior activation for time and anterior for person. Finally, the default-mode network, identified in a separate resting-state scan, was active for all orientation domains and overlapped mostly with person-orientation regions. These findings suggest that mental orientation in space, time, and person is managed by a specific brain system with a highly ordered internal organization, closely related to the default-mode network.

  19. Emotion-oriented systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pelachaud, Catherine


    The Affective Computing domain, term coined by Rosalind Picard in 1997, gathers several scientific areas such as computer science, cognitive science, psychology, design and art. The humane-machine interaction systems are no longer solely fast and efficient. They aim to offer to users affective experiences: user's affective state is detected and considered within the interaction; the system displays affective state; it can reason about their implication to achieve a task or resolve a problem. In this book, we have chosen to cover various domains of research in emotion-oriented systems. Our aim

  20. The Sexual Orientation Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loveland Ian


    Full Text Available This paper assesses Scalia’s contribution to a series of cases, spanning much of his thirty years tenure on the court, which addressed issues relating to sexual orientation discrimination. The argument put forward is that these cases severely undermine any claim that Scalia might make to having been a distinguished judge in an intellectual or juridical sense. The pervasive theme of Scalia’s opinions in these matters is that of a constant failure to respect traditional tenets of legal reasoning and a compulsive inclination to engage in abusive castigation both of the litigants challenging the discriminatory laws and his judicial colleagues who did not agree with his viewpoint.

  1. Schopenhauer e o Oriente


    Fabio Luiz de Almeida Mesquita


    Essa dissertação analisa a influência oriental recebida por Schopenhauer durante a formação de sua filosofia e a conseqüência gerada em seus textos tardios no conceito de religião. Enfoca-se, principalmente, a obra em latim Oupnek\\'hat, que possui 50 das 108 Upaniñad, traduzida por Anquetil-Duperron e publicada em 1801/1802. Tal obra foi estudada por Schopenhauer a partir de 1814. Nela estão presentes conceitos orientais como Maya, \\"Illos tu és\\" (Isto és tu - Tat tvam asi) e trimurti, que f...

  2. Recruitment of HIV/AIDS treatment-naïve patients to clinical trials in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: influence of gender, sexual orientation and race. (United States)

    Menezes, P; Eron, J J; Leone, P A; Adimora, A A; Wohl, D A; Miller, W C


    In the USA, women, racial/ethnic minorities and persons who acquire HIV infection through heterosexual intercourse represent an increasing proportion of HIV-infected persons, and yet are frequently underrepresented in clinical trials. We assessed the demographic predictors of trial participation in antiretroviral-naïve patients. Patients were characterized as trial participants if highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was initiated within a clinical trial. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were obtained using binomial regression. Between 1996 and 2006, 30% of 738 treatment-naïve patients initiated HAART in a clinical trial. Trial participation rates for men who have sex with men (MSM), heterosexual men, and women were respectively 36.5, 29.6 and 24.3%. After adjustment for other factors, heterosexual men appeared less likely to participate in trials compared with MSM [PR 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57, 1.11], while women were as likely to participate as MSM (PR 0.97, 95% CI 0.68, 1.39). The participation rate in Black patients (25.9%) was lower compared with non-Black patients (37.5%) (adjusted PR 0.80, 95% CI 0.60, 1.06). In our clinical setting, gender did not appear to impact participation in HIV treatment trials, but Black patients were slightly less likely to participate in these trials. Considering the substantial proportion of HIV-infected patients who are Black, future trials need to consider strategies to incorporate such underrepresented populations. © 2010 British HIV Association.

  3. Orientation relationship between diamond and magnesiochromite inclusions (United States)

    Alvaro, Matteo; Angel, Ross; Nimis, Paolo; Milani, Sula; Harris, Jeff; Nestola, Fabrizio


    The correct determination of the relative crystallographic orientations of single crystals has many applications. When single crystals undergo phase transitions, especially at high pressures, the relative orientations of the two phases yields insights into transition mechanisms (Dobson et al 2013). On the other hand, determination of the crystallographic orientations of minerals included in diamonds can provide insights into the mechanisms of their entrapment and the timing of their formation relative to the host diamond (e.g. Nestola et al. 2014, Milani et al. 2016). The reported occurrence of non-trivial orientations for some minerals in diamonds, suggesting an epitaxial relationship, has long been considered to reflect contemporaneous growth of the diamond and the inclusion (e.g. syngenesis). Correct interpretation of such orientations requires (i) a statistically significant crystallographic data set for single and multiple inclusions in a large number of diamonds, and (ii) a robust data-processing method, capable of removing ambiguities derived from the high symmetry of the diamond and the inclusion. We have developed a software to perform such processing (OrientXplot, Angel et al. 2015), starting from crystallographic orientation matrixes obtained by X-ray diffractometry or EBSD data. Previous studies of inclusions in lithospheric diamonds, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and EBSD, indicate a wide variety in the orientations of different inclusion phases with respect to their diamond host (Futergendler & Frank-Kamenetsky 1961; Frank-Kamenetsky 1964; Wiggers de Vries et al. 2011; Nestola et al. 2014, Milani et al. 2016). For example, olivine inclusions in lithospheric diamonds from Udachnaya do not show any preferred orientations with respect to their diamond hosts, but multiple inclusions in a single diamond often show very similar orientations within few degrees. In the present work on magnesiochromite inclusions in diamonds from Udachnaya, there is a

  4. Varieties of export-oriented entrepreneurship in Asia


    Terjesen, Siri; Hessels, Jolanda


    textabstractThis paper explores differences in the proportion of export-oriented early-stage entrepreneurial activity in 12 Asian countries. Drawing on varieties of capitalism theory, we find that Asian countries with high quality institutions are more likely to have higher proportions of young export-oriented firms. However, analysis on a 51 country data set indicates that Asian countries have significantly fewer young export-oriented firms than do non-Asian countries. Furthermore, the multi...

  5. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation


      Coupe de printemps La deuxième étape de la coupe de printemps organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée le samedi 21 avril dans la forêt de Pougny-Challex. étant donné le temps très humide qui domine depuis début avril, les coureurs ne pouvaient trouver qu’un terrain gras et trempé, mais cela fait partie des défis de la course d’orientation. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par Yvan Balliot, CO Annecy en 51:18 devant Jean-Charles Baritaux en 56:21 et Bruno Barge, CO CERN en 59:39. La prochaine CO populaire se courra à Vulbens le samedi 28 avril. Les inscriptions et les départs se feront entre 13h et 15h. A noter les courses en mai : • Samedi 5 mai : Trelex • Samedi 12 mai : Chancy / Valleiry • Samedi 19 mai : Lausan...

  6. Milestones Universidad de Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Villalón-Infante


    Full Text Available On October 10, 1947, the University of Oriente is founded with the presence of local authorities and the historic Bell of the Damajagua. Since then it has generated outstanding events that have drawn guidelines in its history. These landmarks have taken place in different spheres of social, political and economic life. We have found that most workers and students from the University know less than fifty percent of such events, and we assume that the population outside the walls must have a greater ignorance. The present paper aims to spread these crucial events because knowing them will help appreciate better the real prestige of this house of higher learning through its rich  history, which will result in feelings of admiration and respect for this university. Thus, it is necessary to make a wider propagation through the press, radio and television programs and digital media such as Multimedia, Web Pages and the Internet.The theme landmark at the Universidad de Oriente of the subject Historical and Contemporary Debates implemented in the disciplines of all careers at this university gives freshmen the opportunity to investigate and learn about these remarkable  facts with some impact outside our national territory.

