WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly oriented cubr

  1. Temperature calibration for high-temperature MAS NMR to 913 K: 63Cu MAS NMR of CuBr and CuI, and 23Na MAS NMR of NaNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingshi; Kim, Namjun; Stebbins, Jonathan F

    2011-09-01

    The solid-state phase transitions of CuBr, CuI and NaNbO(3) can be readily observed using (63)Cu and (23)Na high-temperature magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Temperature has large, linear effects on the peak maximum of (63)Cu in each solid phase of CuBr and CuI, and there is large jump in shift across each phase transition. The (23)Na MAS NMR peak intensities and the line widths in NaNbO(3) also clearly show its high-temperature transition to the cubic phase. These data can be used to calibrate high-temperature MAS NMR probes up to 913 K, which is two hundred degrees higher than the commonly-used temperature calibration based on the chemical shift of (207)Pb in Pb(NO(3))(2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrical conductivity studies on CuBr containing Al2O3 particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubec, P. M.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuBr was studied and the role of a second phase, Al2O3, dispersed in CuBr was tested. CuBr melts at 493 C and exhibits three phases in the solid state. CuBr is a good ionic conductor with a transport number for copper ions of virtually unity with weighed proportions of the appropriate chemicals used. The CuBr materials were heated above melting point of CuBr, and the samples were sandwiched between copper electrodes. The ac conductivity, was determined at 1 kHz between 25 and 440 C depending on the sample. It was shown that at low temperatures, the conductivity for CuBr (Al2O3) increased by as much as 100, whereas in the beta phase the conductivity of CuBr containing Al2O3 decreased. The electrical conductivity studies are in agreement with earlier data.

  3. Field-controlled magnetic order in the quantum spin-ladder system (Hpip)2CuBr4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielemann, B.; Rüegg, C.; Kiefer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is used to investigate the field-induced, antiferromagnetically ordered state in the two-leg spin-ladder material (Hpip)(2)CuBr4. This "classical" phase, a consequence of weak interladder coupling, is nevertheless highly unconventional: its properties are influenced strongly b...

  4. Multilayer epitaxial growth of lead phthalocyanine and C(70) using CuBr as a templating layer for enhancing the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Min; Shim, Hyun-Sub; Choi, Min-Soo; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-03-26

    The molecular orientation and crystallinity of donor and acceptor molecules are important for high-efficiency organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) because they significantly influence both the absorption of light and charge-transport characteristics. We report that the templating effect extends to multilayers to increase the crystallinity and to modify the orientation of the crystals of lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and C70 layers at the same time by adopting CuBr as a new templating layer on indium tin oxide (ITO). The formation of a monoclinic phase with a preferred orientation of (320) for PbPc and a fcc phase with a preferred orientation of (220) for C70 on the PbPc layer is revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The multilayer epitaxy results in an increase of the exciton diffusion lengths from 5.6 to 8.8 nm for PbPc and from 6.9 to 13.8 nm for C70 to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the planar heterojunction OPVs composed of PbPc and C70 from 1.4 to 2.3%. The quasi-epitaxy model is proposed to explain the multilayer epitaxy.

  5. [Oxidation of mercury by CuBr2 decomposition under controlled-release membrane catalysis condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Gang; Qu, Zan; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Guo, Yong-Fu; Xie, Jiang-Kun; Jia, Jin-Ping

    2014-02-01

    CuBr2 in the multi-porous ceramic membrane can release Br2 at high temperature, which was employed as the oxidant for Hg0 oxidation. Hg0 oxidation efficiency was studied by a membrane catalysis device. Meanwhile, a reaction and in situ monitoring device was designed to avoid the impact of Br2 on the downstream pipe. The result showed that the MnO(x)/alpha-Al2O3 catalysis membrane had a considerable "controlled-release" effect on Br2 produced by CuBr2 decomposition. The adsorption and reaction of Hg0 and Br2 on the surface of catalysis membrane obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with the rising of Br2 concentration. However, when Br2 reached a certain concentration, the removal efficiency was limited by adsorption rate and reaction rate of Hg0 and Br2 on the catalysis membrane. From 473 K to 573 K, the variation of Hg0 oxidation efficiency was relatively stable. SO2 in flue gas inhibited the oxidation of Hg0 while NO displayed no obvious effect.

  6. High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    carbon distribution as it relates to the presence of Bainite phase (with small tetragonality) interspersed among the cubic ferrite. An example of the...preferentially segregate. The view offered by these high resolution methods differs from what has been considered before: grains thought to be Bainite

  7. Hysteresis effect of ammonium and water protons by 1H MAS NMR in (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Cho, Jiung

    2017-10-01

    The chemical shifts, linewidths, and spin-lattice relaxation times for ammonium and water protons in (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O were investigated by 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) with a focus on the roles of NH4+ and H2O at high temperatures. The changes in the temperature dependence of the data near Td (=360 K) were related to variations of the H environments; the mechanism above Td was related to hydrogen-bond transfer involving breakage of the weak part of the hydrogen bond. The hysteresis effects for the ammonium and water protons in (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O by MAS NMR were described with respect to heating and cooling.

  8. Service-oriented high level architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Xichun

    2009-01-01

    Service-oriented High Level Architecture (SOHLA) refers to the high level architecture (HLA) enabled by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services etc. techniques which supports distributed interoperating services. The detailed comparisons between HLA and SOA are made to illustrate the importance of their combination. Then several key enhancements and changes of HLA Evolved Web Service API are introduced in comparison with native APIs, such as Federation Development and Execution Process, communication mechanisms, data encoding, session handling, testing environment and performance analysis. Some approaches are summarized including Web-Enabling HLA at the communication layer, HLA interface specification layer, federate interface layer and application layer. Finally the problems of current research are discussed, and the future directions are pointed out.

  9. Highly oriented poly(di-n-alkylsilylene) films on oriented PTFE substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, H.H.; Frey, Holger; Sheiko, Sergej; Sheiko, S.; Moller, M.; Möller, Martin; Wittmann, Jean-Claude; Lot, Bernard

    1993-01-01

    Highly oriented polysilylene layers have potential applications in electrophotography, nonlinear optics, display fabrication, and microlithography. The preparation of such layers by crystallization on a highly oriented PTFE substrate is reported, and their assessment by optical birefringence, electr

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of antiferromagnetic spin ladder (C5H12N)2CuBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Augusto S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper I present a Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) study of the magnetic properties of an antiferromagnetic spin ladder (C5H12N)2CuBr4. This compound is the prototype of the Heisenberg model for a two leg spin ladder in the presence of an external magnetic field. The susceptibility phase diagram has a rounded peak in the vicinity of T=7.4 K, obeys Troyer's law for low temperatures, and Curie's law for high temperatures. I also study the susceptibility diagram in low temperatures and I found the spin gap Δ=9.26 K, in good concordance with the experimental value, 9.5 K. In high field, I present a diagram of magnetization as a function of temperature. In the vicinity of a critical field, Hci, the magnetization scales with T1/2 and this result was found also in the QMC simulation. In all the results, there is a very good concordance with the experimental data. I also show in this paper that the spin gap is null and the susceptibility is proportional to T for low temperatures when relatively high values of the ladders' coupling is taken in account.

  11. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  12. High Performance Object-Oriented Scientific Programming in Fortran 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Decyk, Viktor K.; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.

    1997-01-01

    We illustrate how Fortran 90 supports object-oriented concepts by example of plasma particle computations on the IBM SP. Our experience shows that Fortran 90 and object-oriented methodology give high performance while providing a bridge from Fortran 77 legacy codes to modern programming principles. All of our object-oriented Fortran 90 codes execute more quickly thatn the equeivalent C++ versions, yet the abstraction modelling capabilities used for scentific programming are comparably powereful.

  13. Program Orientation for High School Sport Coaches. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) believes that prior to the start of each season, all high school head coaches, assistant coaches, and volunteer coaches should be required to participate in a comprehensive orientation to the sport program. This orientation should be planned and conducted by the athletic director or…

  14. Aqueous copper-mediated living polymerization: exploiting rapid disproportionation of CuBr with Me6TREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wilson, Paul; Li, Zaidong; McHale, Ronan; Godfrey, Jamie; Anastasaki, Athina; Waldron, Christopher; Haddleton, David M

    2013-05-15

    A new approach to perform single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) in water is described. The key step in this process is to allow full disproportionation of CuBr/Me6TREN (TREN = tris(dimethylamino)ethyl amine to Cu(0) powder and CuBr2 in water prior to addition of both monomer and initiator. This provides an extremely powerful tool for the synthesis of functional water-soluble polymers with controlled chain length and narrow molecular weight distributions (polydispersity index approximately 1.10), including poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), N,N-dimethylacrylamide, poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), and an acrylamido glyco monomer. The polymerizations are performed at or below ambient temperature with quantitative conversions attained in minutes. Polymers have high chain end fidelity capable of undergoing chain extensions to full conversion or multiblock copolymerization via iterative monomer addition after full conversion. Activator generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide in water was also conducted as a comparison with the SET-LRP system. This shows that the addition sequence of l-ascorbic acid is crucial in determining the onset of disproportionation, or otherwise. Finally, this robust technique was applied to polymerizations under biologically relevant conditions (PBS buffer) and a complex ethanol/water mixture (tequila).

  15. HIGH VISCOUS STRESS OF ORIENTED POLYOLEFINS UNDER UNIAXIAL TENSILE DEFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Na; Qin Zhang; Hong Yang; Qiang Fu; Yong-feng Men

    2007-01-01

    In this communication, by means of stress relaxation experiments, the viscous stress at various strains during tensile deformation of oriented polyolefin samples including high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP), has been determined. The viscous stress in the oriented samples takes up to 50%-70% of the total stress, which is unusually high compared with their isotropic counterparts. The unusual high viscous stress was discussed based on mainly the existence of shish structure in oriented polyolefins, which could enhance the inter-lamella coupling significantly.

  16. Cube orientation in hot rolled high purity aluminum plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平; 毛卫民

    2003-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and orientation mapping in EBSD measurement were applied to obtain information ofdeformation and recrystallization with the emphasis on the cube orientation in hot rolled high purity aluminumplates. It is shown that cube orientations are retained to a large extent during hot rolling. Some deformed cubegrains are found to have experienced large extent of recovery according to their Kikuchi band contrasts. The de-formed cube-oriented grains in hot rolled plates are in an unfavorite growth condition with respect to their neighbor-ing grain orientations for the subsequent annealing. The reasons for the phenomena observed, as well as the influ-ence of hot rolling process on subsequent cold rolling and final annealing were discussed.

  17. Highly oriented graphene growth and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheed, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Combination of the highly ordered monolayers to form the multilayer interconnected graphene is essential to produce robust and free standing graphene unlike its counterpart 2D monolayers. Here, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is employed to produce highly flexible and high mobility 3D graphene. In this study, the 3D graphene is grown via direct carbon deposition on sacrificial template. With the use of polymer coating such as poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), it is observed that the graphene is bendable without any degradation. Great potential in term of electrical conductivity and flexibility can be exploited for future work for this CVD grown 3D graphene.

  18. POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE FILMS IN THE STATE OF HIGH GLOBAL CHAIN ORIENTATION BUT NEARLY RANDOM SEGMENTAL ORIENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Song; Jing Chen; Jin-gui Gao; Xin Lin; Qing-rong Fan

    1999-01-01

    PMMA films in the high global chain orientation and nearly random segmental orientation (GOLR) state were prepared by uni-axially drawing at temperatures 20~30℃ above its glass transition temperature, Tg, and their isotropic and anisotropic properties were studied. Experimental results show that this kind of amorphous state, the GOLR state, is nearly isotropic in optical birefringence, IR-dichroism and X-ray diffraction patterns, but is very anisotropic in behaviors of thermal expansion, solvent-swelling and stress-strain.

  19. Crystallography of decahedral and icosahedral particles. II - High symmetry orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. Y.; Yacaman, M. J.; Heinemann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the exact crystal structure of decahedral and icosahedral particles, high energy electron diffraction patterns and image profiles have been derived for various high symmetry orientations of the particles with respect to the incident beam. These results form a basis for the identification of small metal particle structures with advanced methods of transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  1. Photoluminescence characteristics of polariton condensation in a CuBr microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Masaaki, E-mail: nakayama@a-phys.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Murakami, Katsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Kim, DaeGwi [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2014-07-14

    We have investigated the photoluminescence (PL) properties of a CuBr microcavity at 10 K, including the temporal profiles, from the viewpoint of cavity-polariton condensation. The excitation energy density dependence of the PL intensity (band width) of the lower polariton branch at an in-plane wave vector of k{sub //} = 0 exhibits a threshold-like increase (decrease). A large blueshift in the PL energy of ∼10 meV caused by the cavity-polariton renormalization is correlated with the excitation energy density dependence of the PL intensity. The estimated density of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the threshold is two orders lower than the Mott transition density. These results consistently demonstrate the occurrence of cavity-polariton condensation. In addition, we found that the PL rise and decay times are shortened dramatically by the cavity-polariton condensation, which reflects the bosonic final state stimulation in the relaxation process and the intrinsic cavity-polariton lifetime in the decay process.

  2. An Object Oriented and High Performance Platform for Aerothermodynamics Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lani, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the author's contribution to the design and implementation of COOLFluiD,an object oriented software platform for the high performance simulation of multi-physics phenomena on unstructured grids. In this context, the final goal has been to provide a reliable tool for handling high speed aerothermodynamic applications. To this end, we introduce a number of design techniques that have been developed in order to provide the framework with flexibilityand reusability, allowing ...

  3. Crystalline, highly oriented MOF thin film: the fabrication and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhihua; Xu, Gang

    2016-10-24

    The thin film of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is a rapidly developing research area which has tremendous potential applications in many fields. One of the major challenges in this area is to fabricate MOF thin film with good crystallinity, high orientation and well-controlled thickness. In order to address this challenge, different appealing approaches have been studied intensively. Among various oriented MOF films, many efforts have also been devoted to developing novel properties and broad applications, such as in gas separator, thermoelectric, storage medium and photovoltaics. As a result, there has been a large demand for fundamental studies that can provide guidance and experimental data for further applications. In this account, we intend to present an overview of current synthetic methods for fabricating oriented crystalline MOF thin film and bring some updated applications. We give our perspective on the background, preparation and applications that led to the developments in this area and discuss the opportunities and challenges of using crystalline, highly oriented MOF thin film.

  4. Superperiodic Feature on Silicon-Sputtered Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Superperiodic feature was observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on the surface of highly oriented pyrolyticlattice constant is 7.03 nm. For the superlattice, the observed boundaries between the superlattice and the normal graphiteareas were zigzag, which was in good agreement with the result predicted theoretically. In addition, the observed latticeconstants varied slightly in the superperiodic feature area. This implies the role of intralayer strain in the formation of theobserved superlattice on the graphite surface.

  5. Physical properties of highly-oriented rhombohedral C60 polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, M.; Narymbetov, B.; Kobayashi, H.; Makarova, T. L.; Davydov, V. A.; Rakhmania, A. V.; Kashevarova, L. S.

    2000-11-01

    Rhombohedral phase of pressure-temperature treated C60 polymer was investigated by resistivity, X-ray diffraction and ESR measurements. The pure rhombohedral phase of C60 polymer displays highly anisotropic electrical properties, and the conductivity in the polymerized 2D plane exhibits a metallic feature with weak localization. X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed that the diffraction patterns are essentially anisotropic. We have carried out the scanning of a reciprocal space in order to reveal the distribution of diffraction intensities. The result testifies to the high degree of mutual orientations of crystallites in the sample not only along the [001] direction but also in the (001) plane. Apparently the observed mosaicity of the crystal is connected with the highly anisotropic electrical properties of the rhombohedral phase of pressure-treated C60 polymer. A Dysonian ESR absorption lineshape consistent with the metallic nature was observed.

  6. AMORPHOUS POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) FILMS IN THE STATE OF HIGH GLOBAL CHAIN ORIENTATION BUT NEARLY RANDOM SEGMENTAL ORIENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Renyuan; FAN Qingrong; GUAN Jiayu; Chung Long Choy; Shigeyoshi Osaki

    1997-01-01

    The isotropy or anisotropy in some physical properties of the amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate) films uniaxially drawn at temperatures above its Tg and then quenched to room temperature have been studied. Experimental results here presented show that this amorphous state of high global chain orientation but nearly random segmental orientation,the GOLR state, is nearly isotropic in refractive indices and Young's modulus for small deformation, while it is very probably anisotropic in thermal conduction and microwave dielectric properties.

  7. X-ray diffraction properties of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, A.K.; Munkholm, A.; Brennan, S. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The x-ray diffraction properties of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were studied for x-ray energies ranging from 4 to 60 keV. In particular, the secondary extinction thickness was determined by recording the peak and integrated reflectivity as a function of depth below the surface. The results showed that for the high quality material investigated a thickness of 200 to 300 {micro}m was sufficient to get 80% of the maximum reflectivity that is obtained for a very thick plate. Primary extinction was important for low energy and still persisted at higher energies. Inhomogeneities of the mosaic structure were observed, too, that make this material not a truly ideal mosaic monochromator crystal. However, quite high peak reflectivities between 35% and 58% were measured at FWHM of 0.25 to 0.45 degrees. A 200 {micro}m thick plate was then prepared and glued on a bending device to manufacture a monochromator or analyzer with variable curvature that works from flat down to a minimum bending radius of 10 cm. The successful tests of this device confirmed that HOPG plates much thinner than those commonly used as x-ray monochromators and analyzers still have high efficiency and can be curved to achieve dynamical focusing.

  8. Spontaneous piezoelectric effect as order parameter in (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylczyński, Z.; Wiesner, M.; Trzaskowska, A.

    2016-11-01

    Temperature change of piezoelectric properties of (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O crystal in the low-temperature ferroelastoelectric phase is studied. The macroscopic order parameter is proved to be the h36 component of the spontaneous piezoelectric tensor. The critical exponent related with the phase transition is α=0.60±0.05.

  9. Researches on High Accuracy Prediction Methods of Earth Orientation Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X. Q.

    2015-09-01

    The Earth rotation reflects the coupling process among the solid Earth, atmosphere, oceans, mantle, and core of the Earth on multiple spatial and temporal scales. The Earth rotation can be described by the Earth's orientation parameters, which are abbreviated as EOP (mainly including two polar motion components PM_X and PM_Y, and variation in the length of day ΔLOD). The EOP is crucial in the transformation between the terrestrial and celestial reference systems, and has important applications in many areas such as the deep space exploration, satellite precise orbit determination, and astrogeodynamics. However, the EOP products obtained by the space geodetic technologies generally delay by several days to two weeks. The growing demands for modern space navigation make high-accuracy EOP prediction be a worthy topic. This thesis is composed of the following three aspects, for the purpose of improving the EOP forecast accuracy. (1) We analyze the relation between the length of the basic data series and the EOP forecast accuracy, and compare the EOP prediction accuracy for the linear autoregressive (AR) model and the nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) method by performing the least squares (LS) extrapolations. The results show that the high precision forecast of EOP can be realized by appropriate selection of the basic data series length according to the required time span of EOP prediction: for short-term prediction, the basic data series should be shorter, while for the long-term prediction, the series should be longer. The analysis also showed that the LS+AR model is more suitable for the short-term forecasts, while the LS+ANN model shows the advantages in the medium- and long-term forecasts. (2) We develop for the first time a new method which combines the autoregressive model and Kalman filter (AR+Kalman) in short-term EOP prediction. The equations of observation and state are established using the EOP series and the autoregressive coefficients

  10. Laser sputtering of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite at 248 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnovich, Douglas J.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of excimer laser pulses with a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) target has been studied. HOPG, a close approximation to single crystal graphite, was irradiated along a freshly cleaved basal plane in vacuum by pulses from a KrF excimer laser. The energy fluence was varied between 300-700 mJ/cm2, resulting in material removal rates of plasma effects are minimized. Time-of-flight distributions of the neutral carbon atoms and small carbon clusters were measured and inverted to obtain translational energy flux distributions and relative sputtering yields as a function of fluence. The translational energy distributions are remarkably close to Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions over most of the fluence range studied. However, the mean translational energies are far too high to reconcile with a simple thermal vaporization model. For example, the mean translational energy of C3, the most abundant species, increases from 1.1 eV at 305 mJ/cm2 to 31.7 eV at 715 mJ/cm2. Explanations are considered for this curious mix of thermal and non-thermal behavior. At the high end of our fluence range, the mean translational energies of C1, C2, C3 converge to a 1:2:3 ratio, indicating that the velocity distributions are almost identical. This particular result can be interpreted as a gas dynamic effect. Prolonged sputtering of the same target spot results in a falloff in the sputtering yield and the mean translational energies, but little change in the cluster size distribution. These effects are related to impurity induced topography formation on the target surface.

  11. Optically controlled polarization in highly oriented ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Hitesh; Tomar, M.; Gupta, Vinay; Katiyar, Ram S.; Scott, J. F.; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-08-01

    The out-of-plane and in-plane polarization of (Pb0.6Li0.2Bi0.2)(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PLBZT) thin film has been studied in the dark and under illumination from a weak light source of a comparable bandgap. A highly oriented PLBZT thin film was grown on a LaNiO3/LaAlO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition; it showed well-saturated polarization which was significantly enhanced under light illumination. We employed two configurations for polarization characterization: the first deals with out-of-plane polarization with a single capacitor under investigation, whereas the second uses two capacitors connected in series via the bottom electrode. Two different configurations were illuminated using different energy sources and their effects were studied. The latter configuration shows a significant change in polarization under light illumination that may provide an extra degree of freedom for device miniaturization. The polarization was also tested using positive-up and negative-down measurements, confirming robust polarization and its switching under illumination.

  12. High thermal conductivity of chain-oriented amorphous polythiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L; Weathers, Annie; Cai, Ye; Bi, Kedong; Pettes, Michael T; McMenamin, Sally A; Lv, Wei; Resler, Daniel P; Gattuso, Todd R; Altman, David H; Sandhage, Kenneth H; Shi, Li; Henry, Asegun; Cola, Baratunde A

    2014-05-01

    Polymers are usually considered thermal insulators, because the amorphous arrangement of the molecular chains reduces the mean free path of heat-conducting phonons. The most common method to increase thermal conductivity is to draw polymeric fibres, which increases chain alignment and crystallinity, but creates a material that currently has limited thermal applications. Here we show that pure polythiophene nanofibres can have a thermal conductivity up to ∼ 4.4 W m(-1) K(-1) (more than 20 times higher than the bulk polymer value) while remaining amorphous. This enhancement results from significant molecular chain orientation along the fibre axis that is obtained during electropolymerization using nanoscale templates. Thermal conductivity data suggest that, unlike in drawn crystalline fibres, in our fibres the dominant phonon-scattering process at room temperature is still related to structural disorder. Using vertically aligned arrays of nanofibres, we demonstrate effective heat transfer at critical contacts in electronic devices operating under high-power conditions at 200 °C over numerous cycles.

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted magnetic nanoparticles: Effects of the precursor concentration on polyol synthesis of Fe3O4 and [PMDETA]0/[CuBr2]0 ratios on SI-AGET ATRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liping; Zhou, Xuyang; Wei, Guyun; Lu, Xiaoduo; Wei, Weiping; Qiu, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Polymer brushes based on poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) have been successfully grafted from the surface of silica coated iron oxide (Fe3O4@SiO2) nanoparticles via surface-initiated activators generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-AGET ATRP). The size of the nanoparticles could be adjusted from 7.3 to 9.6 nm by varying the precursor concentration of iron(III) acetylacetonate. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles possessed a highly crystalline structure, and the saturation magnetization of the as-prepared magnetite was strongly related to the particle size. Furthermore, the grafted PGMA content on the magnetic nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the ligand to transition metal ratio in a N,N,N‧,N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA)/CuBr2 catalyst system. The maximum grafted content was 23.1% at a ratio of [PMDETA]0/[CuBr2]0 = 2:1.

  14. The relationship of value orientations in older adolescents with high status position in a student group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Kuteynikova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present study results of social and psychological characteristics of group and individual value orientations in older adolescents. We considered the main criteria to be content and orientation of values, and level of value-oriented student group unity. The study involved 86 high school students of IX-XI grades of Moscow schools. We used a set of socio-psychological methods and instructional techniques: sociometry, referentometry, a technique of defining the informal intragroup power structure in a contact community, "Values and orientation of the individual" method by L.N.Silantieva, a method of determining the degree of value-orientation of group unity. The results obtained show that in high school there is a relationship between the student's status in the group and his system of individual and group value orientations. The most significant differences among students with different status position were detected in the content and direction of value orientations.

  15. Highly Oriented ZnO Rod Arrays on Si Substrates from Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Changsong; LI Zhiwen; ZHANG Qifeng

    2008-01-01

    Ordered zinc oxide (ZnO) rod arrays with very high orientation were fabricated on Si substrates by using a solution method. The substrate surfaces were functionalized by Self-Assembly Monolayers(SAMs). In the very early growth stage, the oriented ZnO crystals had already grown, which appeared to be themain reason why ZnO nanorods showed very high orientation. The un-dense and un-uniform SAMs provided a surface that was heterogeneous to ZnO nucleation. Consequently, highly oriented ZnO rods were selectively grown on the "coin-like" SAM-uncovered regions. The route developed here can provide some helpful information to control the nucleation and orientation of ZnO in aqueous solution. Also, the site-selective growth mechanisms can indicate a clue to grow patterned highly oriented ZnO nanorod arrays by the organic template.

  16. High orientation Al films growth on LiNbO3 single crystal and its adhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-mei; CHEN Jing-jing; PAN Feng

    2004-01-01

    High orientation Al films were deposited on 64°Y-XLiNbO3 substrate by DC magnetron sputtering and the influence of deposition temperature on microstructure and adhesion properties of Al films were investigated. The results show that crystallographic orientation of films varies with substrate temperature and the adhesion strength between LiNbO3 and Al films strongly depends on crystallographic orientation of Al films. The (111) orientated Al films shows stronger adhesion strength to LiNbO3 substrate than (100) orientated films. There is an optimum substrate temperature of 60 ℃ and hardening temperature of 200 ℃ for obtaining high (111) orientated Al films with good surface structure and adhesion property. Using this Al film, we have successfully fabricated the SAW filters with high frequency of about 1.89 GHz.

  17. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  18. Magnetic field alignment of randomly oriented, high aspect ratio silicon microwires into vertically oriented arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, Joseph A; Sadtler, Bryce; Lewis, Nathan S

    2012-11-27

    External magnetic fields have been used to vertically align ensembles of silicon microwires coated with ferromagnetic nickel films. X-ray diffraction and image analysis techniques were used to quantify the degree of vertical orientation of the microwires. The degree of vertical alignment and the minimum field strength required for alignment were evaluated as a function of the wire length, coating thickness, magnetic history, and substrate surface properties. Nearly 100% of 100 μm long, 2 μm diameter, Si microwires that had been coated with 300 nm of Ni could be vertically aligned by a 300 G magnetic field. For wires ranging from 40 to 60 μm in length, as the length of the wire increased, a higher degree of alignment was observed at lower field strengths, consistent with an increase in the available magnetic torque. Microwires that had been exposed to a magnetic sweep up to 300 G remained magnetized and, therefore, aligned more readily during subsequent magnetic field alignment sweeps. Alignment of the Ni-coated Si microwires occurred at lower field strengths on hydrophilic Si substrates than on hydrophobic Si substrates. The magnetic field alignment approach provides a pathway for the directed assembly of solution-grown semiconductor wires into vertical arrays, with potential applications in solar cells as well as in other electronic devices that utilize nano- and microscale components as active elements.

  19. Determination of Micro U, Np, Pu by Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite Pre-diffraction EDXRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the prototype of Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite Pre-Diffraction EDXRF, a new device was constructed after optimizing of hardware including high voltage supplier, detector, sample bracket, and software of data processing.

  20. Synergistic reinforcement of highly oriented poly(propylene) tapes by sepiolite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilotti, E.; Deng, H.; Zhang, R.; Lu, D.; Bras, W.; Fischer, H.R.; Peijs, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the properties of highly oriented nanocomposite tapes based on isotactic PP and needle-like sepiolite nanoclay, obtained by a solid state drawing process. The intrinsic 1D character of sepiolite allows its exploitation in 1D objects, such as oriented polymer fibres and tapes, wher

  1. Synergistic reinforcement of highly oriented poly(propylene) tapes by sepiolite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilotti, E.; Deng, H.; Zhang, R.; Lu, D.; Bras, W.; Fischer, H.R.; Peijs, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the properties of highly oriented nanocomposite tapes based on isotactic PP and needle-like sepiolite nanoclay, obtained by a solid state drawing process. The intrinsic 1D character of sepiolite allows its exploitation in 1D objects, such as oriented polymer fibres and tapes, wher

  2. Melting of highly oriented fiber DNA subjected to osmotic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Andrew; Khadeeva, Liya; Trewby, William; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Studer, Andrew; Garden, Jean-Luc; Peyrard, Michel

    2015-03-26

    A pilot study of the possibility to investigate temperature-dependent neutron scattering from fiber-DNA in solution is presented. The study aims to establish the feasibility of experiments to probe the influence of spatial confinement on the structural correlation and the formation of denatured bubbles in DNA during the melting transition. Calorimetry and neutron scattering experiments on fiber samples immersed in solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) prove that the melting transition occurs in these samples, that the transition is reversible to some degree, and that the transition is broader in temperature than for humidified fiber samples. The PEG solutions apply an osmotic pressure that maintains the fiber orientation, establishing the feasibility of future scattering experiments to study the melting transition in these samples.

  3. Preparation of highly preferred orientation TiB2 coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preparation of titanium diboride (TiB2) coatings on the graphite substrate by continuous current plating (CCP) and pulse current plating (PIC) electrochemical techniques in fluoride electrolytes (LiF-NaF-KF)containing K2TiF6 and KBF4 as the electrochemically-active components at 700℃. Thick leveled and uniform coatings were obtained and were composed of relatively pure TiB2. The effect of the experimental parameters on the microstructure of the coatings was studied. The results showed the electrodeposition with PIC produced coatings with better quality, when compared with those obtained by CCP, under the conditions of the current density i = 0.6 A/cm2, frequency = 100 Hz, and ton/toff = 4/1. XRD analysis indicated that the preferred orientation of coatings is (110) plane, which is in accordance with the prediction of the two-dimensional crystal nuclei theory. The effect of a ratio of ton/toff and frequency on the crystal size, texture coefficient and microstress was also investigated.

  4. Retail offer advantage through brand orientation in Luxury, high fashion stores

    OpenAIRE

    Grujic, Maja

    2007-01-01

    This thesis provides a conceptualisation of brand orientation within the context of fashion retailing, specially the luxury, or, so-called, high fashion retailing. Most of the high fashion sold today is ready to wear collections and diffusion lines, targeted to customers of particular class, age, income, social status, and with particular orientations to fashion. In plethora of offers, retailer need to work on a number of distinctive features that will make its store special, not only because...

  5. Examine the relationship between religious orientation and perfectionism, in high school students of Naeen city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam zamani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between religious orientation and perfectionism, boys and girls, high school in Naeen, Isfahan Province, in the academic year 2015-2016. A sample of 275 people, including 141 students, and 134 students was extracted using stratified random sampling method via software to determine sample size. Instruments used in this research, including orientation scale All port (1950, and positive and negative perfectionism scale Terry Short et al (1995. Pearson's correlation coefficient and multivariate regression was used to analyze the data using statistical software spss 22. Results of the analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between the two variables is positive perfectionism and religious orientation internal, and can say that, the effects of internal religious orientation, the positive perfectionism variable, is significant, but variable internal religious orientation cannot predict negative perfectionism variable and the effect of these variables on students is negative perfectionism not significant.

  6. Bond Orientational Order, Molecular Motion and Free Energy of High Density DNA Mesophases

    CERN Document Server

    Podgornik, R; Gawrisch, K; Rau, D C; Rupprecht, A; Parsegian, V A

    1995-01-01

    By equilibrating condensed DNA arrays against reservoirs of known osmotic stress and examining them with several structural probes, it has been possible to achieve a detailed thermodynamic and structural characterization of the change between two distinct regions on the liquid crystalline phase digram: a higher-density hexagonally packed region with long-range bond orientational order in the plane perpendicular to the average molecular direction; and a lower-density cholesteric region with fluid-like positional order. X-rays scattering on highly ordered DNA arrays at high density and with the helical axis oriented parallel to the incoming beam showed a six-fold azimuthal modulation of the first order diffraction peak that reflects the macroscopic bond-orientational order. Transition to the less-dense cholesteric phase through osmotically controlled swelling shows the loss of this bond orientational order that had been expected from the change in optical birefringence patterns and that is consistent with a rap...

  7. Modification of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces with highly charged ion (HCI) irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koguchi, Y. E-mail: ykoguchi@postman.riken.go.jp; Meguro, T.; Hida, A.; Takai, H.; Maeda, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Aoyagi, Y

    2003-05-01

    Slow Ar{sup 8+} irradiation and the following electron injection creates a non-conductive area to a depth of a few nanometers on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface (HOPG). The annealing of the sample in a hydrogen atmosphere stabilizes the Ar{sup 8+} impact area, which results in the field emission from the impact region. The property of the field emission is similar to that of diamond-like carbon (DLC), suggesting the possibility that sp{sup 3} hybridization occurs at the Ar{sup 8+} impact region. The work function estimated from the Fowler-Nordheim plot is much lower than non-treated HOPG and similar to a hydrogen-terminated DLC film.

  8. High orientation of long chain branched poly (lactic acid) with enhanced blood compatibility and bionic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiu; Ye, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2016-05-01

    Highly oriented poly (lactic acid) (PLA) with bionic microgrooves was fabricated through solid hot drawing technology for further improving the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA. In order to enhance the melt strength and thus obtain high orientation degree, long chain branched PLA was prepared at first through a two-step ring-opening reaction during processing. Linear viscoelasticity combined with branch-on-branch model was used to predict probable compositions and chain topologies of the products, and it was found that the molecular weight of PLA increased and topological structures with star like chain with three arms and tree-like chain with two generations formed during reactive processing, and consequently draw ratio as high as1200% can be achieved during the subsequent hot stretching. With the increase of draw ratio, the tensile strength and orientation degree of PLA increased dramatically. Long chain branching and orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. Microgrooves can be observed on the surface of the oriented PLA which were similar to the intimal layer of blood vessel, and such bionic structure resulted from the formation of the oriented shish kebab-like crystals along the draw direction.

  9. In situ observation of magnetic orientation process of feeble magnetic materials under high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Hirota et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ microscopic observation of the magnetic orientation process of feeble magnetic fibers was carried out under high magnetic fields of up to 10 T using a scanning laser microscope. In the experiment, carbon fibers and needle-like titania fibers with a length of 1 to 20 μm were used. The fibers were observed to gradually orient their axes parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. The orientation behavior of the sample fibers was evaluated on the basis of the measured duration required for a certain angular variation. As predicted from the theoretical consideration, it was confirmed that the duration required for a certain angular variation normalized by the viscosity of the fluid is described as a function of the fiber length. The results obtained here appear useful for the consideration of the magnetic orientation of materials suspended in a static fluid.

  10. Research On The Classification Of High Resolution Image Based On Object-oriented And Class Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. K.; Fang, W.; Dong, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution, spectral resolution and time resolution of remote sensing data is greatly improved. How to efficiently process and interpret the massive high resolution remote sensing image data for ground objects, which with spatial geometry and texture information, has become the focus and difficulty in the field of remote sensing research. An object oriented and rule of the classification method of remote sensing data has presents in this paper. Through the discovery and mining the rich knowledge of spectrum and spatial characteristics of high-resolution remote sensing image, establish a multi-level network image object segmentation and classification structure of remote sensing image to achieve accurate and fast ground targets classification and accuracy assessment. Based on worldview-2 image data in the Zangnan area as a study object, using the object-oriented image classification method and rules to verify the experiment which is combination of the mean variance method, the maximum area method and the accuracy comparison to analysis, selected three kinds of optimal segmentation scale and established a multi-level image object network hierarchy for image classification experiments. The results show that the objectoriented rules classification method to classify the high resolution images, enabling the high resolution image classification results similar to the visual interpretation of the results and has higher classification accuracy. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the object-oriented rules classification method were 97.38%, 0.9673; compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 6.23%, 0.078; compared with object-oriented KNN method, respectively more than 7.96%, 0.0996. The extraction precision and user accuracy of the building compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 18.39%, 3.98%, respectively better than the object-oriented KNN method 21

  11. Student Engagement in High School Physical Education: Do Social Motivation Orientations Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex; Ware, David R.; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    High school physical education classes provide students with numerous opportunities for social interactions, but few studies have explored how social strivings impact class engagement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among 2 x 2 achievement goals, social motivation orientations, and effort in high school physical…

  12. Relationship Between Market Orientation and Business Performance in Czech and German High-Tech Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Jangl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to find out an index of market orientation, and explore the relationship between four components of market orientation in high-tech firms and their business performance. Business performance was studied as a one-dimensional construct. Market orientation in this study is defined as a process of intelligence generation about customers and competitors, intelligence dissemination and integration within the company across teams, and responsiveness to market intelligence in the form of coordinated action. The statistical sample was represented by 164 Czech and 187 German high-tech firms in the manufacturing industry. Respondents (sales and marketing managers completed a questionnaire and marked their rate of approval with individual statements on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7. Market orientation and business performance level was determined as the arithmetic mean (x̄ of the measured values. Depending on the size of the total market orientation index (MOI, Czech (x̄=5.2 and German (x̄=5.14 high-tech firms are medium market-oriented. The business performance index (BPI reached a slightly higher value in Germany (x̄=5.22 as compared to the Czech Republic (x̄=5.13. The main method to reach the target was correlation and regression analysis. This study confirmed a hypothesis about the existence of a correlation between components of market orientation and business performance. Three of the four relationships in the multiple regression model were significant. On the other hand, the study found no positive significant correlation between competitor intelligence generation and business performance.

  13. Impacts of orientation on daylighting in high-rise office buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdolHamid Mahdavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation is one of the important factors in building design to use daylight and ‎conserve energy. Well-orientated buildings maximise daylight reception through ‎building facades and reduce the need for artificial lighting. Reasonable daylighting usage in office buildings is an important part of an architect’s designing process, which leads to lesser electricity consumption as well as providing a visual and thermal comfort for the occupants. Orientation is an important factor in passive design strategies. This paper focuses on the orientation effect on daylighting into office rooms. The research method of this study was simulation which is performed on a hypothetical model on a 25 storey high-rise office building in Malaysia. All simulations were carried out in the IES-VE software that uses RADIANCE program for illuminance calculations. To evaluate the daylight in various conditions, a new index SAZ was introduced which assesses daylight factor (DF and absolute Lux. Results showed similar SAZ in CIE overcast sky in various orientations; whereas, in sunny sky due to sun path in Malaysia, different results showed northern and southern rooms have the best illuminance distribution. However, the similar window form and size in four orientations lead to more energy consumption for artificial lighting and cooling loads.

  14. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetization at the interfacesof highly spin-polarized manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-08-18

    We have probed the nature of magnetism at the surface of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. The spin polarization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is not intrinsically suppressed at all surfaces and interfaces but is highly sensitive to both the epitaxial strain state as well as the substrate orientation. Through the use of soft x-ray spectroscopy, the magnetic properties of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces have been investigated and compared to bulk magnetometry and resistivity measurements. The magnetization of (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces are more bulk-like as a function of thickness whereas the magnetization at the (001)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface is suppressed significantly below a layer thickness of 20 nm. Such findings are correlated with the biaxial strain state of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films; for a given film thickness it is the tetragonal distortion of (001) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} that severely impacts the magnetization, whereas the trigonal distortion for (111)-oriented films and monoclinic distortion for (110)-oriented films have less of an impact. These observations provide evidence that surface magnetization and thus spin polarization depends strongly on the crystal surface orientation as well as epitaxial strain.

  15. High-Oriented Thermoelectric Nano-Bulk Fabricated from Thermoelectric Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, M.; Mizutani, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Nishino, S.; Miyata, M.; Tanaka, T.; Fukuda, K.

    2016-10-01

    Printing technology is expected to provide innovative and environmentally friendly processes for thermoelectric (TE) module fabrication. As described in this paper, we propose an orientation control process using plastic deformation at high temperatures and present high-oriented TE nano-bulks fabricated from bismuth telluride (Bi-Te) TE inks using this process. In the case of n-type Bi-Te, surface x-ray diffraction reveals that crystalline grains in the plastic-deformed nano-bulk demonstrate a c-plane orientation parallel to the pressed face. According to the high orientation, electrical resistivity ρ, thermal conductivity κ, and figure of merit ZT show anisotropic behavior. It is noteworthy that (ZT)// almost reaches unity (ZT)// ˜1 at 340 K, even at low temperatures of the plastic deformation process. In contrast, the ZT of plastic-deformed p-type nano-bulk indicates isotropic behavior. The difference in the process temperature dependence of ZT suggests that n-type and p-type nano-bulk orientation mechanisms mutually differ.

  16. Highly (0001)-oriented Al-doped ZnO polycrystalline films on amorphous glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Junichi; Inaba, Katsuhiko; Osada, Minoru; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Very thin aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films with a well-defined (0001) orientation and a surface roughness of 0.357 nm were deposited on amorphous glass substrates at a temperature of 200 °C by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, which are promising, particularly in terms of orientation evolution, surface roughness, and carrier transport, as buffer layers for the subsequent deposition of highly (0001)-oriented AZO polycrystalline films of 490 nm thickness by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Sintered AZO targets with an Al2O3 content of 2.0 wt. % were used. DC magnetron sputtered AZO films on bare glass substrates showed a mixed (0001) and the others crystallographic orientation, and exhibited a high contribution of grain boundary scattering to carrier transport, resulting in reduced Hall mobility. Optimizing the thickness of the AZO buffer layers to 10 nm led to highly (0001)-oriented bulk AZO films with a marked reduction in the above contribution, resulting in AZO films with improved Hall mobility together with enhanced carrier concentration. The surface morphology and point defect density were also improved by applying the buffer layers, as shown by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively.

  17. Structure and blood compatibility of highly oriented PLA/MWNTs composites produced by solid hot drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiu; Zhao, Xiaowen; Ye, Lin; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2014-03-01

    Highly oriented poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composites were fabricated through solid hot drawing technology in an effort to improve the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA as blood-contacting medical devices. It was found that proper MWNTs content and drawing orientation can improve the tensile strength and modulus of PLA dramatically. With the increase in draw ratio, the cold crystallization peak became smaller, and the glass transition and the melting peak of PLA moved to high temperature, while the crystallinity increased, and the grain size decreased, indicating the stress-induced crystallization of PLA during drawing. MWNTs showed a nucleation effect on PLA, leading to the rise in the melting temperature, increase in crystallinity and reduction of spherulite size for the composites. Moreover, the intensity of (002) diffraction of MWNTs increased with draw ratio, indicating that MWNTs were preferentially aligned and oriented during drawing. Microstructure observation demonstrated that PLA matrix had an ordered fibrillar bundle structure, and MWNTs in the composite tended to align parallel to the drawing direction. In addition, the dispersion of MWNTs in PLA was also improved by orientation. Introduction of MWNTs and drawing orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging kinetic clotting time, reducing hemolysis ratio and platelet activation.

  18. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  19. [Relationship between support reciprocity and stress responses among elementary, junior high, and senior high school students: moderating effects of underbenefitting and overbenefitting exchange orientations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Koji

    2008-04-01

    This study examined moderating effects of underbenefitting and overbenefitting exchange orientations on the relationship between support reciprocity in friendships and mood among elementary, junior high, and senior high school students. The participants were 262 first-year senior high school students, 223 second-year junior high school students, and 248 sixth-year elementary school students. The participants completed questionnaires regarding mutual support in friendships, stress responses, and two types of exchange orientations (underbenefitting and overbenefitting exchange orientation). For senior high school students, an underbenefitting orientation had a moderating effect on the relationships between support reciprocity and depression. Among senior high school students low in underbenefitting orientation, individuals who felt slightly underbenefitted regarding support exchange in friendships reported the lowest degree of depression. In addition, individuals high in underbenefitting orientation tended to express a higher level of depression than those low in underbenefitting orientation when they felt slightly underbenefitted.

  20. Are "High Potential" Executives Capable of Building Learning-Oriented Organisations? Reflections on the French Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belet, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The author's interest in learning organisation development leads him to examine large French companies' practices regarding "high potential" executives policies and to question their selection and development processes and their capabilities to develop learning oriented organisations.The author also tries to explain why most large French…

  1. Provision of High-Quality Orientation and Mobility Services to Older Persons with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.-M.

    1991-01-01

    The provision of high quality orientation and mobility (O&M) services to older persons with visual impairments requires consideration of problems in attitudes, client characteristics, financial resources, inservice training, and the availability of age-appropriate assessment instruments. This paper discusses research on O&M interventions and…

  2. Analysis of Motivational Orientation and Learning Strategies of High School Business Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, James E., II

    2002-01-01

    A study of 238 high school business students found that they were oriented toward self-efficacy and motivated by extrinsic rewards such as grades. Although they rated critical thinking highest as a cognitive strategy, it was not widely used. Most preferred using computer technology and had access to computers. (Contains 17 references.) (JOW)

  3. Democratic Orientations among High School Seniors in the United States and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, William L.; Payne, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates strength of national identity and degrees of democratic orientation among honors high school seniors taking advanced political science courses in 1986 in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. Finds West German students less tolerant of minority free speech, more fearful of consequences of dissent, and less politically…

  4. Highly oriented surface-growth and covalent dye labeling of mesoporous metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterholzinger, Florian M; Wuttke, Stefan; Roy, Pascal; Preusse, Thomas; Schaate, Andreas; Behrens, Peter; Godt, Adelheid; Bein, Thomas

    2012-04-14

    Mesoporous amino-functionalized metal-organic framework thin films with the UiO-68 topology were grown in a highly oriented fashion on two different self-assembled monolayers on gold. The oriented MOF films were covalently modified with the fluorescent dye Rhodamine B inside the pore system, as demonstrated with size-selective fluorescence quenching studies. Our study suggests that mesoporous metal-organic frameworks are promising hosts for the covalent attachment of numerous functional moieties in a molecularly designed crystalline environment.

  5. Carbonado revisited: Insights from neutron diffraction, high resolution orientation mapping and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazolo, Sandra; Kaminsky, Felix V.; Trimby, Patrick; Evans, Lynn; Luzin, V.

