WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly invasive vegetation

  1. Impact of Prosopis (mesquite) invasion and clearing on vegetation ...

    We evaluated the impact of Prosopis invasion and clearing on vegetation species composition and diversity (alien and indigenous species richness and cover) in Nama-Karoo rangeland on two sheep farms in the Beaufort ... Keywords: invasive plants – exotic, Nama-Karoo, plant community ecology, rehabilitation, semi-arid ...

  2. Effects of Lantana camara (L.) invasion on the native vegetation of ...

    ... camara (L.) invasion on the native vegetation of Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. ... A total of 41 native woody species and 2 native herbaceous species were ... Keywords : Alien plants, Biodiversity, Invasive plants, Lantana camara, ...

  3. UAVs and Machine Learning Revolutionising Invasive Grass and Vegetation Surveys in Remote Arid Lands

    Juan Sandino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris and spinifex (Triodia sp. as examples. The process integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs also commonly known as drones, high-resolution red, green, blue colour model (RGB cameras, and a data processing approach based on machine learning algorithms. The methods are illustrated with data acquired in Cape Range National Park, Western Australia (WA, Australia, orthorectified in Agisoft Photoscan Pro, and processed in Python programming language, scikit-learn, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost libraries. In total, 342,626 samples were extracted from the obtained data set and labelled into six classes. Segmentation results provided an individual detection rate of 97% for buffel grass and 96% for spinifex, with a global multiclass pixel-wise detection rate of 97%. Obtained results were robust against illumination changes, object rotation, occlusion, background cluttering, and floral density variation.

  4. Water dispersal of vegetative bulbils of the invasive exotic Dioscorea oppositifolia L. in southern Illinois

    Thomas, J.R.; Gibson, D.J.; Middleton, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Riparian corridors promote dispersal of several species of exotic invasives worldwide. Dispersal plays a role in the colonization of exotic invasive species into new areas and this study was conducted to determine if the invasiveness of Dioscorea oppositifolia L. (Chinese yam) is facilitated by secondary dispersal of vegetative diaspores (bulbils) by water. Since seed production of this plant has not been observed in the United States, bulbils represent the only means of dispersal to new habitats. Dispersal was monitored by placing aquatic traps, tethered bulbils, and painted bulbil caches in a tributary of Drury Creek, Giant City State Park, Illinois. Results indicate that high-energy flow in the creek accelerated secondary dispersal of bulbils downstream and onto the floodplain. The longest recorded dispersal distance was 206.2 m downstream. Dispersal distance of tethered bulbils was not related to rainfall or flow velocity in the creek; however the total number of bulbils trapped was positively related to flow velocity. We conclude that secondary dispersal by water in streams can facilitate dispersal of vegetative bulbils of this exotic species.

  5. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: Effects of vegetation type and anthropogenic disturbance

    Larson, D.L.; Anderson, P.J.; Newton, W.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of

  6. An invasive plant alters phenotypic selection on the vegetative growth of a native congener.

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-02-01

    The ecological consequences of plant competition have frequently been tested, but the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions have gone largely unexplored. The study of species invasions can make an important contribution to this field of research by allowing us to watch ecological and evolutionary processes unfold as a novel species is integrated into a plant community. We explored the ecological and evolutionary impact of an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a closely related native congener, I. capensis and asked: (1) Does the presence of the invasive jewelweed alter the fitness of native jewelweed populations? (2) Does the invasive jewelweed affect the vegetative growth of the native congener? and (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the vegetative traits of the native congener? We used a greenhouse competition experiment, an invasive species removal field experiment, and a survey of natural populations. We show that when the invasive jewelweed is present, phenotypic selection favors native jewelweed individuals investing less in rapid upward growth and more in branching and fruiting potential through the production of nodes. This research demonstrates that invasive plants have the potential to greatly alter natural selection on native competitors. Studies investigating altered selection in invaded communities can reveal the potential evolutionary impact of invasive competitors, while deepening our understanding of the more general role of competition in driving plant evolution and permitting species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  7. Invasive Impatiens parviflora has negative impact on native vegetation in oak-hornbeam forests

    Florianová, Anna; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 226, Jan 2017 (2017), s. 10-16 ISSN 0367-2530 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : small balsam * impact of invasive plant on vegetation * removal experiment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2016

  8. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  9. Invasive Alien Species of Terrestrial Vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Sumit Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetational landscape of north-eastern Terai region at the foot hills of Central Himalayas is a mosaic of grassland, old-field, wasteland, and forest ecosystems. Like many other parts of the country, this region is also infested with alien intruders which not only interfere with the growth and production of food crops but also exercise adverse effects on the biodiversity of native species. The present study attempts to catalogue the invasive alien species of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh especially with reference to their habit, taxonomic position, and nativity. A total of 1135 plant species within 580 genera under 119 families are so far known to occur in the region. Of these, only 149 species within 100 genera under 41 families have been found to be invasive aliens as evident from their center of origin, past history, nature of aggregation, and invasion observed under field conditions. About 80% of these invaders have been introduced from neotropics. Out of 173 invasive plants across India, this region shares 149 species, out of which 66% of species have come from Tropical America, 14% from African continent, and the rest from other countries. A better planning in the form of early identification and reporting of infestation and spread of noxious weeds is needed for their control.

  10. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  11. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  12. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  13. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: effects of vegetation type, stochiasticity, and anthropogenic disturbance in two park units

    Larson, Diane L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Newton, Wesley E.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of

  14. Butterfly Assemblages Associated with Invasive Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Sites: Comparisons with Tamarisk Control and Native Vegetation Reference Sites

    S. Mark Nelson; Rick Wydoski

    2013-01-01

    We studied butterfly assemblages at six types of riparian landscapes in five different watersheds in the southwestern United States (n=34 sites). Sites included exotic-invasive Tamarix ramosissima (tamarisk) dominated sites; sites where tamarisk was controlled, but not actively revegetated; sites revegetated with upland plants; sites where control was followed with riparian plant revegetation; native riparian vegetation sites; and sites that were a mixture of native and tamarisk vegetations. ...

  15. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.

    André L Acosta

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring.

  16. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  17. Modern High Technology Solutions for Quality and Longterm Vegetable Preservation

    Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.; Todorov, Y.; Loginovska, K.; Tsvetkov, Ts.

    2012-01-01

    In the publication the authors present the results of the applying of two modern technologies for long term and safe vegetable preservation – freeze-drying and gamma sterilization. The freeze-dried vegetables feature minimum moisture – from 2 – 5% and taste-aroma complex preserved to the highest degree. The carried out gamma sterilization ensures a high microbial purity of the vegetables and guarantees for their long term preservation - up to 5 years in polymer packing, under usual conditions

  18. Highly efficient procedure for the transesterification of vegetable oil

    Liang, Xuezheng; Gao, Shan; He, Mingyuan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang, Jianguo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Energy Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The highly efficient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methanol. The KF/MgO has been selected as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions with the yield of 99.3%. Operational simplicity, without need of the purification of raw vegetable oil, low cost of the catalyst used, high activities, no saponification and reusability are the key features of this methodology. (author)

  19. Enhancing Pre- and Post-Wildfire Vegetation Recovery and Understanding Feedbacks of Cheatgrass invasion Using NASA Earth Observations

    Olsen, N.; Counts, A.; Quistorff, C.; Ohr, C. A.; Toner, C.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing wildfire frequency and severity has emphasized the importance of post-wildfire recovery efforts in southern Idaho's sagebrush ecosystems. These changing fire regimes favor invasive grass species while hindering native sagebrush habitat regeneration, causing a positive feedback cycle of invasive growth - wildfires - invasive growth. Due to this undesirable process and anthropogenic influences, the sagebrush ecosystem is one of the most endangered in the US. In this project the NASA DEVELOP group of Pocatello, Idaho partnered with the Bureau of Land Management, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Department of Agriculture to characterize ecosystem recovery following the Crystal (2006), Henry Creek (2016), Jefferson (2010), and Soda (2015) wildfires. Determining vegetation cover heterogeneity and density can be time consuming and the factors affecting ecosystem recovery can be complex. In addition, restoration success is difficult to determine as vegetation composition is not often known prior to wildfire events and monitoring vegetation composition after restoration efforts can be resource intensive. These wildfires temporal monitoring consisted of 2001 to 2017 using NASA Earth observations such as Landsat 5 Thermal Mapper (TM), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to determine the most significant factors of wildfire recovery and the influence targeted grazing could have for recovery. In addition, this project will include monitoring of invasive species propagation and whether spatial patterns or extents of the wildfire contribute to propagation. Understanding the key variables that made reseeding and natural recovery work in some areas, assessing why they failed in others, and identifying factors that made non-native propagation ideal are important issues for land managers in this region.

  20. Estimating fractional vegetation cover and the vegetation index of bare soil and highly dense vegetation with a physically based method

    Song, Wanjuan; Mu, Xihan; Ruan, Gaiyan; Gao, Zhan; Li, Linyuan; Yan, Guangjian

    2017-06-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of highly dense vegetation (NDVIv) and bare soil (NDVIs), identified as the key parameters for Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) estimation, are usually obtained with empirical statistical methods However, it is often difficult to obtain reasonable values of NDVIv and NDVIs at a coarse resolution (e.g., 1 km), or in arid, semiarid, and evergreen areas. The uncertainty of estimated NDVIs and NDVIv can cause substantial errors in FVC estimations when a simple linear mixture model is used. To address this problem, this paper proposes a physically based method. The leaf area index (LAI) and directional NDVI are introduced in a gap fraction model and a linear mixture model for FVC estimation to calculate NDVIv and NDVIs. The model incorporates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model parameters product (MCD43B1) and LAI product, which are convenient to acquire. Two types of evaluation experiments are designed 1) with data simulated by a canopy radiative transfer model and 2) with satellite observations. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) for simulated data is less than 0.117, depending on the type of noise added on the data. In the real data experiment, the RMSD for cropland is 0.127, for grassland is 0.075, and for forest is 0.107. The experimental areas respectively lack fully vegetated and non-vegetated pixels at 1 km resolution. Consequently, a relatively large uncertainty is found while using the statistical methods and the RMSD ranges from 0.110 to 0.363 based on the real data. The proposed method is convenient to produce NDVIv and NDVIs maps for FVC estimation on regional and global scales.

  1. Prescribed grazing for management of invasive vegetation in a hardwood forest understory

    Ronald A. Rathfon; Songlin Fei; Jason Tower; Kenneth Andries; Michael. Neary

    2014-01-01

    Land managers considering prescribed grazing (PG) face a lack of information on animal stocking rates, timing of grazing, and duration of grazing to achieve desired conditions in natural ecosystems under invasion stress from a variety of nonnative invasive plant (NNIP) species. In this study we tested PG treatments using goats for reducing NNIP brush species and...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF ALIEN SPECIES INVASIVENESS: AN AID TO ASSESSING RIPARIAN VEGETATION CONDITION

    Many riparian areas are invaded by alien plant species that negatively affect native species composition, community dynamics and ecosystem properties. We sampled vegetation along reaches of 31 low order streams in eastern Oregon, and characterized species assemblages at patch an...

  3. Unintended consequences of invasive predator control in an Australian forest: overabundant wallabies and vegetation change.

    Nick Dexter

    Full Text Available Over-abundance of native herbivores is a problem in many forests worldwide. The abundance of native macropod wallabies is extremely high at Booderee National Park (BNP in south-eastern Australia. This has occurred because of the reduction of exotic predators through an intensive baiting program, coupled with the absence of other predators. The high density of wallabies at BNP may be inhibiting the recruitment of many plant species following fire-induced recruitment events. We experimentally examined the post-fire response of a range of plant species to browsing by wallabies in a forest heavily infested with the invasive species, bitou bush Chrysanthemoides monilifera. We recorded the abundance and size of a range of plant species in 18 unfenced (browsed and 16 fenced (unbrowsed plots. We found the abundance and size of bitou bush was suppressed in browsed plots compared to unbrowsed plots. Regenerating seedlings of the canopy or middle storey tree species Eucalyptus pilularis, Acacia implexa, Allocasuarina littoralis, Breynia oblongifolia and Banksia integrifolia were either smaller or fewer in number in grazed plots than treatment plots as were the vines Kennedia rubicunda, Glycine tabacina and Glycine clandestina. In contrast, the understorey fern, Pteridium esculentum increased in abundance in the browsed plots relative to unbrowsed plots probably because of reduced competition with more palatable angiosperms. Twelve months after plots were installed the community structure of the browsed and unbrowsed plots was significantly different (P = 0.023, Global R = 0.091. The relative abundance of C. monilifera and P. esculentum contributed most to the differences. We discuss the possible development of a low diversity bracken fern parkland in Booderee National Park through a trophic cascade, similar to that caused by overabundant deer in the northern hemisphere. We also discuss its implications for broad scale fox control in southern

  4. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  5. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites.

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M; Bay, Robin F; Bean, Daniel W; Bissonnete, Gabriel J; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L; Makarick, Lori J; Ostoja, Steven M; Reynolds, Lindsay V; Robinson, W Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B

    2017-09-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species. © 2017 by the

  6. Uptake of radionuclides by vegetation at a High Arctic location

    Dowdall, M.; Gwynn, J.P.; Moran, C.; O'Dea, J.; Davids, C.; Lind, B.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclide levels in vegetation from a High Arctic location were studied and compared to in situ soil concentrations. Levels of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs and the natural radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th are discussed and transfer factor (TF) values and aggregated transfer (Tag) values are calculated for vascular plants. Levels of 137 Cs in vegetation generally followed the order mosses > lichen > vascular plants. The uptake of 137 Cs in vascular plants showed an inverse relationship with the uptake of 40 K, with 137 Cs TF and Tag values generally higher than 40 K TF and Tag values. 40 K activity concentrations in all vegetation showed little correlation to associated soil concentrations, while the uptake of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th by vascular and non-vascular plants was generally low. - Uptake of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs is highest for moss species

  7. Passive reestablishment of riparian vegetation following removal of invasive knotweed (Polygonum)

    Shannon M. Claeson; Peter A. Bisson

    2013-01-01

    Japanese knotweed and congeners are invasive to North America and Europe and spread aggressively along rivers establishing dense monotypic stands, thereby reducing native riparian plant diversity, structure, and function. Noxious weed control programs attempt to eradicate the knotweed with repeated herbicide applications under the assumption that the system will...

  8. Impact of plant invasions on functional diversity in the vegetation of Central Europe

    Hejda, Martin; de Bello, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2013), s. 890-897 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Invasive alien species * Native species * Functional similarity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.372, year: 2013

  9. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Guangcheng; Ye, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO 2 -equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO 2 m −2 h −1 , which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m −2 h −1 , respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the same time increase soil carbon accumulation

  10. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO{sub 2}-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the

  11. Post-fire Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) invasion at high elevation in Wyoming

    The invasive annual grass downy brome is the most ubiquitous weed in sagebrush systems of western North America. The center of invasion has largely been the Great Basin region, but there is an increasing abundance and distribution in the Rocky Mountain States. We evaluated post-fire vegetation chang...

  12. Soil microbial community structure is unaltered by plant invasion, vegetation clipping, and nitrogen fertilization in experimental semi-arid grasslands

    Chelsea J Carey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Global and regional environmental changes often co-occur, creating complex gradients of disturbance on the landscape. Soil microbial communities are an important component of ecosystem response to environmental change, yet little is known about how microbial structure and function respond to multiple disturbances, or whether multiple environmental changes lead to unanticipated interactive effects. Our study used experimental semi-arid grassland plots in a Mediterranean-climate to determine how soil microbial communities in a seasonally variable ecosystem respond to one, two, or three simultaneous environmental changes: exotic plant invasion, plant invasion + vegetation clipping (to simulate common management practices like mowing or livestock grazing, plant invasion + nitrogen (N fertilization, and plant invasion + clipping + N fertilization. We examined microbial community structure 5-6 years after plot establishment via sequencing of >1 million 16S rRNA genes. Abiotic soil properties (soil moisture, temperature, pH, and inorganic N and microbial functioning (nitrification and denitrification potentials were also measured and showed treatment-induced shifts, including altered NO3- availability, temperature, and nitrification potential. Despite these changes, bacterial and archaeal communities showed little variation in composition and diversity across treatments. Even communities in plots exposed to three interacting environmental changes were similar to those in restored native grassland plots. Historical exposure to large seasonal and inter-annual variations in key soil properties, in addition to prior site cultivation, may select for a functionally plastic or largely dormant microbial community, resulting in a microbial community that is structurally robust to single and multiple environmental changes.

  13. Vegetation

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  14. Do invasive alien plants really threaten river bank vegetation? A case study based on plant communities typical for Chenopodium ficifolium—An indicator of large river valleys

    Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent. PMID:29543919

  15. Do invasive alien plants really threaten river bank vegetation? A case study based on plant communities typical for Chenopodium ficifolium-An indicator of large river valleys.

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent.

  16. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  17. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y; Yokota, S; Ono, F

    2012-01-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  18. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  19. Estimating Invasion Success by Non-Native Trees in a National Park Combining WorldView-2 Very High Resolution Satellite Data and Species Distribution Models

    Antonio T. Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasion by non-native tree species is an environmental and societal challenge requiring predictive tools to assess invasion dynamics. The frequent scale mismatch between such tools and on-ground conservation is currently limiting invasion management. This study aimed to reduce these scale mismatches, assess the success of non-native tree invasion and determine the environmental factors associated to it. A hierarchical scaling approach combining species distribution models (SDMs and satellite mapping at very high resolution (VHR was developed to assess invasion by Acacia dealbata in Peneda-Gerês National Park, the only national park in Portugal. SDMs were first used to predict the climatically suitable areas for A. dealdata and satellite mapping with the random-forests classifier was then applied to WorldView-2 very-high resolution imagery to determine whether A. dealdata had actually colonized the predicted areas (invasion success. Environmental attributes (topographic, disturbance and canopy-related differing between invaded and non-invaded vegetated areas were then analyzed. The SDM results indicated that most (67% of the study area was climatically suitable for A. dealbata invasion. The onset of invasion was documented to 1905 and satellite mapping highlighted that 12.6% of study area was colonized. However, this species had only colonized 62.5% of the maximum potential range, although was registered within 55.6% of grid cells that were considerable unsuitable. Across these areas, the specific success rate of invasion was mostly below 40%, indicating that A. dealbata invasion was not dominant and effective management may still be possible. Environmental attributes related to topography (slope, canopy (normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi, land surface albedo and disturbance (historical burnt area differed between invaded and non-invaded vegetated area, suggesting that landscape attributes may alter at specific locations with Acacia

  20. Symphyotrichum ciliatum an Invasive Species in the Romanian Flora – Contributions to the Knowledge of the Vegetative Organs Structure

    Sârbu Anca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Symphyotrichum ciliatum (Ledeb. G.L. Nesom is an adventive plant first reported in Romania in 1967, which has spread rapidly over the last few decades in Moldova, Muntenia and, more recently, in Transylvania. Although the species has been known for a while in Europe and Romania, there is no information about the anatomy of the vegetative organs of this invasive taxon. This paper presents a series of structural aspects of the vegetative body, of Symphyotrichum ciliatum collected from a sandy and salty substrate (Sacalin Island - Danube Delta. These demonstrate the ability of this plant to adapt to the environment and its capacity to achieve a wide spread. As such, although this plant is an annual species, the root and stem achieve secondary growth in their width, which offers robustness to the corm; the palisade tissue has an ecvifacial disposition which enhances efficiency in capturing light, especially on sandy soil that reflects light; there are aeriferous and aquiferous formations that ensure efficiency in adapting to a wet and relatively salty environment. These results are documented by original photographs of optical microscopy and a distribution map of the taxon in Romania as at 2011.

  1. Spatial and temporal relationships between the invasive snail Bithynia tentaculata and submersed aquatic vegetation in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River

    Weeks, Alicia M.; DeJager, Nathan R.; Haro, Roger J.; Sandland, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Bithynia tentaculata is an invasive snail that was first reported in Lake Michigan in 1871 and has since spread throughout a number of freshwater systems of the USA. This invasion has been extremely problematic in the Upper Mississippi River as the snails serve as intermediate hosts for several trematode parasites that have been associated with waterfowl mortality in the region. This study was designed to assess the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata relative to submersed aquatic vegetation as macrophytes provide important nesting and food resources for migrating waterfowl. Temporal changes in both vegetation and snail densities were compared between 2007 and 2015. Between these years, B. tentaculata densities have nearly quadrupled despite minor changes in vegetation abundance, distribution and composition. Understanding the spatial distribution of B. tentaculata in relation to other habitat features, including submersed vegetation, and quantifying any further changes in the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata over time will be important for better identifying areas of risk for disease transmission to waterfowl.

  2. Mitigating Uncertainty from Vegetation Spatial Complexity with Highly Portable Lidar

    Paynter, I.; Schaaf, C.; Peri, F.; Saenz, E. J.; Genest, D.; Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    To fully utilize the excellent spatial coverage and temporal resolution offered by satellite resources for estimating ecological variables, fine-scale observations are required for comparison, calibration and validation. Lidar instruments have proved effective in estimating the properties of vegetation components of ecosystems, but they are often challenged by occlusion, especially in structurally complex and spatially fragmented ecosystems such as tropical forests. Increasing the range of view angles, both horizontally and vertically, by increasing the number of scans, can mitigate occlusion. However these scans must occur within the window of temporal stability for the ecosystem and vegetation property being measured. The Compact Biomass Lidar (CBL) is a TLS optimized for portability and scanning speed, developed and operated by University of Massachusetts Boston. This 905nm wavelength scanner achieves an angular resolution of 0.25 degrees at a rate of 33 seconds per scan. The ability to acquire many scans within narrow windows of temporal stability for ecological variables has facilitated the more complete investigation of ecosystem structural characteristics, and their expression as a function of view angle. The lightweight CBL has facilitated the use of alternative deployment platforms including towers, trams and masts, allowing analysis of the vertical structure of ecosystems, even in highly enclosed environments such as the sub-canopy of tropical forests where aerial vehicles cannot currently operate. We will present results from view angle analyses of lidar surveys of tropical rainforest in La Selva, Costa Rica where the CBL was deployed at heights up to 10m in Carbono long-term research plots utilizing a portable mast, and on a 25m stationary tower; and temperate forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA, where the CBL has been deployed biannually at long-term research plots of hardwood and hemlock, as well as at heights of up to 25m utilizing a

  3. Updated vegetation information in high resolution WRF simulations

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    modify the energy distribution at the land surface. In weather and climate models it is important to represent the vegetation variability accurately to obtain reliable results. The weather research and forecasting (WRF) model uses green vegetation fraction (GVF) time series to represent vegetation...... seasonality. The GVF of each grid cell is additionally used to scale other parameters such as LAI, roughness, emissivity and albedo within predefined intervals. However, the default GYP used by WRF does not reflect recent climatic changes or change in management practices since it was derived more than 20...

  4. Skin and plasma carotenoid response to a provided intervention diet high in vegetables and fruit: uptake and depletion kinetics

    Background: Objective biomarkers are needed to assess adherence to vegetable and fruit intervention trials. Blood carotenoids are considered the best biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake but collecting blood is invasive and the analyses are relatively expensive for population studies. Resonance ...

  5. Negative effect of litter of invasive weed Lantana camara on structure and composition of vegetation in the lower Siwalik Hills, northern India.

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Dogra, Kuldip Singh; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Negi, Anjana

    2014-06-01

    Lantana camara, an aromatic shrub, native to tropical America, was introduced into India for ornamental hedging, but later escaped and became a serious invasive weed. This study assessed the quantitative and qualitative status of plant community richness and diversity in areas invaded by L. camara in the Siwalik Hills (Himachal Pradesh, India), and explored allelopathy as a possible mechanism of interference. We measured species diversity, richness and evenness of the vegetation in areas invaded and uninvaded by L. camara. Allelopathic effects of L. camara rhizosphere soil and litter were assessed against two native plants-Achyranthes aspera (a herb) and Albizia lebbeck (a tree). Density, biomass and indices of diversity, richness and evenness were reduced by L. camara, indicating a significant alteration in composition and structure of native communities. Seedling growth of the test species was reduced in L. camara rhizosphere- and litter-amended soil. The inhibitory effect was ameliorated by the addition of activated charcoal, indicating the presence of organic inhibitors (quantified as phenolics) in the soil. Lantana invasion greatly reduces the density and diversity of the vegetation in the invaded area, and chemical interference of its litter plays an important role in invasion.

  6. The use of high altitude remote sensing in determining existing vegetation and monitoring ecological stress

    Foster, K.; Garcia, A.

    1972-01-01

    High altitude color and multispectral black and white photography was used to survey existing vegetation and soil conditions on the Empire Ranch where large scale development will soon begin. Utilizing stereo pairs of the high altitude color photography, four vegetation classifications were discernable as a function of topography and foliage characteristics. In contrast to the undeveloped Ranch, the same photography was used to detect environmental changes in the Tucson metropolitan area as a result of rapid urbanization. The most prevalent change related to development is the removal of vegetation in high density areas to allow for housing starts. Erosion then occurs where vegetation has been removed.

  7. Vegetative regeneration of invasive Ludwigia cytotypes from clonal bud banks across resource gradients: colonizing diploid outperforms polyploid

    Understanding functional traits that underlie the colonization of invasive plants is key to developing sustainable management strategies to curtail invasions at the establishment phase. Although common, recruitment of clonal plant species from bud banks is often overlooked but may be a key transiti...

  8. A highly articulated robotic surgical system for minimally invasive surgery.

    Ota, Takeyoshi; Degani, Amir; Schwartzman, David; Zubiate, Brett; McGarvey, Jeremy; Choset, Howie; Zenati, Marco A

    2009-04-01

    We developed a novel, highly articulated robotic surgical system (CardioARM) to enable minimally invasive intrapericardial therapeutic delivery through a subxiphoid approach. We performed preliminary proof of concept studies in a porcine preparation by performing epicardial ablation. CardioARM is a robotic surgical system having an articulated design to provide unlimited but controllable flexibility. The CardioARM consists of serially connected, rigid cyclindrical links housing flexible working ports through which catheter-based tools for therapy and imaging can be advanced. The CardioARM is controlled by a computer-driven, user interface, which is operated outside the operative field. In six experimental subjects, the CardioARM was introduced percutaneously through a subxiphoid access. A commercial 5-French radiofrequency ablation catheter was introduced through the working port, which was then used to guide deployment. In all subjects, regional ("linear") left atrial ablation was successfully achieved without complications. Based on these preliminary studies, we believe that the CardioARM promises to enable deployment of a number of epicardium-based therapies. Improvements in imaging techniques will likely facilitate increasingly complex procedures.

  9. SR-XRF imaging of Cs highly accumulated in vegetables

    Nakai, Izumi; Oda, Nahoko; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of Cs in vegetables was studied with regard to the remediation of radioactive Cs from a nuclear plant accident in Fukushima. It was found that Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica campestris var. perviridis, and Lactuca sativa accumulated Cs to a level of more than 10000 ppm (dry weight) when they were cultivated in 1 mM Cs solution. Two-dimensional distributions of Cs were revealed by SR-XRF imaging showing a homogeneous distribution of Cs in the plant bodies. (author)

  10. Species groups occupying different trophic levels respond differently to the invasion of semi-natural vegetation by Solidago canadensis

    Groot, de M.; Kleijn, D.; Jogan, N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the impact of the invasive plant species Solidago canadensis on the species richness of vascular plants and the abundance, species richness and diversity of butterflies, hoverflies and carabid beetles in herbaceous semi-natural habitats near Ljubljana, Slovenia. The species groups were

  11. [The vegetation adventivisation through perspective of modern ecological ideas].

    Mirkin, B M; Naumova, L G

    2002-01-01

    Results of study of vegetation adventivisation (increase in proportion of invasive species) correspond to the theory of present ecology that denies general universal laws. Diverse features of invasive species play different role under various ecological conditions and at various time and space scale. The invasibility of communities under various conditions is determined by combination of different biotic and abiotic factors though it is obvious that most of invasive species are characterized with the high seed production, well developed vegetative propagation, windblown pollination, high plasticity and effective use of resources, low consumption by herbivores. The definition of an "ideal invasive species" or an "ideal invasible community" is impossible. The regularities of vegetation adventivisation can be observed clearly only at very large scale.

  12. Texture classification of vegetation cover in high altitude wetlands zone

    Wentao, Zou; Bingfang, Wu; Hongbo, Ju; Hua, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of datasets composed of texture measures and other features for the classification of vegetation cover, specifically wetlands. QUEST decision tree classifier was applied to a SPOT-5 image sub-scene covering the typical wetlands area in Three River Sources region in Qinghai province, China. The dataset used for the classification comprised of: (1) spectral data and the components of principal component analysis; (2) texture measures derived from pixel basis; (3) DEM and other ancillary data covering the research area. Image textures is an important characteristic of remote sensing images; it can represent spatial variations with spectral brightness in digital numbers. When the spectral information is not enough to separate the different land covers, the texture information can be used to increase the classification accuracy. The texture measures used in this study were calculated from GLCM (Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix); eight frequently used measures were chosen to conduct the classification procedure. The results showed that variance, mean and entropy calculated by GLCM with a 9*9 size window were effective in distinguishing different vegetation types in wetlands zone. The overall accuracy of this method was 84.19% and the Kappa coefficient was 0.8261. The result indicated that the introduction of texture measures can improve the overall accuracy by 12.05% and the overall kappa coefficient by 0.1407 compared with the result using spectral and ancillary data

  13. Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes

    McGuire, A.D.; Wirth, C.; Apps, M.; Beringer, J.; Clein, J.; Epstein, H.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Bhatti, J.; Chapin, F. S.; De Groot, B.; Efremov, D.; Eugster, W.; Fukuda, M.; Gower, T.; Hinzman, L.; Huntley, B.; Jia, G.J.; Kasischke, E.; Melillo, J.; Romanovsky, V.; Shvidenko, A.; Vaganov, E.; Walker, D.

    2002-01-01

    The responses of high latitude ecosystems to global change involve complex interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water and energy exchange. These responses may have important consequences for the earth system. In this study, we evaluated how vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange are related to environmental variation spanned by the network of the IGBP high latitude transects. While the most notable feature of the high latitude transects is that they generally span temperature gradients from southern to northern latitudes, there are substantial differences in temperature among the transects. Also, along each transect temperature co-varies with precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation, which are also variable among the transects. Both climate and disturbance interact to influence latitudinal patterns of vegetation and soil carbon storage among the transects, and vegetation distribution appears to interact with climate to determine exchanges of heat and moisture in high latitudes. Despite limitations imposed by the data we assembled, the analyses in this study have taken an important step toward clarifying the complexity of interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange in high latitude regions. This study reveals the need to conduct coordinated global change studies in high latitudes to further elucidate how interactions among climate, disturbance, and vegetation distribution influence carbon dynamics and water and energy exchange in high latitudes.

  14. Enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants exhibit growth advantages in high nitrogen conditions.

    Liu, X A; Peng, Y; Li, J J; Peng, P H

    2018-03-12

    Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.

  15. Induced mutations in highly heterozygous vegetatively propagated grasses

    Powell, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with mutation induction of turf and forage grasses indicates that much progress can be achieved by this method. More than 300 mutations have been produced in our laboratory in the cultivars Tifgreen and Tifdwarf bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.). In the Tifway and Tifcote bermudagrasses we have demonstrated similar mutation responses. The first three clones are triploids and Tifcote is a probable tetraploid. No seeds are set on these clones. Two clones of bermudagrass, Coastal and Coastcross-1, occupy millions of hectares in the USA. Both are mutable and are known to be hybrids with 36 chromosomes. Biotypes of dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) exist with 40 and 50 chromosomes and reproduce as sexual and obligate apomictic forms. Gamma-ray and thermal-neutron treatment of seed of these biotypes produced mutants that maintained the maternal characteristics in subsequent generations. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge) also has sexual and apomictic biotypes. Some success was indicated for increased seed set by mutagen treatment. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a facultative apomict with varying numbers of chromosomes in different cultivars. Gamma-ray mutagen treatment of rhizomes produced numerous mutations for plant type and disease reaction. Most mutations perpetuate themselves through the seed. The characteristic in common with all these grasses is their heterozygosity, which is maintained by the vegetative propagation or apomictic mode of reproduction. The experience in using ionizing radiation to induce heritable changes in these vegetatively propagated grasses is one of considerable success. Mutation rates in some of these irradiated grasses exceeded 65% and aberrant plants with characteristics previously never observed were found. Numerous hemizygous and heterozygous loci seem to be a sensitive target for mutagens. (author)

  16. High resolution MR imaging of bladder cancer: new criteria for determining depth of wall invasion

    Suh, Chang Hae; Kressel, Herbert Y

    1993-01-01

    To establish new criteria to determine the depth of bladder cancer as well as to obtain the findings of each stage of bladder cancer we reviewed high resolution MR images of 18 bladder cancer patients including seven cases (26%) with superficial bladder wall invasion. All MR scans were done before biopsy or surgery. Multiple layers of the bladder wall (inner black, middle white, outer black) were demonstrated in 11 cases out of a total 18 cases. Thickening of the middle layer caused by tumor infiltration or edema of lamina propria was seen in 8 of 12 patients with stage T2 or greater, and was suggestive of superficial muscle invasion when multiple layers were demonstrated. Disruption of outer layer (as well as inner layer) and external protrusion of tumor itself were indicative of perivesical invasion. When multiple layers were not demonstrated, the depth of tumor invasion could not be judged. High resolution MR imaging can depict submucosal invasion, muscle invasion, and perivesical invasion secondary to bladder cancer

  17. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  18. Urinary high molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases as non-invasive biomarker for detection of bladder cancer

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Seleim, Manar F; Abdalla, Mohga S; Sharada, Hayat M; Abdel Wahab, Abdel Hady A

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key molecules for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Over-expression of different MMPs in tumor tissues can disturb the homeostasis and increase the level of various body fluids. Many MMPs including high molecular weights (HMWs) were detected in the urine of prostate and bladder cancer patients. Our aim here is to assess the usefulness of HMW MMPs as non invasive biomarkers in bilharzial bladder cancer in Egyptian patients. Methods The activ...

  19. Estimating Vegetation Rainfall Interception Using Remote Sensing Observations at Very High Resolution

    Cui, Y.; Zhao, P.; Hong, Y.; Fan, W.; Yan, B.; Xie, H.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: As an important compont of evapotranspiration, vegetation rainfall interception is the proportion of gross rainfall that is intercepted, stored and subsequently evaporated from all parts of vegetation during or following rainfall. Accurately quantifying the vegetation rainfall interception at a high resolution is critical for rainfall-runoff modeling and flood forecasting, and is also essential for understanding its further impact on local, regional, and even global water cycle dynamics. In this study, the Remote Sensing-based Gash model (RS-Gash model) is developed based on a modified Gash model for interception loss estimation using remote sensing observations at the regional scale, and has been applied and validated in the upper reach of the Heihe River Basin of China for different types of vegetation. To eliminate the scale error and the effect of mixed pixels, the RS-Gash model is applied at a fine scale of 30 m with the high resolution vegetation area index retrieved by using the unified model of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF-U) for the vegetation canopy. Field validation shows that the RMSE and R2 of the interception ratio are 3.7% and 0.9, respectively, indicating the model's strong stability and reliability at fine scale. The temporal variation of vegetation rainfall interception loss and its relationship with precipitation are further investigated. In summary, the RS-Gash model has demonstrated its effectiveness and reliability in estimating vegetation rainfall interception. When compared to the coarse resolution results, the application of this model at 30-m fine resolution is necessary to resolve the scaling issues as shown in this study. Keywords: rainfall interception; remote sensing; RS-Gash analytical model; high resolution

  20. Object-based vegetation classification with high resolution remote sensing imagery

    Yu, Qian

    Vegetation species are valuable indicators to understand the earth system. Information from mapping of vegetation species and community distribution at large scales provides important insight for studying the phenological (growth) cycles of vegetation and plant physiology. Such information plays an important role in land process modeling including climate, ecosystem and hydrological models. The rapidly growing remote sensing technology has increased its potential in vegetation species mapping. However, extracting information at a species level is still a challenging research topic. I proposed an effective method for extracting vegetation species distribution from remotely sensed data and investigated some ways for accuracy improvement. The study consists of three phases. Firstly, a statistical analysis was conducted to explore the spatial variation and class separability of vegetation as a function of image scale. This analysis aimed to confirm that high resolution imagery contains the information on spatial vegetation variation and these species classes can be potentially separable. The second phase was a major effort in advancing classification by proposing a method for extracting vegetation species from high spatial resolution remote sensing data. The proposed classification employs an object-based approach that integrates GIS and remote sensing data and explores the usefulness of ancillary information. The whole process includes image segmentation, feature generation and selection, and nearest neighbor classification. The third phase introduces a spatial regression model for evaluating the mapping quality from the above vegetation classification results. The effects of six categories of sample characteristics on the classification uncertainty are examined: topography, sample membership, sample density, spatial composition characteristics, training reliability and sample object features. This evaluation analysis answered several interesting scientific questions

  1. High-density native-range species affects the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata more strongly than species from its invasive range.

    Zheng, Yulong; Liao, Zhiyong

    2017-11-22

    Invasive plant species often form dense mono-dominant stands in areas they have invaded, while having only sparse distribution in their native ranges, and the reasons behind this phenomenon are a key point of research in invasive species biology. Differences in species composition between native and invasive ranges may contribute to the difference in distribution status. In this study, we found that the high-density condition had a more negative effect on C. odorata than the low-density condition when co-grown with neighbor plants from its native range in Mexico, while this pattern was not in evidence when it was grown with neighbors from its invasive range in China. Different competitive ability and coevolutionary history with C. odorata between native-range neighbors and invasive-range neighbors may lead to the inconsistent patterns.

  2. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  3. Relationships between vegetation dynamics and hydroclimatic drivers in the northern high-latitude uplands

    Wang, H.; Tetzlaff, D.; Buttle, J. M.; Carey, S. K.; Laudon, H.; McNamara, J. P.; Soulsby, C.; Spence, C.

    2015-12-01

    IPCC projections show that climate warming will be particularly high in northern high-latitude regions, which has profound ecohydrological implications: a small rise of temperature may result in lower water availability in summer due to less rainfall and more evapotranspiration, increase flooding risks by accelerating melting rates in spring, and more rain rather than snow in winter, etc. These impacts will affect vegetation communities by altering timing of the spring "green-up" and fall "senescence". Change in vegetation water use will feedback to atmospheric and hydrological cycles. Here, we report results from the PLATO "Plant-water interlinkages in northern uplands - mediation of climate change?" project where we investigate water uptake by plants and consequent water availability in northern regions along a cross-regional climate gradient to understand future responses to change in high-latitude uplands. Six sites in Sweden (Krycklan), Canada (Wolf Creek; Baker Creek; Dorset), Scotland (Girnock) and the USA (Dry Creek) span moisture and energy gradients found at high-latitudes. We are presenting preliminary results of vegetation phenology changes from 2000 to 2014 by analysing remote sensing vegetation indices. The relationship between vegetation phenology and climatic drivers (temperature and precipitation) is also investigated.

  4. High potential for weathering and climate effects of non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician

    Porada, Philipp; Lenton, Tim; Pohl, Alexandre; Weber, Bettina; Mander, Luke; Donnadieu, Yannick; Beer, Christian; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kleidon, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Early non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician may have strongly increased chemical weathering rates of surface rocks at the global scale. This could have led to a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and, consequently, a decrease in global temperature and an interval of glaciations. Under current climatic conditions, usually field or laboratory experiments are used to quantify enhancement of chemical weathering rates by non-vascular vegetation. However, these experiments are constrained to a small spatial scale and a limited number of species. This complicates the extrapolation to the global scale, even more so for the geological past, where physiological properties of non-vascular vegetation may have differed from current species. Here we present a spatially explicit modelling approach to simulate large-scale chemical weathering by non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician. For this purpose, we use a process-based model of lichens and bryophytes, since these organisms are probably the closest living analogue to Late Ordovician vegetation. The model explicitly represents multiple physiological strategies, which enables the simulated vegetation to adapt to Ordovician climatic conditions. We estimate productivity of Ordovician vegetation with the model, and relate it to chemical weathering by assuming that the organisms dissolve rocks to extract phosphorus for the production of new biomass. Thereby we account for limits on weathering due to reduced supply of unweathered rock material in shallow regions, as well as decreased transport capacity of runoff for dissolved weathered material in dry areas. We simulate a potential global weathering flux of 2.8 km3 (rock) per year, which we define as volume of primary minerals affected by chemical transformation. Our estimate is around 3 times larger than today's global chemical weathering flux. Furthermore, chemical weathering rates simulated by our model are highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 concentration, which implies

  5. Updated vegetation information in high resolution regional climate simulations using WRF

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    Climate studies show that the frequency of heat wave events and above-average high temperatures during the summer months over Europe will increase in the coming decades. Such climatic changes and long-term meteorological conditions will impact the seasonal development of vegetation and ultimately...... modify the energy distribution at the land surface. In weather and climate models it is important to represent the vegetation variability accurately to obtain reliable results. The weather research and forecasting (WRF) model uses a green vegetation fraction (GVF) climatology to represent the seasonal...... or changes in management practice since it is derived more than twenty years ago. In this study, a new high resolution, high quality GVF product is applied in a WRF climate simulation over Denmark during the 2006 heat wave year. The new GVF product reflects the year 2006 and it was previously tested...

  6. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  7. High pressure and foods -fruit/vegetable juices

    Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Kocurová, K.; Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Fiedlerová, V.; Holasová, M.; Gabrovská, D.; Paulíčková, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2006), s. 386-398 ISSN 0260-8774 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : high-pressure pasteurisation * Foods * Broccoli juice Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.696, year: 2006

  8. The effect of High Pressure and High Temperature processing on carotenoids and chlorophylls content in some vegetables.

    Sánchez, Celia; Baranda, Ana Beatriz; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2014-11-15

    The effect of High Pressure (HP) and High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) processing on carotenoid and chlorophyll content of six vegetables was evaluated. In general, carotenoid content was not significantly influenced by HP or HPHT treatments (625 MPa; 5 min; 20, 70 and 117 °C). Regarding chlorophylls, HP treatment caused no degradation or slight increases, while HPHT processes degraded both chlorophylls. Chlorophyll b was more stable than chlorophyll a at 70 °C, but both of them were highly degraded at 117 °C. HPHT treatment at 117 °C provided products with a good retention of carotenoids and colour in the case of red vegetables. Even though the carotenoids also remained in the green vegetables, their chlorophylls and therefore their colour were so affected that milder temperatures need to be applied. As an industrial scale equipment was used, results will be useful for future industrial implementation of this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing the Potential of Vegetation Indices for Land Use/cover Classification Using High Resolution Data

    Karakacan Kuzucu, A.; Bektas Balcik, F.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and reliable land use/land cover (LULC) information obtained by remote sensing technology is necessary in many applications such as environmental monitoring, agricultural management, urban planning, hydrological applications, soil management, vegetation condition study and suitability analysis. But this information still remains a challenge especially in heterogeneous landscapes covering urban and rural areas due to spectrally similar LULC features. In parallel with technological developments, supplementary data such as satellite-derived spectral indices have begun to be used as additional bands in classification to produce data with high accuracy. The aim of this research is to test the potential of spectral vegetation indices combination with supervised classification methods and to extract reliable LULC information from SPOT 7 multispectral imagery. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Ratio Vegetation Index (RATIO), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were the three vegetation indices used in this study. The classical maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm were applied to classify SPOT 7 image. Catalca is selected region located in the north west of the Istanbul in Turkey, which has complex landscape covering artificial surface, forest and natural area, agricultural field, quarry/mining area, pasture/scrubland and water body. Accuracy assessment of all classified images was performed through overall accuracy and kappa coefficient. The results indicated that the incorporation of these three different vegetation indices decrease the classification accuracy for the MLC and SVM classification. In addition, the maximum likelihood classification slightly outperformed the support vector machine classification approach in both overall accuracy and kappa statistics.