  7. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN


    COURSE D’ORIENTATION : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Pour cette première étape de la Coupe Genevoise de printemps, une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés dans les bois de Cossonay (Vd) pour découvrir un des cinq circuits proposés par le Club de Lausanne-Jorat. Ces circuits techniques et rapides ont été appréciés par la majorité des concurrents. Les vainqueurs du jour sont : technique long, Christophe Vuitton (CO CERN) s’imposant d’une seconde devant Grégoire Schrago (CO Rosé) ; technique moyen, Pekka Marti (Ol Bienne) ; technique court, David Cuenin (ANCO) ; facile moyen, Nicolas Muller (CO Lausanne-Jorat) et pour finir facile court, Julien Vuitton (CO CERN). Les résultats complets - avec temps intermédiaires – sont consultables sur Le prochain rendez-vous est pr&...

  8. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation


    Coupe de printemps Le coup d’envoi de la coupe de printemps a été donné le 17 mars au Flon près de Lausanne. Cinq parcours de différents niveaux ont accueilli environ 90 concurrents. Mathieu Mazuez du club OLG Bern a remporté le parcours Technique long en 51:46 devant Berni Wehrle du CO CERN en 52:52 pour 16 balises. Les résultats complets sont disponibles sur le site La deuxième étape de la coupe de printemps se déroulera à Challex (74) le samedi 21 avril. Le club vous proposera une course type longue distance avec des départs entre 13 h 00 et 15 h 00 (détails sur cette course disponible sur le site internet). À bientôt dans la nature, le Club d’Orientation du CERN.

  9. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN


      Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2011 Nouvelle saison – nouveau programme Le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses pour la coupe de printemps. Elles se dérouleront des deux cotés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 19 mars: Vidy/Dorigny (Vd) - Score Samedi 26 mars: Attalens (Vd) Samedi 2 avril: Vulbens (74) Samedi 9 avril: Challex (74) Samedi 16 avril: Vernand-Dessus (Vd) Samedi 7 mai: Trelex (Vd) Samedi 14 mai: Chancy/Valleiry (Ge/74) Samedi 21 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 28 mai : Semnoz (74) Samedi 18 juin: La Faucille (01) – Finale Ces courses populaires ont lieu le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé...

  10. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN


    La première course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise de printemps a eu lieu près de Cossonay samedi 19 mars ; une bonne soixantaine de coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les vainqueurs sont : technique long, Domenico Lepori (Care Vevey) s’imposant d’une minute devant Yannick Gagneret (O’Jura) ; technique moyen, Jean-Rodolphe Knuchel (CO Lausanne-Jorat) devant Cédric Wehrle (CO CERN) ; technique court, Marie Droz (ANCO) ; facile moyen, Elia Martarelli devant Konstantinos Haider (CO CERN); facile court, Sarah Stuber (CO Lausanne-Jorat). Prochain rendez-vous à noter : samedi 26 mars dans la forêt d’Attalens (Canton de Vaud), parking au terrain de foot. Les inscriptions et départs de la course populaire se feront entre 13h et 15h. Pour ceux qui ne connaissent pas l’orientation, c’est l&am...

  11. Object-oriented analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Deacon, John


    John Deacon’s in-depth, highly pragmatic approach to object-oriented analysis and design, demonstrates how to lay the foundations for developing the best possible software. Students will learn how to ensure that analysis and design remain focused and productive. By working through the book, they will gain a solid working knowledge of best practices in software development.

  12. Corporate Managers' International Orientation and the Export ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study mainly uses discriminant analysis and multiple linear regression, which are suitable for predicting group membership and for determining influence between interval level variables, respectively. The international orientation of corporate managers shows to be high and significantly discriminates between exporting ...

  13. Preparation of highly (001)-oriented photoactive tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) films by an amorphous solid-liquid-crystalline solid (aSLcS) rapid-crystallization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozheyev, Farabi; Friedrich, Dennis; Nie, Man; Rengachari, Mythili; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institute for Solar Fuels, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109, Berlin (Germany)


    Highly (001)-textured tungsten diselenide WSe{sub 2} thin films have been prepared by a two-step process on quartz glass and TiN metallic back contacts, respectively. At first, X-ray amorphous, selenium-rich WSe{sub 2+x} films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature onto a thin metal promoter film (Ni or Pd) and afterwards annealed in an H{sub 2}Se/Ar atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show that highly (001)-oriented WSe{sub 2} films can be grown, which is caused by the formation of liquid promoter-metal selenide droplets which dissolve tungsten or tungsten selenide at temperatures, higher than the eutectic temperature in the promoter metal-selenium system, followed by oversaturation and eventually crystallization of WSe{sub 2} platelets. Time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements show that the films are photoactive. The sum of the carrier mobilities of the best films μ{sub e} + μ{sub h} is in the range of 1-7 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Investigations of sol-gel-derived highly (100)-oriented Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}: MgO composite thin films for phase-shifter applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Majumder, S.B.; Katiyar, R.S. [University of Puerto Rico, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 23 343, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Bhalla, A.S. [The Pennsylvania State University, Materials Research Institute, University Park, PA (United States); Miranda, F.A.; Van Keuls, F.W. [NASA, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Sol-gel deposition of highly oriented Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}:MgO composite thin films has shown desirable dielectric constant reduction and higher figure of merit for phase-shifter applications. In this multilayer configuration, MgO distributed homogeneously through the Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST50) matrix, and it helped in tailoring the dielectric constant and reducing the loss tangent significantly. In the present study, the high-frequency dielectric behavior of the films has been evaluated by fabricating an eight-element coupled microstrip phase shifter and measuring the degree of phase shift and insertion loss as a function of applied voltage at room temperature. An increase in phase-shifter figure of merit (degree of phase shift per dB insertion loss) from 28 /dB for pure BST50 to 71 /dB for a BST50:MgO film (at 14 GHz and 333 kV/cm) has been observed. (orig.)

  15. Structure and Electrical Properties of (111) Oriented Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbZrO3–PbTiO3 Thin Film for High Frequency Transducer Applications (United States)

    Zhu, B. P.; Guo, W. K.; Shen, G. Z.; Zhou, Q. F.; Shung, K. K.


    Ternary lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate titanate system 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.25PbZrO3–0.35PbTiO3 (40PMN-25PZ-35PT) thin film with a thickness of 1.5 μm was grown on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate via chemical solution deposition. XRD and TEM (spell out) results suggested the film obtained was highly (111)-oriented. The remanent polarization and coercive electric field of the film were found to be 25.5 μC/cm2 and 51 kV/cm, respectively. In addition, at 1 kHz, the dielectric constant was measured to be 1960 and the dielectric loss 0.036. The film was observed to undergo a diffuse ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition at around 209°C. The leakage current appeared to depend on the voltage polarity. If the Au electrode was biased positively, the leakage current was dominated by Schottky emission mechanism. When the Pt electrode was biased positively, the conduction current curve showed an ohmic behavior at a low electric field and space-charge-limited current characteristics at a high electric field. PMID:21937332

  16. Testing Object-Oriented Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Skov, Stefan H.

    -types that are currently being developed into production versions. To assure a high quality in the product it was decided to carry out an activ-ity regarding issues in testing OO software. The purpose of this report is to discuss the issues of testing object-oriented software. It is often claimed that testing of OO......The report is a result of an activity within the project Centre for Object Technology (COT), case 2. In case 2 a number of pilot projects have been carried out to test the feasibility of using object technology within embedded software. Some of the pilot projects have resulted in proto...... software is radically different form testing traditional software developed using imperative/procedural programming. Other authors claim that there is no difference. In this report we will attempt to give an answer to these questions (or at least initiate a discussion)....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Celestino


    Full Text Available The pursuit of perfection has been one of the challenges that always was followed by the human being. Currently no one is indifferent to the systematic and exceptional performances of athletes like Cristiano Ronaldo (soccer, Simone Luder Niglli and Thierry Gueorgiou (orienteering, Usain Bolt (athletics, Michael Phelps (swimming among many others, and whose characteristics, capabilities and development paths up immediately a great admiration and curiosity to know: how they developed these abilities? What characteristics and skills makes them so exceptional? How can maintain their high performance? In this sense the results have been showing that the development of excellence in sport has its origins in childhood and it is the result of an investment and long-term commitment (Barreiros, Côté, & Fonseca, 2013. But there are few studies focusing in some manner as orienteering.Objectives: This study aims to identify characteristics and peculiarities that mark the path of a group of excellent athletes in orienteering.