    2016-11-01

    One of the most controversial diamond types is carbonado, as its origin and geological history are still under debate. Here, we investigate selected carbonado samples using neutron diffraction and high resolution orientation mapping in combination with numerical simulations. Neutron diffraction analyses show that fine grained carbonado samples exhibit a distinct lack of crystallographic preferred orientation. Quantitative crystallographic orientation analyses performed on transmission electron microscope (TEM) sections reveal that the 2-10 μm grains exhibit locally significant internal deformation. Such features are consistent with crystal plastic deformation of a grain aggregate that initially formed by rapid nucleation, characterized by a high number of nucleation sites and no crystallographic preferred orientation. Crystal plastic deformation resulted in high stress heterogeneities close to grain boundaries, even at low bulk strains, inducing a high degree of lattice distortion without significant grain size reduction and the development of a crystallographic preferred orientation. Observed differences in the character of the grain boundary network and internal deformation structures can be explained by significant post-deformation annealing occurring to variable degrees in the carbonado samples. Differences in intensity of crystal bending and subgrain boundary sharpness can be explained by dislocation annihilation and rearrangement, respectively. During annealing grain energy is reduced resulting in distinct changes to the grain boundary geometry. Grain scale numerical modelling shows that anisotropic grain growth, where grain boundary energy is determined by the orientation of a boundary segment relative to the crystallographic orientation of adjacent grains results in straight boundary segments with abrupt changes in orientation even if the boundary is occurring between two triple junctions forming a "zigzag" pattern. In addition, in diamond anisotropic

  6. High temperature stability of onion-like carbon vs highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Latini

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic stability of onion-like carbon (OLC nanostructures with respect to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG was determined in the interval 765-1030 K by the electromotive force (emf measurements of solid electrolyte galvanic cell: (Low Pt|Cr3C2,CrF2,OLC|CaF2s.c.|Cr3C2,CrF2,HOPG|Pt (High. The free energy change of transformation HOPG = OLC was found positive below 920.6 K crossing the zero value at this temperature. Its trend with temperature was well described by a 3rd degree polynomial. The unexpected too high values of [Formula: see text] jointly to the HR-TEM, STEM and EELS evidences that showed OLC completely embedded in rigid cages made of a Cr3C2/CrF2 matrix, suggested that carbon in the electrodes experienced different internal pressures. This was confirmed by the evaluation under constant volume of [dP/dT by the α/κ ratio for OLC (0.5 MPa K(-1 and HOPG (8 Pa K(-1 where α and κ are the isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility coefficients, respectively. The temperature dependency of the pressure was derived and utilized to calculate the enthalpy and entropy changes as function of temperature and pressure. The highest value of the internal pressure experienced by OLC was calculated to be about 7 GPa at the highest temperature. At 920.6 K, ΔrH and ΔrS values are 95.8 kJ mol(-1 and 104.1 JK(-1 mol(-1, respectively. The surface contributions to the energetic of the system were evaluated and they were found negligible compared with the bulk terms. As a consequence of the high internal pressure, the values of the enthalpy and entropy changes were mainly attributed to the formation of carbon defects in OLC considered as multishell fullerenes. The change of the carbon defect fraction is reported as a function of temperature.

  7. High temperature stability of onion-like carbon vs highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Alessandro; Tomellini, Massimo; Lazzarini, Laura; Bertoni, Giovanni; Gazzoli, Delia; Bossa, Luigi; Gozzi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic stability of onion-like carbon (OLC) nanostructures with respect to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was determined in the interval 765-1030 K by the electromotive force (emf) measurements of solid electrolyte galvanic cell: (Low) Pt|Cr3C2,CrF2,OLC|CaF2s.c.|Cr3C2,CrF2,HOPG|Pt (High). The free energy change of transformation HOPG = OLC was found positive below 920.6 K crossing the zero value at this temperature. Its trend with temperature was well described by a 3rd degree polynomial. The unexpected too high values of [Formula: see text] jointly to the HR-TEM, STEM and EELS evidences that showed OLC completely embedded in rigid cages made of a Cr3C2/CrF2 matrix, suggested that carbon in the electrodes experienced different internal pressures. This was confirmed by the evaluation under constant volume of [dP/dT by the α/κ ratio for OLC (0.5 MPa K(-1)) and HOPG (8 Pa K(-1)) where α and κ are the isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility coefficients, respectively. The temperature dependency of the pressure was derived and utilized to calculate the enthalpy and entropy changes as function of temperature and pressure. The highest value of the internal pressure experienced by OLC was calculated to be about 7 GPa at the highest temperature. At 920.6 K, ΔrH and ΔrS values are 95.8 kJ mol(-1) and 104.1 JK(-1) mol(-1), respectively. The surface contributions to the energetic of the system were evaluated and they were found negligible compared with the bulk terms. As a consequence of the high internal pressure, the values of the enthalpy and entropy changes were mainly attributed to the formation of carbon defects in OLC considered as multishell fullerenes. The change of the carbon defect fraction is reported as a function of temperature.

  8. High resolution orientation mapping of secondary phases in ATI 718Plus® alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakow Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The polycrystalline superalloy ATI 718Plus ® (hereafter 718Plus has been developed to replace the established alloy Inconel 718 by offering higher temperature capability for applications in gas turbines. The alloy exhibits two secondary phases in the austenitic matrix; it is strengthened by the γ′-phase with η-phase discontinuously precipitated at the grain boundaries. It can be utilized to control grain growth during forging. Generally, hexagonal η phase has been reported to possess a defined crystallographic orientation with the matrix. However, the material studied here exhibits blocky η-phase that has been precipitated and grown during thermo-mechanical processing. Therefore a measurable change in orientation relationship is expected. The standard technique for orientation mapping is electron back-scattered diffraction with spatial resolution of 100 nm. That is insufficient for studying η-phase in 718Plus. By applying high resolution orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope (Philips CM 300 FEGTEM equipped with a Nanomegas ASTARTM system a resolution of 3 nm was achieved. The indexed diffraction data was analysed using the Matlab Toolbox Mtex. The analysis included grain reconstruction and exclusion of low confidence measurements. The data set allows generating phase boundary maps indicating interfaces characteristics. Quantitative assessment shows that only 19% of the γ-η-interfaces fulfil the orientation relationship.

  9. LAPACK++: A design overview of object-oriented extensions for high performance linear algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Computer Science Dept.; Pozo, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Walker, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section

    1993-12-31

    LAPACK++ is an object-oriented C++ extension of the LAPACK (Linear Algebra PACKage) library for solving the common problems of numerical linear algebra: linear systems, linear least squares, and eigenvalue problems on high-performance computer architectures. The advantages of an object-oriented approach include the ability to encapsule various matrix representations, hide their implementation details, reduce the number of subroutines, simplify their calling sequences, and provide an extendible software framework that can incorporate future extensions of LAPACK such as ScaLAPACK++ for distributed memory architectures. The authors present an overview of the object-oriented design of the matrix and decomposition classes in C++ and discuss its impact on elegance, generality, and performance.

  10. LAPACK++: A design overview of object-oriented extensions for high performance linear algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Pozo, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Walker, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section

    1993-12-31

    LAPACK++ is an object-oriented C++ extension of the LAPACK (Linear Algebra PACKage) library for solving the common problems of numerical linear algebra: linear systems, linear least squares, and eigenvalue problems on high-performance computer architectures. The advantages of an object-oriented approach include the ability to encapsulate various matrix representations, hide their implementation details, reduce the number of subroutines, simplify their calling sequences, and provide an extendible software framework that can incorporate future extensions of LAPACK, such as ScaLAPACK++ for distributed memory architectures. The authors present an overview of the object-oriented design of the matrix and decomposition classes in C++ and discuss its impact on elegance, generality, and performance.

  11. Market orientation in the relationship between emphasize of high management and performance of governmental banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Maharati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, change in the pattern of competition and instability of environmental conditions has led to the large firms which have little changes in their structure, not being able to compete with small firms which are open to change and innovation. Studies indicate that improvement of organizational performance is highly dependent on market orientation. On the other hand, the main core of these studies is based on the belief, perception and commitment of managers to market orientation. But, it seems that there not enough organized and experimental research to investigate such a relationship based on the experts' opinion in Iranian organization and in particular the governmental banks. Based on this evidence, the goal of this research is to investigate the mediating role of market orientation in the relationship between emphasize of high management and the performance of governmental banks. Data analysis was done by using SEM approaches and SmartPLS software. The findings of this research indicates that there is no direct and meaningful relation between emphasize of high management and performance of governmental banks, but there is a positive and meaningful relation through mediating role of market orientation.

  12. Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.

  13. Description of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behaviors among High School Girls in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Chanelle A; Silver, Ellen J; Chhabra, Rosy

    2017-08-01

    Examination of the association of sexual orientation to the sexual practices and health behaviors of high school girls in New York City (NYC). Data were drawn from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey of public high school students in grades 9-12 in NYC. None. Independent variables included sexual orientation and gender of sexual partners. Dependent variables include sexual/health risk behaviors. We used t tests to compare mean ages and χ(2) tests to compare distributions according to sexual orientation, gender of sexual partners, and differences in risk behaviors. The survey was completed by 4643 girls; mean age, 15.5 years; (1103 + 1842)/4254 (69%) black or Latina; 1101/4000 (27.5%) sexually active; 3574/4412 (81%) heterosexual; and (92 + 526)/4412 (14%) sexual minorities; 24.1% were heterosexual, 52.1% lesbian, and 49.4% were bisexual girls and were sexually active; 247 were classified as women who have sex with women (WSW) or WSW and men (WSWM). Of the sexually active girls, (65 + 182)/1081 (23%) were WSW/WSWM. The WSW/WSWM reported earlier sexual debut, more sexual partners, higher pregnancy rate, use of alcohol at last sex, history of intimate partner violence, and less likelihood of having an HIV test. Almost one in four of sexually active high school girls in NYC can be classified as WSW, who are vulnerable to increased sexual and health risk-taking behaviors leading to adverse health outcomes. The discordance between sexual behavior and sexual orientation emphasizes the importance of the provider sharing protective strategies in the sexual health counseling session for their patients who engage in sex with female partners regardless of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Facile "modular assembly" for fast construction of a highly oriented crystalline MOF nanofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Yamada, Teppei; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sakaida, Shun; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2012-10-10

    The preparation of crystalline, ordered thin films of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) will be a critical process for MOF-based nanodevices in the future. MOF thin films with perfect orientation and excellent crystallinity were formed with novel nanosheet-structured components, Cu-TCPP [TCPP = 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin], by a new "modular assembly" strategy. The modular assembly process involves two steps: a "modularization" step is used to synthesize highly crystalline "modules" with a nanosized structure that can be conveniently assembled into a thin film in the following "assembly" step. With this method, MOF thin films can easily be set up on different substrates at very high speed with controllable thickness. This new approach also enabled us to prepare highly oriented crystalline thin films of MOFs that cannot be prepared in thin-film form by traditional techniques.

  15. Characterization of CBD grown ZnO films with high c-axis orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, S., E-mail: suleymanmku@gmail.com [Physics Department, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Bayansal, F.; Cetinkara, H.A.; Cakmak, H.M.; Gueder, H.S. [Physics Department, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO films were deposited on seeded glass substrates. Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) method were used to obtain seed layers and ZnO films. To see the effects of seed layer and deposition time, structural (e.g. grain size, microstrain and dislocation density), morphological, and electrical (e.g. resistivity, activation energy) properties of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and four point probe method. From the SEM images, resultant structures were found as well defined nanorods nearly perpendicular to the substrate surfaces and densely cover the substrates. The XRD patterns showed that ZnO films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred c-axis orientation along (002) plane. C-axis orientation was also supported by texture coefficient calculations. The lattice parameters of the structures were determined as a = 3.2268 A, b = 5.2745 A, {alpha} = {beta} = 90 Degree-Sign and {gamma} = 120 Degree-Sign . From the XRD patterns, it was revealed that, microstrain and dislocation density values of the structures decreased whereas grain size increased. This was attributed to enhancement occurred in lattice structure of the ZnO films. Activation energy values of the films were found in between 0.12 and 0.15 eV from the dark electrical resistivity-temperature characteristics in a temperature range of 300-500 K. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO nanorods (preferred orientation along (002) plane). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical activation energies were calculated in between 0.12 and 0.15 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstrain and dislocation density decreased with increasing deposition time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing deposition time was resulted in an increase in preferred orientation.

  16. High-Precision Orientation of Three-Component Magnetic Downhole Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Leven

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The possible benefits of measuring the magnetic flux density in three components continuously along a borehole have been recognized a long time ago by researchers who developed models and interpretation schemes for 3-component magnetic borehole data (Parker and Daniell,1979; Gallet and Courtillot, 1989.Common borehole methods provide data not allowing for an orientation with respect to a global reference, since this requires a highly accurate orienta tion system independent of the magnetic measurements. A first attempt to obtain the orientation of the sonde was made by Bosum et al. (1988 using a mechanical gyro and accelerometers. However, at that time the data quality of the gyro did not allow for a continuous 3-component measurement. Steveling et al. (2003 provide an example from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP drill hole, where directional information of magnetization was used to separate massive lavas from hyaloclastites. However, their directional analysis was limited to the inclination because information on the tool rotation around the vertical axis was not available.Here, we describe the successful development of an orientation procedure with very high resolution independent of magnetic data. Test data were acquired in the 2.5-km-deep ICDP Outokumpu Research Hole in eastern Finland (Kukkonen, 2007 with the so-called Göttinger Borehole Magnetometer (GBM. The sonde uses three fiber optic gyros (FOGs exhibiting a small drift of 1.5°h-1 and a high resolution of 9x10-5 degrees. In combination with a built-in Förster magnetometer triplet, the GBM can record the magnetic field in three components as well as the tool orientation continuously. In the Outokumpu drill hole, errors (root mean square were 0.14° for the inclination and 1.4° for the declination of the magnetic flux density.

  17. Review - Fabrication of crystal-oriented barium-bismuth titanate ceramics in high magnetic field and subsequent reaction sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka, Yusuke Tomita, Ryoichi Furushima, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Yutaka Doshida and Keizo Uematsu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High magnetic field was applied to fabricate novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a textured structure. A compact of crystallographically oriented grains was prepared by dry forming in a high magnetic field from a mixed slurry of bismuth titanate and barium titanate powders. Bismuth titanate particles with a size of about 1 μ m were used as the host material. In the forming process, the slurry was poured into a mold and set in a magnetic field of 10 T until completely dried. Bismuth titanate particles were highly oriented in the slurry under the magnetic field. The dried powder compact consisted of highly oriented bismuth titanate particles and randomly oriented barium titanate particles. Barium bismuth titanate ceramics with a- and b-axis orientations were successfully produced from the dried compact by sintering at temperatures above 1100 ° C.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Oriented ZnO Film by Ultrasonic Assisted SILAR Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiangdong; LI Xiaomin; YU Weidong

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic Assisted SILAR method ( UA-SILAR ) was developed and highly oriented ZnO films were deposited on the glass substrate by this novel technique. The crystallinity and microstructure of as-deposited ZnO films were analyzed by means of XRD and SEM. Moreover, the underling deposition mechanism of ZnO films was discussed. Results show that obtained ZnO films exhibit an excellent crystallinity with the preferential orientation of (002) plane. The crystalline grain of films is about 40nm in size, which is supported by both the Sherrer equation and the SEM result. However, the ZnO film is composed of numerous clustered particulates in the size of 200 to 300 nm, and each particulate is the compact aggregation of smaller ZnO crystalline grains. It is speculated that the excellent crystallinity of ZnO films may chiefly originate from the cavatition effect of the ultrasonic rinsing process.

  19. One_dimensional chains of gold clusters on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the growth of gold nanoclusters on thesurface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in ultrahigh vacuum. Studies of ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy revealed that the size distribution of gold clusters was very narrow and quasi-one-dimensional chains of gold nanoclusters of approximately 2 nm diameter were produced after being annealed at 74℃. Unlike the results obtained by previous workers, these chains of gold clusters were not formed along steps on the substrate surface, and some of them could even go across monoatomic steps. The orientation of chains of gold clusters was also dependent on the size of gold nanoclusters. These results suggest the viability of a new route to the creation of ordered nanoscale structures.

  20. Model of Market Orientation of High-Tech Firms in Germany: Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Jangl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this validation study was to verify a four-factor model of market orientation on a sample of German high-tech companies in the manufacturing industry. A modified version of the measuring scale (MMOS, composed of twelve items, was used for measurement. The target group consisted of business and marketing managers (N = 374 who recorded their answers on a seven-point Likert scale. The main methods used to achieve the objectives were exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Having verified the psychometric properties of the instrument, I proceeded to confirm the hypothesis of a four-factor solution model. Reliability and validity of the measuring instrument was also examined, which allowed a confirmation of the second hypothesis. The research may serve as the evidence of the instrument suitability for measuring market orientation in European cultural conditions. To obtain results from other sectors, the author recommends further research replication using the MMOS instrument.

  1. Development and characterization of ordered, highly oriented, composite laminates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Terrence Colin

    This thesis describes the development and subsequent characterization of a series of oriented, highly ordered laminated composite materials. These laminated composite materials all possess order over varying length-scales from angstrom level molecular chain orientation to macro-scale order in woven fabrics. In each case, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) is used as a unique reaction medium and processing aid allowing for the development of structures not previously attainable with standard techniques. The goal of this research is two-fold, the first goal involves the proof of concept, exhibiting the ability to attain novel composite structures using unique SC CO2 chemistries and processes. The second goal of this research is aimed at developing a thorough understanding of how these unique structures and morphologies translate into an overall mechanical response for the material. This work will be divided into three distinct but interrelated projects. The first project involves the development of a unique SC CO2 assisted solvent welding technique. This technique is then applied towards the fabrication of a quasi-isotropic laminate comprised of a series of solvent-welded uniaxially-oriented linear low density polyethylene films (LLDPE). The geometry of this laminate is designed to exploit the improved strength and rigidity of uniaxially oriented LLDPE films while suppressing undesireable transverse properties. The second project to be addressed in this project involves the development of fiber-reinforced composites with unique nano-scale morphologies. The long-range order in these composites has profound effects on both the individual fiber properties as well as the overall composite properties. The final project of interest in this work involves the development of intercalated silicate nano-composites with high clay content. In order to achieve the desired morphologies it is necessary to create polymer/clay nano-composites with very high clay content

  2. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf orientation plays a fundamental role in many transport processes in plant canopies. At the plant or stand level, leaf orientation is often highly anisotropic and heterogeneous, yet most analyses neglect such complexity. In many cases, this is due to the difficulty in measuring the spatial varia...

  3. Sexual Orientation and Risk of Pregnancy Among New York City High-School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa L; Walsemann, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We examined associations between sexual orientation and pregnancy risk among sexually experienced New York City high-school students. We analyzed data from 2005, 2007, and 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We excluded students who had never engaged in sexual intercourse, only had same-gender sexual partners, or had missing data on variables of interest, resulting in a final sample of 4892 female and 4811 male students. We employed multivariable logistic regression to examine pregnancy risk by sexual orientation, measured as self-reported sexual identity and gender of sexual partners, with adjustment for demographics and sexual behaviors. We stratified analyses by gender. Overall, 14.3% of female and 10.8% of male students had experienced a pregnancy. Students who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or reported both male and female sexual partners had higher odds of pregnancy than heterosexual students or students who only had opposite-gender sexual partners. Sexual behaviors accounted for higher odds of pregnancy among female, but only partially accounted for higher odds of pregnancy involvement among male, sexual-minority students. Sexual orientation should be considered in future adolescent pregnancy-prevention efforts, including the design of pregnancy-prevention interventions.

  4. Preparation and Microstructure of Highly - Oriented LaNiO3 Thin Films by RF Sputtering Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xing-hua; QIAO Liang; BI Xiao-fang

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt of being used as buffer layers and electrodes for the textured BaTiO3 (BTO) ferroelectric thin films, highly (100)-oriented LaNiO3 (LNO) thin films of different thicknesses were deposited directly on Si (100) substrate with radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. It is observed that the substrate temperatures and the film thicknesses bring main influences on the microstructures and orientation of the thin film. The effects of the thicknesses and substrate temperatures on the orientation of the films were studied on the LNO films of different thicknesses. The highly (100)-oriented LNO thin films were obtained at the substrate temperature of 600 ℃. The existence of epitaxially grown BTO films indicates that the oriented LNO thin films obtained in this work could be used as a buffer layer for epitaxial growth.

  5. A High Performance Backend for Array-Oriented Programming on Next-Generation Processing Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Simon Andreas Frimann

    and the efficient execution of them on high performance systems. This work investigates the requirements for, and the implementation of, a high performance backend supporting these goals. This involves an outline of the hardware available today, in the near future and how to program it for high performance......The financial crisis, which started in 2008, spawned the HIPERFIT research center as a preventive measure against future financial crises. The goal of prevention is to be met by improving mathematical models for finance, the verifiable description of them in domain-specific languages....... The main challenge is to bridge the gaps between performance, productivity and portability. A declarative high-level array-oriented programming model is explored to achieve this goal and a backend implemented to support it. Different strategies to the backend design and application of optimizations...

  6. Specific heat of pristine and brominated graphite fibers, composites and HOPG. [Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Chen; Maciag, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to obtain specific heat values of pristine and brominated P-100 graphite fibers and brominated P-100/epoxy composite as well as pristine and brominated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for comparison. Based on the experimental results obtained, specific heat values are calculated for several different temperatures, with a standard deviation estimated at 1.4 percent of the average values. The data presented here are useful in designing heat transfer devices (such as airplane de-icing heaters) from bromine fibers.

  7. Highly Developed Information-oriented Society and Humanity ; Medical Information Services and Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Atsuko

    Change in social circumstances caused by arrival of highly developed information-oriented society has altered what information services in medical libraries should be dramatically. Keeping with complication and diversification of needs by users such as medical doctors, researchers, medical technicians and so on medical librarians have been playing important role in the information activities, and are required to master more specialized knowledge. This paper outlines changes in circumstances surrounding medical libraries, discusses role of medical librarians in online information retrieval services, and introduces various curriculum for library education. The author proposes that humanity of librarian him or herself is still a key factor for library services regardless of advancement of computerization.

  8. Absence of field anisotropy in the intrinsic ferromagnetic signals of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestar, A. [Laboratorio de Fisica y Sistemas Pequenos y Nanotecnologia, CSIC, Serano 144, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Linnestrasse 5, Universitaet Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Setzer, A. [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Linnestrasse 5, Universitaet Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Esquinazi, P., E-mail: esquin@physik.uni-leipzig.d [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Linnestrasse 5, Universitaet Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Garcia, N. [Laboratorio de Fisica y Sistemas Pequenos y Nanotecnologia, CSIC, Serano 144, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    We have measured the magnetization of bulk samples of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at magnetic fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the graphene layers. Within experimental error the intrinsic ferromagnetic signals of the samples show similar magnetic moments at saturation for the two magnetic field directions, in contrast to recently published data (J. Cervenka et al., Nat. Phys. 5 (2009) 840). To check that the SQUID device provides correctly the small ferromagnetic signals obtained after subtracting the 100 times larger diamagnetic background, we have prepared a sample with a superconducting Pb-film deposited on one of the HOPG surfaces. We show that the field dependence of the measured magnetic moment and after the background subtraction is highly reliable even in the sub-{mu} emu range providing the real magnetic properties of the embedded small ferromagnetic and superconducting signals. - Research highlights: > We have measured the magnetization of bulk samples of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at magnetic fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the graphene layers. > Within experimental error the intrinsic ferromagnetic signals of the samples show similar magnetic moments at saturation for the two magnetic field directions. > The absence of magnetic anisotropy of the intrinsic ferromagnetic order found in HOPG samples contrasts recently published data by Cervenka et al., Nat Phys 5, 840 (2009).

  9. Orientations and Motivation in the Acquisition of English as a Second Language Among High School Students in Quebec City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmechri, Faiza; Hummel, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the emergence of orientations and their relation to motivation in a predominantly monolingual context. Participants were 93 Quebec City francophone Grade 11 high school students learning English as a Second Language. (Author/JL)

  10. Growth of Highly c-axis Oriented and/or Epitaxial Single-Domain b-axis Oriented La5Ca9Cu24O41 Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0004 Growth of highly c-axis oriented and/or epitaxial single-domain b-axis oriented La5Ca9Cu24O41 thin films by pulsed laser...to 29-Sep-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Growth of highly c-axis oriented and/or epitaxial single-domain b-axis oriented La5Ca9Cu24O41 thin films by...to the surface of the substrate, counting success as demonstration of b-axis or c-axis oriented LCCO films along with measurement of bulk thermal

  11. Measurements of the work function of single-walled carbon nanotubes encapsulated by AgI, AgCl, and CuBr using Kelvin probe technique with different kinds of probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, A. A., E-mail: azhukov@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, M. V.; Eliseev, A. A. [Moscow State University, Department of Materials Science (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    We report the results on the measurements of the work function of single-walled carbon nanotubes encapsulated by Agl (AgI@SWCNT), AgCl (AgCl@SWCNT), and CuBr (CuBr@SWCNT) by the local Kelvin probe technique. We found the values of the work function of tubes encapsulated with AgI and AgCl (Φ(AgI@SWCNT) = 5.08 ± 0.02, Φ(AgCl@SWCNT) = 5.10 ± 0.02 eV) to exceed substantially that of pristine carbon nanotubes, and the value of the work function of carbon nanotubes encapsulated with CuBr is Φ(CuBr@SWCNT) = 4.89 ± 0.03 (eV). The measurements are carried out using different kinds of microscope probes including multi-walled carbon nanotube tips.

  12. High-Level Models for Transformation-Oriented Design of Hardware and Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMASEVICIUS, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of design methodologies follows a common trail: technology scaling leads to growing design complexity and rising abstraction level in the domain. Introduction of new (higher abstraction levels emphasizes the importance of reuse and transformations. The design process can be seen as a sequence of high-level transformations from the higher-level specification to the lower-level one. We analyze high-level modeling and metaprogramming techniques for supporting transformations based on domain variability models. Next, we present a reuse evolution model for domain component design at a higher abstraction level to support the transformation-oriented approaches. Finally, high-level modeling techniques (UML-domain language metamodels for domain code generation, parameterized UML classes for template metaprogramming, feature models for explicit representation of variability for specification of transformations and metaprograms are analyzed.

  13. Preparation and Electromechanical Properties of PVDF Matrix Piezoelectric Composites Containing Highly Oriented BaTiO3 Whiskers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuetao LUO; Lifu CHEN; Xiaojun CHEN; Qianjun HUANG

    2004-01-01

    The piezoelectric composites containing highly oriented BaTiO3 whiskers as active phase and PVDF as matrix have been prepared by micro-hole extrusion and orientation in carried fibers. The morphology of oriented BaTiO3 whiskers and microstructure of the composites were observed by SEM. As for its electromechanical properties, it is found that the dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant and remnant of polarization in the BaTiO3 whisker-PVDF composite are considerably higher than that in the BaTiO3 powders-PVDF composite, while the loss factors follow the opposite trend. For the BaTiO3 whisker-PVDF composite, the values of ε, d33 and Pr parallel to the whisker orientation (normal specimen) are much higher than that perpendicular to the whisker orientation (parallel specimen). The significant effects of the connective passages of active phase on electromechanical properties of the piezoelectric composites has also been investigated.

  14. Object oriented classification of high resolution data for inventory of horticultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, R.; Ravishankar, H. M.; Trivedi, S.; Subramoniam, S. R.; Uday, R.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    High resolution satellite images are associated with large variance and thus, per pixel classifiers often result in poor accuracy especially in delineation of horticultural crops. In this context, object oriented techniques are powerful and promising methods for classification. In the present study, a semi-automatic object oriented feature extraction model has been used for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops using Erdas Objective Imagine. Multi-resolution data from Resourcesat LISS-IV and Cartosat-1 have been used as source data in the feature extraction model. Spectral and textural information along with NDVI were used as inputs for generation of Spectral Feature Probability (SFP) layers using sample training pixels. The SFP layers were then converted into raster objects using threshold and clump function resulting in pixel probability layer. A set of raster and vector operators was employed in the subsequent steps for generating thematic layer in the vector format. This semi-automatic feature extraction model was employed for classification of major fruit and plantations crops viz., mango, banana, citrus, coffee and coconut grown under different agro-climatic conditions. In general, the classification accuracy of about 75-80 per cent was achieved for these crops using object based classification alone and the same was further improved using minimal visual editing of misclassified areas. A comparison of on-screen visual interpretation with object oriented approach showed good agreement. It was observed that old and mature plantations were classified more accurately while young and recently planted ones (3 years or less) showed poor classification accuracy due to mixed spectral signature, wider spacing and poor stands of plantations. The results indicated the potential use of object oriented approach for classification of high resolution data for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops. The present methodology is applicable at

  15. Wet-spun, porous, orientational graphene hydrogel films for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liang; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Tian, Zhanyuan; Deng, Zengshe; Gao, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Supercapacitors with porous electrodes of graphene macroscopic assembly are supposed to have high energy storage capacity. However, a great number of ``close pores'' in porous graphene electrodes are invalid because electrolyte ions cannot infiltrate. A quick method to prepare porous graphene electrodes with reduced ``close pores'' is essential for higher energy storage. Here we propose a wet-spinning assembly approach based on the liquid crystal behavior of graphene oxide to continuously spin orientational graphene hydrogel films with ``open pores'', which are used directly as binder-free supercapacitor electrodes. The resulting supercapacitor electrodes show better electrochemical performance than those with disordered graphene sheets. Furthermore, three reduction methods including hydrothermal treatment, hydrazine and hydroiodic acid reduction are used to evaluate the specific capacitances of the graphene hydrogel film. Hydrazine-reduced graphene hydrogel film shows the highest capacitance of 203 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and maintains 67.1% specific capacitance (140 F g-1) at 50 A g-1. The combination of scalable wet-spinning technology and orientational structure makes graphene hydrogel films an ideal electrode material for supercapacitors.Supercapacitors with porous electrodes of graphene macroscopic assembly are supposed to have high energy storage capacity. However, a great number of ``close pores'' in porous graphene electrodes are invalid because electrolyte ions cannot infiltrate. A quick method to prepare porous graphene electrodes with reduced ``close pores'' is essential for higher energy storage. Here we propose a wet-spinning assembly approach based on the liquid crystal behavior of graphene oxide to continuously spin orientational graphene hydrogel films with ``open pores'', which are used directly as binder-free supercapacitor electrodes. The resulting supercapacitor electrodes show better electrochemical performance than those with disordered graphene

  16. Molecular orientation of copper phthalocyanine thin films on different monolayers of fullerene on SiO{sub 2} or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenggong; Wang, Congcong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Liu, Xiaoliang [Institute for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials (ISUPAM), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Xu, Xumei; Li, Youzhen [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Xie, Fangyan [Instrumental Analysis Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Gao, Yongli [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Institute for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials (ISUPAM), Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2015-03-23

    The interface electronic structures of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) have been studied using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy as different monolayers of C{sub 60} were inserted between CuPc and a SiO{sub 2} or highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate. The results show that CuPc has standing up configuration with one monolayer of C{sub 60} insertion on SiO{sub 2} while lying down on HOPG, indicating that the insertion layer propagates the CuPc-substrate interaction. Meanwhile, CuPc on more than one monolayers of C{sub 60} on different substrates show that the substrate orientation effect quickly vanished. Our study elucidates intriguing molecular interactions that manipulate molecular orientation and donor-acceptor energy level alignment.

  17. Electron spectra line shape analysis of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and nanocrystalline diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Beata; Zemek, Josef; Houdkova, Jana; Kromka, Alexander; Józwik, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) methods were applied in investigating samples of nanocrystalline diamond and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite of various C sp(2)/sp(3) ratios, crystallinity conditions and grain sizes. The composition at the surface was estimated from the XPS. The C sp(2)/sp(3) ratio was evaluated from the width of the XAES first derivative C KLL spectra and from fitting of XPS C 1s spectra into components. The pattern recognition (PR) method applied for analyzing the spectra line shapes exhibited high accuracy in distinguishing different carbon materials. The PR method was found to be a potentially useful approach for identification, especially important for technological applications in fields of materials engineering and for controlling the chemical reaction products during synthesis.

  18. High Volume Throughput Computing: Identifying and Characterizing Throughput Oriented Workloads in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Jianfeng; Sun, Ninghui; Wang, Lei; Jia, Zhen; Luo, Chunjie

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, this paper systematically identifies three categories of throughput oriented workloads in data centers: services, data processing applications, and interactive real-time applications, whose targets are to increase the volume of throughput in terms of processed requests or data, or supported maximum number of simultaneous subscribers, respectively, and we coins a new term high volume throughput computing (in short HVC) to describe those workloads and data center systems designed for them. We characterize and compare HVC with other computing paradigms, e.g., high throughput computing, warehouse-scale computing, and cloud computing, in terms of levels, workloads, metrics, coupling degree, data scales, and number of jobs or service instances. We also preliminarily report our ongoing work on the metrics and benchmarks for HVC systems, which is the foundation of designing innovative data center systems for HVC workloads.

  19. Large-scale boron nanowire nanojunctions and their highly-oriented arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Limin; ZHANG Ze; WANG Wenkui

    2004-01-01

    Highly oriented multiple boron nanowire nanojunctions with unilateral feather- like morphology were first successfully prepared using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method. The branched boron nano-feathers always nucleate and grow on the same sidewall of the stems, and align in parallel to form multiple T- and/or Y-type nanojunctions. The diameters of the branches and the stems are in the range of 20-40 and 60-80 nm, respectively. The thinner branches and thicker stems of the boron nanowires self-assembled into large-scale, highly ordered arrays on various substrates. During the formation and self-assembly of the arrays, no template or catalyst was needed. We believe that the approach presented here can be used to fabricate heterostructures with bottom-up assembly of a wide variety of one-dimensional nanostructures via the rational design of targets and the proper control of the experimental conditions.

  20. Effects of DC bias on magnetic performance of high grades grain-oriented silicon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang; Cheng, Ling; Lu, Licheng; Yang, Fuyao; Chen, Xin; Zhu, Chengzhi

    2017-03-01

    When high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission adopting mono-polar ground return operation mode or unbalanced bipolar operation mode, the invasion of DC current into neutral point of alternating current (AC) transformer will cause core saturation, temperature increasing, and vibration acceleration. Based on the MPG-200D soft magnetic measurement system, the influence of DC bias on magnetic performance of 0.23 mm and 0.27 mm series (P1.7=0.70-1.05 W/kg, B8>1.89 T) grain-oriented (GO) silicon steels under condition of AC / DC hybrid excitation were systematically realized in this paper. For the high magnetic induction GO steels (core losses are the same), greater thickness can lead to stronger ability of resisting DC bias, and the reasons for it were analyzed. Finally, the magnetostriction and A-weighted magnetostriction velocity level of GO steel under DC biased magnetization were researched.

  1. Orientation in high-flying migrant insects in relation to flows: mechanisms and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Andy M; Reynolds, Don R; Sane, Sanjay P; Hu, Gao; Chapman, Jason W

    2016-09-26

    High-flying insect migrants have been shown to display sophisticated flight orientations that can, for example, maximize distance travelled by exploiting tailwinds, and reduce drift from seasonally optimal directions. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical evidence for the mechanisms underlying the selection and maintenance of the observed flight headings, and the detection of wind direction and speed, for insects flying hundreds of metres above the ground. Different mechanisms may be used-visual perception of the apparent ground movement or mechanosensory cues maintained by intrinsic features of the wind-depending on circumstances (e.g. day or night migrations). In addition to putative turbulence-induced velocity, acceleration and temperature cues, we present a new mathematical analysis which shows that 'jerks' (the time-derivative of accelerations) can provide indicators of wind direction at altitude. The adaptive benefits of the different orientation strategies are briefly discussed, and we place these new findings for insects within a wider context by comparisons with the latest research on other flying and swimming organisms.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  2. Case study: Head orientation and neck electromyography for cursor control in persons with high cervical tetraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Williams, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the ability of an individual with a high cervical spinal cord injury (SCI to control a cursor on a computer screen using two different user interfaces: (1 head movements measured via a head-mounted orientation sensor and (2 electromyography (EMG signals from four head and neck muscles acquired using a 4-channel implanted upper-limb neuroprosthesis that had been deployed in an earlier study. The subject moved the cursor to a set of targets on the screen in a two-dimensional, center-out, target-acquisition task, and his performance was evaluated with a variety of performance measures to assess both position and velocity control accuracy. The subject's performance with both command sources was also compared with the performance of a group of nondisabled subjects. Head orientation provided more accurate performance but was less responsive than EMG. Both command sources showed some directionally dependent performance, with movement to diagonally located targets being performed by a series of sequential motions rather than via straight paths. Overall, the SCI subject's performance with each command source was similar to that reported for a nondisabled population using the same interfaces and performing the same task.

  3. Orientation in high-flying migrant insects in relation to flows: mechanisms and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Andy M.; Reynolds, Don R.; Sane, Sanjay P.; Hu, Gao; Chapman, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    High-flying insect migrants have been shown to display sophisticated flight orientations that can, for example, maximize distance travelled by exploiting tailwinds, and reduce drift from seasonally optimal directions. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical evidence for the mechanisms underlying the selection and maintenance of the observed flight headings, and the detection of wind direction and speed, for insects flying hundreds of metres above the ground. Different mechanisms may be used—visual perception of the apparent ground movement or mechanosensory cues maintained by intrinsic features of the wind—depending on circumstances (e.g. day or night migrations). In addition to putative turbulence-induced velocity, acceleration and temperature cues, we present a new mathematical analysis which shows that ‘jerks’ (the time-derivative of accelerations) can provide indicators of wind direction at altitude. The adaptive benefits of the different orientation strategies are briefly discussed, and we place these new findings for insects within a wider context by comparisons with the latest research on other flying and swimming organisms. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528782

  4. A New High Speed Induction Motor Drive based on Field Orientation and Hysteresis Current Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuka, Cosmas; Nwosu, Cajethan; Agu, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new high speed induction motor drive based on the core advantage of field orientation control (FOC) and hysteresis current comparison (HCC). A complete closed loop speed-controlled induction motor drive system is developed consisting of an outer speed and an inner HCC algorithm which are optimised to obtain fast and stable speed response with effective current and torque tracking, both during transient and steady states. The developed model, being speed-controlled, was examined with step and ramp speed references and excellent performances obtained under full load stress. A speed response comparison of the model with the standard AC3 (Field-Oriented Control Induction Motor Drive) of MATLAB Simpower systems shows that the model achieved a rise time of 0.0762 seconds compared to 0.2930 seconds achieved by the AC3. Also, a settle time of 0.0775 seconds was obtained with the developed model while that of the AC3 model is 0.2986 seconds confirming, therefore, the superiority of the developed model over the AC3 model which, hitherto, served as a reference standard.

  5. Fabrication and Molecular Transport Studies of Highly c-Oriented AFI Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2017-01-10

    The AFI membrane with one-dimensional straight channels is an ideal platform for various applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of a highly c-oriented, compact and stable AFI membrane by epitaxial growth from an almost close-packed and c-oriented monolayer of plate-like seeds that is manually assembled on a porous alumina support. The straight channels in the membrane are not only aligned vertically along the membrane depth, but are also continuous without disruption. The transport resistance is thus minimized and as a result, the membrane shows almost two orders of magnitude greater permeance in pervaporation of hydrocarbons compared to reported values in the literature. The selectivity of p-xylene to 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) is approximately 850. In addition, through gas permeation studies on a number of gas and liquid molecules, different transport mechanisms including activated Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion and molecular sieving were discovered for different diffusion species. The ratio of kinetic diameter to channel diameter, dm/dc, and the ratio of the Lennard-Jones length constant to channel diameter, σm/dc, are found very useful in explaining the different transport behaviors. These results should be useful not only for potential industrial applications of the AFI membranes but also for the fundamental understanding of transport in nanoporous structures.

  6. Handspinning Enabled Highly Concentrated Carbon Nanotubes with Controlled Orientation in Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoik; Watanabe, Kei; Kim, Myungwoong; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Song, Kyung-Hun; Lee, Jung Soon; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-11-01

    The novel method, handspinning (HS), was invented by mimicking commonly observed methods in our daily lives. The use of HS allows us to fabricate carbon nanotube-reinforced nanofibers (CNT-reinforced nanofibers) by addressing three significant challenges: (i) the difficulty of forming nanofibers at high concentrations of CNTs, (ii) aggregation of the CNTs, and (iii) control of the orientation of the CNTs. The handspun nanofibers showed better physical properties than fibers fabricated by conventional methods, such as electrospinning. Handspun nanofibers retain a larger amount of CNTs than electrospun nanofibers, and the CNTs are easily aligned uniaxially. We attributed these improvements provided by the HS process to simple mechanical stretching force, which allows for orienting the nanofillers along with the force direction without agglomeration, leading to increased contact area between the CNTs and the polymer matrix, thereby providing enhanced interactions. HS is a simple and straightforward method as it does not require an electric field, and, hence, any kinds of polymers and solvents can be applicable. Furthermore, it is feasible to retain a large amount of various nanofillers in the fibers to enhance their physical and chemical properties. Therefore, HS provides an effective pathway to create new types of reinforced nanofibers with outstanding properties.

  7. Highly oriented Bi-based thin films with zero resistance at 106 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, W.; Sobolewski, R.; Gorecka, J.; Lewardowski, S.L. (Instytut Fizki, Polska Akademia Nauk. Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warszawa (PL))

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on fabrication and characterization of nearly single-phase superconducting Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} thin films. The films were dc magnetron sputtered from heavily Pb-doped (Pb/Bi molar ratios up to 1.25), sintered targets on unheated MgO, SrTiO{sub 3}, CaNdAlO{sub 4}, and SrLaAlO{sub 4} single crystals. For the films grown on the (100) oriented MgO substrate, less than 1 hour of annealing in air at 870{degrees} C was sufficient to obtain more than 90% of the 110-K-phase material, with highly c-axis oriented crystalline structure and zero resistivity at 106 K. The films fabricated on the other substrates also exhibited a narrow superconducting transition and were fully superconducting above 100 K, but they consisted of a mixed-phase material with a large percentage of the 80 K phase.

  8. Authoritarian dynamics and unethical decision making: high social dominance orientation leaders and high right-wing authoritarianism followers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son Hing, Leanne S; Bobocel, D Ramona; Zanna, Mark P; McBride, Maxine V

    2007-01-01

    When dilemmas require trade-offs between profits and ethics, do leaders high in social dominance orientation (SDO) and followers high in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) make decisions that are more unethical than those made by others? This issue was explored in 4 studies with female participants performing managerial role-playing tasks. First, dyads comprising a person who was either low or high in SDO and a person who was either low or high in RWA negotiated for a leadership position. People high in SDO were more likely to obtain leader positions than to obtain follower positions. No other effects were significant. Second, leaders high in SDO partnered with an agreeable (confederate) follower made decisions that were more unethical than those of leaders low in SDO. Third, followers high in RWA were more acquiescent to and supportive of an unethical (confederate) leader than were followers low in RWA. Fourth, high SDO leader-high RWA follower dyads made decisions that were more unethical than those made in role-reversed dyads because leaders had more influence. Implications of these results for conceptualizing SDO, RWA, and authoritarian dynamics are discussed.

  9. The fcc-bcc crystallographic orientation relationship in AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, J. C.; Ocelik, V.; Vainchtein, D.; Tang, Z.; Liaw, P. K.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the crystallographic-orientation relationship between the various phases in the Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni high-entropy alloys. Two types of orientation relationships of bcc phases (some with ordered B2 structures) and fcc matrix were observed in Al0.5CoCrFeNi and Al0.7CoCrFeNi alloys

  10. Polarity enhancement in high oriented ZnO films on Si (100) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Robi; Nurfani, Eka; Muhammady, Shibghatullah; Sutjahja, Inge M.; Winata, Toto; Rusydi, Andrivo; Darma, Yudi

    2016-04-01

    Zinc oxide films with hexagonal crystal structures have been grown on Si substrate (100) using the DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering at temperature of 300°C with growth time variation. The films have been characterized using X-Ray Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared measurement to show the crystal parameter and atomic bonding. The results show that the films have a dominant orientation in the hkl plane (002), while peak positions are shift to lower diffraction angle with addition of growth time. In addition, the bonding between Zn and O atoms (Zn-O) tend to be weaker as indicated by transmittance peak shifting to lower energy. The weakening of Zn-O bonding is due to the contribution of addition of bond length. These conditions make the films tend to have a high polarity. Further analysis of these studies will bring us to have a good undestanding to explain the ferroelectric properties of the ZnO films.

  11. Atomic force microscopy study of anion intercalation into highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliata, D.; Haering, P.; Haas, O.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegenthaler, H. [University of Berne (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    In the context of ion transfer batteries, we studied highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in perchloric acid, as a model to elucidate the mechanism of electrochemical intercalation in graphite. Aim of the work is the local and time dependent investigation of dimensional changes of the host material during electrochemical intercalation processes on the nanometer scale. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM), combined with cyclic voltammetry, as in-situ tool of analysis during intercalation and expulsion of perchloric anions into the HOPG electrodes. According to the AFM measurements, the HOPG interlayer spacing increases by 32% when perchloric anions intercalate, in agreement with the formation of stage IV of graphite intercalation compounds. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  12. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of a fuel-cell electrocatalyst deposited onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucernak, A.R.; Chowdhury, P.B.; Wilde, C.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemistry; Kelsall, G.H. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Huxley School; Zhu, Y.Y.; Williams, D.E. [University College London, (United Kingdom). Department of Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has been examined on a platinum electrocatalysts (Johnson Matthey HSA platinum black) dispersed onto a flat highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode using an atomic force microscope (AFM) modified to perform scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). For both STM and SECM experiments the same Pt/Ir tips produced by electrochemical etching of Pt/Ir wire followed by coating with varnish have been used. The coating process leaves only the very end of the tip exposed. Positioning the SECM tip 42 nm from one of the particles allows monitoring of hydrogen evolution from that particle as a function of substrate potential. In a separate experiment the substrate has been polarized at a potential at which hydrogen evolution occurs and the SECM tip rastered over the surface to obtain images of the local concentration of hydrogen. This map indicates the activity of hydrogen production as a function of position. (author)

  13. Electrocrystallization of Monodisperse Nanocrystal Copper on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄令; LEE,Eun-Sung; KIM,Kwang-Bum

    2005-01-01

    Mechanism of copper electrocrystallization on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode from a solution of 1 mmol/L CuSO4 and 1.0 mol/L H2SO4 has been studied using cyclic voltammogram and chronoamperometry. The results show that in copper electrodeposition the charge-transfer step is fast and the rate of growth is controlled by the rate of mass transfer of copper ions to the growing centers. Reduction of Cu(Ⅱ) ions did not undergo underpotential deposition. The initial deposition kinetics of Cu electrocrystallization corresponds to a model including progressive nucleation and diffusion controlled growth. Copper nanocrystals with size of 75.6 nm and relative standard deviation of 9% can be obtained by modulation potential electrodeposition.

  14. The fabrication of polyaniline/single-walled carbon nanotube fibers containing a highly-oriented filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mi Sun; Shin, Min Kyoon; Ismail, Yahya A; Shin, Su Ryon; Kim, Sun I; Kim, Seon Jeong [Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyunsook; Lee, Haiwon [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2009-02-25

    Highly uniform composite nanofibers composed of well-oriented single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped in a conducting polymer have been fabricated using electrospinning. Water-soluble polyaniline (WS-PANI) was used as a conducting material to improve the processability during electrospinning. The WS-PANI formed a homogeneous dispersion with the SWCNTs and poly(vinyl alcohol), and good compatibility of the WS-PANI with the SWCNTs was demonstrated by data showing interactions between two components and the wrapping of the SWCNTs by the WS-PANI. Through transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and polarized Raman spectroscopy, we confirmed that the WS-PANI plays an important role as a conducting polymer matrix to achieve aligned SWCNTs in composite nanofibers and to form uniform nanofibers.