  10. Comparison of total isothiocyanates content in vegetable juices during high pressure treatment, pasteurization and freezing

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2007), s. 147-149 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : High-pressure treatments * Foods * Vegetable juices Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2007

  11. Food safety issues of high pressure processed fruit/vegetable juices

    Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Totušek, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Gabrovská, D.; Otová, B.; Gresová, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2007), s. 157-162 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Vegetable juices * High pressure processing * Food safety * Anti-mutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2007

  12. Danger to biodiversity of High Tatras by spread of invasive plant species

    Strba, P.; Gogolakova, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our work was to analyze the current status of invasive plant species - their generic representation of a current extension (horizontal and vertical extension). We have been working method inventory of species richness. Site was recorded on a tourist map and a GPS (Garmin). Populations of invasive plants are studied localities mostly small (a few individuals to hundreds of individuals), but at the high anthropogenic impacts (construction activity, excessive tourist traffic), by synantropization of habitats and concurrently with the impacts of climate change here can create important focal point of the country and pose a serious threat to biodiversity is very valuable ecosystems.

  13. A strategic study of the impact of invasive alien plants in the high ...

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to determine the impact of upland (non-riparian) invasive alien plants in the high rainfall catchments and riparian areas in all catchments on the total surface water yield available in each of the water management areas of South Africa. This would enable the Department of ...

  14. Minimally-invasive treatment of high velocity intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia.

    Leonard, M

    2012-02-01

    The pilon fracture is a complex injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of minimally invasive techniques in management of these injuries. This was a prospective study of closed AO type C2 and C3 fractures managed by early (<36 hours) minimally invasive surgical intervention and physiotherapist led rehabilitation. Thirty patients with 32 intra-articular distal tibial fractures were treated by the senior surgeon (GK). Our aim was to record the outcome and all complications with a minimum two year follow-up. There were two superficial wound infections. One patient developed a non-union which required a formal open procedure. Another patient was symptomatic from a palpable plate inferiorly. An excellent AOFAS result was obtained in 83% (20\\/24) of the patients. Early minimally invasive reduction and fixation of complex high velocity pilon fractures gave very satisfactory results at a minimum of two years follow-up.

  15. Vegetation Fraction Mapping with High Resolution Multispectral Data in the Texas High Plains

    Oshaughnessy, S. A.; Gowda, P. H.; Basu, S.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Howell, T. A.; Schulthess, U.

    2010-12-01

    Land surface models use vegetation fraction to more accurately partition latent, sensible and soil heat fluxes from a partially vegetated surface as it affects energy and moisture exchanges between the earth’s surface and atmosphere. In recent years, there is interest to integrate vegetation fraction data into intelligent irrigation scheduling systems to avoid false positive signals to irrigate. Remote sensing can facilitate the collection of vegetation fraction information on individual fields over large areas in a timely and cost-effective manner. In this study, we developed and evaluated a set of vegetation fraction models using least square regression and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques using RapidEye satellite data (6.5 m spatial resolution and on-demand temporal resolution). Four images were acquired during the 2010 summer growing season, covering bare soil to full crop cover conditions, over the USDA-ARS-Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, Texas [350 11' N, 1020 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL]. Spectral signatures were extracted from 25 ground truth locations with geographic coordinates. Vegetation fraction information was derived from digital photos taken at the time of image acquisition using a supervised classification technique. Comparison of performance statistics indicate that ANN performed slightly better than least square regression models.

  16. Assessment of Atmospheric Algorithms to Retrieve Vegetation in Natural Protected Areas Using Multispectral High Resolution Imagery

    Javier Marcello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise mapping of vegetation covers in semi-arid areas is a complex task as this type of environment consists of sparse vegetation mainly composed of small shrubs. The launch of high resolution satellites, with additional spectral bands and the ability to alter the viewing angle, offers a useful technology to focus on this objective. In this context, atmospheric correction is a fundamental step in the pre-processing of such remote sensing imagery and, consequently, different algorithms have been developed for this purpose over the years. They are commonly categorized as imaged-based methods as well as in more advanced physical models based on the radiative transfer theory. Despite the relevance of this topic, a few comparative studies covering several methods have been carried out using high resolution data or which are specifically applied to vegetation covers. In this work, the performance of five representative atmospheric correction algorithms (DOS, QUAC, FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S has been assessed, using high resolution Worldview-2 imagery and field spectroradiometer data collected simultaneously, with the goal of identifying the most appropriate techniques. The study also included a detailed analysis of the parameterization influence on the final results of the correction, the aerosol model and its optical thickness being important parameters to be properly adjusted. The effects of corrections were studied in vegetation and soil sites belonging to different protected semi-arid ecosystems (high mountain and coastal areas. In summary, the superior performance of model-based algorithms, 6S in particular, has been demonstrated, achieving reflectance estimations very close to the in-situ measurements (RMSE of between 2% and 3%. Finally, an example of the importance of the atmospheric correction in the vegetation estimation in these natural areas is presented, allowing the robust mapping of species and the analysis of multitemporal variations

  17. Recovery of a soil under different vegetation one year after a high intensity wildfire

    A. Martín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on soil recovery in fragile ecosystems following high intensity wildfires are scarce. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the impact of a high intensity wildfire in an ecosystem under different vegetation (shrubland and pinewood located at Vilardevós (Galicia, NW Spain and highly susceptible to suffer soil erosion due to the steep relief and high erositivity of the rainfall. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-5 cm 1 year after the fire and soil quality was evaluated by analysis of several physical, chemical and biochemical properties measured in the fraction chemical properties > physical properties. The data also showed that the fire impact was different depending on the soil vegetation considered (shrubland and pinewood. Moreover, the data confirmed the slow soil recovery in this fragile ecosystem and, therefore, the need of adopting post-fire stabilisation and rehabilitation treatments in order to minimize the post-fire erosion and soil degradation.

  18. Vegetation cover, avoided erosion and water quality in high Andean wetlands, Yeso River Basin

    León, Alejandro; Soto, Jorge; Seguel, Oscar; Pérez, Javier; Osses, Daniela; Leiva, Nicolás; Zerega, Linka

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands on the high Andes mountains near Santiago de Chile have been impacted by overgrazing and off-road tourists. We studied wetlands in El Yeso River basin. In February 2015 we established 36 exclusions and measured vegetation cover and height, biomass production in and out the exclusions starting in October. Water and undisturbed soil samples were collected. Data were analyzed statistically to estimate i) the recovery of vegetation, and ii) the influence of grazing and vehicle traffic on vegetation loss, and iii) impacts on soil and water quality. In areas with less intense traffic, the difference in vegetation coverage in and out the exclusions is 22% (± 11.4%); in areas with more intense traffic this difference is 16% (± 16%). Height of vegetation, in the less intense traffic areas, ranges from 6.25 cm (± 2.8) to 13.32 cm (± 6.3). With higher traffic it varies between 6.9 cm (± 3.1) and 13.6 cm (± 5.4). Biomass varies between 0.06 kg DM/m2 to 0.57 kg DM/m2 depending on botanical composition and date. After water circulates through the wetlands its content of nitrogen increases 37.33% to 0.37 mg N/l and the fecal coliforms 66.67% to 0.67 MPN/100 ml, because of cattle. On the contrary, turbidity decreases 20.67% to 0.21 UNT because sediments are captured by vegetation. We also estimated an avoided erosion rate, ranging between 1.23% and 31.87% (depending on the slope) due to the increase in coverage within the exclusions.

  19. [Determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li

    2014-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil.

  20. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 circumscribes high invasive glioma cells and predicts poor prognosis

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Liu, Sha; Cui, Wei; Shi, Yu; Liu, Qin; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Yu, Shi-Cang; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most aggressive brain tumor with high invasiveness and poor prognosis. More reliable, sensitive and practical biomarkers to reveal glioma high invasiveness remain to be explored for the guidance of therapy. We herein evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in the glioma specimens from 237 patients, and found that ADLH1A1 was frequently overexpressed in the high-grade glioma (WHO grade III-IV) as compared to the low-grade glioma (WHO grade I-II) patients. The tumor cells with ALDH1A1 expression were more abundant in the region between tumor and the borderline of adjacent tissue as compared to the central part of the tumor. ALDH1A1 overexpression was associated with poor differentiation and dismal prognosis. Notably, the overall and disease-free survivals of the patients who had ALDH1A1+ tumor cells sparsely located in the adjacent tissue were much worse. Furthermore, ALDH1A1 expression was correlated with the “classical-like” (CL) subtype as we examined GBM specimens from 72 patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that ALDH1A1 was an independent marker for glioma patients’ outcome. Mechanistically, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ALDH1A1+ cells isolated from either a glioblastoma cell line U251 or primary glioblastoma cells displayed significant invasiveness, clonogenicity, and proliferation as compared to ALDH1A1- cells, due to increased levels of mRNA and protein for matrix metalloproteinase 2, 7 and 9 (MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9). These results indicate that ALDH1A1+ cells contribute to the progression of glioma including invasion, proliferation and poor prognosis, and suggest that targeting ALDH1A1 may have important implications for the treatment of highly invasive glioma. PMID:26101711

  1. Analysis of relation between geomorphologic processes and alpine vegetation in the high mountain landscape (Tatry Mts.)

    Boltiziar, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to present some information about starting of high mountains ecological monitoring and its first partial results. The research is focused on a long-term observation of vegetation changes (species composition, species spatial distribution) in relation to geomorphic processes and geo-relief attributes at meso- and micro-scale of landscape. We established in 2002 for this purpose six permanent plots (4 x 4 m) in the selected localities of High and Belianske Tatras Mts. (Author)

  2. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Quantifying vegetation distribution and structure using high resolution drone-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry

    Zhang, J.; Okin, G.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation is one of the most important driving factors of different ecosystem processes in drylands. The structure of vegetation controls the spatial distribution of moisture and heat in the canopy and the surrounding area. Also, the structure of vegetation influences both airflow and boundary layer resistance above the land surface. Multispectral satellite remote sensing has been widely used to monitor vegetation coverage and its change; however, it can only capture 2D images, which do not contain the vertical information of vegetation. In situ observation uses different methods to measure the structure of vegetation, and their results are accurate; however, these methods are laborious and time-consuming, and susceptible to undersampling in spatial heterogeneity. Drylands are sparsely covered by short plants, which allows the drone fly at a relatively low height to obtain ultra-high resolution images. Structure-from-motion (SfM) is a photogrammetric method that was proved to produce 3D model based on 2D images. Drone-based remote sensing can obtain the multiangle images for one object, which can be used to constructed 3D models of vegetation in drylands. Using these images detected by the drone, the orthomosaics and digital surface model (DSM) can be built. In this study, the drone-based remote sensing was conducted in Jornada Basin, New Mexico, in the spring of 2016 and 2017, and three derived vegetation parameters (i.e., canopy size, bare soil gap size, and plant height) were compared with those obtained with field measurement. The correlation coefficient of canopy size, bare soil gap size, and plant height between drone images and field data are 0.91, 0.96, and 0.84, respectively. The two-year averaged root-mean-square error (RMSE) of canopy size, bare soil gap size, and plant height between drone images and field data are 0.61 m, 1.21 m, and 0.25 cm, respectively. The two-year averaged measure error (ME) of canopy size, bare soil gap size, and plant height

  4. High-latitude steppe vegetation and the mineral nutrition of Pleistocene herbivores

    Davydov, S. P.; Davydova, A.; Makarevich, R.; Loranty, M. M.; Boeskorov, G.

    2014-12-01

    High-latitude steppes were widespread and zonal in the Late Pleistocene and formed a landscape basis for the Mammoth Biome. Now the patches of these steppes survived on steep slopes under southern aspects. These steppes serve as unique information sources about the Late Pleistocene "Mammoth" steppe. Numerous data obtained by palynological, carpological, and DNA analysis of plant remains from feces and stomach contents of Pleistocene herbivore mummies, as well as from buried soils and enclosing deposits show that they are similar to modern steppe plant assemblage in taxa composition. Plant's nutrient concentrations are of fundamental importance across Pleistocene grass-rich ecosystems because of their role in the support of large herbivores. The average weight of an adult mammoth skeleton (about 0.5 tons) and of a woolly rhinoceros (about 0.2 tons) clearly suggests this. Detailed studies on fossil bone remains showed mineral deficiency in large Pleistocene herbivores. A three-year study of ash and mineral contents of two types of relict steppe vegetation at the Kolyma Lowland, Arctic Siberia has been carried out. Nowadays refugia of similar vegetation are located not far (1 - 15km) from the Yedoma permafrost outcrops were abundant fossil remains are found. Dominant species of the steppe vegetation were sampled. Preliminary studies indicate that the ash-content varied 1.5-2 times in speceies of steppe herbs. The Ca, P, Mg, K element contents was higher for most steppe species than in the local herbaceous vegetation, especially in Ca and P. One of the most important elements of the mineral nutrition, the phosphorus, was always found in higher concentrations in the steppe vegetation than in plants of recently dominant landscapes of the study area. It should be noted that the mineral nutrient content of the modern steppe vegetation of Siberian Arctic is comparable to that of the recent zonal steppe of Transbaikal Region. This study supports the hypothesis that

  5. Transitions in high-Arctic vegetation growth patterns and ecosystem productivity tracked with automated cameras from 2000 to 2013

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Pedersen, Stine Højlund

    2017-01-01

    Climate-induced changes in vegetation phenology at northern latitudes are still poorly understood. Continued monitoring and research are therefore needed to improve the understanding of abiotic drivers. Here we used 14 years of time lapse imagery and climate data from high-Arctic Northeast...... days, resulting in an unchanged growing season length. Vegetation greenness, derived from the imagery, was correlated to primary productivity, showing that the imagery holds valuable information on vegetation productivity....

  6. Who cites who in the invasion zoo: insights from an analysis of the most highly cited papers in invasion ecology

    Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2006), s. 437-468 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : citation analysis * biological invasions * Web of Science Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.119, year: 2006

  7. Influence of High-Pressure Processing on the Profile of Polyglutamyl 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate in Selected Vegetables

    Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M.; Somerville, Jeremy; Balasubramaniam, V. M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In plants, folate occurs predominantly as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) polyglutamyl forms. Differences in stability and bioavailability of food folate compared to synthetic folic acid have been attributed to the presence of the polyglutamyl chain. High-pressure processing (HPP) was tested for whether it might shorten polyglutamyl chains of 5MTHF species in fresh vegetables by enabling action of native γ-glutamylhydrolase (GGH). A validated ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method using stable isotope as internal standard was applied for characterizing 5MTHF polyglutamyl profiles. HPP conditions included 300, 450, and 600 MPa at 30 °C for 0 or 5 min, and vegetables were vacuum-packed before treatment. Investigated vegetables included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), baby carrots (Daucus carota), and carrot greens (D. carota). HPP treatment caused conversion of polyglutamyl 5MTHF species to short-chain and monoglutamyl forms. Maximal conversion of polyglutamyl folate to monoglutamyl folate occurred at the highest pressure/time combination investigated, 600 MPa/30 °C/5 min. Under this condition, cauliflower monoglutamyl folate increased nearly 4-fold, diglutamyl folate 32-fold, and triglutamyl folate 8-fold; carrot monoglutamyl increased 23-fold and diglutamyl 32-fold; and carrot greens monoglutamyl increased 2.5-fold and the diglutamyl form 19-fold. Although some folate degradation was observed at certain intermediate HPP conditions, total 5MTHF folate was largely preserved at 600 MPa/5 min. Thus, HPP of raw vegetables is a feasible strategy for enhancing vegetable monoglutamate 5MTHF. PMID:21770413

  8. Optimal Treatment for Intermediate- and High-Risk, Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    A.P.M. van der Meijden

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to clinical and pathological factors the prognosis of a patient with non-muscle invasive bladder tumors can be assessed. The prognosis is determined by the likelihood of recurrence(30-70% and/or progression to muscle invasive bladder cancer(1-15%.Trans urethral resection of bladder tumors remains the initial therapy but adjuvant intravesical instillations are necessary.All patients benefit from a single immediate post operative instillation with a chemotherapeutic agent and for low risk tumors this is the optimal therapy.Patients with intermediate and high risk tumors need more intravesical chemo-or immunotherapy. Chemotherapy reduces recurrences but not progression. Intravesical immunotherapy(BCG prevents or delays progression. Patients at high risk for progression may need upfront cystectomy.

  9. [Co-composting high moisture vegetable waste and flower waste in a sequential fed operation].

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-11-01

    Co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes (celery and cabbage) and flower wastes (carnation) were studied in a sequential fed bed. The preliminary materials of composting were celery and carnation wastes. The sequential fed materials of composting were cabbage wastes and were fed every 4 days. Moisture content of mixture materials was between 60% and 70%. Composting was done in an aerobic static bed of composting based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation. Aeration was ended when temperature of the pile was about 40 degrees C. Changes of composting of temperature, aeration rate, water content, organic matter, ash, pH, volume, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N were studied. Results show that co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes and flower wastes, in a sequential fed aerobic static bed based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation, can stabilize organic matter and removal water rapidly. The sequential fed operation are effective to overcome the difficult which traditional composting cannot applied successfully where high moisture vegetable wastes in more excess of flower wastes, such as Dianchi coastal.

  10. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  11. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  12. Late glacial vegetation and climate changes in the high mountains of Bulgaria (Southeast Europe)

    Bozilova, E.D.; Tonkov, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Late glacial vegetation history in the high mountains of Southern Bulgaria (Rila, Pirin, Western Rhodopes) is reconstructed by means of pollen analysis, plant macrofossils and radiocarbon dating of sediments from lakes and peat-bogs located between 1300 and 2200 m a.s.l. The vegetation response to the climate fluctuations after 13000 14 C yrs. BP in the Rila Mountains is bound for the first time to a detailed chronological framework. Two stadial and one interstadial phases are delimited analogous with the Oldest Dryas-Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas cycle for Western Europe. During the stadials mountain-steppe vegetation composed of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae and other cold-resistant herbs dominated at high elevation with sparse stands of Pinus, Betula, and shrubland of Juniperus and Ephedra. The climate improvement in the interstadial resulted in the initial spread of deciduous and coniferous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Corylus, Carpinus, Abies, Picea) from their local refugia below 1000 m. The palaeoecological record from the climate deterioration during the Younger Dryas is documented in thin sections of the cores investigated. (author)

  13. Chromosomal imbalance in the progression of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Zieger, Karsten; Wiuf, Carsten; Jensen, Klaus Møller-Ernst; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms with invasion of the lamina propria (stage T1) or high grade of dysplasia are at 'high risk' of progression to life-threatening cancer. However, the individual course is difficult to predict. Chromosomal instability (CI) is associated with high tumor stage and grade, and possibly with the risk of progression. To investigate the relationship between CI and subsequent disease progression, we performed a case-control-study of 125 patients with 'high-risk' non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms, 67 with later disease progression, and 58 with no progression. Selection criteria were conservative (non-radical) resections and full prospective clinical follow-up (> 5 years). We investigated primary lesions in 59, and recurrent lesions in 66 cases. We used Affymetrix GeneChip ® Mapping 10 K and 50 K SNP microarrays to evaluate genome wide chromosomal imbalance (loss-of-heterozygosity and DNA copy number changes) in 48 representative tumors. DNA copy number changes of 15 key instability regions were further investigated using QPCR in 101 tumors (including 25 tumors also analysed on 50 K SNP microarrays). Chromosomal instability did not predict any higher risk of subsequent progression. Stage T1 and high-grade tumors had generally more unstable genomes than tumors of lower stage and grade (mostly non-primary tumors following a 'high-risk' tumor). However, about 25% of the 'high-risk' tumors had very few alterations. This was independent of subsequent progression. Recurrent lesions represent underlying field disease. A separate analysis of these lesions did neither reflect any difference in the risk of progression. Of specific chromosomal alterations, a possible association between loss of chromosome 8p11 and the risk of progression was found. However, the predictive value was limited by the heterogeneity of the changes. Chromosomal instability (CI) was associated with 'high risk' tumors

  14. High-performance liquid chromatography for determination of α-tocopherol in vegetables

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the determination of α-tocopherol in vegetables is described. The procedure consists of the following steps: saponification, extraction, silica-column clean-up, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Elution time for D, L-α-tocopherol was 9.0 min using a Zorbax Sil (250 x 4.6 mm column and an isocratic mobile phase of hexane-methanol (99.3 + 0.7, with a flow rate of 1 ml/min, and detection at 292 nm using a variable UV detector. The average recovery of α-tocopherol was 91.2%, and the minimum detectable amount was 0.1 mg/100 g of fresh vegetable tissue. This method is comparable to gas-chromatographic determination of α-tocopherol, but has fewer analytical steps and gives more reproducible results.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of a Highly Diverse Vegetable Multi-Cropping System in Fengqiu County, China

    Li Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity usually leads to greater sustainability in production practices. To understand the environmental implications of the development of village-level multi-cropping in rural China, we compared the environmental impact of a highly diverse vegetable multi-cropping system to a conventional wheat/maize rotation system based on the method of life cycle assessment (LCA. Using household level cultivation data, this study examined the gate-to-gate environmental impacts of on-site cultivation practices relating to the production of 10,000 nutrient equivalent units. Results show that vegetable multi-cropping resulted in decreased average land requirement, and diesel, water and electricity usage by 69.8%, 62.2%, 71.7%, and 63.4%, respectively, while average nitrogen (Total N, phosphorus (P2O5, and potassium (K2O usage in vegetable multi-cropping systems decreased by 16.3%, 42.1%, and 75.8%, respectively. Additional corresponding effects led to a decrease in the total global warming, eutrophication, and acidification potentials from external inputs by 21.6%, 16.7%, and 16.2% of the entire system, respectively. Moreover, the midpoint human toxicity potential from pesticide usage of the vegetable multi-cropping system was lower than that of the conventional system. However, the midpoint eco-toxicity potential from pesticide usage was higher due to certain highly toxic substances, and both human and eco-toxicity potentials from heavy metals were all higher by a few orders of magnitudes. Thus, to mitigate these detrimental consequences, some related measures are proposed for sustainable practices in the future implementation of multi-cropping systems.

  16. Comparative Outer Membrane Protein Analysis of High and Low-Invasive Strains of Cronobacter malonaticus

    Maha A. Aldubyan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter are an important group of foodborne pathogens that has been linked to life-threatening infections in both infants and adults. The major infections associated with Cronobacter species are neonatal meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and septicaemia. There are seven species in the Cronobacter genus, of which only three are of clinical importance; Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter malonaticus, and Cronobacter turicensis. To date most studies have focussed on C. sakazakii as it is the major species associated with neonatal infections. However, recently C. malonaticus, in particular sequence type 7 (ST7, has been noted as being prevalent in adult infections and therefore warranting further investigation. In this study, eight strains of C. malonaticus ST7, that had been isolated from a wide range of sources and varied in their in vitro virulence, were chosen for proteomic analysis of their outer membrane proteins (OMPs. One-dimensional gel analysis revealed a ~29 kDa size band that was only present in the highly invasive strains. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis identified several peptides that matched the flagellin protein. The presence of flagellin protein was confirmed in 2D gel spot. Mass spectrometry analysis of total OMPs revealed that the four highly invasive C. malonaticus strains expressed the main flagellum proteins that were absent from the four low invasive strains. These were the flagellar hook protein FlgE, flagellar hook-associated protein 1, flagellar hook-associated protein, flagellin, and flagellar hook-filament junction protein FlgL. This data indicates that C. malonaticus flagellar proteins may have an important role in the organism's invasion properties.

  17. Highly effective ionic liquids for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils

    Fathy A. Yassin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As conventional energy sources deplete, the need for developing alternative energy resources which are environment friendly becomes more imperative. Vegetable oils are attracting increased interest in this purpose. The methanolysis of vegetable oil to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e., biodiesel fuel was catalyzed by commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The imidazolium chloride ionic liquid was frequently chosen for the synthesis of biodiesel. The dual-functionalized’ ionic liquid is prepared by a direct combination reaction between imidazolium cation and various metal chlorides such as CoCl2, CuCl2, NiCl2, FeCl3 and AlCl3. Imidazolium tetrachloroferrate was proved to be a selective catalyst for the methanolysis reaction at a yield of 97% when used at 1:10, catalyst: oil ratio for 8 h at 55 °C. Operational simplicity, reusability of the used catalyst for 8 times at least, high yields and no saponification are the key features of this methodology. The dynamic viscosity and density of the upgraded vegetable oil decreased from 32.1 cP and 0.9227 g/cm3 to 10.2 cP and 0.9044 g/cm3 respectively, compared to those of the base vegetable oil. The objective of this study was the synthesis and characterization of biodiesel using commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The ionic liquid catalysts were characterized using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TG and UV.

  18. Recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, Karsten; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2007-01-01

    individually contributed to the management of the disease. However, the development of high-throughput techniques for simultaneous assessment of a large number of markers has allowed classification of tumors into clinically relevant molecular subgroups beyond those possible by pathological classification. Here......Bladder cancer is the fifth most common neoplasm in industrialized countries. Due to frequent recurrences of the superficial form of this disease, bladder cancer ranks as one of the most common cancers. Despite the description of a large number of tumor markers for bladder cancers, none have......, we review the recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers....

  19. High School Girl's Adherence to 5-a-Day Serving's Fruits and Vegetables: An Application Theory of Planned Behavior

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basics of healthy eating is five times consumption of fruits and vegetable a day. Given the importance of recognizing effective factors of consuming fruit and vegetable in this group, the present study aimed to investigate high school girl's adherence to five-time serving fruits and vegetables per day in Hamadan based on the theory of planned behavior application. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 400 girl students from high schools of Hamadan recruited with a multistage cluster sampling method. Participants filled out questionnaires including demographic variables, the theory of planned behavior constructs and a fruit and vegetable consumption measure one week later. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-18 by Chi-square, Pearson correlation and Logistic regression. Results: Fruit and vegetable consumption by female students is 3.4 times daily. Among the demographic variables, family size, mother's education, father's occupation, household income, body mass index and type of school had significant associations with fruit and vegetable consumption (P<0.05. Behavioral intention predicted 35% of the variation in daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Moreover, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and attitude were able to predict 32% of behavioral intention. Conclusion: Fruit and vegetable consumption in female students is inadequate. The theory of planned behavior may be a useful framework to design a 5-A-Day intervention for female students.

  20. High expression of PTBP1 promote invasion of colorectal cancer by alternative splicing of cortactin.

    Wang, Zhi-Na; Liu, Dan; Yin, Bin; Ju, Wen-Yi; Qiu, Hui-Zhong; Xiao, Yi; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Peng, Xiao-Zhong; Lu, Chong-Mei

    2017-05-30

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) involving in almost all steps of mRNA regulation including alternative splicing metabolism during tumorigenesis due to its RNA-binding activity. Initially, we found that high expressed PTBP1 and poor prognosis was interrelated in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with stages II and III CRC, which widely different in prognosis and treatment, by immunohistochemistry. PTBP1 was also upregulated in colon cancer cell lines. In our study, knockdown of PTBP1 by siRNA transfection decreased cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. Denovirus shRNA knockdown of PTBP1 inhibited colorectal cancer growth in vivo. Furthermore, PTBP1 regulates alternative splicing of many target genes involving in tumorgenesis in colon cancer cells. We confirmed that the splicing of cortactin exon 11 which was only contained in cortactin isoform-a, as a PTBP1 target. Knockdown of PTBP1 decreased the expression of cortactin isoform-a by exclusion of exon 11. Also the mRNA levels of PTBP1 and cortactin isoform-a were cooperatively expressed in colorectal cancer tissues. Knocking down cortactin isoform-a significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in colorectal cancer cells. Overexpression of cortactin isoform-a could rescue PTBP1-knockdown effect of cell motility. In summary the study revealed that PTBP1 facilitates colorectal cancer migration and invasion activities by inclusion of cortactin exon 11.

  1. Nuclear Kaiso expression is associated with high grade and triple-negative invasive breast cancer.

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available Kaiso is a BTB/POZ transcription factor that is ubiquitously expressed in multiple cell types and functions as a transcriptional repressor and activator. Little is known about Kaiso expression and localization in breast cancer. Here, we have related pathological features and molecular subtypes to Kaiso expression in 477 cases of human invasive breast cancer. Nuclear Kaiso was predominantly found in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC (p = 0.007, while cytoplasmic Kaiso expression was linked to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC (p = 0.006. Although cytoplasmic Kaiso did not correlate to clinicopathological features, we found a significant correlation between nuclear Kaiso, high histological grade (p = 0.023, ERα negativity (p = 0.001, and the HER2-driven and basal/triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.018. Interestingly, nuclear Kaiso was also abundant in BRCA1-associated breast cancer (p<0.001 and invasive breast cancer overexpressing EGFR (p = 0.019. We observed a correlation between nuclear Kaiso and membrane-localized E-cadherin and p120-catenin (p120 (p<0.01. In contrast, cytoplasmic p120 strongly correlated with loss of E-cadherin and low nuclear Kaiso (p = 0.005. We could confirm these findings in human ILC cells and cell lines derived from conditional mouse models of ILC. Moreover, we present functional data that substantiate a mechanism whereby E-cadherin controls p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent gene repression. In conclusion, our data indicate that nuclear Kaiso is common in clinically aggressive ductal breast cancer, while cytoplasmic Kaiso and a p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent transcriptional repression characterize ILC.

  2. Boron application improves yield of rice cultivars under high temperature stress during vegetative and reproductive stages.

    Shahid, Mohammad; Nayak, Amaresh Kumar; Tripathi, Rahul; Katara, Jawahar Lal; Bihari, Priyanka; Lal, Banwari; Gautam, Priyanka

    2018-04-12

    It is reported that high temperatures (HT) would cause a marked decrease in world rice production. In tropical regions, high temperatures are a constraint to rice production and the most damaging effect is on spikelet sterility. Boron (B) plays a very important role in the cell wall formation, sugar translocation, and reproduction of the rice crop and could play an important role in alleviating high temperature stress. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of B application on high temperature tolerance of rice cultivars in B-deficient soil. The treatments comprised of four boron application treatments viz. control (B0), soil application of 1 kg B ha -1 (B1), soil application of 2 kg B ha -1 (B2), and foliar spray of 0.2% B (Bfs); three rice cultivars viz. Annapurna (HT stress tolerant), Naveen, and Shatabdi (both HT stress susceptible); and three temperature regimes viz. ambient (AT), HT at vegetative stage (HTV), and HT at reproductive stage (HTR). The results revealed that high temperature stress during vegetative or flowering stage reduced grain yield of rice cultivars mainly because of low pollen viability and spikelet fertility. The effects of high temperature on the spikelet fertility and grain filling varied among cultivars and the growth stages of plant when exposed to the high temperature stress. Under high temperature stress, the tolerant cultivar displays higher cell membrane stability, less accumulation of osmolytes, more antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher pollen viability and spikelet fertility than the susceptible cultivars. In the present work, soil application of boron was effective in reducing the negative effects of high temperature both at vegetative and reproductive stages. Application of B results into higher grain yield under both ambient and high temperature condition over control for all the three cultivars; however, more increase was observed for the susceptible cultivar over the tolerant one. The results

  3. Boron application improves yield of rice cultivars under high temperature stress during vegetative and reproductive stages

    Shahid, Mohammad; Nayak, Amaresh Kumar; Tripathi, Rahul; Katara, Jawahar Lal; Bihari, Priyanka; Lal, Banwari; Gautam, Priyanka

    2018-04-01

    It is reported that high temperatures (HT) would cause a marked decrease in world rice production. In tropical regions, high temperatures are a constraint to rice production and the most damaging effect is on spikelet sterility. Boron (B) plays a very important role in the cell wall formation, sugar translocation, and reproduction of the rice crop and could play an important role in alleviating high temperature stress. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of B application on high temperature tolerance of rice cultivars in B-deficient soil. The treatments comprised of four boron application treatments viz. control (B0), soil application of 1 kg B ha-1 (B1), soil application of 2 kg B ha-1 (B2), and foliar spray of 0.2% B (Bfs); three rice cultivars viz. Annapurna (HT stress tolerant), Naveen, and Shatabdi (both HT stress susceptible); and three temperature regimes viz. ambient (AT), HT at vegetative stage (HTV), and HT at reproductive stage (HTR). The results revealed that high temperature stress during vegetative or flowering stage reduced grain yield of rice cultivars mainly because of low pollen viability and spikelet fertility. The effects of high temperature on the spikelet fertility and grain filling varied among cultivars and the growth stages of plant when exposed to the high temperature stress. Under high temperature stress, the tolerant cultivar displays higher cell membrane stability, less accumulation of osmolytes, more antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher pollen viability and spikelet fertility than the susceptible cultivars. In the present work, soil application of boron was effective in reducing the negative effects of high temperature both at vegetative and reproductive stages. Application of B results into higher grain yield under both ambient and high temperature condition over control for all the three cultivars; however, more increase was observed for the susceptible cultivar over the tolerant one. The results suggest

  4. Monitoring of Vegetation Impact Due to Trampling on Cadillac Mountain Summit Using High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Data Sets

    Kim, Min-Kook; Daigle, John J.

    2012-11-01

    Cadillac Mountain—the highest peak along the eastern seaboard of the United States—is a major tourist destination in Acadia National Park, Maine. Managing vegetation impact due to trampling on the Cadillac Mountain summit is extremely challenging because of the large number of visitors and the general open nature of landscape in this fragile subalpine environmental setting. Since 2000, more intensive management strategies—based on placing physical barriers and educational messages for visitors—have been employed to protect threatened vegetation, decrease vegetation impact, and enhance vegetation recovery in the vicinity of the summit loop trail. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the management strategies employed. For this purpose, vegetation cover changes between 2001 and 2007 were detected using multispectral high spatial resolution remote sensing data sets. A normalized difference vegetation index was employed to identify the rates of increase and decrease in the vegetation areas. Three buffering distances (30, 60, and 90 m) from the edges of the trail were used to define multiple spatial extents of the site, and the same spatial extents were employed at a nearby control site that had no visitors. No significant differences were detected between the mean rates of vegetation increase and decrease at the experimental site compared with a nearby control site in the case of a small spatial scale (≤30 m) comparison (in all cases P > 0.05). However, in the medium (≤60 m) and large (≤90 m) spatial scales, the rates of increased vegetation were significantly greater and rates of decreased vegetation significantly lower at the experimental site compared with the control site (in all cases P Management implications are explored in terms of the spatial strategies used to decrease the impact of trampling on vegetation.

  5. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  6. Significant impacts of nutrient enrichment on High Arctic vegetation and soils despite two decades of recovery

    Street, L. E.; Burns, N. R.; Woodin, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    We re-visit a unique field manipulation study in Svalbard to assess the long-term recovery of plant species composition, leaf tissue chemistry and total ecosystem carbon storage from nutrient enrichment. The experiment was established in 1991. The original aim was to quantify the 'critical load' of nitrogen (N) for tundra; that is, the minimum rate of N deposition affecting ecosystem structure and function. Dissolved N was applied to heath vegetation, both alone and in combination with phosphorous (P), during the growing season over three years. The rates of N addition were lower than in most other nutrient manipulation studies, and were designed to represent typical rates of deposition in the Scottish highlands (50 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and maximum deposition rates experienced in the Arctic (10 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Significant changes in shrub cover, the greenness and N content of the moss layer, and the extent of ecosystem N saturation had occurred by the end of the treatment period. After 18 years of recovery without further treatment, we assessed primary productivity using CO2 flux measurements, and the 'greenness' of vegetation using the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index. We made destructive measurements of above- and below-ground carbon and nutrient stocks, quantified species composition and sampled leaf tissue for chemical analysis. Total carbon storage in organic soils and vegetation was c. 40 % lower in the plots treated with 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 compared to controls. Species composition in N treated plots also differed significantly, but there was no clear treatment effect on primary productivity. Where 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 was applied in combination with P (at 5 kg P ha-1 yr-1 ), organic carbon storage was c. 70 % greater than controls, the vegetation was greener, and primary productivity higher. Effects of the treatments were also still clearly apparent in moss tissue nutrient status, even at the lower nitrogen application rate. Our results imply that the effects

  7. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  8. ERBB2 mutations associated with solid variant of high-grade invasive lobular breast carcinomas.

    Deniziaut, Gabrielle; Tille, Jean Christophe; Bidard, François-Clément; Vacher, Sophie; Schnitzler, Anne; Chemlali, Walid; Trémoulet, Laurence; Fuhrmann, Laetitia; Cottu, Paul; Rouzier, Roman; Bièche, Ivan; Vincent-Salomon, Anne

    2016-11-08

    ERBB2 and ERBB3 somatic gain-of-function mutations, which may be targeted by anti-ERBB2 therapies, were reported by high-throughput sequencing studies in 1% and 2% of invasive breast cancers respectively. Our study aims to determine ERBB2 and ERBB3 mutations frequencies in grade 3 and/or ERBB2-positive invasive lobular breast carcinomas (ILC). All the 529 ILC surgically-excised registered at Institut Curie in the years 2005 to 2008 were reviewed. Thirty-nine grade 3 ERBB2-negative ILC and 16 ERBB2-positive ILC were retrieved and subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ERBB2 and ERBB3 activation mutation hotspots (ERBB2: exons 8, 17, 19, 20, 21; ERBB3: exons 3, 6, 7, 8). Among the 39 grade 3 ERBB2-negative ILC, six tumors were found to have at least one detectable ERBB2 activating mutation (incidence rate: 15%, 95%CI [4%-27%]). No ERBB2 mutation was found among the 16 ERBB2-positive ILC. No ERBB3 mutation was found in any of the 55 ILC. ERBB2 mutations were statistically associated with solid ILC features (p=0.01). Survival analyses showed no significant prognostic impact of ERBB2 mutations. Our study demonstrates that high grade ERBB2-negative ILC display a high frequency of ERBB2 mutations, and should be subjected to systematic genetic screening.

  9. River floodplain vegetation classification using multi-temporal high-resolution colour infrared UAV imagery.

    van Iersel, W.K.; Straatsma, M.W.; Addink, E.A.; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate floodplain functioning, monitoring of its vegetation is essential. Although airborne imagery is widely applied for this purpose, classification accuracy (CA) remains low for grassland (< 88%) and herbaceous vegetation (<57%) due to the spectral and structural similarity of these

  10. Non- invasive in vivo analysis of a murine aortic graft using high resolution ultrasound microimaging

    Rowinska, Zuzanna; Zander, Simone; Zernecke, Alma; Jacobs, Michael; Langer, Stephan; Weber, Christian; Merx, Marc W.; Koeppel, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As yet, murine aortic grafts have merely been monitored histopathologically. The aim of our study was to examine how these grafts can be monitored in vivo and non-invasively by using high-resolution ultrasound microimaging to evaluate function and morphology. A further aim was to prove if this in vivo monitoring can be correlated to immunohistological data that indicates graft integrity. Methods: Murine infrarenal aortic isografts were orthotopically transplanted into 14 female mice (C57BL/6-Background) whereas a group of sham-operated animals (n = 10) served as controls. To assess the graft morphology and hemodynamics, we examined the mice over a post-operative period of 8 weeks with a sophisticated ultrasound system (Vevo 770, Visual Sonics). Results: The non-invasive graft monitoring was feasible in all transplanted mice. We could demonstrate a regular post-transplant graft function and morphology, such as anterior/posterior wall displacement and wall thickness. Mild alterations of anterior wall motion dynamics could only be observed at the site of distal graft anastomosis (8 weeks after grafting (transplant vs. sham mice: 0.02 mm ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 mm ± 0.01, p < 0.05). However, the integrity of the entire graft wall could be confirmed by histopathological evaluation of the grafts. Conclusions: With regard to graft patency, function and morphology, high resolution ultrasound microimaging has proven to be a valuable tool for longitudinal, non-invasive, in vivo graft monitoring in this murine aortic transplantation model. Consequently, this experimental animal model provides an excellent basis for molecular and pharmacological studies using genetically engineered mice.

  11. Hydration of vegetable oils for high-grade Diesel fuel components; Hydrierung von Pflanzenoelen zu hochwertigen Dieselkraftstoffkomponenten

    Endisch, M.; Olschar, M.; Kuchling, T. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Balfanz, U. [BP AG, Global Fuels Technology, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The legally regulated admixture of biogenic fuel components for diesel fuels are actually realized in Germany by an admixture of vegetable oil methylester (e.g. from rapeseed oil). The paper describes the hydration of vegetable oils as alternative to this procedure. Infrared and {sup 13}NMR spectroscopy were used to analyse the reaction kinetics for rapeseed, soy been and palm oil hydration. Experimental results of investigations under operational conditions using a continuous test facility and different vegetable oils identified the possibilities of this technology. The technology allows the high-yield production of diesel fuel components with certain numbers higher than average.

  12. Using high-resolution radar images to determine vegetation cover for soil erosion assessments.

    Bargiel, D; Herrmann, S; Jadczyszyn, J

    2013-07-30

    Healthy soils are crucial for human well-being. Because soils are threatened worldwide, politicians recognize the need for soil protection. For example, the European Commission has launched the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which requests the European member states to identify high risk areas for soil degradation. Most states use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess soil erosion risk at the national scale. The USLE includes different factors, one of them is the vegetation cover and management factor (C factor). Modern satellite-based radar sensors now provide highly accurate vegetation cover data, enabling opportunities to improve the accuracy of the C factor. The presented study proves the suitability for C factor determination based on a multi-temporal classification of high-resolution radar images. Further USLE factors were derived from existing data sources (meteorological data, soil maps, digital elevation model) to conduct an USLE-based soil erosion assessment. The resulting map illustrates a qualitative assessment for soil erosion risk within a plot of about 7*12 km in an agricultural region in Poland that is very susceptible to soil erosion processes. A high erosion risk of more than 10 tonnes per ha and year was assessed to occur on 13.6% (646 ha) of the agricultural areas within the investigated plot. Further 7.8% (372 ha) of agricultural land is threaten by a medium risk of 5-10 tonnes per ha and year. Such a spatial information about areas of high or medium soil erosion risk are crucial for the development of strategies for the protection of soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tolerance to High Temperature Extremes in an Invasive Lace Bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), in Subtropical China

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and ada...

  14. [Co-composting of high moisture vegetable waste, flower waste and chicken litter in pilot scale].

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng; Qiu, Xiangyang

    2003-03-01

    Co-composting of different mixture made of vegetable waste, flower waste and chicken litter were studied. The first stage of composting was aerobic static bed based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation. The second stage was window composting. At first stage, the pile was insulated and temperatures of at least 55 degrees C were maintained for a minimum of 3 days. The highest temperature was up to 73.3 degrees C. This is enough to kill pathogens. Moisture of pile decreased from 75% to 56% and organic matter was degraded from 65% to 50% during composting. The value of pH was stable at 8. Analysis of maturity and nutrition of compost showed that end-products of composting ware bio-stable and had abundant nutrition. This shows that co-composting of vegetable waste, flower waste and chicken litter can get high quality compost by optimizing composting process during 45 days. Composting can decrease nonpoint resource of organic solid waste by recycling nutrition to soil and improve fertility of soil.

  15. [Co-composting of high-moisture vegetable waste and flower waste in a batch operation].

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-09-01

    Co-composting of different mixture made of vegetable waste and flower waste were studied. The first stage of composting was aerobic static bed based temperature feedback in a batch operation and control via aeration rate regulation. The second stage was window composting. The total composting period was 45 days. About the station of half of celery and half of carnation, the pile was insulated and temperatures of at least 55 degrees C were maintained for about 11 days. The highest temperature was up to 65 degrees C. This is enough to kill pathogens. Moisture of pile decreased from 64.2% to 46.3% and organic matter was degraded from 74.7% to 55.6% during composting. The value of pH was had stable at 7. Analysis of maturity and nutrition of compost show that end-products of composting were bio-stable and had abundant nutrition. This shows that co-composting of vegetable waste and flower waste can get high quality compost by optimizing composting process during 45 days. Composting can decrease non-point resource of organic solid waste by recycling nutrition to soil and improve fertility of soil.