  18. Antibody orientation on biosensor surfaces: a minireview. (United States)

    Trilling, Anke K; Beekwilder, Jules; Zuilhof, Han


    Detection elements play a key role in analyte recognition in biosensors. Therefore, detection elements with high analyte specificity and binding strength are required. While antibodies (Abs) have been increasingly used as detection elements in biosensors, a key challenge remains - the immobilization on the biosensor surface. This minireview highlights recent approaches to immobilize and study Abs on surfaces. We first introduce Ab species used as detection elements, and discuss techniques recently used to elucidate Ab orientation by determination of layer thickness or surface topology. Then, several immobilization methods will be presented: non-covalent and covalent surface attachment, yielding oriented or random coupled Abs. Finally, protein modification methods applicable for oriented Ab immobilization are reviewed with an eye to future application.

  19. Patient orientation and professional orientation of Dutch dentists. (United States)

    Bruers, J Josef M; Felling, Albert J A; Truin, Gert Jan; van't Hof, Martin A; van Rossum, Ger M J M


    By providing dental health care, dentists dedicate themselves to the preservation and/or improvement of oral health in their patients. By adequately carrying out this care providers' role, dentists will gain recognition, esteem and respect from both patients and colleagues. This analysis aims to assess the patient and professional orientation of dentists and investigate which of their personal and practice characteristics can be regarded determining for these two aspects of their role as care providers. In the year 2000, data was collected via a written questionnaire sent to a random, stratified sample of 790 dentists, of whom 607 (77%) responded. Multivariate regression analysis shows that the preventive treatment concept, professional satisfaction and the number of hours per week that household tasks are performed are positive determinants for dentists' patient orientation. Also, the longer dentists are active in their profession, the more patient oriented they will be, and with more hours per week support from oral hygienists they are less patient oriented. As for professional orientation, dentists' preventive treatment concept and their professional satisfaction can also be considered positive determinants. Furthermore, dentists are more profession oriented when their partner works in the practice, with more hours per week support from oral hygienist(s) and with more collaboration contacts with other care providers. Compared to men, women are on average less profession oriented. Among Dutch dentists, there exist clear differences in the way they take on their role as care providers with regard to patient orientation and professional orientation.

  20. French Orientational Accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Vitez


    Full Text Available The history of describing the French final accent – and French accentuation in general – is fulfilled by different and very heterogenous approaches, analyzing this prosodic feature in French from both substantial and functional points of view. Viewed through pragmatical frame, the final accent is a one of the key aspects in shaping the acoustical image of spoken French and b a strategic tool for the speaker to build the coherence and sense of uttering. The distribution of final accents, i. e. forming accentual units, helps the speaker and his adressee to form a refined strategy in generating and perceiving the spoken text. From the discourse point of view it is therefore justified to define the French final accent as an orientational prosodic feature.

  1. Spiritually oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy. (United States)

    Shafranske, Edward P


    Spiritually oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy pays particular attention to the roles that religious and spiritual beliefs, practices, and experiences play in the psychological life of the client. Contemporary psychoanalytic theorists offer multiple approaches to understand the functions of religious experience. Spirituality provides a means to address existential issues and provide a context to form personal meaning. Religious narratives present schemas of relationship and models of experiences salient to mental health, such as hope. God images or other symbolic representations of the transcendent have the power to evoke emotions, which in turn, influence motivation and behavior. While employing theories and techniques derived from psychodynamic psychotherapy, this therapeutic approach encourages the analysis of the functions religion and spirituality serve, while respecting the client's act of believing in faith. Psychotherapists address a client's spirituality by exploring the psychological meaning of such personal commitments and experiences and refrain from entering into discussion of faith claims. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. MRI of oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, N.A., E-mail: [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India); Robbani, I.; Kosar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India)


    Oriental cholangiohepatitis (OCH) also called recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is characterized by intrahepatic duct calculi, strictures, and recurrent infections. In turn cholangitis can result in multiple hepatic abscesses, further biliary strictures, and in severe cases, progressive hepatic parenchymal destruction, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and conventional T1-weighted (T1 W) and T2-weighted (T2 W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described in patients with OCH. MRCP findings include duct dilation, strictures, and calculi. MRCP can help to localize the diseased ducts and determine the severity of involvement. T1 and T2 W sequences reveal the parenchymal changes of atrophy, abscess formation, and portal hypertension in addition to calculi. Post-treatment changes are also well depicted using MRI. Comprehensive, non-invasive assessment is achieved by using conventional MRI and MRCP in OCH providing a roadmap for endoscopic or surgical management.

  3. Aspherical Word Labeled Oriented Graphs and Cyclically Presented Groups


    Harlander, Jens; Rosebrock, Stephan


    A {\\em word labeled oriented graph} (WLOG) is an oriented graph $\\cal G$ on vertices $X=\\{ x_1,\\ldots ,x_k\\}$, where each oriented edge is labeled by a word in $X^{\\pm1}$. WLOGs give rise to presentations which generalize Wirtinger presentations of knots. WLOG presentations, where the underlying graph is a tree are of central importance in view of Whitehead's Asphericity Conjecture. We present a class of aspherical world labeled oriented graphs. This class can be used to produce highly non-in...

  4. Using goal orientations to understand motivation in strength training. (United States)

    Gilson, Todd A; Chow, Graig M; Ewing, Martha E


    Despite the importance that today's athletics place on strength training, research exploring the motivation of athletes in this arena is sparse. It is known that not all athletes will use the same motivational cognitions as inspiration, and these differences can be explored through achievement goal orientations. Through questionnaire data and semistructured interviews, the present study investigated how collegiate athletes maintain high levels of motivation over a period of time during strength training and explored relationships among five goal orientations: task-orientation, self-enhancing ego-orientation, self-defeating ego-orientation, social-approval orientation, and work-avoidance orientation. Subjects (N = 133), comprising 90 men and 43 women, were current varsity collegiate athletes from 15 different sports at a major Midwestern university. In addition, using a screener survey to assess achievement goal orientations, 15 subjects from the sample group who demonstrated a stronger inclination to only one achievement goal orientation were interviewed to gain a more in-depth understanding of their motivation cognitions in strength training. Results showed that the strongest achievement goal orientations reported from all athletes were task-orientation and social-approval. Additionally, five higher-order themes (significant others, improvement, competitive demands, being stronger than others, and miscellaneous) were consistent among the interviewed athletes when describing how they stay motivated during strength training. Whereas all athletes were able to describe at least one motivational strategy they employed during strength training, the dominant achievement goal orientation of some athletes influenced their motivational strategy. By employing the T.A.R.G.E.T. model (), strength coaches can foster adaptive achievement goal orientations and thereby enhance intrinsic motivation for athletes engaging in strength training.

  5. The theory of experience orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Legaard


    This paper describes the theory of experience orientation, which builds on the division of experiences in two categories: Goal-oriented and Omni-oriented. The theory comes from preliminary studies of userexperiences in a work-context, where I have found this distinction to be beneficial....... In this paper I explain the theory behind it and the practical application of such a distinction when designing for an experience....