  15. High-field Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects at high pressure in oriented ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Marius; Broto, Jean-Marc; Gonzalez, Jesus

    2008-10-01

    High-field Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects have been observed in single crystals of ruby submitted to hydrostatic pressure up to 10 GPa. A specific setup with a miniature diamond-anvil cell has been developed to combine high pressure and pulsed magnetic fields and to perform magnetophotoluminescence measurements. Careful analysis of low-temperature (4.2 and 77 K) photoluminescence spectra with a 56 T magnetic field applied along the c axis allows for the rectification of the assignment of observed emission lines to corresponding Zeeman-split levels. Besides, the intrinsic Zeeman-splitting factors of excited states reveal a linear pressure-induced increase. This enhancement is a signature of an increase in trigonal distortion induced by hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, spectra with magnetic field perpendicular to crystallographic c axis exhibit a Paschen-Back effect reflecting the progressive alignment of Cr3+ ions spin along the applied field. However, no pressure modification is observed in this compound, contrarily to the Heisenberg-to-Ising spin character pressure-induced transition observed in alexandrite.

  16. Oriented free-standing ammonium vanadium oxide nanobelt membranes: highly selective absorbent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rujia; Zhang, Zhenyu; Yu, Li; Tian, Qiwei; Wu, Jianghong; Sun, Yangang; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing

    2010-12-27

    Highly selective, absorbent, free-standing, paper-like membranes made of ammonium vanadium oxide (NH(4)V(4)O(14)) nanobelts have been engineered by taking advantage of the nanoscaled self-assembly of architectures that display a mesh structure with an average periodic pore size of about 5 to 10 nm. The NH(4)V(4)O(14) nanobelts are synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal process, and exhibit the same orientation and assemble into bundles, each about 40 to 80 nm in width, 3 to 5 nm in thickness, and up to several millimeters in length. Importantly, the as-obtained NH(4)V(4)O(14) nanobelt membranes can highly selectively absorb a variety of organic solvents, covering both polar and non-polar solvents, for example, the absorbent capacity of glycol is 28 times as high as the initial weight of the membrane, and it can even separate organic solvents with similar polarities and absorb solid contaminants in organic solvents. These highly selective, absorbent membrane materials can be an ideal candidate for the separation and removal of pollution in industrial and environmental applications.

  17. Observations of orientation dependence of surface morphology in tungsten implanted by low energy and high flux D plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H.Y.; Zhang, Yubin; Yuan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification by formation of blistering and nanostructures with pronounced orientation dependence has been observed on surfaces of rolled tungsten and recrystallized tungsten after exposure to a low energy (38 eV) deuterium (D) plasma with a high flux of 1024 m-2 s -1. The correlation...... between blisters and nanostructures with grain orientation was examined on recrystallized tungsten to exclude the influence of defects introduced during plastic deformation on the pattern of surface modification. The amount of blistering changed from the most in grains oriented close to 〈1 1 1...... near the 〈0 1 1〉 corner, and spongy structures for grains near the 〈0 0 1〉 corner. Possible reasons for the orientation dependence of both the blisters and nanostructures are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. High catalytic activity of oriented 2.0.0 copper(I) oxide grown on graphene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Ana; Esteve-Adell, Ivan; Blandez, Juan F.; Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Álvaro, Mercedes; Candu, Natalia; Coman, Simona M.; Parvulescu, Vasile I.; García, Hermenegildo

    2015-10-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles supported on graphene exhibit high catalytic activity for oxidation, reduction and coupling reactions. Here we show that pyrolysis at 900 °C under inert atmosphere of copper(II) nitrate embedded in chitosan films affords 1.1.1 facet-oriented copper nanoplatelets supported on few-layered graphene. Oriented (1.1.1) copper nanoplatelets on graphene undergo spontaneous oxidation to render oriented (2.0.0) copper(I) oxide nanoplatelets on few-layered graphene. These films containing oriented copper(I) oxide exhibit as catalyst turnover numbers that can be three orders of magnitude higher for the Ullmann-type coupling, dehydrogenative coupling of dimethylphenylsilane with n-butanol and C-N cross-coupling than those of analogous unoriented graphene-supported copper(I) oxide nanoplatelets.

  19. Studies on Crystal Orientation of ZnO Film on Sapphire Using High-throughout X-ray Diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The orientation of the nano-columnar ZnO films grown on sapphire using the technique of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) exhibits deviation because of the mismatch between the crystal lattices of the films and the sapphire substrate. A high-throughout X-ray diffraction method was employed to determine the crystal orientation of the ZnO films at a time scale of the order of minutes based on the general area detection diffraction system (GADDS). This rapid, effective, and ready method, adapted for characterizing the orientation of the nano-columnar crystals is used to directly explain the results of observation of the X-ray diffraction images, by the measurements of the orientations of the crystal columns of the ZnO films along c-axis and in parallel to ab plane.

  20. Optimal orientation field to manufacture magnetostrictive composites with high magnetostrictive performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Xufeng, E-mail: dongxf@dlut.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Ou Jinping [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Guan Xinchun [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Qi Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Magnetostrictive properties have relationship with the applied orientation field during the preparation of giant magnetostrictive composites. To understand the dependence of the optimal orientation field on particle volume fraction, composites with 20%, 30% and 50% particles by volume were fabricated by distributing Terfenol-D particles in an unsaturated polyester resin under various orientation fields. Their magnetostrictive properties were tested without pre-stress at room temperature. The results indicate that as the particle volume fraction increases, the optimal orientation field increases. The main reason for this phenomenon is the packing density for the composites with higher particle volume fraction is larger than that for those with lower particle content.

  1. Deposition of highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films by using metal organic chemical deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, K H; Choi, D K; Seong, W K; Kim, J D

    1999-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been grown on Pt/Ta/SiNx/Si substrates by using metal organic chemical vapor deposition with Pb(C sub 2 H sub 5) sub 4 , Zr(O-t-C sub 4 H sub 9) sub 4 , and Ti(O-i-C sub 3 H sub 7) sub 4 as source materials and O sub 2 as an oxidizing gas. The Zr fraction in the thin films was controlled by varying the flow rate of the Zr source material. The crystal structure and the electrical properties were investigated as functions of the composition. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that at a certain range of Zr fraction, highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films with no pyrochlore phases were deposited. On the other hand, at low Zr fractions, there were peaks from Pb-oxide phases. At high Zr fractions, peaks from pyrochlore phase were seen. The films also showed good electrical properties, such as a high dielectric constant of more than 1200 and a low coercive voltage of 1.35 V.

  2. Hard magnetization direction and its relation with magnetic permeability of highly grain-oriented electrical steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Chang-sheng Li; Tao Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties of highly grain-oriented electrical steel vary along different directions. In order to investigate these prop-erties, standard Epstein samples were cut at different angles to the rolling direction. The hard magnetization direction was found at an angle of 60° to the rolling direction. To compare the measured and fitting curves, when the magnetic field intensity is higher than 7000 A/m, it is appropriate to simulate the relation of magnetic permeability and magnetization angle using the conventional elliptical model. When the magnetic field intensity is less than 3000 A/m, parabolic fitting models should be used; but when the magnetic field intensity is between 3000 and 7000 A/m, hybrid models with high accuracy, as proposed in this paper, should be applied. Piecewise relation models of magnetic per-meability and magnetization angle are significant for improving the accuracy of electromagnetic engineering calculations of electrical steel, and these new models could be applied in further industrial applications.

  3. Self-assembly of thiophene derivatives on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: hydrogen bond effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Liu, Yibiao; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Shuqi; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Zhang, Rui-Qin; Wen, Yongqiang; Du, Hongwu; Zhang, Xueji

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, to elucidate the hydrogen bond effect on the assembly behavior, we studied the assembly structures of two carboxylic substituted thiophene derivatives on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by scanning tunneling microscopy. Here thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (TCA) and thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (TDA) were employed. TDA molecules spontaneously adsorb on the HOPG surface and self-organize into a two-dimensional (2D) assembly with well-defined structure. Two types of domain could be observed. Each TDA molecule appears as a round circle with two small faint dots and forms hydrogen bonds with neighbours. Besides monolayer structure, a bilayer structure of TDA adlayer on HOPG was also observed in this research. Remnant TDA molecules adsorb on the monolayer of TDA and bilayer structure is formed. In contrast to TDA, no ordered structure of TCA on HOPG can be observed. TCA molecules have high propensity to form dimers through H-bond between carboxylic groups. But TCA dimer is not stable enough for either adsorption or imaging. Our result provides a new example for understanding hydrogen effect on stabilizing and controlling two-dimensional assembly structure and is helpful for surface nanofabrication and development of electric nanodevices.

  4. Electroanalytical and spectroscopic characterization of poly(o-phenylenediamine) grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, Elvira; Losito, Ilario; Torsi, Luisa; Sabbatini, Luigia; Zambonin, Pier Giorgio

    2003-03-01

    The polymerization of ortho-phenylenediamine (o-PD) on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) at different pH (1,3,5,7) was investigated by electroanalytical and spectroscopic methods. Cyclic voltammetry was used both to polymerize o-PD and to study the electroactivity of the resulting poly(ortho-phenylenediamine) (PPD) film. A redox couple associated to the PPD electroactivity, deeply influenced by the pH adopted during polymerization, was recorded. A correlation between this feature and the electrochemistry shown by the oligomers of o-PD, generated in solution during the polymer synthesis, was also found. A comparison between the absorption spectra, in the visible region, of the soluble oligomers and of the PPD films was also performed, suggesting that changes in both the polymer and the oligomer structure occur and are highly related to the polymerization pH. In particular, a higher degree of conjugation is exhibited by the PPD films electrosynthesised at lower pH and this likely explains the higher conductivity as well as the higher electroactivity shown by the material obtained in these conditions.

  5. High efficiency polarization-sensitive photovoltaic devices using oriented organic thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2005-10-01

    We report the fabrication of polarization-sensitive photovoltaic devices made of hetero-junction type vacuum-sublimed multilayer films composed of aligned 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic-bis-benzimidazole (aligned-PTCBI) and titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc). The PTCBI layer was successfully made to be well aligned without losing high photovoltaic power-conversion efficiency. High polarization sensitivity was achieved at around 540 nm. The device configuration was ITO/In/aligned-PTCBI/TiOPc/PEDOT:PSS/Au and the thickness of each layer was optimized for polarization-sensitive photo-detection. The power-conversion efficiencies under the polarized white light parallel and perpendicular to the molecular-orientation axis, through the ITO electrode were 0.78% and 0.45%, respectively. The ratio of short-circuit current, parallel to perpendicular, was 1.66. This device can be used as transparent photo-detectors, because the transmittance of the Au electrode was about 40% at 500-600nm. The short-circuit current ratio was increased to 3.0, when 510nm monochromatic polarized light through the Au electrode was used.

  6. Scanning near-field lithography with high precision flexure orientation stage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Haosen; Wang, Liang

    2017-09-01

    A new design of an orientation stage for scanning near-field lithography is presented based on flexure hinges. Employing flexure mechanisms in place of rigid-body mechanisms is one of the most promising techniques to efficiently implement high precision motion and avoid problems caused by friction. For near-field scanning lithography with evanescent wave, best resolution can be achieved in contact mode. However, if the mask is fixed on a rigid stage, contact friction will deteriorate the lithography surface. To reduce friction while maintaining good contact between the mask and the substrate, the mask should be held with high lateral stiffness and low torsion stiffness. This design can hold the mask in place during the scanning process and achieve passive alignment. Circular flexure hinges, whose parameters are determined by motion requirements based on Schotborgh's equation, are used as the basic unit of the stage to achieve passive alignment by compensating motions from elastic deformation. A finite-element analysis is performed to verify this property of the stage. With the aid of this stage, 21 nm resolution is achieved in static near-field lithography and 18 nm line-width in scanning near-field lithography.

  7. Fabrication of a highly b-oriented MFI-type zeolite film by the Langmuir-Blodgett method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Yu, Ting; Nian, Pei; Zhang, Qingchun; Yao, Junkang; Li, Shan; Gao, Zuoning; Yue, Xianglong

    2014-04-29

    sec-Butanol-modified rounded-coffin-shaped silicalite-1 (SL) microcrystals were assembled into a compact and highly b-oriented monolayer extending over the centimeter scale via the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. For comparison, methanol- or ethanol-modified SL microcrystals could not float and were compressed into a dense film in an LB trough. Subsequently, highly b-oriented MFI films with a thickness of ∼1.5 μm were successfully obtained on the solid substrates by secondary growth of the LB monolayer using tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) as the structure-directing agent. The electrochemical experiments confirmed that the prepared films were defect-free. In general, the LB method is a highly controllable and reproducible method of organizing anisotropic zeolite crystals with a preferred orientation over a relatively large surface area. The LB technique could be further applied as an effective platform for the oriented assembly of different types of zeolite particles and the growth of variously oriented zeolite films.

  8. Laterally orienting C. elegans using geometry at microscale for high-throughput visual screens in neurodegeneration and neuronal development studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan de Carlos Cáceres

    Full Text Available C. elegans is an excellent model system for studying neuroscience using genetics because of its relatively simple nervous system, sequenced genome, and the availability of a large number of transgenic and mutant strains. Recently, microfluidic devices have been used for high-throughput genetic screens, replacing traditional methods of manually handling C. elegans. However, the orientation of nematodes within microfluidic devices is random and often not conducive to inspection, hindering visual analysis and overall throughput. In addition, while previous studies have utilized methods to bias head and tail orientation, none of the existing techniques allow for orientation along the dorso-ventral body axis. Here, we present the design of a simple and robust method for passively orienting worms into lateral body positions in microfluidic devices to facilitate inspection of morphological features with specific dorso-ventral alignments. Using this technique, we can position animals into lateral orientations with up to 84% efficiency, compared to 21% using existing methods. We isolated six mutants with neuronal development or neurodegenerative defects, showing that our technology can be used for on-chip analysis and high-throughput visual screens.

  9. Roles of Oxygen and Hydrogen in Crystal Orientation Transition of Copper Foils for High-Quality Graphene Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junxiong; Xu, Jianbao; Zhao, Yanfei; Shi, Lin; Li, Qi; Liu, Fengkui; Ullah, Zaka; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Yufen; Liu, Liwei

    2017-01-01

    The high-quality graphene film can be grown on single-crystal Cu substrate by seamlessly stitching the aligned graphene domains. The roles of O2 and H2 have been intensively studied in the graphene growth kinetics, including lowering the nucleation sites and tailoring the domain structures. However, how the O2 and H2 influence Cu orientations during recrystallization prior to growing graphene, still remains unclear. Here we report that the oxidation of Cu surface tends to stabilize the Cu(001) orientation while impedes the evolution of Cu(111) single domain during annealing process. The crystal orientation-controlled synthesis of aligned graphene seeds is further realized on the long-range ordered Cu(111) substrate. With decreasing the thickness of oxide layer on Cu surface by introducing H2, the Cu(001) orientation changes into Cu(111) orientation. Meanwhile, the average domain size of Cu foils is increased from 50 μm to larger than 1000 μm. The density functional theory calculations reveal that the oxygen increases the energy barrier for Cu(111) surface and makes O/Cu(001) more stable than O/Cu(111) structure. Our work can be helpful for revealing the roles of O2 and H2 in controlling the formation of Cu single-crystal substrate as well as in growing high-quality graphene films. PMID:28367988

  10. Recent progress concerning the production of controlled highly oriented electrospun nanofibrous arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.; Leon, A. L.; Popa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Among the foreground domains of all the research-development programs at national and international level, a special place is occupied by that concerning the nanosciences, nanotechnologies, new materials and technologies. Electrospinning found a well-deserved place in this space, offering the preparation of nanomaterials with distinctive properties and applications in medicine, environment, photonic sensors, filters, etc. These multiple applications are generated by the fact that the electrospinning technology makes available the production of nanofibers with controllable characteristics (length, porosity, density, and mechanical characteristics), complexity and architecture. The apparition of 3D printing technology favors the production of complex nanofibrous structures, controlled assembly, self-assembly of electrospun nanofibers for the production of scaffolds used in various medical applications. The architecture of fibrous deposits has a special influence on the subsequent development of the cells of the reconstructed organism. The present work proposes to study of recent progress concerning the production of controlled highly oriented electrospun nanofibrous arrays and progress in research on the production of complex 2D and 3D structures.

  11. Formation of Nanocones on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite by Oxygen Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Vesel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in hemocompatibility of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG by formation of nanostructured surface by oxygen plasma treatment is reported. We have showed that by appropriate fine tuning of plasma and discharge parameters we are able to create nanostructured surface which is densely covered with nanocones. The size of the nanocones strongly depended on treatment time. The optimal results in terms of material hemocompatibility were obtained after treatment with oxygen plasma for 15 s, when both the nanotopography and wettability were the most favorable, since marked reduction in adhesion and activation of platelets was observed on this surface. At prolonged treatment times, the rich surface topography was lost and thus also its antithrombogenic properties. Chemical composition of the surface was always more or less the same, regardless of its morphology and height of the nanocones. Namely, on all plasma treated samples, only a few atomic percent of oxygen was found, meaning that plasma caused mostly etching, leading to changes in the surface morphology. This indicates that the main preventing mechanism against platelets adhesion was the right surface morphology.

  12. Highly (100) oriented MgO growth on thin Mg layer in MTJ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimbo, K [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S3-42 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Nakagawa, S, E-mail: jimbo.k@spin.pe.titech.ac.jp

    2011-01-01

    In order to apply Stress Assisted Magnetization Reversal (SAMR) method to perpendicular magnetoresistive random access memory (p-MRAM) with magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) using MgO (001) oriented barrier layer, multilayer of Ta/ Terfenol-D/ Mg/ MgO and Ta/ Terfenol-D/ MgO were prepared. While the MgO layer, deposited directly on the Terfenol-D layer, did not show (100) orientatin, very thin metallic Mg layer, deposited prior to the MgO deposition, was effective to attain MgO (100) orientation. The crystalline orientation was very weak without Mg, however, the multilayer with Mg showed very strong MgO(100) peak and the MgO orientation was shifted depending on the Mg thickness.

  13. Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high speed MOSFETs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Maiti; C K Maiti

    2012-10-01

    We report here RF MOSFET performance in sub-45-nm hybrid orientation CMOS technology. Based on the combination of hybrid orientation technology (HOT) and process-induced local strain engineering,MOSFET RF performance is investigated using CAD (TCAD) technology. Transistor optimization on (100) substrate via silicon nitride (Si3N4) cap layer thickness for -MOSFETs, Ge mole fraction optimization for -MOSFETs on (110) substrates and channel length scaling have resulted in record RF performance, viz. the cut-off frequency, T.

  14. Highly (110)- and (111)-oriented BiFeO3 films on BaPbO3 electrode with Ru or Pt /Ru barrier layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ching; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Hsiung, Chang-Po

    2007-04-01

    Highly (110)- and (111)-oriented BiFeO3 (BFO) films were fabricated with BaPbO3 (BPO )/Ru and BPO /Pt/Ru as electrode/barrier on Si substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering. The BPO /Ru and BPO /Pt/Ru stacks both induce oriented BFO films and act as diffusion barriers. The (110)- and (111)-oriented BFO films possess excellent ferroelectric properties with only minor leakage. The values of remnant polarization are almost the same, about 42μC/cm2, for (110)- and (111)-oriented BFO films. However, polarization measured under varying pulse widths demonstrates that the switching polarization in (111)-oriented BFO films is higher than in (110)-oriented films. Additionally, (111)-oriented BFO films exhibit better retention properties than (110)-oriented films.

  15. Characterization of highly (110)- and (111)-oriented Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3 films on BaPbO3 electrode using Ru conducting barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2005-07-01

    Highly non-(001)-oriented Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3 (PZT) films have been fabricated by rf-magnetron sputtering. The preferential (110)-oriented BaPbO3 (BPO) deposited on Ru buffer layer induces the growth of (110)-oriented PZT film. With the aid of self-organized growth of PZT, the orientation of the film deposited on random-oriented BPO /Pt(111)/Ru(002) is (111)-preferred. The insertion of Pt layer between BPO and Ru changes the orientation of PZT from (110) to (111) and prevents the oxygen diffusion. These non-(001)-oriented PZT films possess more superior ferroelectric, fatigue, and retention properties than those of (001)-oriented PZT films.

  16. Using object-oriented classification and high-resolution imagery to map fuel types in a Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Arroyo; S.P. Healey; W.B. Cohen; D. Cocero; J.A. Manzanera

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of fuel load and composition is critical in fighting, preventing, and understanding wildfires. Commonly, the generation of fuel maps from remotely sensed imagery has made use of medium-resolution sensors such as Landsat. This paper presents a methodology to generate fuel type maps from high spatial resolution satellite data through object-oriented...

  17. Observations of orientation dependence of surface morphology in tungsten implanted by low energy and high flux D plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.Y.; Zhang, Y. B.; Yuan, Y.; Fu, B. Q.; Godfrey, A.; De Temmerman, G.; Liu, W.; Huang, X.

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification by formation of blistering and nanostructures with pronounced orientation dependence has been observed on surfaces of rolled tungsten and recrystallized tungsten after exposure to a low energy (38 eV) deuterium (D) plasma with a high flux of 1024 m-2 s -1. The correlation betwee

  18. Microstructural analyses, magnetic and magneto-optic effects in high oriented BaFe12O19 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lodder, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Barium ferrite films applicable for data storage have been grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. BaFe12O19/Al2O3 films show a polycrystalline structure with high oriented perpendicular anisotropy. Large megneto-optic effects have been observed in the UV wavelength. The magnetic rel

  19. Automatic Compilation from High-Level Biologically-Oriented Programming Language to Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes () and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Conclusions/Significance Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems. PMID:21850228

  20. Large scale computational chemistry modeling of the oxidation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovathingal, Savio; Schwartzentruber, Thomas E; Srinivasan, Sriram Goverapet; van Duin, Adri C T

    2013-04-04

    Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the oxidation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by hyperthermal atomic oxygen beam (5 eV). Simulations are performed using the ReaxFF classical reactive force field. We present here additional evidence that this method accurately reproduces ab initio derived energies relevant to HOPG oxidation. HOPG is modeled as multilayer graphene and etch-pit formation and evolution is directly simulated through a large number of sequential atomic oxygen collisions. The simulations predict that an oxygen coverage is first established that acts as a precursor to carbon-removal reactions, which ultimately etch wide but shallow pits, as observed in experiments. In quantitative agreement with experiment, the simulations predict the most abundant product species to be O2 (via recombination reactions), followed by CO2, with CO as the least abundant product species. Although recombination occurs all over the graphene sheet, the carbon-removal reactions occur only about the edges of the etch pit. Through isolated defect analysis on small graphene models as well as trajectory analysis performed directly on the predicted etch pit, the activation energies for the dominant reaction mechanisms leading to O2, CO2, and CO product species are determined to be 0.3, 0.52, and 0.67 eV, respectively. Overall, the qualitative and quantitative agreement between MD simulation and experiment is very promising. Thus, the MD simulation approach and C/H/O ReaxFF parametrization may be useful for simulating high-temperature gas interactions with graphitic materials where the microstructure is more complex than HOPG.

  1. Influences of Thermal Martensites and Grain Orientations on Strain-induced Martensites in High Manganese TRIP/TWIP Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fayun Lu; Ping Yang; Li Meng; Fenge Cui; Hua Ding

    2011-01-01

    Strain-induced martensites in high manganese TRIP/TWIP steels were investigated in the presence of thermal martensites and under the influence of austenitic grain orientation by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Before deformation, the morphology of α′-M depended mainly on the number of variants and growing period. Regardless of martensite morphologies and deformation, the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationships always maintained. The 6 α′-M variants formed from a plate of ε-M were of 3 pairs of twins with a common axis <110>α′ parallel to the normal of {111}γ habit plane to minimize transformation strain. When α′-M could be formed only by deformation, it nucleated at the intersection of ε-M variants and grew mainly in thick ε-M plates. Thick ε plates promoted significantly the α′-M and weakened the influence of grain orientations. During tension, the transformation in <100>-oriented grains was observed to be slower than that in <111>-oriented grains. Deformation twins promoted ε-M formation slightly and had no apparent effect on α′-M. Deformation increased the number of ε-M variants, but reduced that of α′-M variants.

  2. On the alpha --> beta transition of carbon-coated highly oriented PVDF ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jijun; Li, Huihui; Liu, Jichun; Duan, Yongxin; Jiang, Shidong; Yan, Shouke

    2003-02-12

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is one of the polymers which exhibit pronounced polymorphic crystalline forms, depending on crystallization conditions. Four different crystalline modifications, i.e., alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, have been reported so far. Among them, even though the alpha-form is the most common one, the beta-phase is the one that has attracted the widest interest due to its extensive piezo- and pyroelectric applications. During the past few decades, a substantial amount of work has been done in attempts to characterize these crystal modifications and transformations among them. It was well documented that the alpha-form PVDF can be easily obtained through melt crystallization of the PVDF at atmospheric pressure. Its beta-counterpart can, however, only be directly obtained by growth from solution, molecular epitaxy on the surface of potassium bromide, melt crystallization at high pressures, or by applying with a strong electric field. Transformation from its alpha-phase to beta-phase has been achieved by mechanical deformation, while the retransformation could be conducted through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. In the present work, the recrystallization behavior of carbon-coated melt-drawn oriented PVDF ultrathin films at atmospheric pressure was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The results indicate that through vacuum evaporating a thin carbon layer on the surface of highly oriented alpha-PVDF ultrathin film, not only has its high orientation been preserved after a complete melting and recrystallization process, but an alpha --> beta transition of PVDF has also been achieved through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. This technique can be successfully used for preparing highly oriented beta-PVDF ultrathin films, especially patterned microstructures of PVDF with its highly oriented polar beta-phase and nonoriented nonpolar alpha-phase.

  3. [100]-Oriented LiFePO4 Nanoflakes toward High Rate Li-Ion Battery Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaojin; Peng, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Hu, Minmin; Zhu, Kongjun; Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-13

    [100] is believed to be a tough diffusion direction for Li(+) in LiFePO4, leading to the belief that the rate performance of [100]-oriented LiFePO4 is poor. Here we report the fabrication of 12 nm-thick [100]-oriented LiFePO4 nanoflakes by a simple one-pot solvothermal method. The nanoflakes exhibit unexpectedly excellent electrochemical performance, in stark contrast to what was previously believed. Such an exceptional result is attributed to a decreased thermodynamic transformation barrier height (Δμb) associated with increased active population.

  4. An object oriented design for high performance linear algebra on distributed memory architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Walker, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pozo, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1993-12-31

    We describe the design of ScaLAPACK++, an object oriented C++ library for implementing linear algebra computations on distributed memory multicomputers. This package, when complete, will support distributed dense, banded, sparse matrix operations for symmetric, positive-definite, and non-symmetric cases. In ScaLAPACK++ we have employed object oriented design methods to enchance scalability, portability, flexibility, and ease-of-use. We illustrate some of these points by describing the implementation of a right-looking LU factorization for dense systems in ScaLAPACK++.

  5. Esterification of oleic acid with methanol by immobilized lipase on wrinkled silica nanoparticles with highly ordered, radially oriented mesochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jinli; Zhou, Guowei; Liu, Ruirui; Li, Tianduo

    2016-02-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a wrinkled structure (wrinkled silica nanoparticles, WSNs) having highly ordered, radially oriented mesochannels were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The method used a mixture of cyclohexane, ethanol, and water as solvent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as source of inorganic silica, ammonium hydroxide as hydrolysis additive, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizing agent of particle growth. Particle size (240nm to 540nm), specific surface areas (490m(2)g(-1) to 634m(2)g(-1)), surface morphology (radial wrinkled structures), and pore structure (radially oriented mesochannels) of WSN samples were varied using different molar ratios of CTAB to PVP. Using synthesized WSN samples with radially oriented mesochannels as support, we prepared immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) as a new biocatalyst for biodiesel production through the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. These results suggest that WSNs with highly ordered, radially oriented mesochannels have promising applications in biocatalysis, with the highest oleic acid conversion rate of about 86.4% under the optimum conditions.

  6. Boosting Photon Harvesting in Organic Solar Cells with Highly Oriented Molecular Crystals via Graphene-Organic Heterointerface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sae Byeok; Kim, Hyun Ho; Lee, Hansol; Kang, Boseok; Lee, Seongkyu; Sim, Myungsun; Kim, Min; Lee, Wi Hyoung; Cho, Kilwon

    2015-08-25

    Photon harvesting in organic solar cells is highly dependent on the anisotropic nature of the optoelectronic properties of photoactive materials. Here, we demonstrate an efficient approach to dramatically enhance photon harvesting in planar heterojunction solar cells by using a graphene-organic heterointerface. A large area, residue-free monolayer graphene is inserted at anode interface to serve as an atomically thin epitaxial template for growing highly orientated pentacene crystals with lying-down orientation. This anisotropic orientation enhances the overall optoelectronic properties, including light absorption, charge carrier lifetime, interfacial energetics, and especially the exciton diffusion length. Spectroscopic and crystallographic analysis reveal that the lying-down orientation persists until a thickness of 110 nm, which, along with increased exciton diffusion length up to nearly 100 nm, allows the device optimum thickness to be doubled to yield significantly enhanced light absorption within the photoactive layers. The resultant photovoltaic performance shows simultaneous increment in Voc, Jsc, and FF, and consequently a 5 times increment in the maximum power conversion efficiency than the equivalent devices without a graphene layer. The present findings indicate that controlling organic-graphene heterointerface could provide a design strategy of organic solar cell architecture for boosting photon harvesting.

  7. Highly active engineered-enzyme oriented monolayers: formation, characterization and sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patolsky Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interest in introducing ecologically-clean, and efficient enzymes into modern industry has been growing steadily. However, difficulties associated with controlling their orientation, and maintaining their selectivity and reactivity is still a significant obstacle. We have developed precise immobilization of biomolecules, while retaining their native functionality, and report a new, fast, easy, and reliable procedure of protein immobilization, with the use of Adenylate kinase as a model system. Methods Self-assembled monolayers of hexane-1,6-dithiol were formed on gold surfaces. The monolayers were characterized by contact-angle measurements, Elman-reagent reaction, QCM, and XPS. A specifically designed, mutated Adenylate kinase, where cysteine was inserted at the 75 residue, and the cysteine at residue 77 was replaced by serine, was used for attachment to the SAM surface via spontaneously formed disulfide (S-S bonds. QCM, and XPS were used for characterization of the immobilized protein layer. Curve fitting in XPS measurements used a Gaussian-Lorentzian function. Results and Discussion Water contact angle (65-70°, as well as all characterization techniques used, confirmed the formation of self-assembled monolayer with surface SH groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed clearly the two types of sulfur atom, one attached to the gold (triolate and the other (SH/S-S at the ω-position for the hexane-1,6-dithiol SAMs. The formation of a protein monolayer was confirmed using XPS, and QCM, where the QCM-determined amount of protein on the surface was in agreement with a model that considered the surface area of a single protein molecule. Enzymatic activity tests of the immobilized protein confirmed that there is no change in enzymatic functionality, and reveal activity ~100 times that expected for the same amount of protein in solution. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, immobilization of a protein by the method

  8. A highly oriented hybrid microarray modified electrode fabricated by a template-free method for ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Chu, Zhenyu; Dong, Xueliang; Jin, Wanqin; Dempsey, Eithne

    2013-10-01

    Highly oriented growth of a hybrid microarray was realized by a facile template-free method on gold substrates for the first time. The proposed formation mechanism involves an interfacial structure-directing force arising from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) between gold substrates and hybrid crystals. Different SAMs and variable surface coverage of the assembled molecules play a critical role in the interfacial directing forces and influence the morphologies of hybrid films. A highly oriented hybrid microarray was formed on the highly aligned and vertical SAMs of 1,4-benzenedithiol molecules with rigid backbones, which afforded an intense structure-directing power for the oriented growth of hybrid crystals. Additionally, the density of the microarray could be adjusted by controlling the surface coverage of assembled molecules. Based on the hybrid microarray modified electrode with a large specific area (ca. 10 times its geometrical area), a label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor was constructed for the detection of an oligonucleotide fragment of the avian flu virus H5N1. The DNA biosensor displayed a significantly low detection limit of 5 pM (S/N = 3), a wide linear response from 10 pM to 10 nM, as well as excellent selectivity, good regeneration and high stability. We expect that the proposed template-free method can provide a new reference for the fabrication of a highly oriented hybrid array and the as-prepared microarray modified electrode will be a promising paradigm in constructing highly sensitive and selective biosensors.Highly oriented growth of a hybrid microarray was realized by a facile template-free method on gold substrates for the first time. The proposed formation mechanism involves an interfacial structure-directing force arising from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) between gold substrates and hybrid crystals. Different SAMs and variable surface coverage of the assembled molecules play a critical role in the interfacial directing forces and

  9. Orientation Effects in the X-ray Properties of High-z 3CRR Quasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Kuraszkiewicz, J.; Haas, M.; Antonucci, R.; Ashby, M.; Barthel, P.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chini, R.; Fazio, G.; Lawrence, C.; Leipski, C.; Ogle, P.; Schulz, B.; Willner, S.; Heymann, F.; Worrall, D.

    2011-01-01

    A critical problem in understanding active galaxies is separation of intrinsic physical differences from observed differences due to orientation. Relativistic motion in powerful radio sources produces a significant level of anisotropic emission at all but the lowest frequencies. Obscuration is also

  10. Results on the Coherent Interaction of High Energy Electrons and Photons in Oriented Single Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Y V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Van Rens, B; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, Erik; Uggerhøj, U; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN-NA-59 experiment examined a wide range of electromagnetic processes for multi-GeV electrons and photons interacting with oriented single crystals. The various types of crystals and their orientations were used for producing photon beams and for converting and measuring their polarisation. The radiation emitted by 178 GeV unpolarised electrons incident on a 1.5 cm thick Si crystal oriented in the Coherent Bremsstrahlung (CB) and the String-of-Strings (SOS) modes was used to obtain multi-GeV linearly polarised photon beams. A new crystal polarimetry technique was established for measuring the linear polarisation of the photon beam. The polarimeter is based on the dependence of the Coherent Pair Production (CPP) cross section in oriented single crystals on the direction of the photon polarisation with respect to the crystal plane. Both a 1 mm thick single crystal of Germanium and a 4 mm thick multi-tile set of synthetic Diamond crystals were used as analyzers of the linear polarisation. A birefringence ...

  11. Wind-Related Orientation Patterns in Diurnal, Crepuscular and Nocturnal High-Altitude Insect Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lim, Ka Sing; Reynolds, Don R; Reynolds, Andy M; Chapman, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground) where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects' self-powered speed is directed downstream), and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here, we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected "medium-sized" windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg), flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all "migration events" analyzed), and was also frequent at sunset (85%) and at night (81%). Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment), but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation "performance" significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  12. Wind-related orientation patterns in diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal high-altitude insect migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  13. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other.

  14. jGASW: A Service-Oriented Framework Supporting High Throughput Computing and Non-functional Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Balderrama, Javier; Montagnat, Johan; Lingrand, Diane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Although Service-Oriented principles have been widely adopted by High Throughput Computing infrastructure designers, the integration between SOA and HTC is made difficult by legacy. jGASW is a framework for wrapping legacy scientific applications as Web Services and integrating them into an intensive computing-aware SOA framework. It maps complex I/O data structures to command lines and enables dynamic allocation of computing resources; including execu- tion on local h...

  15. Oriented graphene films for use as high-performance thermal and electrical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafi, Ali; Wong, Kevin; Lau, Desmond; Partridge, Jim G.; McCulloch, Dougal G.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon thin films can be prepared with properties that make them suitable for applications in electronics including heat sinks, electrical interconnects transistors and chemical sensors. In this work, we examine the microstructure and normalised through film electrical resistance of oriented and non-oriented carbon films deposited onto silicon substrates at room temperature using a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA). Electrical measurements have also been performed on carbon films which were lithographically patterned to produce test structures resembling vertical interconnects. Twopoint, through-film current-voltage measurements of NiCr/Carbon/Si structures showed that the electrical resistance of the carbon films could be varied by several orders of magnitude simply by selecting different substrate bias voltages. Importantly, carbon films composed of vertically aligned graphene sheets were found to provide low resistance, linear current-voltage characteristics, indicating the formation of Ohmic junctions at the NiCr and Si interfaces of the NiCr/Carbon/Si structure.

  16. High Performance Discrete Cosine Transform Operator Using Multimedia Oriented Subword Parallelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an efficient two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT operator is proposed for multimedia applications. It is based on the DCT operator proposed in Kovac and Ranganathan, 1995. Speed-up is obtained by using multimedia oriented subword parallelism (SWP. Rather than operating on a single pixel, the SWP-based DCT operator performs parallel computations on multiple pixels packed in word size input registers so that the performance of the operator is increased. Special emphasis is made to increase the coordination between pixel sizes and subword sizes to maximize resource utilization rate. Rather than using classical subword sizes (8, 16, and 32 bits, multimedia oriented subword sizes (8, 10, 12, and 16 bits are used in the proposed DCT operator. The proposed SWP DCT operator unit can be used as a coprocessor for multimedia applications.

  17. Service-oriented workflow to efficiently and automatically fulfill products in a highly individualized web and mobile environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mu

    2015-03-01

    Service Oriented Architecture1 (SOA) is widely used in building flexible and scalable web sites and services. In most of the web or mobile photo book and gifting business space, the products ordered are highly variable without a standard template that one can substitute texts or images from similar to that of commercial variable data printing. In this paper, the author describes a SOA workflow in a multi-sites, multi-product lines fulfillment system where three major challenges are addressed: utilization of hardware and equipment, highly automation with fault recovery, and highly scalable and flexible with order volume fluctuation.

  18. Dependence of Deformation Twinning on Grain Orientation and Texture Evolution of High Manganese TWIP Steels at Different Deformation Temperatures%Dependence of Deformation Twinning on Grain Orientation and Texture Evolution of High Manganese TWIP Steels at Different Deformation Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiu-hui; YANG Ping; LU Fa-yun; MENG Li

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical properties, microstructure and texture evolution were studied in two tensile-deformed high manganese TWIP steels at different temperatures. Special attention was paid to the effects of deformation tempera- ture and grain orientation on twinning behavior. The results showed that, at --70 ℃ and at room temperature, both twins and hexagonal martensite were found in a lower manganese steel of 26Mn. With deformation temperature ris- ing, twins became less and they disappeared at 500 ℃. Strong 〈111〉 texture appeared at 300 ℃, while it weakened at 500 ℃ due to the low strain rate and higher stacking fault energy. EBSD measurement revealed the dependence of deformation twinning on grain orientation at all test temperatures.

  19. Development of probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools for probability materials at junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Dwi Ivayana; Hermanto, Didik

    2017-08-01

    This research is a developmental research of probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools for probability materials at ninth grade students. This study is aimed to produce a good probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools. The subjects were IX-A students of MTs Model Bangkalan. The stages of this development research used 4-D development model which has been modified into define, design and develop. Teaching learning tools consist of lesson plan, students' worksheet, learning teaching media and students' achievement test. The research instrument used was a sheet of learning tools validation, a sheet of teachers' activities, a sheet of students' activities, students' response questionnaire and students' achievement test. The result of those instruments were analyzed descriptively to answer research objectives. The result was teaching learning tools in which oriented to probabilistic thinking of probability at ninth grade students which has been valid. Since teaching and learning tools have been revised based on validation, and after experiment in class produced that teachers' ability in managing class was effective, students' activities were good, students' responses to the learning tools were positive and the validity, sensitivity and reliability category toward achievement test. In summary, this teaching learning tools can be used by teacher to teach probability for develop students' probabilistic thinking.

  20. Semicrystalline Structure-Dielectric Property Relationship and Electrical Conduction in a Biaxially Oriented Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film under High Electric Fields and High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianyun; Ho, Janet; Allahyarov, Elshad; Mu, Richard; Zhu, Lei

    2015-09-16

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based homopolymers and copolymers are attractive for a broad range of electroactive applications because of their high dielectric constants. Especially, biaxially oriented PVDF (BOPVDF) films exhibit a DC breakdown strength as high as that for biaxially oriented polypropylene films. In this work, we revealed the molecular origin of the high dielectric constant via study of a commercial BOPVDF film. By determination of the dielectric constant for the amorphous phase in BOPVDF, a high value of ca. 21-22 at 25 °C was obtained, and a three-phase (i.e., lamellar crystal/oriented interphase/amorphous region) semicrystalline model was proposed to explain this result. Meanwhile, electronic conduction mechanisms in BOPVDF under high electric fields and elevated temperatures were investigated by thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) spectroscopy and leakage current studies. Space charge injection from metal electrodes was identified as a major factor for electronic conduction when BOPVDF was poled above 75 °C and 20 MV/m. In addition, when silver or aluminum were used as electrodes, new ions were generated from electrochemical reactions under high fields. Due to the electrochemical reactions between PVDF and the metal electrode, a question is raised for practical electrical applications using PVDF and its copolymers under high-field and high-temperature conditions. A potential method to prevent electrochemical degradation of PVDF is proposed in this study.

  1. Body mass index moderates gaze orienting biases and pupil diameter to high and low calorie food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Reiko; Hoover, Alison; Ceballos, Natalie A; Komogortsev, Oleg

    2011-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine eye gaze behavior to different kinds of food images in individuals differing in BMI status. Eye-tracking methods were used to examine gaze and pupil responses while normal weight and overweight women freely viewed pairs of different food images: high calorie sweet foods, high calorie savory foods, and low calorie foods. Self-report measures of hunger, state and trait cravings, and restrained eating were also obtained. Results revealed orienting biases to low calorie foods and decreases in pupil diameter to high calorie sweet foods relative to low calorie foods in the overweight group. Groups did not differ in the average amount of time spent gazing at the different image types. Furthermore, increased state cravings were associated with larger pupil diameters to high calorie savory foods, especially in individuals with lower BMIs. In contrast, restrained eating scores were associated with a decreased orienting bias to high calorie sweet foods in the high BMI group. In conclusion, BMI status appears to influence gaze parameters that are less susceptible to cognitive control. Results suggest that overweight individuals, especially those who diet, have negative implicit attitudes toward high calorie foods, especially sweets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; W.Bakken, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. Methods: Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects - including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors significantly differed based on gender and orientation. Conclusions: Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts. PMID:26401756

  3. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney DeCamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchhas suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behaviormay help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. METHODS: Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. RESULTS: Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects - including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors – significantly differed based on gender and orientation. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts.

  4. Synthesis of highly c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes by secondary growth and their gas permeation properties

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yunyang

    2011-09-01

    A seeded growth procedure was successfully developed to synthesize highly c-oriented and well-intergrown zeolitic imidazolate framework-69 (ZIF-69) membranes on porous α-alumina substrates. The synthesis conditions were optimized both for seed preparation and for secondary growth. For seeding, a facile method was developed to prepare smaller and flat ZIF-69 microcrystals in order to make thin and c-oriented seed layers. While for secondary growth, a synthesis condition that favored the growth along the c-direction was chosen in order to form highly c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes after growth. As a result, the majority of ZIF-69 grains inside the membrane have their straight channels along the crystallographic c-axis aligned perpendicularly to the substrate surface. Such alignment was confirmed by both XRD and pole figure analysis. The mixture-gas separation studies that were carried out at room temperature and 1atm gave separation factors of 6.3, 5.0, 4.6 for CO2/N2, CO2/CO and CO2/CH4 respectively, and a permeance of ∼1.0×10-7molm-2s-1Pa-1 for CO2 in almost all mixtures. Both the separation factor and permeance were better than the performance of the ZIF-69 membranes prepared by the in situ solvothermal method due to improvement in the membrane microstructure by the seeded growth method. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects--including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors--significantly differed based on gender and orientation. Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  6. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, K.K.; Pandey, R.K. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub x} have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880{degrees}C) of Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (>860{degrees}C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} phase films on (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T{sub co}) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  7. Crystallographically Oriented Cobalt Chromium Tantalum Thin-Film Media for High Areal Density Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youping

    In order to develop the techniques for increasing recording areal density, microstructural, magnetic and recording properties of crystallographically-oriented CoCrTa thin-films were investigated. The oriented films included bi-crystal and quad-crystal CoCrTa thin films, which were prepared by sputtering on (100) and (110) single crystal Cr substrates, respectively. A theoretical model was developed to calculate the in-plane torque curves of the oriented films. Based on this model, experimental investigations were conducted on the quad-crystal CoCrTa films. It was found that, by fitting the measured in-plane torque curves of the quad -crystal CoCrTa film, it was possible to determine the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants (K_{rm u1 } and K_{rm u2}) of the CoCrTa film. The torque curves of quad -crystal films were also found to be indicative of the grain isolation and could be used to optimize the sputtering conditions. Substrate bias changed the film composition and lowered M_{rm s} and K_{rm u1}, while improving grain isolation. A more realistic micromagnetic model, which used the measured values of M_ {rm s} and K_{ rm u1} and took the film's grain-cluster microstructure into account, was developed for the bi-crystal films. The simulation results fitted well with the experimental data. A low-speed contact-recording spin-stand, which utilized a magnetoresistive head, was set up for recording studies on the oriented thin-film media and an isotropic thin-film medium prepared on a NiP/Al substrate. The readback signal from the MR head appeared to have some correlation with the medium anisotropy. The recorded patterns were imaged by magnetic force microscopy. It was found that erased bands formed on the quad-crystal and isotropic thin -film media. On the bi-crystal thin-film media, however, clear erased bands were not observed possibly due to the large head-disk distance.

  8. Highly conducting and preferred oriented boron doped nc-Si films for window layers in nc-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Praloy; Das, Debajyoti

    2016-05-01

    Growth and optimization of the boron dopednanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films have been studied by varyingthe gaspressure applied to the hydrogendiluted silane plasma in RF (13.56 MHz) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system, using diborane (B2H6) as the dopant gas. High magnitudeof electrical conductivity (~102 S cm-1) andorientedcrystallographic lattice planes have been obtained with high crystalline volume fraction (~86 %) at an optimum pressure of 2.5 Torr. XRD and Raman studies reveal good crystallinity with preferred orientation, suitable for applications in stacked layer devices, particularly in nc-Si solar cells.

  9. Fabrication and Magnetic Properties of Highly Oriented ZnO:Eu Films by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A series of Eu-doped ZnO films were prepared by a sol-gel method. Precursor and films were characterized by thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis spectra, as well as the magnetism measurement. The wurtzite structure of obtained films presents an extreme high c-orientation character. The film susceptibility resembles a Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature, and presents an obvious enhancement at low temperature, indicating the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions in the Zn0.9Eu0.1O films.

  10. Quantitative assessment on the orientation and distribution of carbon fibers in a conductive polymer composite using high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsun; Huang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Shyh-Hau

    2012-05-01

    uniformly in the deeper regions of the samples. This study validates that the distribution and orientation of CFs in conductive polymer composites could be sensitively and quantitatively assessed by high-frequency ultrasound in conjunction with current analysis methods.

  11. Orientation Effects in the Spectral Energy Distributions of High-z 3CRR Sources Including New Far-IR Herschel Data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Wilkes, B.; Barthel, P.; Haas, M.; Willner, S.; Leipski, C.; Ashby, M.; Fazio, G.