  16. High carriage of adherent invasive E. coli in wildlife and healthy individuals.

    Rahmouni, Oumaïra; Vignal, Cécile; Titécat, Marie; Foligné, Benoît; Pariente, Benjamin; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Neut, Christel

    2018-01-01

    Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Since AIEC was first described in 1999, despite important progress on its genomic and immune characterizations, some crucial questions remain unanswered, such as whether there exists a natural reservoir, or whether there is asymptomatic carriage. The ECOR collection, including E. coli strains isolated mainly from the gut of healthy humans and animals, constitutes an ideal tool to investigate AIEC prevalence in healthy condition. A total of 61 E. coli strains were examined for characteristics of AIEC. The adhesion, invasion and intramacrophage replication capabilities (AIEC phenotype) of 61 intestinal E. coli strains were determined. The absence of virulence-associated diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (EPEC, ETEC, EIEC, EHEC, DAEC, EAEC), and uropathogenic E. coli was checked. Out of 61 intestinal strains, 13 (21%) exhibit the AIEC phenotype, 7 are from human origin and 6 are from animal origin. Prevalence of AIEC strains is about 24 and 19% in healthy humans and animals respectively. These strains are highly genetically diverse as they are distributed among the main described phylogroups. Among E. coli strains from the ECOR collection, we also detected strains able to detach I-407 cells. Our study described for the first time AIEC strains isolated from the feces of healthy humans and animals.

  17. Riboflavin at high doses enhances lung cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration.

    Yang, Hui-ting; Chao, Pei-chun; Yin, Mei-chin

    2013-02-01

    The influence of riboflavin (vitamin B(2) ) upon growth, invasion, and migration in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines was evaluated. Riboflavin at 1, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 μmol/L was added into A549, H3255, or Calu-6 cells. The effects of this compound upon level and/or expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-2, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were examined. Results showed that riboflavin at test doses did not affect the level of ROS and glutathione. Riboflavin at 200 and 400 μmol/L significantly enhanced cell growth in test lung cancer cell lines, and at 400 μmol/L significantly increased the release of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and vascular endothelial growth factor. This agent at 200 and 400 μmol/L also upregulated protein production of ICAM-1, fibronectin, MMP-9, MMP-2, NF-κB p50, p-p38 MAPK, and FAK; and at 400 μmol/L enhanced invasion and migration in test cell lines. These findings suggested that riboflavin at high doses might promote lung cancer progression. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Utility and reliability of non-invasive muscle function tests in high-fat-fed mice.

    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; McLennan, Susan V; Ban, Linda A; Morsch, Marco; Twigg, Stephen M; Tam, Charmaine S

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-invasive muscle function tests have not been validated for use in the study of muscle performance in high-fat-fed mice. What is the main finding and its importance? This study shows that grip strength, hang wire and four-limb hanging tests are able to discriminate the muscle performance between chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice at different time points, with grip strength being reliable after 5, 10 and 20 weeks of dietary intervention. Non-invasive tests are commonly used for assessing muscle function in animal models. The value of these tests in obesity, a condition where muscle strength is reduced, is unclear. We investigated the utility of three non-invasive muscle function tests, namely grip strength (GS), hang wire (HW) and four-limb hanging (FLH), in C57BL/6 mice fed chow (chow group, n = 48) or a high-fat diet (HFD group, n = 48) for 20 weeks. Muscle function tests were performed at 5, 10 and 20 weeks. After 10 and 20 weeks, HFD mice had significantly reduced GS (in newtons; mean ± SD: 10 weeks chow, 1.89 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.79 ± 0.1; 20 weeks chow, 1.99 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.75 ± 0.1), FLH [in seconds per gram body weight; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 2552 (1337-4964) and HFD, 1230 (749-1994); 20 weeks chow, 2048 (765-3864) and HFD, 1036 (717-1855)] and HW reaches [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 4 (2-5) and HFD, 2 (1-3); 20 weeks chow, 3 (1-5) and HFD, 1 (0-2)] and higher falls [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 0 (0-2) and HFD, 3 (1-7); 20 weeks chow, 1 (0-4) and HFD, 8 (5-10)]. Grip strength was reliable in both dietary groups [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.5-0.8; P tests are valuable and reliable tools for assessment of muscle strength and function in high-fat-fed mice. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  19. Estimation of thorium intake due to consumption of vegetables by inhabitants of high background radiation area by INAA

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Suma Nair; Prabhath, R.K.; Madhu Nair; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the thorium concentration in locally grown vegetables in high background radiation area (HBRA) of southern coastal regions of India. Locally grown vegetables were collected from HBRA of southern coastal regions of India. Thorium concentration was quantified using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at CIRUS reactor and counted using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. The annual intake of thorium was evaluated using the consumption data provided by National Nutrition Monitoring Board. The daily intake of 232 Th from the four food categories (green leafy vegetables, others vegetables, roots and tubers, and fruits) ranged between 0.27 and 5.352 mBq d -1 . The annual internal dose due to ingestion of thorium from these food categories was 46.8 x 10 -8 for female and 58.6 x 10 -8 Sv y -1 for male. (author)

  20. Vegetation mapping from high-resolution satellite images in the heterogeneous arid environments of Socotra Island (Yemen)

    Malatesta, Luca; Attorre, Fabio; Altobelli, Alfredo; Adeeb, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Michele; Taleb, Nadim M.; Scholte, Paul T.; Vitale, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Socotra Island (Yemen), a global biodiversity hotspot, is characterized by high geomorphological and biological diversity. In this study, we present a high-resolution vegetation map of the island based on combining vegetation analysis and classification with remote sensing. Two different image classification approaches were tested to assess the most accurate one in mapping the vegetation mosaic of Socotra. Spectral signatures of the vegetation classes were obtained through a Gaussian mixture distribution model, and a sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) classification was applied to account for the heterogeneity and the complex spatial pattern of the arid vegetation. This approach was compared to the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) classification. Satellite data were represented by a RapidEye image with 5 m pixel resolution and five spectral bands. Classified vegetation relevés were used to obtain the training and evaluation sets for the main plant communities. Postclassification sorting was performed to adjust the classification through various rule-based operations. Twenty-eight classes were mapped, and SMAP, with an accuracy of 87%, proved to be more effective than ML (accuracy: 66%). The resulting map will represent an important instrument for the elaboration of conservation strategies and the sustainable use of natural resources in the island.

  1. Fibronectin Modulates Cell Adhesion and Signaling to Promote Single Cell Migration of Highly Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Ramos, Grasieli de Oliveira; Bernardi, Lisiane; Lauxen, Isabel; Sant’Ana Filho, Manoel; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is regulated by adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrins and activation of small RhoGTPases, such as RhoA and Rac1, resulting in changes to actomyosin organization. During invasion, epithelial-derived tumor cells switch from laminin-enriched basal membrane to collagen and fibronectin-enriched connective tissue. How this switch affects the tumor migration is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ECM dictates the invasiveness of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). We analyzed the migratory properties of two OSCC lines, a low invasive cell line with high e-cadherin levels (Linv/HE-cad) or a highly invasive cell line with low e-cadherin levels (Hinv/LE-cad), plated on different ECM components. Compared to laminin, fibronectin induced non-directional collective migration and decreased RhoA activity in Linv/HE-cad OSCC. For Hinv/LE-cad OSCC, fibronectin increased Rac1 activity and induced smaller adhesions, resulting in a fast single cell migration in both 2D and 3D environments. Consistent with these observations, human OSCC biopsies exhibited similar changes in cell-ECM adhesion distribution at the invasive front of the tumor, where cells encounter fibronectin. Our results indicate that ECM composition might induce a switch from collective to single cell migration according to tumor invasiveness due to changes in cell-ECM adhesion and the resulting signaling pathways that alter actomyosin organization. PMID:26978651

  2. Fibronectin Modulates Cell Adhesion and Signaling to Promote Single Cell Migration of Highly Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Grasieli de Oliveira Ramos

    Full Text Available Cell migration is regulated by adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM through integrins and activation of small RhoGTPases, such as RhoA and Rac1, resulting in changes to actomyosin organization. During invasion, epithelial-derived tumor cells switch from laminin-enriched basal membrane to collagen and fibronectin-enriched connective tissue. How this switch affects the tumor migration is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ECM dictates the invasiveness of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. We analyzed the migratory properties of two OSCC lines, a low invasive cell line with high e-cadherin levels (Linv/HE-cad or a highly invasive cell line with low e-cadherin levels (Hinv/LE-cad, plated on different ECM components. Compared to laminin, fibronectin induced non-directional collective migration and decreased RhoA activity in Linv/HE-cad OSCC. For Hinv/LE-cad OSCC, fibronectin increased Rac1 activity and induced smaller adhesions, resulting in a fast single cell migration in both 2D and 3D environments. Consistent with these observations, human OSCC biopsies exhibited similar changes in cell-ECM adhesion distribution at the invasive front of the tumor, where cells encounter fibronectin. Our results indicate that ECM composition might induce a switch from collective to single cell migration according to tumor invasiveness due to changes in cell-ECM adhesion and the resulting signaling pathways that alter actomyosin organization.

  3. High mortality of Zostera marina under high temperature regimes but minor effects of the invasive macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Höffle, Hannes; Thomsen, M.S.; Holmer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested for density-dependent effects of the invasive drift macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss on growth and survival of the native eelgrass, Zostera marina L., under different temperature levels. Three weeks laboratory experiments were conducted in Odense......, Denmark, combining three algae densities (control, low 1.9 kg WW m2, high 4.5 kg WW m2) with typical Danish summer temperatures (18 C) and elevated temperatures (21 C and 27 C). There was a significant effect of temperature on shoot survival with on average 68% mortality in the high temperature treatment...... but almost no mortality at the two lower temperatures. The higher mortality was probably caused by high sulphide levels in the sediment pore water (0.6 mmol l1 at 18 C compared to 3.7 mmol l1 at 27 C). Above-ground growth of the surviving shoots was also significantly affected by temperature, with leaf...

  4. Uptake of naturally occurring radioisotopes by vegetation in a region of high radioactivity

    Mahon, D C; Mathewes, R W [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1983-05-01

    The accumulation of four naturally occurring radionuclides of the sup(238)U series, uranium, sup(226)Ra, sup(210)Pb and sup(210)Po, in 15 species of native plants was investigated. Of the plants sampled some accumulated, but none concentrated uranium or sup(226)Ra. Grouseberry (Vaccinium scoparium Leiberg) appeared to concentrate sup(210)Pb and sup(210)Po. There were marked seasonal variations in the accumulation of uranium by grass (Calamagrostis rubescens Buckl.), and of sup(210)Pb and sup(210)Po by grass and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.). High positive correlations between soil and vegetation radionuclide content were found for uranium in fireweed and grouseberry in spring, sup(226)Ra in willow (Salix scouleriana L.) in spring, and uranium in fireweed in summer.

  5. Byssus Structure and Protein Composition in the Highly Invasive Fouling Mussel Limnoperna fortunei

    Shiguo Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling mediated by byssus adhesion in invasive bivalves has become a global environmental problem in aquatic ecosystems, resulting in negative ecological and economic consequences. Previous studies suggested that mechanisms responsible for byssus adhesion largely vary among bivalves, but it is poorly understood in freshwater species. Understanding of byssus structure and protein composition is the prerequisite for revealing these mechanisms. Here, we used multiple methods, including scanning electron microscope, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, transcriptome sequencing, real-time quantitative PCR, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, to investigate structure, and protein composition of byssus in the highly invasive freshwater mussel Limnoperna fortunei. The results indicated that the structure characteristics of adhesive plaque, proximal and distal threads were conducive to byssus adhesion, contributing to the high biofouling capacity of this species. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-α-alanine (Dopa is a major post-transnationally modification in L. fortunei byssus. We identified 16 representative foot proteins with typical repetitive motifs and conserved domains by integrating transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. In these proteins, Lfbp-1, Lffp-2, and Lfbp-3 were specially located in foot tissue and highly expressed in the rapid byssus formation period, suggesting the involvement of these foot proteins in byssus production and adhesion. Multiple metal irons, including Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Al3+, and Fe3+, were abundant in both foot tissue and byssal thread. The heavy metals in these irons may be directly accumulated by L. fortunei from surrounding environments. Nevertheless, some metal ions (e.g., Ca2+ corresponded well with amino acid preferences of L. fortunei foot proteins, suggesting functional roles of these metal ions by interacting with foot proteins in byssus adhesion. Overall, this study provides structural and

  6. Does the globally invasive marine angiosperm, Halophila stipulacea, have high genetic diversity or unique mutations?

    Chiquillo, K.; Campese, L.; Barber, P. H.; Willette, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems, and support a wide diversity of marine life. However, invasive seagrasses like Halophila stipulacea can have pronounced negative impacts on an ecosystem by displacing native seagrasses and changing the community composition of the reef. Endemic to the Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, Halophila stipulacea has become invasive in the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, presumably as a result of the opening of the Suez Canal and international ship traffic. However, it is unclear why this marine angiosperm has become invasive in parts of its range and not others. It is hypothesized that invasive forms may have evolved rapidly in response to natural selection in new and novel environments. Alternatively, genetic variation of introduced populations may be uniquely suited to thrive in regions where it is invasive. In this study, we use RAD next-generation sequencing to screen thousands of SNPs to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation in both native and invasive populations. We test whether genes under selection in the native range are the same as in the invasive range, or whether new genes have arisen with the invasion of each marine basin. The comparison of SNP frequencies unique among basins and environmental variables will aid in predicting new areas of invasion, assisting in improved management strategies to combat this invasive seagrass.

  7. Diversification of Nitrogen Sources in Various Tundra Vegetation Types in the High Arctic.

    Grzegorz Skrzypek

    Full Text Available Low nitrogen availability in the high Arctic represents a major constraint for plant growth, which limits the tundra capacity for carbon retention and determines tundra vegetation types. The limited terrestrial nitrogen (N pool in the tundra is augmented significantly by nesting seabirds, such as the planktivorous Little Auk (Alle alle. Therefore, N delivered by these birds may significantly influence the N cycling in the tundra locally and the carbon budget more globally. Moreover, should these birds experience substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, this will adversely influence the tundra N-budget. Hence, assessment of bird-originated N-input to the tundra is important for understanding biological cycles in polar regions. This study analyzed the stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources in the High Arctic and in numerous plants that access different N-pools in ten tundra vegetation types in an experimental catchment in Hornsund (Svalbard. The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by birds, ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by atmospheric N2-fixation. The stable nitrogen isotope mixing mass balance, in contrast to direct methods that measure actual deposition, indicates the ratio between the actual N-loads acquired by plants from different N-sources. Our results enhance our understanding of the importance of different N-sources in the Arctic tundra and the used methodological approach can be applied elsewhere.

  8. High-flow nasal cannula: transient fashion or new method of non-invasive ventilatory assistance?

    Mosca, F; Colnaghi, M; Agosti, M; Fumagalli, M

    2012-10-01

    Respiratory failure in the premature infants remains a difficult challenge. An alternative to the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) as a non-invasive modality to support respiratory distress in premature infants has been the recent introduction of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) devices in many neonatal units. There has been increased use of HFNC presumably because of anecdotal reports and experience that it is easy to use, and well tolerated by the infants, while experiencing decreased nasal septumerosion. The paucity of evidence regarding its efficacy and safety, would support a caution approach to the use of HFNC. Particular concern has focused on the imprecise regulation and generation of pressure that may occur at higher flows especially in the smallest of infants.

  9. A highly invasive human glioblastoma pre-clinical model for testing therapeutics

    Cao Brian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models greatly facilitate understanding of cancer and importantly, serve pre-clinically for evaluating potential anti-cancer therapies. We developed an invasive orthotopic human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM mouse model that enables real-time tumor ultrasound imaging and pre-clinical evaluation of anti-neoplastic drugs such as 17-(allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (17AAG. Clinically, GBM metastasis rarely happen, but unexpectedly most human GBM tumor cell lines intrinsically possess metastatic potential. We used an experimental lung metastasis assay (ELM to enrich for metastatic cells and three of four commonly used GBM lines were highly metastatic after repeated ELM selection (M2. These GBM-M2 lines grew more aggressively orthotopically and all showed dramatic multifold increases in IL6, IL8, MCP-1 and GM-CSF expression, cytokines and factors that are associated with GBM and poor prognosis. DBM2 cells, which were derived from the DBTRG-05MG cell line were used to test the efficacy of 17AAG for treatment of intracranial tumors. The DMB2 orthotopic xenografts form highly invasive tumors with areas of central necrosis, vascular hyperplasia and intracranial dissemination. In addition, the orthotopic tumors caused osteolysis and the skull opening correlated to the tumor size, permitting the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to evaluate antitumor drug activity. We show that 17AAG significantly inhibits DBM2 tumor growth with significant drug responses in subcutaneous, lung and orthotopic tumor locations. This model has multiple unique features for investigating the pathobiology of intracranial tumor growth and for monitoring systemic and intracranial responses to antitumor agents.

  10. Invasive Salmonella Infections in Areas of High and Low Malaria Transmission Intensity in Tanzania

    Biggs, Holly M.; Lester, Rebecca; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Todd, Jim E.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Philemon, Rune; Amos, Ben; Morrissey, Anne B.; Reyburn, Hugh; Crump, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) differs, and prevalence of these pathogens among children in sub-Saharan Africa may vary in relation to malaria transmission intensity. Methods. We compared the prevalence of bacteremia among febrile pediatric inpatients aged 2 months to 13 years recruited at sites of high and low malaria endemicity in Tanzania. Enrollment at Teule Hospital, the high malaria transmission site, was from June 2006 through May 2007, and at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), the low malaria transmission site, from September 2007 through August 2008. Automated blood culture, malaria microscopy with Giemsa-stained blood films, and human immunodeficiency virus testing were performed. Results. At Teule, 3639 children were enrolled compared to 467 at KCMC. Smear-positive malaria was detected in 2195 of 3639 (60.3%) children at Teule and 11 of 460 (2.4%) at KCMC (P < .001). Bacteremia was present in 336 of 3639 (9.2%) children at Teule and 20 of 463 (4.3%) at KCMC (P < .001). NTS was isolated in 162 of 3639 (4.5%) children at Teule and 1 of 463 (0.2%) at KCMC (P < .001). Salmonella Typhi was isolated from 11 (0.3%) children at Teule and 6 (1.3%) at KCMC (P = .008). With NTS excluded, the prevalence of bacteremia at Teule was 5.0% and at KCMC 4.1% (P = .391). Conclusions. Where malaria transmission was intense, invasive NTS was common and Salmonella Typhi was uncommon, whereas the inverse was observed at a low malaria transmission site. The relationship between these pathogens, the environment, and the host is a compelling area for further research. PMID:24336909

  11. Classification of High-Mountain Vegetation Communities within a Diverse Giant Mountains Ecosystem Using Airborne APEX Hyperspectral Imagery

    Adriana Marcinkowska-Ochtyra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mapping plant communities is a difficult and time consuming endeavor. Methods relying on field surveys deliver high quality data but are usually limited to relatively small areas. In this paper we apply airborne hyperspectral data to vegetation mapping in remote and hard to reach areas. We classified 22 vegetation communities in the Giant Mountains on 3.12-m Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX hyperspectral images, registered in 288 spectral bands (10 September 2012. As the classification algorithm, Support Vector Machines (SVM was used. APEX data were corrected geometrically and atmospherically, and three dimensionality reduction methods were performed to select the best dataset. As reference we used a non-forest vegetation map containing vegetation communities of Polish Karkonosze National Park from 2002, orthophotomap and field surveys data from 2013 to 2014. We obtained the post-classification maps of 22 vegetation communities, lakes and areas without any vegetation. Iterative accuracy assessment repeated 100 times was used to obtain the most objective results for individual communities. The median value of overall accuracy (OA was 84%. Fourteen out of twenty-four classes were classified of more than 80% of producer accuracy (PA and sixteen out of twenty-four of user accuracy (UA. APEX data and SVM with the use of iterative accuracy assessment are useful for the mountain communities classification. This can support both Polish and Czech national parks management by giving the information about diversity of communities in the whole transboundary area, helping with identification especially in changing environment caused by humans.

  12. Influences of N-fixing and non-N-fixing vegetation and invasive fish on water chemistry of Hawaiian anchialine ponds

    B. D. Dudley; Richard MacKenzie; T. S. Sakihara; H. Dulaiova; C. A. Waters; Flint Hughes; R. Ostertag

    2014-01-01

    In coastal waters, it remains unclear how terrestrial invasive species might alter nutrient availability and thus affect bottom-up control of primary production. Anchialine ponds are tidal- and groundwater-fed coastal water bodies without surface connections that provide convenient model systems in which to examine terrestrial to aquatic nutrient flow. To investigate...

  13. Characterization of high molecular weight cadmium species in contaminated vegetable food

    Guenther, K.; Kastenholz, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere 7: Angewandte Physikalische Chemie; Ji, G. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Lebensmittelwissenschaft und Lebensmittelchemie

    2000-10-01

    Spinach and radish grown from seeds were each contaminated with 4 different amounts of cadmium. After a cell breakdown of the eatable parts and centrifugation of the resulting homogenates all supernatants (cytosols) were separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The size-range of the GPC method used was about 20-8000 kDa for globular proteins. The high molecular weight (HMW-Cd-SP, 150-700 kDa) and the low molecular weight Cd species (LMW-Cd-SP, < 150 kDa) in all plant cytosols eluted at about the same retention volume by GPC. The most important Cd binding form in the cytosols of all plants was found to be HMW-Cd-SP. The Cd elution maxima were detected in the range of about 200 kDa. The Cd determinations were performed with ET-AAS by means of matrix modifier. By incubating chosen cytosols with a proteinase before the GPC it was verified that the HMW-Cd-SP in both vegetables are Cd proteins. The molar proportions protein/Cd were about 2-6 in the respective GPC fractions of the HMW-Cd-SP of the highest contaminated plants. The GPC fractions of the HMW-Cd-SP of spinach and radish were further separated by a preparative, native and continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) method. At pH 8 the species were negatively charged, had only a small UV-absorption at 280 nm and showed a very similar elution behavior in all analyzed cytosols. Therefore, we suppose that the HMW-Cd-SP of these two different vegetable foodstuffs have a very similar chemical structure. (orig.)

  14. Coupling legacy geomorphic surface facies to riparian vegetation: Assessing red cedar invasion along the Missouri River downstream of Gavins Point dam, South Dakota

    Greene, Samantha L.; Knox, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Floods increase fluvial complexity by eroding established surfaces and creating new alluvial surfaces. As dams regulate channel flow, fluvial complexity often decreases and the hydro-eco-geomorphology of the riparian habitat changes. Along the Missouri River, flow regulation resulted in channel incision of 1-3 m within the study area and disconnected the pre-dam floodplain from the channel. Evidence of fluvial complexity along the pre-dam Missouri River floodplain can be observed through the diverse depositional environments represented by areas of varying soil texture. This study evaluates the role of flow regulation and depositional environment along the Missouri River in the riparian invasion of red cedar downstream of Gavins Point dam, the final dam on the Missouri River. We determine whether invasion began before or after flow regulation, determine patterns of invasion using Bayesian t-tests, and construct a Bayesian multivariate linear model of invaded surfaces. We surveyed 59 plots from 14 riparian cottonwood stands for tree age, plot composition, plot stem density, and soil texture. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation, but at a much lower density than today. We found 2 out of 565 red cedars established prior to regulation. Our interpretation of depositional environments shows that the coarser, sandy soils reflect higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces that were geomorphically active islands and point bars prior to flow regulation and channel incision. The finer, clayey soils represent lower energy depositional pre-dam surfaces, such as swales or oxbow depressions. When determining patterns of invasion for use in a predictive statistical model, we found that red cedar primarily establishes on the higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces. In addition, as cottonwood age and density decrease, red cedar density tends to increase. Our findings indicate that flow regulation caused hydrogeomorphic changes within the study area that

  15. Evidence for the role of an invasive weed in widespread occurrence of phytoplasmal diseases in diverse vegetable crops: implications from lineage-specific molecular markers

    During the period from 2011 to 2013, several plant diseases repeatedly occurred in vegetable crops grown in Yuanmou County, Yunnan Province, China. Affected plants included cowpea, sword bean, string bean, tomato, lettuce, and water spinach. The diseased plants exhibited symptoms of witches’-broom...

  16. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  17. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  18. Snowmelt in a High Latitude Mountain Catchment: Effect of Vegetation Cover and Elevation

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Essery, R. L.; Ellis, C. R.; Hedstrom, N. R.; Janowicz, R.; Granger, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The energetics and mass balance of snowpacks in the premelt and melt period were compared from three elevation bands in a high latitude mountain catchment, Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon. Elevation is strongly correlated with vegetation cover and in this case the three elevation bands (low, middle, high) correspond to mature spruce forest, dense shrub tundra and sparse tundra (alpine). Measurements of radiation, ground heat flux, snow depth, snowfall, air temperature, wind speed were made on a half-hourly basis at the three elevations for a 10 year period. Sondes provided vertical gradients of air temperature, humidity, wind speed and air pressure. Snow depth and density surveys were conducted monthly. Comparisons of wind speed, air temperature and humidity at three elevations show that the expected elevational gradients in the free atmosphere were slightly enhanced just above the surface canopies, but that the climate at the snow surface was further influenced by complex canopy effects. Premelt snow accumulation was strongly affected by intercepted snow in the forest and blowing snow sublimation in the sparse tundra but not by the small elevational gradients in snowfall. As a result the maximum premelt SWE was found in the mid-elevation shrub tundra and was roughly double that of the sparse tundra or forest. Minimum variability of SWE was observed in the forest and shrub tundra (CV=0.25) while in the sparse tundra variability doubled (CV=0.5). Snowmelt was influenced by differences in premelt accumulation as well as differences in the net energy fluxes to snow. Elevation had a strong effect on the initiation of melt with the forest melt starting on average 16 days before the shrub tundra and 19 days before the sparse tundra. Mean melt rates showed a maximum in middle elevations and increased from 860 kJ/day in the forest to 1460 kJ/day in the sparse tundra and 2730 kJ/day in the shrub tundra. The forest canopy reduced melt while the shrub canopy enhanced it

  19. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    Zhiwei Wang

    Full Text Available The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI product based on turning points (TPs, which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost

  20. Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial.

    Pierce, John P; Natarajan, Loki; Caan, Bette J; Parker, Barbara A; Greenberg, E Robert; Flatt, Shirley W; Rock, Cheryl L; Kealey, Sheila; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Bardwell, Wayne A; Carlson, Robert W; Emond, Jennifer A; Faerber, Susan; Gold, Ellen B; Hajek, Richard A; Hollenbach, Kathryn; Jones, Lovell A; Karanja, Njeri; Madlensky, Lisa; Marshall, James; Newman, Vicky A; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wasserman, Linda; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2007-07-18

    Evidence is lacking that a dietary pattern high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in total fat can influence breast cancer recurrence or survival. To assess whether a major increase in vegetable, fruit, and fiber intake and a decrease in dietary fat intake reduces the risk of recurrent and new primary breast cancer and all-cause mortality among women with previously treated early stage breast cancer. Multi-institutional randomized controlled trial of dietary change in 3088 women previously treated for early stage breast cancer who were 18 to 70 years old at diagnosis. Women were enrolled between 1995 and 2000 and followed up through June 1, 2006. The intervention group (n = 1537) was randomly assigned to receive a telephone counseling program supplemented with cooking classes and newsletters that promoted daily targets of 5 vegetable servings plus 16 oz of vegetable juice; 3 fruit servings; 30 g of fiber; and 15% to 20% of energy intake from fat. The comparison group (n = 1551) was provided with print materials describing the "5-A-Day" dietary guidelines. Invasive breast cancer event (recurrence or new primary) or death from any cause. From comparable dietary patterns at baseline, a conservative imputation analysis showed that the intervention group achieved and maintained the following statistically significant differences vs the comparison group through 4 years: servings of vegetables, +65%; fruit, +25%; fiber, +30%, and energy intake from fat, -13%. Plasma carotenoid concentrations validated changes in fruit and vegetable intake. Throughout the study, women in both groups received similar clinical care. Over the mean 7.3-year follow-up, 256 women in the intervention group (16.7%) vs 262 in the comparison group (16.9%) experienced an invasive breast cancer event (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.14; P = .63), and 155 intervention group women (10.1%) vs 160 comparison group women (10.3%) died (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.91; 95

  1. Quantifying BRDF Effects in Comparing Landsat-7 and AVIRIS Near-Simultaneous Acquisitions for Studies of High Plains Vegetation Cover

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Heidebrecht, K. B.; Gutmann, E. D.; Warner, A. S.; Johnson, E. L.; Lestak, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 sq. km of the High Plains of the central United States are covered by sand dunes and sand sheets deposited during the Holocene. Soil-dating evidence shows that there were at least four periods of dune reactivation during major droughts in the last 10,000 years. The dunes in this region are anchored by vegetation. We have undertaken a study of land-use change in the High Plains from 1985 to the present using Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images to map variation in vegetation cover during wet and dry years. Mapping vegetation cover of less than 20% is important in modeling potential surface reactivation since at this level the vegetation no longer sufficiently shields sandy surfaces from movement by wind. Landsat TM data have both the spatial resolution and temporal coverage to facilitate vegetation cover analysis for model development and verification. However, there is still the question of how accurate TM data are for the measurement of both growing and senescent vegetation in and and semi-arid regions. AVIRIS provides both high spectral resolution as well as high signal-to-noise ratio and can be used to test the accuracy of Landsat TM and ETM+ data. We have analyzed data from AVIRIS flown nearly concurrently with a Landsat 7 overpass. The comparison between an AVIRIS image swath of 11 km width subtending a 30 deg. angle and the same area covered by a 0.8 deg. angle from Landsat required accounting for the BRDF. A normalization technique using the ratio of the reflectances from registered AVIRIS and Landsat data proved superior to the techniques of column averaging on AVIRIS data alone published previously by Kennedy et al. This technique can be applied to aircraft data covering a wider swath angle than AVIRIS to develop BRDF responses for a wide variety of surfaces more efficiently than from ground measurements.

  2. Changes in Arctic vegetation amplify high-latitude warming through the greenhouse effect.

    Swann, Abigail L; Fung, Inez Y; Levis, Samuel; Bonan, Gordon B; Doney, Scott C

    2010-01-26

    Arctic climate is projected to change dramatically in the next 100 years and increases in temperature will likely lead to changes in the distribution and makeup of the Arctic biosphere. A largely deciduous ecosystem has been suggested as a possible landscape for future Arctic vegetation and is seen in paleo-records of warm times in the past. Here we use a global climate model with an interactive terrestrial biosphere to investigate the effects of adding deciduous trees on bare ground at high northern latitudes. We find that the top-of-atmosphere radiative imbalance from enhanced transpiration (associated with the expanded forest cover) is up to 1.5 times larger than the forcing due to albedo change from the forest. Furthermore, the greenhouse warming by additional water vapor melts sea-ice and triggers a positive feedback through changes in ocean albedo and evaporation. Land surface albedo change is considered to be the dominant mechanism by which trees directly modify climate at high-latitudes, but our findings suggest an additional mechanism through transpiration of water vapor and feedbacks from the ocean and sea-ice.

  3. Highly dexterous 2-module soft robot for intra-organ navigation in minimally invasive surgery.

    Abidi, Haider; Gerboni, Giada; Brancadoro, Margherita; Fras, Jan; Diodato, Alessandro; Cianchetti, Matteo; Wurdemann, Helge; Althoefer, Kaspar; Menciassi, Arianna

    2018-02-01

    For some surgical interventions, like the Total Mesorectal Excision (TME), traditional laparoscopes lack the flexibility to safely maneuver and reach difficult surgical targets. This paper answers this need through designing, fabricating and modelling a highly dexterous 2-module soft robot for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A soft robotic approach is proposed that uses flexible fluidic actuators (FFAs) allowing highly dexterous and inherently safe navigation. Dexterity is provided by an optimized design of fluid chambers within the robot modules. Safe physical interaction is ensured by fabricating the entire structure by soft and compliant elastomers, resulting in a squeezable 2-module robot. An inner free lumen/chamber along the central axis serves as a guide of flexible endoscopic tools. A constant curvature based inverse kinematics model is also proposed, providing insight into the robot capabilities. Experimental tests in a surgical scenario using a cadaver model are reported, demonstrating the robot advantages over standard systems in a realistic MIS environment. Simulations and experiments show the efficacy of the proposed soft robot. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The invasive species Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) shows high dynamism in a fragmented landscape of south-central Chile.

    Altamirano, Adison; Cely, Jenny Paola; Etter, Andrés; Miranda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Acevedo, Patricio; Salas, Christian; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Ulex europaeus (gorse) is an invasive shrub deemed as one of the most invasive species in the world. U. europaeus is widely distributed in the south-central area of Chile, which is considered a world hotspot for biodiversity conservation. In addition to its negative effects on the biodiversity of natural ecosystems, U. europaeus is one of the most severe pests for agriculture and forestry. Despite its importance as an invasive species, U. europaeus has been little studied. Although information exists on the potential distribution of the species, the interaction of the invasion process with the spatial dynamic of the landscape and the landscape-scale factors that control the presence or absence of the species is still lacking. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the landscape and how these relate to U. europaeus invasion in south-central Chile. We used supervised classification of satellite images to determine the spatial distribution of the species and other land covers for the years 1986 and 2003, analysing the transitions between the different land covers. We used logistic regression for modelling the increase, decrease and permanence of U. europaeus invasion considering landscape variables. Results showed that the species covers only around 1 % of the study area and showed a 42 % reduction in area for the studied period. However, U. europaeus was the cover type which presented the greatest dynamism in the landscape. We found a strong relationship between changes in land cover and the invasion process, especially connected with forest plantations of exotic species, which promotes the displacement of U. europaeus. The model of gorse cover increase presented the best performance, and the most important predictors were distance to seed source and landscape complexity index. Our model predicted high spread potential of U. europaeus in areas of high conservation value. We conclude that proper management for this invasive species must take into account

  5. Application of High Power Ultrasound in Drying of Fruits and Vegetables

    Werner, Z.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is a sound frequency in the range between 18 and 100 kHz that is above hearing of the human ear. High power ultrasound means application of intensities higher than 1 W cm–2 (usually in the range between I=10–1000Wcm–2. High power and low frequency ultrasound (f = 20 to 100 kHz is considered as “power ultrasound” because its application causes cavitation and is applied in the food industry. High power ultrasound is applied for degassing of liquid food, for induction of oxidation/reduction reactions, for extraction of enzymes and proteins, for inactivation of enzymes and induction of nucleation for crystallization. Ultrasound is anticipating heat transfer; it is used for emulsifying, sterilization, extraction, degassing, filtrating, drying and induction of oxidation. Conventional hot air drying is a very energy- and cost-intensive process. Drying is a simultaneous operation of heat and mass exchange that is followed by phase changes. Application of different pretreatments, like osmotic dehydration, ultrasound and ultrasound assisted osmotic dehydration has shown different effects on fruits and vegetables. When the high intensity acoustic energy is passing through solid material, it causes several fast and successive compressions and rarefactions with speeds that depend on the frequency applied. Thus, material is exposed to a series of exchangeable squeezing and relaxations, very like continuous squeezing and releasing of the sponge. This mechanism known as "rectified diffusion" is very important in acoustic drying and migration of water. Application of ultrasound as a pretreatment has shown great influence on reducing afterward hot air drying thereby reducing total drying time. It is also shown that pretreatment before drying facilitates better mass transfer and water diffusivity than osmotic dehydration. Quality of the product after drying is better because ultrasound pretreatment is applied at room temperature thus reducing

  6. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J, E-mail: pbeck@whrc.org [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  7. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-01-01

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  8. Simulating the Holocene climate evolution at northern high latitudes using a coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean-vegetation model

    Renssen, H.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.; Brovkin, V.; Driesschaert, E.; Wolk, F.

    2005-01-01

    The response of the climate at high northern latitudes to slowly changing external forcings was studied in a 9,000-year long simulation with the coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean-vegetation model ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE. Only long-term changes in insolation and atmospheric CO

  9. Quantifying snow and vegetation interactions in the high arctic based on ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    Gacitúa, G.; Bay, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic in Northeast Greenland. We used ground penetrating radar (GPR) for snow thickness measurements across the Zackenberg valley. Measurements were integrated to the physical conditions that support the vegetation distribution. Descriptive statistics and correlations of the distribution of each...

  10. L-ascorbic acid losses in Kenyan vegetables during cooking as determined by high performance liquid chromatography

    N.M.N. Wekesa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The loss of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA in 14 different cooked local vegetables found in Nairobi markets was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of quantity of water on the loss of L-AA during cooking was studied with cowpea leaves. It was found that more L-AA was lost when larger amount of water was used than when smaller amount was used. The effect of the sharpness of the knife on the loss of L-AA was studied with spinach. It was found that more loss of L-AA occurred when a blunt (edge thickness 0.08 cm knife was used for cutting the vegetables than when a sharp knife (edge thickness 0.04 cm was used during cooking. L-AA was also determined when vegetables were cooked in different size pieces (surface are >1 cm2

  11. Successful treatment of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a bottlenose dolphin with high-dose posaconazole

    Paulien E. Bunskoek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is difficult to manage. We describe a case of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a female bottlenose dolphin, who failed to respond to voriconazole and posaconazole therapy. As intravenous therapy was precluded, high dose posaconazole was initiated aimed at achieving trough levels exceeding 3 mg/l. Posaconazole serum levels of 3–9.5 mg/l were achieved without significant side-effects. Follow-up bronchoscopy and computed tomography showed complete resolution of the lesions.

  12. [Determination of emamectin benzoate residue in vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection].

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Yinliang; Hu, Jiye; Wang, Hongwei; Pan, Canping; Liu, Fengmao

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate residue in cabbage and mushroom using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate. Further cleanup was performed on a propylsulfonic acid solid phase extraction cartridge, followed by the derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride in the presence of N-methylimidazole. The amount of derivatized emamectin benzoate was determined by fluorescence detector after separation by HPLC. The detection limit was 0.10 microg/kg for cabbage and mushroom samples. The recoveries of emamectin benzoate in cabbage and mushroom samples were 78.6%-84.9%. The inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) and intra-day RSD were 2.7%-6.0% and 3.1%-8.9%, respectively, at the fortified levels of 1.0-20.0 microg/kg. The calibration curve of emamectin benzoate in vegetables at the concentration range of 0.002 mg/L to 0.10 mg/L was linear (r = 0.9999).

  13. Effects of nutrients on interaction between the invasive bidens pilosa the parasitic cusuta australis

    Yang, B.; Li, J.; Yan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic plants have been identified as potential biological agents to control invasive plants. Understanding the interaction between invasive plants and their novel natural enemies is important for understanding mechanisms underlying plant invasion success and thus taking measures to control invasion. We conducted a factorial experiment to test the interactive effects of nutrient addition (low vs. high) and parasitism (with vs. without Cuscuta australis) on the growth of the invasive Bidens pilosa. Parasitism significantly decreased leaf, stem and root biomass of the host invasive plant, and nutrient addition increased leaf and stem biomass of the host. A synergistic effect of parasitism and nutrient addition was found on stem and leaf biomass of the hosts. Nutrient addition significantly increased vegetative biomass of the parasitic plant and caused a more deleterious effect on the invasive host. Reproductive biomass of the parasitic plant was significantly positively related with net photosynthetic rate, light-utilisation efficiency and apparent carboxylation efficiency. Vegetative biomass and total biomass of the parasitic plants were significantly positively related with specific leaf area and the relative chlorophyll content of the host plant. The deleterious effect of the parasite on the growth of the host plant was significantly positively correlated with vegetative biomass of the parasitic plant. Nutrient addition increased the negative effect of the parasitic plant on the invasive host, indicating that the parasitic plant is potentially a biological control agent for the invasive plant even in the context of changing global resources. (author)

  14. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  15. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  16. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%, while 77 patients (31.6% reported ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030 and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049 were the independent determinants of eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01 and eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006 were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24, whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ≥3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants

  17. High-latitude tree growth and satellite vegetation indices: Correlations and trends in Russia and Canada (1982-2008)

    Berner, Logan T.; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Lloyd, Andrea H.; Goetz, Scott J.

    2011-03-01

    Vegetation in northern high latitudes affects regional and global climate through energy partitioning and carbon storage. Spaceborne observations of vegetation, largely based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggest decreased productivity during recent decades in many regions of the Eurasian and North American boreal forests. To improve interpretation of NDVI trends over forest regions, we examined the relationship between NDVI from the advanced very high resolution radiometers and tree ring width measurements, a proxy of tree productivity. We collected tree core samples from spruce, pine, and larch at 22 sites in northeast Russia and northwest Canada. Annual growth rings were measured and used to generate site-level ring width index (RWI) chronologies. Correlation analysis was used to assess the association between RWI and summer NDVI from 1982 to 2008, while linear regression was used to examine trends in both measurements. The correlation between NDVI and RWI was highly variable across sites, though consistently positive (r = 0.43, SD = 0.19, n = 27). We observed significant temporal autocorrelation in both NDVI and RWI measurements at sites with evergreen conifers (spruce and pine), though weak autocorrelation at sites with deciduous conifers (larch). No sites exhibited a positive trend in both NDVI and RWI, although five sites showed negative trends in both measurements. While there are technological and physiological limitations to this approach, these findings demonstrate a positive association between NDVI and tree ring measurements, as well as the importance of considering lagged effects when modeling vegetation productivity using satellite data.

  18. Test of a non-invasive bunch shape monitor at the GSI high current LINAC

    Zwicker, Benjamin; Forck, Peter; Kester, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Dorn, Christoph; Kowina, Piotr [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    At the heavy ion LINAC at GSI, a novel scheme of non-invasive Bunch Shape Monitor has been tested with several ion beams at 11.4 MeV/u. Caused by the beam impact on the residual gas, secondary electrons are liberated. These electrons are accelerated by an electrostatic field, transported through a sophisticated electrostatic energy analyzer and an rf-deflector, acting as a time-to-space converter. Finally a MCP detects the electron distribution. For the applied beam settings this Bunch Shape Monitor is able to obtain longitudinal profiles down to 400 ps with a resolution of 50 ps, corresponding to 2 degree of the 36 MHz acceleration frequency. During a long shutdown period for the GSI accelerators in 2013, the monitor underwent a general technical retrofit: Influence of the beam has been significantly reduced, due enhanced electrodes, new apertures have been installed to decrease electron scattering, sophisticated stepping motors will allow better image properties, a MCP shielding plate will prevent high background. Together with these improvements the achievements of the monitor are discussed.

  19. A High-Quality Reference Genome for the Invasive Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis Using a Chicago Library.