  6. Oriented Poly(dialkylstannane)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choffat, Fabien; Fornera, Sara; Smith, Paul


    The inorganic (or 'organometallic') polymers poly(dibutylstannane), poly(dioctylstannane), and poly(didodecylstannane) have been oriented by shear forces, the tensile drawing of blends with polyethylene, and deposition from solution onto glass slides coated with all oriented, friction...... to the applied orientation direction, which forces the polymer backbone into a perpendicular position. Finally, UV-vis spectra indicate that changes in the backbone conformation of certain polystannanes might be induced by applying mechanical stress....

  7. An instrument for online measurement of structural orientation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In many applications of polymer materials, a high tensile strength is required. There is a definite correlation between the degree of orientation of molecular chains achieved in the orientation process and the tensile strength obtained. In this work, we describe design and fabrication details of a device, `Laser based polymer ...

  8. Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, H. de


    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people’s dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after

  9. An instrument for online measurement of structural orientation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    tensile strength obtained. In this work, we describe design and fabrication details of a device, 'Laser based polymer orientation grader', for online measurement of the degree of orientation to obtain a high consistent tensile strength as output. This instrument has been designed making skilful use of the optical anisotropic.

  10. Report of the Orientation Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho; Buus, Lillian; Ogange, Betty


    This Orientation Workshops is part of MAAGART project. The workshop is divided in three parts: 1) pre-Orientation Workshop stage, 2) Face-to-Face stage and 3) post-Orientation stage. Pre and post stages will be developed online. All the activities will take place in a virtual learning environment...... created for this purpose. Participants will receive all the information about how to access the virtual learning environment (Moodle) prior to the pre-orientation workshop. In this report we cover only the two first stages. Jørgen Bang, as a part of the Community of Practice activity, will be facilitating...

  11. Automatic estimation of retinal nerve fiber bundle orientation in SD-OCT images using a structure-oriented smoothing filter (United States)

    Ghafaryasl, Babak; Baart, Robert; de Boer, Johannes F.; Vermeer, Koenraad A.; van Vliet, Lucas J.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) yields high-resolution, three-dimensional images of the retina. A better understanding of retinal nerve fiber bundle (RNFB) trajectories in combination with visual field data may be used for future diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma. However, manual tracing of these bundles is a tedious task. In this work, we present an automatic technique to estimate the orientation of RNFBs from volumetric OCT scans. Our method consists of several steps, starting from automatic segmentation of the RNFL. Then, a stack of en face images around the posterior nerve fiber layer interface was extracted. The image showing the best visibility of RNFB trajectories was selected for further processing. After denoising the selected en face image, a semblance structure-oriented filter was applied to probe the strength of local linear structure in a discrete set of orientations creating an orientation space. Gaussian filtering along the orientation axis in this space is used to find the dominant orientation. Next, a confidence map was created to supplement the estimated orientation. This confidence map was used as pixel weight in normalized convolution to regularize the semblance filter response after which a new orientation estimate can be obtained. Finally, after several iterations an orientation field corresponding to the strongest local orientation was obtained. The RNFB orientations of six macular scans from three subjects were estimated. For all scans, visual inspection shows a good agreement between the estimated orientation fields and the RNFB trajectories in the en face images. Additionally, a good correlation between the orientation fields of two scans of the same subject was observed. Our method was also applied to a larger field of view around the macula. Manual tracing of the RNFB trajectories shows a good agreement with the automatically obtained streamlines obtained by fiber tracking.

  12. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel


    An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently...... conjectured by Baudon et al. that every undirected graph admits a decomposition into at most three locally irregular graphs, except for a well-characterized set of indecomposable graphs. We herein consider an oriented version of this conjecture. Namely, can every oriented graph be decomposed into at most...... three locally irregular oriented graphs, i.e. whose adjacent vertices have distinct outdegrees? We start by supporting this conjecture by verifying it for several classes of oriented graphs. We then prove a weaker version of this conjecture. Namely, we prove that every oriented graph can be decomposed...

  13. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child (United States)

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.


    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…


    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation


    Du Mont Mussy à Lamoura C’est au Mont Mussy près de Divonne que s’est déroulée la deuxième course comptant pour la coupe d’automne. Une bonne centaine de participants n’ont pas hésité à venir découvrir, sous un magnifique soleil, les 5 parcours proposés par la famille Williams/Hatzifotiadou. La plupart des participants ont couru en individuel, certains ont choisi de chercher les balises en famille. C’est un effet une possibilité qu’offrent nos courses d’orientation du samedi, à savoir que l’on peut pratiquer individuellement, en famille ou entre amis. Les résultats sur les 5 parcours sont les suivants : Technique long : Yannick Gagneret en 1.08:09, suivi par F. Janod en 1.09:41 et de Bruno Barge en 1.11:23. Technique moyen : Victoire pour Rémi...


    CERN Multimedia



      Finale de la coupe d’automne La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 23 octobre après 7 épreuves. Les deux dernières courses se sont déroulées en l’espace de 24 heures, puisque le club organisait une course type nocturne vendredi 22 octobre sur le site du CERN et la dernière étape avait lieu dans la forêt de Merdisel sous la forme d’une course aux points samedi 23 après-midi. Les participants avaient à cœur de bien terminer lors de ces deux épreuves pour consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement général. Le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 4 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit ...

  16. Value oriented marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana


    Full Text Available The complexity of business environment imposes the need for continuous change and reexamination of business marketing strategies of enterprises. Theory and practice of strategic management and marketing show that the activities of marketing, which are closely connected to corporate strategy, are the key drivers of growth. There is a positive correlation between competition intensity, marketing strategy and business performance of companies. Even though, managers of many companies don't see a clear connection between marketing strategy and business performance, numerous empirical research show that the companies which possess and efficiently use marketing resources and capabilities are more successful. In knowledge-based economics, the development of value oriented marketing strategies for all participants in the chain is a supposition of the survival, growth and development of companies. Competitive advantage is the essence of any strategy. Acquisition and maintenance of competitive advantage is more successful if the potentials for value creation are used efficiently. The paper examines the critical factors that influence alignment and transformation of marketing strategies in accordance with changes in value estimation. Superior value, is created in different network classes. Theory and practice researches create a reliable basis for the development of new concepts, marketing strategy business models that will contribute to competitive advantage of enterprises and the economy.

  17. Club d’orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’orientation


    On s’approche vers la finale ! Samedi 29 juin, le club d’orientation de Lausanne-Jorat (Canton de Vaud) a accueilli le relais inter-club. Douze équipes de deux coureurs étaient venues s’affronter sur le parcours de type «facile», et vingt-six équipes de trois coureurs du côté «technique». Tous ces parcours étaient proposés sur une zone semi-urbaine où il fallait alterner entre habitations, rues, bois, parc et adapter sa vitesse de course. Le suspens était bien présent notamment sur le relais technique. La victoire est revenue à l’équipe de l’OLG Huttwil composée de Thomas Hofer, Janick Zappa et Philipp Zappa en un temps de 2:14:07. Juste derrière à 50 secondes on trouve l’équipe CO CERN T1 avec Emese&am...

  18. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin


    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  19. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN


    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  1er mai: muguet et balises à Vulbens Les week-ends s’enchainent et les courses aussi. La quatrième manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club sous la direction de J. Zosso, J. Iven et W. Heinze a eu lieu sur le site de Genolier (canton de Vaud) samedi dernier. Le soleil a, une nouvelle fois, accompagné les participants sur les cinq circuits proposés. On notera la jolie performance de Sami Vaehaenen élite finlandais (CO CERN) sur le parcours technique long en 49:09 avec une avance de presque 10 mm sur le second concurrent, le junior Clément Poncet (O’Jura). Les résultats complets de cette étape sont consultables en ligne à l’adresse suivante : La prochaine étape est prévue dans la forêt de Vulbens (Haute Savoie) samedi 1er mai sur une toute nouvelle carte. Les...