    2011-01-01

    A critical problem in understanding AGN and their contribution to the accretion power of the Universe is deducing their intrinsic properties from the observed properties, which are highly orientation/obscuration dependent. One way to select AGN samples that are unbiased by the effects of orientation

  12. Danish orientalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerlang, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Orientalism became an important current in nineteenth-century Danish culture, but although it was contemporaneous with the orientalism of the leading European nations - Great Britain, France, Germany...

  13. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, M

    2016-11-15

    Background: Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Method: Interview data on the 7(th) grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). Results: The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; pstudents, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Nano-visualization of oriented-immobilized IgGs on immunosensors by high-speed atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masumi; Somiya, Masaharu; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2012-11-01

    Oriented immobilization of sensing molecules on solid phases is an important issue in biosensing. In case of immunosensors, it is essential to scrutinize not only the direction and shape of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in solution but also the real-time movement of IgGs, which cannot be achieved by conventional techniques. Recently, we developed bio-nanocapsules (BNCs) displaying a tandem form of the IgG Fc-binding Z domain derived from Staphylococcus aureus protein A (ZZ-BNC) to enhance the sensitivity and antigen-binding capacity of IgG via oriented-immobilization. Here, we used high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to reveal the fine surface structure of ZZ-BNC and observe the movement of mouse IgG3 molecules tethered onto ZZ-BNC in solution. ZZ-BNC was shown to act as a scaffold for oriented immobilization of IgG, enabling its Fv regions to undergo rotational Brownian motion. Thus, HS-AFM could decipher real-time movement of sensing molecules on biosensors at the single molecule level.

  15. Photoirradiation Caused Controllable Wettability Switching of Sputtered Highly Aligned c-Axis-Oriented Zinc Oxide Columnar Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the microstructure morphology and UV photoirradiation coupling effects of the c-axis-oriented zinc oxide (ZnO columnar films. Highly aligned c-axis-oriented films have been deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature by radio-frequency (RF magnetron sputtering without introducing any oxygen source under different sputtering powers ranging from 50 to 150 W. Self-assembled ZnO columnar structures that were successfully obtained belong to wurtzite structure, and the corresponding columnar structures and crystalline orientation were confirmed by the FE-SEM and XRD, respectively. All the ZnO columnar films exhibit good transparency with a visible light averaged transmittance over 82%. According to water contact angle (CA measurement, ZnO columnar films exhibit hydrophobic behavior. After exposing to photoirradiation under ultraviolet (UV environment, all the ZnO samples showed remarkable transition from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic surfaces and could return to their original hydrophobicity after being placed in the dark. It is demonstrated that the controllable wettability of ZnO columnar films under changing between the UV photoirradiation and dark storage is due to the surface charges accumulation and discharging processes. As a result, this study could provide important applications for many fields such as ZnO-based hybrid sensors/solar cells functional devices with photoirradiation disinfection surfaces accompanied with reversible wettability switches.

  16. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, M; Groen, Y; Wijers, A A; Noltes, H; Tucha, O; Hoekstra, P J

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the individual's approach and avoidance tendencies. All subjects participated in a randomised double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial where either oxytocin (OXT) or placebo was administered preceding the viewing of affective pictures.The pictures, selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), represented a systematic variation of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. Both cardiac (ECR) and cortical (LPP) evoked orienting responses were measured and both were enhanced for the pictures with humans, in particular for the unpleasant ones. No significant group differences were found, nor were there any treatment effects. Moderator analysis, however, demonstrated that OXT did enhance orienting to affective pictures with humansin male adults with ASD who are easily distressed when seeing others in stressful situations and in healthy males who are highly sensitive to anticipated punishment and criticism or have a low drive for goal achievement. Individual differences in stress-related avoidance tendencies should be taken into account when considering OXT as a treatment of social deficiencies in autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On the Regulation of Cognitive Control: Action Orientation Moderates the Impact of High Demands in Stroop Interference Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostmann, Nils B.; Koole, Sander L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has established that people vary in action orientation, a tendency toward decisiveness and initiative, versus state orientation, a tendency toward indecisiveness and hesitation (J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann, 1994b). In the present 3 studies, the authors examined whether action orientation versus state orientation regulates cognitive…

  18. Growth and physical properties of highly oriented La-doped (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} ferroelectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendrell, X., E-mail: xavier.vendrell@ub.edu [Departament de Química Inorgànica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Raymond, O. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 14, Ensenada 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Ochoa, D.A.; García, J.E. [Department of Applied Physics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya — BarcelonaTech, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Mestres, L. [Departament de Química Inorgànica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-02-27

    Lead-free (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) and La doped (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN-La) thin films are grown on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates using the chemical solution deposition method. The effect of adding different amounts of Na and K excess (0–20 mol%) is investigated. The results confirm the necessity of adding 20 mol% excess amounts of Na and K precursor solutions in order to avoid the formation of the secondary phase, K{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 17}, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, when adding a 20 mol% of alkaline metal excess, the thin films are highly textured with out-of-plane preferential orientation in the [100] direction of the [100] orientation of the substrate. Doping with lanthanum results in a decrease of the leakage current density at low electric field, and an increase in the dielectric permittivity across the whole temperature range (80–380 K). Although the (100)-oriented KNN and KNN-La films exhibited rounded hysteresis loops, at low temperatures the films show the typical ferroelectric hysteresis loops. - Highlights: • (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} and [(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.985}La{sub 0.005}]NbO{sub 3} thin films have been prepared. • The obtained thin films show an excellent (100) preferred orientation. • Doping with lanthanum results in a decrease of the leakage current density. • The dielectric properties are enhanced when doping with lanthanum.

  19. Crystal structure, thermal studies, Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational and DFT investigation of organic-inorganic hybrid compound [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbeh, Radhia; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of a hybrid organic/inorganic material with the formula [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O were studied by X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with the following unit cell parameters: a = 7.8201 (12) Ǻ, b = 18.203 (3) Ǻ, c = 19.486 (3) Ǻ, β = 98.330 (5)°, Z = 4, V = 2744.6 (7) Ǻ3. Crystal structure was solved with a final R = 5.66% for 3483 independent reflections. The atomic arrangement shows an alternation of organic and inorganic layers. Between layers, the cohesion is performed via Osbnd H⋯Br, Csbnd H⋯Br, Nsbnd H⋯Br, Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bending. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements have been carried out on [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O crystal in the temperature range between 50 and 500 °C. The assignment of the observed bands in the solid state FTIR and Raman spectra of the compound was assisted by the theoretically predicted frequencies and compared with data previously reported for similar compounds. The theoretical geometrical parameters in the ground state have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. The optical properties were investigated by optical absorption and show two bands at 279, 300 nm. The percentages of hydrogen bonding interactions are analyzed by Fingerprint plots of Hirshfeld surface.

  20. High detectivity solar-blind high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector based on multi-layered (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga₂O₃ nanobelts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rujia; Zhang, Zhenyu; Liu, Qian; Hu, Junqing; Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-05-14

    Fabrication of a high-temperature deep-ultraviolet photodetector working in the solar-blind spectrum range (190-280 nm) is a challenge due to the degradation in the dark current and photoresponse properties. Herein, β-Ga2O3 multi-layered nanobelts with (l00) facet-oriented were synthesized, and were demonstrated for the first time to possess excellent mechanical, electrical properties and stability at a high temperature inside a TEM studies. As-fabricated DUV solar-blind photodetectors using (l00) facet-oriented β-Ga2O3 multi-layered nanobelts demonstrated enhanced photodetective performances, that is, high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, high spectral selectivity, high speed, and high stability, importantly, at a temperature as high as 433 K, which are comparable to other reported semiconducting nanomaterial photodetectors. In particular, the characteristics of the photoresponsivity of the β-Ga2O3 nanobelt devices include a high photoexcited current (>21 nA), an ultralow dark current (below the detection limit of 10(-14) A), a fast time response (photodetectors or optical switches for high-temperature environment.

  1. Pulsed electron beam deposition of highly oriented thin films of polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Vimlesh [Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Manoharan, Solomon S. [Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)], E-mail: ssundar@iitk.ac.in

    2008-04-30

    Thin films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were deposited by pulsed electron deposition (PED) technique. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the RT fabricated (20 A thick) film on carbon coated copper grid shows crystalline nature. Infrared spectra show one to one correspondence between PED ablated film and the PTFE bulk target. The asymmetrical and symmetrical -CF{sub 2}- stretching modes were observed at 1220 and 1156 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The -CF{sub 2}- wagging and bending modes occur at 644 and 512 cm{sup -1}, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns of the film deposited at room temperature (RT) show oriented film along (1 0 0) plane of hexagonal structure and the crystalline nature is retained up to 300 deg. C on vacuum annealing. The room temperature fabricated film shows smooth and pin hole free surface whereas post-annealing brings discontinuity, roughness and pin holes.

  2. High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes enabled by triplet-triplet annihilation and horizontal emitter orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Mayr@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Brütting, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Bruetting@physik.uni-augsburg.de [Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2014-11-03

    A green organic light-emitting diode with the fluorescent emitter Coumarin 545T shows an external quantum efficiency (η{sub EQE}) of 6.9%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 5% for fluorescent emitters. The analysis of the angular dependent photoluminescence spectrum of the emission layer reveals that 86% of the transition dipole moments are horizontally oriented. Furthermore, transient electroluminescence measurements demonstrate the presence of a delayed emission originating from triplet-triplet annihilation. A simulation based efficiency analysis reveals quantitatively the origin for the high η{sub EQE}: a radiative exciton fraction higher than 25% and a light-outcoupling efficiency of nearly 30%.

  3. Fabrication and Characteristics of Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators with Highly c-Axis Oriented AlN Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Hao-Shuang; ZHANG Kai; HU Guang; LI Wei-Yong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Thin film bulk acoustic resonators are fabricated by using silicon bulk micromachining technology, which are constructed mainly from aluminium nitride (AlN) piezoelectric films. The results of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that the AlN films exhibit highly c-axis orientation with good surface morphology. The resonators with the AlN films possessed a reflection coefficient -10.6 dB at the resonant frequency 2.537 GHz, an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient 3.75%, series quality 101.8, and parallel quality 79.7.

  4. A Study on Field Emission Characteristics of Planar Graphene Layers Obtained from a Highly Oriented Pyrolyzed Graphite Block.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seok Woo

    2009-07-12

    This paper describes an experimental study on field emission characteristics of individual graphene layers for vacuum nanoelectronics. Graphene layers were prepared by mechanical exfoliation from a highly oriented pyrolyzed graphite block and placed on an insulating substrate, with the resulting field emission behavior investigated using a nanomanipulator operating inside a scanning electron microscope. A pair of tungsten tips controlled by the nanomanipulator enabled electric connection with the graphene layers without postfabrication. The maximum emitted current from the graphene layers was 170 nA and the turn-on voltage was 12.1 V.

  5. Growth and characterization of highly oriented gadolinia-doped ceria (111) thin films on zirconia (111)/sapphire (0001) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Debasis; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Azad, Samina; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Wang, Chong M.; Shutthanandan, V.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Mccready, David E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Marina, Olga A.; Baer, Donald R.; Seal, Sudipta; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2008-07-31

    Highly-oriented pure and gadolinia-doped ceria thin films have been grown on pure and ZrO2 (111)-buffered Al2O3 (0001) substrates using oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE) to understand the oxygen ionic transport processes in ceria based oxide thin films. Gadolinia-doped ceria films grown on pure Al2O3(0001) substrate show polycrystalline features due to structural deformations resulting from the large lattice mismatch between the Al2O3(0001) substrate and the films. However, the films, grown on a thin layer of ZrO2(111) buffered Al2O3 (0001) substrate, appears to be highly oriented. These films were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling. Oxygen ionic conductivity in gadolinia-doped ceria films was measured as a function of Gd concentration and these results were compared with the ion conductance data of the polycrystalline and single crystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ).

  6. The melt-recrystallization behavior of highly oriented α-iPP fibers embedded in a HIPS matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liwei; Li, Huihui; Qiu, Zhaobin; Yan, Shouke

    2015-03-21

    The melt-recrystallization behavior of α-iPP fibers embedded in an amorphous HIPS matrix has been studied by means of optical microscopy. The amorphous HIPS serving as a supporter of iPP fibers does not become involved in the nucleation and crystallization process of the molten highly oriented iPP fibers. It also does not provide any birefringence under the optical microscope with crossed polarizers. This enables the study of orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization through a control of the melting status of the fibers. Through melting the fibers at different temperatures above 175 °C and subsequent recrystallization, some β-iPP crystals were always produced. The content of the β-iPP crystal depends strongly on the melting temperature and melting time of the iPP fibers. It was confirmed that melting the iPP fibers at relatively lower temperature, e.g. 176 °C, less amount of β-iPP crystals were observed. The content of β-iPP crystal enhances first with increasing melting temperature and then decreases with further increase of the fiber melting temperature. The β-iPP crystallization is found to be most favorable upon melting the fibers at 178 °C for 2 min. This demonstrates the requirement of a certain chain or chain segment orientation for generating β-iPP crystallization on the one hand, while higher orientation of the iPP chains or chain segments encourages the growth of iPP crystals in the α-form on the other hand. This has been further confirmed by varying the melting time of the fiber at different temperatures, since relaxation of the iPP molecular chains at a fixed temperature is time dependent. Moreover, the complete transformation of α-iPP fibers in some local places into β-iPP crystals implies that the αβ-transition may not be required for the orientation-induced β-iPP crystallization.

  7. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia...

  8. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  9. Model Transformer Evaluation of High-Permeability Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The dependence of transformer performance on the material properties was investigated using two Laboratory-processed 0.23 mm thick grain-oriented electrical steels domain-refined with elec trolytically etched grooves having different magnetic properties. The iron loss at 1.7 T, 50 Hz and the flux density at 800 A/m of material A were 0.73 W/kg and 1.89 T, respectively; and those of material B, 0.83 W/kg and 1.88 T. Model stacked and wound transformer core experiments using the tested materials exhibited performance well reflecting the material characteristics. In a three-phase stacked core with step-lap joints excited to 1.7 T, 50 Hz, the core loss, the exciting current and the noise level were 0.86 W/kg, 0.74 A and 52 dB, respectively, with material A; and 0.97 W/kg, 1.0 A and 54 dB with material B. The building factors for the core losses of the two materials were almost the same in both core configurations. The effect of higher harmonics on transformer performance was also investigated.

  10. Anisotropic ferromagnetic behaviors in highly orientated epitaxial NiO-based thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiferromagnetic materials attract a great amount of attention recently for promising antiferromagnet-based spintronics applications. NiO is a conventional antiferromagnetic semiconductor material and can show ferromagnetism by doping other magnetic elements. In this work, we synthesized epitaxial Fe-doped NiO thin films on SrTiO3 substrates with various crystal orientations by pulsed laser deposition. The room-temperature ferromagnetism of these films is anisotropic, including the saturated magnetization and the coercive field. The anisotropic magnetic behaviors of Fe-doped NiO diluted magnetic oxide system should be closely correlated to the magnetic structure of antiferromagnetic NiO base. Within the easy plane of NiO, the coercive field of the films becomes smaller, and larger coercive field while tested out of the easy plane of NiO. The saturated magnetization anisotropy is due to different strain applied by different substrates. These results lead us to more abundant knowledge of the exchange interactions in this conventional antiferromagnetic system.

  11. Motion and orientation of cylindrical and cubic particles in pipe flow with high concentration and high particle to pipe size ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ke KU; Jian-zhong LIN

    2008-01-01

    Lattice Boltzmann method was used to numerically investigate the motion and orientation distribution of cylindrical and cubic particles in pipe flow with high concentration and high particle to pipe size ratio. The transient impulse model of 3D collisions between particles and between particle and wall is proposed. The numerical results are qualitatively in agreement with and quantitatively comparable to the experiment data. The results show that the increases of both the cylindrical particle to pipe size ratio and the particle aspect ratio decrease the rotation about all axes. All rotations of cubic particles decrease with increasing the particle concentration. The cubic particles, rotating more drastically in the flow with large Reynolds number, rotate faster than the cylindrical particles with the same size. The cylindrical particles align with the flow direction more obviously with decreasing Reynolds numbers. However, the orientations of cubic particles are spread all over the range with no significant difference in magnitude, and the Reynolds numbers have no obvious effect on the orientations of cubic particles.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of p-Type SnO Thin Film with High c-Axis Preferred Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yanli; Liu, Wuguang; Shi, Jingtao; Chen, Zimin; Wang, Gang

    2016-11-01

    p-Type tin monoxide (SnO) thin films with high c-axis preferred orientation have been fabricated on quartz substrate via electron-beam evaporation at 280°C. Subsequently, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was performed in N2 atmosphere at 400°C to 800°C. Their structural, chemical, optical, and electrical properties were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Hall-effect measurements. The c-axis-oriented films of Sn-rich SnO presented excellent thermal stability up to RTA at 700°C. Both the crystallization and the hole Hall mobility were enhanced with increasing RTA temperature, with Hall mobility of 16 cm2 V-1 s-1 being obtained after RTA at 700°C. It was considered that the presence of defects and low scattering from grain boundaries contributed to this high Hall mobility. RTA annealing temperature above 700°C induced chemical reaction between SnO and the quartz substrate, with a change of the film to amorphous state with Sn4+ formation.

  13. Achieving a Collapsible, Strong, and Highly Thermally Conductive Film Based on Oriented Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanosheets and Cellulose Nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Fang, Jinchao; Ma, Jinrui; Huang, Rui; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2017-09-06

    Boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS) films receive wide attention in both academia and industry because of their high thermal conductivity (TC) and good electrical insulation capability. However, the brittleness and low strength of the BNNS film largely limit its application. Herein, functionalized BNNSs (f-BNNSs) with a well-maintained in-plane crystalline structure were first prepared utilizing urea in the aqueous solution via ball-milling for the purpose of improving their stability in water and enhancing the interaction with the polymer matrix. Then, a biodegradable and highly thermally conductive film with an orderly oriented structure based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and f-BNNSs was prepared just by simple vacuum-assisted filtration. The modification of the BNNS and the introduction of the CNF result in a better orientation of the f-BNNS, sufficient connection between f-BNNS themselves, and strong interaction between f-BNNS and CNF, which not only make the prepared composite film strong and tough but also possess higher in-plane TC. An increase of 70% in-plane TC, 63.2% tensile strength, and 77.8% elongation could be achieved for CNF/f-BNNS films, compared with that for CNF/BNNS films at the filler content of 70%. Although at such a high f-BNNS content, this composite film can be bended and folded. It is even more interesting to find that the in-plane TC could be greatly enhanced with the decrease of the thickness of the film, and a value of 30.25 W/m K can be achieved at the thickness of ∼30 μm for the film containing 70 wt % f-BNNS. We believe that this highly thermally conductive film with good strength and toughness could have potential applications in next-generation highly powerful and collapsible electronic devices.

  14. Radially oriented mesoporous TiO2 microspheres with single-crystal-like anatase walls for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Che, Renchao; Chen, Gang; Fan, Jianwei; Sun, Zhenkun; Wu, Zhangxiong; Wang, Minghong; Li, Bin; Wei, Jing; Wei, Yong; Wang, Geng; Guan, Guozhen; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Bagabas, Abdulaziz A; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Deng, Yonghui; Peng, Huisheng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2015-05-01

    Highly crystalline mesoporous materials with oriented configurations are in demand for high-performance energy conversion devices. We report a simple evaporation-driven oriented assembly method to synthesize three-dimensional open mesoporous TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of ~800 nm, well-controlled radially oriented hexagonal mesochannels, and crystalline anatase walls. The mesoporous TiO2 spheres have a large accessible surface area (112 m(2)/g), a large pore volume (0.164 cm(3)/g), and highly single-crystal-like anatase walls with dominant (101) exposed facets, making them ideal for conducting mesoscopic photoanode films. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on the mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and commercial dye N719 have a photoelectric conversion efficiency of up to 12.1%. This evaporation-driven approach can create opportunities for tailoring the orientation of inorganic building blocks in the assembly of various mesoporous materials.

  15. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brian N.; Mahaffee, Walter F.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field.

  16. Laser-high-speed-DSC: Process-oriented Thermal Analysis of PA 12 in Selective Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzl, Lydia; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar

    In the Selective Laser Sintering process very high heating rates occur due to the melting of the material by a laser. Extreme scanning rates could not be measured by conventional thermal analysis methods, since typical heating rates for DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) are between 5-20K min-1. By using a Laser-High-Speed-DSC, a self-developed combination of a Flash-DSC and a fitted laser head, the sample is directly heated by a CO2 laser like in the SLS process. These experiments allow a process-oriented thermal analyzation of the material. In this paper, the set-up and function of this new measuring method is introduced. Furthermore, the reliability of the measurements is evaluated by statistical design of experiment methods. By using this new measuring method, the time-dependent melting behavior of the polymer can be analyzed. Moreover, sample temperatures and heating rates dependent on laser exposure times can be quantified.

  17. Implementing an Affordable High-Performance Computing for Teaching-Oriented Computer Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Goldschmidt, Kathleen; Elleithy, Yasser; Lee, Jeongkyu

    2013-01-01

    With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However,…

  18. Implementing an Affordable High-Performance Computing for Teaching-Oriented Computer Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Goldschmidt, Kathleen; Elleithy, Yasser; Lee, Jeongkyu

    2013-01-01

    With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However,…

  19. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  20. Object-oriented feature extraction approach for mapping supraglacial debris in Schirmacher Oasis using very high-resolution satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, Shridhar D.; Jadhav, Ajay; Luis, Alvarinho J.

    2016-05-01

    Supraglacial debris was mapped in the Schirmacher Oasis, east Antarctica, by using WorldView-2 (WV-2) high resolution optical remote sensing data consisting of 8-band calibrated Gram Schmidt (GS)-sharpened and atmospherically corrected WV-2 imagery. This study is a preliminary attempt to develop an object-oriented rule set to extract supraglacial debris for Antarctic region using 8-spectral band imagery. Supraglacial debris was manually digitized from the satellite imagery to generate the ground reference data. Several trials were performed using few existing traditional pixel-based classification techniques and color-texture based object-oriented classification methods to extract supraglacial debris over a small domain of the study area. Multi-level segmentation and attributes such as scale, shape, size, compactness along with spectral information from the data were used for developing the rule set. The quantitative analysis of error was carried out against the manually digitized reference data to test the practicability of our approach over the traditional pixel-based methods. Our results indicate that OBIA-based approach (overall accuracy: 93%) for extracting supraglacial debris performed better than all the traditional pixel-based methods (overall accuracy: 80-85%). The present attempt provides a comprehensive improved method for semiautomatic feature extraction in supraglacial environment and a new direction in the cryospheric research.

  1. Urban landscape classification using Chinese advanced high-resolution satellite imagery and an object-oriented multi-variable model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-gang MA; Jin-song DENG; Huai YANG; Yang HONG; Ke WANG

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese ZY-1 02C satellite is one of the most advanced high-resolution earth observation systems designed for terrestrial resource monitoring. Its capability for comprehensive landscape classification, especially in urban areas, has been under constant study. In view of the limited spectral resolution of the ZY-1 02C satellite (three bands), and the complexity and hetero-geneity across urban environments, we attempt to test its performance of urban landscape classification by combining a multi-variable model with an object-oriented approach. The multiple variables including spectral reflection, texture, spatial autocorre-lation, impervious surface fraction, vegetation, and geometry indexes were first calculated and selected using forward stepwise linear discriminant analysis and applied in the following object-oriented classification process. Comprehensive accuracy as-sessment which adopts traditional error matrices with stratified random samples and polygon area consistency (PAC) indexes was then conducted to examine the real area agreement between a classified polygon and its references. Results indicated an overall classification accuracy of 92.63%and a kappa statistic of 0.9124. Furthermore, the proposed PAC index showed that more than 82%of all polygons were correctly classified. Misclassification occurred mostly between residential area and barren/farmland. The presented method and the Chinese ZY-1 02C satellite imagery are robust and effective for urban landscape classification.

  2. Determination of dominant fibre orientations in fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete elements based on computed tomography scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Miguel A.; González, Dorys C.; Mínguez, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a nondestructive technique, based on absorbing X-rays, that permits the visualisation of the internal structure of materials in micron-range resolution. In this paper, the CT scan is used to determine the position and orientation of the fibres in steel fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete elements. The aim of this paper was to present a numerical procedure, automated through a MATLAB routine specially developed by the authors, which enables, fast and reliable, to obtain the orientation of each and every one of the fibres and their centre of gravity. The procedure shown is directly extrapolated to any type of fibre-reinforced material, only if there is a wide difference between density of fibres and density of matrix. The mathematical basis of this procedure is very simple and robust. The result is a fast algorithm and a routine easy to use. In addition, the validation tests show that the error is almost zero. This algorithm can help the industry to implement the technology of CT in the protocols of product quality control.

  3. Axial Ligand Effects on the Structures of Self-Assembled Gallium-Porphyrin Monolayers on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, Judith M; Iverson, Cameron P; Lau, Wing-Yeung; Hopkins, Michael D

    2016-01-19

    Monolayers of five-coordinate gallium octaethylporphyrin complexes (Ga(OEP)X; X = Cl, Br, I, O3SCF3, CCPh) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite were studied at the solid-liquid (1-phenyloctane) interface using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to probe the dependence of their properties on the nature of the axial X ligand. Density functional theory calculations of the gas-phase structures of the free molecules reveal that the gallium atom is positioned above the plane of the porphyrin macrocycle, with this pyramidal distortion increasing in magnitude according to X = O3SCF3 (displacement = 0.35 Å) monolayers are sensitive to the nature of the axial ligand: the monolayers of Ga(OEP)(O3SCF3) and Ga(OEP)(CCPh) exhibit damage during the STM experiment upon repeated scanning and upon toggling the sign of the bias potential, but monolayers of Ga(OEP)Cl, Ga(OEP)Br, and Ga(OEP)I do not. A second important ligand-influenced property is that Ga(OEP)I forms bilayer structures, whereas the other Ga(OEP)X compounds form monolayers exclusively under identical conditions. The top layer of the Ga(OEP)I bilayer is oriented with the iodo ligand directed away from the surface, like the bottom layer, but the molecules pack in a square, lower-density geometry. The comparatively large polarizability of the iodo ligand is suggested to be important in stabilizing the bilayer structure.

  4. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Gupta, V.; Chand, S. [Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. > Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH){sub 2} nanowires through lead hydroxination. > The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. > Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. > The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd{sup 2+} with Pb{sup 2+} ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  5. Role of laser energy density on growth of highly oriented topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P.; Saha, B.; Saha, D.; Ganguly, S.

    2016-05-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are very promising in the field of nanoelectronics due to their exotic properties. Bismuth Selenide, a 3D Topological insulator is considered as reference TI owing to its simple band structure and large bandgap. However, the presence of unintentional doping, which masks the metallic surface states, is still a major concern. In this work, we report the effect of laser energy density on the growth of highly oriented and stoichiometric thin films of Bi2Se3 by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy confirms the c-axis orientation and good crystallinity of films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study shows the increase in average grain size and rms roughness (from 3.1 nm to 5.1 nm) with the decrease in laser energy density. Compositional study by X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurement is found to be in agreement with AFM results. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements confirm the desired stoichiometry of the samples.

  6. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  7. Magnetotransport in Two Dimensional Electron Systems Under Microwave Excitation and in Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    remark- able electronic properties observed in graphene. Chapter 2 reviews the basic physical con- cepts of 2DES including a brief introduction to...magnetotransport in high quality GaAs/ AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron systems. The effect of microwave (MW) radiation on electron...This thesis consists of two parts. The rst part considers the e ect of microwave radiation on magnetotransport in high quality GaAs/ AlGaAs

  8. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer......This study sheds light on the role that the competitive environment plays in determining how elements of market orientation and elements of entrepreneurial orientation interact to influence business success. We develop a model in which we postulate that market orientation, entrepreneurial...... orientations. Also, these moderating effects are stronger for firms operating in highly competitive environments. For the innovativeness component of entrepreneurship, however, the positive relationship between innovativeness and ROA decreases as the competitive environment becomes more hostile....

  9. High temperature thermoelectric properties of highly c-axis oriented Bi2Sr2Co2Oy thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shan-Shan; Wang Shu-Fang; Liu Fu-Qiang; Yan Guo-Ying; Chen Jing-Chun; Wang Jiang-Long; Yu Wei; Fu Guang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature thermoelectric transport property measurements have been performed on the highly c-axis oriented Bi2Sr2Co2Oy thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 (001).Both the electric resistivity p and the seebeck coefficient S of the film exhibit an increasing trend with the temperature from 300 K-1000 K and reach up to 4.8 m·Ω· cm and 202 μV/K at 980 K,resulting in a power factor of 0.85 mW/mK which are comparable to those of the single crystalline samples.A small polaron hopping conduction can be responsible for the conduction mechanism of the film at high temperature.The results demonstrate that the Bi2Sr2Co2Oy thin film has potential application in high temperature thin film thermoelectric devices.

  10. Diversity-Oriented Enantioselective Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Cyclic and Bicyclic Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Bin; Fananas Mastral, Martin; Lutz, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed hetero-allylic asymmetric alkylation (h-AAA) of functionalized Grignard reagents that contain alkene or alkyne moieties has been achieved with excellent regio-and enantioselectivity. The corresponding alkylation products were further transformed into a variety of highly function

  11. Influence of high-temperature annealing on the orientation of the unipolarity vector in lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareikin, A. G.; Kaptelov, E. Yu.; Senkevich, S. V.; Pronin, I. P.; Sergienko, A. Yu.; Sergeeva, O. N.

    2016-11-01

    The factors responsible for the change in the orientation of the natural unipolarity vector due to heating to the Curie temperature of a Pt/PZT/Pt thin-film capacitor (PZT—lead zirconate titanate) formed on a TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate have been considered. Lead zirconate titanate thin layers containing a small excess of lead oxide have been formed ex situ using high-frequency magnetron sputtering with a variation in the annealing temperature (crystallization of the perovskite phase) in the range from 580 to 650°C. It has been assumed that the reorientation of the unipolarity vector in the PZT layer is caused by the change in the mechanism of crystallization of the perovskite phase with an increase in the annealing temperature.

  12. Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping of High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging based on Riemannian Structure of Orientation Distribution Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Jia; Qiu, Anqi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel large deformation diffeomorphic registration algorithm to align high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI) characterized by orientation distribution functions (ODFs). Our proposed algorithm seeks an optimal diffeomorphism of large deformation between two ODF fields in a spatial volume domain and at the same time, locally reorients an ODF in a manner such that it remains consistent with the surrounding anatomical structure. To this end, we first review the Riemannian manifold of ODFs. We then define the reorientation of an ODF when an affine transformation is applied and subsequently, define the diffeomorphic group action to be applied on the ODF based on this reorientation. We incorporate the Riemannian metric of ODFs for quantifying the similarity of two HARDI images into a variational problem defined under the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) framework. We finally derive the gradient of the cost function in both Riemannian spaces of diffeomorphis...

  13. Effect of Cutting Techniques on the Structure and Magnetic Properties of a High-grade Non-oriented Electrical Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wenmin; LIU Jing; LI Changyi

    2014-01-01

    The high grade non-oriented electrical steel sheets containing 3.0%Si were manufacturing processed using different cutting techniques, then they were stress relief annealed(SRA), the profiles and textures of the cutting edges were compared before and after annealing, and the magnetic properties of these specimens were tested and compared. The experimental results show that the iron loss of the specimen by water jet cutting is the lowest, but the magnetic induction under the low magnetic field is the highest, the iron loss of the specimen by laser cutting is the highest, but the magnetic induction under the low magnetic field is the lowest. It is necessary to adopt suitable production conditions and minimize the deterioration involved, and the magnetic property can be recovered by SRA effectively.

  14. Image-guided spinal injection procedures in open high-field MRI with vertical field orientation: feasibility and technical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F.; Walter, T.; Wonneberger, U.; Wagner, M.; Hermann, K.G.; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U. [Charite, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Chopra, S. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Wichlas, F. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    We prospectively evaluated the feasibility and technical features of MR-guided lumbosacral injection procedures in open high-field MRI at 1.0 T. In a CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O phantom and five human cadaveric spines, fluoroscopy sequences (proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE), T1w TSE, T2w TSE; balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), T1w gradient echo (GE), T2w GE) were evaluated using two MRI-compatible 20-G Chiba-type needles. Artefacts were analysed by varying needle orientation to B{sub 0}, frequency-encoding direction and slice orientation. Image quality was described using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subsequently, a total of 183 MR-guided nerve root (107), facet (53) and sacroiliac joint (23) injections were performed in 53 patients. In vitro, PDw TSE sequence yielded the best needle-tissue contrasts (CNR = 45, 18, 15, 9, and 8 for needle vs. fat, muscle, root, bone and sclerosis, respectively) and optimal artefact sizes (width and tip shift less than 5 mm). In vivo, PDw TSE sequence was sufficient in all cases. The acquisition time of 2 s facilitated near-real-time MRI guidance. Drug delivery was technically successful in 100% (107/107), 87% (46/53) and 87% (20/23) of nerve root, facet and sacroiliac joint injections, respectively. No major complications occurred. The mean procedure time was 29 min (range 19-67 min). MR-guided spinal injections in open high-field MRI are feasible and accurate using fast TSE sequence designs. (orig.)

  15. Flight orientation behaviors promote optimal migration trajectories in high-flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jason W; Nesbit, Rebecca L; Burgin, Laura E; Reynolds, Don R; Smith, Alan D; Middleton, Douglas R; Hill, Jane K

    2010-02-01

    Many insects undertake long-range seasonal migrations to exploit temporary breeding sites hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart, but the behavioral adaptations that facilitate these movements remain largely unknown. Using entomological radar, we showed that the ability to select seasonally favorable, high-altitude winds is widespread in large day- and night-flying migrants and that insects adopt optimal flight headings that partially correct for crosswind drift, thus maximizing distances traveled. Trajectory analyses show that these behaviors increase migration distances by 40% and decrease the degree of drift from seasonally optimal directions. These flight behaviors match the sophistication of those seen in migrant birds and help explain how high-flying insects migrate successfully between seasonal habitats.

  16. Comment on "Orientation dependence of the optical spectra in graphene at high frequencies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy-Viet; Nguyen, V. Hung

    2016-09-01

    Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. B 77, 241402(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.241402] reported a theoretical study of the optical spectra of monolayer graphene employing the Kubo formula within a tight-binding model. Their calculations predicted that at high frequencies the optical conductivity of graphene becomes strongly anisotropic. In particular, at frequencies comparable to the energy separation of the upper and lower bands at the Γ point, the optical conductivity is strongly suppressed if the field polarization is along the zigzag direction whereas it is significantly high for the armchair one. We find that, unfortunately, this result is just a consequence of the incorrect determination of the current operator in k space. Here, we present a standard scheme to obtain this operator correctly. As a result, we show that the optical conductivity of monolayer graphene is indeed isotropic, which is consistent with the results of other (both theoretical and experimental) studies in the literature.

  17. Transportation-cyber-physical-systems-oriented engine cylinder pressure estimation using high gain observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Fu; Xiao-Pei, Kou; Zheng, Tai-Xiong; Li, Yin-Guo

    2015-05-01

    In transportation cyber-physical-systems (T-CPS), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications play an important role in the coordination between individual vehicles as well as between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures, and engine cylinder pressure is significant for engine diagnosis on-line and torque control within the information exchange process under V2V communications. However, the parametric uncertainties caused from measurement noise in T-CPS lead to the dynamic performance deterioration of the engine cylinder pressure estimation. Considering the high accuracy requirement under V2V communications, a high gain observer based on the engine dynamic model is designed to improve the accuracy of pressure estimation. Then, the analyses about convergence, converge speed and stability of the corresponding error model are conducted using the Laplace and Lyapunov method. Finally, results from combination of Simulink with GT-Power based numerical experiments and comparisons demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with respect to robustness and accuracy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61304197), the Scientific and Technological Talents of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014kjrc-qnrc30002), the Key Project of Application and Development of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014yykfB40001), the Natural Science Funds of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014jcyjA60003), and the Doctoral Start-up Funds of Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China (Grant No. A2012-26).

  18. Highly c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr, Ti)O₃ thin films on si wafer prepared by fast cooling immediately after sputter deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shinya; Hanzawa, Hiroaki; Wasa, Kiyotaka; Esashi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    2014-09-01

    We successfully developed sputter deposition technology to obtain a highly c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thin film on a Si wafer by fast cooling (~-180°C/min) of the substrate after deposition. The c-axis orientation ratio of a fast-cooled film was about 90%, whereas that of a slow-cooled (~-40°C/min) film was only 10%. The c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr0.5, Ti0.5)O3 films showed reasonably large piezoelectric coefficients, e(31,f) = ~-11 C/m(2), with remarkably small dielectric constants, ϵ(r) = ~220. As a result, an excellent figure of merit (FOM) was obtained for piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) such as a piezoelectric gyroscope. This c-axis orientation technology on Si will extend industrial applications of PZT-based thin films and contribute further to the development of piezoelectric MEMS.

  19. Developing collective customer knowledge and service climate: The interaction between service-oriented high-performance work systems and service leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kaifeng; Chuang, Chih-Hsun; Chiao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    This study theorized and examined the influence of the interaction between Service-Oriented high-performance work systems (HPWSs) and service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate. Using a sample of 569 employees and 142 managers in footwear retail stores, we found that Service-Oriented HPWSs and service leadership reduced the influences of one another on collective customer knowledge and service climate, such that the positive influence of service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when Service-Oriented HPWSs were lower than when they were higher or the positive influence of Service-Oriented HPWSs on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when service leadership was lower than when it was higher. We further proposed and found that collective customer knowledge and service climate were positively related to objective financial outcomes through service performance. Implications for the literature and managerial practices are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  1. A Novel Testability-Oriented Data Path Scheduling Scheme in High-Level Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Benmao; WANG Hong; YANG Shiyuan; NIU Daoheng; JIN Yang

    2007-01-01

    Scheduling is an important step in high-level synthesis and can greatly influence the testability of the synthesized circuits. This paper presents an efficient testability-improved data path scheduling scheme based on mobility scheduling, in which the scheduling begins from the operation with least mobility. In our data path scheduling scheme, the lifetimes of the I/O variables are made as short as possible to enlarge the possibility of the intermediate variables being allocated to the I/O registers. In this way, the controllability/observability of the intermediate variables can be improved. Combined with a weighted graph-based register allocation method, this scheme can obtain better testability. Experimental results on some benchmarks and example circuits show that the proposed scheme can get higher fault coverage compared with other scheduling schemes at little area overhead and even less time delay.

  2. Differences in first neighbor orientation behind the anomalies in the low and high density trans-1,2-dichloroethene liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Esteva, M; Murugan, N Arul; Pardo, L C; Busch, S; Tamarit, J Ll; Cuello, G J; Bermejo, F J

    2012-03-28

    Trans-1,2-dichloroethene (HClC=CClH) has several structural and dynamic anomalies between its low- and high-density liquid, previously found through neutron scattering experiments. To explain the microscopic origin of the differences found in those experiments, a series of molecular dynamics simulations were performed. The analysis of molecular short-range order shows that the number of molecules in the first neighbor shell is 12 for the high-density liquid and 11 for the low-density one. It also shows that the angular position of the center of mass of the first neighbor is roughly the same although the molecular orientation is not. In both liquids the first neighbor and its reference molecule arrange mainly in two configurations, each being the most probable in one of the liquids. First neighbors in the configuration that predominates in the high-density liquid tend to locate themselves closer to the reference molecule, an evidence that they are more strongly bonded. This arrangement facilitates a better packing of the rest of molecules in the first neighbor shell so that on average an additional molecule can be included, and is proposed to be the key in the explanation of all the observed anomalies in the characteristics of both liquids.

  3. Pulsed-laser deposition of vicinal and c-axis oriented high temperature superconducting thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, R

    2000-01-01

    respect to the temperature, oxygen pressure and laser fluence. (Re,Hg)Ba sub 2 Ca sub ( n-1)Cu sub n O sub x films are synthesized on (001) and vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates in a two step process employing pulsed-laser deposition of Hg-free precursor films and Hg-vapour annealing in a sealed quartz tube. The sealed quartz tube technique is described in detail and the thermodynamics and the phase formation are discussed. The influence of the Hg-vapour pressure and the annealing temperature on the film properties are investigated. The influence of Hg-vapour annealing on Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x films is described. YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x films with thicknesses 20 to 480 nm are deposited on vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates (10 degrees tilt angle). Variation of the resistivities and changes in the film morphology depending on film thickness are described. The influence of post-annealing treatments on the film properties is discussed. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of high temperature superconducting ...

  4. Highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented, direct-gap GeSn crystallized on amorphous SiO2 layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haofeng; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented direct-gap Ge1-xSnx thin films (0.074 GeSn films also demonstrate high thermal stability, offering both excellent direct-gap optoelectronic properties and fabrication/operation robustness for integrated photonics.

  5. FEATURES OF THE PROJECT-ORIENTED MANAGEMENT OF HIGH-TECHNOLOGY ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Dobrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is explored the concept of "project portfolio", defined the role and place of project portfolio management in the overall enterprise management structure, the formation of the project portfolio and its limitations. The aim of the article is to study the role and place of project management in the overall enterprise management system, and the relationship of the management processes at diff erent organizational levels.The formation of the strategic projects portfolio of the company – it is an urgent task which is associated with the strengthening of innovation and investment activity of the operating in Russia enterprises. Nowadays, transfer of enterprises activities to an innovative way of development is going on in the face of the deteriorating international situation, Russia's isolation from European countries and the United States, and the implementation of the sanctions policy, changes in the domestic economic and political course. These circumstances, of course, could not aff ect the adjustment of activities and strategic goals of the development of enterprises, at the level of their financial and economic stability. At the same time, the growth of innovation activity in a number of sectors, particularly in high-technology industries, it creates the need for the formation of the project portfolio, which allows to achieve the strategic objectives of enterprises and enhance their competitiveness.During the preparation of the article there were identified a core set of problems faced by the enterprises during the transition to a model of the project management, which is due, primarily, poor project management technologies in Russia, and it is complicated by the lack of a clear definition of objectives and vision benefits for enterprises. In addition, the reasons for the backlog are caused by the low level of project management maturity of the enterprise, which is caused by a lack of personnel with expertise in this field of

  6. Decision Making In Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Katia

    1997-01-01

    Eight psychometric instruments were administered to 10 elite male Portuguese orienteers. The cognitive process involved in decision making did not differ between the best orienteers and the others. This group of athletes had a high capacity for work realization and a strong need to be in control of interpersonal situations. (Author/SV)

  7. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Third-order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Nest-shaped Cluster [CuBr (bpy) 2 ] [MoOS3Cu3-Br2 (bpy)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑛林; 侯红卫; 樊耀亭; 杜晨霞; 朱玉

    2001-01-01

    Nest-shaped cluster [CuBr(bpy)2][MoOS3Cu3Br2(bpy)] was synthesized by the treatment of (NH4)2MoO2S2,CuBr and Et4NBr with bpy (2,2'-bipyridyl) in CH3CN. Its structure has been characterized by X-ray diffraction:monoclinic,space group P21/n, with a=1.0092(4), b=2.6347(7), c =1.4087(3) nm, β = 91.744(9)°, V=3.7438 nm3, Z=4,and final R=0.051, Rw=0.053. It consists of two parts:nest-shaped structural unit [MoOS3Cu3Br2(bpy)]- and complex ion [CuBr(bpy)2]+. We determined its third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties with a 7-ns pulsed laser at 532 nm. The cluster exhibits strong NIO refractive behavior, its third-order susceptibility X(3) was calculated to be 2.7× 10-11esu in a 7.8×10-4 g/cm3 DMF solution.The value is comparable to those of inorganic clusters.

  8. Independence-oriented VMD to identify fault feature for wheel set bearing fault diagnosis of high speed locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zipeng; Chen, Jinglong; Zi, Yanyang; Pan, Jun

    2017-02-01

    As one of most critical component of high-speed locomotive, wheel set bearing fault identification has attracted an increasing attention in recent years. However, non-stationary vibration signal with modulation phenomenon and heavy background noise make it difficult to excavate the hidden weak fault feature. Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD), which can decompose the non-stationary signal into couple Intrinsic Mode Functions adaptively and non-recursively, brings a feasible tool. However, heavy background noise seriously affects setting of mode number, which may lead to information loss or over decomposition problem. In this paper, an independence-oriented VMD method via correlation analysis is proposed to adaptively extract weak and compound fault feature of wheel set bearing. To overcome the information loss problem, the appropriate mode number is determined by the criterion of approximate complete reconstruction. Then the similar modes are combined according to the similarity of their envelopes to solve the over decomposition problem. Finally, three applications to wheel set bearing fault of high speed locomotive verify the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with original VMD, EMD and EEMD methods.

  9. The Molecular Structure of Human Red Blood Cell Membranes from Highly Oriented, Solid Supported Multi-Lamellar Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himbert, Sebastian; Alsop, Richard J.; Rose, Markus; Hertz, Laura; Dhaliwal, Alexander; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.; Verschoor, Chris P.; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.; Kaestner, Lars; Wagner, Christian; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2017-01-01

    We prepared highly oriented, multi-lamellar stacks of human red blood cell (RBC) membranes applied on silicon wafers. RBC ghosts were prepared by hemolysis and applied onto functionalized silicon chips and annealed into multi-lamellar RBC membranes. High resolution X-ray diffraction was used to determine the molecular structure of the stacked membranes. We present direct experimental evidence that these RBC membranes consist of nanometer sized domains of integral coiled-coil peptides, as well as liquid ordered (lo) and liquid disordered (ld) lipids. Lamellar spacings, membrane and hydration water layer thicknesses, areas per lipid tail and domain sizes were determined. The common drug aspirin was added to the RBC membranes and found to interact with RBC membranes and preferably partition in the head group region of the lo domain leading to a fluidification of the membranes, i.e., a thinning of the bilayers and an increase in lipid tail spacing. Our results further support current models of RBC membranes as patchy structures and provide unprecedented structural details of the molecular organization in the different domains.

  10. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  11. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of

  12. High molecular weight (C+35) n-alkanes of high-waxy condensate and its source kitchen orientation in the Qianmiqiao burial-hill zone, Bohai Gulf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tieguan(WANG T.-G.); ZHU Dan; LU Hong; ZHANG Zhihuan; SU Junqing; LIAO Qianjin

    2004-01-01

    The high-waxy condensate in the Qianmiqiao Ordovician burial-hill zone, Bohai Gulf Basin, North China has been investigated by way of high temperature gas chromatography. As high-mature oil, its high molecular weight wax fraction is mainly composed of C35-C69 n-alkanes with CPI37-55 values of 0.94-1.10. On conditions that core-drilling of source rocks was limited and the exact location of source kitchen is still uncertain in the region, it is inferred that the orientation of main source kitchen for the condensate should be on the east of the burial-hill zone, i.e. from the direction of Qikou Sag, according to oil-oil correlation between the condensate and surrounding high-waxy oils as well as lateral distribution of the wax content of crude oils. In addition, it is also further confirmed that the oil filling direction for this condensate reservoir is from NE to SW, i.e. from wells BS-4, through BS-7, to BS-8 based on the analyses of 9 maturity and 3 pyrrolic N-compound parameters.