    Hoffberg, Sandra L; Troendle, Nicholas J; Glenn, Travis C; Mahmud, Ousman; Louha, Swarnali; Chalopin, Domitille; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Mauricio, Rodney

    2018-04-27

    The western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, is a freshwater poecilid fish native to the southeastern United States but with a global distribution due to widespread human introduction. Gambusia affinis has been used as a model species for a broad range of evolutionary and ecological studies. We sequenced the genome of a male G. affinis to facilitate genetic studies in diverse fields including invasion biology and comparative genetics. We generated Illumina short read data from paired-end libraries and in vitro proximity-ligation libraries. We obtained 54.9× coverage, N50 contig length of 17.6 kb, and N50 scaffold length of 6.65 Mb. Compared to two other species in the Poeciliidae family, G. affinis has slightly fewer genes that have shorter total, exon, and intron length on average. Using a set of universal single-copy orthologs in fish genomes, we found 95.5% of these genes were complete in the G. affinis assembly. The number of transposable elements in the G. affinis assembly is similar to those of closely related species. The high-quality genome sequence and annotations we report will be valuable resources for scientists to map the genetic architecture of traits of interest in this species. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  20. A High-Quality Reference Genome for the Invasive Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis Using a Chicago Library

    Sandra L. Hoffberg

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, is a freshwater poecilid fish native to the southeastern United States but with a global distribution due to widespread human introduction. Gambusia affinis has been used as a model species for a broad range of evolutionary and ecological studies. We sequenced the genome of a male G. affinis to facilitate genetic studies in diverse fields including invasion biology and comparative genetics. We generated Illumina short read data from paired-end libraries and in vitro proximity-ligation libraries. We obtained 54.9× coverage, N50 contig length of 17.6 kb, and N50 scaffold length of 6.65 Mb. Compared to two other species in the Poeciliidae family, G. affinis has slightly fewer genes that have shorter total, exon, and intron length on average. Using a set of universal single-copy orthologs in fish genomes, we found 95.5% of these genes were complete in the G. affinis assembly. The number of transposable elements in the G. affinis assembly is similar to those of closely related species. The high-quality genome sequence and annotations we report will be valuable resources for scientists to map the genetic architecture of traits of interest in this species.

  1. Multiphoton imaging of low grade, high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and intramucosal invasive cancer of esophagus

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is devastating because of its aggressive lymphatic spread and clinical course. It is believed to occur through low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), and intramucosal invasive cancer (IMC) before transforming to submucosal cancer. In particular, these early lesions (LGIN, HGIN and IMC), which involve no lymph node nor distant metastasis, can be cured by endoscopic treatment. Therefore, early identification of these lesions is important so as to offer a curative endoscopic resection, thus slowing down the development of ESCC. In this work, spectral information and morphological features of the normal esophageal mucosa are first studied. Then, the morphological changes of LGIN, HGIN and IMC are described. Lastly, quantitative parameters are also extracted by calculating the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of epithelial cells and the pixel density of collagen in the lamina propria. These results show that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to identify normal esophageal mucosa, LGIN, HGIN and IMC. With the development of multiphoton endoscope systems for in vivo imaging, combined with a laser ablation system, MPM has the potential to provide immediate pathologic diagnosis and curative treatment of ESCC before the transformation to submucosal cancer in the future.

  2. Flow cytometric monitoring of bacterioplankton phenotypic diversity predicts high population-specific feeding rates by invasive dreissenid mussels.

    Props, Ruben; Schmidt, Marian L; Heyse, Jasmine; Vanderploeg, Henry A; Boon, Nico; Denef, Vincent J

    2018-02-01

    Species invasion is an important disturbance to ecosystems worldwide, yet knowledge about the impacts of invasive species on bacterial communities remains sparse. Using a novel approach, we simultaneously detected phenotypic and derived taxonomic change in a natural bacterioplankton community when subjected to feeding pressure by quagga mussels, a widespread aquatic invasive species. We detected a significant decrease in diversity within 1 h of feeding and a total diversity loss of 11.6 ± 4.1% after 3 h. This loss of microbial diversity was caused by the selective removal of high nucleic acid populations (29 ± 5% after 3 h). We were able to track the community diversity at high temporal resolution by calculating phenotypic diversity estimates from flow cytometry (FCM) data of minute amounts of sample. Through parallel FCM and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis of environments spanning a broad diversity range, we showed that the two approaches resulted in highly correlated diversity measures and captured the same seasonal and lake-specific patterns in community composition. Based on our results, we predict that selective feeding by invasive dreissenid mussels directly impacts the microbial component of the carbon cycle, as it may drive bacterioplankton communities toward less diverse and potentially less productive states. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery expands the surgical options for high-risks patients.

    Petracek, Michael R; Leacche, Marzia; Solenkova, Natalia; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ball, Stephen K; Hoff, Steven J; Absi, Tarek S; Balaguer, Jorge M; Byrne, John G

    2011-10-01

    A simplified minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) approach avoiding cross-clamping and cardioplegic myocardial arrest using a small (5 cm) right antero-lateral incision was developed. We hypothesized that, in high-risk patients and in patients with prior sternotomy, this approach would yield superior results compared to those predicted by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) algorithm for standard median sternotomy mitral valve surgery. Five hundred and four consecutive patients (249 males/255 females), median age 65 years (range 20-92 years) underwent MIMVS between 1/06 and 8/09. Median preoperative New York Heart Association function class was 3 (range 1-4). Eighty-two (16%) patients had an ejection fraction ≤35%. Forty-seven (9%) had a STS predicted mortality ≥10%. Under cold fibrillatory arrest (median temperature 28°C) without aortic cross-clamp, mitral valve repair (224/504, 44%) or replacement (280/504, 56%) was performed. Thirty-day mortality for the entire cohort was 2.2% (11/504). In patients with a STS predicted mortality ≥ 10% (range 10%-67%), the observed 30-day mortality was 4% (2/47), lower than the mean STS predicted mortality of 20%. Morbidity in this high-risk group was equally low: 1 of 47 (2%) patients underwent reexploration for bleeding, 1 of 47 (2%) patients suffered a permanent neurologic deficit, none had wound infection. The median length of stay was 8 days (range 1-68 days). This study demonstrates that MIMVS without aortic cross-clamp is reproducible with low mortality and morbidity rates. This approach expands the surgical options for high-risk patients and yields to superior results than the conventional median sternotomy approach.

  4. Non-invasive pre-lens tear film assessment with high-speed videokeratoscopy.

    Llorens-Quintana, Clara; Mousavi, Maryam; Szczesna-Iskander, Dorota; Iskander, D Robert

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of two types of daily contact lenses (delefilcon A and omafilcon A) on the tear film and establish whether it is dependent on pre-corneal tear film characteristics using a new method to analyse high-speed videokeratoscopy recordings, as well as to determine the sensitivity of the method in differentiating between contact lens materials on eye. High-speed videokeratoscopy recordings were analysed using a custom made automated algorithm based on a fractal dimension approach that provides a set of parameters directly related to tear film stability. Fifty-four subjects participated in the study. Baseline measurements, in suppressed and natural blinking conditions, were taken before subjects were fitted with two different daily contact lenses and after four hours of contact lens wear. The method for analysing the stability of the tear film provides alternative parameters to the non-invasive break up time to assess the quality of the pre-corneal and pre-lens tear film. Both contact lenses significantly decreased the quality of the tear film in suppressed and natural blinking conditions (pfilm characteristics were not correlated with the decrease in pre-lens tear film quality. High-speed videokeratoscopy equipped with an automated method to analyse the dynamics of the tear film is able to distinguish between contact lens materials in vivo. Incorporating the assessment of pre-lens tear film to the clinical practice could aid improving contact lens fitting and understand contact lens comfort. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formulation of SrO-MBCUS Agglomerates for Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Vegetable Oil

    Prashant Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana Colla Underground Stem (MBCUS catalyst was treated thermally mixing with 5:1 w/w of Strontium Oxide (SrO and the dynamic sites were reformed. The MBCUS-SrO showed sharper crystalline phases as evidence from XRD and TEM analysis. The composition and morphology were characterized from BET, SEM, EDX thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and XRF analysis. The optimization process for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L oil (JCO having high percentage of free fatty acids was carried out using orthogonal arrays adopting the Taguchi method. The linear equation was obtained from the analysis and subsequent biodiesel production (96% FAME was taken away from the JCO under optimal reaction conditions. The biodiesel so prepared had identical characteristics to that with MBCUS alone, but at a lower temperature (200˚C and internal vapour pressure. Metal leaching was much lower while reusability of the catalyst was enhanced. It was also confirmed that the particle size has little impact upon the conversion efficacy, but the basic active sites are more important. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 19th August 2015; Revised: 8th December 2015; Accepted: 1st January 2016 How to Cite: Kumar, P., Sarma, A.K., Bansal, A., Jha, M.K. (2016. Formulation of SrO-MBCUS Agglomerates for Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Vegetable Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 140-150 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.540.140-150 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.540.140-150

  6. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy

  7. High-resolution mapping of wetland vegetation biomass and distribution with L-band radar in southeastern coastal Louisiana

    Thomas, N. M.; Simard, M.; Byrd, K. B.; Windham-Myers, L.; Castaneda, E.; Twilley, R.; Bevington, A. E.; Christensen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Louisiana coastal wetlands account for approximately one third (37%) of the estuarine wetland vegetation in the conterminous United States, yet the spatial distribution of their extent and aboveground biomass (AGB) is not well defined. This knowledge is critical for the accurate completion of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. We generated high-resolution baselines maps of wetland vegetation extent and biomass at the Atchafalaya and Terrebonne basins in coastal Louisiana using a multi-sensor approach. Optical satellite data was used within an object-oriented machine learning approach to classify the structure of wetland vegetation types, offering increased detail over currently available land cover maps that do not distinguish between wetland vegetation types nor account for non-permanent seasonal changes in extent. We mapped 1871 km2 of wetlands during a period of peak biomass in September 2015 comprised of flooded forested wetlands and leaf, grass and emergent herbaceous marshes. The distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) was mapped using JPL L-band Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). Relationships between time-series radar imagery and field data collected in May 2015 and September 2016 were derived to estimate AGB at the Wax Lake and Atchafalaya deltas. Differences in seasonal biomass estimates reflect the increased AGB in September over May, concurrent with periods of peak biomass and the onset of the vegetation growing season, respectively. This method provides a tractable means of mapping and monitoring biomass of wetland vegetation types with L-band radar, in a region threatened with wetland loss under projections of increasing sea-level rise and terrestrial subsidence. Through this, we demonstrate a method that is able to satisfy the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement requirement for Tier 2/Tier 3 reporting of coastal wetland GHG inventories.

  8. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Multi-source High-resolution Imagery in the Zhangjiang Estuary, China

    Mingyue Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora is one of the most harmful invasive plants in China. Google Earth (GE, as a free software, hosts high-resolution imagery for many areas of the world. To explore the use of GE imagery for monitoring S. alterniflora invasion and developing an understanding of the invasion process of S. alterniflora in the Zhangjiang Estuary, the object-oriented method and visual interpretation were applied to GE, SPOT-5, and Gaofen-1 (GF-1 images. In addition, landscape metrics of S. alterniflora patches adjacent to mangrove forests were calculated and mangrove gaps were recorded by checking whether S. alterniflora exists. The results showed that from 2003–2015, the areal extent of S. alterniflora in the Zhangjiang Estuary increased from 57.94 ha to 116.11 ha, which was mainly converted from mudflats and moved seaward significantly. Analyses of the S. alterniflora expansion patterns in the six subzones indicated that the expansion trends varied with different environmental circumstances and human activities. Land reclamation, mangrove replantation, and mudflat aquaculture caused significant losses of S. alterniflora. The number of invaded gaps increased and S. alterniflora patches adjacent to mangrove forests became much larger and more aggregated during 2003–2015 (the class area increased from 12.13 ha to 49.76 ha and the aggregation index increased from 91.15 to 94.65. We thus concluded that S. alterniflora invasion in the Zhangjiang Estuary had seriously increased and that measures should be taken considering the characteristics shown in different subzones. This study provides an example of applying GE imagery to monitor invasive plants and illustrates that this approach can aid in the development of governmental policies employed to control S. alterniflora invasion.

  9. Assessment of mural invasion depth of gastric carcinoma with high-resolution compound sonographic imaging in vitro

    Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Eun A; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Yun, Ki Jung; Kim, Jeong Ho; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate whether the accuracy of invasion depth assessment in gastric carcinoma in vitro can be improved with high-resolution spatial compound sonographic imaging. In sixteen fresh gastric specimens obtained from patients with preoperatively biopsy proven gastric carcinoma, normal and lesional areas were scanned using conventional and compound imaging technique with a 15-MHz linear transducer. Two radiologists independently compared the sharpness and the contrast of images obtained with two different modes and determined the layers invaded by cancer with consensus. The invasion depths by images were compared with histopathologic results. The sharpness and the contrast in normal and lesional areas were significantly higher in compound imaging (p<0.01) than those in conventional imaging and interobserver agreement was over moderate, with k-value of 0.41 to 0.86. But the accuracy in invasion depth assessment was 68.8% (11/16) on conventional imaging and 75% (12/16) on compound imaging and non different significantly between two modes (p>0305). High-resolution spatial compound sonographic imaging has improved image quality, compared with conventional imaging, but the accuracy of invasion depth assessment in gastric carcinoma was not significantly different.

  10. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of vegetable origin). Retention of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper as well as various bowel function indices were investigated during each dietary period. Neither the HA d...

  11. Evaluation of ALOS PALSAR Data for High-Resolution Mapping of Vegetated Wetlands in Alaska

    Daniel Clewley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest natural source of methane, wetlands play an important role in the carbon cycle. High-resolution maps of wetland type and extent are required to quantify wetland responses to climate change. Mapping northern wetlands is particularly important because of a disproportionate increase in temperatures at higher latitudes. Synthetic aperture radar data from a spaceborne platform can be used to map wetland types and dynamics over large areas. Following from earlier work by Whitcomb et al. (2009 using Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1 data, we applied the “random forests” classification algorithm to variables from L-band ALOS PALSAR data for 2007, topographic data (e.g., slope, elevation and locational information (latitude, longitude to derive a map of vegetated wetlands in Alaska, with a spatial resolution of 50 m. We used the National Wetlands Inventory and National Land Cover Database (for upland areas to select training and validation data and further validated classification results with an independent dataset that we created. A number of improvements were made to the method of Whitcomb et al. (2009: (1 more consistent training data in upland areas; (2 better distribution of training data across all classes by taking a stratified random sample of all available training pixels; and (3 a more efficient implementation, which allowed classification of the entire state as a single entity (rather than in separate tiles, which eliminated discontinuities at tile boundaries. The overall accuracy for discriminating wetland from upland was 95%, and the accuracy at the level of wetland classes was 85%. The total area of wetlands mapped was 0.59 million km2, or 36% of the total land area of the state of Alaska. The map will be made available to download from NASA’s wetland monitoring website.

  12. Investigating population differentiation in a major African agricultural pest: evidence from geometric morphometrics and connectivity suggests high invasion potential.

    Karsten, M; Addison, P; Jansen van Vuuren, B; Terblanche, J S

    2016-07-01

    The distribution, spatial pattern and population dynamics of a species can be influenced by differences in the environment across its range. Spatial variation in climatic conditions can cause local populations to undergo disruptive selection and ultimately result in local adaptation. However, local adaptation can be constrained by gene flow and may favour resident individuals over migrants-both are factors critical to the assessment of invasion potential. The Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) is a major agricultural pest in Africa with a history of island invasions, although its range is largely restricted to south east Africa. Across Africa, C. rosa is genetically structured into two clusters (R1 and R2), with these clusters occurring sympatrically in the north of South Africa. The spatial distribution of these genotypic clusters remains unexamined despite their importance for understanding the pest's invasion potential. Here, C. rosa, sampled from 22 South African locations, were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and assessed morphologically using geometric morphometric wing shape analyses to investigate patterns of population structure and determine connectedness of pest-occupied sites. Our results show little to no intraspecific (population) differentiation, high population connectivity, high effective population sizes and only one morphological type (R2) within South Africa. The absence of the R1 morphotype at sites where it was previously found may be a consequence of differences in thermal niches of the two morphotypes. Overall, our results suggest high invasion potential of this species, that area-wide pest management should be undertaken on a country-wide scale, and that border control is critical to preventing further invasions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Changes in composition, ecology and structure of high-mountain vegetation: a re-visitation study over 42 years.

    Evangelista, Alberto; Frate, Ludovico; Carranza, Maria Laura; Attorre, Fabio; Pelino, Giovanni; Stanisci, Angela

    2016-01-27

    High-mountain ecosystems are increasingly threatened by climate change, causing biodiversity loss, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, very few detailed studies have focussed on plant biodiversity in the high mountains of the Mediterranean. In this study, we investigated the long-term changes that have occurred in the composition, structure and ecology of high-mountain vegetation in the central Apennines (Majella) over the last 42 years. We performed a re-visitation study, using historical and newly collected vegetation data to explore which ecological and structural features have been the most successful in coping with climatic changes. Vegetation changes were analysed by comparing geo-referenced phytosociological relevés collected in high-mountain habitats (dolines, gentle slopes and ridges) on the Majella massif in 1972 and in 2014. Composition analysis was performed by detrended correspondence analysis, followed by an analysis of similarities for statistical significance assessment and by similarity percentage procedure (SIMPER) for identifying which species indicate temporal changes. Changes in ecological and structural indicators were analysed by a permutational multivariate analysis of variance, followed by a post hoc comparison. Over the last 42 years, clear floristic changes and significant ecological and structural variations occurred. We observed a significant increase in the thermophilic and mesonitrophilic plant species and an increment in the frequencies of hemicryptophytes. This re-visitation study in the Apennines agrees with observations in other alpine ecosystems, providing new insights for a better understanding of the effects of global change on Mediterranean high-mountain biodiversity. The observed changes in floristic composition, the thermophilization process and the shift towards a more nutrient-demanding vegetation are likely attributable to the combined effect of higher temperatures and the increase in soil nutrients

  14. Causes of spring vegetation growth trends in the northern mid–high latitudes from 1982 to 2004

    Mao Jiafu; Shi Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Piao Shilong; Wang Xuhui

    2012-01-01

    The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) is applied to explore the spatial–temporal patterns of spring (April–May) vegetation growth trends over the northern mid–high latitudes (NMH) (>25°N) between 1982 and 2004. During the spring season through the 23 yr period, both the satellite-derived and simulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomalies show a statistically significant correlation and an overall greening trend within the study area. Consistently with the observed NDVI–temperature relation, the CLM4 NDVI shows a significant positive association with the spring temperature anomaly for the NMH, North America and Eurasia. Large study areas experience temperature discontinuity associated with contrasting NDVI trends. Before and after the turning point (TP) of the temperature trends, climatic variability plays a dominant role, while the other environmental factors exert minor effects on the NDVI tendencies. Simulated vegetation growth is broadly stimulated by the increasing atmospheric CO 2 . Trends show that nitrogen deposition increases NDVI mostly in southeastern China, and decreases NDVI mainly in western Russia after the temperature TP. Furthermore, land use-induced NDVI trends vary roughly with the respective changes in land management practices (crop areas and forest coverage). Our results highlight how non-climatic factors mitigate or exacerbate the impact of temperature on spring vegetation growth, particularly across regions with intensive human activity. (letter)

  15. Causes of spring vegetation greenness trends in the northern mid-high latitudes from 1982 to 2004

    Mao, Jiafu [ORNL; Shi, Xiaoying [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Shilong, Dr. Piao [Peking University; Xuhui, Dr. Wang [Peking University

    2012-01-01

    The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) is applied to explore the spatial temporal patterns of spring (April May) vegetation growth trends over the northern mid high latitudes (NMH) (>25 N) between 1982 and 2004. During the spring season through the 23 yr period, both the satellite-derived and simulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomalies show a statistically significant correlation and an overall greening trend within the study area. Consistently with the observed NDVI temperature relation, the CLM4 NDVI shows a significant positive association with the spring temperature anomaly for the NMH, North America and Eurasia. Large study areas experience temperature discontinuity associated with contrasting NDVI trends. Before and after the turning point (TP) of the temperature trends, climatic variability plays a dominant role, while the other environmental factors exert minor effects on the NDVI tendencies. Simulated vegetation growth is broadly stimulated by the increasing atmospheric CO2. Trends show that nitrogen deposition increases NDVI mostly in southeastern China, and decreases NDVI mainly in western Russia after the temperature TP. Furthermore, land use-induced NDVI trends vary roughly with the respective changes in land management practices (crop areas and forest coverage). Our results highlight how non-climatic factors mitigate or exacerbate the impact of temperature on spring vegetation growth, particularly across regions with intensive human activity.

  16. School-level factors associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption among students in California middle and high schools.

    Gosliner, Wendi

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. This cross-sectional study included 5439 seventh- and ninth-grade students from 31 schools in California in 2010. Multilevel regression models estimated whether the odds of consuming fruits or vegetables at school among students eating the school lunch were associated with the length of the lunch period, quality/variety of produce options, or other factors. A longer lunch period was associated with increased odds of a student eating fruits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40) and vegetables (OR = 1.54) at school. Better fruit quality increased the odds of a student consuming fruit (OR = 1.44). Including a salad bar and involving students in food service decisions increased a student's odds of consuming vegetables (OR = 1.48 and OR = 1.34, respectively). This study suggests that institutional factors in schools are positively associated with middle and high school students' consumption of produce items at school. Additional efforts to structure school meal environments to enhance students' consumption of produce items can benefit students' nutrition and health. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  17. A methodological reappraisal of non invasive high voltage electrical stimulation of lumbosacral nerve roots.

    Troni, Walter; Di Sapio, Alessia; Berra, Eliana; Duca, Sergio; Merola, Aristide; Sperli, Francesca; Bertolotto, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    To describe a neurophysiological method to locate the optimal stimulation site (OSS) over the vertebral column, customized to the individual subject, to achieve maximal activation of lumbosacral roots by means of non-invasive high voltage electrical stimulation (HVES). OSS was located in 30 volunteers by testing different stimulation points of a surface multi-electrode array placed over the dorso-lumbar junction of the vertebral column. The dorso-ventral stimulating montage was used (Troni et al., 1996). Motor responses to root stimulation (rCMAPs) were bilaterally recorded from Vastus Medialis (VM), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Soleus (SL) and Flexor Hallucis Brevis (FHB) muscles. The direct nature of rCMAPs was tested by delivering two maximal stimuli 50 ms apart. Except for a few subjects with large girth, maximal rCMAPs could be obtained from all muscles with a stimulating current intensity up to 550 V (1050 mA). Maximal double HVES excluded any reflex component in the recorded rCMAPs. The procedure was well tolerated and no side effects were observed. A single maximal electric shock delivered at the proper vertebral level by means of the dorso-ventral montage is able to safely achieve synchronous, bilateral maximal activation of several roots, from L3 to S1. Maximal activation of lumbosacral roots at their origin, unattainable with magnetic stimulation, is the essential requirement for direct detection of proximal nerve conduction slowing and block in lower limbs. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High mortality of Zostera marina under high temperature regimes but minor effects of the invasive macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Höffle, H.; Thomsen, M. S.; Holmer, M.

    2011-03-01

    The present study tested for density-dependent effects of the invasive drift macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss on growth and survival of the native eelgrass, Zostera marina L., under different temperature levels. Three weeks laboratory experiments were conducted in Odense, Denmark, combining three algae densities (control, low 1.9 kg WW m -2, high 4.5 kg WW m -2) with typical Danish summer temperatures (18 °C) and elevated temperatures (21 °C and 27 °C). There was a significant effect of temperature on shoot survival with on average 68% mortality in the high temperature treatment but almost no mortality at the two lower temperatures. The higher mortality was probably caused by high sulphide levels in the sediment pore water (0.6 mmol l -1 at 18 °C compared to 3.7 mmol l -1 at 27 °C). Above-ground growth of the surviving shoots was also significantly affected by temperature, with leaf elongation rates being negatively affected, while the leaf plastochrone interval increased. Relative growth rate was significantly higher at 21 °C than at 18 °C or 27 °C, whereas rhizome elongation was significantly lowest at 27 °C. Elemental sulphur content in the plant tissues increased significantly with temperature and was up to 34 times higher (S 0 in rhizomes) at 27 °C compared to the lower temperatures. In contrast to the temperature effects, cover by G. vermiculophylla did not cause significant effects on any seagrass responses. However, there was a (non-significant) negative effect of algal cover at the highest temperature, where the seagrass is already stressed. The latter results suggest that more studies should test for interaction effects between temperature and other anthropogenic stressors given that temperature is predicted to increase in the near future.

  19. Nutrigenomics approach elucidates health-promoting effects of high vegetable intake in lean and obese men

    Pasman, W.J.; Erk, M.J. van; Klöpping, W.A.A.; Pellis, L.; Wopereis, S.; Bijlsma, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether vegetable consumption according to guidelines has beneficial health effects determined with classical biomarkers and nutrigenomics technologies. Fifteen lean (age 36 ± 7 years; BMI 23.4 ± 1.7 kg m−2) and 17 obese (age 40 ± 6 years; BMI 30.3 ± 2.4 kg m−2) men consumed 50-

  20. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  1. Mapping Aquatic Vegetation in a Tropical Wetland Using High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Satellite Imagery

    Timothy G. Whiteside

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a key role in the environmental function of wetlands. The Ramsar-listed wetlands of the Magela Creek floodplain in Northern Australia are identified as being at risk from weeds, fire and climate change. In addition, the floodplain is a downstream receiving environment for the Ranger Uranium Mine. Accurate methods for mapping wetland vegetation are required to provide contemporary baselines of annual vegetation dynamics on the floodplain to assist with analysing any potential change during and after minesite rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to develop and test the applicability of geographic object-based image analysis including decision tree classification to classify WorldView-2 imagery and LiDAR-derived ancillary data to map the aquatic vegetation communities of the Magela Creek floodplain. Results of the decision tree classification were compared against a Random Forests classification. The resulting maps showed the 12 major vegetation communities that exist on the Magela Creek floodplain and their distribution for May 2010. The decision tree classification method provided an overall accuracy of 78% which was significantly higher than the overall accuracy of the Random Forests classification (67%. Most of the error in both classifications was associated with confusion between spectrally similar classes dominated by grasses, such as Hymenachne and Pseudoraphis. In addition, the extent of the sedge Eleocharis was under-estimated in both cases. This suggests the method could be useful for mapping wetlands where statistical-based supervised classifications have achieved less than satisfactory results. Based upon the results, the decision tree method will form part of an ongoing operational monitoring program.

  2. Analysis of regional vegetation changes with medium and high resolution imagery

    Marcello, J.; Eugenio, F.; Medina, A.

    2012-09-01

    The singular characteristics of the Canarian archipelago (Spain) and, in particular, of the Gran Canaria island have allowed the development of a unique biological richness. Almost half of its territory is protected to preserve the natural environment and, in consequence, the monitoring of vegetated regions plays an important role for regional administrations which aim to develop the corresponding policies for the conservation of such ecosystems. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a common index applied for vegetation studies. It is important to emphasize that NDVI is sensor-dependent, and changes are affected by soil background, irradiance, solar position, atmospheric attenuation, season, hydric situation and climate of the area. So, a fixed threshold cannot be set, even for the same sensor or season, to properly segment vegetated areas. In this context, a robust methodology has been applied to ensure a reliable estimation of changes using the same sensor in multiple dates or different sensors. To that respect, a supervised procedure is presented consisting on the selection of different regions within each image to precisely map each cover with its associated NDVI values and, in consequence, obtain for each individual image the optimal threshold to properly segment vegetation without the need to perform the complex preprocessing required to estimate the ground reflectivity. On the other hand, fires are an important aspect of an ecosystem and their study, a fundamental task to perform a complete assessment of the environmental and economic damage. In our work we have also analyzed in detail the fire occurring during 2007 and precisely assessed the results.

  3. Prevention and diagnosis of invasive fungal disease in high-risk patients within an integrative care pathway.

    Barnes, Rosemary A; Stocking, Kate; Bowden, Sarah; Poynton, Matthew H; White, P Lewis

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of enhanced diagnostics on the management of invasive fungal disease in high risk patients within an integrated care pathway and to audit compliance and efficacy of antifungal prophylaxis. A cohort of 549 high risk haematology and stem-cell transplant recipients was followed over a 5 year period. The routine standard of care involved the use of antimould prophylaxis and a neutropenic care pathway utilizing twice weekly antigen and PCR testing. Prophylaxis with itraconazole was poorly tolerated and therapeutic levels could not be maintained. Antigen testing and PCR showed good clinical utility in the management of invasive aspergilosis with high sensitivity (98%) and negative predictive value (99.6%) when both tests were used together, allowing a diagnosis IA to be excluded and obviating the need for empirical antifungal agents. When used serially, multiple positive PCR and antigen test results enabled accurate diagnosis of IA with a specificity of 95% and a positive likelihood ratio of 11. Biomarkers preceded clinical signs in 85% of proven and probable invasive disease. The combination of both tests showed optimum clinical utility for the diagnosis and management of IA in this high risk group. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Riparian Vegetation Response to the March 2008 Short-Duration, High-Flow Experiment-Implications of Timing and Frequency of Flood Disturbance on Nonnative Plant Establishment Along the Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian plant communities exhibit various levels of diversity and richness. These communities are affected by flooding and are vulnerable to colonization by nonnative species. Since 1996, a series of three high-flow experiments (HFE), or water releases designed to mimic natural seasonal flooding, have been conducted at Glen Canyon Dam, Ariz., primarily to determine the effectiveness of using high flows to conserve sediment, a limited resource. These experiments also provide opportunities to examine the susceptibility of riparian plant communities to nonnative species invasions. The third and most recent HFE was conducted from March 5 to 9, 2008, and scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center examined the effects of high flows on riparian vegetation as part of the overall experiment. Total plant species richness, nonnative species richness, percent plant cover, percent organic matter, and total carbon measured from sediment samples were compared for Grand Canyon riparian vegetation zones immediately following the HFE and 6 months later. These comparisons were used to determine if susceptibility to nonnative species establishment varied among riparian vegetation zones and if the timing of the HFE affected nonnative plant establishment success. The 2008 HFE primarily buried vegetation rather than scouring it. Percent nonnative cover did not differ among riparian vegetation zones; however, in the river corridor affected by Glen Canyon Dam operations, nonnative species richness showed significant variation. For example, species richness was significantly greater immediately after and 6 months following the HFE in the hydrologic zone farthest away from the shoreline, the area that represents the oldest riparian zone within the post-dam riparian area. In areas closer to the river channel, tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima X chinensis) seedling establishment occurred (tamarisk seed production, or in 1986, a year following several

  5. A strategic study of the impact of invasive alien plants in the high ...

    2006-07-20

    Jul 20, 2006 ... 2 National Working for Water Programme, Department of Water Affairs & Forestry, Private Bag X4390, Cape Town 8000, South Africa ... its public programme Working for Water (WfW) to develop a user charge system for the clearing of invasive alien plants in ... (WRM) charge, to cover the cost of clearing.

  6. Danger to biodiversity of High Tatras by spreading of invasive plant species

    Strba, P.; Gogolakova, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our work was to analyze the current status of invasive plant species - their generic representation and current extension (horizontal and vertical extension). The authors used the method of inventory of species richness. Sites were recorded on a tourist map and GPS (Garmin).

  7. Invasive pathogen threatens bird-pine mutualism: implications for sustaining a high-elevation ecosystem.

    McKinney, Shawn T; Fiedler, Carl E; Tomback, Diana F

    2009-04-01

    Human-caused disruptions to seed-dispersal mutualisms increase the extinction risk for both plant and animal species. Large-seeded plants can be particularly vulnerable due to highly specialized dispersal systems and no compensatory regeneration mechanisms. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone subalpine species, obligately depends upon the Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) for dispersal of its large, wingless seeds. Clark's Nutcracker, a facultative mutualist with whitebark pine, is sensitive to rates of energy gain, and emigrates from subalpine forests during periods of cone shortages. The invasive fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, reduces whitebark pine cone production by killing cone-bearing branches and trees. Mortality from blister rust reaches 90% or higher in some whitebark pine forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, and the rust now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine. Our objectives were to identify the minimum level of cone production necessary to elicit seed dispersal by nutcrackers and to determine how cone production is influenced by forest structure and health. We quantified forest conditions and ecological interactions between nutcrackers and whitebark pine in three Rocky Mountain ecosystems that differ in levels of rust infection and mortality. Both the frequency of nutcracker occurrence and probability of seed dispersal were strongly related to annual whitebark pine cone production, which had a positive linear association with live whitebark pine basal area, and negative linear association with whitebark pine tree mortality and rust infection. From our data, we estimated that a threshold level of approximately 1000 cones/ha is needed for a high likelihood of seed dispersal by nutcrackers (probability > or = 0.7), and that this level of cone production can be met by forests with live whitebark pine basal area > 5.0 m2/ha. The risk of mutualism disruption is greatest in northern

  8. [Evaluation of the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction].

    Yang, Ying-yang; DU, Sheng-nan; Lv, Zong-kai

    2015-08-01

    To compare the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction. From May 2011 to May 2014, 83 patients undergoing impacted mandibular third molar extraction were enrolled into the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: 42 patients in group A (experimental group) and 41 patients in group B (control group). Group B underwent extraction with traditional method and group A underwent high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction of the impacted mandibular third molar. The occurrences of the root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation and lower lip numbness, dry socket, facial swelling and limitation of mouth opening after operation were observed and compared between 2 groups. The operation time, integrity of extraction sockets, VAS pain score and satisfaction from patients were collected and compared. SPSS 19.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The occurrences of root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture, and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation in group A significantly decreased compared with group B (Pextraction sockets, VAS pain scores and satisfaction scores in group A improved significantly compared with group B (Phandpiece and minimally invasive extraction should be widely used in impacted mandibular third molar extraction, due to the advantages of simple operation, high efficiency, minimal trauma, and few perioperative complications.

  9. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  10. Monitoring land surface albedo and vegetation dynamics using high spatial and temporal resolution synthetic data from Landsat and MODIS BRDF/albedo product

    Climate warming over the past half century has led to observable changes in vegetation phenology and growing season length; which can be measured globally using remote sensing derived vegetation indices. Previous studies in mid- and high northern latitude systems show temperature driven earlier spri...

  11. Vegetation community change points suggest that critical loads of nutrient nitrogen may be too high

    Wilkins, Kayla; Aherne, Julian; Bleasdale, Andy

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that elevated nitrogen deposition can have detrimental effects on semi-natural ecosystems, including changes to plant diversity. Empirical critical loads of nutrient nitrogen have been recommended to protect many sensitive European habitats from significant harmful effects. In this study, we used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN) to investigate shifts in vegetation communities along an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient for twenty-two semi-natural habitat types (as described under Annex I of the European Union Habitats Directive) in Ireland. Significant changes in vegetation community, i.e., change points, were determined for twelve habitats, with seven habitats showing a decrease in the number of positive indicator species. Community-level change points indicated a decrease in species abundance along a nitrogen deposition gradient ranging from 3.9 to 15.3 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which were significantly lower than recommended critical loads (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; V = 6, p < 0.05). These results suggest that lower critical loads of empirical nutrient nitrogen deposition may be required to protect many European habitats. Changes to vegetation communities may mean a loss of sensitive indicator species and potentially rare species in these habitats, highlighting how emission reductions policies set under the National Emissions Ceilings Directive may be directly linked to meeting the goal set out under the European Union's Biodiversity Strategy of "halting the loss of biodiversity" across Europe by 2020.

  12. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Mario Rodriguez-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  13. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Rodriguez-Dominguez, Mario; Gonzalez-Alba, Jose Maria; Puerta, Teresa; Menendez, Blanca; Sanchez-Diaz, Ana Maria; Canton, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Galan, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  14. Global thermal niche models of two European grasses show high invasion risks in Antarctica.

    Pertierra, Luis R; Aragón, Pedro; Shaw, Justine D; Bergstrom, Dana M; Terauds, Aleks; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Ángel

    2017-07-01

    The two non-native grasses that have established long-term populations in Antarctica (Poa pratensis and Poa annua) were studied from a global multidimensional thermal niche perspective to address the biological invasion risk to Antarctica. These two species exhibit contrasting introduction histories and reproductive strategies and represent two referential case studies of biological invasion processes. We used a multistep process with a range of species distribution modelling techniques (ecological niche factor analysis, multidimensional envelopes, distance/entropy algorithms) together with a suite of thermoclimatic variables, to characterize the potential ranges of these species. Their native bioclimatic thermal envelopes in Eurasia, together with the different naturalized populations across continents, were compared next. The potential niche of P. pratensis was wider at the cold extremes; however, P. annua life history attributes enable it to be a more successful colonizer. We observe that particularly cold summers are a key aspect of the unique Antarctic environment. In consequence, ruderals such as P. annua can quickly expand under such harsh conditions, whereas the more stress-tolerant P. pratensis endures and persist through steady growth. Compiled data on human pressure at the Antarctic Peninsula allowed us to provide site-specific biosecurity risk indicators. We conclude that several areas across the region are vulnerable to invasions from these and other similar species. This can only be visualized in species distribution models (SDMs) when accounting for founder populations that reveal nonanalogous conditions. Results reinforce the need for strict management practices to minimize introductions. Furthermore, our novel set of temperature-based bioclimatic GIS layers for ice-free terrestrial Antarctica provide a mechanism for regional and global species distribution models to be built for other potentially invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk from a high altitude pasture in the Italian Alps

    Tato, Liliana [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Tremolada, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tremolada@unimi.it [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Ballabio, Cristiano [Department of Environmental and Land Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza Della Scienza 1, Milan, I-20126 (Italy); Guazzoni, Niccolo; Parolini, Marco; Caccianiga, Marco; Binelli, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk was studied in a high altitude pasture in the Alps (1900 m a.s.l.). PCB contamination in vegetation shows a concentration peak in June, which is mainly interpreted as the consequence of a temporary PCB enrichment of the air layer above the ground due to net emission fluxes from the soil. A three compartment dynamic model was developed to test this hypothesis. The North/South enrichment factor in the vegetation was 1.5-1.6 for penta- and hexa-substituted congeners and 1.7 for hepta- and octa-PCBs, according to the effect of temperature on compounds having higher K{sub oa} values. Milk concentrations followed the vegetation seasonal trend. The congener abundance in milk is in agreement with the biotransformation susceptibility, absorption efficiency and residence time of the different congeners in dairy cows. - Highlights: > A PCB peak in vegetation was found at the end of June. > Higher PCB concentrations in vegetation were found in the Northern aspect. > A temperature-dependent bioaccumulation process was found in the vegetation. > A direct transfer of PCBs was found from vegetation to dairy milk. > Carry-over ratios and bioaccumulation factors were calculated for dairy cow. - In a mountain pasture, PCBs concentrations in vegetation were found to be related to emission flux from soil and to the mean temperature of the site, and a direct transfer to milk was also observed.

  16. A Probability Co-Kriging Model to Account for Reporting Bias and Recognize Areas at High Risk for Zebra Mussels and Eurasian Watermilfoil Invasions in Minnesota

    Kaushi S. T. Kanankege

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zebra mussels (ZMs (Dreissena polymorpha and Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM (Myriophyllum spicatum are aggressive aquatic invasive species posing a conservation burden on Minnesota. Recognizing areas at high risk for invasion is a prerequisite for the implementation of risk-based prevention and mitigation management strategies. The early detection of invasion has been challenging, due in part to the imperfect observation process of invasions including the absence of a surveillance program, reliance on public reporting, and limited resource availability, which results in reporting bias. To predict the areas at high risk for invasions, while accounting for underreporting, we combined network analysis and probability co-kriging to estimate the risk of ZM and EWM invasions. We used network analysis to generate a waterbody-specific variable representing boater traffic, a known high risk activity for human-mediated transportation of invasive species. In addition, co-kriging was used to estimate the probability of species introduction, using waterbody-specific variables. A co-kriging model containing distance to the nearest ZM infested location, boater traffic, and road access was used to recognize the areas at high risk for ZM invasions (AUC = 0.78. The EWM co-kriging model included distance to the nearest EWM infested location, boater traffic, and connectivity to infested waterbodies (AUC = 0.76. Results suggested that, by 2015, nearly 20% of the waterbodies in Minnesota were at high risk of ZM (12.45% or EWM (12.43% invasions, whereas only 125/18,411 (0.67% and 304/18,411 (1.65% are currently infested, respectively. Prediction methods presented here can support decisions related to solving the problems of imperfect detection, which subsequently improve the early detection of biological invasions.

  17. A Probability Co-Kriging Model to Account for Reporting Bias and Recognize Areas at High Risk for Zebra Mussels and Eurasian Watermilfoil Invasions in Minnesota.

    Kanankege, Kaushi S T; Alkhamis, Moh A; Phelps, Nicholas B D; Perez, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Zebra mussels (ZMs) ( Dreissena polymorpha ) and Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM) ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) are aggressive aquatic invasive species posing a conservation burden on Minnesota. Recognizing areas at high risk for invasion is a prerequisite for the implementation of risk-based prevention and mitigation management strategies. The early detection of invasion has been challenging, due in part to the imperfect observation process of invasions including the absence of a surveillance program, reliance on public reporting, and limited resource availability, which results in reporting bias. To predict the areas at high risk for invasions, while accounting for underreporting, we combined network analysis and probability co-kriging to estimate the risk of ZM and EWM invasions. We used network analysis to generate a waterbody-specific variable representing boater traffic, a known high risk activity for human-mediated transportation of invasive species. In addition, co-kriging was used to estimate the probability of species introduction, using waterbody-specific variables. A co-kriging model containing distance to the nearest ZM infested location, boater traffic, and road access was used to recognize the areas at high risk for ZM invasions (AUC = 0.78). The EWM co-kriging model included distance to the nearest EWM infested location, boater traffic, and connectivity to infested waterbodies (AUC = 0.76). Results suggested that, by 2015, nearly 20% of the waterbodies in Minnesota were at high risk of ZM (12.45%) or EWM (12.43%) invasions, whereas only 125/18,411 (0.67%) and 304/18,411 (1.65%) are currently infested, respectively. Prediction methods presented here can support decisions related to solving the problems of imperfect detection, which subsequently improve the early detection of biological invasions.

  18. High spatial resolution three-dimensional mapping of vegetation spectral dynamics using computer vision and hobbyist unmanned aerial vehicles

    Dandois, J. P.; Ellis, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    High spatial resolution three-dimensional (3D) measurements of vegetation by remote sensing are advancing ecological research and environmental management. However, substantial economic and logistical costs limit this application, especially for observing phenological dynamics in ecosystem structure and spectral traits. Here we demonstrate a new aerial remote sensing system enabling routine and inexpensive aerial 3D measurements of canopy structure and spectral attributes, with properties similar to those of LIDAR, but with RGB (red-green-blue) spectral attributes for each point, enabling high frequency observations within a single growing season. This 'Ecosynth' methodology applies photogrammetric ''Structure from Motion'' computer vision algorithms to large sets of highly overlapping low altitude (USA. Ecosynth canopy height maps (CHMs) were strong predictors of field-measured tree heights (R2 0.63 to 0.84) and were highly correlated with a LIDAR CHM (R 0.87) acquired 4 days earlier, though Ecosynth-based estimates of aboveground biomass densities included significant errors (31 - 36% of field-based estimates). Repeated scanning of a 0.25 ha forested area at six different times across a 16 month period revealed ecologically significant dynamics in canopy color at different heights and a structural shift upward in canopy density, as demonstrated by changes in vertical height profiles of point density and relative RGB brightness. Changes in canopy relative greenness were highly correlated (R2 = 0.88) with MODIS NDVI time series for the same area and vertical differences in canopy color revealed the early green up of the dominant canopy species, Liriodendron tulipifera, strong evidence that Ecosynth time series measurements capture vegetation structural and spectral dynamics at the spatial scale of individual trees. Observing canopy phenology in 3D at high temporal resolutions represents a breakthrough in forest ecology. Inexpensive user-deployed technologies for

  19. Holocene vegetation and climate changes in the central Mediterranean inferred from a high-resolution marine pollen record (Adriatic Sea

    N. Combourieu-Nebout

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution multiproxy study of the Adriatic marine core MD 90-917 provides new insights to reconstruct vegetation and regional climate changes over the southcentral Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas (YD and Holocene. Pollen records show the rapid forest colonization of the Italian and Balkan borderlands and the gradual installation of the Mediterranean association during the Holocene. Quantitative estimates based on pollen data provide Holocene precipitations and temperatures in the Adriatic Sea using a multi-method approach. Clay mineral ratios from the same core reflect the relative contributions of riverine (illite and smectite and eolian (kaolinite contributions to the site, and thus act as an additional proxy with which to evaluate precipitation changes in the Holocene. Vegetation climate reconstructions show the response to the Preboreal oscillation (PBO, most likely driven by changes in temperature and seasonal precipitation, which is linked to increasing river inputs from Adriatic rivers recorded by increase in clay mineral contribution to marine sediments. Pollen-inferred temperature declines during the early–mid Holocene, then increases during the mid–late Holocene, similar to southwestern Mediterranean climatic patterns during the Holocene. Several short vegetation and climatic events appear in the record, indicating the sensitivity of vegetation in the region to millennial-scale variability. Reconstructed summer precipitation shows a regional maximum (170–200 mm between 8000 and 7000 similar to the general pattern across southern Europe. Two important shifts in vegetation occur at 7700 cal yr BP (calendar years before present and between 7500 and 7000 cal yr BP and are correlated with increased river inputs around the Adriatic Basin respectively from the northern (7700 event and from the central Adriatic borderlands (7500–7000 event. During the mid-Holocene, the wet summers lead to permanent moisture all year

  20. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    Ni Luh Arpiwi; I Made Sutha Negara; I Nengah Simpen

    2017-01-01

    Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field. The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to e...