  20. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Course d'Orientation


      Tous à vos boussoles, cap sur une nouvelle saison! Le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose à nouveau une série de courses comptant pour la coupe genevoise. Le coup d’envoi sera donné samedi 17 mars au Flon dans le canton de Vaud  avec une course longue distance. Puis le programme sera le suivant: Samedi 21 avril : Challex Samedi 28 avril : Vulbens Samedi 5 mai : Trelex Samedi 12 mai : Chancy Samedi 19 mai : Lausanne/Sauvabelin Samedi 2 juin: La Faucille Samedi 9 juin: Bonmont/La Rippe Finale Ces courses populaires ont lieu le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour participer aux épreuves sur le territoire français, il faut être en possession soit ...

  1. Different facets of market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.


    two aims: firstly, we will discuss the different facets of the market orientation of the main UK and German parties in their respective 2005 General Elections through an exploratory content analysis, and secondly, we will compare characteristics of market orientation between the two countries. Whilst...

  2. Neuroanatomic Fiber Orientation Maps (FOMs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan; Grässel, David


    A new neuroanatomic method is described which allows to map the orientation of central nervous fibers in gross histological sections. Polarised light is used to calculate the angle of inclination and direction of the fibers in each pixel. Serial fiber orientation maps (FOMs) can be aligned and 3D...

  3. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1 or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment. The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation. The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2. Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  4. Problem-Oriented Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch; Pedersen, Nils Kaare

    This book is meant to support problem-oriented learning activities. Problem-orientation concerns the reasoning about lack of knowledge, while project work includes the ethnomethods that are practiced when collectives produce scientific knowledge. This book reflects particular methods related...... to sociology and social science and their relation to humanities, technical knowledge and natural science....

  5. Orientation masking and cross-orientation suppression (XOS): implications for estimates of filter bandwidth. (United States)

    Meese, Tim S; Holmes, David J


    Most contemporary models of spatial vision include a cross-oriented route to suppression (masking from a broadly tuned inhibitory pool), which is most potent at low spatial and high temporal frequencies (T. S. Meese & D. J. Holmes, 2007). The influence of this pathway can elevate orientation-masking functions without exciting the target mechanism, and because early psychophysical estimates of filter bandwidth did not accommodate this, it is likely that they have been overestimated for this corner of stimulus space. Here we show that a transient 40% contrast mask causes substantial binocular threshold elevation for a transient vertical target, and this declines from a mask orientation of 0° to about 40° (indicating tuning), and then more gently to 90°, where it remains at a factor of ∼4. We also confirm that cross-orientation masking is diminished or abolished at high spatial frequencies and for sustained temporal modulation. We fitted a simple model of pedestal masking and cross-orientation suppression (XOS) to our data and those of G. C. Phillips and H. R. Wilson (1984) and found the dependency of orientation bandwidth on spatial frequency to be much less than previously supposed. An extension of our linear spatial pooling model of contrast gain control and dilution masking (T. S. Meese & R. J. Summers, 2007) is also shown to be consistent with our results using filter bandwidths of ±20°. Both models include tightly and broadly tuned components of divisive suppression. More generally, because XOS and/or dilution masking can affect the shape of orientation-masking curves, we caution that variations in bandwidth estimates might reflect variations in processes that have nothing to do with filter bandwidth.

  6. Orientation Transfer in Vernier and Stereoacuity Training. (United States)

    Snell, Nathaniel; Kattner, Florian; Rokers, Bas; Green, C Shawn


    Human performance on various visual tasks can be improved substantially via training. However, the enhancements are frequently specific to relatively low-level stimulus dimensions. While such specificity has often been thought to be indicative of a low-level neural locus of learning, recent research suggests that these same effects can be accounted for by changes in higher-level areas--in particular in the way higher-level areas read out information from lower-level areas in the service of highly practiced decisions. Here we contrast the degree of orientation transfer seen after training on two different tasks--vernier acuity and stereoacuity. Importantly, while the decision rule that could improve vernier acuity (i.e. a discriminant in the image plane) would not be transferable across orientations, the simplest rule that could be learned to solve the stereoacuity task (i.e. a discriminant in the depth plane) would be insensitive to changes in orientation. Thus, given a read-out hypothesis, more substantial transfer would be expected as a result of stereoacuity than vernier acuity training. To test this prediction, participants were trained (7500 total trials) on either a stereoacuity (N = 9) or vernier acuity (N = 7) task with the stimuli in either a vertical or horizontal configuration (balanced across participants). Following training, transfer to the untrained orientation was assessed. As predicted, evidence for relatively orientation specific learning was observed in vernier trained participants, while no evidence of specificity was observed in stereo trained participants. These results build upon the emerging view that perceptual learning (even very specific learning effects) may reflect changes in inferences made by high-level areas, rather than necessarily fully reflecting changes in the receptive field properties of low-level areas.

  7. Orientations of terminal cladodes of Platyopuntias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.


    The orientations of terminal unshaded cladodes of 23 species of platyopuntias were observed in North America, South America, Australia, and Israel. When the seasonality of rainfall favored cladode development in the winter and the site was located above 27/sup 0/N, the cladodes tended to face north-south (five cases, P < .001 for each). In all other cases without topographical blockage of incoming radiation, the tendency was to face east-west. For example, terminal cladodes of Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata and O. stricta tended to face north-south in Israel but east-west in the United States (P > .001). Such dissimilar orientation patterns also occurred for cladodes of 0. chlorotica at two sites in the Sonoran Desert and for O. basilaris var. basilaris developing at different seasons at a single site. Contrary to previously published observations, cladodes of O. ficus-indica and O. compressa had a significant tendency to orient (P > .001). When topographical features affected the direction of prevailing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), the preferred orientation of terminal cladodes was changed accordingly. The preferred direction always maximized the interception of PAR, which is often a limiting factor in the productivity of cacti, even in a putatively high radiation environment.

  8. Singularities in primate orientation maps. (United States)

    Obermayer, K; Blasdel, G G


    We report the results of an analysis of orientation maps in primate striate cortex with focus on singularities and their distribution. Data were obtained from squirrel monkeys and macaque monkeys of different ages. We find the approximately 80% of singularities that are nearest neighbors have the opposite sign and that the spatial distribution of singularities differs significantly from a random distribution of points. We do not find evidence for consistent geometric patterns that singularities may form across the cortex. Except for a different overall alignment of orientation bands and different periods of repetition, maps obtained from different animals and different ages are found similar with respect to the measures used. Orientation maps are then compared with two different pattern models that are currently discussed in the literature: bandpass-filtered white noise, which accounts very well for the overall map structure, and the field analogy model, which specifies the orientation map by the location of singularities and their properties. The bandpass-filtered noise approach to orientation patterns correctly predicts the sign correlations between singularities and accounts for the deviations in the spatial distribution of singularities away from a random dot pattern. The field analogy model can account for the structure of certain local patches of the orientation map but not for the whole map. Neither of the models is completely satisfactory, and the structure of the orientation map remains to be fully explained.

  9. Home care nursing orientation model. Justification and structure. (United States)

    Humphrey, C J; Milone-Nuzzo, P


    An orientation program for new nurses in a home care agency can be an effective tool that increases job satisfaction, alleviates a potentially high employee attrition rate, boosts morale, and thereby improves overall quality of patient care.

  10. Entrepreneurial orientation, distinctive marketing competencies and organizational performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smart, Denise T; Conant, Jeffrey S


      A study examines the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of 599 independent businesspeople and compared those with high, medium, and low EO along a series of distinctive marketing competency and organizational performance measures...

  11. A Socially Oriented Approach Through Carbon Compound Chemistry (United States)

    Novick, Shimshon; Sutman, Frank X.