  13. Women's representation in 60 occupations from 1972 to 2010: more women in high-status jobs, few women in things-oriented jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A; Preston, Kathleen; Penner, John

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades) remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

  14. Women's representation in 60 occupations from 1972 to 2010: more women in high-status jobs, few women in things-oriented jobs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Lippa

    Full Text Available To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

  15. Seasonal variations of rotifers from a high altitude urban shallow water body, La Cantera Oriente (Mexico City, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sergio González; Sarma, S. S. S.; Nandini, S.

    2016-12-01

    La Cantera Oriente is a shallow freshwater volcanic water body located at an altitude of 2 270 m above sea level in the Ecological Reserve of San Angel Pedregal of Mexico City (Mexico). In order to ensure the conservation of its biological heritage including zooplankton, the present work was undertaken to quantify the seasonal changes in the diversity and density of rotifers and the selected physico-chemical variables during 2013-2014. Qualitative analysis of the zooplankton samples yielded 68 rotifer species which represented 24 genera in 15 families. B rachionus calyciflorus Pallas, 1766, B. quadridentatus Hermann, 1783, Polyarthra vulgaris Carlin, 1943, Lecane closterocerca (Schmarda, 1859) and Keratella cochlearis (Gosse, 1851) were the most common species. Preston plots of species frequency-density revealed that as many as 30% of the rotifer taxa were dominant throughout the year. The species with high population densities were Brachionus quadridentatus, Lecane closterocerca, Keratella cochlearis, and Lepadella patella; their peak densities were 2 000, 1 000, 180 and 90 ind./L, all occurring in summer. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Platyias quadricornis was related to the concentration of phosphates available in the environment and the conductivity, while B. quadridentatus was positively correlated with chlorophyll-a. The trophic status of the lake was eutrophic based on Chl-a content but oligotrophic with relation to the Brachionus:Trichocerca ratio.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Highly Oriented N-Doped ZnO Nanorods by Selective Area Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality nitrogen-doped ZnO nanorods have been selectively grown on patterned and bare ZnO templates by the combination of nanoimprint lithography and chemical vapor transport methods. The grown nanorods exhibited uniformity in size and orientation as well as controllable density and surface-to-volume ratio. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods and the behaviour of N dopants have been investigated by means of the scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence (PL spectra, and Raman scattering spectra. The additional vibration modes observed in Raman spectra of N-doped ZnO nanorods provided solid evidence of N incorporation in ZnO nanorods. The difference of excitonic emissions from ZnO nanorods with varied density and surface-to-volume ratio suggested the different spatial distribution of intrinsic defects. It was found that the defects giving rise to acceptor-bound exciton (A0X emission were most likely to distribute in the sidewall surface with nonpolar characteristics, while the donor bound exciton (D0X emission related defects distributed uniformly in the near top polar surface.

  17. Dynamic Stability Improvement of Grid Connected DFIG Using Enhanced Field Oriented Control Technique for High Voltage Ride Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Ananth Duggirala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is a better alternative to increased power demand. Modern grid regulations force DFIG to operate without losing synchronism during overvoltages called high voltage ride through (HVRT during grid faults. Enhanced field oriented control technique (EFOC was proposed in Rotor Side Control of DFIG converter to improve power flow transfer and to improve dynamic and transient stability. Further electromagnetic oscillations are damped, improved voltage mitigation and limit surge currents for sustained operation of DFIG during voltage swells. The proposed strategy has advantages such as improved reactive power control, better damping of electromagnetic torque oscillations, and improved continuity of voltage and current from stator and rotor to grid during disturbance. In EFOC technique, rotor flux reference changes its value from synchronous speed to zero during fault for injecting current at the rotor slip frequency. In this process, DC-Offset component of stator flux is controlled so that decomposition during overvoltage faults can be minimized. The offset decomposition of flux will be oscillatory in a conventional FOC, whereas in EFOC it is aimed to be quick damping. The system performance with overvoltage of 1.3 times, 1.62 times, and 2 times the rated voltage occurring is analyzed by using simulation studies.

  18. Developing mathematics learning set for special-needs junior high school student oriented to learning interest and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Sadidah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce a mathematics learning set for special-needs students (mathematical learning disability and mathematically gifted of Junior High School Grade VIII Second Semester oriented to learning interests and achievement which is valid, practical, and effective. This study was a research and development study using the Four-D development model consisting of four stages: (1 define, (2 design, (3 develop, and (4 disseminate. The quality of learning set consisting of the following three criterions: (1 validity, (2 practicality, and (3 effectiveness.  The data analysis technique used in this study is a descriptive quantitative analysis. The research produced learning set consisting of lesson plans and student worksheets. The result of the research shows that: (1 the learning set fulfill the valid criteria base on experts’ appraisal; (2 the learning set fulfill the practical criterion base on teacher’s and students’ questionnaire, and observation of learning implementation; (3 the learning set fulfill the effectiveness criterion base on learning interest and achievement.

  19. Insight into STM image contrast of n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane molecules on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Miao; Jiang, Peng; Deng, Ke; Yu, Ai-Fang; Hao, Yan-Zhong; Xie, Si-Shen; Sun, Jie-Lin

    2011-02-01

    Two-dimensional ordered patterns of n-tetradecane (n-C14H30) and n-hexadecane (n-C16H34) molecules at liquid/graphite interface have been directly imaged using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) under ambient conditions. STM images reveal that the two different kinds of molecules self-organize into ordered lamellar structures in which alkane chains of the molecules extend along one of three equivalent lattice axes of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) basal plane. For n-C14H30 molecules, the molecular axes are observed to tilt by 60° with respect to inter-lamellar trough lines and the carbon backbones of the alkane chains are perpendicular to the HOPG basal plane in an all-trans conformation. However, for n-C16H34 molecules, the molecular axes are perpendicular to lamellar borders (90°) and the planes of the all-trans carbon skeletons are parallel to the graphite basal plane. The results clearly indicate that outmost hydrogen atoms of the alkane chains dominate atom-scaled features of the STM images. That is, in the case of long-chain alkane molecules, topographic effects dominantly determine STM image contrast of the methylene regions of the alkane chains that are adsorbed on HOPG.

  20. Highly Ordered 1D Fullerene Crystals for Concurrent Control of Macroscopic Cellular Orientation and Differentiation toward Large-Scale Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kosuke; Kasuya, Yuki; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Ji, Qingmin; Nakanishi, Waka; Hill, Jonathan P; Sakai, Hideki; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-07-15

    A highly aligned 1D fullerene whisker (FW) scaffold in a centimeter area is fabricated by interfacial alignment. The resulting aligned FW scaffold enables concurrent control over cellular orientation and differentiation to muscle cells. This aligned FW scaffold is made by a facile method, and hence the substrate is a promising alternative to other cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  1. Development of a Pilot Career Cluster Curriculum for all Students in a College Preparatory Oriented High School. Final Report. Part I: Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    In developing a program to assist the individual student to plan a goal-oriented program and increase his opportunities both to select courses moving him toward his personal goals and to use the community resources as supplemental educational experiences, the Winston Churchill High School designed a Career Cluster Curriculum Project, the first…

  2. School Engagement, Risky Peers, and Student-Teacher Relationships as Mediators of School Violence in Taiwanese Vocational versus Academically Oriented High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-01-01

    Educational tracking based on academic ability accounts for different school dynamics between vocational versus academically-oriented high schools in Taiwan. Many educational practitioners predict that the settings of vocational schools and academic schools mediate school violence in different ways. Alternatively, some researchers argue the actual…

  3. Oriented functionalization of natural hollow kapok fiber for highly efficient removal of toxic Hg(II from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to hollow and tubular structure, a natural kapok fiber (KF was used as the support and orientation matrix to control the polymerization of ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA and N-vinylimidazole (VIM along its inherent axial surface via a facile in situ rapid polymerization reaction in air atmosphere. The as-formed KF@VIM/EGDMA composite is featured with porous surface and rich N-containing functional groups for potential application as a highly efficient adsorbent for removal of toxic Hg(II from aqueous solution. The variables affecting the adsorption capacity were studied, including monomer ratio, external pH values, contact time, and initial Hg(II concentration. The pseudo-second-order equation and two adsorption isotherms including Langmuir and Freundlich equations were applied to determine the adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity. The results show that the as-prepared KF@VIM/EGDMA composite has a maximum adsorption capacity of 697 mg/g to Hg(II, while no appreciable adsorption capacity can be found for KF itself. Given its intrinsic large lumen, faster adsorption kinetics (45 min are also expected and observed for KF@VIM/EGDMA. After a simple filtration, this adsorbent can be directly separated from the aqueous solution and then be regenerated for multi-cyclable utilization. During the adsorption process, the chemical complexing represents the main adsorption mechanism. As a naturally renewable KF, such a simple preparation method opens a new avenue to develop highly efficient and economically viable adsorbent for removal of toxic heavy metal from aqueous solution.

  4. Orientation and the Young Orienteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S. E.; Martland, J. R.

    Orientation within orienteering is dependent on the use of two basic strategies; that is, either a compass or Magnetic-North-based strategy, which relies on the use of one set of information; or the use of a map and landmark-based strategy which relies on the use of at least two sets of information. Walsh and found that, when given the choice, young children use the compass-based strategy when following complex potentially disorientating routes.The efficacy of these two basic orientation strategies was investigated within three different orienteering environments: (1) a familiar known environment; (2) a familiar unknown environment and (3) an unfamiliar unknown environment.Subjects, age range from 9 to 10think aloud particularly the introduction of basic skills to young performers. They support the argument that is essential to introduce the map and compass simultaneously and that relocation and orientation skills should be coached concurrently.

  5. High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation cooling in the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiaen, A.M.; Ongena, J.; Unterberg, B.; Boedo, J.; Fuchs, G.; Jaspers, R.; Konen, L.; Koslowski, H.R.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Samm, U.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Van Oost, G.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R.R.; Wolf, G.H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Brix, M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Finken, K.H.; Giesen, B.; Hillis, D.; Hutteman, P.; Koch, R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mertens, P.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauer, M.; Schweer, B.; Schwelberger, J.; Telesca, G.; Tokar, M.Z.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Winter, J. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Ecole Royale Militaire-B-1000 Brussels, Koninklijke Militaire School (Belgium)]|[Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH Association Euratom-KFA, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]|[Fusion Energy Research Program, Mechanical Engineering Division, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)]|[FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen Associatie FOM-EURATOM, Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)]|[Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    An overview of the results obtained so far for the radiative I-mode regime on the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94) [{ital Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering} (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 470] is given. This regime is obtained under quasistationary conditions with edge neon seeding in a pumped limiter tokamak with circular cross section. It combines high confinement and high {beta} (up to a normalized beta, {beta}{sub n}=2) with low edge q values (down to q{sub a}=2.8) and high density even above the Greenwald limit together with dominant edge radiative heat exhaust, and therefore shows promise for the future of fusion research. Bulk and edge properties of these discharges are described, and a detailed account is given of the energy and particle confinement and their scaling. Energy confinement scales linearly with density as for the nonsaturated Ohmic Neo-Alcator scaling, but the usual degradation with total power remains. No deleterious effects of the neon seeding on fusion reactivity and plasma stability have been observed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Analyzing Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  7. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simimol, A. [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Surface Engineering Division CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut 673601 (India); Manikandanath, N. T.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C., E-mail: harish@nal.res.in [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Surface Engineering Division CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Anappara, Aji A. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut 673601 (India)

    2014-08-21

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (T{sub A} = 100–500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}), zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}), and oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects and these can be reduced significantly by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for T{sub A} greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for T{sub A} ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of O{sub i} defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with V{sub O} is dominant in the vacuum annealed (T{sub A} = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.

  8. Owlready: Ontology-oriented programming in Python with automatic classification and high level constructs for biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-07-01

    Ontologies are widely used in the biomedical domain. While many tools exist for the edition, alignment or evaluation of ontologies, few solutions have been proposed for ontology programming interface, i.e. for accessing and modifying an ontology within a programming language. Existing query languages (such as SPARQL) and APIs (such as OWLAPI) are not as easy-to-use as object programming languages are. Moreover, they provide few solutions to difficulties encountered with biomedical ontologies. Our objective was to design a tool for accessing easily the entities of an OWL ontology, with high-level constructs helping with biomedical ontologies. From our experience on medical ontologies, we identified two difficulties: (1) many entities are represented by classes (rather than individuals), but the existing tools do not permit manipulating classes as easily as individuals, (2) ontologies rely on the open-world assumption, whereas the medical reasoning must consider only evidence-based medical knowledge as true. We designed a Python module for ontology-oriented programming. It allows access to the entities of an OWL ontology as if they were objects in the programming language. We propose a simple high-level syntax for managing classes and the associated "role-filler" constraints. We also propose an algorithm for performing local closed world reasoning in simple situations. We developed Owlready, a Python module for a high-level access to OWL ontologies. The paper describes the architecture and the syntax of the module version 2. It details how we integrated the OWL ontology model with the Python object model. The paper provides examples based on Gene Ontology (GO). We also demonstrate the interest of Owlready in a use case focused on the automatic comparison of the contraindications of several drugs. This use case illustrates the use of the specific syntax proposed for manipulating classes and for performing local closed world reasoning. Owlready has been successfully

  9. Moving Virtual Research Environments from high maintenance Stovepipes to Multi-purpose Sustainable Service-oriented Science Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Fraser, Ryan; Wyborn, Lesley; Friedrich, Carsten; Squire, Geoffrey; Barker, Michelle; Moloney, Glenn

    2017-04-01

    The researcher of today is likely to be part of a team distributed over multiple sites that will access data from an external repository and then process the data on a public or private cloud or even on a large centralised supercomputer. They are increasingly likely to use a mixture of their own code, third party software and libraries, or even access global community codes. These components will be connected into a Virtual Research Environments (VREs) that will enable members of the research team who are not co-located to actively work together at various scales to share data, models, tools, software, workflows, best practices, infrastructures, etc. Many VRE's are built in isolation: designed to meet a specific research program with components tightly coupled and not capable of being repurposed for other use cases - they are becoming 'stovepipes'. The limited number of users of some VREs also means that the cost of maintenance per researcher can be unacceptably high. The alternative is to develop service-oriented Science Platforms that enable multiple communities to develop specialised solutions for specific research programs. The platforms can offer access to data, software tools and processing infrastructures (cloud, supercomputers) through globally distributed, interconnected modules. In Australia, the Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) was initially built to enable a specific set of researchers in government agencies access to specific data sets and a limited number of tools, that is now rapidly evolving into a multi-purpose Earth science platform with access to an increased variety of data, a broader range of tools, users from more sectors and a diversity of computational infrastructures. The expansion has been relatively easy, because of the architecture whereby data, tools and compute resources are loosely coupled via interfaces that are built on international standards and accessed as services wherever possible. In recent years, investments in

  10. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  11. Three Kinds of Value Orientation in Organizational Change of High Vocational College%高职院校组织变革的三种价值取向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小明

    2015-01-01

    组织变革是高职院校生存和发展的方式。高职院校在由外延发展向内涵质量提升的转型发展过程中,存在三种不同的价值取向:办学定位的个人取向与社会取向,人才培养的人文取向与技术取向,组织结构和组织文化的“大学化”与“企业化”取向。高职院校组织变革应兼顾个人与社会的需求,祛除工具化倾向,将全面发展作为培养高素质技术技能型人才的价值追求。%Organizational change is the survival and development of high vocational colleges.During the the process of the transformation of the development from the epitaxial growth to the connotation of the quality ascension in higher vocational colle-ges,there are three different value orientation:social orientation and personal orientation,humanistic orientation and technical orientation,"universitization"and "enterprization"in organization structure and organizational culture.Organizational change in high vocational colleges should be balancing the needs of individual and society,dispel tools tendency,all -round develop-ment as the value pursuit of training high quality technical skilled talents.

  12. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the i

  13. Influence of Perceived Parenting Styles: Goal Orientations and Career Aspirations of High School Science Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable research interest into the relationship between the parenting styles of Asians, and student motivation and achievement. The investigation presented in this paper contributes to the literature in this area by examining the influence of perceived parenting style on goal orientations and career aspirations of a sample of…

  14. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the

  15. Photodeposition of Gold, Platinum, or Silver onto Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles at Steps of Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, James

    The photodeposition of gold, platinum, or silver nanoparticles selectively onto isolated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles created metal/TiO2 photocatalysts and heterogeneous catalysts, and validated the photocatalytic property of the semiconductor. The isolated and ordered TiO2 nanoparticles permitted clear observations of the stability, and changes in morphology, of the particles in various experimental conditions. The fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles at the steps of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), utilizing physical vapor deposition, required heating the graphite substrate to a minimum of 800 °C. The production of a photocurrent, and plating of gold nanoparticles, confirmed the photocatalytic property of the TiO2 nanoparticles on HOPG when utilized as a photoelectrode in a two half-cell setup. Employing sodium chloride (1.0 M) as an electrolyte resulted in an increase/decrease of the photocurrent with the addition of gold cations to the half-cell without/with the TiO2 nanoparticles. A poor distribution of gold nanoparticles, roughly 40-45 nm wide, deposited around few of the TiO2 nanoparticles. A lower concentration of sodium chloride (0.1 M) resulted in a coalescence of Au nanoparticles, roughly 10 nm, around many TiO2 nanoparticles. Using sodium nitrate as an electrolyte resulted in a rapid decay in the photocurrent and a growth of an unidentified material on the TiO2 nanoparticles. The unidentified material hindered the reduction of gold cations introduced midway through the experiment. With gold cations present at the onset of the experiment, disperse gold nanoparticles (˜5-10 nm) deposited around the TiO2 nanoparticles. In the absence of additional electrolyte, many disperse gold nanoparticles less than 5 nm deposited onto the TiO2 nanoparticles. More platinum than gold selectively deposited onto the TiO2 nanoparticles. On the contrary, less silver selectively deposited onto the TiO2 nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic

  16. Influence of the magnetic field orientation on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconductors: an ac shielding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, B

    1999-07-01

    This work deals with the influence of the orientation of an applied static magnetic field on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconducting cuprates. The mixed state is characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux). Their properties have been tested via the dynamic approach of the shielding of an ac magnetic field. In pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} crystals the first order transition of the vortex system from an ordered to a disordered state has been studied. It has been found that in the material the transition is mainly determined by the component of the field perpendicular to the superconducting copper oxide layers. However, the value of this component at the transition diminishes with the increase of the field component parallel to the layers. This is explained by the decrease of the Josephson coupling between 2D vortices in neighbouring planes in the presence of a parallel component. In heavy ion irradiated Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the subject under investigation has been the pinning of the vortices by the irradiation tracks. These defects push the irreversibility line towards higher fields. In the field range that has become irreversible after irradiation pinning by columnar defects is anisotropic. This anisotropy in pinning indicates that a coupling exists between the 2D vortices that form a vortex line, in contrast to the behaviour in the pristine material in the same field range. HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} with columnar defects shows essentially the same behaviour as Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, the differences being well explained by the lower anisotropy of HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} which leads to a more linear character of the vortices. Finally, it has been shown that in pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the concentration of the vortices in the center of the sample is explained by the surface barrier alone. (author)

  17. COBRA, an Arabidopsis extracellular glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein, specifically controls highly anisotropic expansion through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, François; Fernandez, Anita G; Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Borner, Georg H H; Schindelman, Gary; Song, Shuang; Baskin, Tobias I; Dupree, Paul; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O; Benfey, Philip N

    2005-06-01

    The orientation of cell expansion is a process at the heart of plant morphogenesis. Cellulose microfibrils are the primary anisotropic material in the cell wall and thus are likely to be the main determinant of the orientation of cell expansion. COBRA (COB) has been identified previously as a potential regulator of cellulose biogenesis. In this study, characterization of a null allele, cob-4, establishes the key role of COB in controlling anisotropic expansion in most developing organs. Quantitative polarized-light and field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveal that loss of anisotropic expansion in cob mutants is accompanied by disorganization of the orientation of cellulose microfibrils and subsequent reduction of crystalline cellulose. Analyses of the conditional cob-1 allele suggested that COB is primarily implicated in microfibril deposition during rapid elongation. Immunodetection analysis in elongating root cells revealed that, in agreement with its substitution by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, COB was polarly targeted to both the plasma membrane and the longitudinal cell walls and was distributed in a banding pattern perpendicular to the longitudinal axis via a microtubule-dependent mechanism. Our observations suggest that COB, through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation, is an essential factor in highly anisotropic expansion during plant morphogenesis.

  18. Orienteering club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of cell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, S. A.; de, Rumi

    2009-12-01

    The nonlinear dependence of cellular orientation on an external, time-varying stress field determines the distribution of orientations in the presence of noise and the characteristic time, τc , for the cell to reach its steady-state orientation. The short, local cytoskeletal relaxation time distinguishes between high-frequency (nearly perpendicular) and low-frequency (random or parallel) orientations. However, τc is determined by the much longer, orientational relaxation time. This behavior is related to experiments for which we predict the angle and characteristic time as a function of frequency.

  20. Deep flexion-oriented bisurface-type knee joint and its tibial rotation that attributes its high performance of flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueo, Toyoji; Kihara, Yuuichi; Ikeda, Noboru; Kawai, Jun; Nakamura, Kenji; Hirokawa, Shunji

    2011-04-01

    In 1989, we developed an artificial knee prosthesis that could accommodate the oriental lifestyle where people would sit more often on the floor than on a chair. The knee had a bisurface feature with an auxiliary joint of a ball and socket at the center of the posterior part aiming at an improved flexional function. The auxiliary joint functions not only to facilitate a rollback movement but also to add a rotational movement. It was investigated whether this knee prosthesis could show an internal rotation of the tibia during flexion such as the physiologic movement of the knee. The internal rotation of the tibia was evaluated for the patients who could sit on legs in the oriental style after total knee arthroplasty. The average flexion angle of patients who achieved this style of sitting was 144.1°, and the average internal rotation was estimated as 14.3° by a pattern matching method using a computer-assisted design system.

  1. Importance of Client Orientation Domains in Non-Clinical Quality of Care: A Household Survey in High and Low Income Districts of Mashhad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Somayeh; Yousefi, Mehdi; Banikazemi, Seyed Hasan; Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Seyed Amir Hossein; Vakilzadeh, Ali Khorsand; Hoseinzadeh Aval, Narges

    2015-12-18

    Responsiveness introduced by WHO as a key indicator to assess the performance of health systems and measures by common set of domains that are categorized in to two main categories "Respect for persons" and "client orientation". This study measured importance of client orientation domains in high and low income districts of Mashhad. In this cross-sectional and explanatory study, Sample of 923 households were selected randomly from two high and low income districts of Mashhad. World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire was used for data collection. Standard frequency analyses and Ordinal logistic regression (OLR) was employed for data analysis. In general, respondents selected quality of basic amenities as the most important domain and access to social support networks was identified as the least important domain. Households in high income area scored higher domains of prompt attentions and choice Compared to low income. There was a significant relationship between variables of ages, having member that need to care and self-assessed health with the ranking of client orientation domains.Study of households' view on ranking of non-clinical aspects of quality of care, especially when faced with limited resources, can help to conduct efforts towards subjects that are more important, and lead to improve the health system performance and productivity.

  2. Dual-mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite with highly b-axis-oriented large mesopore channels for the production of benzoin ethyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hangrong; Zhu, Yan; Song, Yudian; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yongxia; Gong, Yun; Zhang, Guobin; Shu, Zhu; Cui, Xiangzhi; Zhao, Jinjin; Shi, Jianlin

    2013-07-22

    Dual-mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite with highly b axis oriented large mesopores was synthesized by using nonionic copolymer F127 and cationic surfactant CTAB as co-templates. The product contains two types of mesopores--smaller wormlike ones of 3.3 nm in size and highly oriented larger ones of 30-50 nm in diameter along the b axis--and both of them interpenetrate throughout the zeolite crystals and interconnect with zeolite microporosity. The dual-mesoporous zeolite exhibits excellent catalytic performance in the condensation of benzaldehyde with ethanol and greater than 99 % selectivity for benzoin ethyl ether at room temperature, which can be ascribed to the zeolite lattice structure offering catalytically active sites and the hierarchical and oriented mesoporous structure providing fast access of reactants to these sites in the catalytic reaction. The excellent recyclability and high catalytic stability of the catalyst suggest prospective applications of such unique mesoporous zeolites in the chemical industry.

  3. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: the effects of body orientation and language on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David W; Abney, Drew H; Dale, Rick; Matlock, Teenie

    2014-01-01

    Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person's body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings are in line with previous work on spatial displacement that uses a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory.

  4. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: The effects of body orientation and language on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Vinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person’s body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings replicate are in line with previous work on spatial displacement task that used a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory.

  5. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Sexual Orientation KidsHealth > For Parents > Sexual Orientation Print A ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the ...

  6. Highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films on glass substrates with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hongyu; Sannomiya, Takumi; Muraishi, Shinji; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji, E-mail: shi.j.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Xie, Qian; Zhang, Zhengjun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jian [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    To obtain strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) based on L1{sub 0} structure for magnetic storage devices, costly single crystalline substrates are generally required to achieve (001) texture. Recently, various studies also have focused on depositing different kinds of seed layers on glass or other amorphous substrates to promote (001) preferred orientation of L1{sub 0} CoPt and FePt. TiN is a very promising seed layer material because of its cubic crystalline structure (similar to MgO) and excellent diffusion barring property even at high temperatures. In the present work, highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films have been successfully deposited on glass substrates. After annealing at 700 °C, the film exhibits PMA, and a strong (001) peak is detected from the x-ray diffraction profiles, indicating the ordering transformation of CoPt layers from fcc (A1) to L1{sub 0} structure. It also is found that alternate deposition of cubic TiN and CoPt effectively improves the crystallinity and (001) preferred orientation of CoPt layers. This effect is verified by the substantial enhancement of (001) reflection and PMA with increasing the period number of the multilayer films.

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Une bonne dizaine de clubs étaient représentés samedi dernier à La Faucille pour participer à la  2e manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club du CERN. Les 120 coureurs ont pu découvrir des parcours classés "technique". Ceux du Haut-Jura familiarisés à ce type de terrain ont pu sortir leur épingle du jeu et se sont octroyé la victoire sur 4 des 5 circuits. Samedi 21 septembre, la montagne du Haut-Jura était encore plébiscitée puisque les coureurs étaient attendus à Saint Cergue sur la carte des Pralies. Pour les résultats complets de La Faucille et les informations sur la prochaine étape, consultez le site du club http://cern.ch/club-orientation.

  8. A Study on the Effects on Low Cycle Fatigue Life of a High Pressure Turbine Nozzle due to the Perturbation of Crystal Orientation of Grain of DS Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Jae Sung; Kang, Young Seok; Rhee, Dong Ho [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    High pressure components of a gas turbine engine are generally made of nickel-base superalloys, using precision casting process due to complicated geometries with intricate channels and cooling holes. Turbine components manufactured from directionally solidified and single crystal materials have columnar grains; however, it is found that the crystals do not grow in its preferred direction, although the orientation can be controlled. This anisotropy can lead to the variations of elastic and Hill's parameters in constitutive equations, and they alter stress distributions and the low cycle fatigue life. We aims to evaluate the effects of perturbed crystal orientations on the structural integrity of a directionally solidified nozzle using low cycle fatigue life. We also attempt to show the necessity for the control of allowed manufacturing errors and stochastic analysis. Our approaches included conjugate heat transfer and structural analysis, along with low cycle fatigue life assessment.

  9. Fabrication and non-covalent modification of highly oriented thin films of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the fabrication of the first thin film of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology (rho-ZMOF-1, ([In48(HImDC)96]48-)n) in a highly oriented fashion on a gold-functionalized substrate. The oriented rho-ZMOF-1 film was functionalized by non-covalent modification via post-synthetic exchange of different probe molecules, such as acridine yellow, methylene blue, and Nile red. In addition, encapsulation of a porphyrin moiety was achieved via in situ synthesis and construction of the rho-ZMOF. Adsorption kinetics of volatile organic compounds on rho-ZMOF-1 thin films was also investigated. This study suggests that rho-ZMOF-1 thin films can be regarded as a promising platform for various applications such as sensing and catalysis. This journal is

  10. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  12. Orientation cues for high-flying nocturnal insect migrants: do turbulence-induced temperature and velocity fluctuations indicate the mean wind flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M Reynolds

    Full Text Available Migratory insects flying at high altitude at night often show a degree of common alignment, sometimes with quite small angular dispersions around the mean. The observed orientation directions are often close to the downwind direction and this would seemingly be adaptive in that large insects could add their self-propelled speed to the wind speed, thus maximising their displacement in a given time. There are increasing indications that high-altitude orientation may be maintained by some intrinsic property of the wind rather than by visual perception of relative ground movement. Therefore, we first examined whether migrating insects could deduce the mean wind direction from the turbulent fluctuations in temperature. Within the atmospheric boundary-layer, temperature records show characteristic ramp-cliff structures, and insects flying downwind would move through these ramps whilst those flying crosswind would not. However, analysis of vertical-looking radar data on the common orientations of nocturnally migrating insects in the UK produced no evidence that the migrants actually use temperature ramps as orientation cues. This suggests that insects rely on turbulent velocity and acceleration cues, and refocuses attention on how these can be detected, especially as small-scale turbulence is usually held to be directionally invariant (isotropic. In the second part of the paper we present a theoretical analysis and simulations showing that velocity fluctuations and accelerations felt by an insect are predicted to be anisotropic even when the small-scale turbulence (measured at a fixed point or along the trajectory of a fluid-particle is isotropic. Our results thus provide further evidence that insects do indeed use turbulent velocity and acceleration cues as indicators of the mean wind direction.

  13. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, M. M.; Roldan, M. A.; Yamashita, Y.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Ajia, I. A.; Iizuka, K.; Kuramata, A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Roqan, I. S.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1‑xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm‑2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1‑xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1‑xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  14. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila

    2016-07-14

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1−xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm−2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1−xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1−xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  15. Program Orientation for High School Sport Coaches. Coaches Council and the National Council for Secondary School Athletic Directors, 2005. A Position Paper from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) believes that prior to the start of each season, all high school head coaches, assistant coaches, and volunteer coaches should be required to participate in a comprehensive orientation to the sport program. This orientation should be planned and conducted by the athletic director or…

  16. A new highly adaptable design of shear-flow device for orientation of macromolecules for Linear Dichroism (LD) measurement

    KAUST Repository

    Lundahl, P. Johan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new design of flow-orientation device for the study of bio-macromolecules, including DNA and protein complexes, as well as aggregates such as amyloid fibrils and liposome membranes, using Linear Dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. The design provides a number of technical advantages that should make the device inexpensive to manufacture, easier to use and more reliable than existing techniques. The degree of orientation achieved is of the same order of magnitude as that of the commonly used concentric cylinders Couette flow cell, however, since the device exploits a set of flat strain-free quartz plates, a number of problems associated with refraction and birefringence of light are eliminated, increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of measurement. The device provides similar shear rates to those of the Couette cell but is superior in that the shear rate is constant across the gap. Other major advantages of the design is the possibility to change parts and vary sample volume and path length easily and at a low cost. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation cooling in the upgraded Torus experiment for technology oriented research (TEXTOR-94)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiaen, A. M.; Ongena, J.; Unterberg, B.; Boedo, J.; Fuchs, G.; R. Jaspers,; Konen, L.; Koslowski, H. R.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Samm, U.; Vandenplas, P. E.; Van Oost, G.; van Wassenhove, G.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R. R.; Wolf, G. H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Brix, M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Finken, K.H.; Giesen, B.; Hillis, D.; Hutteman, P.; Koch, R.; KramerFlecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mertens, P.; Pospieszczyk, A.; PostZwicker, A.; Sauer, M.; Schweer, B.; Schwelberger, J.; Telesca, G.; Tokar, M. Z.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Winter, J.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the results obtained so far for the radiative I-mode regime on the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94) [Proceedings of die 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1995), Vol. 1, p.

  18. Neutron diffraction texture analysis for {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oriented by high magnetic field and sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, N; Suzuki, H S; Suzuki, T S; Kitazawa, H; Sakka, Y [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kaneko, K; Metoki, N [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: TERADA.Noriki@nims.go.jp

    2009-05-21

    We have performed neutron diffraction experiments on highly oriented {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, obtained by slip casting under a magnetic field and sintering. In order to investigate the magnetic field, B, and sintering temperature, T{sub sint}, dependence of the degree of alignment of the orientation, we used samples treated with systematically varied B up to 12 T and T{sub sint} up to 1600 deg. C. The degree of alignment of the magnetic easy axis (the hexagonal c-axis) is rapidly enhanced by sintering above 1200 deg. C, which is coincident with the temperature at which crystal grains start to grow. The angular distribution of the c-axis for the sample sintered at 1600 deg. C, obtained by {omega}-scan neutron diffraction profiles, is almost coincident with the probability distribution calculated for the particle size two times larger than that in the starting material. We discuss the orientation process mechanism with sintering in light of the results of this analysis.

  19. Highly c-axis oriented ZnO:Ni thin film nanostructure by RF magnetron sputtering: Structural, morphological and magnetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddheswaran, R., E-mail: rsiddhes@yahoo.com [New Technologies Research Centre, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Plzeň-30614 (Czech Republic); Savková, Jarmila; Medlín, Rostislav; Očenášek, Jan [New Technologies Research Centre, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Plzeň-30614 (Czech Republic); Životský, Ondřej [Institute of Physics, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. Listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); RMTVC, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. Listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Novák, Petr; Šutta, Pavol [New Technologies Research Centre, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Plzeň-30614 (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Highly preferred oriented columnar ZnO:Ni thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • XRD and azimuthal studies explain the characteristics of orientation in [0 0 1] direction. • Surface morphology and grains distribution were explained by FE-SEM. • XTEM specimen prepared by ion slicing used for TEM microstructure analyses. • Tendency of ferromagnetism by influence of Ni content was studied by VSM. - Abstract: Nickel doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ni) thin films with different Ni concentrations were deposited on silicon substrates at 400 °C by reactive magnetron sputtering using a mixture of Ar and O{sub 2} gases. The X-ray diffraction and azimuthal patterns of the ZnO:Ni were carried out, and the quality of the strong preferred orientation of crystalline columns in the direction [0 0 1] perpendicular to the substrate surface were analysed. The grain size, distribution, and homogeneity of the thin film surfaces were studied by FE-SEM. The EDX and mapping confirmed that the Ni is incorporated into ZnO uniformly. The microstructure of the textured columns was analysed by TEM and HRTEM analyses. The average thickness and length of the columns were found to be about 50 nm and 600 nm, respectively. The rise of ferromagnetism by the influence of Ni content was studied by VSM magnetic studies at room temperature.

  20. High-Hall-Mobility Al-Doped ZnO Films Having Textured Polycrystalline Structure with a Well-Defined (0001) Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Five hundred-nanometer-thick ZnO-based textured polycrystalline films consisting of 490-nm-thick Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on 10-nm-thick Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films exhibited a high Hall mobility (μ H) of 50.1 cm(2)/Vs with a carrier concentration (N) of 2.55 × 10(20) cm(-3). Firstly, the GZO films were prepared on glass substrates by ion plating with dc arc discharge, and the AZO films were then deposited on the GZO films by direct current magnetron sputtering (DC-MS). The GZO interface layers with a preferential c-axis orientation play a critical role in producing AZO films with texture development of a well-defined (0001) orientation, whereas 500-nm-thick AZO films deposited by only DC-MS showed a mixture of the c-plane and the other plane orientation, to exhibit a μ H of 38.7 cm(2)/Vs with an N of 2.22 × 10(20) cm(-3).

  1. High-Hall-Mobility Al-Doped ZnO Films Having Textured Polycrystalline Structure with a Well-Defined (0001) Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Five hundred-nanometer-thick ZnO-based textured polycrystalline films consisting of 490-nm-thick Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on 10-nm-thick Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films exhibited a high Hall mobility ( μ H) of 50.1 cm2/Vs with a carrier concentration ( N) of 2.55 × 1020 cm-3. Firstly, the GZO films were prepared on glass substrates by ion plating with dc arc discharge, and the AZO films were then deposited on the GZO films by direct current magnetron sputtering (DC-MS). The GZO interface layers with a preferential c-axis orientation play a critical role in producing AZO films with texture development of a well-defined (0001) orientation, whereas 500-nm-thick AZO films deposited by only DC-MS showed a mixture of the c-plane and the other plane orientation, to exhibit a μ H of 38.7 cm2/Vs with an N of 2.22 × 1020 cm-3.

  2. Livestock Farming Systems and Cattle Production Orientation in Eastern High Plains of Algeria, Cattle Farming System in Algerian Semi Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lounis Semara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to devise productive orientations of cattle herds in eastern high plains of Algeria. In this regard, 165 farms randomly identified were investigated. The selection of breeders was based to existence of cattle on the farm, and the farmer proposed to investigation must have at least two cows. The approach taken was to identify all systems adopted by farmers in a region through the analysis of the relationship between the maintenance of different types of cattle and preferred marketing policies. The model has been emerged as a result of functional typology established using the procedure categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA of optimal coding in SPSS [19. 2010]. Following this approach, five types of cattle productive orientation have been identified, the balanced mixed system (dairy-beef, beef mixed system, dairy mixed system, dairy system and beef system. These results showed that the breeders were oriented towards specialization (dairy or beef in less than 20% of situations. Farmers in our context prefer mixed systems when beef mixed system was the model type frequently encountered in the region (over than 50% of farms.

  3. Large Energy Storage Density and High Thermal Stability in a Highly Textured (111)-Oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 Relaxor Thin Film with the Coexistence of Antiferroelectric and Ferroelectric Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Biaolin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xing; Sun, Tieyu; Fan, Huiqing; Ke, Shanming; Ye, Mao; Wang, Yu; Lu, Wei; Niu, Hanben; Zeng, Xierong; Huang, Haitao

    2015-06-24

    A highly textured (111)-oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 (PBZ) relaxor thin film with the coexistence of antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric (FE) phases was prepared on a Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si(100) substrate by using a sol-gel method. A large recoverable energy storage density of 40.18 J/cm(3) along with an efficiency of 64.1% was achieved at room temperature. Over a wide temperature range of 250 K (from room temperature to 523 K), the variation of the energy density is within 5%, indicating a high thermal stability. The high energy storage performance was endowed by a large dielectric breakdown strength, great relaxor dispersion, highly textured orientation, and the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The PBZ thin film is believed to be an attractive material for applications in energy storage systems over a wide temperature range.

  4. Highly-oriented molecular arrangements and enhanced magnetic interactions in thin films of CoTTDPz using PTCDA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Keitaro; Nanjo, Chihiro; Awaga, Kunio; Tseng, Hsiang-Han; Robaschik, Peter; Heutz, Sandrine

    2016-07-14

    In the present work, the templating effect of thin layers of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on the growth of cobalt tetrakis(thiadiazole)porphyrazine (CoTTDPz) thin films was examined. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption spectra indicate that while CoTTDPz forms amorphous thin films on the bare substrates, it forms crystalline thin films on the PTCDA templates, in which the molecular planes of CoTTDPz are considered to be parallel to the substrates. Magnetic measurements reveal a significantly enhanced antiferromagnetic interaction of CoTTDPz in the templated thin films, with values reaching over 13 K. The ability to generate crystalline films and to control their orientation using molecular templates is an important strategy in the fields of organic electronics and spintronics in order to tailor the physical properties of organic thin films to suit their intended application.

  5. Orientation dependence of variant selection and intersection reactions of ɛ martensite in a high-manganese austenitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Sawaguchi, T.; Ogawa, K.; Yin, F.; Zhao, X.

    2011-09-01

    The orientation dependence of ɛ martensite during loading of a polycrystalline austenitic Fe-30Mn-4Si-2Al steel has been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction, emphasising the variant selection rule and plate-plate intersection reactions. Two types of plate-plate intersection reactions, which are characterised by incident shear direction of either 30° or 90° with respect to the intersection axis, were found in the grains along the [001]-[111] directions and [001]-[101] directions, respectively. In the intersecting volume of the latter type reaction, a γ phase rotated 90° from the austenite matrix along the ⟨011⟩ zone axis of the intersecting ɛ plates, which was theoretically predicted by Sleeswyk [A.W. Sleeswyk, Philos. Mag. 7 (1962) p.1597], has been experimentally observed for the first time.

  6. Application-oriented development of high-performance-Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] materials and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woetting, G. (Cremer Forschungsinstitut GmbH und Co. KG, Roedental (Germany)); Frassek, L. (Cremer Forschungsinstitut GmbH und Co. KG, Roedental (Germany)); Leimer, G. (Cremer Forschungsinstitut GmbH und Co. KG, Roedental (Germany)); Schoenfelder, L. (Cremer Forschungsinstitut GmbH und Co. KG, Roedental (Germany))

    1993-06-01

    Although Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] materials and components have already proved successful in various applications, they still have a great deal of undeveloped potential for industrial use. In order to support the introduction of new technologies in respect of improving existing industrial processes or even to allow the realization of new technologies, application-oriented developments of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] materials were carried out so that the materials would be able to comply with the different property demands of the wide field of (potential) uses. The possibilities of tailoring the properties of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] by using different powder characteristics, compositions and production processes are also discussed with respect to associated cost. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of 10 nm thick piezoelectric AlN films with high c-axis orientation for miniaturized nanoelectromechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Usama; Piazza, Gianluca

    2014-06-01

    The scaling of piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is challenged by the synthesis of ultrathin and high quality piezoelectric films on very thin electrodes. We report the synthesis and characterization of the thinnest piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) films (10 nm) ever deposited on ultrathin platinum layers (2-5 nm) using reactive sputtering. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and fast Fourier transform analyses confirmed the proper crystal orientation, fine columnar texture, and the continuous lattice structure within individual grains in the deposited AlN nanometer thick films. The average extracted d31 piezoelectric coefficient for the synthesized films is -1.73 pC/N, which is comparable to the reported values for micron thick and highly c-axis oriented AlN films. The 10 nm AlN films were employed to demonstrate two different types of optimized piezoelectric nanoactuators. The unimorph actuators exhibit vertical displacements as large as 1.1 μm at 0.7 V for 25 μm long and 30 nm thick beams. These results have a great potential to realize miniaturized NEMS relays with extremely low voltage, high frequency resonators, and ultrasensitive sensors.

  8. Data Rods: High Speed, Time-Series Analysis of Massive Cryospheric Data Sets Using Object-Oriented Database Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Gallaher, D. W.; Grant, G.; Lv, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Change over time, is the central driver of climate change detection. The goal is to diagnose the underlying causes, and make projections into the future. In an effort to optimize this process we have developed the Data Rod model, an object-oriented approach that provides the ability to query grid cell changes and their relationships to neighboring grid cells through time. The time series data is organized in time-centric structures called "data rods." A single data rod can be pictured as the multi-spectral data history at one grid cell: a vertical column of data through time. This resolves the long-standing problem of managing time-series data and opens new possibilities for temporal data analysis. This structure enables rapid time- centric analysis at any grid cell across multiple sensors and satellite platforms. Collections of data rods can be spatially and temporally filtered, statistically analyzed, and aggregated for use with pattern matching algorithms. Likewise, individual image pixels can be extracted to generate multi-spectral imagery at any spatial and temporal location. The Data Rods project has created a series of prototype databases to store and analyze massive datasets containing multi-modality remote sensing data. Using object-oriented technology, this method overcomes the operational limitations of traditional relational databases. To demonstrate the speed and efficiency of time-centric analysis using the Data Rods model, we have developed a sea ice detection algorithm. This application determines the concentration of sea ice in a small spatial region across a long temporal window. If performed using traditional analytical techniques, this task would typically require extensive data downloads and spatial filtering. Using Data Rods databases, the exact spatio-temporal data set is immediately available No extraneous data is downloaded, and all selected data querying occurs transparently on the server side. Moreover, fundamental statistical

  9. Electronic structure differences between H(2)-, Fe-, Co-, and Cu-phthalocyanine highly oriented thin films observed using NEXAFS spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, T M; Bagge-Hansen, M; Lee, J R I; Call, R; Landt, L; van Buuren, T; Colesniuc, C; Monton, C; Valmianski, I; Schuller, Ivan K

    2013-07-21

    Phthalocyanines, a class of macrocyclic, square planar molecules, are extensively studied as semiconductor materials for chemical sensors, dye-sensitized solar cells, and other applications. In this study, we use angular dependent near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy as a quantitative probe of the orientation and electronic structure of H2-, Fe-, Co-, and Cu-phthalocyanine molecular thin films. NEXAFS measurements at both the carbon and nitrogen K-edges reveal that phthalocyanine films deposited on sapphire have upright molecular orientations, while films up to 50 nm thick deposited on gold substrates contain prostrate molecules. Although great similarity is observed in the carbon and nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra recorded for the films composed of prostrate molecules, the H2-phthalocyanine exhibits the cleanest angular dependence due to its purely out-of-plane π* resonances at the absorption onset. In contrast, organometallic-phthalocyanine nitrogen K-edges have a small in-plane resonance superimposed on this π* region that is due to a transition into molecular orbitals interacting with the 3dx(2)-y(2) empty state. NEXAFS spectra recorded at the metal L-edges for the prostrate films reveal dramatic variations in the angular dependence of specific resonances for the Cu-phthalocyanines compared with the Fe-, and Co-phthalocyanines. The Cu L3,2 edge exhibits a strong in-plane resonance, attributed to its b1g empty state with dx(2)-y(2) character at the Cu center. Conversely, the Fe- and Co- phthalocyanine L3,2 edges have strong out-of-plane resonances; these are attributed to transitions into not only b1g (dz(2)) but also eg states with dxz and dyz character at the metal center.

  10. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Course d’orientation C’est sous un magnifique soleil que s’est tenue la 7e épreuve de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. Les organisateurs avaient concocté des parcours assez techniques sur le site de La Faucille. Sur le parcours technique long, beau podium avec la victoire de Domenico Lepori (double médaillés aux championnats du monde en 2010 en vétéran) du club Care Vevey en 1:00:23, juste devant Jürg Niggli du club O’Jura en 1:00:56 puis Beat Mueller du club Lausanne-Jorat en 1:04:28. Sur le parcours technique moyen, Franck Longchampt s’est octroyé la première place, sur le parcours technique court, le jeune Julien Vuitton, qui n’a pas tout à fait 11 ans, a remporté son circuit. Coté parcours facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov a une fois de plus gagn&eacut...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  13. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Et c’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison! Pour cette coupe de printemps 2010, le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose le calendrier suivant: – samedi 20 mars : Cossonay (Vd) – samedi 10 avril : Echallens (Vd) – samedi 17 avril : Trélex (Vd) – samedi 24 avril : Genolier (Vd) – samedi 1 mai : Vulbens/Valleiry (74) – samedi 8 mai : Bois de la Rippe (Vd) – samedi 29 mai : Sauvabellin (Vd) : relais – samedi 5 juin: St Cergue (Vd) : grande finale Les courses populaires ont lieu en général le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour cela, divers types de parcours sont &agr...