  1. Fresh fruits, vegetables and mushrooms as transmission vehicles for Echinococcus multilocularis in highly endemic areas of Poland: reply to concerns.

    Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemysław; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm that may cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most dangerous parasitic zoonoses. As in the case of other foodborne diseases, unwashed fruits and vegetables, contaminated with dispersed forms of E. multilocularis, may serve as an important transmission route for this parasite. In this article, we reply to the incorrect interpretation of results of our study concerning the detection of E. multilocularis DNA in fresh fruit, vegetable and mushroom samples collected from the highly endemic areas of the Warmia-Masuria Province, Poland, to dispel any doubts. The accusations formulated by the commentators concerning our paper are unfounded; moreover, these commentators demand information which was beyond the purview of our study. Making generalisations and drawing far-reaching conclusions from our work is also unjustified. The majority of positive samples were found in only a few hyperendemic communities; this information corresponds with the highest number of both infected foxes and AE cases in humans recorded in this area. Our findings indicate that E. multilocularis is present in the environment and may create a potential risk for the inhabitants. These people should simply be informed to wash fruits and vegetables before eating. No additional far-reaching conclusions should be drawn from our data. We believe these commentators needlessly misinterpreted our results and disseminated misleading information. Nevertheless, we would like to encourage any readers simply to contact us if any aspects of our study are unclear.

  2. Removal of radioactivity and safe vegetables cultivation from highly radioactivity polluted soil in Fukushima using photosynthetic bacteria

    Sasaki, Kei; Okagawa, Masakazu; Takeno, Kenji; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The soil pollution caused by radioactive substances released from the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has been still serious interference against agricultural reconstruction. This study used the soil contaminated with high radioactivity (13,602∼87,181 Bq/kg) in Namie Town, Fukushima Prefecture, and performed decontamination using photosynthetic bacteria in a simple outdoor practical test using a 60 L container. Using the soil after decontamination, the authors cultivated vegetables such as komatsuna (Japanese mustard spinach), and bok choy, the results of which are reported. As photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter shaerodes SSI species was used. This paper describes the cultivation method of bacteria, preparation method of immobilization grain, decontamination method, and cultivation method of vegetables. As a result of the experiment, the decontamination efficient of the soil was between 59.5 to 73.3%, and cultured vegetables passed the edible reference value (edible criteria for infants: 50 Bq/kg FW), which was the success of the experiment. (A.O.)

  3. Levels of cadmium, lead, cooper and zinc in vegetables cultivated in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city, Cuba

    Olivares R, S.; Garcia C, D.; Lima C, L.; Saborit S, I.; Llizo C, A.; Perez A, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report levels of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soils and vegetables grown in a highly urbanized area of La Havana city. We studied 17 farms dedicated to urban agriculture in an area of two kilometers around the landfill -Calle 100- during 2006 and 2007. For the study, samples of the soil and all the vegetables ready to harvest were taken from the farms. The heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of heavy metals in agricultural soils varied in the following ranges: Cd(0.24-2.1 mg/kg), Cu(38.4-81.3 mg/kg), Pb(18.1-138.5 mg/kg) and Zn(44.1-294.7 mg/kg). For Zn and Pb, some farm soils (35 and 52% respectively) exceeded the ranges in which these metals are found in Cuban agricultural soils. For Pb, 23% of the soils exceeded levels considered phyto toxic and limits in some international standards. The 12.5% of the samples of vegetables collected exceeded the maximum permissible levels of this pollutant in food for human consumption set by Cuban and international standards. The results indicate the need for strict crop monitoring in the area. (Author)

  4. Comparison of sampling strategies for object-based classification of urban vegetation from Very High Resolution satellite images

    Rougier, Simon; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Lachiche, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation monitoring is becoming a major issue in the urban environment due to the services they procure and necessitates an accurate and up to date mapping. Very High Resolution satellite images enable a detailed mapping of the urban tree and herbaceous vegetation. Several supervised classifications with statistical learning techniques have provided good results for the detection of urban vegetation but necessitate a large amount of training data. In this context, this study proposes to investigate the performances of different sampling strategies in order to reduce the number of examples needed. Two windows based active learning algorithms from state-of-art are compared to a classical stratified random sampling and a third combining active learning and stratified strategies is proposed. The efficiency of these strategies is evaluated on two medium size French cities, Strasbourg and Rennes, associated to different datasets. Results demonstrate that classical stratified random sampling can in some cases be just as effective as active learning methods and that it should be used more frequently to evaluate new active learning methods. Moreover, the active learning strategies proposed in this work enables to reduce the computational runtime by selecting multiple windows at each iteration without increasing the number of windows needed.

  5. Plant functional traits of dominant native and invasive species in mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    Funk, Jennifer L; Standish, Rachel J; Stock, William D; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The idea that dominant invasive plant species outperform neighboring native species through higher rates of carbon assimilation and growth is supported by several analyses of global data sets. However, theory suggests that native and invasive species occurring in low-resource environments will be functionally similar, as environmental factors restrict the range of observed physiological and morphological trait values. We measured resource-use traits in native and invasive plant species across eight diverse vegetation communities distributed throughout the five mediterranean-climate regions, which are drought prone and increasingly threatened by human activities, including the introduction of exotic species. Traits differed strongly across the five regions. In regions with functional differences between native and invasive species groups, invasive species displayed traits consistent with high resource acquisition; however, these patterns were largely attributable to differences in life form. We found that species invading mediterranean-climate regions were more likely to be annual than perennial: three of the five regions were dominated by native woody species and invasive annuals. These results suggest that trait differences between native and invasive species are context dependent and will vary across vegetation communities. Native and invasive species within annual and perennial groups had similar patterns of carbon assimilation and resource use, which contradicts the widespread idea that invasive species optimize resource acquisition rather than resource conservation. .

  6. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms with consumption of high fruit-juice and vegetable diet affect antioxidant capacity in healthy adults.

    Yuan, Linhong; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Ji, Jian; Li, Nan; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, no data have yet shown the combined effects of GSTM1/GSTT1 gene polymorphisms with high consumption of a fruit and vegetable diet on the body's antioxidant capacity. A 2-wk dietary intervention in healthy participants was conducted to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant biomarkers in individuals with different glutathione-S-transferases (GST) genotypes will be different in response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet. In our study, 24 healthy volunteers with different GST genotypes (12 GSTM1+/GSTT1+ and 12 GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants) consumed a controlled diet high in fruit-juice and vegetables for 2 wk. Blood and first-void urine specimens were obtained at baseline, 1-wk, and 2-wk intervals. The antioxidant capacity-related biomarkers in blood and urine were observed and recorded at the scheduled times. Erythrocyte GST and glutathione reductase (GR) activities response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet are GST genotype-dependent. Two weeks on the high fruit-juice and vegetable diet increased GST and GR activities in the GSTM1+/GSTT1+ group (P juice and vegetable diet than GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants. The diet intervention was effective in enhancing glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in all participants (P 0.05). The effects of a diet rich in fruit-juice and vegetables on antioxidant capacity were dependent on GSTM1/GSTT1 genotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocorrência de Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae como espécie invasora de restinga Occurrence of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br. (Apocynaceae as an invasive species in restinga vegetation

    Elisangela de Sousa Rangel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de possuírem grande importância ao nível de conservação ambiental, existe no Brasil uma acentuada escassez de trabalhos relacionados às invasões biológicas em ambientes terrestres. As restingas, sobretudo, são ambientes extremamente susceptíveis a este tipo de ameaça. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e a estrutura populacional da espécie exótica Calotropis procera na Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Thomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Uma varredura que abrangeu uma área de 126 ha (1400m x 900m foi realizada, sendo amostrado um total de 475 indivíduos, ou seja, uma média de 3,8 indivíduos por hectare. Para a avaliação da distribuição dos indivíduos num gradiente interior-praia, foram alocados três transectos (300m x 10m nesta direção. A amostragem nos transectos indicou a ocorrência de 28 indivíduos com altura > 50 cm e nenhum com altura Although invasive species are one of the main reasons for the loss of biodiversity, in Brazil there is little information about biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems. Sandy coastal plain forests (restinga and shrubby vegetation are places extremely susceptible to this kind of threat. The goal of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of the exotic species Calotropis procera in the Restinga do Xexé, Farol de São Tomé, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil. A survey covering an area of 126 ha (1400 m x 900 m was carried out, where a total of 475 individuals were sampled (mean of 3.8 indiv.ha-1. To assess the spatial distribution and population structure of this species, three transects (300 m x 10 m were created, which were perpendicular to the vegetation gradient from interior to shoreline, and all individuals of C. procera were sampled. A total of 28 individuals > 50 cm tall were sampled, and no individuals < 50 cm tall were found in the three transects. The plants were restricted to areas with vestiges of human disturbance. The absence of seedling

  8. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Very High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China

    Huawei Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China, for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population.

  9. Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae filamentation/invasion pathway by osmotic stress in high-osmolarity glycogen pathway mutants

    Davenport, K. D.; Williams, K. E.; Ullmann, B. D.; Gustin, M. C.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are frequently used signal transduction mechanisms in eukaryotes. Of the five MAPK cascades in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway functions to sense and respond to hypertonic stress. We utilized a partial loss-of-function mutant in the HOG pathway, pbs2-3, in a high-copy suppressor screen to identify proteins that modulate growth on high-osmolarity media. Three high-copy suppressors of pbs2-3 osmosensitivity were identified: MSG5, CAK1, and TRX1. Msg5p is a dual-specificity phosphatase that was previously demonstrated to dephosphorylate MAPKs in yeast. Deletions of the putative MAPK targets of Msg5p revealed that kss1delta could suppress the osmosensitivity of pbs2-3. Kss1p is phosphorylated in response to hyperosmotic shock in a pbs2-3 strain, but not in a wild-type strain nor in a pbs2-3 strain overexpressing MSG5. Both TEC1 and FRE::lacZ expressions are activated in strains lacking a functional HOG pathway during osmotic stress in a filamentation/invasion-pathway-dependent manner. Additionally, the cellular projections formed by a pbs2-3 mutant on high osmolarity are absent in strains lacking KSS1 or STE7. These data suggest that the loss of filamentation/invasion pathway repression contributes to the HOG mutant phenotype.

  10. Non-invasive and high-sensitivity scanning detection of magnetic nanoparticles in animals using high-Tc scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry.

    Chieh, J J; Hong, C Y

    2011-08-01

    Although magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely applied to animals in biomedicine, MNPs within animals should be examined in real time, in vivo, and without bio-damaged possibility to evaluate whether the bio-function of MNPs is valid or to further controls the biomedicinal process because of accompanying complex problems such as MNPs distribution and MNPs biodegradation. The non-invasive and high-sensitivity scanning detection of MNPs in animals using ac susceptometry based on a high-T(c) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is presented. The non-invasive results and biopsy results show good agreement, and two gold-standard biomedicine methods, Prussian blue stain and inductively coupled plasma, prove the magnetic results. This confirms that the future clinical diagnosis of bio-functional MNPs could be operated by using scanning SQUID biosusceptometry as conveniently as an ultrasonic probe.

  11. L-ascorbic acid losses in Kenyan vegetables during cooking as determined by high performance liquid chromatography

    N.M.N. Wekesa; S.C. Chhabra; H.M. Thairu

    2001-01-01

    The loss of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) in 14 different cooked local vegetables found in Nairobi markets was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of quantity of water on the loss of L-AA during cooking was studied with cowpea leaves. It was found that more L-AA was lost when larger amount of water was used than when smaller amount was used. The effect of the sharpness of the knife on the loss of L-AA was studied with spinach. It was found that more loss of L-AA occurred...

  12. Consumption of a High Quantity and a Wide Variety of Vegetables Are Predicted by Different Food Choice Motives in Older Adults from France, Italy and the UK.

    Appleton, Katherine M; Dinnella, Caterina; Spinelli, Sara; Morizet, David; Saulais, Laure; Hemingway, Ann; Monteleone, Erminio; Depezay, Laurence; Perez-Cueto, Frederico J A; Hartwell, Heather

    2017-08-23

    Consumption of a high quantity and wide variety of vegetables is currently recommended for health. Dietary variety can be low, however, particularly for older adults. This study investigated the affective factors associated with the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed by older adults in France, Italy and the UK. Adults aged 65 years plus completed questionnaires on self-reported vegetable intake (quantity and variety), liking for vegetables, attitudes towards intake, and demographic variables. In 497 older adults (France, n = 187, Italy, n = 152, UK, n = 158), higher quantities of vegetables consumed were associated with a higher age, affluence score and liking for vegetables, and a lower importance in consumption of familiarity (smallest β = 0.11, p = 0.03). Greater variety was associated with a higher liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = -0.11, p foods in vegetable consumption, and a particular role for concern for health benefits in the consumption of a greater variety of vegetables.

  13. Consumption of a High Quantity and a Wide Variety of Vegetables Are Predicted by Different Food Choice Motives in Older Adults from France, Italy and the UK

    Dinnella, Caterina; Spinelli, Sara; Morizet, David; Saulais, Laure; Hemingway, Ann; Monteleone, Erminio; Depezay, Laurence; Perez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; Hartwell, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Background: Consumption of a high quantity and wide variety of vegetables is currently recommended for health. Dietary variety can be low, however, particularly for older adults. This study investigated the affective factors associated with the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed by older adults in France, Italy and the UK. Methods: Adults aged 65 years plus completed questionnaires on self-reported vegetable intake (quantity and variety), liking for vegetables, attitudes towards intake, and demographic variables. Results: In 497 older adults (France, n = 187, Italy, n = 152, UK, n = 158), higher quantities of vegetables consumed were associated with a higher age, affluence score and liking for vegetables, and a lower importance in consumption of familiarity (smallest β = 0.11, p = 0.03). Greater variety was associated with a higher liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = −0.11, p < 0.01). Higher quantity and variety combined (quantity × variety) was associated with a higher age, liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = 0.14, p = 0.02). Country-specific effects were also found (smallest β = 0.20, p < 0.01). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a role for liking and a lower concern for eating familiar foods in vegetable consumption, and a particular role for concern for health benefits in the consumption of a greater variety of vegetables. PMID:28832549

  14. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tolerance to high temperature extremes in an invasive lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae, in subtropical China.

    Rui-Ting Ju

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high temperatures, and that its thermal tolerance plays an important role in determining its seasonal abundance and geographic distribution. To test these hypotheses, the effects of heat shock on the survival and reproduction of C. ciliata adults were assessed in the laboratory. Adults were exposed to 26 (control, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, and 45°C for 2 h, and then were transferred to 26°C. Heat-shock temperatures ranging from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect survival pattern, longevity, and fecundity of adults, but heat shock at 43 and 45°C significantly reduced these traits. Exposing parent females to heat-shock treatments from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect the hatching rate of their eggs, survival of the nymphs, and the proportion of female F(1 progeny, while no progeny were produced with treatments of 43 and 45°C. The results indicate that C. ciliata can tolerate high temperatures less than 41°C, which may contribute to its expansion into the lower latitudes in China where its hosts (Platanus trees are widely planted. Our findings have important implications for predicting seasonal abundance and understanding invasion mechanisms of this important urban invader under climate change.

  16. Tolerance to high temperature extremes in an invasive lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), in subtropical China.

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high temperatures, and that its thermal tolerance plays an important role in determining its seasonal abundance and geographic distribution. To test these hypotheses, the effects of heat shock on the survival and reproduction of C. ciliata adults were assessed in the laboratory. Adults were exposed to 26 (control), 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, and 45°C for 2 h, and then were transferred to 26°C. Heat-shock temperatures ranging from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect survival pattern, longevity, and fecundity of adults, but heat shock at 43 and 45°C significantly reduced these traits. Exposing parent females to heat-shock treatments from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect the hatching rate of their eggs, survival of the nymphs, and the proportion of female F(1) progeny, while no progeny were produced with treatments of 43 and 45°C. The results indicate that C. ciliata can tolerate high temperatures less than 41°C, which may contribute to its expansion into the lower latitudes in China where its hosts (Platanus trees) are widely planted. Our findings have important implications for predicting seasonal abundance and understanding invasion mechanisms of this important urban invader under climate change.

  17. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of phytochemicals in vegetal-derived food and beverages.

    La Barbera, Giorgia; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Montone, Carmela Maria; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2017-10-01

    The recent years witnessed a change in the perception of nutrition. Diet does not only provide nutrients to meet the metabolic requirements of the body, but it also constitutes an active way for the consumption of compounds beneficial for human health. Fruit and vegetables are an excellent source of such compounds, thus the growing interest in characterizing phytochemical sources, structures and activities. Given the interest for phytochemicals in food, the development of advanced and suitable analytical techniques for their identification is fundamental for the advancement of food research. In this review, the state of the art of phytochemical research in food plants is described, starting from sample preparation, throughout extract clean-up and compound separation techniques, to the final analysis, considering both qualitative and quantitative investigations. In this regard, from an analytical point of view, fruit and vegetable extracts are complex matrices, which greatly benefit from the use of modern hyphenated techniques, in particular from the combination of high performance liquid chromatography separation and high resolution mass spectrometry, powerful tools which are being increasingly used in the recent years. Therefore, selected applications to real samples are presented and discussed, in particular for the analysis of phenols, polyphenols and phenolic acids. Finally, some hot points are discussed, such as waste characterization for high value-compounds recovery and the untargeted metabolomics approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EFFECTS OF CARVEDILOL AND METOPROLOL ON VEGETATIVE REGULATION OF HEART AND MICROCIRCULATION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND HIGH BODY MASS

    A. R. Kiselev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on vegetative regulation of heart and microcirculatory vessels in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degrees and high body mass/obesity.Material and methods. Patients with HT of 1-2 degrees (n=25; aged 51±8 y.o. were included in the study. Registration of 0,1 Hz-fluctuations in heart rhythm variability and microcirculation change was performed during passive orthostatic test at spontaneous breath (duration of each test stage 10 min. Synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms was estimated by calculation of phases difference and a numerical measure of synchronization. Frequency estimations of heart rhythm variability spectrum were performed in high and low frequency ranges additionaly.Results. Carvedilol and metoprolol have the comparable antihypertensive effect and influence on vegetative regulation of cardiovascular system in patients with HT. Both drugs have negative influence on synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms in initially high systolic blood pressure level (>150 mm Hg.Conclusion. Carvedilol and metoprolol have comparable influence on synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms in cardiovascular system.

  19. Two-step microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pyrethroids in water and vegetable samples.

    Mukdasai, Siriboon; Thomas, Chunpen; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2014-03-01

    Dispersive liquid microextraction (DLME) combined with dispersive µ-solid phase extraction (D-µ-SPE) has been developed as a new approach for the extraction of four pyrethroids (tetramethrin, fenpropathrin, deltamethrin and permethrin) prior to the analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. 1-Octanol was used as the extraction solvent in DLME. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS) were used as the dispersive in DLME and as the adsorbent in D-µ-SPE. The extracted pyrethroids were separated within 30 min using isocratic elution with acetonitrile:water (72:28). The factors affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors were in the range of 51-108. Linearity was obtained in the range 0.5-400 ng mL(-1) (tetramethrin) and 5-400 ng mL(-1) (fenpropathrin, deltamethrin and permethrin) with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.995. Detection limits were 0.05-2 ng mL(-1) (water samples) and 0.02-2.0 ng g(-1) (vegetable samples). The relative standard deviations of peak area varied from 1.8 to 2.5% (n=10). The extraction recoveries of the four pyrethroids in field water and vegetable samples were 91.7-104.5%. The proposed method has high potential for use as a sensitive method for determination of pyrethroid residues in water and vegetable samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High expression of WISP1 in colon cancer is associated with apoptosis, invasion and poor prognosis.

    Wu, Jianghong; Long, Ziwen; Cai, Hong; Du, Chunyan; Liu, Xiaowen; Yu, Shengjia; Wang, Yanong

    2016-08-02

    Colon cancer (CC) likes many epithelial-derived cancers, resulting from a complex tumorigenic process. However, the exactly mechanisms of development and progression of CC are still unknown. In this study, integrated analysis in the GSE33113 and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center Hospital datasets revealed that WISP1 expression was significantly increased in CC cases, positivity correlated with the advanced pathologic stage and a poor prognosis was more likely in CC patients with higher levels of WISP1. Downregulation of WISP1 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion through increasing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle at G1 phase in CC LOVO and RKO cells. Besides, Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that relative genes involved in the Cell adhesion molecules and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways were enriched in WISP1-higher expression patients. Western blot analysis showed that Cell adhesion molecules pathway associated genes (ICAM- 1, VCAM-1, SDC2 and CDH2) and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway associated genes (VEGFC, CCL18, CXCR4 and TGFBR1) were also modulated by WISP1 downregulation. Then, we found that the protein β-catenin was identified as a binding partner of WISP1 and mediated the functions of WISP1 through promoting cell proliferation and invasion in LOVO and RKO cells. Further in vivo tumor formation study in nude mice indicated that inhibition of WISP1 delayed the progress of tumor formation and inhibited PCNA expression. These results indicate that WISP1 could act as an oncogene and may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for colon cancer.

  1. Estimation of the soil heat flux/net radiation ratio based on spectral vegetation indexes in high-latitude Arctic areas

    Jacobsen, A.; Hansen, B.U.

    1999-01-01

    The vegetation communities in the Arctic environment are very sensitive to even minor climatic variations and therefore the estimation of surface energy fluxes from high-latitude vegetated areas is an important subject to be pursued. This study was carried out in July-August and used micro meteorological data, spectral reflectance signatures, and vegetation biomass to establish the relation between the soil heat flux/net radiation (G / Rn) ratio and spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Continuous measurements of soil temperature and soil heat flux were used to calculate the surface ground heat flux by use of conventional methods, and the relation to surface temperature was investigated. Twenty-seven locations were established, and six samples per location, including the measurement of the surface temperature and net radiation to establish the G/Rn ratio and simultaneous spectral reflectance signatures and wet biomass estimates, were registered. To obtain regional reliability, the locations were chosen in order to represent the different Arctic vegetation communities in the study area; ranging from dry tundra vegetation communities (fell fields and dry dwarf scrubs) to moist/wet tundra vegetation communities (snowbeds, grasslands and fens). Spectral vegetation indices, including the simple ratio vegetation index (RVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were calculated. A comparison of SVIs to biomass proved that RVI gave the best linear expression, and NDVI the best exponential expression. A comparison of SVIs and the surface energy flux ratio G / Rn proved that NDVI gave the best linear expression. SPOT HRV images from July 1989 and 1992 were used to map NDVI and G / Rn at a regional scale. (author)

  2. Dense image matching of terrestrial imagery for deriving high-resolution topographic properties of vegetation locations in alpine terrain

    Niederheiser, R.; Rutzinger, M.; Bremer, M.; Wichmann, V.

    2018-04-01

    The investigation of changes in spatial patterns of vegetation and identification of potential micro-refugia requires detailed topographic and terrain information. However, mapping alpine topography at very detailed scales is challenging due to limited accessibility of sites. Close-range sensing by photogrammetric dense matching approaches based on terrestrial images captured with hand-held cameras offers a light-weight and low-cost solution to retrieve high-resolution measurements even in steep terrain and at locations, which are difficult to access. We propose a novel approach for rapid capturing of terrestrial images and a highly automated processing chain for retrieving detailed dense point clouds for topographic modelling. For this study, we modelled 249 plot locations. For the analysis of vegetation distribution and location properties, topographic parameters, such as slope, aspect, and potential solar irradiation were derived by applying a multi-scale approach utilizing voxel grids and spherical neighbourhoods. The result is a micro-topography archive of 249 alpine locations that includes topographic parameters at multiple scales ready for biogeomorphological analysis. Compared with regional elevation models at larger scales and traditional 2D gridding approaches to create elevation models, we employ analyses in a fully 3D environment that yield much more detailed insights into interrelations between topographic parameters, such as potential solar irradiation, surface area, aspect and roughness.

  3. [Distribution pattern of riparian invasive plants in Luanhe Basin, North China and its relationship with environment].

    Ren, Ying; He, Ping; Xu, Jie; Jia, Jiao

    2017-06-18

    In this study, the invasive plant species from the riparian vegetation in 56 sampling sites of Luanhe Basin were identified, and the correlations between their composition, spatial distribution and environmental factors were explored. In the basin, a total of 26 invasive species were registered, which belonged to 19 genera and 12 families, and 73.1% of them were annual plants. Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae were the two dominant families with the most invasive species, attributing to 50% of the total invasive species. Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens frondosa and Chenopodium serotinum appeared with the highest frequencies. The number of invasive species and the invasive intensity at each site were significantly negatively correlated with the altitude. The distribution of invasive plants was significantly influenced by the intensity of human activities. The invasive plants were mainly distributed in the plain area, shallow mountainous area with many reservoirs, and the mountainous area with developed tourism around Chengde City, meanwhile, only few species with broad ecological amplitude existed in the plateau area. In general, species with higher invasive grades were mainly distributed in low and medium altitude areas below 400 m. Except for A. retroflexus, no high-grade invasive plants were discovered in high altitude area so far.

  4. Invasive Candidiasis

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Invasive Candidiasis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Global Emergence ... antifungal drugs. Learn more about C. auris Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a ...

  5. CubeSats in Hydrology: Ultra-High Resolution Insights into Vegetation Dynamics and Terrestrial Evaporation

    McCabe, Matthew; Aragon, B.; Houborg, Rasmus; Mascaro, J.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing has generally necessitated a trade-off between spatial resolution and temporal frequency, affecting the capacity to observe fast hydrological processes and rapidly changing land surface conditions. An avenue for overcoming these spatiotemporal restrictions is the concept of using constellations of satellites, as opposed to the mission focus exemplified by the more conventional space-agency approach to earth observation. Referred to as CubeSats, these platforms offer the potential to provide new insights into a range of earth system variables and processes. Their emergence heralds a paradigm shift from single-sensor launches to an operational approach that envisions tens to hundreds of small, lightweight and comparatively inexpensive satellites placed into a range of low earth orbits. Although current systems are largely limited to sensing in the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, we demonstrate the opportunity and potential that CubeSats present the hydrological community via the retrieval of vegetation dynamics and terrestrial evaporation and foreshadow future sensing capabilities.

  6. Aerial photos for obtaining information on vegetation in areas of high population densities

    Kenneweg, H

    1975-01-01

    An air pollution survey was conducted which includes a description of an inventory of Freiburg's roadside trees with the aid of infrared aerial photos, supported by a register of trees by species. Results were mapped by street averages of injury and analyses by species susceptibility and stress factors. Building and traffic density were used as stress indicators presumed to be correlated with others such as road salting or other disturbances. In a ranking based on these factors Tilia sp. was the most and Robinia pseudoacacia the least susceptible, with Aesculus, Acer, Platanus and Crataegus spp. intermediate in descending order of susceptibility. A second survey a year later showed deterioration in most parts of the town, but some improvement was observed in the central Rathausplatz, where traffic had been excluded, salting had been stopped, and certain tree amelioration measures were being tried. Other topics discussed include surveys of total green vegetation in cities and the mapping of air pollution risks near heavily industrialized areas. In a study of 1600 spruce stands near the Ruhr region, no simple correlations with topographic factors were found, though the worst damage was frequently noticed in narrow valleys and near reservoirs.

  7. Uptake of endogenous and exogenous 226Ra by vegetables from soils of a highly radioactive region

    Lima, V.T.; Penna-Franca, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau is a weathered alkaline igneous intrusion where several radioactive anomalies (U and Th series) exist. Not only the local soils but also the edible vegetables produced in the region can present 226 Ra concentrations up to 10 times higher than those from areas of normal radioactivity. The aim of this work is to evaluate through greenhouse experiments, the uptake of endogenous and exogenous 226 Ra by carrots, brown beans and kale grown from four paired local natural and contaminated farm soils. Simultaneously, sequential selective extractions were performed to estimate the partitioning of 226 Ra among six geochemical fractions. The results showed that concentration ratios (CRs), related to plant dry weight, for endogenous and exogenous 226 Ra in soils, were of the order of 10 -2 -10 -1 and 10 -2 -10 0 respectively. The averages of 226 Ra exchangeable and residual fractions in soils were: 3.2% and 50.2% for endogenous and 15.4% and 6.0% for exogenous radium. The CRs calculated either in relation to total 226 Ra or to the exchangeable fraction in soils showed about the same variability. (author)

  8. CubeSats in Hydrology: Ultra-High Resolution Insights into Vegetation Dynamics and Terrestrial Evaporation

    McCabe, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing has generally necessitated a trade-off between spatial resolution and temporal frequency, affecting the capacity to observe fast hydrological processes and rapidly changing land surface conditions. An avenue for overcoming these spatiotemporal restrictions is the concept of using constellations of satellites, as opposed to the mission focus exemplified by the more conventional space-agency approach to earth observation. Referred to as CubeSats, these platforms offer the potential to provide new insights into a range of earth system variables and processes. Their emergence heralds a paradigm shift from single-sensor launches to an operational approach that envisions tens to hundreds of small, lightweight and comparatively inexpensive satellites placed into a range of low earth orbits. Although current systems are largely limited to sensing in the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, we demonstrate the opportunity and potential that CubeSats present the hydrological community via the retrieval of vegetation dynamics and terrestrial evaporation and foreshadow future sensing capabilities.

  9. Drought on the North American High Plains: Modeling Effects of Vegetation, Temperature, and Rainfall Perturbations on Regional Hydrology

    Hein, A. E.; Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Large scale droughts can disrupt the water supply for agriculture, municipalities and industrial use worldwide. For example, the Dustbowl drought of the 1930s severely damaged agriculture on the North American High Plains. The Dustbowl is generally attributed to three major factors: increased temperature, decreased precipitation, and a change from native grasses that might have tolerated these climate perturbations to dryland wheat farming, which did not. This study explores the individual importance of each of these factors and the feedbacks between them. Previous modeling studies have explored how the High Plains system responds to changes in precipitation or temperature, but these models often depend on simplified or lumped parameter approaches. These approaches may not fully represent all the relevant physical processes, especially those related to energy balance changes due to increased temperature. For this study, we built a high-resolution model of the High Plains using ParFlow-CLM, an integrated hydrologic model that solves both energy and water balances from the subsurface to the top of vegetation. Model inputs including geology and climate forcing, together with representative precipitation and temperature changes for a major drought were assembled from public data. Numerical experiments were run to perturb vegetation, precipitation and temperature separately, as well as a baseline scenario with no changes and a worst-case scenario with all three simultaneously. The impact of each factor on High Plains hydrology and water resources was examined by comparing soil moisture, stream flow and water table levels between the runs. The one-factor experiments were used to show which of these outputs was the most sensitive and responded most quickly to each change. The worst-case scenario revealed interactions between the three factors.

  10. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  11. Hydrological and vegetational response to the Younger Dryas climatic oscillations: a high resolution case study from Quoyloo Meadow, Orkney, Scotland

    Maas, David; Abrook, Ashley; Timms, Rhys; Matthews, Ian; Palmer, Adrian; Milner, Alice; Candy, Ian; Sachse, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Younger Dryas (Loch Lomond) Stadial is a well defined period of cold climate that in North West Europe punctuated the climatic amelioration during the Last Glacial - Interglacial Transition (LGIT ca. 16-8 ka). A palaeolake record from Quoyloo Meadow, Orkney Islands (N59.067, E-3.309) has been analysed for pollen and stable isotopes on biomarker lipids. n-Alkanes from terrestrial and aquatic sources are present throughout the core. The average chain length (ACL) is relatively low during the interstadial (~28.0) and shows a distinct increase during the Younger Dryas (to 29.0 +), attributed to an increase in grasses and drought resistant shrubs (e.g. Artemisia, Castañeda et al., 2009, Bunting, 1994). At the beginning of the Holocene, the ACL rapidly drops to 28.3 and from thereon gently increases again to ~29.0. There is a continued odd-over-even n-alkane predominance, although even n-alkanes are present in greater quantities in the interstadial, indicating an increasing terrestrial contribution in the Holocene. Ongoing deuterium isotope measurements of the n-alkanes will give independent evidence for palaeohydrological changes and can be compared to the other proxy evidence within the same core. Using a combination of nC29 and nC23 (terrestrial and aquatic end-members, respectively), a change in relative humidity (rH) can be qualified. This is based on the idea that terrestrial vegetation is affected by evapotranspiration processes, whereas aquatic vegetation is not (Rach et al., 2014). This data is supported by a high resolution palynological study; the contiguously sampled record demonstrates ecosystem/environmental responses to millennial-scale climatic change and allows for the possible detection of vegetation shifts at the sub-millennial scale. Vegetation aside, the pollen data can further aid in the interpretation of the recorded n-alkanes and isotopic analyses. This data is placed within a chronological framework derived from a high resolution crypto- and

  12. Development of a highly metastatic model that reveals a crucial role of fibronectin in lung cancer cell migration and invasion

    He Xianghuo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of metastasis is the most common cause of death in patients with lung cancer. A major implement to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer metastasis has been the lack of suitable models to address it. In this study, we aimed at establishing a highly metastatic model of human lung cancer and characterizing its metastatic properties and underlying mechanisms. Methods The human lung adeno-carcinoma SPC-A-1 cell line was used as parental cells for developing of highly metastatic cells by in vivo selection in NOD/SCID mice. After three rounds of selection, a new SPC-A-1sci cell line was established from pulmonary metastatic lesions. Subsequently, the metastatic properties of this cell line were analyzed, including optical imaging of in vivo metastasis, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis of several epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT makers and trans-well migration and invasion assays. Finally, the functional roles of fibronectin in the invasive and metastatic potentials of SPC-A-1sci cells were determined by shRNA analysis. Results A spontaneously pulmonary metastatic model of human lung adeno-carcinoma was established in NOD/SCID mice, from which a new lung cancer cell line, designated SPC-A-1sci, was isolated. Initially, the highly metastatic behavior of this cell line was validated by optical imaging in mice models. Further analyses showed that this cell line exhibit phenotypic and molecular alterations consistent with EMT. Compared with its parent cell line SPC-A-1, SPC-A-1sci was more aggressive in vitro, including increased potentials for cell spreading, migration and invasion. Importantly, fibronectin, a mesenchymal maker of EMT, was found to be highly expressed in SPC-A-1sci cells and down-regulation of it can decrease the in vitro and in vivo metastatic abilities of this cell line. Conclusions We have successfully established a new human lung cancer cell line with

  13. Development of a highly metastatic model that reveals a crucial role of fibronectin in lung cancer cell migration and invasion

    Jia, Deshui; Yao, Ming; Yan, Mingxia; Wang, Xiaomin; Hao, Xiangfang; Liang, Linhui; Liu, Lei; Kong, Hanwei; He, Xianghuo; Li, Jinjun

    2010-01-01

    The formation of metastasis is the most common cause of death in patients with lung cancer. A major implement to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer metastasis has been the lack of suitable models to address it. In this study, we aimed at establishing a highly metastatic model of human lung cancer and characterizing its metastatic properties and underlying mechanisms. The human lung adeno-carcinoma SPC-A-1 cell line was used as parental cells for developing of highly metastatic cells by in vivo selection in NOD/SCID mice. After three rounds of selection, a new SPC-A-1sci cell line was established from pulmonary metastatic lesions. Subsequently, the metastatic properties of this cell line were analyzed, including optical imaging of in vivo metastasis, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis of several epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) makers and trans-well migration and invasion assays. Finally, the functional roles of fibronectin in the invasive and metastatic potentials of SPC-A-1sci cells were determined by shRNA analysis. A spontaneously pulmonary metastatic model of human lung adeno-carcinoma was established in NOD/SCID mice, from which a new lung cancer cell line, designated SPC-A-1sci, was isolated. Initially, the highly metastatic behavior of this cell line was validated by optical imaging in mice models. Further analyses showed that this cell line exhibit phenotypic and molecular alterations consistent with EMT. Compared with its parent cell line SPC-A-1, SPC-A-1sci was more aggressive in vitro, including increased potentials for cell spreading, migration and invasion. Importantly, fibronectin, a mesenchymal maker of EMT, was found to be highly expressed in SPC-A-1sci cells and down-regulation of it can decrease the in vitro and in vivo metastatic abilities of this cell line. We have successfully established a new human lung cancer cell line with highly metastatic potentials, which is subject to EMT and possibly

  14. Multi-feature machine learning model for automatic segmentation of green fractional vegetation cover for high-throughput field phenotyping.

    Sadeghi-Tehran, Pouria; Virlet, Nicolas; Sabermanesh, Kasra; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2017-01-01

    Accurately segmenting vegetation from the background within digital images is both a fundamental and a challenging task in phenotyping. The performance of traditional methods is satisfactory in homogeneous environments, however, performance decreases when applied to images acquired in dynamic field environments. In this paper, a multi-feature learning method is proposed to quantify vegetation growth in outdoor field conditions. The introduced technique is compared with the state-of the-art and other learning methods on digital images. All methods are compared and evaluated with different environmental conditions and the following criteria: (1) comparison with ground-truth images, (2) variation along a day with changes in ambient illumination, (3) comparison with manual measurements and (4) an estimation of performance along the full life cycle of a wheat canopy. The method described is capable of coping with the environmental challenges faced in field conditions, with high levels of adaptiveness and without the need for adjusting a threshold for each digital image. The proposed method is also an ideal candidate to process a time series of phenotypic information throughout the crop growth acquired in the field. Moreover, the introduced method has an advantage that it is not limited to growth measurements only but can be applied on other applications such as identifying weeds, diseases, stress, etc.

  15. Multi-feature machine learning model for automatic segmentation of green fractional vegetation cover for high-throughput field phenotyping

    Pouria Sadeghi-Tehran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurately segmenting vegetation from the background within digital images is both a fundamental and a challenging task in phenotyping. The performance of traditional methods is satisfactory in homogeneous environments, however, performance decreases when applied to images acquired in dynamic field environments. Results In this paper, a multi-feature learning method is proposed to quantify vegetation growth in outdoor field conditions. The introduced technique is compared with the state-of the-art and other learning methods on digital images. All methods are compared and evaluated with different environmental conditions and the following criteria: (1 comparison with ground-truth images, (2 variation along a day with changes in ambient illumination, (3 comparison with manual measurements and (4 an estimation of performance along the full life cycle of a wheat canopy. Conclusion The method described is capable of coping with the environmental challenges faced in field conditions, with high levels of adaptiveness and without the need for adjusting a threshold for each digital image. The proposed method is also an ideal candidate to process a time series of phenotypic information throughout the crop growth acquired in the field. Moreover, the introduced method has an advantage that it is not limited to growth measurements only but can be applied on other applications such as identifying weeds, diseases, stress, etc.

  16. Using high-resolution future climate scenarios to forecast Bromus tectorum invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    West, Amanda M; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum.

  17. Using High-Resolution Future Climate Scenarios to Forecast Bromus tectorum Invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park

    West, Amanda M.; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum. PMID:25695255

  18. Impact of flavonoids on matrix metalloproteinase secretion and invadopodia formation in highly invasive A431-III cancer cells.

    Yo-Chuen Lin

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major cause of mortality in cancer patients. Invadopodia are considered to be crucial structures that allow cancer cells to penetrate across the extracellular matrix (ECM by using matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Previously, we isolated a highly invasive A431-III subline from parental A431 cells by Boyden chamber assay. The A431-III cells possess higher invasive and migratory abilities, elevated levels of MMP-9 and an enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT phenotype. In this study, we discovered that A431-III cells had an increased potential to form invadopodia and an improved capacity to degrade ECM compared with the original A431 cells. We also observed enhanced phosphorylation levels of cortactin and Src in A431-III cells; these phosphorylated proteins have been reported to be the main regulators of invadopodia formation. Flavonoids, almost ubiquitously distributed in food plants and plant food products, have been documented to exhibit anti-tumor properties. Therefore, it was of much interest to explore the effects of flavonoid antioxidants on the metastatic activity of A431-III cells. Exposure of A431-III cells to two potent dietary flavonoids, namely luteolin (Lu and quercetin (Qu, caused inhibition of invadopodia formation and decrement in ECM degradation. We conclude that Lu and Qu attenuate the phosphorylation of cortactin and Src in A431-III cells. As a consequence, there ensues a disruption of invadopodia generation and the suppression of MMP secretion. These changes, in concert, bring about a reduction in metastasis.

  19. Using high-resolution future climate scenarios to forecast Bromus tectorum invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Amanda M West

    Full Text Available National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass, which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park, Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211, current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2 and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum.

  20. Seed germination response to high temperature and water stress in three invasive Asteraceae weeds from Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Yuan, Xia; Wen, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Crassocephalum crepidioides, Conyza canadensis, and Ageratum conyzoides are alien annuals naturalized in China, which produce a large number of viable seeds every year. They widely grow in Xishuangbanna, becoming troublesome weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. As seed germination is among the most important life-stages which contribute to plant distribution and invasiveness, its adaptation to temperature and water stress were investigated in these three species. Results showed that: (1) These three species have wide temperature ranges to allow seed germination, i.e., high germination and seedling percentages were achieved between 15°C and 30°C, but germination was seriously inhibited at 35°C; only A. conyzoides demonstrated relative preference for warmer temperatures with approximately 25% germination and seedling percentage at 35°C; (2) light was a vital germination prerequisite for C. crepidioides and A. conyzoides, whereas most C. canadensis seeds germinated in full darkness; (3) Although all three species have good adaptation to bare ground habitat characterized by high temperatures and water stress, including their tolerance to soil surface temperatures of 70°C in air-dried seeds, A. conyzoides seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 40°C, and to water restriction (e.g., ca. 65% seeds germinated to -0.8 MPa created by NaCl), which is consistent with their field behavior in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that seed high-temperature tolerance contributes to the weed attributes of these three species, and that adaptation to local micro-habitats is a critical determinant for invasiveness of an alien plant.

  1. Combined PCI and minimally invasive heart valve surgery for high-risk patients.

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Petracek, Michael R; Zhao, David X; Byrne, John G

    2009-12-01

    Combined coronary artery valvular heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult patient population. The standard treatment for such disease has been open heart surgery in which coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed concurrently with valve surgery using a median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. With the increasing complexity of patients referred to surgery, some patients may prove to be poor surgical candidates for combined valve and CABG surgery. In certain selected patients who fall into this category, valve surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been considered a feasible alternative. Conventionally, valve surgery is performed in the cardiac surgical operating room, whereas PCI is carried out in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Separation of these two procedural suites has presented a logistic limitation because it impedes the concomitant performance of both procedures in one setting. Hence, PCI and valve surgery usually have been performed as a "two-stage" procedure in two different operative suites, with the procedures being separated by hours, days, or weeks. Technologic advancements have made possible the construction of a "hybrid" procedural suite that combines the facilities of a cardiac surgical operating room with those of a cardiac catheterization laboratory. This design has enabled the concept of "one-stage" or "one-stop" PCI and valve surgery, allowing both procedures to be performed in a hybrid suite in one setting, separated by minutes. The advantages of such a method could prove to be multifold by enabling a less invasive surgical approach and improving logistics, patient satisfaction, and outcomes in selected patients.