    Discusses the development of a course designed to interest the average high school student. It is socially oriented in its approach to science and has been employed, in both the United States and Israel, for nonscience students. (DF)

  12. Development-oriented approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    Economic growth does not help the poor much in countries where distribution of wealth is highly unequal. The poor in these countries do not enjoy many of the benefits of boom times, but they do shoulder the costs of collapse. In societies of high inequality, growth allows the poor to keep their

  13. Oriented active shape models. (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K


    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  14. Customizable Time-Oriented Visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Pantazos, Kostas; Lauesen, Søren


    Most commercial visualization tools support an easy and quick creation of conventional time-oriented visualizations such as line charts, but customization is limited. In contrast, some academic visualization tools and programming languages support the creation of some customizable time-oriented v......Most commercial visualization tools support an easy and quick creation of conventional time-oriented visualizations such as line charts, but customization is limited. In contrast, some academic visualization tools and programming languages support the creation of some customizable time...

  15. Practising orientation identification improves orientation coding in V1 neurons. (United States)

    Schoups, A; Vogels, R; Qian, N; Orban, G


    The adult brain shows remarkable plasticity, as demonstrated by the improvement in fine sensorial discriminations after intensive practice. The behavioural aspects of such perceptual learning are well documented, especially in the visual system. Specificity for stimulus attributes clearly implicates an early cortical site, where receptive fields retain fine selectivity for these attributes; however, the neuronal correlates of a simple visual discrimination task remained unidentified. Here we report electrophysiological correlates in the primary visual cortex (V1) of monkeys for learning orientation identification. We link the behavioural improvement in this type of learning to an improved neuronal performance of trained compared to naive neurons. Improved long-term neuronal performance resulted from changes in the characteristics of orientation tuning of individual neurons. More particularly, the slope of the orientation tuning curve that was measured at the trained orientation increased only for the subgroup of trained neurons most likely to code the orientation identified by the monkey. No modifications of the tuning curve were observed for orientations for which the monkey had not been trained. Thus training induces a specific and efficient increase in neuronal sensitivity in V1.

  16. Direction-specific interactions control crystal growth by oriented attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; Lee, Jonathan R.I.


    The oriented attachment of molecular clusters and nanoparticles in solution is now recognized as an important mechanism of crystal growth in many materials, yet the alignment process and attachment mechanism have not been established. We performed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy...... initiated at the contact point. Interface elimination proceeds at a rate consistent with the curvature dependence of the Gibbs free energy. Measured translational and rotational accelerations show that strong, highly direction-specific interactions drive crystal growth via oriented attachment....

  17. Correlation between crystallographic orientation and surface faceting in UO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin; Mo, Kun; Yao, Tiankai; Lian, Jie; Fortner, Jeffrey; Jamison, Laura; Xu, Ruqing; Yacout, Abdellatif M.


    Here coordinated experimental efforts to quantitatively correlate crystallographic orientation and surface faceting features in UO2 are reported upon. A sintered polycrystalline UO2 sample was thermally etched to induce the formation of surface faceting features. Synchrotron Laue microdiffraction was used to obtain a precise crystallographic orientation map for the UO2 surface grains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to collect the detailed information on the surface morphology of the sample. The surface faceting features were found to be highly dependent on the crystallographic orientation. In most cases, Triple-plane structures containing one {100} plane and two {111} planes were found to dominate the surface of UO2. The orientation-faceting relationship established in this study revealed a practical and efficient method of determining crystallographic orientation based on the surface features captured by SEM images.

  18. The Influence of Competitive Personality Orientation on Adolescent Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Scheer


    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI is related to life success and everyday social interactions. The extent to which competitive personality orientation (CPO may influence emotional intelligence among adolescents is unknown. The objective of this investigation was to determine the relationship between adolescent competitive personality orientation and emotional intelligence and if competitive personality orientation predicts emotional intelligence while controlling for demographic variables. Participants were 200 students (91 females, 109 males, M age=17.24 years from three Midwestern high schools. An inverse relationship was discovered between competitive personality orientation and emotional intelligence. Higher competitiveness was associated with lower levels of EI and this relationship was maintained when demographic variables were statistically controlled. As well, females scored significantly higher for EI and lower for competitive orientation than males. The findings potentially have implications for youth organizations to consider the level of emphasis placed on competitive programming and for including activities whereby youth work cooperatively with each other for promoting EI development.

  19. Do orientation programs help new graduates? (United States)

    Strauss, Ester; Ovnat, Chaya; Gonen, Ayala; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Mizrahi, Ayala


    There is a need for effective orientation programs that are designed to prepare new graduate nurses in providing safe, competent, and effective patient care. However, little is known regarding the overall effectiveness of these programs for nursing graduates. To determine whether the transition of the graduates into their working place included a structured orientation program, and to assess the effectiveness of the program from the graduate's perspective. Cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from four different institutions in Israel. A questionnaire was divided among 100 graduate nurses and had a response rate of 79%. A questionnaire was designed and included closed and open questions. It was evaluated for internal consistency by standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficients (Cronbach's alpha was between 0.91 and 0.96). Only 50.6% of the nurses in the sample reported having a structured orientation program. We found positive significant correlations between having a structured orientation program to adaptation of the graduate nurses to the ward, satisfaction of the graduates on the ward. Positive correlations were also found between support that the graduates received to their satisfaction on the ward. Retention on the ward was highly correlated with having a program, satisfaction, adaptation, and support. We found differences in acclimation indices by religiosity. Different delivery approaches of orientation programs may determine satisfaction of the graduates. A transition program which overlooks individual needs or an informal individual approach may lead to dissatisfaction. A program which is "tailored" to the graduate, by an assigned one-to-one appointment of a preceptor, may lead to satisfaction, which in turn may assure an ongoing supply of competent RNs who will remain in those settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The reinforcing effect of a firm's customer orientation and supply-base orientation on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, Gerrit Willem; Henseler, Jörg


    Although the merits of maintaining strategic orientations such as customer orientation and supply-base orientation have been discussed in the literature, there is relatively little understanding of how these strategic orientations interrelate. Drawing on dynamic capability theory, this study

  1. Orienting polar molecules without hexapoles: Optical state selection with adiabatic orientation (United States)

    Schäfer, Tim; Bartels, Nils; Hocke, Nils; Yang, Xueming; Wodtke, Alec M.


    A pedagogic review of technology used to orient polar molecules is presented to place in context the report of a new approach to this problem. Laboratory frame orientation of polar molecules is achieved by state-specific optical pumping in a region free of electric fields followed by adiabatic transport into a static electric field. This approach overcomes some of the limitations of the more common hexapole focusing method. In particular the method is nearly insensitive to the kinetic energy of the sample. We demonstrate production of oriented samples of NO (μel = 0.15 D) with translational energies above 1 eV in both high- and low-field seeking states. The method can be extended to many other classes of molecules, including near symmetric tops and ions.

  2. A hardware-oriented histogram of oriented gradients algorithm and its VLSI implementation (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; An, Fengwei; Nakashima, Ikki; Luo, Aiwen; Chen, Lei; Ishii, Idaku; Jürgen Mattausch, Hans


    A challenging and important issue for object recognition is feature extraction on embedded systems. We report a hardware implementation of the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) algorithm for real-time object recognition, which is known to provide high efficiency and accuracy. The developed hardware-oriented algorithm exploits the cell-based scan strategy which enables image-sensor synchronization and extraction-speed acceleration. Furthermore, buffers for image frames or integral images are avoided. An image-size scalable hardware architecture with an effective bin-decoder and a parallelized voting element (PVE) is developed and used to verify the hardware-oriented HOG implementation with the application of human detection. The fabricated test chip in 180 nm CMOS technology achieves fast processing speed and large flexibility for different image resolutions with substantially reduced hardware cost and energy consumption.