  14. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Nouvelle saison nouveau programme Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses populaires comptant pour la coupe Genevoise de printemps: samedi 28 mars: Vernand Dessus samedi 18 avril: Pougny/Challex samedi 25 avril: Chancy/Valleiry samedi 2 mai: Mauvernay samedi 9 mai: Longchaumois samedi 16 mai: Genolier samedi 30 mai: Prevondavaux samedi 6 juin: Biere-Ballens samedi 13 juin: Haut-Jura samedi 20 juin: Bonmont - Finale Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Les inscriptions se font sur place le jour de l’épreuve. Si vous êtes débutant, vous pouvez profiter d’une initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Le club propose aussi...

  15. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  16. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  17. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de...

  18. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  19. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  20. [A simultaneous determination of honokiol and mangolol in Oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing magnolia bark by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, J; Asaka, N; Tanaka, I; Hayashi, Y; Hirose, Y; Momma, N; Yasuda, T; Ohsawa, K

    1993-12-01

    A simple method using ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography was established for the rapid and precise determination of honokiol(3',5-di-2-propenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2,4'-diol) and magnolol(5,5'-di-2-propenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol) in eighteen species of oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing Magnolia bark. An ODS column and a mixed solvent system of water involving 10 mM tetra-n-amyl-ammonium bromide (TAA) and acetonitrile (4:6) as a mobile phase were used for the separation. Honokiol and magnolol were eluted without interference of other coexisting components within 12 min.

  1. A Software Module for High-Accuracy Calibration of Rings and Cylinders on CMM using Multi-Orientation Techniques (Multi-Step and Reversal methods)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    . The Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM) at the Technical University of Denmark takes care of free form measurements, in collaboration with DIMEG, University of Padova, Italy. The present report describes a software module, ROUNDCAL, to be used for high-accuracy calibration of rings and cylinders....... The purpose of the software is to calculate the form error and the least square circle of rings and cylinders by mean of average of pontwise measuring results becoming from so-called multi-orientation techniques (both reversal and multi-step methods) in order to eliminate systematic errors of CMM ....

  2. A Software Module for High-Accuracy Calibration of Rings and Cylinders on CMM using Multi-Orientation Techniques (Multi-Step and Reversal methods)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    . The Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM) at the Technical University of Denmark takes care of free form measurements, in collaboration with DIMEG, University of Padova, Italy. The present report describes a software module, ROUNDCAL, to be used for high-accuracy calibration of rings and cylinders....... The purpose of the software is to calculate the form error and the least square circle of rings and cylinders by mean of average of pontwise measuring results becoming from so-called multi-orientation techniques (both reversal and multi-step methods) in order to eliminate systematic errors of CMM ....

  3. Highly oriented δ-Bi2O3 thin films stable at room temperature synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunca Popa, P.; Sønderby, S.; Kerdsongpanya, S.;

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis by reactive magnetron sputtering and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented thin films of δ–Bi2O3. This phase is obtained at a substrate temperature of 150–200 °C in a narrow window of O2/Ar ratio in the sputtering gas (18%–20%). Transmission electron microsc...... microscopy and x-ray diffraction reveal a polycrystalline columnar structure with (111) texture. The films are stable from room temperature up to 250 °C in vacuum and 350 °C in ambient air. © 2013 American Institute of Physics...

  4. Calibration for Relative Interior Orientation Relationship and Band-to-band Registration with High Accuracy of ZY-3 Multi-spectral Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qijun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using high accuracy match points extracted between the multi-spectral images that obtained at the same time,a position model of the CCD chips of the ZY-3 multi-spectral camera was proposed. Relative interior orientation relationship parameters were calculated and accurate band-to-band automatic registration of ZY-3 multi-spectral image was achieved based on the position model. The experimental result indicates that the band-to-band automatic registration accuracy of ZY-3 multi-spectral image is better than 0.3 pixels with the proposed method.

  5. Preparation of highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films on Hastelloy tapes with Y2O3 buffer layer for flexible SAW sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bin; Jiang, Jianying; Chen, Guo; Shu, Lin; Feng, Jie; Zhang, Wanli; Liu, Xinzhao

    2016-02-01

    Highly c-axis oriented aluminum nitrade (AlN) films were successfully deposited on flexible Hastelloy tapes by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and piezoelectric properties of the AlN films were investigated. The results show that the AlN films deposited directly on the bare Hastelloy substrate have rough surface with root mean square (RMS) roughness of 32.43nm and its full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the AlN (0002) peak is 12.5∘. However, the AlN films deposited on the Hastelloy substrate with Y2O3 buffer layer show smooth surface with RMS roughness of 5.46nm and its FWHM of the AlN (0002) peak is only 3.7∘. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 of the AlN films deposited on the Y2O3/Hastelloy substrate is larger than three times that of the AlN films deposited on the bare Hastelloy substrate. The prepared highly c-axis oriented AlN films can be used to develop high-temperature flexible SAW sensors.

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2011-01-01

    Reprise fin août Le Club d’orientation, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une nouvelle série de courses pour cet automne. Le calendrier à retenir est le suivant : Samedi 27 août : Granges Malval (GE) – type classique Samedi 10 septembre : Lamoura (39) – type classique Samedi 17 septembre : La Dôle (F/VD) – type classique Samedi 24 septembre : Monteret (VD) – relais Samedi 8 octobre : Saint Cergue (VD) – type classique Vendredi 14 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) – nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Grand Jorat (VD) – type classique Samedi 22 octobre : Pomier (74) – type classique Samedi 5 novembre : Echallens (VD) – type classique Samedi 12 novembre : CERN (GE) - sprint - Finale Généralement cinq circuits sont disponibles : ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapt&eacu...

  7. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  8. Single-crystal-like, c-axis oriented BaTiO3 thin films with high-performance on flexible metal templates for ferroelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junsoo; Goyal, Amit; Jesse, Stephen; Kim, Dae Ho

    2009-06-01

    Epitaxial, c-axis oriented BaTiO3 thin films were deposited using pulsed laser ablation on flexible, polycrystalline Ni alloy tape with biaxially textured oxide buffer multilayers. The high quality of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films with P4mm group symmetry was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. The microscopic ferroelectric domain structure and the piezoelectric domain switching in these films were confirmed via spatially resolved piezoresponse mapping and local hysteresis loops. Macroscopic measurements demonstrate that the films have well-saturated hysteresis loops with a high remanent polarization of ˜11.5 μC/cm2. Such high-quality, single-crystal-like BaTiO3 films on low-cost, polycrystalline, flexible Ni alloy substrates are attractive for applications in flexible lead-free ferroelectric devices.

  9. Orienting the Microstructure Evolution of Copper Phthalocyanine as an Anode Interlayer in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells for High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqi; Liu, Chunyu; Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Xulin; Guo, Jiaxin; Guo, Wenbin; Zhang, Liu; Ruan, Shengping

    2017-09-20

    Recent advances in the interfacial modification of inverted-type polymer solar cells (PSCs) have resulted from controlling the surface energy of the cathode-modified layer (TiO2 or ZnO) to enhance the short-circuit current (Jsc) or optimizing the contact morphology of the cathode (indium tin oxide or fluorine-doped tin oxide) and active layer to increase the fill factor. Herein, we report that the performance enhancement of PSCs is achieved by incorporating a donor macromolecule copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as an anode modification layer. Using the approach based on orienting the microstructure evolution, uniformly dispersed island-shaped CuPc spot accumulations are built on the top of PTB7:PC71BM blend film, leading to an efficient spectral absorption and photogenerated exciton splitting. The best power conversion efficiency of PSCs is increased up to 9.726%. In addition to the enhanced light absorption, the tailored anode energy level alignment and optimized boundary morphology by incorporating the CuPc interlayer boost charge extraction efficiency and suppress the interfacial molecular recombination. These results demonstrate that surface morphology induction through molecular deposition is an effective method to improve the performance of PSCs, which reveals the potential implications of the interlayer between the organic active layer and the electrode buffer layer.

  10. Applying DTI white matter orientations to finite element head models to examine diffuse TBI under high rotational accelerations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colgan, Niall C

    2010-12-01

    The in-vivo mechanical response of neural tissue during impact loading of the head is simulated using geometrically accurate finite element (FE) head models. However, current FE models do not account for the anisotropic elastic material behaviour of brain tissue. In soft biological tissue, there is a correlation between internal microscopic structure and macroscopic mechanical properties. Therefore, constitutive equations are important for the numerical analysis of the soft biological tissues. By exploiting diffusion tensor techniques the anisotropic orientation of neural tissue is incorporated into a non-linear viscoelastic material model for brain tissue and implemented in an explicit FE analysis. The viscoelastic material parameters are derived from published data and the viscoelastic model is used to describe the mechanical response of brain tissue. The model is formulated in terms of a large strain viscoelastic framework and considers non-linear viscous deformations in combination with non-linear elastic behaviour. The constitutive model was applied in the University College Dublin brain trauma model (UCDBTM) (i.e. three-dimensional finite element head model) to predict the mechanical response of the intra-cranial contents due to rotational injury.

  11. Slip and Twinning in the [ 1 ¯ $ /line{mathbf{1}} $ 49]-Oriented Single Crystals of a High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, I. V.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.; Pobedennaya, Z. V.; Platonova, Yu. N.; Kuksgauzen, I. V.; Kuksgauzen, D. A.; Poklonov, V. V.; Karaman, I.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Using [ overline{1} 49] - oriented single crystals of an FCC Fe20Ni20Mn20Cr20Co20 (at.%) high-entropy alloy subjected to tensile deformation, the temperature dependence of critical resolved shear stresses τcr(T) and the deformation mechanism of slip and twinning are investigated in the early stages of deformation at ɛ ≤ 5% within the temperature interval T = 77-573 K. It is shown that τcr increases with decreasing the testing temperature and the τcr(T) temperature dependence is controlled by the slip of perfect dislocations a/2. The early deformation stages ɛ ≤ 5% are associated with the development of planar slip by pileups of perfect dislocations a/2, stacking faults and mechanical twins, which is observed in the temperature interval from 77 to 423 K. A comparison of the temperature dependence τcr(T) and the development of mechanical twinning is performed between the [ overline{1} 49] -oriented single crystals of the Fe20Ni20Mn20Cr20Co20 high-entropy alloy, the single crystals of the austenitic stainless steel, Fe - 18% Cr - 12% Ni - 2Mo (wt.%) without nitrogen atoms (Steel 316) and Hadfield steel, Fe - 13% Mn - (1-1.3)% C (wt.%).

  12. 面向广域网的高层体系结构设计%Design on WAN-Oriented High Level Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范希辉; 刘萍; 杨艾军; 黎明曦

    2012-01-01

    To solve the deficiency of traditional high level architecture in solving large scale simulation, and achieve the expansion of the HLA to wide area network (WAN), put forward a new method of Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) layered framework. Combine service oriented architecture (SOA) with HLA, the Web services provider RTI component and federate was designed. An instance was tested in lab environment, results show that the method can effectively support distributed simulation applications in WAN.%针对传统高层体系结构(high level architecture,HLA)在解决大规模仿真问题时存在的不足,为实现HLA 向广域网的扩展,提出了面向服务的运行支撑环境(run-time infrastructure,RTI)分层体系结构.将面向服务的体系结构(service oriented architecture,SOA)与HLA相结合,将Web服务技术应用于RTI,对涉及的Web服务提供组件、联邦成员设计等关键问题给出了设计方案,并通过实例在实验室环境下进行了仿真测试.测试结果表明,该设计能有效支撑广域网环境的分布式仿真应用.

  13. Photoresponse and H2 gas sensing properties of highly oriented Al and Al/Sb doped ZnO thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hannane Benelmadjat; Boubekeur Boudine; Aissa Keffous; Noureddine Gabouze

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al and ZnO:Al/Sb thin films have been prepared and investigated. The thin films were deposited on Si substrates by the sol-gel method. The structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO films have been investigated by spectrophotometry, ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction and current-voltage characterizations. It is found that the films exhibit wurtzite structure with a highly c-axis orientation perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, a high reflectivity in the infrared region and a response to illumination. Furthermore, it has been found that Si/(ZnO:Al/Sb)/Al photodiode is promising in photoconduction device while Si/(ZnO:Al)/Al can be used as gas sensor responding to the low H2 concentrations.

  14. Nanostructuration of self-assembled poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer thin films in a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalakain, Inaki; Ramos, Jose Angel; Fernandez, Raquel; Etxeberria, Haritz; Mondragon, Inaki, E-mail: inaki.mondragon@ehu.e

    2011-01-03

    Highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) is a useful substrate to visualize epitaxial formation due to its crystallographic structure. The morphology of a poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer thin film on a HOPG substrate was investigated by atomic force microscopy. Block copolymer domains generated a morphology with triangular regularity. This arrangement was induced by the HOPG substrate structure due to van der Waals attraction between the HOPG {pi}-conjugated system and aromatic ring of polystyrene domains. However, increasing the film thickness, the substrate effect on the surface morphology decreased. As a consequence, film surfaces showed the coexistence of different structures such as highly aligned cylinders and perforated lamellae. When film thickness exceeded a threshold value, the substrate did not have effect in the surface arrangements and the surface showed a similar morphology to that existing in bulk.

  15. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2011-01-01

    Coupe genevoise, suite Résultats de la course de Saint-Cergue, sur la carte Les Pralies, samedi 17 septembre. Nouvelle victoire du finlandais Ville Keskisaari, du club COLJ sur le parcours technique long avec une belle avance sur le deuxième concurrent Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN. David Cuenin a remporté le parcours technique moyen, Franck Lonchampt du club O’Jura a, lui aussi, remporté à nouveau le parcours technique court, tout comme Julien Vuitton du club CO CERN sur le facile moyen. Pour finir, Stéphane Clément devance Victor Dannecker sur le parcours facile court. Les résultats complets sont disponibles sur le site du club du CERN http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Un abonnement est pris sur le secteur de Saint-Cergue, puisque le club organise les deux prochaines étapes de la coupe genevoise dans le Haut-Jura suisse. Tout d’abord le samedi 24 septembre, un relais inter-club se courr...

  16. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  17. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Course d'orientation Ces deux dernières semaines, le club a organisé la troisième puis la quatrième étape de la coupe de printemps, une dans la forêt de Collogny/Moissey près de Vulbens, l’autre vers le parcours vita de Trélex. Les résultats sont: Facile court Vulbens : 1er Léo Lonchampt, O’Jura (16:04), 2e Timothée Bazin (23:07), 3e Francesco Pieri (26:57) Trélex : 1er Noora Maurent (23:11), 2e Sarah Stuber, COLJ (26:51), 3e T. Bazin (28:17) Facile moyen Vulbens : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, CO CERN (25:36), 2e Didier Descourvières (28:03), 3e Konstantinos Haider, CO CERN (36:53) Trélex : 1er V. Kuznetsov, COLJ (38:01), 2e K. Haider, CO CERN (43:15), 3e ex aequo Olivia Nguyen et Sven Vietmeier (58:11) Technique court Vulbens : 1er Benoit Bazin (41:21), 2e Colas Gintzburger (55:12), 3e Nathan Freydoz (55:48) Trélex : 1...

  18. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  19. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  20. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  1. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2012-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne   La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 10 novembre avec une course sprint à Prévessins. C’était la 12e épreuve de la saison. En stage dans la région, Tanya Ryabkina, championne d’Europe en titre et médaillée de bronze en moyenne distance lors des championnats du monde à La Givrine cet été, a fait l’honneur de sa présence et termine 2e à 8 secondes de Trygve Buanes, norvégien du club de Bergen. A l’issue de cette dernière épreuve, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 8 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Jurg Niggli (O&rsqu...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée ce samedi 2 novembre avec une course au score dans le bois Tollot (GE). Les concurrents disposaient d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises différemment placées selon le circuit choisi. Juerg Niggli (club O’Jura) a remporté le parcours technique long. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O’Jura), 2e Jirden Lennart, 3e Daria Niggli. Circuit technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ), 2e N...

  4. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Vers les dernières courses de printemps Une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés sur le site de la Roche Fendue prés de Morez pour gouter à un des 5 parcours proposés par le club du O’Jura. Le terrain était gras mais que peut-on trouver d’autre avec cette météo! Les vainqueurs de chaque circuit sont : Alina Niggli (O’Jura) facile court, Natalja Niggli (O’Jura) facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ) technique court, Yves Rousselot (Balise 25) technique moyen et pour finir François Gonon (O’Jura) avec une victoire haut la main sur le technique long. Il ne reste plus que deux épreuves pour la coupe genevoise de printemps : à savoir samedi 8 juin, course de type longue distance organisée par le club de Lausanne Jorat (COLJ) dans le bois de Seyte sur Mutrux/Concise, inscription de 12h &...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  10. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  11. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  12. Effect of reduced pressure, vibration and orientation to simulate high altitude testing of liquid pharmaceutical glass and plastic bottles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S. Paul; Burgess, Gary; Kremer, Matt; Lockhart, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of high-altitude shipments of glass and plastic bottles on package integrity. High altitudes are encountered when trucks travel over mountain passes and when cargo and feeder aircraft transport packages in non-pressurized or partially pressurized cargo holds. This is

  13. The Implementation of a High-Frequency Radio Frequency Identification System with a Battery-Free Smart Tag for Orientation Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilen Svete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy-harvesting passive RFID (radio frequency identification tags provide countless possibilities as so-called smart tags. Smart tags can communicate with existing RFID readers or interrogators while providing a battery-less platform for internal and external sensors to enrich available information about the environment and smart tag it. A reduced cost and size as well as an increased lifespan and durability of battery-free smart tags offer improvements in areas such as transportation and product tracking. Battery-free smart tags can ideally support arbitrarily complex sensor measurements, but in reality energy limitations can introduce great reductions in operating range and thus application range. In this work, we present an example application of a smart tag with a passive HF (high-frequency RFID tag IC (integrated circuit and MEMS (micro electro-mechanical structure sensor. A standard HF RFID reader connected to a PC (personal computer allowed the RF (radio frequency field to power and communicate with the smart tag. A Kalman filter, implemented on a PC, was used to correct and improve the raw sensor data of smart tag orientation. Measurement results showed that the MEMS sensor on the smart tag could be powered for continuous operation and that raw smart tag orientation data could be read while in the RF field of a standard HF RFID reader, but at a limited range.

  14. A Method of Survey on Object-Oriented Shadow Detection & Removal for High Resolution Urban Aerial Colour Images

    OpenAIRE

    A.Amareswar Kumar,; B Mohan Reddy

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution remote sensing images offer great possibilities for urban mapping. Unfortunately, shadows cast by buildings during this some problems occurred .This paper mainly focus to get the high resolution colour remote sensing image, and also undertaken to remove the shaded region in the both urban and rural areas. The region growing thresholding algorithm is used to detect the shadow and extract the features from shadow region. Then determine whether those neighbouring pixe...

  15. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  16. High-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment: diversifying from end-of the pipe treatment to resource oriented conversation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Decades of developments and implementations in the field of high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment have put the technology at a competitive level. With respect to sustainability and cost-effectiveness, anaerobic treatment has a much better score than many alternatives. Particularly, the energy con

  17. CAD/CAM Helps Build Better Bots: High-Tech Design and Manufacture Draws Engineering-Oriented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Name, Barry

    2012-01-01

    There is a battlefield where no quarter is given, no mercy shown, but not a single drop of blood is spilled. It is an arena that witnesses the bringing together of high-tech design and manufacture with the outpouring of brute force, under the remotely accessed command of some of today's brightest students. This is the world of battling robots, or…

  18. A Crafts-Oriented Approach to Computing in High School: Introducing Computational Concepts, Practices, and Perspectives with Electronic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Lee, Eunkyoung; Searle, Kristin; Fields, Deborah; Kaplan, Eliot; Lui, Debora

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the use of electronic textiles (e-textiles) for introducing key computational concepts and practices while broadening perceptions about computing. The starting point of our work was the design and implementation of a curriculum module using the LilyPad Arduino in a pre-AP high school computer science class. To…

  19. Preparation and properties of highly (100)-oriented Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 thin film prepared by rf magnetron sputtering with a PbOx buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiagang; Zhu, Jiliang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Tan, Junzhe; Zhang, Qinglei

    2007-05-01

    A method for fabrication of highly (100)-oriented Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) thin films by rf magnetron sputtering with a special buffer of PbOx (RFMS-SBP) was developed. With this method, highly (100)-oriented Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 thin films were prepared on the PbOx/Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates, and the preferential (100) orientation of the Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 film is 92%. The (100) orientation of the PbOx buffer layer leads to the (100) orientation of the PZT thin films, and the thickness of the buffer layer plays a significant role on the phase purity and electrical properties of the films. Highly (100)-oriented Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 thin films with proper thickness of PbOx buffer layer possess good electrical properties with larger remnant polarization Pr (69.7 μC/cm2), lower coercive field Ec (92.4 kV/cm), and good pyroelectric coefficient at room temperature (2.6×10-8 C/cm2 K). The butterfly-shaped ɛ-E characteristic curve gives the evidence of the improved in-plane ferroelectric property in the films.

  20. A High Performance Remote Sensing Product Generation System Based on a Service Oriented Architecture for the Next Generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Kalluri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES series R, S, T, U (GOES-R will collect remote sensing data at several orders of magnitude compared to legacy missions, 24 × 7, over its 20-year operational lifecycle. A suite of 34 Earth and space weather products must be produced at low latency for timely delivery to forecasters. A ground system (GS has been developed to meet these challenging requirements, using High Performance Computing (HPC within a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA. This approach provides a robust, flexible architecture to support the operational GS as it generates remote sensing products by ingesting and combining data from multiple sources. Test results show that the system meets the key latency and availability requirements for all products.

  1. High temperature fracture mechanisms non-oriented electrical steels; Mecanismos de fractura a alta temperatura en aceros electricos no-orientados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, E. O.; Trevino-Luna, E. A.; Salinas-Rodriguez, A.; Leduc-Lezama, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    In this research work the effect of deformation temperature on the hot ductility of non-oriented electrical steels (0.6% Si-0.3 Al%) was studied using high temperature tensile tests. The specimens were machined from two thin slabs (50 mm thickness) produced by CSP process (Compact Strip Process), one of then using 100% sponge iron and the other using 67% scrap and 33% sponge iron. the tensile tests were carried out at constant strain rate (5x10{sup -}4 s{sup -}1). and a temperature range from 850 to 1.200 degree centigree. The results showed that the ductility decreased with the increment in the temperature until approximately 1,000 degree centigree. At higher temperatures, a ductility recovery was observed only in the steel fabricated without scrap. Scanning Electron Microscopy on fracture surfaces showed that the loss of ductility is associated with intergranular cracking promoted by the austenitic transformation and AIN grain boundaries precipitation. (Author)

  2. [A simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and determination of daidzein in Oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing puerariae radix by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, T; Momma, N; Ohsawa, K

    1993-12-01

    A simple and precise method was established for the simultaneous determination of daidzin and puerarin and the determination of daidzein in oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing Puerariae Radix using high-performance liquid chromatography with tetra-n-heptylammonium bromide (THA) as an ion-pair reagent. Daidzin and puerarin were eluted within 45 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-methanol (68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase. Daidzein was eluted within 35 min without interference with co-existing components using an ODS column and a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5)-acetonitrile (72:28 or 68:32) containing 5 mM THA as a mobile phase.

  3. The growth of a c-axis highly oriented sandwiched TiO{sub 2} film with superhydrophilic properties without UV irradiation on SnO:F substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Yangang; Wu Gang; Wang Mang; Chen Hongzheng [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: wmang@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: hzchen@zju.edu.cn

    2009-06-10

    A c-axis highly oriented sandwiched film composed of single-crystalline rutile TiO{sub 2} on SnO:F (FTO) substrate was fabricated by a simple hydrothermal technique. The sandwich structure of the TiO{sub 2} film was found to be constructed by two layers of TiO{sub 2} nanorods, which grew towards both directions of the bulk solution and the substrate, respectively. One TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle interlayer between them acted as the 'seed' layer. The length and the density of the TiO{sub 2} nanoarrays could be tuned by varying the experimental parameters such as temperature and time. The resultant TiO{sub 2} films showed a specific superhydrophilicity without any prior UV irradiation, which can be kept for a long period of time.

  4. An object-oriented designed finite-difference time-domain simulator for electromagnetic analysis and design in MRI--applications to high field analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q; Liu, F; Xia, L; Crozier, S

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulator for electromagnetic analysis and design applications in MRI. It is intended to be a complete FDTD model of an MRI system including all RF and low-frequency field generating units and electrical models of the patient. The program has been constructed in an object-oriented framework. The design procedure is detailed and the numerical solver has been verified against analytical solutions for simple cases and also applied to various field calculation problems. In particular, the simulator is demonstrated for inverse RF coil design, optimized source profile generation, and parallel imaging in high-frequency situations. The examples show new developments enabled by the simulator and demonstrate that the proposed FDTD framework can be used to analyze large-scale computational electromagnetic problems in modern MRI engineering.

  5. Controlled synthesis of highly orientation-ordered single crystal Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S nanorod array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Junwei, E-mail: Junw.hou@gmail.com [PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company, Research Institute of Experiment and Detection, Karamay, Xinjiang 834000 (China); Lv, Xiaoyi [Colleges of Information Science and Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Li, Zhihong [PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company, Research Institute of Experiment and Detection, Karamay, Xinjiang 834000 (China); Zou, Hua [School of Mathematics and Physics, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Zeng, Xiaofei [Department of Science, China University of Petroleum Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Well-aligned Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S nanorod arrays. - Highlights: • Single crystal Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S nanorods arrays were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition method. • The as-synthesized products are high uniformity. • The possible growth mechanism and process of arrays nanostructure has been discussed. - Abstract: In this article, a catalyst-free method for the preparation of orientation-ordered single-crystal Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S nanorod arrays on graphite substrates has been reported. The morphology and crystal structure of the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S nanorod arrays were studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanorods with 40–100 nm in diameter and 2000 nm in length grew along the [0 0 1] direction of the hexagonal crystalline phase. A vapor–solid (VS) growth mechanism was proposed for the formation of the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S nanorod arrays. The photoluminescence characterizations showed a strong blue emission at 420 nm for the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S nanorod arrays when the value of x is 0.5. Thus, with a simple CVD technique, the high-density and orientation-ordered nanorod arrays would become a promising candidate in many applications such as building blocks for optoelectronics.

  6. Facile fabrication, characterization, and enhanced photoelectrocatalytic degradation performance of highly oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qidong; Li, Xinyong; Wang, Ning; Hou, Yang; Quan, Xie; Chen, Guohua

    2009-11-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were successfully fabricated using ethanol and water mixture electrolytes (40 vol% ethanol and 0.2 wt% hydrofluoric acid) by a facile electrochemical anodization method. The as-prepared nanotube arrays were grown perpendicular to the titanium substrate with about 90 nm in diameter, 20 nm in wall thickness, and around 500 nm in length. The formation mechanism of the samples is briefly discussed. A blue shift in the spectrum of UV-Vis absorption was observed with respect to a piece of the sol-gel derived TiO2 film. Moreover, photocurrent response and photoelectrocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet light irradiation were adopted to evaluate the photoelectrocatalytic properties of the TiO2 nanotube arrays. We demonstrate that the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays possess much better photoelectrocatalytic activity than the sol-gel derived TiO2 film and good stability.

  7. A Method of Survey on Object-Oriented Shadow Detection & Removal for High Resolution Urban Aerial Colour Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Amareswar Kumar,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution remote sensing images offer great possibilities for urban mapping. Unfortunately, shadows cast by buildings during this some problems occurred .This paper mainly focus to get the high resolution colour remote sensing image, and also undertaken to remove the shaded region in the both urban and rural areas. The region growing thresholding algorithm is used to detect the shadow and extract the features from shadow region. Then determine whether those neighbouring pixels are added to the seed points or not. In the region growing threshold algorithm, Pixels are placed in the region based on their properties or the properties of nearby pixel values. Then the pixels containing similar properties are grouped together and distributed throughout the image. IOOPL matching is used for removing shadow from image. This method proves it can remove 80% shaded region from image efficiently.

  8. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney DeCamp; Bakken, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may hel...

  9. Land cover classification based on object-oriented with airborne lidar and high spectral resolution remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfang; Liu, Zhengjun; Xu, Qiangqiang; Ren, Haicheng; Zhou, Xingyu; Yuan, Yonghua

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve land cover classification accuracy of the coastal tidal wetland area in Dafeng, this paper take advantage of hyper-spectral remote sensing image with high spatial resolution airborne Lidar data. The introduction of feature extraction, band selection and nDSM models to reduce the dimension of the original image. After segmentation process that combining FNEA segmentation with spectral differences segmentation method, the paper finalize the study area through the establishment of the rule set classification of land cover classification. The results show that the proposed classification for land cover classification accuracy has improved significantly, including housing, shadow, water, vegetation classification of high precision. That is to say that the method can meet the needs of land cover classification of the coastal tidal wetland area in Dafeng. This innovation is the introduction of principal component analysis, and the use of characteristic index, shape and characteristics of various types of data extraction nDSM feature to improve the accuracy and speed of land cover classification.

  10. Polyaniline-Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanosheets with Nearly Vertical Orientation Anchoring Palladium Nanoparticles for Highly Active and Stable Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Tang, Yanhong; Yan, Dafeng; Liu, Tian; Liu, Chengbin; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-01-13

    We report a nearly vertical reduced graphene oxide (VrGO) nanosheet coupled with polyaniline (PANI) for supporting palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The PANI-coupled VrGO (PANI@VrGO) nanosheet is prepared by a simple one-step electrodeposition technique ,and Pd nanoparticles are anchored on the support of PANI@VrGO through the spontaneous redox reaction of PANI with a palladium salt. The designed PANI@VrGO nanosheet efficiently exposes the surface of rGO sheets and stabilizes metal nanoparticles. Consequently, the Pd/PANI@VrGO electrocatalyst exhibits high catalytic activity and excellent durability for alcohol oxidation reaction. The proposed nanoarchitecture offers a new pathway to greatly promote the performances of rGO in various applications; moreover, this work provides a powerful and universal synthetic strategy for such an architecture.

  11. Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod arrays excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Indrani; Ahmad, Saima; Carvalho, Daniel; Singh, Prashant; Lad, Amit D.; Narayanan, V.; Ayyub, Pushan; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Zheng, J.; Sheng, Z. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a 43-fold enhancement in the hard x-ray emission (in the 150-300 keV range) from copper nanorod arrays (compared to a polished Cu surface) when excited by 30-fs, 800-nm laser pulses with an intensity of 1016 W/cm2. The temperature of the hot electrons that emit the x rays is 11 times higher. Significantly, the x-ray yield enhancement is found to depend on both the aspect ratio as well as the cluster size of the nanorods. We show that the higher yield arises from enhanced laser absorption owing to the extremely high local electric fields around the nanorod tips. Particle-in-cell plasma simulations reproduce these observations and provide pointers to further optimization of the x-ray emission.

  12. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  13. Strong red emission and electrical properties of highly c-axis oriented Eu{sup 3+}-doped bismuth vanadate ferroelectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Su, Li; Sa, Tongliang; Fu, Jianhui; Hu, Wei; Qin, Ni; Bao, Dinghua, E-mail: stsbdh@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    Highly c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2−x}Eu{sub x}VO{sub 5.5} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) thin films were prepared on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si and fused silica substrates by using chemical solution deposition method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and optical and electrical measurements. Under 356 nm UV irradiation, a bright red photoluminescence can be observed in the thin films with x = 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20. The emission spectra included two strong peaks which originated from {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 1} (595 nm) and {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} (619 nm) transitions of Eu{sup 3+} ions. With increasing Eu{sup 3+}-doping content x, the dielectric dispersion weakened, and dielectric loss decreased. Eu{sup 3+} doping can also decrease the leakage current of the thin films. These results demonstrate that Bi{sub 2−x}Eu{sub x}VO{sub 5.5} thin films are a kind of multifunctional material with potential applications in luminescent ferroelectric devices. - Highlights: • c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2−x}Eu{sub x}VO{sub 5.5} films were prepared by chemical solution deposition. • The thin films show bright red emission. • Eu{sup 3+}-doping leads to weakened dielectric dispersion and decreased dielectric loss. • The thin films have potential applications in luminescent ferroelectric devices.

  14. High Performance Human Resource Practices, Identification with Organizational Values and Goals, and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Review of Literature and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing competition within the hospitality industry has recognized the importance of service quality as a key business differentiation strategy. Proactive involvement of employees is a vital component of the service delivery, which in turn, enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty. Hence, hospitality organizations, particularly hotels, need to encourage their employees to perform voluntary behaviors that go “beyond their call of duty”. These behaviors are referred to as service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (hereafter labeled as SO-OCBs. A review of the literature indicates that an organization’s human resource management (henceforth labeled as HRM practices are instrumental in establishing the tone of the employee-employer relationship, which subsequently affects employees’ display of discretionary functional service-related behaviors. Specifically, high-performance HRM practices can nurture a relational employment relationship, leading to internalization of organizational values and goals. This, in turn, would induce employees to engage in greater SO-OCBs. However, conceptual and empirical work explaining the mechanism by which high-performance HRM practices relate to SO-OCBs remains scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to construct a model linking a set of high-performance HRM practices (selective hiring, communication, appraisal, and reward and SO-OCBs. Identification with organizational values and goals is posited as a mediator in the proposed relationship. A discussion of the literature to support the proposed framework is furnished.

  15. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  16. High-energy transmission Laue micro-beam X-ray diffraction: a probe for intra-granular lattice orientation and elastic strain in thicker samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Abbey, Brian; Jun, Tea-Sung; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2012-05-01

    An understanding of the mechanical response of modern engineering alloys to complex loading conditions is essential for the design of load-bearing components in high-performance safety-critical aerospace applications. A detailed knowledge of how material behaviour is modified by fatigue and the ability to predict failure reliably are vital for enhanced component performance. Unlike macroscopic bulk properties (e.g. stiffness, yield stress, etc.) that depend on the average behaviour of many grains, material failure is governed by `weakest link'-type mechanisms. It is strongly dependent on the anisotropic single-crystal elastic-plastic behaviour, local morphology and microstructure, and grain-to-grain interactions. For the development and validation of models that capture these complex phenomena, the ability to probe deformation behaviour at the micro-scale is key. The diffraction of highly penetrating synchrotron X-rays is well suited to this purpose and micro-beam Laue diffraction is a particularly powerful tool that has emerged in recent years. Typically it uses photon energies of 5-25 keV, limiting penetration into the material, so that only thin samples or near-surface regions can be studied. In this paper the development of high-energy transmission Laue (HETL) micro-beam X-ray diffraction is described, extending the micro-beam Laue technique to significantly higher photon energies (50-150 keV). It allows the probing of thicker sample sections, with the potential for grain-level characterization of real engineering components. The new HETL technique is used to study the deformation behaviour of individual grains in a large-grained polycrystalline nickel sample during in situ tensile loading. Refinement of the Laue diffraction patterns yields lattice orientations and qualitative information about elastic strains. After deformation, bands of high lattice misorientation can be identified in the sample. Orientation spread within individual scattering volumes is

  17. Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: Spatial Distribution of Molecular Orientation and Shape Recovery Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA. The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020, consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  18. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of supergene Cu-Pb-Zn-V ores in the Oriental High Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Michèle; Bernard, Alain; Dekoninck, Augustin; Lafforgue, Ludovic; Saddiqi, Omar; Yans, Johan

    2017-07-01

    In the Moroccan High Atlas, two sulfide deposits hosted by Jurassic dolostones underwent significant weathering. In the Cu deposit of Jbel Klakh, several stages of supergene mineralization are distinguished: (1) the replacement of hypogene sulfides in the protolith (chalcopyrite) by secondary sulfides in the cementation zone (bornite, digenite, chalcocite, covellite), (2) the formation of oxidized minerals in the saprolite (malachite, azurite, brochantite) where the environment becomes more oxidizing and neutral, and (3) the precipitation of late carbonates (calcite) and iron (hydr-)oxides in the laterite. The precipitation of carbonates is related to the dissolution of dolomitic host rocks, which buffers the fluid acidity due to the oxidation of sulfides. In the Jbel Haouanit Pb-Zn deposit, the mineral assemblage is dominated by typical calamine minerals, Cu minerals (chalcocite, covellite, malachite), and a Cu-Pb-Zn vanadate (mottramite). Galena is successively weathered in anglesite and cerussite. Sphalerite is weathered in smithsonite, which is rapidly replaced by hydrozincite. Late iron (hydr-)oxides are mainly found at the top of both deposits (laterite). Both deposits are thus characterized by specific mineral zoning, from laterite to protolith, related to variations in the mineralogy and ore grades and probably caused by varying Eh-pH conditions.

  19. High Job Demands and Low Job Control Increase Nurses' Professional Leaving Intentions: The Role of Care Setting and Profit Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Experience-oriented tobacco-use prevention lecture using a COPD-simulation mask for junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Makito; Tomita, Kazuhide; Takeshima, Reiko

    2015-04-01

    We recently developed a mask that simulates the experience of having one of the major diseases caused by tobacco smoking: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here we examined the effects of a tobacco-use prevention lecture accompanied by a pseudo-COPD experience created with this mask on adolescents' attitude toward smoking. Junior high school students (12-13 years old, n=165) in Japan were the subjects. The students attended a 30-min tobacco-use prevention lecture with slides and movie clips and engaged in a light exercise session wearing the COPD-simulation mask for 15min. Before and after the lecture, the students' attitudes toward smoking were evaluated by the Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND). The total KTSND scores decreased significantly from 9.9±4.4 (mean±SD, n=149) to 7.5±5.3 (n=144). Ninety-eight students wore the COPD mask, and their modified Borg scale scores increased significantly from 0.7±1.0 to 3.2±2.1 after exercise (Plecture with the pseudo-COPD experience created by the simulation mask was effective and safe.

  1. Highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip and knee replacement: spatial distribution of molecular orientation and shape recovery behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhito; Masaoka, Toshinori; Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Shishido, Takaaki; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Kubo, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE) in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020), consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness) and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  2. Electrodeposition and electrocatalytic activity of Pt and Pt-alloy nanoparticles and thin films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guojin

    Pt and Pt-based alloy catalysts were synthesized by electrodeposition on HOPG. The nucleation and growth, morphology, composition and crystal structure, and electrocatalytic activity (towards relevant reactions in the frame of PEMFCs and DMFCs) of these model electrodes were systematically investigated. The presence of chlorides inhibits the Pt reduction processes. There is a transition from progressive to instantaneous nucleation with increasing overpotential for the deposition from 1 mM H2PtCl6 electrolytes. The possibility of instantaneous nucleation at large overpotential by using electrolytes with large chloride concentration is advantageous for the growth of small, well dispersed nanoparticles. The electrochemical data were confirmed by AFM and SEM imaging studies. Relatively narrow size distributed nanoparticles can be obtained from the current system. While MOR activity decreases with decreasing particle size, the HER and HOR activity of deposited Pt particles increases with decreasing deposition period. The ORR activity first increases then decreases with increasing deposition time. Interactions between Pt and Ru, or Ni or Co are observed and they form solid solution as verified by XRD. Underpotential deposition occurs for Pt-Ni or Pt-Co co-electrodeposition. Pt-Ru deposition can be described as progressive nucleation at low overpotential and instantaneous nucleation at high overpotentials. Through direct morphological observations, the Pt-Ni or Pt-Co nucleation can be approximately described as progressive. Pt-Ru deposits are superior to Pt towards MOR. The optimum Ru content is about 50 at.%. Pt-Ni and Pt-Co deposits are more active than Pt for ORR. The optimum content is about 30 at.% Ni or 50 at.% Co. Dealloying of Pt-Ru and Pt-Ni or Pt-Co electrodeposit is observed after electrochemical characterization. The extent of dealloying increases with the content of the alloying element.

  3. Preparation of highly oriented Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films by sol-gel method and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalingam, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, Y. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Ravi, G., E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highly oriented thin films of Al doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) and Cu co-doped Al:ZnO (Cu/Al:ZnO) thin films were successfully deposited by sol–gel spin coating on glass substrates. The deposited films were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis and found to exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with c-axis orientation. SEM images revealed that hexagonal rod shaped morphologies were grown perpendicular to the substrate surface due to repeated deposition process. High transmittance values were observed for pure ZnO compared to Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films. The band gap widening is caused by the increase of carrier concentration, which is believed to be due to Burstein-Moss effect due to Al and Cu doping. PL spectra of Cu/Al:ZnO thin films indicate that the UV emission peaks slightly shifted towards lower energy side. XPS study was carried out for Zn{sub 0.80}Al{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}O thin films to analyze the binding energy of Al, Cu, Zn and O. Magnetic measurement studies exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, which may be due to the increase in copper concentration in the doped films. The ferromagnetic behavior can be understood from the exchange coupling between localized ‘d’ spin of Cu ion mediated by free delocalized carriers. - Highlights: • High quality of Al:ZnO and Cu co-doped Al:ZnO thin films were fabricated by sol–gel method. • The XRD analyses revealed that the deposited thin films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. • XPS was carried out for Zn{sub 0.80}Al{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}O films to analyze the binding energy of Al, Cu, Zn and O. • SEM studies were made for Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films. • RTFM was observed in Cu co-doped Al:ZnO thin films.

  4. Implications of total content of silicon, aluminium, chromium and formation of thin ferrite films on low ductility at high temperature in non oriented electrical steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equihua-Guillén, F.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work shows evidence of the implications of total additions of silicon, aluminium and chromium on low ductility during hot rolling in non-oriented electrical steels. This paper explains the reason of ductility loss at temperatures between 950 - 1000°C in electrical steels which exhibit higher Ar3 transformation temperature than C-Mn and microalloyed steels. The empirical equations to determine Ar3 temperature do not consider silicon and aluminium elements. The results show that high content of silicon, aluminium and residual concentration of chromiun considerably increases Ar3 transformation temperature in non-oriented electrical steels. The low ductility at high temperature occurs between Ae3 and Ar3 transformation temperatures. In addition, the results of this work show evidence of thin ferrite films formed near Ar3 temperature and their implications on ductility loss at high temperature.

    Este trabajo muestra evidencia de las implicaciones de la cantidad total de silicio, aluminio y cromo sobre la baja ductilidad en aceros eléctricos durante la laminación en caliente. Este artículo explica la razón de la pérdida de ductilidad a temperaturas entre 950 y 1.000°C en aceros eléctricos. Las ecuaciones empíricas para determinar la temperatura Ar3 no consideran los elementos aluminio y silicio. Los resultados muestran que altos contenidos de silicio, aluminio y la concentración residual de cromo incrementan considerablemente la temperatura de transformación Ar3 en aceros eléctricos de grano no orientado. La baja ductilidad a elevada temperatura ocurre entre las temperaturas de transformación Ae3 y Ar3. Adicionalmente, los resultados de este trabajo muestran evidencia de películas delgadas de ferrita formadas a temperaturas cercanas a Ar3 y sus implicaciones sobre la pérdida de

  5. Thinking in Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Bjorn Tore

    1997-01-01

    A think-aloud technique, in which 20 orienteers verbalized their exact thoughts during orienteering, was used to examine the phenomenon of cognition during orienteering. Results indicate that orienteering is experienced as a task to be accomplished, a physical movement, and a dynamic process, and that thinking involves attuning perceptions to…

  6. Genetic control of the leaf angle and leaf orientation value as revealed by ultra-high density maps in three connected maize populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Li

    Full Text Available Plant architecture is a key factor for high productivity maize because ideal plant architecture with an erect leaf angle and optimum leaf orientation value allow for more efficient light capture during photosynthesis and better wind circulation under dense planting conditions. To extend our understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in leaf-related traits, three connected recombination inbred line (RIL populations including 538 RILs were genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS method and phenotyped for the leaf angle and related traits in six environments. We conducted single population quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping and joint linkage analysis based on high-density recombination bin maps constructed from GBS genotype data. A total of 45 QTLs with phenotypic effects ranging from 1.2% to 29.2% were detected for four leaf architecture traits by using joint linkage mapping across the three populations. All the QTLs identified for each trait could explain approximately 60% of the phenotypic variance. Four QTLs were located on small genomic regions where candidate genes were found. Genomic predictions from a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP model explained 45±9% to 68±8% of the variation in the remaining RILs for the four traits. These results extend our understanding of the genetics of leaf traits and can be used in genomic prediction to accelerate plant architecture improvement.

  7. Effects of Low Ag Doping on Physical and Optical Waveguide Properties of Highly Oriented Sol-Gel ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dehimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A sol-gel dip-coating process was used to deposit almost stress-free highly c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO thin films onto glass substrates. The effects of low silver doping concentration (Ag/Zn < 1% on the structural, morphological, optical, and waveguide properties of such films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, and M-lines spectroscopy (MLS. XRD analysis revealed that all the films were in single phase and had a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The grain size values were calculated and found to be about 24–29 nm. SEM micrographs and AFM images have shown that film morphology and surface roughness were influenced by Ag doping concentration. According to UV-Vis. measurements all the films were highly transparent with average visible transmission values ranging from 80% to 86%. It was found that the Ag contents lead to widening of the band gap. MLS measurements at 632.8 nm wavelength put into evidence that all thin film planar waveguides demonstrate a well-guided fundamental mode for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized light. Moreover, the refractive index of ZnO thin films was found to increase by Ag doping levels.

  8. High Resolution Orientation Distribution Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren; Gade-Nielsen, Nicolai Fog; Høstergaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    from the deformed material. The underlying mathematical formalism supports all crystallographic space groups and reduces the problem to solving a (large) set of linear equations. An implementation on multi-core CPUs and Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) is discussed along with an example on simulated...

  9. Arthroscopically assisted stabilization of acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint separations in a coracoclavicular Double-TightRope technique: V-shaped versus parallel drill hole orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Natascha; Haas, Norbert P; Scheibel, Markus; Gerhardt, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The arthroscopically assisted Double-TightRope technique has recently been reported to yield good to excellent clinical results in the treatment of acute, high-grade acromioclavicular dislocation. However, the orientation of the transclavicular-transcoracoidal drill holes remains a matter of debate. A V-shaped drill hole orientation leads to better clinical and radiologic results and provides a higher vertical and horizontal stability compared to parallel drill hole placement. This was a cohort study; level of evidence, 2b. Two groups of patients with acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint instability (Rockwood type V) were included in this prospective, non-randomized cohort study. 15 patients (1 female/14 male) with a mean age of 37.7 (18-66) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique using a V-shaped orientation of the drill holes (group 1). 13 patients (1 female/12 male) with a mean age of 40.9 (21-59) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique with a parallel drill hole placement (group 2). After 2 years, the final evaluation consisted of a complete physical examination of both shoulders, evaluation of the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), Constant Score (CS), Taft Score (TF) and Acromioclavicular Joint Instability Score (ACJI) as well as a radiologic examination including bilateral anteroposterior stress views and bilateral Alexander views. After a mean follow-up of 2 years, all patients were free of shoulder pain at rest and during daily activities. Range of motion did not differ significantly between both groups (p > 0.05). Patients in group 1 reached on average 92.4 points in the CS, 96.2 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 75.9 points in the ACJI. Patients in group 2 scored 90.5 points in the CS, 93.9 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 84.5 points in the ACJI (p > 0.05). Radiographically, the coracoclavicular distance was found to be 13.9 mm (group 1) and 13.4 mm (group 2) on the affected side and 9.3 mm (group 1

  10. The Relationship between AIDS High Risk Behaviors and Childhood Status,Perception of Gender Orientation and Rare Experiences/Psychology among Chinese Gays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Beichuan(张北川); HU Tiezhong(胡铁中); LI Xiufang(李秀芳); SHI Tongxin(史同新); LIU Dianchang(刘殿昌)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives : To probe some more important factorsaffecting the HIV epidemic by surveying the relationshipbetween AIDS high risk behaviors and childhood status,attitude/perception to gender of male/sex orientation andrare experiences/Psy-chology among Chinese gays.Methods: Data were collected from 240 Chinese gays whowere attracted by their same gender.Results: The extent of sex among Mainland China gays issimilar to that of industrialized countries, and behaviorsthat exacerbate the HIV epidemic are universal.Perceptions "being a girl is better", "Dislike toys likeswords or pistols in early childhood were predictors topassive anal intercourse in adulthood. Those gay men whobegan sexual intercourse younger than 16 years old tendedto have more sex partners and suffered more pain. Thosedisliked gender of male or self-regarded as female tended tohave more passive anal intercourse and related to childhoodcross-gender experience/psychology while those were raised as girls by their parentsdid not take on the above characters. Individuals whoexperienced sex coercion and drug abuse were the twosubgroups with the greatest high-risk behaviors. Individualswho had sex with females had the greatest number of malesex partners and were more prone to group sex. Individualswith pedophilia or gerontophilia had more casual sexpartners. Psychological problems encountered by Chinesegays related to suicide attempts and commitment.Conclusion:The prospect of an extensive AIDS epidemic among Chinese gays does exist and some subgroups of gays play more important roles in the epidemic.some high risk behaviors among adult gays can be foreseen explicitly by the predictors taking on in childhood,and closely relate to attitude/perception,to gender of male,to some rare experience/psychology.