  2. Filtering high resolution hyperspectral imagery and analyzing it for quantification of water quality parameters and aquatic vegetation

    Pande-Chhetri, Roshan

    High resolution hyperspectral imagery (airborne or ground-based) is gaining momentum as a useful analytical tool in various fields including agriculture and aquatic systems. These images are often contaminated with stripes and noise resulting in lower signal-to-noise ratio, especially in aquatic regions where signal is naturally low. This research investigates effective methods for filtering high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery and use of the imagery in water quality parameter estimation and aquatic vegetation classification. The striping pattern of the hyperspectral imagery is non-parametric and difficult to filter. In this research, a de-striping algorithm based on wavelet analysis and adaptive Fourier domain normalization was examined. The result of this algorithm was found superior to other available algorithms and yielded highest Peak Signal to Noise Ratio improvement. The algorithm was implemented on individual image bands and on selected bands of the Maximum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformed images. The results showed that image filtering in the MNF domain was efficient and produced best results. The study investigated methods of analyzing hyperspectral imagery to estimate water quality parameters and to map aquatic vegetation in case-2 waters. Ground-based hyperspectral imagery was analyzed to determine chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in aquaculture ponds. Two-band and three-band indices were implemented and the effect of using submerged reflectance targets was evaluated. Laboratory measured values were found to be in strong correlation with two-band and three-band spectral indices computed from the hyperspectral image. Coefficients of determination (R2) values were found to be 0.833 and 0.862 without submerged targets and stronger values of 0.975 and 0.982 were obtained using submerged targets. Airborne hyperspectral images were used to detect and classify aquatic vegetation in a black river estuarine system. Image normalization for water

  3. Comparison of chemical characteristics of high oleic acid fraction of moringa oleifera oil with some vegetable oils

    Rahman, F.; Nadeem, M.; Zahoor, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical characteristics of High oleic acid fraction (HOF) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) was compared with sunflower, soybean and canola oils. HOF of MOO was obtained by dry fractionation at 0 degree C. Iodine value and C18:1 in HOF increased from 61.55 to 82.47 points and 70.29% to 81.15%, respectively. Cloud point of HOF was 1.1 degree C as compared to 10.2 degree C in MOO. The induction period of HOF was greater than all the vegetable oils tested in this investigation. HOF can be used as a source of edible oil with better health attributes and superior storage stability. (author)

  4. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface...... different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cosθ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability...... contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability....

  5. Recent developments in high efficient freeze-drying of fruits and vegetables assisted by microwave: A review.

    Fan, Kai; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2018-01-10

    Microwave heating has been applied in the drying of high-value solids as it affords a number of advantages, including shorter drying time and better product quality. Freeze-drying at cryogenic temperature and extremely low pressure provides the advantage of high product quality, but at very high capital and operating costs due partly to very long drying time. Freeze-drying coupled with a microwave heat source speeds up the drying rate and yields good quality products provided the operating unit is designed and operated to achieve the potential for an absence of hot spot developments. This review is a survey of recent developments in the modeling and experimental results on microwave-assisted freeze-drying (MFD) over the past decade. Owing to the high costs involved, so far all applications are limited to small-scale operations for the drying of high-value foods such as fruits and vegetables. In order to promote industrial-scale applications for a broader range of products further research and development efforts are needed to offset the current limitations of the process. The needs and opportunities for future research and developments are outlined.

  6. A minimally invasive multiple marker approach allows highly efficient detection of meningioma tumors

    Meese Eckart

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of effective frameworks that permit an accurate diagnosis of tumors, especially in their early stages, remains a grand challenge in the field of bioinformatics. Our approach uses statistical learning techniques applied to multiple antigen tumor antigen markers utilizing the immune system as a very sensitive marker of molecular pathological processes. For validation purposes we choose the intracranial meningioma tumors as model system since they occur very frequently, are mostly benign, and are genetically stable. Results A total of 183 blood samples from 93 meningioma patients (WHO stages I-III and 90 healthy controls were screened for seroreactivity with a set of 57 meningioma-associated antigens. We tested several established statistical learning methods on the resulting reactivity patterns using 10-fold cross validation. The best performance was achieved by Naïve Bayes Classifiers. With this classification method, our framework, called Minimally Invasive Multiple Marker (MIMM approach, yielded a specificity of 96.2%, a sensitivity of 84.5%, and an accuracy of 90.3%, the respective area under the ROC curve was 0.957. Detailed analysis revealed that prediction performs particularly well on low-grade (WHO I tumors, consistent with our goal of early stage tumor detection. For these tumors the best classification result with a specificity of 97.5%, a sensitivity of 91.3%, an accuracy of 95.6%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.971 was achieved using a set of 12 antigen markers only. This antigen set was detected by a subset selection method based on Mutual Information. Remarkably, our study proves that the inclusion of non-specific antigens, detected not only in tumor but also in normal sera, increases the performance significantly, since non-specific antigens contribute additional diagnostic information. Conclusion Our approach offers the possibility to screen members of risk groups as a matter of routine

  7. Animal ecosystem engineers modulate the diversity-invasibility relationship.

    Nico Eisenhauer

    Full Text Available Invasions of natural communities by non-indigenous species are currently rated as one of the most important global-scale threats to biodiversity. Biodiversity itself is known to reduce invasions and increase stability. Disturbances by ecosystem engineers affect the distribution, establishment, and abundance of species but this has been ignored in studies on diversity-invasibility relationships.We determined natural plant invasion into 46 plots varying in the number of plant species (1, 4, and 16 and plant functional groups (1, 2, 3, and 4 for three years beginning two years after the establishment of the Jena Experiment. We sampled subplots where earthworms were artificially added and others where earthworm abundance was reduced. We also performed a seed-dummy experiment to investigate the role of earthworms as secondary seed dispersers along a plant diversity gradient. Horizontal dispersal and burial of seed dummies were significantly reduced in subplots where earthworms were reduced in abundance. Seed dispersal by earthworms decreased with increasing plant species richness and presence of grasses but increased in presence of small herbs. These results suggest that dense vegetation inhibits the surface activity of earthworms. Further, there was a positive relationship between the number of earthworms and the number and diversity of invasive plants. Hence, earthworms decreased the stability of grassland communities against plant invasion.Invasibility decreased and stability increased with increasing plant diversity and, most remarkably, earthworms modulated the diversity-invasibility relationship. While the impacts of earthworms were unimportant in low diverse (low earthworm densities and high diverse (high floral structural complexity plant communities, earthworms decreased the stability of intermediate diverse plant communities against plant invasion. Overall, the results document that fundamental processes in plant communities like plant seed

  8. Genetics, novel weapons and rhizospheric microcosmal signaling in the invasion of Phragmites australis.

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Bais, Harsh P

    2008-01-01

    Chemical communication and perception strategies between plants are highly sophisticated but are only partly understood. Among the different interactions, the suppressive interaction of a class of chemicals released by one plant through root exudates against the neighbouring plants (allelopathy) have been implicated in the invasiveness of many exotic weedy species. Phragmites australis (common reed) is one of the dominant colonizers of the North American wetland marshes and exhibits invasive behavior by virtually replacing the entire native vegetation in its niche. Recently, by adopting a systematic bioassay driven approach we elucidated the role of root derived allelopathy as one of the important mechanisms by which P. australis exerts its invasive behavior. Additionally, our recent preliminary data indicates the involvement of rhizobacterial signaling in the invasive success of P. australis. A better understanding of biochemical weaponry used by P. australis will aid scientists and technologists in addressing the impact of root secretions in invasiveness of weedy species and thus promote a more informed environmental stewardship.

  9. Pinus contorta invasions increase wildfire fuel loads and may create a positive feedback with fire.

    Taylor, Kimberley T; Maxwell, Bruce D; McWethy, David B; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñez, Martín A; Whitlock, Cathy

    2017-03-01

    Invasive plant species that have the potential to alter fire regimes have significant impacts on native ecosystems. Concern that pine invasions in the Southern Hemisphere will increase fire activity and severity and subsequently promote further pine invasion prompted us to examine the potential for feedbacks between Pinus contorta invasions and fire in Patagonia and New Zealand. We determined how fuel loads and fire effects were altered by P. contorta invasion. We also examined post-fire plant communities across invasion gradients at a subset of sites to assess how invasion alters the post-fire vegetation trajectory. We found that fuel loads and soil heating during simulated fire increase with increasing P. contorta invasion age or density at all sites. However, P. contorta density did not always increase post-fire. In the largest fire, P. contorta density only increased significantly post-fire where the pre-fire P. contorta density was above an invasion threshold. Below this threshold, P. contorta did not dominate after fire and plant communities responded to fire in a similar manner as uninvaded communities. The positive feedback observed at high densities is caused by the accumulation of fuel that in turn results in greater soil heating during fires and high P. contorta density post-fire. Therefore, a positive feedback may form between P. contorta invasions and fire, but only above an invasion density threshold. These results suggest that management of pine invasions before they reach the invasion density threshold is important for reducing fire risk and preventing a transition to an alternate ecosystem state dominated by pines and novel understory plant communities. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  11. Propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration influence the establishment and growth of an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides

    Wen-Hua eYou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, spreading mainly by vegetative propagules. Propagule pressure (the number of propagules may affect the establishment, growth and thus invasion success of these clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. To understand how propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration affect the establishment and growth of the invasive clonal plants, an 8-week greenhouse with an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides was conducted. High (five fragments or low (one fragment propagule pressure was established either in bare soil (open habitat or dense native vegetation of Jussiaea repens (vegetative habitat, with the stolon connections either severed from or connected to the relatively older ramets. High propagule pressure greatly increased the establishment and growth of A. philoxeroides, especially when it grew in vegetative habitats. Surprisingly, high propagule pressure significantly reduced the growth of individual plants of A. philoxeroides in open habitats, whereas it did not affect the individual growth in vegetative habitats. A shift in the intraspecific interaction on A. philoxeroides from competition in open habitats to facilitation in vegetative habitats may be the main reason. Moreover, clonal integration significantly improved the growth of A. philoxeroides only in open habitats, especially with low propagule pressure, whereas it had no effects on the growth and competitive ability of A. philoxeroides in vegetative habitats, suggesting that clonal integration may be of most important for A. philoxeroides to explore new open space and spread. These findings suggest that propagule pressure may be crucial for the invasion success of A. philoxeroides, and such an effect also depends on habitat conditions.

  12. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  13. High-resolution stable isotope monitoring reveals differential vegetation-soil water feedbacks among plant functional types

    Volkmann, T. H. M.; Haberer, K.; Troch, P. A. A.; Gessler, A.; Weiler, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the linked dynamics of rain water recharge to soils and its utilization by plants is critical for predicting the impact of climate and land use changes on the productivity of ecosystems and the hydrologic cycle. While plants require vast quantities of water from the soil to sustain growth and function, they exert important direct and indirect controls on the movement of water through the rooted soil horizons, thereby potentially affecting their own resource availability. However, the specific ecohydrological belowground processes associated with different plant types and their rooting systems have been difficult to quantify with traditional methods. Here, we report on the use of techniques for monitoring stable isotopes in soil and plant water pools that allow us to track water infiltration and root uptake dynamics non-destructively and in high resolution. The techniques were applied in controlled rain pulse experiments with distinct plant types (grass, deciduous trees, grapevine) that we let develop on an initially uniform soil for two years. Our results show that plant species and types differed widely in their plasticity and pattern of root uptake under variable water availability. Thereby, and through notably co-acting indirect effects related to differential root system traits and co-evolution of soil properties, the different plants induced contrasting hydrological dynamics in the soil they had inhabited for only a short period of time. Taken together, our data suggest that the studied soil-vegetation systems evolved a positive infiltration-uptake feedback in which hydrological flow pathways underlying different species diverged in a way that complemented their specific water utilization strategy. Such a feedback could present an indirect competitive mechanism by which plants improve their own water supply and modulate hydrological cycling at the land surface. The ability to directly measure this feedback using in situ isotope methodology

  14. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men.

    Van Dokkum, W; Wesstra, A; Luyken, R; Hermus, R J

    1986-09-01

    1. Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of vegetable origin). Retention of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper as well as various bowel function indices were investigated during each dietary period. 2. Neither the HA diet nor the HV diet changed the retention of the minerals considerably. Only Fe balance decreased significantly on the HV diet. 3. Substituting the HV diet for the HA diet resulted in significant increases in faecal wet weight (17 g/d), defaecation frequency (0.12 stools/d), faecal volatile fatty acids (2.6 mmol/d) and a decrease in faecal bile acids (128 mumol/d). 4. It is concluded that a HV diet, rather than a HA diet is to be recommended with respect to bowel function, whereas the HV diet does not necessarily have a significant influence on mineral retention.

  15. Trade, Food Standards and Poverty: The Case of High-Value Vegetable Exports from Senegal

    Maertens, Miet

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural supply chains are changing globally with pervasive food standards and increased vertical coordination. The impact of these changes for developing countries and for small farmers in those countries is not yet well understood. We analyze the developments in high-standards FFV supply chains and the effects for small farmers and rural households in Senegal. We use a unique dataset derived from company level interviews and household surveys in the main horticulture zone in Senegal. Su...

  16. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems: Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G. W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding interactions of invasive and native species and their combined effects on river dynamics is essential for developing cost-effective management strategies. However, numerical models for simulating long-term effects of these processes are lacking. This paper investigates how an invasive alien plant species affects native riparian vegetation and hydro-morphodynamics. A morphodynamic model has been coupled to a dynamic vegetation model that predicts establishment, growth and mortality of riparian trees. We introduced an invasive alien species with life-history traits based on Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica), and investigated effects of low- and high propagule pressure on invasion speed, native vegetation and hydro-morphodynamic processes. Results show that high propagule pressure leads to a decline in native species cover due to competition and the creation of unfavorable native colonization sites. With low propagule pressure the invader facilitates native seedling survival by creating favorable hydro-morphodynamic conditions at colonization sites. With high invader abundance, water levels are raised and sediment transport is reduced during the growing season. In winter, when the above-ground invader biomass is gone, results are reversed and the floodplain is more prone to erosion. Invasion effects thus depend on seasonal above- and below ground dynamic vegetation properties and persistence of the invader, on the characteristics of native species it replaces, and the combined interactions with hydro-morphodynamics.

  17. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  18. Changes in the high-mountain vegetation of the Central Iberian Peninsula as a probable sign of global warming.

    Sanz-Elorza, Mario; Dana, Elías D; González, Alberto; Sobrino, Eduardo

    2003-08-01

    Aerial images of the high summits of the Spanish Central Range reveal significant changes in vegetation over the period 1957 to 1991. These changes include the replacement of high-mountain grassland communities dominated by Festuca aragonensis, typical of the Cryoro-Mediterranean belt, by shrub patches of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina and Cytisus oromediterraneus from lower altitudes (Oro-Mediterranean belt). Climatic data indicate a shift towards warmer conditions in this mountainous region since the 1940s, with the shift being particularly marked from 1960. Changes include significantly higher minimum and maximum temperatures, fewer days with snow cover and a redistribution of monthly rainfall. Total yearly precipitation showed no significant variation. There were no marked changes in land use during the time frame considered, although there were minor changes in grazing species in the 19th century. It is hypothesized that the advance of woody species into higher altitudes is probably related to climate change, which could have acted in conjunction with discrete variations in landscape management. The pronounced changes observed in the plant communities of the area reflect the susceptibility of high-mountain Mediterranean species to environmental change.

  19. A plant to plate pilot: a cold-climate high school garden increased vegetable selection but also waste.

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R

    2015-08-01

    Can high school gardens in cold climates influence vegetable intake in the absence of nutrition education? This study followed a before/after design where student tray-waste data were collected using the quarter-waste method. The study took place March-April 2012 in a high school in upstate New York. The subjects were 370 enrolled high school students that purchased lunch from the school cafeteria. Prior to the introduction of garden greens in the salad, salads were served as usual. On April 24, harvested greens were included in the salad, and changes in selection and plate waste were measured. When the salad bar contained garden produce, the percentage of students selecting salad rose from 2% to 10% (p school gardens increased selection and intake of school-raised produce. Although a third was not eaten, it is promising to see that still more produce was consumed compared to the past. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Non-invasive measure of respiratory mechanics and conventional respiratory parameters in conscious large animals by high frequency Airwave Oscillometry.

    Bassett, Leanne; Troncy, Eric; Robichaud, Annette; Schuessler, Thomas F; Pouliot, Mylène; Ascah, Alexis; Authier, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A number of drugs in clinical trials are discontinued due to potentially life-threatening airway obstruction. As some drugs may not cause changes in core battery parameters such as tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (RR) or minute ventilation (MV), including measurements of respiratory mechanics in safety pharmacology studies represents an opportunity for design refinement. The present study aimed to test a novel non-invasive methodology to concomitantly measure respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and conventional respiratory parameters (Vt, RR, MV) in conscious Beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys. An Airwave Oscillometry system (tremoFlo; THORASYS Inc., Montreal, Canada) was used to concomitantly assess Rrs and conventional respiratory parameters before and after intravenous treatment with a bronchoactive agent. Respiratory mechanics measurements were performed by applying a short (i.e. 16s) single high frequency (19Hz) waveform at the subject's airway opening via a face mask. During measurements, pressure and flow signals were recorded. After collection of baseline measurements, methacholine was administered intravenously to Beagle dogs (n=6) and cynomolgus monkeys (n=4) at 8 and 68μg/kg, respectively. In dogs, methacholine induced significant increases in Vt, RR and MV while in monkeys, it only augmented RR. A significant increase in Rrs was observed after methacholine administration in both species with mean percentage peak increases from baseline of 88 (53)% for dogs and 28 (16)% for cynomolgus monkeys. Airwave Oscillometry appears to be a promising non-invasive methodology to enable respiratory mechanics measurements in conscious large animals, a valuable refinement in respiratory safety pharmacology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-invasive treatment efficacy evaluation for high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy using magnetically induced magnetoacoustic measurement

    Guo, Gepu; Wang, Jiawei; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Although the application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been demonstrated to be a non-invasive treatment technology for tumor therapy, the real-time temperature monitoring is still a key issue in the practical application. Based on the temperature-impedance relation, a fixed-point magnetically induced magnetoacoustic measurement technology of treatment efficacy evaluation for tissue thermocoagulation during HIFU therapy is developed with a sensitive indicator of critical temperature monitoring in this study. With the acoustic excitation of a focused transducer in the magnetoacoustic tomography with the magnetic induction system, the distributions of acoustic pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, and acoustic source strength in the focal region are simulated, and the treatment time dependences of the peak amplitude and the corresponding amplitude derivative under various acoustic powers are also achieved. It is proved that the strength peak of acoustic sources is generated by tissue thermocoagulation with a sharp conductivity variation. The peak amplitude of the transducer collected magnetoacoustic signal increases accordingly along with the increase in the treatment time under a fixed acoustic power. When the temperature in the range with the radial and axial widths of about ±0.46 mm and ±2.2 mm reaches 69 °C, an obvious peak of the amplitude derivative can be achieved and used as a sensitive indicator of the critical status of treatment efficacy. The favorable results prove the feasibility of real-time non-invasive temperature monitoring and treatment efficacy evaluation for HIFU ablation using the magnetically induced magnetoacoustic measurement, and might provide a new strategy for accurate dose control during HIFU therapy.

  2. Determination of Radium transfer factor from soil to vegetables by Gamma spectrometry in high levels of natural radiation areas of Ramsar

    Reza-nejad, F.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important and prevalent radioactive contaminants in the environment is radium-226 from uranium-238 decay series. This radionuclide after entering in to the food chain, especially through consumed drinking water and vegetables is transferred to man. In order to determine the transfer factor of 226 Ra from soil to veg tables and to assess the effective dose due to ingestion of vegetables by the critical group of Talesh-Mahaleh which is one of the high levels natural radiation areas of Ramsar, more than 90 samples of soil, seed and vegetable were collected and analysed by gamma spectrometry using a High Purity Germanium detector coupled to a Canberra Mca-series 100. The concentrations of 226 Ra were determined by 609 KeV photopeak of bismuth-214 in secular equilibrium with 226 Ra. Concentrations of 226 Ra in dried soil samples were ranged from a minimum of 733 ± 25 to a maximum of 45100 ± 37 Bq Kg -1 . The maximum and minimum transfer factor of 226 Ra were determined in leafy and root vegetables respectively. The average transfer factor of 226 RA were calculated 1.2 * 10 -2 for all 14 kind of vegetables. The results indicated that by increasing the 226 Ra concentration in substrate, the uptake of this radionuclide has exponentially increased while, the transfer factors were decreased. Also there is a positive correlation between uptake of 226 Ra and Ca in vegetable. The highest and lowest ratio of 226 Ra/Ca were measured 127.8 Bq Kg -1 and 8 Bq Kg -1 and 8 Bq Kg -1 in carrot and tomato samples respectively. The effective dose resulting from 226 Ra due to consumption of vegetables for critical group was 51.6 μ Sv a -1 which is 13 times more than average of effective dose resulting from this radionuclide due to intake of all kind of foods and water in background region

  3. Association of invasive breast carcinoma and multicentric high grade astrocytoma: a case report with a review.

    Pour, P Hossein; Forouzandeh, M; Beni, A Naderi; Beni, Z Naderi; Hoseinpour, P

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Multicentric gliomas are uncommon lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) with an unprecise rate of occurrence that diffusely infiltrate large portions of the brain. High grade astrocytoma is the most agressive form of gliomas and often has a distinct neuroimaging pattern with a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 29-year-old woman patient with primary breast carcinoma and high grade astrocytoma subsequently developed. The woman was treated by mastectomy and 20 months post-diagnosis of the cancer she exhibited a transient facial paralysis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed two cranial masses suspicious of metastasis. A complete tumor removal from the brain was performed. On histological examination, this tumor was a high grade astrocytoma.

  4. Successful treatment of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a bottlenose dolphin with high-dose posaconazole

    P.E. Bunskoek (Paulien); S. Seyedmousavi (Seyedmojtaba); S. Gans (Steven); van Vierzen, P.B.J. (Peter B.J.); W.J. Melchers (Willem); C.E. van Elk; J.W. Mouton (Johan); P.E. Verweij (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractInvasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is difficult to manage. We describe a case of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a female bottlenose dolphin, who failed to respond to voriconazole and posaconazole therapy. As intravenous therapy was precluded,

  5. New gSSR and EST-SSR markers reveal high genetic diversity in the invasive plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and can be transferred to other invasive Ambrosia species.

    Meyer, Lucie; Causse, Romain; Pernin, Fanny; Scalone, Romain; Bailly, Géraldine; Chauvel, Bruno; Délye, Christophe; Le Corre, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., (common ragweed), is an annual invasive and highly troublesome plant species originating from North America that has become widespread across Europe. New sets of genomic and expressed sequence tag (EST) based simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were developed in this species using three approaches. After validation, 13 genomic SSRs and 13 EST-SSRs were retained and used to characterize the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from the native (North America) and invasive (Europe) ranges of the species. Analysing the mating system based on maternal families did not reveal any departure from complete allogamy and excess homozygosity was mostly due the presence of null alleles. High genetic diversity and patterns of genetic structure in Europe suggest two main introduction events followed by secondary colonization events. Cross-species transferability of the newly developed markers to other invasive species of the Ambrosia genus was assessed. Sixty-five percent and 75% of markers, respectively, were transferable from A. artemisiifolia to Ambrosia psilostachya and Ambrosia tenuifolia. 40% were transferable to Ambrosia trifida, this latter species being seemingly more phylogenetically distantly related to A. artemisiifolia than the former two.

  6. Ascorbic acid is the only bioactive that is better preserved by high hydrostatic pressure than by thermal treatment of a vegetable beverage.

    Barba, Francisco J; Esteve, Maria J; Frigola, Ana

    2010-09-22

    Variations in levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and total carotenoids), total antioxidant capacity, and color changes in a vegetable (tomato, green pepper, green celery, onion, carrot, lemon, and olive oil) beverage treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) were evaluated in this work. The effects of HHP treatment, four different pressures (100, 200, 300, and 400 MPa) and four treatment times for each pressure (from 120 to 540 s) were compared with those of thermal treatment (90-98 °C for 15 and 21 s). High pressure treatment retained significantly more ascorbic acid in the vegetable beverage than thermal treatment. However, no significant changes in total phenolics were observed between HHP treated and thermally processed vegetable beverage and unprocessed beverage. Color changes (a*, b*, L, chroma, h°, and ΔE) were less for pressurized beverage than thermally treated samples compared with unprocessed beverage.

  7. Potential Water Reuse for High Strength Fruit and Vegetable Processor Wastewater with an MBR.

    Moore, Adam W; Zytner, Richard G; Chang, Sheng

    High strength food processing wastewater from two processing plants was studied to determine the effectiveness of an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) to reduce BOD, TSS and nutrients below municipal sewer discharge limits. The MBR comprised a 20 L lab-scale reactor combined with a flat sheet, ultrafiltration membrane module. The parameters studied included the operational flux, solids and hydraulic retention times and recirculation ratio with regards to nitrification/denitrification. The MBR system provided excellent removal efficiency at 97% COD, 99% BOD, 99.9% TSS, 90% TKN, and 60% TP for both processing plants, which eliminated the surcharges, allowing the firms to stay competitive. Effluent reuse tests showed that activated carbon proved effective in removing color from the MBR permeate, while UV treatment was able to achieve a 5 log reduction in bacteriophage. Overall, these treatment successes show the potential for water reuse in the agrifood sector.

  8. Invasive pathogen threatens bird-pine mutualism: Implications for sustaining a high-elevation ecosystem

    Shawn T. McKinney; Carl E. Fiedler; Diana F. Tomback

    2009-01-01

    Human-caused disruptions to seed-dispersal mutualisms increase the extinction risk for both plant and animal species. Large-seeded plants can be particularly vulnerable due to highly specialized dispersal systems and no compensatory regeneration mechanisms. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone subalpine species, obligately depends upon the Clark's...

  9. Salinity tolerance loci revealed in rice using high-throughput non-invasive phenotyping

    Al-Tamimi, Nadia Ali; Brien, Chris; Oakey, Helena; Berger, Bettina; Saade, Stephanie; Ho, Yung Shwen; Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Tester, Mark A.; Negrã o, Só nia

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput phenotyping produces multiple measurements over time, which require new methods of analyses that are flexible in their quantification of plant growth and transpiration, yet are computationally economic. Here we develop such analyses and apply this to a rice population genotyped with a 700k SNP high-density array. Two rice diversity panels, indica and aus, containing a total of 553 genotypes, are phenotyped in waterlogged conditions. Using cubic smoothing splines to estimate plant growth and transpiration, we identify four time intervals that characterize the early responses of rice to salinity. Relative growth rate, transpiration rate and transpiration use efficiency (TUE) are analysed using a new association model that takes into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic marker. This model allows the identification of previously undetected loci affecting TUE on chromosome 11, providing insights into the early responses of rice to salinity, in particular into the effects of salinity on plant growth and transpiration.

  10. Salinity tolerance loci revealed in rice using high-throughput non-invasive phenotyping

    Al-Tamimi, Nadia Ali

    2016-11-17

    High-throughput phenotyping produces multiple measurements over time, which require new methods of analyses that are flexible in their quantification of plant growth and transpiration, yet are computationally economic. Here we develop such analyses and apply this to a rice population genotyped with a 700k SNP high-density array. Two rice diversity panels, indica and aus, containing a total of 553 genotypes, are phenotyped in waterlogged conditions. Using cubic smoothing splines to estimate plant growth and transpiration, we identify four time intervals that characterize the early responses of rice to salinity. Relative growth rate, transpiration rate and transpiration use efficiency (TUE) are analysed using a new association model that takes into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic marker. This model allows the identification of previously undetected loci affecting TUE on chromosome 11, providing insights into the early responses of rice to salinity, in particular into the effects of salinity on plant growth and transpiration.

  11. Microbial and nutritional regulation of high-solids anaerobic mono-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Mu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Jin, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of single fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) can be easily interrupted by rapid acidogenesis and inhibition of methanogen, and the digestion system tends to be particularly unstable at high solid content. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of FVW in batch experiments under mesophilic condition at a high solid concentration of 10% was successfully conducted to overcome the acidogenesis problem through several modifications. Firstly, compared with the conventional anaerobic sludge (CAS), the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was found to be a better inoculum due to its higher Archaea abundance. Secondly, waste activated sludge (WAS) was chosen to co-digest with FVW, because WAS had abundant proteins that could generate intermediate ammonium. The ammonium could neutralize the accumulated volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and prevent the pH value of the digestion system from rapidly decreasing. Co-digestion of FVW and WAS with TS ratio of 60:40 gave the highest biogas yield of 562 mL/g-VS and the highest methane yield of 362 mL/g-VS. Key parameters in the digestion process, including VFAs concentration, pH, enzyme activity, and microbial activity, were also examined.

  12. Global-Scale Associations of Vegetation Phenology with Rainfall and Temperature at a High Spatio-Temporal Resolution

    Nicholas Clinton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenology response to climatic variables is a vital indicator for understanding changes in biosphere processes as related to possible climate change. We investigated global phenology relationships to precipitation and land surface temperature (LST at high spatial and temporal resolution for calendar years 2008–2011. We used cross-correlation between MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, MODIS LST and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN gridded rainfall to map phenology relationships at 1-km spatial resolution and weekly temporal resolution. We show these data to be rich in spatiotemporal information, illustrating distinct phenology patterns as a result of complex overlapping gradients of climate, ecosystem and land use/land cover. The data are consistent with broad-scale, coarse-resolution modeled ecosystem limitations to moisture, temperature and irradiance. We suggest that high-resolution phenology data are useful as both an input and complement to land use/land cover classifiers and for understanding climate change vulnerability in natural and anthropogenic landscapes.

  13. Non-invasive high throughput approach for protein hydrophobicity determination based on surface tension.

    Amrhein, Sven; Bauer, Katharina Christin; Galm, Lara; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    The surface hydrophobicity of a protein is an important factor for its interactions in solution and thus the outcome of its production process. Yet most of the methods are not able to evaluate the influence of these hydrophobic interactions under natural conditions. In the present work we have established a high resolution stalagmometric method for surface tension determination on a liquid handling station, which can cope with accuracy as well as high throughput requirements. Surface tensions could be derived with a low sample consumption (800 μL) and a high reproducibility (content. The protein influence on the solutions' surface tension was correlated to the hydrophobicity of lysozyme, human lysozyme, BSA, and α-lactalbumin. Differences in proteins' hydrophobic character depending on pH and species could be resolved. Within this work we have developed a pH dependent hydrophobicity ranking, which was found to be in good agreement with literature. For the studied pH range of 3-9 lysozyme from chicken egg white was identified to be the most hydrophilic. α-lactalbumin at pH 3 exhibited the most pronounced hydrophobic character. The stalagmometric method occurred to outclass the widely used spectrophotometric method with bromophenol blue sodium salt as it gave reasonable results without restrictions on pH and protein species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field.  The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to evaluate the survival and growth of budded plants in the field. Pods were collected from 30 trees in Lovina Beach, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet with hexane as a solvent.  The high oil yielding trees were propagated by budding using root stocks grown from M. pinnata seeds.  Scions were taken from young branches of selected trees. Incision was made on rootstock and the same size of cut was made on a scion containing a single bud.  The scion was inserted to the incision of rootstock then closed tightly using plastic strips.   The plastic was removed when the scion grew into a little green shoot. One month after plastic removal, the scion union grew into a single shoot and then the budded plants were removed to polybags. Budded plants were planted in the field of Bukit Jimbaran, Badung Regency, Bali with 4 × 4 spacing. Results showed all budded plants successfully grow new shoots. Two months after planting the survival of budded plants was 100%. Plant height increased by 22.13 cm, stem diameter increased by 2.43 mm and the number of compound leaf increased by 2.08.  It can be concluded that four high oil yielding trees were selected from Lovina Beach and successfully propagated by budding. Survival of budded plants was 100% with vigorous growth.

  15. Applying GIS and high performance agent-based simulation for managing an Old World Screwworm fly invasion of Australia.

    Welch, M C; Kwan, P W; Sajeev, A S M

    2014-10-01

    Agent-based modelling has proven to be a promising approach for developing rich simulations for complex phenomena that provide decision support functions across a broad range of areas including biological, social and agricultural sciences. This paper demonstrates how high performance computing technologies, namely General-Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU), and commercial Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be applied to develop a national scale, agent-based simulation of an incursion of Old World Screwworm fly (OWS fly) into the Australian mainland. The development of this simulation model leverages the combination of massively data-parallel processing capabilities supported by NVidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) and the advanced spatial visualisation capabilities of GIS. These technologies have enabled the implementation of an individual-based, stochastic lifecycle and dispersal algorithm for the OWS fly invasion. The simulation model draws upon a wide range of biological data as input to stochastically determine the reproduction and survival of the OWS fly through the different stages of its lifecycle and dispersal of gravid females. Through this model, a highly efficient computational platform has been developed for studying the effectiveness of control and mitigation strategies and their associated economic impact on livestock industries can be materialised. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-Invasive Airway Cleansing with Application of Expulsion Effect of HFJV (High Frequency Jet Ventilation

    A. Hermely

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of expulsion and impulsion nozzle high frequency ventilation (VFDV for cleansing respiratory system during long-term mechanical ventilation. Material and methods. Retrospective study. In the group of 198 patients presenting its own procedures and the application of inpulsive and expulsive effect of the nozzle frequency ventilation (VFDV for cleansing and maintaining a patent airway. They used high frequency jet ventilation with the possibility of expulsion and epulsion programming and assessed a total of over 8000 expulsion procedures. Changes in lung mechanics, hemodynamics, effectiveness of expulsion and the need for suction beforeexpulsion and in regular application of VFDV were monitored. Results. We statistically compared and evaluated the effectiveness of expulsion in the VFDV group of 198 patients on long-term UVP, which was effective in average of 94.9% of patients. The impact of expulsion regime on circulatory, ventilation systems and gas exchange in the lungs, including lung mechanics, were analyzed. The authors found that the application of VFDV had a substantial and statistically significant effect on hemodynamics. Application of expulsion and lavage (a technique is described statistically significantly reduced airway resistance Raw (p<0.01 and improved the levels of lung static compliance (p<0.01 compared with the prior expulsion. Changes in blood gases during the expulsion itself did not have a major impact on gas exchange in the lungs or on the pH in this group, but there was a statistically significant increase in PaO2 (p<0.05. A key finding was that when comparing the number of manipulations in the airways (suction, a radical reduction in the number of pumping was observed, if expulsion was used regularly. A statistically significant difference in the application of expulsion was detected when compared to most groups of patients (p<0.01. The number of

  17. Extremely high resolution corrosion monitoring of pipelines: retrofittable, non-invasive and real-time

    Baltzersen, Oeystein; Tveit, Edd [Sensorlink AS, Trondheim (Norway); Verley, Richard [StatoilHydro ASA, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The Ultramonit unit is a clamp-on tool (removable) that uses an array of sensors to provide online, real-time, reliable and repeatable high accuracy ultrasonic wall thickness measurements and corrosion monitoring at selected locations along the pipeline. The unit can be installed on new or existing pipelines by diver or ROV. The system is based on the well-established ultrasonic pulse-echo method (A-scan). Special processing methods, and the fact that the unit is fixed to the pipeline, enable detection of changes in wall thickness in the micro-meter range. By utilizing this kind of resolution, it is possible to project corrosion rates in hours or days. The tool is used for calibration of corrosion inhibitor programs, verification and calibration of inspection pig data and general corrosion monitoring of new and existing pipelines. (author)

  18. Non-Invasive Diagnostics for Measuring Physical Properties and Processes in High Level Wastes

    Robert Powell; David Pfund

    2005-01-01

    This research demonstrated the usefulness of tomographic techniques for determining the physical properties of slurry suspensions. Of particular interest was the measurement of the viscosity of suspensions in complex liquids and modeling these. We undertook a long rage program that used two techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonic pulsed Doppler velocimetry. Our laboratory originally developed both of these for the measurement of viscosity of complex liquids and suspensions. We have shown that the relationship between shear viscosity and shear rate can be determined over a wide range of shear rates from a single measurement. We have also demonstrated these techniques for many non-Newtonian fluids which demonstrate highly shear thinning behavior. This technique was extended to determine the yield stress with systems of interacting particles. To model complex slurries that may be found in wastes applications, we have also used complex slurries that are found in industrial applications

  19. High frequency of silver resistance genes in invasive isolates of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species.

    Sütterlin, S; Dahlö, M; Tellgren-Roth, C; Schaal, W; Melhus, Å

    2017-07-01

    Silver-based products have been marketed as an alternative to antibiotics, and their consumption has increased. Bacteria may, however, develop resistance to silver. To study the presence of genes encoding silver resistance (silE, silP, silS) over time in three clinically important Enterobacteriaceae genera. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 752 bloodstream isolates from the years 1990-2010 were investigated. Age, gender, and ward of patients were registered, and the susceptibility to antibiotics and silver nitrate was tested. Clonality and single nucleotide polymorphism were assessed with repetitive element sequence-based PCR, multi-locus sequence typing, and whole-genome sequencing. Genes encoding silver resistance were detected most frequently in Enterobacter spp. (48%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (41%) and Escherichia coli 4%. Phenotypical resistance to silver nitrate was found in Enterobacter (13%) and Klebsiella (3%) isolates. The lowest carriage rate of sil genes was observed in blood isolates from the neonatology ward (24%), and the highest in blood isolates from the oncology/haematology wards (66%). Presence of sil genes was observed in international high-risk clones. Sequences of the sil and pco clusters indicated that a single mutational event in the silS gene could have caused the phenotypic resistance. Despite a restricted consumption of silver-based products in Swedish health care, silver resistance genes are widely represented in clinical isolates of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species. To avoid further selection and spread of silver-resistant bacteria with a high potential for healthcare-associated infections, the use of silver-based products needs to be controlled and the silver resistance monitored. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kuchler Vegetation

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  1. Wieslander Vegetation

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  2. Food Safety and Bioavailability Evaluations of Four Vegetables Grown in the Highly Arsenic-Contaminated Soils on the Guandu Plain of Northern Taiwan

    Shaw-Wei Su

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in a large area of agricultural fields on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan was confirmed in a survey conducted in 2006, but research concerning the relationship between bioavailable As concentrations in contaminated soils and crop production in Taiwan is not available. Pot experiments were conducted to examine the growth and accumulation of As in four vegetable crops grown in As-contaminated soils and to assess As intake through consumption. The phytotoxic effects of As in soils were not shown in the pot experiments in which vegetable crops were grown in soils contaminated with different As levels in situ collected from Guandu Plain (120–460 mg/kg or artificially spiked As-contaminated soils (50–170 mg/kg. Experimental results showed that the bioavailable As extracted with 0.5M NaHCO3 from soils can be used to estimate As concentrations in vegetables. The As concentrations in the vegetables were compared with data shown in the literature and As limits calculated from drinking water standards and the provisional tolerance weekly intake (PTWI of inorganic As established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO. Although the As levels in the vegetables were not high and the bioavailability of As in the soils was quite low, long-term consumption may result in higher As intake in the human body.

  3. Food safety and bioavailability evaluations of four vegetables grown in the highly arsenic-contaminated soils on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan.

    Su, Shaw-Wei; Tsui, Chun-Chih; Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2014-04-14

    Arsenic contamination in a large area of agricultural fields on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan was confirmed in a survey conducted in 2006, but research concerning the relationship between bioavailable As concentrations in contaminated soils and crop production in Taiwan is not available. Pot experiments were conducted to examine the growth and accumulation of As in four vegetable crops grown in As-contaminated soils and to assess As intake through consumption. The phytotoxic effects of As in soils were not shown in the pot experiments in which vegetable crops were grown in soils contaminated with different As levels in situ collected from Guandu Plain (120-460 mg/kg) or artificially spiked As-contaminated soils (50-170 mg/kg). Experimental results showed that the bioavailable As extracted with 0.5M NaHCO3 from soils can be used to estimate As concentrations in vegetables. The As concentrations in the vegetables were compared with data shown in the literature and As limits calculated from drinking water standards and the provisional tolerance weekly intake (PTWI) of inorganic As established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Although the As levels in the vegetables were not high and the bioavailability of As in the soils was quite low, long-term consumption may result in higher As intake in the human body.

  4. Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control treatments in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site

    Warren D. Devine; Paul W. Footen; Robert B. Harrison; Thomas A. Terry; Constance A. Harrington; Scott M. Holub; Peter J. Gould

    2013-01-01

    We sampled trees grown with and without competing vegetation control in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation on a highly productive site in southwestern Washington to create diameter based allometric equations for estimating individual-tree bole, branch, foliar, and total...

  5. Vegetation mapping in the St Lucia estuary using very high-resolution multispectral imagery and LiDAR

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available environmental conditions causing discrepancies between the field data and satellite acquisition dates rather than technical issues. Dynamics in water levels and salinity caused rapid change in vegetation communities. Further, weather impacts such as floods...

  6. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

  7. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    Kamiran, N; Sarker, M L R

    2014-01-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach ''multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms'' was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier A rtificial Neural Network (ANN) . Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm

  8. High-Dose Micafungin for Preterm Neonates and Infants with Invasive and Central Nervous System Candidiasis.

    Auriti, Cinzia; Falcone, Marco; Ronchetti, Maria Paola; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Cairoli, Sara; Crisafulli, Rosamaria; Piersigilli, Fiammetta; Corsetti, Tiziana; Dotta, Andrea; Pai, Manjunath P

    2016-12-01

    High doses of micafungin are advocated in neonates with systemic candidiasis, but limited pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety data are available to support their use. Eighteen preterm neonates and infants with systemic candidiasis, three of whom had meningitis, were treated for at least 14 days with 8 to 15 mg/kg of body weight/day of intravenous micafungin. Plasma micafungin concentrations (four measurements for each patient) were determined after the third dose, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) micafungin concentrations in three patients were also obtained. Population PK analyses were used to identify the optimal model, and the model was further validated using external data (n = 5). The safety of micafungin was assessed by measurement of the levels of liver and kidney function biomarkers. The mean age and weight at the initiation of treatment were 2.33 months (standard deviation [SD], 1.98 months) and 3.24 kg (SD, 1.61 kg), respectively. The optimal PK model was one that scaled plasma clearance to weight and the transaminase concentration ratio. The CSF of three patients was sampled, and the observed concentrations were between 0.80 and 1.80 mg/liter. The model-predicted mean micafungin area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h was 336 mg · h/liter (SD, 165 mg · h/liter) with the 10-mg/kg/day dosage. Eighteen of the 23 subjects (78.2%) had clinical resolution of their infection, but 5 had neurologic impairments. Among the transaminases, alkaline phosphatase measurements were significantly higher posttreatment, with a geometric mean ratio of 1.17 (90% confidence interval, 1.01, 1.37). Furthermore, marked elevations in the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level were observed in three patients treated with 10- to 15-mg/kg/day doses, and improvement of the GGT level was noted after a dose reduction. Higher weight-based doses of micafungin were generally well tolerated in neonates and infants and achieved pharmacokinetic profiles predictive of an effect

  9. Realizations of highly heterogeneous collagen networks via stochastic reconstruction for micromechanical analysis of tumor cell invasion

    Nan, Hanqing; Liang, Long; Chen, Guo; Liu, Liyu; Liu, Ruchuan; Jiao, Yang

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) collective cell migration in a collagen-based extracellular matrix (ECM) is among one of the most significant topics in developmental biology, cancer progression, tissue regeneration, and immune response. Recent studies have suggested that collagen-fiber mediated force transmission in cellularized ECM plays an important role in stress homeostasis and regulation of collective cellular behaviors. Motivated by the recent in vitro observation that oriented collagen can significantly enhance the penetration of migrating breast cancer cells into dense Matrigel which mimics the intravasation process in vivo [Han et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 11208 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1610347113], we devise a procedure for generating realizations of highly heterogeneous 3D collagen networks with prescribed microstructural statistics via stochastic optimization. Specifically, a collagen network is represented via the graph (node-bond) model and the microstructural statistics considered include the cross-link (node) density, valence distribution, fiber (bond) length distribution, as well as fiber orientation distribution. An optimization problem is formulated in which the objective function is defined as the squared difference between a set of target microstructural statistics and the corresponding statistics for the simulated network. Simulated annealing is employed to solve the optimization problem by evolving an initial network via random perturbations to generate realizations of homogeneous networks with randomly oriented fibers, homogeneous networks with aligned fibers, heterogeneous networks with a continuous variation of fiber orientation along a prescribed direction, as well as a binary system containing a collagen region with aligned fibers and a dense Matrigel region with randomly oriented fibers. The generation and propagation of active forces in the simulated networks due to polarized contraction of an embedded ellipsoidal cell and a small group

  10. Contemporary management of patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer who fail intravesical BCG therapy.