  3. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  4. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  5. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    and discuss techniques for handling and representing uncertainty when modelling in experimental system development. These techniques are centred on patterns and styles for handling uncertainty in object-oriented software architectures. Tools We present the Knight tool designed for collaborative modelling......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...... through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...

  6. Implementation-Oriented Secure Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conte de Leon, Daniel; Alves-Foss, Jim; Oman, Paul W


    .... This framework is composed of an implementation-oriented formalization of a system's architecture, which we call the formal implementation model, along with a method for the construction of a system...

  7. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...

  8. Security for service oriented architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Walter


    Although integrating security into the design of applications has proven to deliver resilient products, there are few books available that provide guidance on how to incorporate security into the design of an application. Filling this need, Security for Service Oriented Architectures examines both application and security architectures and illustrates the relationship between the two. Supplying authoritative guidance on how to design distributed and resilient applications, the book provides an overview of the various standards that service oriented and distributed applications leverage, includ

  9. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics. (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James


    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  10. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom


    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  11. Lunar orientation in a beetle. (United States)

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J.; Scholtz, Clarke H.; Warrant, Eric J.


    Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects. PMID:15101694

  12. Market-oriented product development as an organizational learning capability : findings from two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Robert A.W.; Hillebrand, Bas; Biemans, Wim G.


    Conceptualizing market orientation at the level of the product development process is relevant, because market orientation is a highly critical factor for new product success and this conceptualization can be used as a starting-point to transform the whole organization into a more market oriented

  13. Orientation and crystallinity of bifunctional adsorbates

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, C C


    3-thiophene carboxylate (3-TC) and 9-anthracene carboxylate (9-AC) on the clean and O(2x1)/Cu(110) surfaces demonstrates the sensitivity of the technique to orientation parallel and perpendicular to the surface. The coverage dependent molecular polar and azimuthal orientations are determined from high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and are correlated with the RAS results via LEED patterns of the ordered structures. A complete vibrational assignment of 9-AC is given. Coadsorption of phase separated domains of (2x3)N and alpha-phase benzoate/Cu(110) was used to identify plausible adsorption sites for upright benzoate species. A multiple regression model to analyse scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) images was developed, which properly addresses the non-normally distributed noise present in the digitally sampled images. Electron energy loss-low energy electron diffraction (ELS-LEED) measurements show enhancement of the vibrational losses in the dipole mechanism regime appropriate for eac...

  14. Exploring the Impact of Silos in Achieving Brand Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.; Helm, Clive; Munk, Jonas


    the achievement of brand orientation. Through inductive analysis of a case study of an organisation implementing a major brand-revitalisation strategy, this paper demonstrates how, despite a strong brand vision and high level of management commitment, functional silos associated with different mindsets......Brands are widely recognised as important sources of organisational value. Brand orientation describes the extent to which the organisation is orientated around the brand and around maximising brand potential. However, silos or divisions within the culture of an organisation can frustrate...... contributed to the failure of the new brand strategy. The paper concludes with recommendations for the brand platform to be implemented meaningfully and effectively within each silo....

  15. Can we change sexual orientation? (United States)

    Beckstead, A Lee


    The self-reports of individuals who claim that they have changed their sexual orientation are either dismissed as false or relied upon to promote sexual orientation change efforts. However, these reactions do not capture the complexity of the sexual reorientation phenomenon. This article provides an overview regarding the promise and effort of sexual reorientation and how this knowledge may inform our current understanding of human sexuality. Specifically, a brief history is given of the interventions used to change attractions to same-sex adults and the assumptions underlying these efforts. Information will be given regarding which conclusions can be derived from sexual reorientation studies. The limitations of these studies will be explained to strengthen future research. Hypotheses will be presented regarding the motivations and needs of those distressed by a same-sex erotic orientation and the impact that the hope of sexual reorientation may have for family members, religious leaders, and policy makers. A multivariate model of sexuality and sexual orientation, including scales of attraction and aversion, will be proposed based upon current understanding of sexuality and the distinctions found in sexual reorientation research. In the end, a therapeutic framework will be highlighted that may be used (and researched) to help those distressed by their sexual orientation.

  16. Object-Oriented Design of Real-Time Telecom Systems


    Jézéquel, Jean-Marc


    International audience; Many engineers are still reluctant to adopt advanced object-oriented technologies (such as high modularity, dynamic binding, automatic garbage collection, etc.) for embedded systems with real-time constraints, because of their supposed inefficiency. We set ourselves into the context of building telecommunication systems with a standard object-oriented analysis and design approach. We describe how we use relevant design patterns, followed with an implementation in a pur...

  17. Enhanced rotational feature points matching using orientation correction


    Meng Goh, Kam


    In matching between images, several techniques have been developed particularly for estimating orientation assignment in order to make feature points invariant to rotation. However, imperfect estimation of the orientation assignment may lead to feature mismatching and a low number of correctly matched points. Additionally, several possible candidates with high correlation values for one feature in the reference image may lead to matching confusion. In this paper, we propose a post-processing ...

  18. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...

  19. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  20. Value orientations of preservice teachers. (United States)

    Solmon, M A; Ashy, M H


    Curriculum theorists have acknowledged the critical role that beliefs and values play in the decisions that teachers make, but very little is known about how teachers' value profiles develop. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the educational value orientations of a group of physical education preservice teachers (N = 16) enrolled in an elementary methods course and to investigate the link between value profiles and teacher behaviors. Value profiles were assessed using the Value Orientation Inventory (Ennis & Hooper, 1988). The results indicated that teachers in training entered field-based experiences with defined value profiles, but that these profiles were not stable constructs. Priorities within competing value orientations fluctuated over the course of a semester. Possible explanations for the changes that occurred and implications for teacher education programs are discussed.

  1. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...

  2. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited. ...

  4. The orienting response in information processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokolov, E. N


    ... Organization of Color Space 127 9. The Orienting Responseand Subjective Space I 141 10. The Orienting Responseand Subjective Space II 163vi CONTEiNTS 11. Orienting, Information, and Anticipation 189 12. Auditory Orienting Event-Related Response Potentials in the Study of the 241 13. Addendum: Processing Underlying Principles of Information 323 Glossar...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the context of accelerated economic globalization and hyper global competition, companies must have a high degree of orientation in the market, to know and respond quickly to volatile markets. In this context, the public food field is one marked by significant changes having regard to needs and consumer behavior. Public food services are designed to meet first the basic needs which causes certain private actions and a particular mechanism for the training of behavior with significant impact on the way in which the companies of public food should develop services and certain ambient which to contribute to the proper customer service. Moreover, these companies have aspecial relationship with customers, having regard to the direct interaction between supplier and customer. This present project aimsto identify good practice in the field of public food service regarding the implementation of the philosophy orientation on the marketplace. To achieve this goal has been used as methodology the analysis of the primary results from previous research in the fields of both market direction, as well as in the hospitality areas, analysis which has had as main objective a stock-taking of the models developed for the hospitality industry and compiling influence factors with impact on the "good service" of the client, but also integration of orientation principles toward market within the framework of these models.

  6. Market and Learning Orientations: Interdependence, Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Botti Abbade


    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between the dimensions of Market Orientation (MO, Learning Orientation (LO and Organizational Performance (OP of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs in the region of Santa Maria / RS. It was conducted a survey with the voluntary participation of 83 micro, small and medium businesses of Santa Maria and its region adopting structured data collection instrument with MARKOR scale and learning orientation scale. It was developed a structural model of reference that was also estimated by PLS (Partial Least Squares and the adoption of bootstrapping technique. The results suggest that there is a high interdependence between the dimensions of the three dimensions of MO. Thus, evidences suggest that there is a strong interdependence between the three dimensions of LO. However, the relationship between the dimensions of LO and MO are less significant. Also, results suggest the absence of significant relationship between responsiveness and OP. On the other hand, the dissemination of intelligence impacts positively and significantly on the OP.