  11. Cultivo intensivo tradicional de nopal verdura (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) en ámbitos urbanos delegación Milpa Alta al oriente de la ciudad de México

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Martínez, Juan Gabriel; Puebla, H.; Méndez F.; Martínez, J.; Herrera, J.; Licea, G.

    2015-01-01

    La Ciudad de México tiene una altitud promedio de 2.200 metros, un clima templado, con temperaturas de 18 º C a 24 º C y precipitación anual que varía de 700 a 1.400 mm. La Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México (ZMCM) cubre un área de 7.860 kilometros2. Esta área incluye al Distrito Federal y 54 municipios, que en conjunto tienen una población de 24 millones. A pesar del constante crecimiento actividades agrícolas persisten dentro de sus límites. Al oriente de la ciudad se localiza la del...

  12. Automatic identification of agricultural terraces through object-oriented analysis of very high resolution DSMs and multispectral imagery obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Varela, R A; Zarco-Tejada, P J; Angileri, V; Loudjani, P

    2014-02-15

    Agricultural terraces are features that provide a number of ecosystem services. As a result, their maintenance is supported by measures established by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the framework of CAP implementation and monitoring, there is a current and future need for the development of robust, repeatable and cost-effective methodologies for the automatic identification and monitoring of these features at farm scale. This is a complex task, particularly when terraces are associated to complex vegetation cover patterns, as happens with permanent crops (e.g. olive trees). In this study we present a novel methodology for automatic and cost-efficient identification of terraces using only imagery from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Using state-of-the-art computer vision techniques, we generated orthoimagery and digital surface models (DSMs) at 11 cm spatial resolution with low user intervention. In a second stage, these data were used to identify terraces using a multi-scale object-oriented classification method. Results show the potential of this method even in highly complex agricultural areas, both regarding DSM reconstruction and image classification. The UAV-derived DSM had a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.5 m when the height of the terraces was assessed against field GPS data. The subsequent automated terrace classification yielded an overall accuracy of 90% based exclusively on spectral and elevation data derived from the UAV imagery.

  13. Highly (1 1 1)-oriented and pyrochlore-free PMN-PT thin films derived from a modified sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, M. [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Heilongjiang, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, W., E-mail: wangwen@hit.edu.c [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Heilongjiang, Harbin 150001 (China); Ke, H.; Rao, J.C.; Zhou, Y. [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Heilongjiang, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-04-09

    Ferroelectric PMN-PT (68/32) thin films, about 250 nm in thickness, have been successfully grown on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by a modified sol-gel process. Pure perovskite phase with highly (1 1 1)-preferred orientation, determined by X-ray diffraction, was formed in the PMN-PT thin films when annealed at 650 {sup o}C. The pyrochlore phase has been effectively avoided through a variation of the processing parameters such as Mg content, Mg precursor and annealing temperature during thin film deposition. FE-SEM investigation showed that the films have a smooth and crack-free surface with densely packed grains after annealed at 650 {sup o}C. The annealed films exhibited well-defined hysteresis loops, with a respective remanent polarization P{sub r} of 16.1 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and coercive field E{sub c} of 71.2 kV/cm at an applied electric field of 400 kV/cm at room temperature.

  14. Adaptive smoothing of high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging data by generalized cross-validation improves Q-ball orientation distribution function reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalli, Nader S; Hu, Xiaoping P; Carew, John D

    2010-09-01

    Q-ball imaging (QBI) is a high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) technique for reconstructing the orientation distribution function (ODF). Some form of smoothing or regularization is typically required in the ODF reconstruction from low signal-to-noise ratio HARDI data. The amount of smoothing or regularization is usually set a priori at the discretion of the investigator. In this article, we apply an adaptive and objective means of smoothing the raw HARDI data using the smoothing splines on the sphere method with generalized cross-validation (GCV) to estimate the diffusivity profile in each voxel. Subsequently, we reconstruct the ODF, from the smoothed data, based on the Funk-Radon transform (FRT) used in QBI. The spline method was applied to both simulated data and in vivo human brain data. Simulated data show that the smoothing splines on the sphere method with GCV smoothing reduces the mean squared error in estimates of the ODF as compared with the standard analytical QBI approach. The human data demonstrate the utility of the method for estimating smooth ODFs.

  15. Teachers' orientations towards writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. McCarthey & Dumisile Mkhize

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study of 29 teachers from four states in the US investigated teachers' orientations towards writing and the influences on their beliefs. Through interviews about writing instruction, the researchers found significant differences between teachers in high and low-income schools. While teachers in high-income schools valued rhetorical style, developing voice, and reading-writing connections, teachers in low-income schools focused on grammar, mechanics and sentence structure. Teachers in high-income schools appear to be exercising more choice in curricular materials and valuing quality of writing beyond grammar and mechanics, whereas teachers in low-income schools are using specific curriculum mandated by the districts. Influences on teachers' orientations included school context, programs and materials, and assessments. The study raises concerns that students in low-income schools are missing out on authentic, challenging, and meaningful writing opportunities since the focus is on skills-based instruction. The findings point to the need for teachers to provide all students with opportunities to develop rhetorical style, voice, and reading-writing connections in addition to grammar, mechanics, and sentence structure.

  16. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influen......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation.......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal...... influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents...

  17. High molecular weight n-alkanes of high-waxy condensate and its source kitchen orientation in the Qianmiqiao burial-hill zone, Bohai Gulf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Tieguan(WANG; T.-G.)

    2004-01-01

    [1]Philp, R. P., Bishop, A. N., Del Rio, J., Characterization of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (>C40) in the oils and reservoir rocks, in The Geochemistry of Reservoirs (eds. Cubitt, J. M., England, W. A.), London: The Geological Society, 1995, 71-85.[2]Hsieh, M., Philp, R. P., Ubiquitous occurrence of high molecular weight hydrocarbons in crude oils, Organic Geochemistry, 2001, 32: 955-966.[3]Lipsky, S. R., Duffy, M. L., High temperature gas chromatography: The development of new aluminum clad flexible fused silica glass capillary columns coated with thermostable nonpolar phases (Part 1), J. of High Resolution Chromatography, 1986, 9: 376-382.[4]Philp, R. P., High temperature gas chromatography for the analysis of fossil fuels: A review, J. of High Resolution Chromatography, 1994, 17: 398-406.[5]Wang Tieguan, Zhu Dan, Lu Hong et al., High molecular weight (C35+) n-alkanes of Neogene heavily biodegraded oil in the Qianmiqiao region, North China, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2002, 47: 1402-1407.[6]The Editorial Board of Petroleam Geology of Dogang Oilfield, Petroleum Geology of China, Vol. 4: Dagang Oilfield, Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1991, 149-153.[7]Yu Zhihai, Yang Chiyin, Liao Qianjun et al., Natural Gas Geology in Huanghua Depression, Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1997, 122-145.[8]Lu Hong, Wang, T. -G., Wang Chunjiang et al., Hydrocarbon sources of high waxy oil and gas pools in Qianmiqiao buried-hill zone, Huanghua depression, Petroleum Exploration and Development (in Chinese), 2001, 28(4): 17-21.[9]Zhang Yousheng, Wang Tieguan, Wang Feiyu, Oil source and entrapment epoch of the Mesozoic oil reservoir in the Kongxi Burial-hill zone, Huanghua Depression, North China, Scientia Geologica Sinica, 1001(4): 257-274.[10]Wang Tieguan, Wang Feiyu, Lu Hong et al., Oil source and entrapment epoch of the Ordovician oil reservoir in the Kongxi Burial-hill zone, Huanghua Depression, North China, Acta Geologica Sinica

  18. The association between sexual orientation identity and behavior across race/ethnicity, sex, and age in a probability sample of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G

    2014-02-01

    We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities.

  19. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  20. The orientational preferences of backbones of proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; WANG Jun; XUE Bin; WANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    The orientation between the backboneresidues of proteins is defined based on the local configurations and the corresponding preferences are analyzed by statistics. It is found that all the residue pairs have some specific preferences of orientations. The statistical analysis is mainly concentrated in the orientational distributions for two kinds of groupings of residues based on the hydrophobicity and secondary structural features. The statistics for such two types of groupings shows different orientational preferences. It is found that for the former grouping the orientational preference is rather weak,while for the later a kind of strong orientational preferences. This suggests that the formation of local structures and of secondary structures are highly related to the orientational preferences.

  1. OFF, Open source Finite volume Fluid dynamics code: A free, high-order solver based on parallel, modular, object-oriented Fortran API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, S.

    2014-07-01

    OFF, an open source (free software) code for performing fluid dynamics simulations, is presented. The aim of OFF is to solve, numerically, the unsteady (and steady) compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics by means of finite volume techniques: the research background is mainly focused on high-order (WENO) schemes for multi-fluids, multi-phase flows over complex geometries. To this purpose a highly modular, object-oriented application program interface (API) has been developed. In particular, the concepts of data encapsulation and inheritance available within Fortran language (from standard 2003) have been stressed in order to represent each fluid dynamics "entity" (e.g. the conservative variables of a finite volume, its geometry, etc…) by a single object so that a large variety of computational libraries can be easily (and efficiently) developed upon these objects. The main features of OFF can be summarized as follows: Programming LanguageOFF is written in standard (compliant) Fortran 2003; its design is highly modular in order to enhance simplicity of use and maintenance without compromising the efficiency; Parallel Frameworks Supported the development of OFF has been also targeted to maximize the computational efficiency: the code is designed to run on shared-memory multi-cores workstations and distributed-memory clusters of shared-memory nodes (supercomputers); the code's parallelization is based on Open Multiprocessing (OpenMP) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigms; Usability, Maintenance and Enhancement in order to improve the usability, maintenance and enhancement of the code also the documentation has been carefully taken into account; the documentation is built upon comprehensive comments placed directly into the source files (no external documentation files needed): these comments are parsed by means of doxygen free software producing high quality html and latex documentation pages; the distributed versioning system referred as git

  2. They Call it Orienteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Mark

    1977-01-01

    Through the use of personal anecdotes, the author details his initial experience with orienteering, a sport rapidly increasing in popularity that teaches people not to get lost in the woods. Sources of information about orienteering are provided. (BT)

  3. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  4. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...

  5. Tensorial Orientation Scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Azzopardi, George; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Orientation scores are representations of images built using filters that only select on orientation (and not on the magnitude of the frequency). Importantly, they allow (easy) reconstruction, making them ideal for use in a filtering pipeline. Traditionally a specific set of orientations has to be c

  6. Provenance of the Neoproterozoic high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the arc-related Oriental Terrane of the Ribeira belt: Implications for Gondwana amalgamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Marcela; Heilbron, Monica; Torós, Bernardo; Ragatky, Diana; Dantas, Elton

    2015-11-01

    The Costeiro domain integrates the Oriental terrane of the Ribeira belt, which encompasses arc-related orthogneisses of the Rio Negro complex (ca.790-605 Ma), with a well-documented subduction signature, and the high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the São Fidélis group. The arc-related rocks intruded the lower unit of the São Fidélis group, while both units are crosscut by syn-to late collision granitoids related to the development of different stages of the Brasiliano Orogeny (ca. 605-480 Ma). New U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) data of detrital zircon grains from quartzites of the top unit of the São Fidélis group yielded a large spectrum of Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic ages, with subordinated Archean and Neoproterozoic ones. The largest age peaks occur at ca. 1.2 Ga and 2.2 Ga. The youngest detrital zircon of ca. 613 Ma, and metamorphic overprints, with ages varying from ca. 602 to 570 Ma bracket the age of sedimentation of the top unit. Two orthogneisses of the Rio Negro complex intruded within the basal unit of the São Fidélis Group rendered similar ages of ca.620 Ma. These orthogneisses and the basal unit of the São Fidélis group are interpreted as possible sources of the upper unit. The provenance pattern of the São Fidélis Group is similar to that of the Kaoko Belt, suggesting that the Angolan basement, where Mesoproterozoic ages are common, constitutes another important source area.

  7. Electrochemical Synthesis of Highly Oriented, Transparent, and Pinhole-Free ZnO and Al-Doped ZnO Films and Their Use in Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Donghyeon; Lee, Dongho; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2016-10-04

    Electrochemical synthesis conditions using nonaqueous solutions were developed to prepare highly transparent (T > 90%) and crystalline ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films for use in solar energy conversion devices. A focused effort was made to produce pinhole-free films in a reproducible manner by identifying a key condition to prevent the formation of cracks during deposition. The polycrystalline domains in the resulting films had a uniform orientation (i.e., the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate), which enhanced the electron transport properties of the films. Furthermore, electrochemical Al doping of ZnO using nonaqueous media, which was demonstrated for the first time in this study, effectively increased the carrier density and raised the Fermi level of ZnO. These films were coupled with an electrodeposited p-type Cu2O to construct p-n heterojunction solar cells to demonstrate the utilization of these films for solar energy conversion. The resulting n-ZnO/p-Cu2O and n-AZO/p-Cu2O cells showed excellent performance compared with previously reported n-ZnO/p-Cu2O cells prepared by electrodeposition. In particular, replacing ZnO with AZO resulted in simultaneous enhancements in short circuit current and open circuit potential, and the n-AZO/p-Cu2O cell achieved an average power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.92 ± 0.09%. The electrodeposition condition reported here will offer a practical and versatile way to produce ZnO or AZO films, which play key roles in various solar energy conversion devices, with qualities comparable to those prepared by vacuum-based techniques.

  8. Femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: a green route for large-scale production of porous graphene and graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paola; Hu, Anming; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Duley, Walter W; Zhou, Norman Y

    2014-02-21

    Porous graphene (PG) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are attracting attention due to their potential applications in photovoltaics, catalysis, and bio-related fields. We present a novel way for mass production of these promising materials. The femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is employed for their synthesis. Porous graphene (PG) layers were found to float at the water-air interface, while graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were dispersed in the solution. The sheets consist of one to six stacked layers of spongy graphene, which form an irregular 3D porous structure that displays pores with an average size of 15-20 nm. Several characterization techniques have confirmed the porous nature of the collected layers. The analyses of the aqueous solution confirmed the presence of GQDs with dimensions of about 2-5 nm. It is found that the formation of both PG and GQDs depends on the fs-laser ablation energy. At laser fluences less than 12 J cm(-2), no evidence of either PG or GQDs is detected. However, polyynes with six and eight carbon atoms per chain are found in the solution. For laser energies in the 20-30 J cm(-2) range, these polyynes disappeared, while PG and GQDs were found at the water-air interface and in the solution, respectively. The origin of these materials can be explained based on the mechanisms for water breakdown and coal gasification. The absence of PG and GQDs, after the laser ablation of HOPG in liquid nitrogen, confirms the proposed mechanisms.

  9. Robust conductive mesoporous carbon-silica composite films with highly ordered and oriented orthorhombic structures from triblock-copolymer template co-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Lingyan; Feng, Dan; Campbell, Casey G; Gu, Dong; Forster, Aaron M; Yager, Kevin G; Fredin, Nathaniel; Lee, Hae-Jeong; Jones, Ronald L; Zhao, Dongyuan; Vogt, Bryan D [AZU

    2012-07-11

    In this work, we describe a facile approach to improve the robustness of conductive mesoporous carbon-based thin films by the addition of silica to the matrix through the triconstituent organic-inorganic-organic co-assembly of resol (carbon precursor) and tetraethylorthosilicate (silica precursor) with triblock-copolymer Pluronic F127. The pyrolysis of the resol-silica-pluronic F127 film yields a porous composite thin film with well-defined mesostructure. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and electron microscopy measurements indicate that the obtained carbon-based thin films have a highly ordered orthorhombic mesostructure (Fmmm) with uniform large pore size (~3 nm). The orthorhombic mesostructure is oriented and the (010) plane is parallel to the silicon wafer substrate. The addition of silica to the matrix impacts the pore size, surface area, porosity, modulus and conductivity. For composite films with approximately 40 wt% silica, the conductivity is decreased by approximately an order of magnitude in comparison to a pure carbon mesoporous film, but the conductivity is comparable to typical printed carbon inks used in electrochemical sensing, {approx}10 S cm-1. The mechanical properties of these mesoporous silica-carbon hybrid films are similar to the pure carbon analogs with a Young's modulus between 10 GPa and 15 GPa, but the material is significantly more porous. Moreover, the addition of silica to the matrix appears to improve the adhesion of the mesoporous film to a silicon wafer. These mesoporous silica-carbon composite films have appropriate characteristics for use in sensing applications.

  10. Microstructural Analysis of Orientation-Dependent Recovery and Recrystallization in a Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Deformed by Compression at a High Strain Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Zhang, Yubin; Mishin, Oleg V.; Tao, Nairong; Pantleon, Wolfgang; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2016-09-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture during annealing of a modified ferritic/martensitic 9Cr-1Mo steel compressed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to a strain of 2.3 has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. It is found that the duplex + fiber texture formed by DPD is transformed during annealing to a dominant fiber texture, and that crystallites of the component have an advantage during both nucleation and growth. Detailed characterization of the microstructural morphology, and estimation of the stored energies in - and -oriented regions in deformed and annealed samples, as well as investigations of the growth of recrystallizing grains, are used to analyze the annealing behavior. It is concluded that recrystallization in the given material occurs by a combination of oriented nucleation and oriented growth.

  11. Proper orientation of cacti

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Julio; Havet, Frédéric; Linhares Sales, Claudia; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    International audience; An orientation of a graph G is proper if two adjacent vertices have different in-degrees. The proper-orientation number − → χ (G) of a graph G is the minimum maximum in-degree of a proper orientation of G. In [1], the authors ask whether the proper orientation number of a planar graph is bounded. We prove that every cactus admits a proper orientation with maximum in-degree at most 7. We also prove that the bound 7 is tight by showing a cactus having no proper orientati...

  12. Fabrication and orientation control of highly cation-ordered epitaxial PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} thin films on Si (100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Anuj, E-mail: anujchopraiitm@gmail.com [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Alexe, Marin [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Hesse, Dietrich [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2015-01-28

    Highly cation-ordered (100) and (110)-oriented PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (PST) films were deposited on buffered Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Switching of crystal orientation from (100) to (110) was achieved by replacing the Si (100)/ZrO2:Y2O3 (100)/CeO2 (100)/LaNiO3 (100)/PST (100) heterostructure with Si (100)/ZrO2:Y2O3 (YSZ) (100)/SrRuO3 (110)/PST (110). The out-of-plane and in-plane crystal orientation and internal microstructure of (001) and (110) PST films were analyzed in detail by X-ray diffraction, pole figure measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. XRD superstructure reflections indicate that both (100) and (110) PST films are highly cation-ordered and transmission electron microscopy measurements show nano-domains of 15 nm size. The electrical measurements show that the PST films are ferroelectric and that the ferroelectric properties are linked to the microstructure. We have demonstrated the successful integration of PST films on Si substrates with control on growth orientation; this approach can be extended to other oxides to be integrated on silicon substrates for future device applications.

  13. Orientalism and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Jouhki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article Orientalism, a special hegemonic discourse about "the Orient" by Europeans is discussed by focusing on how it is manifested in a "Western" view of India. Orientalism as a discourse about the Orient is a concept first coined by Edward Said in his book Orientalism (1978 and contains a long history of European way of relating to the Orient as a counterpart of European/Western culture. In this article Orientalist discourses about India by hegemonically Western (and particularly Anglo-Saxon sources are portrayed and the so-called Indo-Orientalist essentialism defining Indianness from the outside analyzed. Moreover, a Indo-Orientalism as an imported ideology to be used in Indian nationalist discourses to emphasize a dichotomy between India and "the West" is discussed.

  14. A novel bioreactor for the generation of highly aligned 3D skeletal muscle-like constructs through orientation of fibrin via application of static strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heher, Philipp; Maleiner, Babette; Prüller, Johanna; Teuschl, Andreas Herbert; Kollmitzer, Josef; Monforte, Xavier; Wolbank, Susanne; Redl, Heinz; Rünzler, Dominik; Fuchs, Christiane

    2015-09-01

    The generation of functional biomimetic skeletal muscle constructs is still one of the fundamental challenges in skeletal muscle tissue engineering. With the notion that structure strongly dictates functional capabilities, a myriad of cell types, scaffold materials and stimulation strategies have been combined. To further optimize muscle engineered constructs, we have developed a novel bioreactor system (MagneTissue) for rapid engineering of skeletal muscle-like constructs with the aim to resemble native muscle in terms of structure, gene expression profile and maturity. Myoblasts embedded in fibrin, a natural hydrogel that serves as extracellular matrix, are subjected to mechanical stimulation via magnetic force transmission. We identify static mechanical strain as a trigger for cellular alignment concomitant with the orientation of the scaffold into highly organized fibrin fibrils. This ultimately yields myotubes with a more mature phenotype in terms of sarcomeric patterning, diameter and length. On the molecular level, a faster progression of the myogenic gene expression program is evident as myogenic determination markers MyoD and Myogenin as well as the Ca(2+) dependent contractile structural marker TnnT1 are significantly upregulated when strain is applied. The major advantage of the MagneTissue bioreactor system is that the generated tension is not exclusively relying on the strain generated by the cells themselves in response to scaffold anchoring but its ability to subject the constructs to individually adjustable strain protocols. In future work, this will allow applying mechanical stimulation with different strain regimes in the maturation process of tissue engineered constructs and elucidating the role of mechanotransduction in myogenesis. Mechanical stimulation of tissue engineered skeletal muscle constructs is a promising approach to increase tissue functionality. We have developed a novel bioreactor-based 3D culture system, giving the user the

  15. Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation and Market Orientation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Karami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs are a significant part of the nation wealth creation and economic. In Malaysia, majority of established businesses are small and medium enterprises with high employment share. The Malaysian government is definite that the framework of the economic transformation plan can raise the small and medium enterprises in developing countries. Therefore, the objective of this study is to thoroughly exploring the predictor which encourages the market orientation practice from the entrepreneurial attitude orientation perspective of the Malaysian entrepreneurs. The contributors of this study are focused on the knowledge body on market orientation to better comprehending of the specific factors that are crucial for business such as small and medium enterprises to help in the country wealth creation.

  16. Introducing Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2008-01-01

    The practice of teaching programming at universities, colleges and high schools went through a major change roughly in the mid 1990s: The teaching of objectorientation in introductory courses slowly became mainstream. Fairly soon, the Object First or Objects Early school of thought was formulated......, stating that teaching object orientation by discussing objects from the very start is a good thing....

  17. Do blood plasma levels of oxytocin moderate the effect of nasally administered oxytocin on social orienting in high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Noltes, Henriette; Tucha, Oliver; Sweep, Fred C.; Calcagnoli, Federica; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated whether baseline plasma oxytocin (OXT) concentrations might moderate the effects of nasally administered OXT on social orienting. Thirty-one males with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and thirty healthy males participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Af

  18. Learning Model of Unggah-Ungguh Basa Oriented to Noble Behavior in SMP (Junior High School) Jawa Timur (East Java) Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudikan, Setya Yuwana

    2017-01-01

    Learning problem of "unggah-ungguh basa", is very complicated. It is needed reorientation and re-setting the approaches, strategies, methods, techniques, and learning contents that can give rise to a new model of learning of "unggah-ungguh basa" oriented to the character formation of children, especially in Jawa Timur. In…

  19. Dependence of crack growth kinetics on dendrite orientation and water chemistry for Alloy 182 weld metal in high-temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhanpeng, E-mail: zplu@shu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Chen, Junjie [Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shoji, Tetsuo [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Meng, Fanjiang [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • SCC paths along dendrite directions in both T–S and T–L specimens of Alloy 182. • Higher SCC growth rates in T–S orientation specimen than in T–L orientation specimen. • CGR increased with increasing dissolved oxygen. • Apparently negative da/dt curve by ACPD in hydrogen saturated water. - Abstract: Stress corrosion cracking growth rates of Alloy 182 weld metals in T–S and T–L orientations in 288 °C pure water with various dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations were measured. Extensive inter-dendritic stress corrosion cracking paths on the side surfaces and fracture surfaces were observed. The crack growth path in the T–S orientation specimen was perpendicular to the applied loading direction, and parallel to the loading direction in the T–L specimen. Crack growth rates of the T–S specimen were significantly higher than those of the T–L specimen under the same test conditions. The crack growth rate decreased significantly with decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration. Adding dissolved hydrogen in water caused an apparent decrease of the alternating current potential drop signal during crack growth monitoring.

  20. An Actor-Oriented Transfer Perspective on High School Students' Development of the Use of Procedures to Solve Problems on Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, Gerrit; Vos, Pauline; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal observation study about students' development in their use of procedures to calculate instantaneous rate of change. Different procedures for solving tasks on rate of change are taught in mathematics and physics classes, and together they form a repertoire. Our study took an actor-oriented perspective, which…

  1. Do blood plasma levels of oxytocin moderate the effect of nasally administered oxytocin on social orienting in high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Noltes, Henriette; Tucha, Oliver; Sweep, Fred C.; Calcagnoli, Federica; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    The study investigated whether baseline plasma oxytocin (OXT) concentrations might moderate the effects of nasally administered OXT on social orienting. Thirty-one males with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and thirty healthy males participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial.

  2. Well-oriented ZZ–PS-tag with high Fc-binding onto polystyrene surface for controlled immobilization of capture antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jin-Bao, E-mail: tangjinbao@yahoo.com.cn [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Sun, Xi-Feng [Clinical Laboratory, Weifang People' s Hospital, Weifang 261041 (China); Yang, Hong-Ming [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Zhang, Bao-Gang [School of Basic Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Li, Zhi-Jian [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Lin, Zhi-Juan [School of Basic Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Gao, Zhi-Qin, E-mail: zhiqingao@yahoo.cn [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China)

    2013-05-07

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A versatile platform for immobilizing functionally intact IgG is proposed. •The mechanism relies on properly oriented ZZ–PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS surface. •The oriented ZZ–PS-tag presents ∼fivefold higher IgG-binding activity. •The platform shows tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range in ELISA. -- Abstract: The site specificity and bioactivity retention of antibodies immobilized on a solid substrate are crucial requirements for solid phase immunoassays. A fusion protein between an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding protein (ZZ protein) and a polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag) was constructed, and then used to develop a simple method for the oriented immobilization of the ZZ protein onto a PS support by the specific attachment of the PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS. The orientation of intact IgG was achieved via the interaction of the ZZ protein and the constant fragment (Fc), thereby displayed the Fab fragment for binding antigen. The interaction between rabbit IgG anti-horseradish peroxidase (anti-HRP) and its binding partner HRP was analyzed. Results showed that the oriented ZZ–PS-tag yielded an IgG-binding activity that is fivefold higher than that produced by the passive immobilization of the ZZ protein. The advantage of the proposed immunoassay strategy was demonstrated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in which monoclonal mouse anti-goat IgG and HRP-conjugated rabbit F(ab′){sub 2} anti-goat IgG were used to detect goat IgG. The ZZ–PS-tag presented a tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range than did the passively immobilized ZZ protein. The proposed approach may be an attractive strategy for a broad range of applications involving the oriented immobilization of intact IgGs onto PS supports, in which only one type of phi-PS (ZZ–PS-tag) surface is used.

  3. Virtual Orienteering Game For Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Sainio, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Orienteering is a relatively famous sports activity in Nordic countries. Today technology provides attractive means for transition from traditional orienteering to virtual orienteering. Virtual orienteering can be thought as orienteering without using a traditional printed map and compass. On the other hand smartphones contain technology for implementing virtual orienteering. There are different smartphone platforms and types, making application development challenging because several cod...

  4. Employee Orientation: A Process, Not a Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Ron

    1989-01-01

    No or poor orientation can reduce new employees' effectiveness and contribute to dissatisfaction and turnover, costing the company money. The orientation programs of large companies such as Disney, Texas Instruments, and Corning Glass are successful due to high expectations, supervisor and senior management involvement, anxiety reduction, and…

  5. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    Entrepreneurial orientation is a multidimensional construct that determines the strategic posture of a firm. In this study we investigate a sample of six manufacturing firms which are located both in a remote area and in a transition economy. Through interpreting the construct of entrepreneurial...... orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect...

  6. Study on the effects of Ga-2N high co-doping and preferred orientation on the stability, bandgap and absorption spectrum of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qing-Yu; Li, Wen-Cai; Qu, Ling-Feng; Zhao, Chun-Wang

    2017-06-01

    Currently, the stability and visible light properties of Ga-2N co-doped ZnO systems have been studied extensively by experimental analysis and theoretical calculations. However, previous theoretical calculations arbitrarily assigned Ga- and 2N-doped sites in ZnO. In addition, the most stable and possible doping orientations of doped systems have not been fully and systematically considered. Therefore, in this paper, the electron structure and absorption spectra of the unit cells of doped and pure systems were calculated by first-principles plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential with the GGA+U method. Calculations were performed for pure ZnO, Ga-2N supercells heavily co-doped with Zn1-xGaxO1-yNy (x = 0.03125 - 0.0625, y = 0.0625 - 0.125) under different co-doping orientations and conditions, and the Zn16GaN2O14 interstitial model. The results indicated that under different orientations and constant Ga-2N co-doping concentrations, the systems co-doped with Ga-N atoms vertically oriented to the c-axis and with another N atom located in the nearest-neighboring site exhibited higher stability over the others, thus lowering formation energy and facilitating doping. Moreover, Ga-interstitial- and 2N-co-doped ZnO systems easily formed chemical compounds. Increasing co-doping concentration while the co-doping method remained constant decreased doped system volume and lowered formation energies. Meantime, co-doped systems were more stable and doping was facilitated. The bandgap was also narrower and red shifting of the absorption spectrum was more significant. These results agreed with previously reported experimental results. In addition, the absorption spectra of Ga-interstitial- and 2N-co-doped ZnO both blue shifted in the UV region compared with that of the pure ZnO system.

  7. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Today, the knowledge of within-field variability is essential for numerous purposes, including practical issues, such as precision and sustainable soil management. Therefore, process-oriented soil models have been applied for a considerable time to answer question of spatial soil nutrient and water dynamics, although, they can only be as consistent as their variation and resolution of soil input data. Traditional approaches, describe distribution of soil types, soil texture or other soil properties for greater soil units through generalised point information, e.g. from classical soil survey maps. Those simplifications are known to be afflicted with large uncertainties. Varying soil, crop or yield conditions are detected even within such homogenised soil units. However, recent advances of non-invasive soil survey and on-the-go monitoring techniques, made it possible to obtain vertical and horizontal dense information (3D) about various soil properties, particularly soil texture distribution which serves as an essential soil key variable affecting various other soil properties. Thus, in this study we based our simulations on detailed 3D soil type distribution (STD) maps (4x4 m) to adjacently built-up sufficient informative soil profiles including various soil physical and chemical properties. Our estimates of spatial STD are based on high-resolution lateral and vertical changes of electrical resistivity (ER), detected by a relatively new multi-sensor on-the-go ER monitoring device. We performed an algorithm including fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) logic and traditional soil classification to estimate STD from those inverted and layer-wise available ER data. STD is then used as key input parameter for our carbon, nitrogen and water transport model. We identified Pedological horizon depths and inferred hydrological soil variables (field capacity, permanent wilting point) from pedotransferfunctions (PTF) for each horizon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon

  8. FMRI orientation decoding in V1 does not require global maps or globally coherent orientation stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of a large grating can be decoded from V1 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, even at low resolution (3-mm isotropic voxels. This finding has suggested that columnar-level neuronal information might be accessible to fMRI at 3T. However, orientation decodability might alternatively arise from global orientation-bias maps. Such global maps across V1 could result from bottom-up processing, if the preferences of V1 neurons were biased toward particular orientations (e.g. radial from fixation, or cardinal, i.e. vertical or horizontal. Global maps could also arise from local recurrent or top-down processing, reflecting pre-attentive perceptual grouping, attention spreading, or predictive coding of global form. Here we investigate whether fMRI orientation decoding with 2-mm voxels requires (a globally coherent orientation stimuli and/or (b global-scale patterns of V1 activity. We used opposite-orientation gratings (balanced about the cardinal orientations and spirals (balanced about the radial orientation, along with novel patch-swapped variants of these stimuli. The two stimuli of a patch-swapped pair have opposite orientations everywhere (like their globally coherent parent stimuli. However, the two stimuli appear globally similar, a patchwork of opposite orientations. We find that all stimulus pairs are robustly decodable, demonstrating that fMRI orientation decoding does not require globally coherent orientation stimuli. Furthermore, decoding remained robust after spatial high-pass filtering for all stimuli, showing that fine-grained components of the fMRI patterns reflect visual orientations. Consistent with previous studies, we found evidence for global radial and vertical bias maps in V1. However, these were weak or absent for patch-swapped stimuli, suggesting that global bias maps depend on globally coherent orientations and might arise through recurrent or top-down processes related to the perception of global

  9. Investigation on the Orientation Transition of Oriented Magnetostrictive TbDyFe Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; JIANG Cheng-bao

    2006-01-01

    and TbDyFe magnetostrictive oriented crystals were prepared by the zone-melting unidirectional solidification method at 240 mm/h and 720 mm/h respectively. oriented crystals were also obtained with oriented seeds with the same technique as for growing the oriented crystals. It is confirmed that this technique is stable for growing the oriented crystals in the TbDyFe alloys. Meanwhile, the variation of orientation, the solidification morphology and the magnetostriction were studied during the transition from oriented seeds to the oriented crystal growth. As the growth speeds up, the preferred orientation changed from to , and its morphology develops from of initial cellular to dendritic gradually. When an axial compressive pre-stress of 10 MPa is applied, the magnetostriction at the bottom, the middle and the top are 972×10-6, 918×10-6 and 900×10-6 at 100 mT respectively. The middle sections with mixed orientations have the same high magnetostriction performance as those with a single preferred orientation, which may be due to its celluar-dendritic morphology.

  10. Sexual Orientation and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Saray

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Is there a choice in sexual orientation? [Wilkerson, William S. (2009: “Is It a Choice? Sexual Orientation as Interpretation”. In: Journal of Social Philosophy 40. No. 1, p. 97–116] argues that sexual desires require interpretation in order to be fully constituted, and therefore sexual orientation is at least partially constituted by choice. [Díaz-León, Esa (2017: “Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice”; In: Journal of Social Ontology] critically assesses Wilkerson’s argument, concluding that we still lack a good argument for the claim that choice plays a role in sexual orientation. Here I examine Díaz-León’s response to Wilkerson. I introduce what I call the conceptual act theory of sexual orientation, and argue that even if interpretation were not necessary to constitute sexual desires, it is a necessary element to constitute what we call sexual orientation. However, I conclude that even if we agree that interpretation is involved in sexual orientation, it does not follow that there is a choice involved.

  11. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  12. Orientalism/Occidentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Ong, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Orientalism and Occidentalism are interrelated concepts. Orientalism is defined in three keys ways: (i) as a study of “the Orient”; (ii) as a cultural and aesthetic concern with “the Orient”; and (iii) as a critical approach to understanding the construction of “the Orient” by European and American

  13. Teaching Orienteering. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Carol; Cory-Wright, Jean; Renfrew, Tom

    The educational value provided by orienteering's blend of navigational and physical skills has given it a permanent place in the primary and secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom. This book is a reference to orienteering for teachers, leaders, and coaches. It provides a "how to" approach to introducing and developing the…

  14. Orienteering in Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elston F.

    One of the recent developments in camping is "orienteering", a program using a map and compass. Orienteering can be dovetailed into an overall camping program and used to "point up" the entire program, or it can be confined to a single simple game. The arrangement depends on the situation. The minimum age of the participants should be about 9 or…

  15. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  16. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R; Lewis, J

    1993-03-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the activity was largely aerobic but varied in intensity, with phases of strenuous anaerobic work. The type of course was shown significantly (analysis of variance; P orienteer (FR = 160, HP = 158, SR = 150 beats min-1), with courses that required more technical skill and hence slower running producing lower mean heart rates; although the general physical demands were similar for all courses. The older orienteers (> 45 years) recorded heart rate profiles that were similar to those of the young orienteers with no correlation being found between age and mean heart rate while exercising.

  17. Physiological and biomechanical aspects of orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, U; Reilly, T

    1997-12-01

    Orienteering is an endurance running event which differs from other running sports both in its cognitive element and in the type of terrain encountered. The demands of overcoming this terrain are not manifest in significant differences between orienteers and road runners in somatotype, though elite female orienteers have consistently been shown to have higher levels of adiposity (> 19%) than elite road runners. High aerobic power in orienteers (up to 63 and 76 ml/kg/min in women and men, respectively) is coupled with lower anaerobic performance. While leg strength is generally not high when compared with other athletic specialties, female orienteers have relatively good leg flexion strength. The energy cost of running is greatly increased in rough terrain. Oxygen cost was 26% higher while running in a forest when compared with road running. Biomechanical differences in stride pattern contribute towards this increased demand. Despite the high energy demands during competition, orienteers pace themselves such that their mean heart rate remains within the range of 167 to 172 beats/min, despite large fluctuations. The rough terrain encountered in orienteering results not only in a high energy cost but also in a higher incidence of sport-specific injuries, particularly to the ankle. Minor injuries such as cuts and bruises are common during competition.

  18. Infrared Transition Moment Orientational Analysis on the Structural Organization of the Distinct Molecular Subunits in Thin Layers of a High Mobility n-Type Copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Arthur Markus; Steyrleuthner, Robert; Kossack, Wilhelm; Neher, Dieter; Kremer, Friedrich

    2015-05-13

    The IR-based method of infrared transition moment orientational analysis (IR-TMOA) is employed to unravel molecular order in thin layers of the semiconducting polymer poly[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenediimide-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene) (P(NDI2OD-T2)). Structure-specific vibrational bands are analyzed in dependence on polarization and inclination of the sample with respect to the optical axis. By that the molecular order parameter tensor for the respective molecular moieties with regard to the sample coordinate system is deduced. Making use of the specificity of the IR spectral range, we are able to determine separately the orientation of atomistic planes defined through the naphthalenediimide (NDI) and bithiophene (T2) units relative to the substrate, and hence, relative to each other. A pronounced solvent effect is observed: While chlorobenzene causes the T2 planes to align preferentially parallel to the substrate at an angle of 29°, using a 1:1 chloronaphthalene:xylene mixture results in a reorientation of the T2 units from a face on into an edge on arrangement. In contrast the NDI unit remains unaffected. Additionally, for both solvents evidence is observed for the aggregation of chains in accord with recently published results obtained by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy.

  19. Do blood plasma levels of oxytocin moderate the effect of nasally administered oxytocin on social orienting in high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; A Wijers, Albertus; Noltes, Henriette; Tucha, Oliver; Sweep, Fred C; Calcagnoli, Federica; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated whether baseline plasma oxytocin (OXT) concentrations might moderate the effects of nasally administered OXT on social orienting. Thirty-one males with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and thirty healthy males participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. After administration of the compound, participants were viewing pictures from the International Affective Picture System that represented a systematic variation of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes with and without humans. The outcome measures were a cardiac evoked response (ECR) and a cortical evoked long latency parietal positivity (LPP). Males with ASD had significantly higher plasma baseline levels than the controls. In the absence of general treatment effects, higher baseline concentrations were found to be associated with larger treatment effects, particularly in the group of males with ASD. Higher post-treatment plasma OXT concentrations were found to be associated with smaller treatment effects and larger orienting responses in the placebo situation in the group of controls. We interpret our findings as suggesting that it is the central availability of OXT determining how much of the nasally administered OXT will become centrally absorbed and how much of it will become released into the bloodstream.

  20. Orientation of nickelocene on Ag(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugmire, D. L.; Woodbridge, C. M.; Langell, M. A.

    1998-08-01

    High-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy has been used to study the molecular adsorption of nickelocene, Ni(C 5H 5) 2, on Ag(100). Results indicate that at up to one monolayer coverage, nickelocene adsorbs molecularly with its axis approximately perpendicular to the surface. At very high coverages, the molecular axis is not exclusively oriented along the surface normal. This is possibly due to randomization of the metallocene orientation as multilayers are formed.

  1. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R.; Lewis, J.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the ...

  2. Towards a new orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Overgaard, Dorthe; Bestle, Morten H

    2017-01-01

    narrative of recovery was 'toward a trajectory of new orientation'. This narrative contained the chronological narratives of being 'at death's door', 'still not out of the woods' and 'on the road to recovery'. The road to recovery was described as downhill, steady-state or progressive. New orientation...... was obtained in steady-state or progressive recovery. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a contemporary understanding of the process of intensive care recovery. Recovery evolves through narratives of mortal danger, risk of relapse and moving forward towards a new orientation in life. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL...

  3. Developing a market orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallums, A

    1994-03-01

    Developing a market-orientated organization is a complex task. An organization's market orientation is reflected in its ability to fulfil its customer's needs. The organization must look outside itself and adopt a flexible response to changing needs. This paper will examine what is meant by the term marketing and why it is necessary for an organization to incorporate the marketing concept. Analysis of the organization's culture and its relevance to the development of market orientation will also be considered. Reference will be made to health care where appropriate.

  4. Object-Oriented Software Development Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe

    1994-01-01

    The book "Object-Oriented Environments - The Mjølner Approach" presents the collective results of the Mjølner Project. The project was set up to work on the widely recognized problems of developing, maintaining and understanding large software systems. The starting point was to use object......-orientation in making advances in methods, languages and tools for this purpose. The environments combine object-orientations with tight integration and incremental techniques to realize highly interactive environments for strongly typed block structures languages. This book describes the developed techniques as well...... as the developed environments (the Mjølner Orm System, the Mjølner System and tools for O-O SDL). Features include: Object-Oriented modeling, concepts and OSDL Object-oriented programming languages: BETA and Simula Programming in the large: concepts, techniques and realizations Persistence: concepts, techniques...

  5. Morphological Evolution of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: The Critical Effects of Surface Orientations and Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haidong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Dong; Qi, Xin; Qiu, Bao; Fang, Jianhui; Kloepsch, Richard; Schumacher, Gerhard; Liu, Zhaoping; Li, Jie

    2016-02-01

    An evolution panorama of morphology and surface orientation of high-voltage spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 cathode materials synthesized by the combination of the microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique and a postcalcination process is presented. Nanoparticles, octahedral and truncated octahedral particles with different preferential growth of surface orientations are obtained. The structures of different materials are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of various morphologies (including surface orientations and particle size) on kinetic parameters, such as electronic conductivity and Li(+) diffusion coefficients, are investigated as well. Moreover, electrochemical measurements indicate that the morphological differences result in divergent rate capabilities and cycling performances. They reveal that appropriate surface-tailoring can satisfy simultaneously the compatibility of power capability and long cycle life. The morphology design for optimizing Li(+) transport and interfacial stability is very important for high-voltage spinel material. Overall, the crystal chemistry, kinetics and electrochemical performance of the present study on various morphologies of LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 spinel materials have implications for understanding the complex impacts of electrode interface and electrolyte and rational design of rechargeable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The outstanding performance of our truncated octahedral LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 materials makes them promising as cathode materials to develop long-life, high energy and high power lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Sonicated sol–gel preparation of nanoparticulate ZnO thin films with various deposition speeds: The highly preferred c-axis (0 0 2) orientation enhances the final properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M.F., E-mail: firz_solarzelle@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M.H. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z. [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Sahdan, M.Z. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Centre (MiNT), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Musa, M.Z. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainun, A.R. [Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Suriani, A.B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia); Md Sin, N.D. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Abd Hamid, S.B. [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Universiti Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Minimum stress of highly c-axis oriented ZnO was grown at suitable deposition speed. • The ZnO crystal orientation was influenced by strain/stress of the film. • Minimum stress/strain of ZnO film leads to lower defects. • Bandgap and defects were closely intertwined with strain/stress. • We report additional optical and electrical properties based on deposition speed. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates at various deposition speeds by a sonicated sol–gel dip-coating technique. This work studies the effects of deposition speed on the crystallisation behaviour and optical and electrical properties of the resulting films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that thin films were preferentially oriented along the (0 0 2) c-axis direction of the crystal. The transformation sequence of strain and stress effects in ZnO thin films has also been studied. The films deposited at a low deposition speed exhibited a large compressive stress of 0.78 GPa, which decreased to 0.43 GPa as the deposition speed increased to 40 mm/min. Interestingly, the enhancement in the crystallinity of these films led to a significant reduction in compressive stress. All films exhibited an average transmittance of greater than 90% in the visible region, with absorption edges at ∼380 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicated that the intensity of the emission peaks varied significantly with deposition speed. The optical band gap energy (E{sub g}) was evaluated as 3.276–3.289 eV, which increased with decreasing compressive stress along the c-axis. The energy band gap of the resulting ZnO films was found to be strongly influenced by the preferred c-axis (0 0 2) orientation.

  7. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    2010-01-01

    Coupe d’automne Samedi 25 septembre, certains courageux ont osé affronter le temps pluvieux et frais et se sont rendus aux Pléiades pour participer à la quatrième étape de la coupe Genevoise d’automne. Le Club du CARE-Vevey avait préparé 5 jolis circuits : 3 techniques et 2 faciles. Félicitations à tous les concurrents et plus particulièrement aux vainqueurs de chaque parcours. Les résultats complets sont sur le site du club http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Technique long : 1. Samy Vaehaenen (CO CERN), 2. Clément Poncet (O’Jura), 3. Bernhard Wehrle (CO CERN). Technique moyen : 1. Sampo Vallotton (RTB), 2. Guillaume Ladine (RTB), 3. Anne Godel (CA Rosé). Technique court : 1. Miles Marston (Gimel), 2. Alison High (CARE Vevey), 3. Emese Szwuyog (CO CERN). Facile moyen : 1. Nicolas M&u...

  8. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reconcile their teen's sexual orientation with their religious or personal beliefs. Sadly, some react with anger, hostility, or rejection. But many parents find that they just need time to adjust ...