    Yates, D R; Rouprêt, M

    2011-08-01

    It is advocated that patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) receive an adjuvant course of intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) as first-line treatment. However, a substantial proportion of patients will 'fail' BCG, either early with persistent (refractory) disease or recur late after a long disease-free interval (relapsing). Guideline recommendation in the 'refractory' setting is radical cystectomy, but there are situations when extirpative surgery is not feasible due to competing co-morbidity, a patient's desire for bladder preservation or reluctance to undergo surgery. In this review, we discuss the contemporary management of NMIBC in patients who have failed prior BCG and are not suitable for radical surgery and highlight the potential options available. These options can be categorised as immunotherapy, chemotherapy, device-assisted therapy and combination therapy. However, the current data are still inadequate to formulate definitive recommendations, and data from ongoing trials and maturing studies will give us an insight into whether there is a realistic efficacious second-line treatment for patients who fail intravesical BCG but are not candidates for definitive surgery.

  11. High-resolution non-invasive 3D imaging of paint microstructure by synchrotron-based X-ray laminography

    Reischig, Peter; Helfen, Lukas; Wallert, Arie; Baumbach, Tilo; Dik, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of the microstructure and micromechanical behaviour of paint is key to a range of problems related to the conservation or technical art history of paintings. Synchrotron-based X-ray laminography is demonstrated in this paper to image the local sub-surface microstructure in paintings in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Based on absorption and phase contrast, the method can provide high-resolution 3D maps of the paint stratigraphy, including the substrate, and visualise small features, such as pigment particles, voids, cracks, wood cells, canvas fibres etc. Reconstructions may be indicative of local density or chemical composition due to increased attenuation of X-rays by elements of higher atomic number. The paint layers and their interfaces can be distinguished via variations in morphology or composition. Results of feasibility tests on a painting mockup (oak panel, chalk ground, vermilion and lead white paint) are shown, where lateral and depth resolution of up to a few micrometres is demonstrated. The method is well adapted to study the temporal evolution of the stratigraphy in test specimens and offers an alternative to destructive sampling of original works of art. (orig.)

  12. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...... on cervical cancer prevention. More than 6,000 women diagnosed with HG-CIN or ICC from 17 European countries were enrolled in two parallel cross-sectional studies (108288/108290). Centralised histopathology review and standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical...... higher in ICC than in HG-CIN. The difference in age at diagnosis between CIN3 and squamous cervical cancer for HPV18 (9 years) was significantly less compared to HPV31/33/'other' (23/20/17 years), and for HPV45 (1 year) than HPV16/31/33/'other' (15/23/20/17 years). In Europe, HPV16 predominates in both...

  13. Invasion genetics of a freshwater mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) in eastern Europe: high gene flow and multiple introductions.

    Therriault, T W; Orlova, M I; Docker, M F; Macisaac, H J; Heath, D D

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, the quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, native to the Dnieper and Bug Limans of the northern Black Sea, has been dispersed by human activities across the basin, throughout much of the Volga River system, and to the Laurentian Great Lakes. We used six published microsatellite markers to survey populations throughout its native and introduced range to identify relationships among potential source populations and introduced ones. Mussels from 12 sites in Eurasia, including the central Caspian Sea and one in North America (Lake Erie), were sampled. Field surveys in the Volga River basin suggested that the species first colonized the middle reach of the river near Kubyshev Reservoir, and thereafter spread both upstream and downstream. Evidence of considerable gene flow among populations was observed and genetic diversity was consistent with a larger, metapopulation that has not experienced bottlenecks or founder effects. We propose that high gene flow, possibly due to multiple invasions, has facilitated establishment of quagga mussel populations in the Volga River system. The Caspian Sea population (D. rostriformis rostriformis (=distincta)) was genetically more distinct than other populations, a finding that may be related to habitat differences. The geographical pattern of genetic divergence is not characteristic of isolation-by-distance but, rather, of long-distance dispersal, most likely mediated by commercial ships' ballast water transfer.

  14. High Levels of Sample-to-Sample Variation Confound Data Analysis for Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening of Fetal Microdeletions.

    Tianjiao Chu

    Full Text Available Our goal was to test the hypothesis that inter-individual genomic copy number variation in control samples is a confounding factor in the non-invasive prenatal detection of fetal microdeletions via the sequence-based analysis of maternal plasma DNA. The database of genomic variants (DGV was used to determine the "Genomic Variants Frequency" (GVF for each 50kb region in the human genome. Whole genome sequencing of fifteen karyotypically normal maternal plasma and six CVS DNA controls samples was performed. The coefficient of variation of relative read counts (cv.RTC for these samples was determined for each 50kb region. Maternal plasma from two pregnancies affected with a chromosome 5p microdeletion was also sequenced, and analyzed using the GCREM algorithm. We found strong correlation between high variance in read counts and GVF amongst controls. Consequently we were unable to confirm the presence of the microdeletion via sequencing of maternal plasma samples obtained from two sequential affected pregnancies. Caution should be exercised when performing NIPT for microdeletions. It is vital to develop our understanding of the factors that impact the sensitivity and specificity of these approaches. In particular, benign copy number variation amongst controls is a major confounder, and their effects should be corrected bioinformatically.

  15. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Correlation between high-resolution computed tomography and galactomannan antigenemia in adult hematologic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis

    Hidalgo, A.; Parody, R.; Martino, R.; Sanchez, F.; Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Blancas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse the predominant radiological pattern of pulmonary lesions in adult hematologic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis (IA) together with the results of serial serum Aspergillus galactomannan antigen testing (GM). Material and methods: In a prospective study for patients at high risk of aspergillus pulmonary infection, serum GM were performed 2-3 times per week during the periods of high risk for IA and high-resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in case of abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) and/or persistent fever after 5 days of antibiotic treatment. Changes on HRCT scan were classified as airway IA and angioinvasive IA. IA was classified as proven or probable in accordance with the definitions stated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group (EORTC-MS). Positive GM testing was not considered as microbiological criterion. Results: 38 hematological patients were diagnosed of probable (n = 28) or proven (n = 10) IA. 55% patients had a neutrophil count less than 500 mm -3 (n = 21), and 37% patients ≥2 risk factors for IA. All probable IA were diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Proven IA was reached by positive histopathologic and culture results of samples obtained by autopsy (n = 4), percutaneous (n = 3) or transbronchial biopsy (n = 3). 18 patients had airway IA, and 60% had a GM level ≥1.5. 20 patients were diagnosed of angioinvasive IA from which 80% had a GM level ≥1.5. Conclusion: Serum GM levels may be lower in patients with airway IA than in those with an angioinvasive form. HRCT and serum GM are complementary tests in the diagnosis of IA.

  17. Comparison of high-definition oscillometry -- a non-invasive technology for arterial blood pressure measurement -- with a direct invasive method using radio-telemetry in awake healthy cats.

    Martel, Eric; Egner, Beate; Brown, Scott A; King, Jonathan N; Laveissiere, Arnaud; Champeroux, Pascal; Richard, Serge

    2013-12-01

    This study compared indirect blood pressure measurements using a non-invasive method, high-definition oscillometry (HDO), with direct measurements using a radio-telemetry device in awake cats. Paired measurements partitioned to five sub-ranges were collected in six cats using both methods. The results were analysed for assessment of correlation and agreement between the two methods, taking into account all pressure ranges, and with data separated in three sub-groups, low, normal and high ranges of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. SBP data displayed a mean correlation coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.02 that was reduced for low SBP. The agreement level evaluated from the whole data set was high and slightly reduced for low SBP values. The mean correlation coefficient of DBP was lower than for SBP (ie, 0.81 ± 0.02). The bias for DBP between the two methods was 22.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, suggesting that HDO produced lower values than telemetry. These results suggest that HDO met the validation criteria defined by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus panel and provided a faithful measurement of SBP in conscious cats. For DBP, results suggest that HDO tended to underestimate DBP. This finding is clearly inconsistent with the good agreement reported in dogs, but is similar to outcomes achieved in marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting that this is not related to HDO but is species related. The data support that the HDO is the first and only validated non-invasive blood pressure device and, as such, it is the only non-invasive reference technique that should be used in future validation studies.

  18. Genetically high plasma vitamin C, intake of fruit and vegetables, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Afzal, Shoaib; Davey Smith, George

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High intake of fruit and vegetables as well as high plasma vitamin C concentrations have been associated with low risk of ischemic heart disease in prospective studies, but results from randomized clinical trials have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis...... that genetically high concentrations of plasma vitamin C, such as with high intake of fruit and vegetables, are associated with low risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: We used a Mendelian randomization approach and genotyped for solute carrier family 23 member 1 (SLC23A1) rs33972313...... in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 in 97,203 white individuals of whom 10,123 subjects had ischemic heart disease, and 8477 subjects died. We measured plasma vitamin C in 3512 individuals and included dietary information on 83,256 individuals. RESULTS: The SLC23A1 rs33972313 G allele was associated...

  19. Biomarkers in an invasive fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, to assess the effects of pollution in a highly degraded Brazilian River.

    Linde-Arias, Ana Rosa; Inácio, Alan F; de Alburquerque, Carla; Freire, Marina M; Moreira, Josino C

    2008-07-25

    Paraiba do Sul watershed is one of the most important Brazilian water bodies (5.5 million people depend on the river). It is in a critical environmental situation, polluted by industrial discharges, non-treated urban wastes, and pesticides, which have had cumulatively negative effects. This study analyzes the effects of pollution, with a biomarker approach, by using the invasive fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, as a sentinel species. The approach comprehends a general biomarker of the health of individual fish, the condition factor, a biomarker of genotoxicity, the micronuclei test; and specific biomarkers of contaminant exposure such as metallothionein (MT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The results revealed different effects in fish from diverse locations with varying degrees of pollution. Low AChE activities were found in fish from the region with strong agriculture activity, showing the effects of pesticides. Fish from an industrialized and heavily environmentally degraded area presented high levels of MT and low AChE activities, indicating an intricate polluted condition. It is noteworthy that fish located just upstream of the main water-treatment plant of the metropolitan area Rio de Janeiro presented high levels of MT, showing to be affected by metals. This can be an alert to public health officials. O. niloticus has proven a suitable sentinel species to assess the effects of pollutions in an aquatic system with a complex and serious polluted situation. The present study also shows the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the exposure and the effects of anthropogenic inputs among impacted and reference sites in this water body.

  20. The Prognostic Role of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in High-risk Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Busetto, Gian Maria; Ferro, Matteo; Del Giudice, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Chung, Benjamin I; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Borghesi, Marco; Musi, Gennaro; de Cobelli, Ottavio; De Berardinis, Ettore

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a prognostic marker in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and assess the efficacy and reliability of 2 different CTC isolation methods. Globally, 155 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of high-risk NMIBC were included (pT1G3 with or without carcinoma in situ) and underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) after a blood withdrawal for CTC evaluation. A total of 101 patients (Group A) had their samples analyzed with the CellSearch automated system, and 54 (Group B) had their samples analyzed with the CELLection Dynabeads manual system. Patients were followed for 28 months, and during this interval, there were a total of 65 (41.9%) recurrences, 27 (17.4%) disease progressions, and 9 (5.8%) lymph node and/or bone metastasis. In our CTC analysis, there were 20 (19.8%) positive patients in Group A and 24 in Group B (44.4%). In our analysis, we found a strong correlation between CTC presence and time to first recurrence; in Group A, we observed an incidence of recurrence in 75% of CTC-positive patients and in Group B of 83% of CTC-positive patients. The time to progression was also strongly correlated with CTCs: 65% and 29%, respectively, of those patients who progressed in those with CTCs in Group A and B. The study demonstrates the potential role of CTCs as a prognostic marker for risk stratification in patients with NMIBC, to predict both recurrence and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High-Definition and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation of Pain and Motor Dysfunction in Chronic TMD

    Donnell, Adam; Nascimento, Thiago; Lawrence, Mara; Gupta, Vikas; Zieba, Tina; Truong, Dennis Q.; Bikson, Marom; Datta, Abhi; Bellile, Emily; DaSilva, Alexandre F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have a relatively high prevalence and in many patients pain and masticatory dysfunction persist despite a range of treatments. Non-invasive brain neuromodulatory methods, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can provide relatively long-lasting pain relief in chronic pain patients. Objective To define the neuromodulatory effect of five daily 2×2 motor cortex high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) sessions on clinical pain and motor measures in chronic TMD patients. It is predicted that M1 HD-tDCS will selectively modulate clinical measures, by showing greater analgesic after-effects compared to placebo, and active treatment will increase pain free jaw movement more than placebo. Methods Twenty-four females with chronic myofascial TMD pain underwent five daily, 20-minute sessions of active or sham 2 milliamps (mA) HD-tDCS. Measurable outcomes included pain-free mouth opening, visual analog scale (VAS), sectional sensory-discriminative pain measures tracked by a mobile application, short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Follow-up occurred at one-week and four-weeks post treatment. Results There were significant improvements for clinical pain and motor measurements in the active HD-tDCS group compared to the placebo group for: responders with pain relief above 50% in the VAS at four-week follow-up (p=0.04); pain-free mouth opening at one-week follow-up (ppain area, intensity and their sum measures contralateral to putative M1 stimulation during the treatment week (ppain and motor measures during stimulation, and up to four weeks post-treatment in chronic myofascial TMD pain patients. PMID:26226938

  2. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h 2 = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = −0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  3. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  4. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    Ashokkumar, Saranya, E-mail: saras@food.dtu.dk [Accoat A/S, Munkegardsvej 16, 3490 Kvistgard (Denmark); Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Adler-Nissen, Jens [Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Per [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Plot of cos {theta} versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos {theta} rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cos {theta} of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 Degree-Sign C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos {theta} values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos {theta} values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between

  5. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  6. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  7. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  8. High-spatial-resolution localization algorithm based on cascade deconvolution in a distributed Sagnac interferometer invasion monitoring system.

    Pi, Shaohua; Wang, Bingjie; Zhao, Jiang; Sun, Qi

    2016-10-10

    In the Sagnac fiber optic interferometer system, the phase difference signal can be illustrated as a convolution of the waveform of the invasion with its occurring-position-associated transfer function h(t); deconvolution is introduced to improve the spatial resolution of the localization. In general, to get a 26 m spatial resolution at a sampling rate of 4×106  s-1, the algorithm should mainly go through three steps after the preprocessing operations. First, the decimated phase difference signal is transformed from the time domain into the real cepstrum domain, where a probable region of invasion distance can be ascertained. Second, a narrower region of invasion distance is acquired by coarsely assuming and sweeping a transfer function h(t) within the probable region and examining where the restored invasion waveform x(t) gets its minimum standard deviation. Third, fine sweeping the narrow region point by point with the same criteria is used to get the final localization. Also, the original waveform of invasion can be restored for the first time as a by-product, which provides more accurate and pure characteristics for further processing, such as subsequent pattern recognition.

  9. A comparison of effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable shortening on the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Kubant, R; Poon, A N; Sánchez-Hernández, D; Domenichiello, A F; Huot, P S P; Pannia, E; Cho, C E; Hunschede, S; Bazinet, R P; Anderson, G H

    2015-12-14

    Obesity is associated with increased consumption and preference for dietary fat. Experimental models of fat-induced obesity use either lard or vegetable shortening. Yet, there are no direct comparisons of these commonly used fat sources, or the influence of their fatty acid composition, on the development of diet-induced obesity. To compare the effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets, which differ in their fatty acid composition, on weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 14 weeks high-fat diets containing either (1) high vegetable fat (HVF, 60 kcal% from vegetable shortening) or (2) high lard fat (HLF, 60 kcal% from lard). Rats fed normal-fat (NF, 16 kcal% from vegetable shortening) diet served as control. Body weight, food intake, adipose tissue mass, serum 25[OH]D3, glucose, insulin and fatty acid composition of diets were measured. Rats fed either of the two high-fat diets had higher energy intake, weight gain and fat accretion than rats fed normal-fat diet. However, rats fed the HLF diet consumed more calories and gained more weight and body fat with greater increases of 32% in total (158.5±8.2 vs 120.2±6.6 g, P<0.05), 30% in visceral (104.4±5.2 vs 80.3±4.2 g, P<0.05) and 36% in subcutaneous fat mass (54.1±3.6 vs 39.9±3.1 g, P<0.05), compared with rats fed the HVF diet. Higher visceral adiposity was positively correlated with serum insulin (r=0.376, P<0.05) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (r=0.391, P<0.05). We conclude that lard-based high-fat diets accentuate the increase in weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance more than hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets. These results further point to the importance of standardizing fatty acid composition and type of fat used in determining outcomes of consuming high-fat diets.

  10. Recruitment patterns, low cannibalism and reduced interspecific predation contribute to high invasion success of two Pacific crabs in northwestern Europe

    Geburzi, Jonas C.; Brandis, Dirk; Buschbaum, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Life-history traits and interactions with native species play an important role for the successful establishment of non-native species in new habitats. We investigated the recent successful invasion of the Pacific crabs Hemigrapsus takanoi and H. sanguineus to the southeastern North Sea coast with respect to their recruitment patterns, as well as interactions of juvenile with sub-adult individuals among the Pacific crabs and with native shore crabs Carcinus maenas. A field survey of juvenile native and introduced crab abundances (carapace width 1.4-10 mm) was conducted in the northern Wadden Sea, spanning 24 months from 2014 to 2016. The survey revealed different seasonal recruitment patterns of native C. maenas and both introduced Hemigrapsus species. Native shore crabs showed a single recruitment peak from June to July, while Hemigrapsus spp. mainly recruited from August to early September, but recruits occurred in low densities throughout the winter until the end of the following spring season. Field experiments on the effects of larger crabs on the recruitment intensity showed that recruitment of H. takanoi was enhanced by the presence of larger congeners, but remained unaffected by larger C. maenas. Recruitment of juvenile C. maenas, by contrast, was reduced by the presence of larger Hemigrapsus spp. Additional laboratory experiments revealed high rates of cannibalism on newly recruited C. maenas by subadult conspecifics as well as strong predation by larger Hemigrapsus spp. In contrast, newly recruited Hemigrapsus spp. had a much lower risk of being preyed on by subadult conspecifics and native shore crabs. Our results suggest that the timing of recruitment in combination with low intraspecific competition and reduced predation pressure by native shore crabs are crucial for the rapid and ongoing establishment of Hemigrapsus spp. in the Wadden Sea.

  11. Vegetative regeneration

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  12. Understory vegetation

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  13. Tentative type test of a non-invasive high-voltage meter with respect to the quantity of practical peak voltage

    Peixoto, J.G.P.; Selbach, H.J.; Kramer, H.M.; Lange, B.

    2001-04-01

    In Working Group 3 of Sub-committee 62C of the international electrotechnical commission (IEC) a new project is underway [1] with the objective of specifying requirements for the performance characteristics of instruments for the non-invasive measurement of the X-ray tube voltage in diagnostic radiology. In this draft the X-ray tube voltage is specified in terms of the practical peak voltage [2]. The objective of the present work is to perform a tentative type test, based on the ''Requirements for Instruments for Non-invasive Measurements of the X-ray Tube Voltage'' defined in the IEC draft, with a commercially available non-invasive high-voltage meter. The instrument was modified so that the practical peak voltage can be measured. It is shown that the instrument, with the modifications made, is suitable for the non-invasive measurement of the practical peak voltage between 50 kV and 150 kV within the required limits of variation of the response. (orig.)

  14. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 1: Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

    Guertin, Patrick J; Denight, Michael L; Gebhart, Dick L; Nelson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    ..., and damage to equipment and structures. Of the 11 plant species (or groups) identified by installations as uncontrolled vegetation, six were invasive plants, of which the two invasive plants most commonly identified were Kudzu (Pueraria montana...

  15. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 2. Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora)

    Denight, Michael L; Guertin, Patrick J; Gebhart, Dick L; Nelson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    ..., and damage to equipment and structures. Of the 11 plant species (or groups) identified by installations as "uncontrolled vegetation," six were invasive plants, of which the two invasive plants most commonly identified were Kudzu (Pueraria montana...

  16. Vitamins in fruits and vegetables of the Amazon. 1. Methods for the determination of β—carotene, tocopherol and ascorbic acid with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Marx, F.; Maia, J.G.S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary At the beginning of on inventory of the chemical composition of regional fruits and vegetables of the Amazon, analytical methods were adapted for the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of pro-vitamin A (β—carotene), vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (tocopherol) The first analyses indicate as excellent sources of β—carotene, Mauritia flexuosa L., Astrocaryum tucuma Mart. and Cucurbita pepa L.; of asco bic acid Theobroma grandiflorum (Culis ex Spreng.) Sc...

  17. Mapping invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody formations in southeastern Brazil

    Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.

    2015-10-01

    Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and mapping of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for mapping Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody formations, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native formations. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically

  18. Evaluation of different shadow detection and restoration methods and their impact on vegetation indices using UAV high-resolution imageries over vineyards

    Aboutalebi, M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.; Kustas, W. P.; Nieto, H.

    2017-12-01

    Shadows are an unavoidable component of high-resolution imagery. Although shadows can be a useful source of information about terrestrial features, they are a hindrance for image processing and lead to misclassification errors and increased uncertainty in defining surface reflectance properties. In precision agriculture activities, shadows may affect the performance of vegetation indices at pixel and plant scales. Thus, it becomes necessary to evaluate existing shadow detection and restoration methods, especially for applications that makes direct use of pixel information to estimate vegetation biomass, leaf area index (LAI), plant water use and stress, chlorophyll content, just to name a few. In this study, four high-resolution imageries captured by the Utah State University - AggieAir Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system flown in 2014, 2015, and 2016 over a commercial vineyard located in the California for the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Grape Remote sensing Atmospheric Profile and Evapotranspiration Experiment (GRAPEX) Program are used for shadow detection and restoration. Four different methods for shadow detection are compared: (1) unsupervised classification, (2) supervised classification, (3) index-based method, and (4) physically-based method. Also, two different shadow restoration methods are evaluated: (1) linear correlation correction, and (2) gamma correction. The models' performance is evaluated over two vegetation indices: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LAI for both sunlit and shadowed pixels. Histogram and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used as performance indicators. Results indicated that the performance of the supervised classification and the index-based method are better than other methods. In addition, there is a statistical difference between the average of NDVI and LAI on the sunlit and shadowed pixels. Among the shadow restoration methods, gamma correction visually works better than the linear correlation

  19. componente vegetal

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  20. Risk factor assessment in high-risk, bacillus Calmette–Guérin-treated, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Holz S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serge Holz,* Simone Albisinni,* Jacques Gilsoul, Michel Pirson, Véronique Duthie, Thierry Quackels, Marc Vanden Bossche, Thierry Roumeguère Department of Urology, Erasme Hospital, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To assess the risk factors associated with recurrence, progression and survival in high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC patients treated with bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG and validate the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC and Spanish Urological Club for Oncological Treatment (CUETO scores.Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed all BCG-treated NMIBC patients from 1998 to 2012. Multiple variables were tested as risk factors for recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival (PFS. Variables included age, sex, grade, stage, tumor size, number of tumors, carcinoma in situ (CIS, recurrence status, BCG strain used, smoking status, use of re-staging transurethral resection and use of single immediate postoperative instillation. We also tested the accuracy of EORTC and CUETO scores in predicting recurrence and progression.Results: Overall, 123 patients were analyzed. Median (interquartile range follow-up was 49 months. The 5-year overall survival, cancer-specific survival, recurrence-free survival and PFS were 75.0%, 89.3%, 59.4% and 79.2%, respectively. On univariate analysis, multiple tumors (≥3, concomitant CIS and smoking influenced recurrence. Regarding progression, multiple tumors, concomitant CIS and Connaught strain (vs Tice negatively influenced PFS on univariate and multivariate analyses were independent prognostic factors. CUETO scores were accurate, with a slight overestimation, while EORTC score was not predictive of recurrence or progression.Conclusion: In this study, CIS and tumor multiplicity were unfavorable predictors of recurrence and progression in patients with NMIBC receiving BCG

  1. Bioavailability and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in garden edible vegetables and soils around a highly contaminated former mining area in Germany.

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Shaheen, Sabry M; Boersch, Judith; Frohne, Tina; Du Laing, Gijs; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    Although soil contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Europe has a history of many centuries, related problems are often considered as having been dealt with due to the enforcement of tight legislations. However, there are many unsolved issues. We aimed to assess PTE levels in highly contaminated soils and in garden edible vegetables using human health risk indices in order to evaluate the availability and mobilization of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). In four gardens in Germany, situated on, or in the vicinity of, a mine dump area, we planted beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ssp. nanus), carrots (Daucus sativus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa ssp. capitata). We examined soil-to-plant mobilization of elements using transfer coefficient (TC), as well as soil contamination using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), and bioaccumulation index (I geo ). In addition, we tested two human health risk assessment indices: Soil-induced hazard quotient (HQ S ) (representing the "direct soil ingestion" pathway), and vegetable-induced hazard quotient (HQ V ) (representing the "vegetable intake" pathway). The studied elements were highly elevated in the soils. The values in garden 2 were especially high (e.g., Pb: 13789.0 and Hg: 36.8 mg kg -1 ) and largely exceeded the reported regulation limits of 50 (for As), 40 (Cu), 400 (Pb), 150 (Zn), and 5 (Hg) mg kg -1 . Similarly, element concentrations were very high in the grown vegetables. The indices of CF, EF and I geo were enhanced even to levels that are rarely reported in the literature. Specifically, garden 2 indicated severe contamination due to multi-element deposition. The contribution of each PTE to the total of measured HQ S revealed that Pb was the single most important element causing health risk (contributing up to 77% to total HQ S ). Lead also posed the highest risk concerning vegetable consumption, contributing up to 77% to total HQ V . The

  2. Vegetation and Carbon Cycle Dynamics in the High-Resolution Transient Holocene Simulations Using the MPI Earth System Model

    Brovkin, V.; Lorenz, S.; Raddatz, T.; Claussen, M.; Dallmeyer, A.

    2017-12-01

    One of the interesting periods to investigate a climatic role of terrestrial biosphere is the Holocene, when, despite of the relatively steady global climate, the atmospheric CO2 grew by about 20 ppm from 7 kyr BP to pre-industrial. We use a new setup of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM1 consisting of the latest version of the atmospheric model ECHAM6, including the land surface model JSBACH3 with carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, coupled to the ocean circulation model MPI-OM, which includes the HAMOCC model of ocean biogeochemistry. The model has been run for several simulations over the Holocene period of the last 8000 years under the forcing data sets of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosols, solar irradiance and stratospheric ozone, as well as land-use changes. In response to this forcing, the land carbon storage increased by about 60 PgC between 8 and 4 kyr BP, stayed relatively constant until 2 kyr BP, and decreased by about 90 PgC by 1850 AD due to land use changes. At 8 kyr BP, vegetation cover was much denser in Africa, mainly due to increased rainfall in response to the orbital forcing. Boreal forests moved northward in both, North America and Eurasia. The boreal forest expansion in North America is much less pronounced than in Eurasia. Simulated physical ocean fields, including surface temperatures and meridional overturning, do not change substantially in the Holocene. Carbonate ion concentration in deep ocean decreases in both, prescribed and interactive CO2simulations. Comparison with available proxies for terrestrial vegetation and for the ocean carbonate chemistry will be presented. Vegetation and soil carbon changes significantly affected atmospheric CO2 during the periods of strong volcanic eruptions. In response to the eruption-caused cooling, the land initially stores more carbon as respiration decreases, but then it releases even more carbon die to productivity decrease. This decadal

  3. A true minimally invasive approach for cochlear implantation: high accuracy in cranial base navigation through flat-panel-based volume computed tomography.

    Majdani, Omid; Bartling, Soenke H; Leinung, Martin; Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Minoo; Dullin, Christian; Lenarz, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    High-precision intraoperative navigation using high-resolution flat-panel volume computed tomography makes feasible the possibility of minimally invasive cochlear implant surgery, including cochleostomy. Conventional cochlear implant surgery is typically performed via mastoidectomy with facial recess to identify and avoid damage to vital anatomic landmarks. To accomplish this procedure via a minimally invasive approach--without performing mastoidectomy--in a precise fashion, image-guided technology is necessary. With such an approach, surgical time and expertise may be reduced, and hearing preservation may be improved. Flat-panel volume computed tomography was used to scan 4 human temporal bones. A drilling channel was planned preoperatively from the mastoid surface to the round window niche, providing a margin of safety to all functional important structures (e.g., facial nerve, chorda tympani, incus). Postoperatively, computed tomographic imaging and conventional surgical exploration of the drilled route to the cochlea were performed. All 4 specimens showed a cochleostomy located at the scala tympani anterior inferior to the round window. The chorda tympani was damaged in 1 specimen--this was preoperatively planned as a narrow facial recess was encountered. Using flat-panel volume computed tomography for image-guided surgical navigation, we were able to perform minimally invasive cochlear implant surgery defined as a narrow, single-channel mastoidotomy with cochleostomy. Although this finding is preliminary, it is technologically achievable.

  4. Application of Satellite Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence to Understanding Large-Scale Variations in Vegetation Phenology and Function Over Northern High Latitude Forests

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Schimel, David; Frankenberg, Christian; Drewry, Darren T.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Verma, Manish; Berry, Joseph A.; Lee, Jung-Eun; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the large-scale seasonal phenology and physiology of vegetation over northern high latitude forests (40 deg - 55 deg N) during spring and fall by using remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and observation-based estimate of gross primary productivity (GPP) from 2009 to 2011. Based on GPP phenology estimation in GPP, the growing season determined by SIF time-series is shorter in length than the growing season length determined solely using NDVI. This is mainly due to the extended period of high NDVI values, as compared to SIF, by about 46 days (+/-11 days), indicating a large-scale seasonal decoupling of physiological activity and changes in greenness in the fall. In addition to phenological timing, mean seasonal NDVI and SIF have different responses to temperature changes throughout the growing season. We observed that both NDVI and SIF linearly increased with temperature increases throughout the spring. However, in the fall, although NDVI linearly responded to temperature increases, SIF and GPP did not linearly increase with temperature increases, implying a seasonal hysteresis of SIF and GPP in response to temperature changes across boreal ecosystems throughout their growing season. Seasonal hysteresis of vegetation at large-scales is consistent with the known phenomena that light limits boreal forest ecosystem productivity in the fall. Our results suggest that continuing measurements from satellite remote sensing of both SIF and NDVI can help to understand the differences between, and information carried by, seasonal variations vegetation structure and greenness and physiology at large-scales across the critical boreal regions.

  5. Encouraging children to eat vegetables

    Buh, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    It is important for children to maintain a healthy and balanced diet throughout their childhood and youth. Children tend to skip vegetables in their meals as they are not much liked; the tastes of vegetables are also highly specific and each individual has to get used to them by repeated tasting. The aim of this undergraduate thesis was to analyse how often children eat vegetables, which types of vegetables they like and which they do not, to determine if the executed method of pedagogica...

  6. Feasibility of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy in prostate cancer patients with high prostate-specific antigen. Feasibility and 1-year outcomes

    Do, M.; Ragavan, N.; Dietel, A.; Liatsikos, E.; Stolzenburg, J.U.; Anderson, C.; McNeill, A.

    2012-01-01

    Urologists are cautious to offer minimally invasive radical prostatectomy in prostate cancer patients with high prostate-specific antigen (and therefore anticipated to have locally advanced or metastatic disease) because of concerns regarding lack of complete cure after minimally invasive radical prostatectomy and of worsening of continence if adjuvant radiotherapy is used. A retrospective review of our institutional database was carried out to identify patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥20 ng/mL who underwent minimally invasive radical prostatectomy between January 2002 and October 2010. Intraoperative, pathological, functional and short-term oncological outcomes were assessed. Overall, 233 patients met study criteria and were included in the analysis. The median prostate-specific antigen and prostate size were 28.5 ng/mL and 47 mL, respectively. Intraoperative complications were the following: rectal injury (0.86%) and blood transfusion (1.7%). Early postoperative complications included prolonged (>6 days) catheterization (9.4%), hematoma (4.7%), deep venous thrombosis (0.86%) and lymphocele (5.1%). Late postoperative complications included cerebrovascular accident (0.4%) and anastomotic stricture (0.8%). Pathology revealed poorly differentiated cancer in 48.9%, pT3/pT4 disease in 55.8%, positive margins in 28.3% and lymph node disease in 20.2% of the cases. Adverse pathological findings were more frequent in patients with prostate-specific antigen >40 ng/mL and (or) in those with locally advanced disease (pT3/pT4). In 62.2% of the cases, adjuvant radiotherapy was used. At 1-year follow up, 80% of patients did not show evidence of biochemical recurrence and 98.8% of them had good recovery of continence. Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy might represent a reasonable option in prostate cancer patients with high prostate-specific antigen as a part of a multimodality treatment approach. (author)

  7. High HPV-51 prevalence in invasive cervical cancers: results of a pre-immunization survey in North Sardinia, Italy.

    Andrea Piana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma virus (HPV is recognized as the etiological agent of benign and malignant ano-genital lesions. The most prevalent genotypes associated with cervical carcinoma are HPV-16 and -18 worldwide. However, recent studies have emphasized the role of other genotypes, such as HPV-51, in the pathogenesis of cervical dysplasia. The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of HPV-51 infection in invasive cervical malignant lesions in Northern Sardinia, Italy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An observational, retrospective, prevalence, mono-center study was carried out to evaluate the presence of HPV genotypes in tissues biopsies of cervical lesions (CIN-1, CIN-2, CIN-3 and invasive carcinoma gathered from 1996 to 2009. Biological samples were collected from women admitted consecutively to a tertiary university hospital situated in Sassari, Italy. Molecular methods were used to identify 28 oncogenic HPV types. A total of 155 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical tissue samples were analyzed. Approximately half of the cervical lesions were classified as invasive carcinoma. HPV-DNA was detected in 71% of the samples, with a higher frequency (100% in those categorized as invasive neoplasia. Mono- or co-infections were demonstrated in 45.8% and 25.8% of the cervical samples, respectively. Overall, the most prevalent HPV types were -16 (49% and -51 (19.4%, with an increased frequency of detection associated with the severity of the cervical lesions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey highlights for the first time the relevant role of HPV-51 infection in the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer prior to the introduction of a vaccination program. Although a selection bias could have influenced the results, other recent studies have described the impact of HPV-51. This remarkable epidemiological element should be carefully evaluated, particularly in the view of opting for preventive vaccines, whose cross-protection patterns

  8. Impact of Waste Materials and Organic Amendments on Soil Properties and Vegetative Performance

    Steven L. McGeehan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials, and materials derived from wastes, possess many characteristics that can improve soil fertility and enhance crop performance. These materials can be particularly useful as amendments to severely degraded soils associated with mining activities. This study evaluated biosolids, composts, log yard wastes, and two organic soil treatments for improved soil fertility and vegetative performance using side-by-side comparisons. Each plot was seeded with a standardized seed mix and evaluated for a series of soil chemical and physical parameters, total vegetation response, species diversity, ecological plant response, and invasion indices. All treatments were successful at improving soil fertility and promoting a self-sustaining vegetative cover. The level of available nitrogen had a strong impact on vegetative coverage, species distribution, and extent of unseeded vegetation. For example, high nitrogen treatments promoted a grass-dominated (low forb plant community with a low content of unseeded vegetation. In contrast, low nitrogen treatments promoted a more balanced plant community with a mixture of grass and forb species and greater susceptibility to unseeded vegetation establishment.

  9. Frozen Nature - A high-alpine ice core record reveals fire and vegetation dynamics in Western Europe over the past millennium

    Brügger, S.; Gobet, E.; Sigl, M.; Osmont, D.; Schwikowski, M.; Tinner, W.

    2017-12-01

    Wild fires are an ecological disturbance agent across ecosystems, driving vegetation dynamics and resulting in disruption of habitats (Moritz et al. 2014).We analyze pollen and spores as proxies for vegetation composition, structure and agricultural activity, microscopic charcoal as a proxy for fire activity, and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs or soots) as a proxy for fossil fuel combustion which preserve in ice cores over millennia (Eichler et al. 2011).Our high-alpine ice core (4452 m a.s.l.) from Colle Gnifetti, Swiss Alps is located in the center of Western Europe, thus allowing to assess vegetation and societal responses to climatic change and wildfire disturbance on a subcontinental scale. The record covers the last millennium with an excellent chronological control (Jenk et al. 2009, Sigl et al. 2009), particularly over the most recent 200 years - the period that experienced important climatic changes and an increasing globalization of economy.The Colle Gnifetti record reflects large scale impacts such as extreme weather, societal innovations, agricultural crises and pollution of the industrial period in Western Europe. Pollution tracers occur in the record as early as 1750 AD and coincide with the shift to large-scale maize production in Northern Italy and with increased fire activity. Our multiproxy record may allow desentagling the role of climate and humans for vegetation composition and biomass burning. The attribution of causes may significantly advance our understanding of future vegetation and fire dynamics under global change conditions. To our knowledge we present the first long-term high-resolution palynological record of a high elevation ice core in Europe.REFERENCESEichler et al. (2011): An ice-core based history of Siberian forest fires since AD 1250. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(9), 1027-1034.Jenk et al. (2009): A novel radiocarbon dating technique applied to an ice core from the Alps indicating late Pleistocene ages. Journal of

  10. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  11. A Novel High Content Imaging-Based Screen Identifies the Anti-Helminthic Niclosamide as an Inhibitor of Lysosome Anterograde Trafficking and Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion.

    Magdalena L Circu

    Full Text Available Lysosome trafficking plays a significant role in tumor invasion, a key event for the development of metastasis. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that the anterograde (outward movement of lysosomes to the cell surface in response to certain tumor microenvironment stimulus, such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF or acidic extracellular pH (pHe, increases cathepsin B secretion and tumor cell invasion. Anterograde lysosome trafficking depends on sodium-proton exchanger activity and can be reversed by blocking these ion pumps with Troglitazone or EIPA. Since these drugs cannot be advanced into the clinic due to toxicity, we have designed a high-content assay to discover drugs that block peripheral lysosome trafficking with the goal of identifying novel drugs that inhibit tumor cell invasion. An automated high-content imaging system (Cellomics was used to measure the position of lysosomes relative to the nucleus. Among a total of 2210 repurposed and natural product drugs screened, 18 "hits" were identified. One of the compounds identified as an anterograde lysosome trafficking inhibitor was niclosamide, a marketed human anti-helminthic drug. Further studies revealed that niclosamide blocked acidic pHe, HGF, and epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced anterograde lysosome redistribution, protease secretion, motility, and invasion of DU145 castrate resistant prostate cancer cells at clinically relevant concentrations. In an effort to identify the mechanism by which niclosamide prevented anterograde lysosome movement, we found that this drug exhibited no significant effect on the level of ATP, microtubules or actin filaments, and had minimal effect on the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Niclosamide collapsed intralysosomal pH without disruption of the lysosome membrane, while bafilomycin, an agent that impairs lysosome acidification, was also found to induce JLA in our model. Taken together, these data suggest that niclosamide promotes

  12. Simultaneous Analysis of Malondialdehyde, 4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, and 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal in Vegetable Oil by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Ma, Lukai; Liu, Guoqin

    2017-12-27

    A group of toxic aldehydes such as, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) have been found in various vegetable oils and oil-based foods. Then simultaneous determination of them holds a great need in both the oil chemistry field and food field. In the present study, a simple and efficient analytical method was successfully developed for the simultaneous separation and detection of MDA, HHE, and HNE in vegetable oils by reversed-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detector (PAD) at dual-channel detection mode. The effect of various experimental factors on the extraction performance, such as coextraction solvent system, butylated hydroxytoluene addition, and trichloroacetic acid addition were systematically investigated. Results showed that the linear ranges were 0.02-10.00 μg/mL for MDA, 0.02-4.00 μg/mL for HHE, and 0.03-4.00 μg/mL for HNE with the satisfactory correlation coefficient of >0.999 for all detected aldehydes. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of MDA, HHE, and HNE were ∼0.021and 0.020 μg/mL, ∼0.009 and 0.020 μg/mL, and ∼0.014 and 0.030 μg/mL, respectively. Their recoveries were 99.64-102.18%, 102.34-104.61%, and 98.87-103.04% for rapeseed oil and 96.38-98.05%, 96.19-101.34%, and 96.86-99.04% for French fries, separately. Under the selected conditions, the developed methods was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of MDA, HHE, and HNE in different tested vegetable oils. The results indicated that this method could be employed for the quality assessment of vegetable oils.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Almeida, Jorge S.; Anunciação, Taiana A.; Brandão, Geovani C.; Dantas, Alailson F.; Lemos, Valfredo A.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction procedure for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Some initial tests showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained when using ultrasound instead of mechanical agitation, indicating that acoustic cavitation improved the extraction process. Nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids were evaluated for use in the extraction process, and HNO 3 gave the best results. A two-level full-factorial design was applied to investigate the best conditions for the extraction of Cd from the oil samples. The influences of the sonication amplitude, time and temperature of the extraction were evaluated. The results of the design revealed that all of the variables had a significant effect on the experimental results. Afterward, a Box–Behnken design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oil samples. According to a multivariate study, the optimum conditions were as follows: sonication amplitude of 60%, extraction time of 15 min, extraction temperature of 46 °C and 0.1 mol L −1 HNO 3 as the extractor solution. Under optimized conditions, the developed method allows for the determination of Cd in oil samples with a limit of quantification of 7.0 ng kg −1 . Addition and recovery experiments were performed in vegetable oil samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recoveries obtained varied from 90% to 115%. The samples were also analyzed after the acid digestion procedure, and the paired t-test (95% confidence level) did not show significant differences from the proposed method. - Highlights: • The determination of cadmium in vegetable oils was developed using UA-SDME. • HR-CS ET-AAS was employed as a detection technique with direct drop sampling. • The procedure allowed for a reduction in the consumption of reagents and samples

  14. Mapping post-fire forest regeneration and vegetation recovery using a combination of very high spatial resolution and hyperspectral satellite imagery

    Mitri, George H.; Gitas, Ioannis Z.