  7. Cancer survivorship and sexual orientation. (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Miao, Xiaopeng; Ozonoff, Al


    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations are not part of cancer surveillance, resulting in scarce information about the cancer survivorship of these populations. To address this information gap, the authors examined the prevalence of cancer survivorship by sexual orientation and cancer survivors' self-reported health by sexual orientation. The authors explored these issues by analyzing pooled data from the California Health Interview survey from 2001, 2003, and 2005. By using descriptive statistics and logistic regressions, they examined the cancer prevalence in men and women by sexual orientation and subsequently compared the self-reported health of male and female cancer survivors by sexual orientation. Among women, the authors found no significant differences in cancer prevalence by sexual orientation, but lesbian and bisexual female cancer survivors had 2.0 and 2.3× the odds of reporting fair or poor health compared with heterosexual female cancer survivors. Among men, we found significant differences in cancer prevalence, with gay men having 1.9× the odds of reporting a cancer diagnosis compared with heterosexual men. There were no differences by sexual orientation in male cancer survivors' self-reported health. Our novel findings suggest sex differences in the impact of cancer on lesbian, gay, and bisexual cancer survivors. Lesbian and bisexual cancer survivors need to be targeted by programs and services to assist these cancer survivors in improving their health perceptions, whereas healthcare providers and public health agencies need to be made aware of the higher prevalence of cancer in gay men to prevent future cancers through increased screening and primary prevention. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fangi


    Full Text Available For architectural metric documentation, Spherical Photogrammetry (SP has demonstrated its validity and efficiency in many projects already. The speed of surveying is high, the accuracy and completeness of the plotting are satisfactory. However, there are still many problems to be solved. The weakest point is the orientation procedure, which is rather difficult to perform, in the sense that only very experienced people can run it, and few people only make use of it. The old orientation steps are 1 model formation (limited to binocular panoramas couples; 2 link of all the models in a block adjustment with independent model triangulation; 3 block bundle adjustment with 4 parameters/pano (3 coord.+1 orientation bearing; 4 block bundle adjustment with 6 parameters/pano, say the previous 4 + 2 correction angles around the horizontal axes. The panoramas must be spherical and quasi-horizontal. In order to make easier the orientation, enabling more people to use SP, an improved approach has been set up. It consists in the combination of any possible model formed either by three and two panoramas. The trinocular vision, say the combination of three different panoramas to form a unique model, has the advantage to be much more robust in comparison to binocular vision in the sense that the trinocular model is likely to be more error-free than any of the three composing binocular models. It contains less model deformation, the model coordinates are validated by the mutual comparison of the three intersecting binocular models. In addition, the number of possible trinocular models is normally much larger than the one of binocular models. The steps for a semi-automatic orientation of a block of panoramas proceed as follows: - Form any possible trinocular models by combination of the panoramas; - in case that no trinocular model has been formed, form any possible binocular model; - run a block adjustment with the algorithm of independent model, to link together

  9. From service-oriented architecture to service-oriented enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Cordeiro, J.; Ivanov, I.; Shishkov, Boris


    Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) was originally motivated by enterprise demands for better business-technology alignment and higher flexibility and reuse. SOA evolved from an initial set of ideas and principles to Web services (WS) standards now widely accepted by industry. The next phase of SOA

  10. Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance. (United States)

    Eum, KoUn; Rice, Kenneth G


    Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2 × 2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses to test associations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, four types of goal orientations, cognitive test anxiety, and two indicators of academic performance: proximal cognitive performance on a word list recall test and distal academic performance in terms of grade point average. Cognitive test anxiety was inversely associated with both performance indicators, and positively associated with maladaptive perfectionism and avoidance goal orientations. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism accounted for significant variance in cognitive test anxiety after controlling for approach and avoidance goal orientations. Overall, nearly 50% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety could be attributed to gender, goal orientations, and perfectionism. Results suggested that students who are highly test anxious are likely to be women who endorse avoidance goal orientations and are maladaptively perfectionistic.

  11. Automated Orientation of Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim


    Methods for automated orientation of aerial images are presented. They are based on the use of templates, which are derived from existing databases, and area-based matching. The characteristics of available database information and the accuracy requirements for map compilation and orthoimage...... production are discussed on the example of Denmark. Details on the developed methods for interior and exterior orientation are described. Practical examples like the measurement of réseau images, updating of topographic databases and renewal of orthoimages are used to prove the feasibility of the developed...

  12. Photoinduced orientation in natural rubber (United States)

    de Souza, Nara C.; Cavalheri, Adriana S.; Brito, Jackeline B.; Job, Aldo E.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Giacometti, José A.; Silva, Josmary R.


    Azobenzene molecules and their derivatives have been widely investigated for their potential applications in optical and electrooptical devices. We have prepared a new guest-host system from natural rubber (NR) impregnated with azobenzene derivative Sudan Red B (SRB). The effects of stretching and immersion time on photoinduced orientation were investigated by birefringence signal measurements. We have found that the molecular orientation increase when the samples are stretched and decrease with the increase of immersion time. The first behavior was explained by using the random coil model and the latter was attributed to increase of the aggregation of SRB into NR matrix.

  13. PHP Object-Oriented Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, David


    With the surge of popularity of PHP 5, and with PHP 6 just around the corner, Object-Oriented Programming is now an important consideration for PHP developers. This version-neutral book is a gentle introduction to Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) that won t overburden you with complex theory. It teaches you the essential basics of OOP that you ll need to know before moving onto a more advanced level, and includes a series of pre-packaged scripts that you can incorporate into your existing sites with the minimum of effort. It shows how OOP can be used to create reusable and portable code by wa

  14. Aspect-oriented programming evaluated

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinschmager, Sebastian


    Hauptbeschreibung Aspect-oriented-programming is a relatively new technique that has evolved on top of the already well-established approach of object-oriented programming. When it is used correctly, it promises to remove many redundant parts of a code that appear repeatedly in an application, essentially untangling the original code. Thus, it can lead to a cleaner, more separated software design, to greater modularity and maintainability. Time-savings in software engineering can also be huge cost-savings, and anything that increases software quality is a welcome sight in an industr

  15. Pedagogical Issues in Object Orientation. (United States)

    Nerur, Sridhar; Ramanujan, Sam; Kesh, Someswar


    Discusses the need for people with object-oriented (OO) skills, explains benefits of OO in software development, and addresses some of the difficulties in teaching OO. Topics include the evolution of programming languages; differences between OO and traditional approaches; differences from data modeling; and Unified Modeling Language (UML) and…

  16. Role-Oriented Enterprise Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Philip; Beringer, Joerg; Winther, Jacob

    This paper examines the concept of role-­oriented enterprise systems by investigating motivations for and approaches to constructing and reflecting predefined organizational roles in user interfaces of packaged enterprise systems. The research is conducted as case studies of Microsoft and SAP...

  17. Object Oriented Programming in Director

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA


    Full Text Available Director is one of the most popular authoring software. As software for developing multimedia applications, Director is an object oriented programming environment. A very important issue to develop multimedia applications is the designing of their own classes. This paper presents the particular aspects concerning the available facilities offered by Lingo to design classes and to generate objects.

  18. Sexual orientation, prejudice, and segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.S. Plug (Erik); H.D. Webbink (Dinand); N.G. Martin (Nicholas)


    textabstractThis article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken fromAustralian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our

  19. Sexual orientation, prejudice and segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.


    This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation

  20. Importance of process oriented organizations (United States)

    Bedic, S.


    This paper analyzes different types of start-up aerospace organizations, common mistakes and the importance of process oriented management systems. It is made using experience in starting up 5 airlines, one microlight aircraft production, two GLXP teams and 4 space technology companies' startup.