  9. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  10. Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

    2013-01-01

    Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

  11. 体验先行--初中物理生本教育有感%Experience First-Reflection on Junior High School Physics Students-orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佑小锋

    2012-01-01

    "Students-orientation" is a kind of educational idea, and also an effective education pattern. Combing with the characteristics of each subject, students-orientation should have its learning guidance, physics teaching is "experience first". This paper talks about how to experience in life, demonstration, inquiry and application.%“生本教育”是一种教育理念,也是一种有效的教育实践模式。结合到每一学科的特点,生本教育都有该学科的学习指导意见,物理学科则是“体验先行”。本文分别从生活中、演示中、探究中、应用中谈谈学生如何进行体验。

  12. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of highly oriented (Pb,Nb)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 thin films grown by a sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwei, Zhai; Cheung, M. H.; Xu, Zheng Kui; Li, Xin; Chen, Haydn; Colla, Eugene V.; Wu, T. B.

    2002-11-01

    Antiferroelectric (Pb,Nb)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 thin films were deposited via a sol-gel process on LaNiO3-coated silicon substrates. Films showed a strong (001) preferred orientation upon annealing at 500-700 degC for 30 min. The dependence of electrical properties on film thickness has been studied, with the emphasis placed on field-induced phase switching from the antiferroelectric to the ferroelectric state. The decrease of film thickness led to an increase of the phase-switching field along with the appearance of remanent polarization. However, the dielectric constant and maximum polarization decreased with the reduction of film thickness. Saturation polarization was 35 muC/cm2, which is equal to that observed in bulk samples.

  13. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....

  14. Intermittent spray pyrolytic growth of nanocrystalline and highly oriented transparent conducting ZnO thin films: Effect of solution spray rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, C.M., E-mail: c_mahajan9@yahoo.com [Department of Engineering Sciences and Humanities, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune 411 037 (India); School of Energy Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Takwale, M.G. [School of Energy Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • ZnO films show enhancement in structural, optical and electrical properties. • Film orientation is altered from [0 0 2] to [1 0 1] direction for higher S{sub f} > 5 ml/min. • E{sub g} (eV) is influenced by variation in crystallinity, grain size and film thickness. • Nanocrystalline ZnO films are superior for TCO and optoelectronic applications. • FE-SEM and AFM study reveal growth of an array of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods. -- Abstract: Uniformly distributed jet of fine droplets was created with control of spray rate (S{sub f}) to deposit nanocrystalline ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the polycrystalline film growth with most preferred orientation along c-axis [0 0 2] direction for S{sub f} ⩽ 4.5 ml/min, above which films favored [1 0 1] direction. FE-SEM and AFM analysis revealed the uniform vertical growth of ZnO nano-rods for S{sub f} = 2.5 ml/min and the film exhibited highest transmittance (95%) with lowest dark resistivity (∼10{sup −2} Ω-cm). The deposition rate increased due to rise in S{sub f}. Alteration of crystallinity, grain size and film thickness with variation in S{sub f} lead to variation of band-gap energy from 3.198 eV to 3.302 eV. ZnO film deposited at optimal S{sub f} = 2.5 ml/min exhibited maximum electrical conductivity σ = 78.8 Ω{sup −1}-cm{sup −1}, minimum sheet resistance R{sub s} = 2.04 × 10{sup 2} Ω/□ and highest figure of merit Φ{sub TC} = 2.93 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1}.

  15. On the influence of the aliphatic linker on fabrication of highly ordered and orientated self-assembled monolayers of aromatic selenols on AU(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Azzam, Waleed

    2014-03-06

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed by adsorption of 1,2-dibenzyldiselenide (DPMSe) and 1,2-diphenyldiselenide (DBSe) on Au(111) substrates at room temperature have been characterized using scanning tunnelling microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. Upon adsorption, the Se-Se bonds in DPMSe and DBSe were cleaved on the gold surface to form phenylmethaneselenolate (PMSe) and benzeneselenolate (BSe) species, respectively. Although both PMSe and BSe molecular entities only differ in their structure (an additional methyl group in PMSe), the resulting monolayer films revealed noteworthy dissimilarities regarding their adlayer SAM structure and surface morphology. The molecular adlayer structure and orientation of PMSe and BSe species were found to vary significantly with the immersion time (IT). The resulting PMSe films were poorly organized, and the structure was described by a (4√3 × 2) rectangular unit cell for the SAMs prepared with 24 h of IT. Moreover, the PMSe-SAMs were found to be unstable upon exposure to air for a long time. Our results showed that exposure to air for 48 h results in the formation of small bright ad-islands, which have a height corresponding to that of a single atomic step on the Au(111). Contrary, BSe-SAMs exhibited densely packed and well-ordered monolayers, and two different structural phases were resolved at short and long ITs. The most densely packed structure was obtained for SAMs prepared with very short ITs (10 min). Upon increasing the IT, the SAMs exhibited structural changes to a lower density of molecular packing structure. The spectroscopic data also confirmed this structural transformation by suggesting an upright orientation for BSe-SAMs prepared after short ITs and strongly inclined adsorption geometry for SAMs prepared after long ITs. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. 2D self-assembly of phenylene-vinylene tectons at the liquid-highly oriented pyrolytic graphite interface: from chain length effects to anisotropic guest-host dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, A.; Bocheux, A.; Charra, F.; Mathevet, F.; Kreher, D.; Attias, A.-J.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of new phenylene-vinylene tectons. The study by scanning tunneling microscopy of their supramolecular self-assembly at the interface between a phenyloctane solution and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite demonstrates that variation of concentration and length of alkyl chains led to the formation of different networks, a compact one and a nanoporous one, with a fine control of the lattice parameters. The study of guest-host properties of the nanoporous network revealed a selectivity toward guest compounds according to their shape and size. Moreover, the statistical analysis of pore-to-pore guest dynamics evidences an anisotropic diffusion process.

  17. Self-assembly of 50 bp poly(dA)·poly(dT) DNA on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite via atomic force microscopy observation and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Nii, Ryosuke; Akamatsu, Shingo; Kakizaki, Toshiya; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2013-08-28

    This study has investigated the formation patterns resulting from the self-assembly of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), using both experimental and molecular dynamics approaches. Under optimized conditions based on pretreatment of HOPG surface and specific solution concentrations, DNA is found to self-assemble to form various patterned networks. The associated self-assembly mechanism is elucidated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and fractal dimension analysis. The results of this work demonstrate an effective technique allowing the formation of arrays of negatively charged biomacromolecules on negatively charged HOPG surfaces.

  18. Clickable Polymeric Coating for Oriented Peptide Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Gori, Alessandro; Cretich, Marina; Finetti, Chiara; Zilio, Caterina; Chiari, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    A new methodology for the fabrication of an high-performance peptide microarray is reported, combining the higher sensitivity of a layered Si-SiO2 substrate with the oriented immobilization of peptides using a N,N-dimethylacrylamide-based polymeric coating that contains alkyne monomers as functional groups. This clickable polymer allows the oriented attachment of azido-modified peptides via a copper-mediated azide/alkyne cycloaddition. A similar coating that does not contain the alkyne functionality has been used as comparison, to demonstrate the importance of a proper orientation for facilitating the probe recognition and interaction with the target antibody.

  19. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 piezoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-02-26

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-xNa0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d33 ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160°C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180° domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectric materials.

  20. The future-orientation of memory: Planning as a key component mediating the high levels of recall found with survival processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Delton, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of papers, Nairne and colleagues have demonstrated that tasks encouraging participants to judge words for relevance to survival led to better recall than did tasks lacking survival relevance. Klein, Robertson, and Delton (2010) presented data suggesting that the future-directed temporal orientation of the survival task (e.g., planning), rather than survival per se, accounts for the good recall found with the task. In the present studies we manipulated the amount of survival and planning processing encouraged by a set of encoding tasks. Participants performed tasks that encouraged processing stimuli for their relevance to (a) both survival and planning, (b) planning, but not survival, or (c) survival but not planning. We predicted, and found, that recall performance associated with tasks encouraging planning (i.e., survival with planning and planning without survival) should exceed tasks that encouraged survival but not planning (i.e., survival without planning). We draw several conclusions. First, planning is a necessary component of the superior recall found in the survival paradigm. Second, memory, from an evolutionary perspective, is inherently prospective—tailored by natural selection to support future decisions and judgements that cannot be known in advance with certainty. PMID:21229456

  1. Molecular Dynamics Study of Ionic Liquid Film Based on [emim][Tf2N] and [emim][TfO] Adsorbed on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Xiang-gui; ZHAO Li; L(U) Zhong-yuan; QIAN Hu-iun

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was used to study the ionic liquid(IL) crystalline film based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[trifluoromethylsulfonyl]imide([emim][Tf2N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate([emim][TfO]) on the graphite surface.Our results show that the cations are parallelly dis-tributed to the surface in the l/2 monolayer(ML) crystalline film.The [Tf2N] anions are parallel to the surface with the oxygen atoms at the bottom,whereas the [TfO] anions are perpendicularly distributed to the surface also with the oxygen atoms at the bottom in the 1/2 ML crystalline film.It has been found that the IL-vapor interface strongly influences the arrangement of ions at the interface.The anions in the top layer with the oxygen atoms outmost turn over to make themselves with the F atoms outmost so as to form C-H...O hydrogen bonds with the cations.The calculated orientational ordering shows that in the outmost layer at the IL-vapor interface,the cation rings present either parallel or perpendicular to the surface at 350 K.

  2. Three-Dimensional Reciprocal-Lattice Analysis Using Azimuth-Scan Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction: Determination of Complex Crystal Orientations of Al Grains on Si(111) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Ken; Oi, Hideo; Tanaka, Kota; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    We have applied a three-dimensional (3D) reciprocal-lattice analysis method using a typical reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) system - all RHEED patterns in scanning sample-surface azimuth are converted into 3D reciprocal-lattice space. This analysis method can determine complex crystal orientations of nanoclusters, islands, and grains with multiple domains, which are difficult to obtain from a small number of non-converted two-dimensional RHEED patterns. For an Al-deposited Si(111) surface followed by annealing, we successfully determined new crystal orientations of Al grains: Al(001), Al(012) and Al(011) ∥ Si(111) with Al[100] ∥ Si. The typical acquisition time of 3D RHEED patterns is 10-20 min, which is shorter than that by a standard X-ray diffraction system with φ and ω scans for 3D reciprocal-lattice mapping. This is one of the advantages of this analysis method, in addition to the convenient observation of in situ vacuum-fabricated nanocrystals on substrate surfaces with high sensitivity.

  3. Dynamics of cell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel A.

    2007-09-01

    Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to mechanical forces generated by the contractile activity of the cell or by external stresses. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitivity of cells and the elasticity of the matrix, we predict the dynamics and orientation of cells in both the absence and presence of applied stresses. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the cellular forces in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency.

  4. Minimum Entropy Orientations

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Jean; Joret, Gwenaël

    2008-01-01

    We study graph orientations that minimize the entropy of the in-degree sequence. The problem of finding such an orientation is an interesting special case of the minimum entropy set cover problem previously studied by Halperin and Karp [Theoret. Comput. Sci., 2005] and by the current authors [Algorithmica, to appear]. We prove that the minimum entropy orientation problem is NP-hard even if the graph is planar, and that there exists a simple linear-time algorithm that returns an approximate solution with an additive error guarantee of 1 bit. This improves on the only previously known algorithm which has an additive error guarantee of log_2 e bits (approx. 1.4427 bits).

  5. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...... challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future...... technological and economic developments are indispensable in future technology assessments. The uncertainties in future-oriented LCAs are to a large extent qualitative and it is important to emphasise that LCA of future technologies will provide a set of answers and not ‘the’ answer....

  6. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  7. Orientation and Alignment Echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Karras, G; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Hartmann, J -M; Faucher, O; Gershnabel, E; Prior, Y; Averbukh, I Sh

    2015-01-01

    We present what is probably the simplest classical system featuring the echo phenomenon - a collection of randomly oriented free rotors with dispersed rotational velocities. Following excitation by a pair of time-delayed impulsive kicks, the mean orientation/alignment of the ensemble exhibits multiple echoes and fractional echoes. We elucidate the mechanism of the echo formation by kick-induced filamentation of phase space, and provide the first experimental demonstration of classical alignment echoes in a thermal gas of CO_2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  8. From high-temperature orientationally disordered mixed crystals to low-temperature complex formation in the two-component system (CH3)3CBr + Cl3CBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, María; Negrier, Philippe; Tamarit, Josep Ll; Mondieig, Denise

    2011-02-24

    The phase diagram of the two-component systems (CH(3))(3)CBr + Cl(3)CBr has been experimentally determined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction techniques from the low-temperature ordered phases to the liquid state. Before melting, both components have the same orientationally disordered (OD) face-centered cubic (FCC) and rhombohedral (R) phases, and the two-phase equilibria [FCC + L] and [R + FCC] are accounted for by means of the existence of an isomorphic relationship between the OD phases of pure compounds. The thermodynamic assessment of such equilibria enables us to get the excess properties of the involved OD phases and to rationalize the existence of a maximum and a minimum in the [R + FCC] equilibrium on the basis of the contribution of the entropic term in the excess Gibbs energy function. At low temperature, two complexes, (CH(3))(3)CBr:Cl(3)CBr (1:1) and (CH(3))(3)CBr:2Cl(3)CBr (1:2), appear. The structures of 1:1 and 1:2 complexes have been determined to be monoclinic (P2(1)/n, c, Z = 4) and hexagonal (P6(3), Z = 6). Within both "ordered" structures, the Cl(3)CBr entities of the asymmetric unit were found to be disordered so that sites have fractional occupancies of 0.75 and 0.25 for Cl and Br atoms, in the same way that it occurs for the low-temperature monoclinic (C2/c, Z = 32) phase of Cl(3)CBr. Finally, the existence of complexes is connected with the special intermolecular interactions appearing between a methyl group and a halogen, as previously inferred by Calvet et al. [T. Calvet et al. J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 110, 4841].

  9. Extruded electroactive fibers: preferred crystallographic orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Harold B.; Pascucci, Marina R.; Bystricky, Pavel

    2001-07-01

    Electroactive fibers of preferred macro crystalline orientation and ultimately single crystal structure are goals of the research discussed in this paper. Four compositions are under evaluation; lead magnesium niobate- lead titanate solid solution, PMN-31PT, an incongruently melting near-morphotropic phase boundary piezoelectric composition; PMN-10PT, an electrostrictor composition; and two lead free compositions in the sodium bismuth titanate- barium titanate solid solution, NbiT-BaT, family, both congruently melting, one electrostrictor and one piezoelectric. The efficacy of seed crystals in stimulating oriented crystal growth is being evaluated in the lead-based PMN-31PT system. Sub-micron reactive precursor powders of high chemical potential are being evaluated as matrix material. Direct fiber and ribbon extrusion have been shown to orient high chemical potential are being evaluated as matrix material. Direct fiber and ribbon extrusion have been shown to orient high chemical potential are being evaluated as matrix material. Direct fiber and ribbon extrusion have been shown to orient prismatic, needle and platelet shaped seed crystals. Extrusion orifice, seed and initial matrix particle size have not influenced the degree of seed orientation within the tested bounds of our experimental parameters. Non-equilibrium sintering conditions near the melting points of all four compositions noted above will be used to generate exaggerated grain growth under seeded and self-seeding conditions. In the PMN-31PT system, an as yet uncharacterized melt phase appears to stimulate rapid crystal growth, the orientation of which shall be determined by x-ray back reflection Laue methods. Analyses of fiber composition and grain orientation are ongoing. Results to-date will be reported. Analyses of fiber quality and performance, measured using single fiber P-E loop testing, are presented. Loops of sufficient quality to warrant fiber evaluation in active fiber composite packs have

  10. CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGÍA EN LOS TELEDIARIOS COLOMBIANOS: SOBRE LO QUE SE CUBRE Y NO SE CUBRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Arboleda Castrillón

    Full Text Available En este artículo, analizamos un corpus de noticias de ciencia y tecnología emitidas por el telediario Noticias Caracol - el de mayor rating en Colombia. Este trabajo atiende el doble objetivo de verificar si la demanda de los colombianos por este tipo de información es mínimamente atendida y de dar cuenta de las principales características de la cobertura de la ciencia y la tecnología en este telediario. Los resultados muestran que estos temas tienen una relativa poca relevancia en la agenda de este telediario y que los miembros del gobierno cumplen un papel preponderante, no sólo como voces, sino como fuentes en la construcción de los hechos noticiosos. También se encontró que este telediario no es necesariamente democrático a la hora de elegir sus fuentes, sus voces y sus referencias, pero además tampoco se dan elementos de contexto fuertes para estas informaciones.

  11. Orientals and Orientalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reade, Julian

    2004-01-01

    Reviews three books on archaeology. "Possessors and Possessed: Museums, Archaeology, and the Visualization of History in the Late Ottoman Empire," by Wendy M. K. Shaw; "Orientalism and Visual Culture: Imagining Mesapotamia in Nineteenth-Century Europe," by Frederick N. Bohrer; "Empires of the Plain...

  12. An orientable search coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, P. J.; Poblocki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a design for a low cost orientable search coil that can be used to investigate the variation of magnetic flux with angle. This experiment is one of the required practical activities in the current A level physics specification for the AQA examination board in the UK. We demonstrate its performance and suggest other suitable investigations that can be undertaken.

  13. Control Oriented System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  14. A cast orientation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanhoe, J R; Mahanna, G K

    1994-12-01

    This article describes a technique that allows multiple master casts to be precisely oriented to the same path of insertion and withdrawal. This technique is useful in situations where multiple fixed prosthodontic preparations require surveyed restorations and a single master cast is not available.

  15. Managing Entrepreneurial Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Doorn (Sebastiaan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we evaluate the roles senior management teams and individual middle managers play in realizing the performance benefits of entrepreneurial orientations. We investigate the role of senior management teams by focusing on a sample of 9.000 firms in the Netherlands. The

  16. Orientals and Orientalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reade, Julian

    2004-01-01

    Reviews three books on archaeology. "Possessors and Possessed: Museums, Archaeology, and the Visualization of History in the Late Ottoman Empire," by Wendy M. K. Shaw; "Orientalism and Visual Culture: Imagining Mesapotamia in Nineteenth-Century Europe," by Frederick N. Bohrer; "Empires of the Plain...

  17. Geography and Orienteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    Orienteering is a rapidly growing sport, developed in Sweden, which has great possibilities for education in geography. It can be conceived as an organizing device for outdoor work and as a basis for developing map skills and for map construction. (Author)

  18. Social Workers’ Orientation Toward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwet, Renske J.M. van der; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, Deirdre; Schalk, René

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the

  19. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FOR OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN SOFTWARE SECURITY METRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Amjan.Shaik; Dr.C.R.K.Reddy; Dr.A.Damodaran

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, empirical studies on object-oriented design metrics have shown some of them to be useful for predicting the fault-proneness of classes in object-oriented software systems. In the era of Computerization Object Oriented Paradigm is becoming more and more pronounced. This has provoked the need of high quality object oriented software, as the traditional metrics cannot be applied on the object-oriented systems. This paper gives the evaluation of CK suit of metrics. There are q...

  20. Barriers to increasing market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    product development. Despite the increasing evidence of a positive relationship between above average business performance and a high level of market-oriented activity, normative recommendations on how to increase the level of market-oriented activity is sparse. The scientific contribution of the present...... research is to expand the understanding of what factors inhibit the increase of market-oriented activity and how these factors may interact. Identifying and describing the barriers is considered the first and necessary step in attempting to reach a higher level of market-oriented activity......Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding...

  1. Non-Oriented Fe-Si Thin Strip Produced from Grain Oriented Fe-Si Strip by CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE He-zhou; QI Ke-min; GAO Xiu-hua; QIU Chun-lin; LIU En

    2004-01-01

    The grain oriented silicon strip was rolled by cross shear rolling (CSR) and then annealed to manufacture non-oriented thin silicon strip of high quality. The recrystallization of rolled grain-oriented silicon steel into non-oriented silicon steel was studied. For this purpose, CSR is better than conventional rolling, and the higher the mismatched speed rate is, the better the properties of the non-oriented thin silicon strip are. The optimum annealing schedule is heating at 1 000 ℃ for 1 h in pure hydrogen atmosphere added with H2S of 0.001 0 %.

  2. 面向中高压智能配电网的电力电子变压器研究%Research on Medium-and High-Voltage Smart Distribution Grid Oriented Power Electronic Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子欣; 王平; 楚遵方; 朱海滨; 李耀华

    2013-01-01

    分析了电力电子变压器(power electronic transformer, PET)的国内外研究现状,以及面向中高压电网的已有 PET拓扑的特点。在此基础上,基于模块化多电平变流器(modular multilevel converter,MMC),提出了面向中高压智能配电网PET的一种新型拓扑。与传统的PET电路拓扑相比,新型拓扑的优势在于其可以减少电力电子开关器件的数量;更重要的是,可以显著减少高频变压器的数量,具有更好的体积及重量优势。同时,分析了该拓扑 PET 的工作机制及不同电能转换环节的控制策略设计方法。10 kV/380 V配电网用PET样机上的仿真及试验结果表明了所提拓扑及其控制策略的可行性。%The progress of the research on power electronic transformer (PET) home and abroad is reviewed and the features of the existing PET circuit topologies oriented to medium-and high-voltage power girds are analyzed. Based on these analyses and taking advantage of the modular multilevel converter (MMC), a new type of PET topology oriented to medium-and high-voltage smart distribution grid is proposed. Compared with the existing topologies, the proposed circuit can reduce the number of the power switches. What is more important, the proposed topology can reduce the number of the high-frequency transformers substantially. Thereby, the presented PET topology is superior to the existing circuits in terms of volume and weight. Meanwhile, the operation mechanism of the proposed PET and the control strategy design methods for the different electric energy conversion stages are presented. Simulation and experimental results on a PET prototype oriented to 10kV/380V distribution grid show that the proposed circuit topology and its control strategy are feasible and effective.

  3. A Versatile, Production-Oriented Approach to High-Resolution Tree-Canopy Mapping in Urban and Suburban Landscapes Using GEOBIA and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath O'Neil-Dunne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of tree canopy in urban and suburban landscapes are increasingly well known: stormwater runoff control, air-pollution mitigation, temperature regulation, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, neighborhood cohesion, and other social indicators of quality of life. However, many urban areas lack high-resolution tree canopy maps that document baseline conditions or inform tree-planting programs, limiting effective study and management. This paper describes a GEOBIA approach to tree-canopy mapping that relies on existing public investments in LiDAR, multispectral imagery, and thematic GIS layers, thus eliminating or reducing data acquisition costs. This versatile approach accommodates datasets of varying content and quality, first using LiDAR derivatives to identify aboveground features and then a combination of LiDAR and imagery to differentiate trees from buildings and other anthropogenic structures. Initial tree canopy objects are then refined through contextual analysis, morphological smoothing, and small-gap filling. Case studies from locations in the United States and Canada show how a GEOBIA approach incorporating data fusion and enterprise processing can be used for producing high-accuracy, high-resolution maps for large geographic extents. These maps are designed specifically for practical application by planning and regulatory end users who expect not only high accuracy but also high realism and visual coherence.

  4. Market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation in a learning organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yangping

    2014-01-01

    In this globe of brutal competition, market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation as two types of market-based learning constitute positional advantage to an organization, because this corporate cultural competitiveness is unique, rare, valuable, and inimitable. This dissertation focuses on the change management of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation in a business unit with approximately 150 employees of a multinational company. It is structured in an evolving way with an...

  5. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  6. Electrodynamics and Time Orientability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mark J.

    2017-06-01

    On spacetimes that are not time orientable we construct a U(1) bundle to measure the twisting of the time axis. This single assumption, and simple construction, gives rise to Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the Lorentz force law and the Einstein-Maxwell equations for electromagnetism coupled to General relativity. The derivations follow the Kaluza Klein theory, but with the constraints required for connections on a U(1) bundle rather than five spacetime dimensions. The non time orientability is seen to justify and constrain Kaluza Klein theories exactly as required to unify gravitation with electromagnetism. Unlike any other schemes, apparent net electric charges arise naturally because the direction of the electric field reverses along a time reversing path. The boundary of a time reversing region can therefore have a net electric flux and appear exactly as a region containing an electric charge. The treatment is purely classical, but motivated by links between acausal structures and quantum theory.

  7. Ocidente contra Oriente?

    OpenAIRE

    Moita, Luís

    2009-01-01

    Uma longa tradição da nossa cultura plasmou a distinção/oposição entre Ocidente e Oriente. Vejamos ao acaso episódios dessa história. Os séculos XVIII e XIX, com a sua atmosfera romântica, mostram-nos exemplos do modo como os europeus viam o Oriente nas suas expressões artísticas, desde a literatura à pintura e mesmo à música, sobretudo em França e na Itália. Em 1721, é publicado, em Amesterdão, sob pseudónimo, o livro de Mostesquieu Lettres persanes . A viagem a Paris de dois amigos persas p...

  8. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  9. Dynamical scenarios for chromosome bi-orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongli; Oliveira, Raquel A; Schmierer, Bernhard; Novák, Béla

    2013-06-18

    Chromosome bi-orientation at the metaphase spindle is essential for precise segregation of the genetic material. The process is error-prone, and error-correction mechanisms exist to switch misaligned chromosomes to the correct, bi-oriented configuration. Here, we analyze several possible dynamical scenarios to explore how cells might achieve correct bi-orientation in an efficient and robust manner. We first illustrate that tension-mediated feedback between the sister kinetochores can give rise to a bistable switch, which allows robust distinction between a loose attachment with low tension and a strong attachment with high tension. However, this mechanism has difficulties in explaining how bi-orientation is initiated starting from unattached kinetochores. We propose four possible mechanisms to overcome this problem (exploiting molecular noise; allowing an efficient attachment of kinetochores already in the absence of tension; a trial-and-error oscillation; and a stochastic bistable switch), and assess their impact on the bi-orientation process. Based on our results and supported by experimental data, we put forward a trial-and-error oscillation and a stochastic bistable switch as two elegant mechanisms with the potential to promote bi-orientation both efficiently and robustly.

  10. Individual Differences in Spatial Orientation Performances: An Eye Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacide Güzin Mazman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes two studies. In study 1, the computerized version of Spatial Orientation Test (Kozhevnikov & Hegarty, 2001 was standardized for determining the norm values for Turkish undergraduate students as well as demonstrating the reliability and validity of the test. In Study 1, 101 undergraduate students from two different departments were recruited and the data were collected with computerized spatial orientation test together with a demographic information form. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test and one way ANOVA were used in data analysis. Statistical analyses revealed out that gender and years of computer experience have significant effect on spatial orientation ability scores. Test-retest reliability coefficient was found for total accuracy score as r= .778 and r=.634 for total reaction time. As a result of discriminant validity study, the correlation between the spatial orientation and mental rotation test scores was found to be very low and not significant. In study 2, individual differences between low and high spatial orientation ability groups during performing “Spatial Orientation Test” were examined through eye movements. Five high and five low spatial orientation ability level students were asked to participate in the second study. While performing Spatial Orientation Test, their eye movements were recorded. The findings indicated that there were significant differences in eye movements between different spatial orientation ability levels in terms of fixation duration. Furthermore it was found that high and low level spatial orientation level groups solved problems with different solution patterns.

  11. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve: facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes pour la coupe genevoise de printemps: Samedi 22 mars: Apples (...

  12. [Spatial orientation under microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizuka, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    On Earth, humans are constantly exposed to the gravity. During head and body tilts, the otolith organs sense changes in head orientation with respect to the gravitational vertical. These graviceptors also transduce transient linear acceleration generated by translational head motion and centripetal acceleration during rotation about a distant axis. When individuals are rotated at a constant velocity in a centrifuge, they sense the direction of the summed gravitational and centripetal acceleration as the vertical in the steady state. Consequently they experience a roll-tilt of the body when upright and oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out. This perception of tilt has been called the somatogravic illusion. Under the microgravity, the graviceptors no longer respond during static tilt of the head or head and body, but they are still activated by linear acceleration. Adaptation to weightlessness early in space flight has been proposed to entail a reinterpretation of the signals from the graviceptors (primarily the otolith organs), so that on return to Earth pitch or roll of the head with respect to the vertical is sensed as fore-aft or left-right translation. In this article, formulation of the spatial orientation on the earth and under microgravity was described.

  13. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

      Le Club d’Orientation du CERN vous propose de venir participer à la cinquième étape de la coupe d’automne Genevoise. Celle-ci sera organisée samedi 16 octobre par le club de Lausanne-Jorat (Canton de Vaud). Un fléchage depuis le Mont-sur-Lausanne en direction de Cugy vous conduira au Chalet à Gobet. 5 circuits seront proposés sur la carte Le Flon. Les inscriptions et les départs se feront sur place de 13h à 15h. Il est prévu une initiation à 13h30 pour les débutants. Les deux dernières étapes de la coupe d’automne sont prévues pour vendredi 22 octobre au soir et samedi 23 octobre après-midi. Le Club d’Orientation du CERN Informations sur le site http://cern.ch/club-orientation

  14. Polarization-controlled tunable rectifying behaviors in highly oriented (K,Na)NbO3/LaNiO3 heterostructures on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanni; Liu, Yi; Xu, Bo; Xia, Yidong; Wang, Genshui; Yin, Jiang; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-09-01

    We report polarization-controlled tunable rectifying behaviors in (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN)/LaNiO3 (LNO) heterostructures on silicon. The heterostructure shows a forward diode behavior at both the high resistance state and the low resistance state. The amplitude dependent rectifying features are attributed to the ferroelectric modulation effect on both the width of the depletion region and the height of the potential barrier at the KNN/LNO interface. By controlling the domain configurations using the writing voltage, the rectifying behaviors can be regulated and immediate states can be tuned. Our work shows the potential applications of KNN films in ferroelectric memristors.

  15. Report of the Orientation Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho; Buus, Lillian; Ogange, Betty

    2014-01-01

    This Orientation Workshops is part of MAAGART project. The workshop is divided in three parts: 1) pre-Orientation Workshop stage, 2) Face-to-Face stage and 3) post-Orientation stage. Pre and post stages will be developed online. All the activities will take place in a virtual learning environment...... the third stage....

  16. Swedish Orienteers: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Torgny

    1995-01-01

    A survey questionnaire was sent to 1,200 members of Swedish orienteering clubs. Some common beliefs about orienteers were verified. Respondents identifying themselves as active orienteers were often well educated and in the upper middle class, had a healthy lifestyle, and tended to participate as families. (Author/TD)

  17. Orienteering for Sport and Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Hans; Atkinson, George

    This text presents the principles of the sport of orienteering (navigating through an unknown area using a map and compass as guide) and is useful to beginners, experienced orienteers, and "armchair" orienteers. Included in the text are: (1) a glossary of key words; (2) a basic introduction to, and history of, the sport; (3) description of the…

  18. Incorporating Orienteering in School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Douglas

    Orienteering has been described as being "either a serious sport, or a relaxing recreation". Orienteering can be a family affair or an individual fight against the clock. In its simplest form, orienteering can be described as a cross-country run, jog, or walk on a predetermined course, using a map and a compass to find several control points on…

  19. Positive states in relation to entrepreneurship orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryll L. Shein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The main issue of this article concerns the construction and evaluation of an instrument measuring positive states and its relationship with entrepreneurship orientation.Research purpose: The principal objective of the study was the construction of a normative scale to measure the positive states associated with appreciative ability and to relate it to a scale of entrepreneurial orientation. A secondary objective was to determine whether there was a statistically significant relationship between the measures of the constructs and the biographical variables of gender and culture.Motivation: As appreciative ability is a relatively new construct and no instrument exists for measuring the positive states emanating from this construct, it was decided to develop such an instrument and to relate it to entrepreneurship orientation.Research design, approach and method: The primary data were obtained by means of the newly designed instrument, the Positive States Questionnaire and the Entrepreneurship Orientation Questionnaire. A convenience sample of 210 second year commerce students was drawn.Main findings: From a principal factor analysis applied to the two instruments, two factors each were obtained. A significantly high correlation was found, indicating a strong relationship between entrepreneurship orientation and the positive states. No significant differences were found between gender or population in the entrepreneurship orientation and positive states measures.Practical/managerial implications: The study produced an instrument with highly acceptable metrical properties which may be used in future studies and for entrepreneurship development.Contribution/value-add: The results of the study suggest that positive states are invaluable attributes for the entrepreneur and should be explored in the assessment and development of entrepreneurs.

  20. Automatic Object-Oriented, Spectral-Spatial Feature Extraction Driven by Tobler’s First Law of Geography for Very High Resolution Aerial Imagery Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Lv

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerial image classification has become popular and has attracted extensive research efforts in recent decades. The main challenge lies in its very high spatial resolution but relatively insufficient spectral information. To this end, spatial-spectral feature extraction is a popular strategy for classification. However, parameter determination for that feature extraction is usually time-consuming and depends excessively on experience. In this paper, an automatic spatial feature extraction approach based on image raster and segmental vector data cross-analysis is proposed for the classification of very high spatial resolution (VHSR aerial imagery. First, multi-resolution segmentation is used to generate strongly homogeneous image objects and extract corresponding vectors. Then, to automatically explore the region of a ground target, two rules, which are derived from Tobler’s First Law of Geography (TFL and a topological relationship of vector data, are integrated to constrain the extension of a region around a central object. Third, the shape and size of the extended region are described. A final classification map is achieved through a supervised classifier using shape, size, and spectral features. Experiments on three real aerial images of VHSR (0.1 to 0.32 m are done to evaluate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach. Comparisons to state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in VHSR image classification.

  1. Diversity-Oriented Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Wu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction A goal of chemical genetics is to find small molecules that modulate the individual functions of gene products with high potency and high specificity[1,2]. Natural products and natural product-derived compounds provide many of the most striking examples, particularly in terms of their specificity. It seems unlikely that natural products alone will provide the hypothetical "complete" set of small molecules that would allow the functions of all proteins, as well as their individual domains, to be determined. For chemistry to have its maximal effect on biology, efficient methods based on diversity-oriented organic synthesis for discovering this set of small molecules are in great demand(See Fig. 1).

  2. Object-oriented programming for the biosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechert, W; Joksch, B; Wittig, R; Hartbrich, A; Höner, T; Möllney, M

    1995-10-01

    The development of software systems for the biosciences is always closely connected to experimental practice. Programs must be able to handle the inherent complexity and heterogeneous structure of biological systems in combination with the measuring equipment. Moreover, a high degree of flexibility is required to treat rapidly changing experimental conditions. Object-oriented methodology seems to be well suited for this purpose. It enables an evolutionary approach to software development that still maintains a high degree of modularity. This paper presents experience with object-oriented technology gathered during several years of programming in the fields of bioprocess development and metabolic engineering. It concentrates on the aspects of experimental support, data analysis, interaction and visualization. Several examples are presented and discussed in the general context of the experimental cycle of knowledge acquisition, thus pointing out the benefits and problems of object-oriented technology in the specific application field of the biosciences. Finally, some strategies for future development are described.

  3. Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation...... on political market orientation. This lends support to the argument of 'looking beyond the customer' in political marketing research and practice. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature on political marketing and commercial market orientation.......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation. The relationships between different behavioural aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behaviour are analysed, and the study includes structural equation...

  4. Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation. The relationships between different behavioural aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behaviour are analysed, and the study includes structural equation...... modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation...... on political market orientation. This lends support to the argument of 'looking beyond the customer' in political marketing research and practice. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature on political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  5. Junior High School Mathematics Teaching Should Reflect Students-Oriented Ideas%初中数学教学应体现学生主体理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卸祥

    2011-01-01

    新课程实施已多年,然而现实的初中数学课堂,很多教师还是以讲为主,不注重学生思维、知识的形成过程,特别是在常态课的教学中更为严重。因而很有必要谈谈数学课堂教学中以学生为主体的理念。%New curriculum has been in use for years, but in junior high school mathematics classrooms, many teachers are still busying imparting, ignoring developing studnets' thinking and knowledge acquisition ability. This is especially seen in normal teachings. H

  6. The algorithm of the formation and realization of the individually oriented physical preparedness of the future rescuers at the stages of studying at high military educational institution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonshovsky V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and empiric facts for the projecting of the technology of the individualization of physical preparedness of the rescuers while studying at high military educational institution were studied. The algorithm of the formation and realization of the corresponding content was worked out. The facts concerning the principles of projecting of pedagogical technology, theory of adaptation, theory and methodology of physical education of students, specificity of professional activity of rescuers were used. The sequence and content of the projecting actions were set, realization of which will promote the formation of the effective physical preparedness in the solving tasks of the physical and military-professional preparedness of the future rescuers with different somatotypes at the stages of education.

  7. 基于多示例学习的高分辨率遥感影像面向对象分类%Object Oriented High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Classification Based on Multiple Instance Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿里木·赛买提; 杜培军

    2012-01-01

    多示例学习以示例组成的包作为训练样本,学习的目的是预测新包的类型.从分类角度上,处理问题的策略类似于以均质对象为基本处理单元的面向对象影像分类.针对两者之间理论和方法相似性,将多样性密度多示例学习算法与面向对泉方法相结合用于高分辨率遥感图像分类.以图像分割方法获取均值对象作为示例,利用多样性密度算法对样本包进行学习获取最大多样性密度示例,最后根据相似性最大准则对单示例包或是经聚类算法得到的新包进行类别标记,以获取最终分类结果.通过与SVM分类器的比较,发现多样性密度算法的平均分类精度都在70%以上,最高可达96%左右,且对小样本问题学习能力更强,结果表明多示例学习在遥感图像分类中有着广泛应用前景.%In multiple instance learning) the bags are used as training samples,and the goal of learning is predict the label of new bags. The idea of multiple instance learning is quite similar to the object-oriented image classification,which takes homogeneous object as basic processing unit, so it is feasible to combine multiple instance learning with object-oriented way to classify the high resolution remote sensing image. In this paper, Diverse Oensity(DD) algorithm is used to classify the high resolution remote sensing image according to the object oriented image classification paradigm. Homogeneous objects are generated by image segmentation method first,and then objects used as instances,get the maximum diverse density instance by training bags with DD,so the label of new bags which single instance considered as a bag or obtained by clustering method can be determined by the distance similarity criterion. Compared with the advanced SVM classifier,the classification approach consisting of diverse density algorithm and object oriented can get higher classification accuracy,average accuracy is higher than 70% ,the highest

  8. Tribological investigation of oriented HDPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammed; Lausmaa, Jukka; Boldizar, Antal

    2002-09-15

    The possibility to control the wear properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) material at an early processing stage is explored. Wear measurements of cold roll-drawn HDPE with two different draw ratios were carried out for three sliding planes, each in two directions. The dependence of the wear properties on the degree and direction of orientation was investigated. The experiments were performed in a pin-on-disc machine in a dry environment. The tribo-couple consisted of HDPE plates versus a standardised diamond coated steel disc. The results show that the wear resistance of cold roll-drawn HDPE differ widely, by a factor up to 6, depending on the sliding direction relative to the drawing direction. The material has a significantly better wear resistance when the sliding direction was perpendicular to the processing direction. The best wear resistance was in the end plane and it was improved by a factor up to 3.6 when the draw ratio was increased from 2 to 4. These results indicate that molecular orientation by polymer processing is a promising method to improve the wear properties and decrease the wear debris production of HDPE. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Study on the oriented recrystallization of carbon-coated polyethylene oriented ultrathin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haibo; Guo, Qipeng; Shen, Deyan; Li, Lin; Qiu, Zhaobin; Wang, Feng; Yan, Shouke

    2010-10-21

    It is confirmed that a layer of vacuum-evaporated carbon on the surface of a preoriented ultrathin polymer film can lead to an oriented recrystallization of the polymer film. This has been attributed to a strong fixing effect of vacuum-evaporated carbon layer on the film surface of the polymer. To study the origin of the strong fixing effect of vacuum-evaporated carbon layer on the polymer films, the melting and recrystallization behaviors of the preoriented ultrathin PE film with a vacuum-evaporated carbon layer were studied by using atomic force microscopy, electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We found that there exists some extent of chain orientation of carbon-coated polyethylene (PE) preoriented ultrathin film above its melting temperature. These oriented PE chain sequences act as nucleation sites and induce the oriented recrystallization of preoriented PE film from melt. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that new carbon-carbon bonds between the carbon layer and the oriented PE film are created during the process of vacuum carbon evaporation. As a result, some of the PE chain stems are fixed to the coated carbon substrate via covalent bond. Such a bonding has retarded the relaxation of the PE chains at the spot and, therefore, preserves the original orientation of the PE stems at high temperature, which in turn derives the recrystallization of the PE chains in an oriented structure.

  10. Non-oriented electrical sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissonneau, Pierre

    1984-02-01

    After placing the economic and technological importance of non-oriented magnetic sheets on the same level as that of grain-oriented sheets, the recent stages in the history of non-oriented sheets are recalled. The progress made in the knowledge of the physics of magnetism now allows the functions of the principal properties of non-oriented sheets to be analyzed. Current production of non-oriented sheets is marked by an evolution towards a split of the market between top-grade sheets, which could still be improved significantly, and lower grades, for which the cost of production continues to be practically the only determining factor.

  11. Chordal Graphs are Fully Orientable

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Hsin-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that D is an acyclic orientation of a graph G. An arc of D is called dependent if its reversal creates a directed cycle. Let m and M denote the minimum and the maximum of the number of dependent arcs over all acyclic orientations of G. We call G fully orientable if G has an acyclic orientation with exactly d dependent arcs for every d satisfying m <= d <= M. A graph G is called chordal if every cycle in G of length at least four has a chord. We show that all chordal graphs are fully orientable.

  12. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  13. 以高端服务为导向的高职助产教育策略分析%Analysis of High-end Service Oriented Vocational Midwifery Education Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷婷

    2016-01-01

    As people enhance the quality of life, with high-end service oriented service delivery has been widely recognized. However the midwifery Science in China started late, vocational midwifery education still exist some shortcomings, can not meet the current needs of the society. Therefore, we must strengthen the vocational midwifery education, to cultivate more high-quality midwifery professionals. The related concepts and vocational midwifery education combined with the current high-end services, to explore the strategies of higher vocational nursing education.%随着人们生活质量的提升,以高端服务为导向的助产服务已经得到广泛的认可。然而我国助产科学起步较晚,高职助产教育方面还存在一些不足之处,不能满足当前社会需求。因此,必须加强高职助产教育,才能培养出更多的高素质助产专业人才。本文结合高端服务的相关概念及高职助产教育现状,对高职助产教育策略进行探讨。

  14. Failure Orientation in Stretch Forming and Its Correlation with a Polycrystal Plasticity-Based Material Model for a Collection of Highly Formable Sheet Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yuguo; Boterman, Romke; Atzema, Eisso; Abspoel, Michael; Scholting, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Robust design optimization techniques have been developed in recent years within the automotive industry with the aim of reducing scrap rates and improving process stability in sheet metal forming. These new techniques are able to take process variations and other sources of material scatter into account. Among the many material variables and inputs used, the yield criterion is an important aspect and this is used to describe the plastic behavior of sheet metals. To achieve a reliable output in an optimization study, the yield criterion selected must be representative of material response and scatter. However, simple material models that deviate from real material behavior are often used due to a lack of material data, which is usually a requirement when using more complex models. In the present research, a polycrystal plasticity-based CTFP model has been evaluated in stretch forming for a collection of highly formable sheet steel materials. The results demonstrate that the CTFP model can capture the yielding character and also detect the minor deviations presented by different coils. The stretching factor derived from the CTFP model, as opposed to the work hardening and ductility, has a dominant effect on failure for a collection of materials with similar mechanical properties. Results also indicate that plastic deformation causes texture evolution and, consequently, an evolving yield locus. Such changes in the yield locus during deformation have an effect on stretching and friction calibration in FE simulations.

  15. Highly oriented NdFeB nanocrystalline magnets from partially recombined compacts with ultrafine grain size by reactive deformation under low pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余云萍; 李军; 刘颖; 王仁全; 郑青; 连利仙

    2015-01-01

    The partially recombined compacts with ultrafine grain size were taken advantage of preparing anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with full density and homogenous microstructure and texture by reactive deformation under low pressure. Because of the ul-trafine grain size of the precursors, the partially recombined phases could quickly achieve recombination. The results suggested that the newly recombined Nd2Fe14B grains with fine grain size could undergo deformation immediately during the desorp-tion-recombination reaction, and then an obvious anisotropy and uniform alignment would be obtained. The magnetic properties, (BH)max=214 kJ/m3,Br= 1.26 T,Hcj=463 kA/m, were obtained after being treated for 5 min at 820 ºC in high vacuum under low pres-sure less than 26 MPa. Microstructures of the magnets were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. Magnetic measurements were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) with the maximum field of 2.88 T. Accurate phase contents were measured by a Mossbauer spectrometer.

  16. EBSD Study of the Influence of a High Magnetic Field on the Microstructure and Orientation of the Al-Si Eutectic During Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Fautrelle, Yves; Gagnoud, Annie; Ren, Zhongming; Moreau, Rene

    2016-06-01

    The effect of a high magnetic field on the morphology of the Al-Si eutectic was investigated using EBSD technology. The results revealed that the application of the magnetic field modified the morphology of the Al-Si eutectic significantly. Indeed, the magnetic field destroyed the coupled growth of the Al-Si eutectic and caused the formation of the divorced α-Al and Si dendrites at low growth speeds (≤1 μm/s). The magnetic field was also found to refine the eutectic grains and reduce the eutectic spacing at the initial growth stage. Moreover, the magnetic field caused the occurrence of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition of the α-Al phase in the Al-Si eutectic. The abovementioned effects were enhanced as the magnetic field increased. This result should be attributed to the magnetic field restraining the interdiffusion of Si and Al atoms in liquid ahead of the liquid/solid interface and the thermoelectric magnetic force acting on the eutectic lamellae under the magnetic field.

  17. Injuries in orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, F

    1986-09-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lower extremity while 18% of acute injuries was located elsewhere. Acute injuries were most frequent in the competitive season while overuse injuries occurred most often during the continuous training period.

  18. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  19. Messuosastokonsepti Orient-Occidentille

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on toimeksianto sisustussuunnittelutoimistolta Aprocos Ky:ltä ja aiheena on messuosastokonseptin suunnittelu Orient-Occidentille. Kyseessä on sisustustekstiilejä sekä lattiapäällysteitä myyvä tukkuliike, jolla ei ollut opinnäytetyön aikana kiireellistä tarvetta messuosastolle. Asiakkaan etua silmälläpitäen oli hyödyllisintä suunnitella elementtikokonaisuus, jota voidaan soveltaa kun messuille osallistuminen varmistuu. Messuosaston muotoilulla voidaan viestiä yrityksen id...

  20. Emotion-oriented systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Affective Computing domain, term coined by Rosalind Picard in 1997, gathers several scientific areas such as computer science, cognitive science, psychology, design and art. The humane-machine interaction systems are no longer solely fast and efficient. They aim to offer to users affective experiences: user's affective state is detected and considered within the interaction; the system displays affective state; it can reason about their implication to achieve a task or resolve a problem. In this book, we have chosen to cover various domains of research in emotion-oriented systems. Our aim