    2013-02-01

    Careful evaluation of forest regeneration and vegetation recovery after a fire event provides vital information useful in land management. The use of remotely sensed data is considered to be especially suitable for monitoring ecosystem dynamics after fire. The aim of this work was to map post-fire forest regeneration and vegetation recovery on the Mediterranean island of Thasos by using a combination of very high spatial (VHS) resolution (QuickBird) and hyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) imagery and by employing object-based image analysis. More specifically, the work focused on (1) the separation and mapping of three major post-fire classes (forest regeneration, other vegetation recovery, unburned vegetation) existing within the fire perimeter, and (2) the differentiation and mapping of the two main forest regeneration classes, namely, Pinus brutia regeneration, and Pinus nigra regeneration. The data used in this study consisted of satellite images and field observations of homogeneous regenerated and revegetated areas. The methodology followed two main steps: a three-level image segmentation, and, a classification of the segmented images. The process resulted in the separation of classes related to the aforementioned objectives. The overall accuracy assessment revealed very promising results (approximately 83.7% overall accuracy, with a Kappa Index of Agreement of 0.79). The achieved accuracy was 8% higher when compared to the results reported in a previous work in which only the EO-1 Hyperion image was employed in order to map the same classes. Some classification confusions involving the classes of P. brutia regeneration and P. nigra regeneration were observed. This could be attributed to the absence of large and dense homogeneous areas of regenerated pine trees in the study area.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Almeida, Jorge S.; Anunciação, Taiana A. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); Brandão, Geovani C. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); Dantas, Alailson F. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); Lemos, Valfredo A. [Laboratório de Química Analítica (LQA), Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus de Jequié, Jequié, Bahia 45506-191 (Brazil); and others

    2015-05-01

    This work presents an ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction procedure for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Some initial tests showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained when using ultrasound instead of mechanical agitation, indicating that acoustic cavitation improved the extraction process. Nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids were evaluated for use in the extraction process, and HNO{sub 3} gave the best results. A two-level full-factorial design was applied to investigate the best conditions for the extraction of Cd from the oil samples. The influences of the sonication amplitude, time and temperature of the extraction were evaluated. The results of the design revealed that all of the variables had a significant effect on the experimental results. Afterward, a Box–Behnken design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oil samples. According to a multivariate study, the optimum conditions were as follows: sonication amplitude of 60%, extraction time of 15 min, extraction temperature of 46 °C and 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} as the extractor solution. Under optimized conditions, the developed method allows for the determination of Cd in oil samples with a limit of quantification of 7.0 ng kg{sup −1}. Addition and recovery experiments were performed in vegetable oil samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recoveries obtained varied from 90% to 115%. The samples were also analyzed after the acid digestion procedure, and the paired t-test (95% confidence level) did not show significant differences from the proposed method. - Highlights: • The determination of cadmium in vegetable oils was developed using UA-SDME. • HR-CS ET-AAS was employed as a detection technique with direct drop sampling. • The procedure allowed for a reduction in the consumption of reagents and

  16. High expression of insulin receptor on tumour-associated blood vessels in invasive bladder cancer predicts poor overall and progression-free survival.

    Roudnicky, Filip; Dieterich, Lothar C; Poyet, Cedric; Buser, Lorenz; Wild, Peter; Tang, Dave; Camenzind, Peter; Ho, Chien Hsien; Otto, Vivianne I; Detmar, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Bladder cancer is a frequently recurring disease with a very poor prognosis once progressed to invasive stages, and tumour-associated blood vessels play a crucial role in this process. In order to identify novel biomarkers associated with progression, we isolated blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) from human invasive bladder cancers and matched normal bladder tissue, and found that tumour-associated BECs greatly up-regulated the expression of insulin receptor (INSR). High expression of INSR on BECs of invasive bladder cancers was significantly associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival. Furthermore, increased expression of the INSR ligand IGF-2 in invasive bladder cancers was associated with reduced overall survival. INSR may therefore represent a novel biomarker to predict cancer progression. Mechanistically, we observed pronounced hypoxia in human bladder cancer tissue, and found a positive correlation between the expression of the hypoxia marker gene GLUT1 and vascular INSR expression, indicating that hypoxia drives INSR expression in tumour-associated blood vessels. In line with this, exposure of cultured BECs and human bladder cancer cell lines to hypoxia led to increased expression of INSR and IGF-2, respectively, and IGF-2 increased BEC migration through the activation of INSR in vitro. Taken together, we identified vascular INSR expression as a potential biomarker for progression in bladder cancer. Furthermore, our data suggest that IGF-2/INSR mediated paracrine crosstalk between bladder cancer cells and endothelial cells is functionally involved in tumour angiogenesis and may thus represent a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Golden Gate National Recreation Area Vegetation Inventory Project

    California Natural Resource Agency — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. The vegetation units of this map were determined through stereoscopic interpretation of...

  18. Structural and functional characteristics of buffer strip vegetation in an agricultural landscape - high potential for nutrient removal but low potential for plant biodiversity.

    Hille, Sandra; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Kronvang, Brian; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2018-07-01

    Vegetated buffer strips constitute a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and provide several ecosystem services. Buffer strips are often applied as a mitigation measure against diffuse pollution in agricultural areas, primarily because they may retain nutrients and in this way help protect the aquatic environment. Additionally, they can improve biodiversity in an otherwise homogenous landscape and may therefore have a value in their own right. In the present study, we characterized the structural and functional features of the vegetation in Danish buffer strips using a nationwide dataset to explore: i) their floristic quality in terms of species diversity and conservation value and ii) based on their functional characteristics, their potential to retain nutrients. Moreover, we analyzed how the structural and functional characteristics varied along gradients in the environmental features of the catchment. We found that the floristic quality of the buffer vegetation was generally low, exhibiting an average of only 3.3% of the number of species of conservation interest. Instead, Danish buffer strips were dominated by widespread and productive species that are tolerant of anthropogenic impacts in the catchment. The abundance of highly productive plant species was positively related to high intensity land use, whereas the abundance of stress-tolerant plant species was positively related to low intensity land use. The high productivity of the buffer strips implies a large bio-storage potential, and these areas might therefore offer an opportunity to remove nutrients by harvesting the plant biomass. We discuss how Danish buffer strips could be exploited via appropriate management (e.g. harvesting) to maximize nutrient retention and at the same time improve floristic quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vegetation and land carbon feedbacks in the high-resolution transient Holocene simulations using the MPI Earth system model

    Brovkin, Victor; Lorenz, Stephan; Raddatz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Plants influence climate through changes in the land surface biophysics (albedo, transpiration) and concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases. One of the interesting periods to investigate a climatic role of terrestrial biosphere is the Holocene, when, despite of the relatively steady global climate, the atmospheric CO2 grew by about 20 ppm from 7 kyr BP to pre-industrial. We use a new setup of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM1 consisting of the latest version of the atmospheric model ECHAM6, including the land surface model JSBACH3 with carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, coupled to the ocean circulation model MPI-OM, which includes the HAMOCC model of ocean biogeochemistry. The model has been run for several simulations over the Holocene period of the last 8000 years under the forcing data sets of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosols, solar irradiance and stratospheric ozone, as well as land-use changes. In response to this forcing, the land carbon storage increased by about 60 PgC between 8 and 4 kyr BP, stayed relatively constant until 2 kyr BP, and decreased by about 90 PgC by 1850 AD due to land use changes. Vegetation and soil carbon changes significantly affected atmospheric CO2 during the periods of strong volcanic eruptions. In response to the eruption-caused cooling, the land initially stores more carbon as respiration decreases, but then it releases even more carbon due to productivity decrease. This decadal- scale variability helps to quantify the vegetation and land carbon feedbacks during the past periods when the temporal resolution of the ice-core CO2 record is not sufficient to capture fast CO2 variations. From a set of Holocene simulations with prescribed or interactive atmospheric CO2, we get estimates of climate-carbon feedback useful for future climate studies. Members of the Hamburg Holocene Team: Jürgen Bader1, Sebastian Bathiany2, Victor Brovkin1, Martin Claussen1,3, Traute Cr

  20. Non-invasive airway health measurement using synchrotron x-ray microscopy of high refractive index glass microbeads

    Donnelley, Martin, E-mail: martin.donnelley@adelaide.edu.au; Farrow, Nigel; Parsons, David [Respiratory & Sleep Medicine, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-01-28

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a gene defect that compromises the ability of the mucociliary transit (MCT) system to clear the airways of debris and pathogens. To directly characterise airway health and the effects of treatments we have developed a synchrotron X-ray microscopy method that non-invasively measures the local rate and patterns of MCT behaviour. Although the nasal airways of CF mice exhibit the CF pathophysiology, there is evidence that nasal MCT is not altered in CF mice1. The aim of this experiment was to determine if our non-invasive local airway health assessment method could identify differences in nasal MCT rate between normal and CF mice, information that is potentially lost in bulk MCT measurements. Experiments were performed on the BL20XU beamline at the SPring-8 Synchrotron in Japan. Mice were anaesthetized, a small quantity of micron-sized marker particles were delivered to the nose, and images of the nasal airways were acquired for 15 minutes. The nasal airways were treated with hypertonic saline or mannitol to increase surface hydration and MCT. Custom software was used to locate and track particles and calculate individual and bulk MCT rates. No statistically significant differences in MCT rate were found between normal and CF mouse nasal airways or between treatments. However, we hope that the improved sensitivity provided by this technique will accelerate the ability to identify useful CF lung disease-modifying interventions in small animal models, and enhance the development and efficacy of proposed new therapies.

  1. Non-invasive airway health measurement using synchrotron x-ray microscopy of high refractive index glass microbeads

    Donnelley, Martin; Morgan, Kaye; Farrow, Nigel; Siu, Karen; Parsons, David

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a gene defect that compromises the ability of the mucociliary transit (MCT) system to clear the airways of debris and pathogens. To directly characterise airway health and the effects of treatments we have developed a synchrotron X-ray microscopy method that non-invasively measures the local rate and patterns of MCT behaviour. Although the nasal airways of CF mice exhibit the CF pathophysiology, there is evidence that nasal MCT is not altered in CF mice1. The aim of this experiment was to determine if our non-invasive local airway health assessment method could identify differences in nasal MCT rate between normal and CF mice, information that is potentially lost in bulk MCT measurements. Experiments were performed on the BL20XU beamline at the SPring-8 Synchrotron in Japan. Mice were anaesthetized, a small quantity of micron-sized marker particles were delivered to the nose, and images of the nasal airways were acquired for 15 minutes. The nasal airways were treated with hypertonic saline or mannitol to increase surface hydration and MCT. Custom software was used to locate and track particles and calculate individual and bulk MCT rates. No statistically significant differences in MCT rate were found between normal and CF mouse nasal airways or between treatments. However, we hope that the improved sensitivity provided by this technique will accelerate the ability to identify useful CF lung disease-modifying interventions in small animal models, and enhance the development and efficacy of proposed new therapies.

  2. Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems.

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Epstein, Howard E; Box, Elgene O; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Goswami, Santonu; Iversen, Colleen M; Kattge, Jens; Norby, Richard J; van Bodegom, Peter M; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2014-07-01

    Earth system models describe the physical, chemical and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modellers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review, the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current and future distribution of vegetation. Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially below-ground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait-environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology and remote sensing will be

  3. Quantitative analysis of flavonols, flavones, and flavanones in fruits, vegetables and beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array and mass spectrometric detection

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Leth, Torben

    1998-01-01

    after acid hydrolysis of freeze-dried food material. Identification was based on retention time, UV and mass spectra by comparison with commercial standards, and the UV peak areas were used for quantitation of the flavonoid contents. Examples of HPLC-MS analyses of orange pulp, tomato, and apple......A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation method viith photo-diode array (PDA) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection was developed to determine and quantify flavonols, flavones, and flavanones in fruits, vegetables and beverages. The compounds were analysed as aglycones, obtained...

  4. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type t...

  5. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data evaluation for use in monitoring vegetation. Volume 1: Channels 1 and 2

    Horvath, N. C.; Gray, T. I.; Mccrary, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite system (NOAA-6 satellite) were analyzed to study their nonmeteorological uses. A file of charts, graphs, and tables was created form the products generated. It was found that the most useful data lie between pixel numbers 400 and 2000 on a given scan line. The analysis of the generated products indicates that the Gray-McCrary Index can discern vegetation and associated daily and seasonal changes. The solar zenith-angle correction used in previous studies was found to be a useful adjustment to the index. The METSAT system seems best suited for providing large-area analyses of surface features on a daily basis.

  6. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Rose, Peter; Huang, Qing; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-01-01

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependant manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables

  7. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-04-07

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport.

  8. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to

  9. Invasive plants often emanate from southern gardens

    J.H. Miller; A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Did you know that heavenly bamboo, thorny olive, English ivy, Boston fern, privets and many garden favorites are invading forests to their and thus our detriment? Garden clubs should band together to protect our natural vegetation against invasive plants that take over the habitat of the native flora. Often called non-native, exotic, or noxious weeds, they...

  10. Invasive pests—insects and diseases

    Donald A. Duerr; Paul A. Mistretta

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsNonnative pest species have increasing impacts in the South regardless of climate change, patterns of land ownership, or changes in the composition of vegetation.“New” nonnative invasive insects and diseases will have serious impacts on southern forests over the next 50 years. Some species such as emerald ash borer...

  11. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    Wagner, Viktoria; Chytrý, Milan; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, Stephan; Biurrun, Idoia; Knollová, Ilona; Berg, Christian; Vassilev, Kiril; Rodwell, John S.; Škvorc, Željko; Jandt, Ute; Ewald, Jörg; Jansen, Florian; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Casella, Laura; Attorre, Fabio; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Ćušterevska, Renata; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Brunet, Jörg; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens Christian; Kącki, Zygmunt; Petrášová-Šibíková, Mária; Šilc, Urban; García-Mijangos, Itziar; Campos, Juan Antonio; Fernández-González, Federico; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Onyshchenko, Viktor; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the

  12. Non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for bladder cancer: fused high b value diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging helps evaluate depth of invasion

    Lee, Minsu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul; Park, Sung Yoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Deuk [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Urology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the utility of fused high b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) for evaluating depth of invasion in bladder cancer. We included 62 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgically confirmed urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder. An experienced genitourinary radiologist analysed the depth of invasion (T stage <2 or ≥2) using T2WI, DWI, T2WI plus DWI, and fused DWI and T2WI (fusion MRI). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were investigated. Area under the curve (AUC) was analysed to identify T stage ≥2. The rate of patients with surgically confirmed T stage ≥2 was 41.9% (26/62). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 50.0%, 55.6%, 44.8%, 60.6% and 53.2%, respectively, with T2WI; 57.7%, 77.8%, 65.2%, 71.8% and 69.4%, respectively, with DWI; 65.4%, 80.6%, 70.8%, 76.3% and 74.2%, respectively, with T2WI plus DWI and 80.8%, 77.8%, 72.4%, 84.9% and 79.0%, respectively, with fusion MRI. AUC was 0.528 with T2WI, 0.677 with DWI, 0.730 with T2WI plus DWI and 0.793 with fusion MRI for T stage ≥2. Fused high b value DWI and T2WI may be a promising non-contrast MRI technique for assessing depth of invasion in bladder cancer. (orig.)

  13. Non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for bladder cancer: fused high b value diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging helps evaluate depth of invasion

    Lee, Minsu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul; Park, Sung Yoon; Shin, Su-Jin; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the utility of fused high b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) for evaluating depth of invasion in bladder cancer. We included 62 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgically confirmed urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder. An experienced genitourinary radiologist analysed the depth of invasion (T stage <2 or ≥2) using T2WI, DWI, T2WI plus DWI, and fused DWI and T2WI (fusion MRI). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were investigated. Area under the curve (AUC) was analysed to identify T stage ≥2. The rate of patients with surgically confirmed T stage ≥2 was 41.9% (26/62). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 50.0%, 55.6%, 44.8%, 60.6% and 53.2%, respectively, with T2WI; 57.7%, 77.8%, 65.2%, 71.8% and 69.4%, respectively, with DWI; 65.4%, 80.6%, 70.8%, 76.3% and 74.2%, respectively, with T2WI plus DWI and 80.8%, 77.8%, 72.4%, 84.9% and 79.0%, respectively, with fusion MRI. AUC was 0.528 with T2WI, 0.677 with DWI, 0.730 with T2WI plus DWI and 0.793 with fusion MRI for T stage ≥2. Fused high b value DWI and T2WI may be a promising non-contrast MRI technique for assessing depth of invasion in bladder cancer. (orig.)

  14. Pancreatic stump closure using only stapler is associated with high postoperative fistula rate after minimal invasive surgery.

    Yüksel, Adem; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Çolakoğlu, Muhammet Kadri; Ulaş, Murat; Özer, İlter; Karaman, Kerem; Akoğlu, Musa

    2018-03-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality after distal pancreatectomy (DP). The aim of the present study is to determine the risk factors that can lead to POPF. The study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2012. A total of 96 patients who underwent DP were retrospectively analyzed. Overall, 24 patients (25%) underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) and 72 patients (75%) open surgery. The overall morbidity rate was 51% (49/96). POPF (32/96, 33.3%) was the most common postoperative complication. Grade B fistula (18/32, 56.2%) was the most common fistula type according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definition. POPF rate was significantly higher in the minimally invasive surgery group (50%, p=0.046). POPF rate was 58.6% (17/29) in patients whose pancreatic stump closure was performed with only stapler, whereas POPF rate was 3.6% (1/28) in the group where the stump was closed with stapler plus oversewing sutures. Both minimally invasive surgery (OR: 0.286, 95% CI: 0.106-0.776, p=0.014) and intraoperative blood transfusion (OR: 4.210, 95% CI: 1.155-15.354, p=0.029) were detected as independent risk factors for POPF in multi-variety analysis. LDP is associated with a higher risk of POPF when stump closure is performed with only staplers. Intraoperative blood transfusion is another risk factor for POPF. On the other hand, oversewing sutures to the stapler line reduces the risk of POPF.

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral narrow-band (or imaging spectroscopy) spectral data are fast emerging as practical solutions in modeling and mapping vegetation. Recent research has demonstrated the advances in and merit of hyperspectral data in a range of applications including quantifying agricultural crops, modeling forest canopy biochemical properties, detecting crop stress and disease, mapping leaf chlorophyll content as it influences crop production, identifying plants affected by contaminants such as arsenic, demonstrating sensitivity to plant nitrogen content, classifying vegetation species and type, characterizing wetlands, and mapping invasive species. The need for significant improvements in quantifying, modeling, and mapping plant chemical, physical, and water properties is more critical than ever before to reduce uncertainties in our understanding of the Earth and to better sustain it. There is also a need for a synthesis of the vast knowledge spread throughout the literature from more than 40 years of research.

  16. Invasive infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae is a disease affecting patients with high comorbidity and associated with high long-term mortality

    Nauclér, P.; Kalin, M.; Giske, C. G.

    2018-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is after Escherichia coli (EC) the most common gram-negative species causing invasive infections. Herein, we analyzed risk factors and prognosis in invasive infections caused by KP versus EC, in an area with low antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, we compared antimicrobial resistance and relative prevalence of KP and EC (KP/EC-ratio) in different European countries, using EARS-Net data. Adult patients admitted to Karolinska University Hospital 2006–2012 with invasive infection caused by KP (n = 599) were matched regarding sex and age with patients infected by EC. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Comorbidity was adjusted for with multivariable analysis. European data were retrieved from the EARS-Net database. No differences were observed in 7- and 30-day mortality between the groups. The 90-day mortality was significantly higher in the KP cohort (26% versus 17%, pKarolinska University Hospital compared to aggregate data from 20 EARS-Net countries could be related to absence of clonal spread of multidrug-resistant KP. PMID:29624618

  17. TGF-β1 modulates the homeostasis between MMPs and MMP inhibitors through p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in highly invasive breast cancer cells

    Gomes, Luciana R; Terra, Letícia F; Wailemann, Rosângela AM; Labriola, Leticia; Sogayar, Mari C

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is the main factor responsible for death in breast cancer patients. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, known as tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and the membrane-associated MMP inhibitor (RECK), are essential for the metastatic process. We have previously shown a positive correlation between MMPs and their inhibitors expression during breast cancer progression; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this coordinate regulation remain unknown. In this report, we investigated whether TGF-β1 could be a common regulator for MMPs, TIMPs and RECK in human breast cancer cell models. The mRNA expression levels of TGF-β isoforms and their receptors were analyzed by qRT-PCR in a panel of five human breast cancer cell lines displaying different degrees of invasiveness and metastatic potential. The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cell line was treated with different concentrations of recombinant TGF-β1 and also with pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. The migratory and invasive potential of these treated cells were examined in vitro by transwell assays. In general, TGF-β2, TβRI and TβRII are over-expressed in more aggressive cells, except for TβRI, which was also highly expressed in ZR-75-1 cells. In addition, TGF-β1-treated MDA-MB-231 cells presented significantly increased mRNA expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, TIMP-2 and RECK. TGF-β1 also increased TIMP-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels but downregulated RECK expression. Furthermore, we analyzed the involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2, representing two well established Smad-independent pathways, in the proposed mechanism. Inhibition of p38MAPK blocked TGF-β1-increased mRNA expression of all MMPs and MMP inhibitors analyzed, and prevented TGF-β1 upregulation of TIMP-2 and MMP-2 proteins. Moreover, ERK1/2 inhibition increased RECK and prevented the TGF-β1 induction of pro-MMP-9 and TIMP-2 proteins. TGF-β1-enhanced migration and invasion capacities were blocked by p

  18. Ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Almeida, Jorge S.; Anunciação, Taiana A.; Brandão, Geovani C.; Dantas, Alailson F.; Lemos, Valfredo A.; Teixeira, Leonardo S. G.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents an ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction procedure for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Some initial tests showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained when using ultrasound instead of mechanical agitation, indicating that acoustic cavitation improved the extraction process. Nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids were evaluated for use in the extraction process, and HNO3 gave the best results. A two-level full-factorial design was applied to investigate the best conditions for the extraction of Cd from the oil samples. The influences of the sonication amplitude, time and temperature of the extraction were evaluated. The results of the design revealed that all of the variables had a significant effect on the experimental results. Afterward, a Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oil samples. According to a multivariate study, the optimum conditions were as follows: sonication amplitude of 60%, extraction time of 15 min, extraction temperature of 46 °C and 0.1 mol L- 1 HNO3 as the extractor solution. Under optimized conditions, the developed method allows for the determination of Cd in oil samples with a limit of quantification of 7.0 ng kg- 1. Addition and recovery experiments were performed in vegetable oil samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recoveries obtained varied from 90% to 115%. The samples were also analyzed after the acid digestion procedure, and the paired t-test (95% confidence level) did not show significant differences from the proposed method.

  19. Relationship of cyanobacterial and algal assemblages with vegetation in the high Arctic tundra (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

    Richter Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of cyanobacteria and green algae assemblages occurring in various tundra types determined on the basis of mosses and vascular plants and habitat conditions. The research was carried out during summer in the years 2009-2013 on the north sea-coast of Hornsund fjord (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago. 58 sites were studied in various tundra types differing in composition of vascular plants, mosses and in trophy and humidity. 141 cyanobacteria and green algae were noted in the research area in total. Cyanobacteria and green algae flora is a significant element of many tundra types and sometimes even dominate there. Despite its importance, it has not been hitherto taken into account in the description and classification of tundra. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the legitimacy of using phycoflora in supplementing the descriptions of hitherto described tundra and distinguishing new tundra types. Numeric hierarchical-accumulative classification (MVSP 3.1 software methods were used to analyze the cyanobacterial and algal assemblages and their co-relations with particular tundra types. The analysis determined dominant and distinctive species in the communities in concordance with ecologically diverse types of tundra. The results show the importance of these organisms in the composition of the vegetation of tundra types and their role in the ecosystems of this part of the Arctic.

  20. Direct determination of 3-chloropropanol esters in edible vegetable oils using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS-Orbitrap).

    Graziani, Giulia; Gaspari, Anna; Chianese, Donato; Conte, Lanfranco; Ritieni, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    A series of refined edible oils derived from mixed seeds, peanuts, corn, sunflower and palm obtained from the local supermarket were analyzed for their content of 3-MCPD esters. A direct analytical method for the determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPD esters) was applied to investigate the major MCPD esters found in common edible oils; in particular seven types of monoesters and eleven types of diesters were detected. The limits of detection (LODs) for monoesters and diesters of 3-MCPD were in the range of 0.079-12.678 µg kg -1 and 0.033-18.610 µg kg -1 in edible oils, and the ranges of limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 0.979-38.035 µg kg -1 and 0.100-55 µg kg -1 , respectively. The recoveries of 3-MCPD esters from oil samples were in the range of 80-100%, with RSD ranging between 1.9 and 11.8%. The concentration levels of total 3-MCPD diesters in vegetable oil samples were in the range from 0.106 up to 3.444 μg g -1 whereas total monoesters ranged from 0.005 up to 1.606 μg g -1 .

  1. High-resolution harmonics ultrasound imaging for non-invasive characterization of wound healing in a pre-clinical swine model.

    Surya C Gnyawali

    Full Text Available This work represents the first study employing non-invasive high-resolution harmonic ultrasound imaging to longitudinally characterize skin wound healing. Burn wounds (day 0-42, on the dorsum of a domestic Yorkshire white pig were studied non-invasively using tandem digital planimetry, laser speckle imaging and dual mode (B and Doppler ultrasound imaging. Wound depth, as measured by B-mode imaging, progressively increased until day 21 and decreased thereafter. Initially, blood flow at the wound edge increased up to day 14 and subsequently regressed to baseline levels by day 21, when the wound was more than 90% closed. Coinciding with regression of blood flow at the wound edge, there was an increase in blood flow in the wound bed. This was observed to regress by day 42. Such changes in wound angiogenesis were corroborated histologically. Gated Doppler imaging quantitated the pulse pressure of the primary feeder artery supplying the wound site. This pulse pressure markedly increased with a bimodal pattern following wounding connecting it to the induction of wound angiogenesis. Finally, ultrasound elastography measured tissue stiffness and visualized growth of new tissue over time. These studies have elegantly captured the physiological sequence of events during the process of wound healing, much of which is anticipated based on certain dynamics in play, to provide the framework for future studies on molecular mechanisms driving these processes. We conclude that the tandem use of non-invasive imaging technologies has the power to provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of the healing skin tissue.

  2. High relative humidity in-package of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: advantage or disadvantage considering microbiological problems and antimicrobial delivering systems?

    Ayala-Zavala, J F; Del-Toro-Sánchez, L; Alvarez-Parrilla, E; González-Aguilar, G A

    2008-05-01

    This hypothesis article states that the high relative humidity (RH) of packaged fresh-cut fruits or vegetables that is associated with spoilage can be used as an advantageous way to deliver antimicrobial compounds using cyclodextrins (CDs) as carriers. CDs can function as antimicrobial delivery systems as they can release antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds (guest molecules) as the humidity levels increase in the headspace. Hydrophobic antimicrobial guests can be complexed with CDs due to the amphiphatic nature of the host. Then, at high RH values, due to the water-CDs interaction, host-guest interactions are weakened; consequently, the antimicrobial molecule is released and should protect the product against the microbial growth. Potential antimicrobial compounds capable of forming complexes with CDs are discussed, as well as possible applications to preserve fresh-cut produce and future research in this area.

  3. Radium, thorium, and the light rare earth elements in soils and vegetables grown in an area of high natural radioactivity

    Linsalata, P.; Franca, E.P.; Sachett, I.

    1987-01-01

    A study is in progress in Brazil to assess the soil-to-plant concentration ratios (CR) of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 230 Th, and 228 Th and the light rare earth elements (REE) La, Ce, and Nd. Thorium serves as an analog for Pu(IV) and La or Nd as analogs for Am and Cm(III). A near-surface deposit of Th (∼30,000 tons) and REE (>100,000 tons) exists at the center of the plateau near the summit of a small hill. No trends have been observed between farm soil concentrations and proximity to the ore body, substantiating earlier conclusions of the relative immobility of these elements from the deposit. New analytical procedures are presented for the sequential determination of isotopic thorium and the light REE in large biological samples. Typical radiochemical yields are 50 to 70% for Th and 80 to 100% for the REE. Preliminary analyses of seven vegetable types indicate that concentrations of Th, La, Nd, Ce, and Sm are quite variable between and among species. Average concentrations in plant tissues generally reflect soil abundances as: Ce > La > Nd > Sm ∼ Th. Mean CRs are 604, 270, 24, 17, 8 and 1 for 228 Ra, 226 Ra, La, Nd, Ce, and Th, respectively. Plant uptake of elements with stable oxidation states of II, III, and IV decreases as Ra(II) > REE(III) > Th(IV), which may reflect the availability of these elements in soil. 33 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  4. Practices and preferences: Exploring the relationships between food-related parenting practices and child food preferences for high fat and/or sugar foods, fruits, and vegetables.

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Baietto, Jamey

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between food-related parenting practices and child fruit, vegetable, and high fat/sugar food preferences. Parents (n = 148) of children (3-7 years old) completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ), the Preschool Adapted Food Liking Scale (PALS), and answered demographic questions. Separate linear regressions were conducted to test relationships between the different food categories on PALS (fruits, vegetables, and high fat/sugar foods) and each food-related parenting practice using race, ethnicity, and income level, and child age and gender as covariates. It was found that when a parent allows a child to control eating, it was negatively associated with a child's preference for fruit (β = -0.15, p = 0.032) and parent encouragement of child involvement in meal preparation was positively related to child preference for vegetables (β = 0.14, p = 0.048). Children preferred high fat and sugar foods more if parents used food to regulate child emotions (β = 0.24, p = 0.007), used food as a reward (β = 0.32, p food (β = 0.16, p = 0.045), and restricted unhealthy food (β = 0.20, p = 0.024). Conversely, children preferred high fat and sugar foods less if parents made healthy food available in the home (β = -0.13, p = 0.05), modeled healthy eating in front of the child (β = -0.21, p = 0.021), and if parents explained why healthy foods should be consumed (β = -0.24, p = 0.011). Although it cannot be determined if the parent is influencing the child or vice versa, this study provides some evidence that coercive feeding practices are detrimental to a child's food preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An NDVI-Based Vegetation Phenology Is Improved to be More Consistent with Photosynthesis Dynamics through Applying a Light Use Efficiency Model over Boreal High-Latitude Forests

    Siheng Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of high-latitude forests phenology is essential for understanding the global carbon cycle and the response of vegetation to climate change. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI has long been used to study boreal evergreen needleleaf forests (ENF and deciduous broadleaf forests. However, the NDVI-based growing season is generally reported to be longer than that based on gross primary production (GPP, which can be attributed to the difference between greenness and photosynthesis. Instead of introducing environmental factors such as land surface or air temperature like previous studies, this study attempts to make VI-based phenology more consistent with photosynthesis dynamics through applying a light use efficiency model. NDVI (MOD13C2 was used as a proxy for both fractional of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR and light use efficiency at seasonal time scale. Results show that VI-based phenology is improved towards tracking seasonal GPP changes more precisely after applying the light use efficiency model compared to raw NDVI or APAR, especially over ENF.

  6. Determination of Fusarium toxins in functional vegetable milks applying salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Hamed, Ahmed M; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Vegetable milks are considered as functional foods due to their physiological benefits. Although the consumption of these products has significantly increased, they have received little attention in legislation with regard to contaminants. However, they may contain mycotoxins resulting from the use of contaminated raw materials. In this work, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed for the determination of the most relevant Fusarium toxins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 , HT-2 and T-2 toxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fusarenon-X) in different functional beverages based on cereals, legumes and seeds. Sample treatment consisted of a simple salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with no further clean-up. The method provided limits of quantification between 3.2 and 57.7 µg L -1 , recoveries above 80% and precision with RSD lower than 12%. The method was also applied for studying the occurrence of these mycotoxins in market samples of vegetable functional beverages and deoxynivalenol was found in three oat-based commercial drinks.

  7. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  8. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers.

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although workers with poor sleep quality are reported to have problems with work performance, few studies have assessed the association between dietary factors and sleep quality using validated indexes. Here, we examined this association using information acquired from validated questionnaires. A total of 3,129 female workers aged 34 to 65 years were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), and subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The relationship between the intake of several food groups and nutrients and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. The effect of eating habits on sleep quality was also examined. Poor sleep quality was associated with low intake of vegetables (p for trend 0.002) and fish (p for trend 0.04) and high intake of confectionary (p for trend 0.004) and noodles (p for trend 0.03) after adjustment for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, physical activity, depression score, employment status, alcohol intake and smoking status). Poor sleep quality was also significantly and positively associated with consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast, and eating irregularly. In addition, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with high carbohydrate intake (p for trend 0.03). A low intake of vegetables and fish, high intake of confectionary and noodles and unhealthy eating habits were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was also associated with high carbohydrate intake in free-living Japanese middle-aged female workers.

  9. [Invasive nosocomial pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Germaud, P; Haloun, A

    2001-04-01

    Immunodepressed patients, particularly those with neutropenia or bone marrow or organ grafts, are at risk of developing nosocomial invasive pulmonary aspergilosis. The favoring factors, early diagnostic criteria and curative treatment protocols are well known. Prognosis remains however quite severe with a death rate above 50%. Preventive measures are required for the treatment of these high-risk patients and epidemiology surveillance is needed in case of aspergillosis acquired in the hospital.

  10. An unusual case of seed dispersal in an invasive aquatic; yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus)

    Understanding reproductive mode of invasive plants can help managers plan more efficacious control. Invasive aquatics typically reproduce primarily through vegetative means. Yellow flag iris is an invasive plant species often growing as an emergent aquatic. There have been contradictory reports of i...

  11. Development of a non-invasive, multifunctional grasp neuroprosthesis and its evaluation in an individual with a high spinal cord injury.

    Rupp, Rüdiger; Kreilinger, Alex; Rohm, Martin; Kaiser, Vera; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade the improvement of a missing hand function by application of neuroprostheses in particular the implantable Freehand system has been successfully shown in high spinal cord injured individuals. The clinically proven advantages of the Freehand system is its ease of use, the reproducible generation of two distinct functional grasp patterns and an analog control scheme based on movements of the contralateral shoulder. However, after the Freehand system is not commercially available for more than ten years, alternative grasp neuroprosthesis with a comparable functionality are still missing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive neuroprosthesis and to show that a degree of functional restoration can be provided to end users comparable to implanted devices. By introduction of an easy to handle forearm electrode sleeve the reproducible generation of two grasp patterns has been achieved. Generated grasp forces of the palmar grasp are in the range of the implanted system. Though pinch force of the lateral grasp is significantly lower, it can effectively used by a tetraplegic subject to perform functional tasks. The non-invasive grasp neuroprosthesis developed in this work may serve as an easy to apply and inexpensive way to restore a missing hand and finger function at any time after spinal cord injury.

  12. Unconventional gas development facilitates plant invasions.

    Barlow, Kathryn M; Mortensen, David A; Drohan, Patrick J; Averill, Kristine M

    2017-11-01

    Vegetation removal and soil disturbance from natural resource development, combined with invasive plant propagule pressure, can increase vulnerability to plant invasions. Unconventional oil and gas development produces surface disturbance by way of well pad, road, and pipeline construction, and increased traffic. Little is known about the resulting impacts on plant community assembly, including the spread of invasive plants. Our work was conducted in Pennsylvania forests that overlay the Marcellus and Utica shale formations to determine if invasive plants have spread to edge habitat created by unconventional gas development and to investigate factors associated with their presence. A piecewise structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect factors associated with invasive plant establishment on well pads. The model included the following measured or calculated variables: current propagule pressure on local access roads, the spatial extent of the pre-development road network (potential source of invasive propagules), the number of wells per pad (indicator of traffic density), and pad age. Sixty-one percent of the 127 well pads surveyed had at least one invasive plant species present. Invasive plant presence on well pads was positively correlated with local propagule pressure on access roads and indirectly with road density pre-development, the number of wells, and age of the well pad. The vast reserves of unconventional oil and gas are in the early stages of development in the US. Continued development of this underground resource must be paired with careful monitoring and management of surface ecological impacts, including the spread of invasive plants. Prioritizing invasive plant monitoring in unconventional oil and gas development areas with existing roads and multi-well pads could improve early detection and control of invasive plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emission tomography/computed tomography improves staging in patients with high-risk muscle-invasive bladder cancer scheduled for radical cystectomy.

    Kollberg, Petter; Almquist, Helen; Bläckberg, Mats; Cronberg, Carin; Garpered, Sabine; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Kleist, Jakob; Lyttkens, Kerstin; Patschan, Oliver; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in addition to conventional preoperative radiological investigations in a defined group of patients with high-risk muscle-invasive bladder cancer. In total, 103 patients with high-risk muscle-invasive bladder cancer defined as stage T3/T4 disease or as stage T2 with hydronephrosis or high-risk histological features, who were provisionally scheduled to undergo cystectomy, were prospectively recruited to the study. The patients were referred to FDG-PET/CT in addition to standard preoperative investigation with computed tomography (CT). The final treatment decision was reached at a multidisciplinary conference based on all available information including the FDG-PET/CT findings. Compared to CT alone, FDG-PET/CT provided more supplemental findings suggesting malignant manifestations in 48 (47%) of the 103 patients. The additional FDG-PET/CT findings led to an altered provisional treatment plan in 28 out of 103 patients (27%), detection of disseminated bladder cancer and subsequent cancellation of the initially intended cystectomy in 16 patients, and identification of disseminated disease and treatment with induction chemotherapy before radical cystectomy in 12 patients. Preoperative FDG-PET/CT changed the treatment plan for a considerable proportion (27%) of the present patients. Accordingly, such examination can potentially improve the preoperative staging of cystectomy patients with high-risk features, and may also reduce the number of futile operations in patients with advanced disease who are beyond cure.

  14. Antiulcer properties of fruits and vegetables: A mechanism based perspective.

    Harsha, Choudhary; Banik, Kishore; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B

    2017-10-01

    Gastric ulcer is the damage caused to mucosal layer of the stomach under the action of various factors like high levels of acid and pepsin, invasion by Helicobacter pylori, etc. Although most cases have been controlled and the rate of ulcer occurrence has reduced over the last few decades, gastric ulcer still holds a prime concern today. A range of palliative medicines comprising proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists, COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) is widely in use and patients have also been administered with acid suppression therapies. But these remedies aggravate the condition of patients causing severe side effects, or rather impart temporary relief. Therefore, it is highly imperative to develop safe and effective therapies for the treatment of gastric ulcer. Nature provides us various fruits and vegetables that can combat gastric ulcer through multiple mechanisms; predominantly via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antisecretory, antimicrobial, anticholinergic and cytoprotective activity, inhibition of small intestinal propulsion etc. Various phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables such as phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and saponins play a vital role in the prevention and cure of gastric ulcer. This review is a compendium of all fruits and vegetables known for their profound antiulcer effect and their underlying mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring land surface albedo and vegetation dynamics using high spatial and temporal resolution synthetic time series from Landsat and the MODIS BRDF/NBAR/albedo product

    Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Kim, JiHyun; Erb, Angela M.; Gao, Feng; Román, Miguel O.; Yang, Yun; Petroy, Shelley; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Papuga, Shirley A.

    2017-07-01

    Seasonal vegetation phenology can significantly alter surface albedo which in turn affects the global energy balance and the albedo warming/cooling feedbacks that impact climate change. To monitor and quantify the surface dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes, high temporal and spatial resolution synthetic time series of albedo and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were generated from the 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational Collection V006 daily BRDF/NBAR/albedo products and 30 m Landsat 5 albedo and near-nadir reflectance data through the use of the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The traditional Landsat Albedo (Shuai et al., 2011) makes use of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo products (MCD43) by assigning appropriate BRDFs from coincident MODIS products to each Landsat image to generate a 30 m Landsat albedo product for that acquisition date. The available cloud free Landsat 5 albedos (due to clouds, generated every 16 days at best) were used in conjunction with the daily MODIS albedos to determine the appropriate 30 m albedos for the intervening daily time steps in this study. These enhanced daily 30 m spatial resolution synthetic time series were then used to track albedo and vegetation phenology dynamics over three Ameriflux tower sites (Harvard Forest in 2007, Santa Rita in 2011 and Walker Branch in 2005). These Ameriflux sites were chosen as they are all quite nearby new towers coming on line for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and thus represent locations which will be served by spatially paired albedo measures in the near future. The availability of data from the NEON towers will greatly expand the sources of tower albedometer data available for evaluation of satellite products. At these three Ameriflux tower sites the synthetic time series of broadband shortwave albedos were evaluated using the tower albedo measurements with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) less than 0.013 and a

  16. Assessment of early-stage optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma using high-resolution 1.5 Tesla MRI with surface coils: a multicentre, prospective accuracy study with histopathological correlation

    Brisse, Herve J. [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Institut CURIE, Imaging Department, Paris (France); Graaf, Pim de; Rodjan, Firazia; Jong, Marcus C. de; Castelijns, Jonas A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Galluzzi, Paolo [Neuroimaging and Neurointerventional Unit (NINT) Azienda Ospedaliera e Universitaria Senese, Siena (Italy); Cosker, Kristel; Savignoni, Alexia [Institut Curie, Department of Biostatistics, Paris (France); Maeder, Philippe [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Goericke, Sophia [University Hospital Essen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Aerts, Isabelle [Institut Curie, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Desjardins, Laurence [Institut Curie, Department of Ophthalmology, Paris (France); Moll, Annette C. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hadjistilianou, Theodora [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Department of Ophthalmology, Siena (Italy); Toti, Paolo [University of Siena, Department of Medical Biotechnologies, Pathology Unit, Siena (Italy); Valk, Paul van der [VU University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sastre-Garau, Xavier [Institut Curie, Department of Biopathology, Paris (France); Collaboration: European Retinoblastoma Imaging Collaboration (ERIC)

    2015-05-01

    To assess the accuracy of high-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing early-stage optic nerve (ON) invasion in a retinoblastoma cohort. This IRB-approved, prospective multicenter study included 95 patients (55 boys, 40 girls; mean age, 29 months). 1.5-T MRI was performed using surface coils before enucleation, including spin-echo unenhanced and contrast-enhanced (CE) T1-weighted sequences (slice thickness, 2 mm; pixel size <0.3 x 0.3 mm{sup 2}). Images were read by five neuroradiologists blinded to histopathologic findings. ROC curves were constructed with AUC assessment using a bootstrap method. Histopathology identified 41 eyes without ON invasion and 25 with prelaminar, 18 with intralaminar and 12 with postlaminar invasion. All but one were postoperatively classified as stage I by the International Retinoblastoma Staging System. The accuracy of CE-T1 sequences in identifying ON invasion was limited (AUC = 0.64; 95 % CI, 0.55 - 0.72) and not confirmed for postlaminar invasion diagnosis (AUC = 0.64; 95 % CI, 0.47 - 0.82); high specificities (range, 0.64 - 1) and negative predictive values (range, 0.81 - 0.97) were confirmed. HR-MRI with surface coils is recommended to appropriately select retinoblastoma patients eligible for primary enucleation without the risk of IRSS stage II but cannot substitute for pathology in differentiating the first degrees of ON invasion. (orig.)

  17. Effects of flood inundation and invasion by Phalaris arundinacea on nitrogen cycling in an Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest

    Swanson, Whitney; DeJager, Nathan R.; Strauss, Eric A.; Thomsen, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Although floodplains are thought to serve as important buffers against nitrogen (N) transport to aquatic systems, frequent flooding and high levels of nutrient availability also make these systems prone to invasion by exotic plant species. Invasive plants could modify the cycling and availability of nutrients within floodplains, with effects that could feedback to promote the persistence of the invasive species and impact N export to riverine and coastal areas. We examined the effect of flooding on soil properties and N cycling at a floodplain site in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River with 2 plant communities: mature native forest (Acer saccharinum) and patches of an invasive grass (Phalaris arundinacea). Plots were established within each vegetation type along an elevation gradient and sampled throughout the summers of 2013 and 2014. Spatial trends in flooding resulted in higher soil organic matter, porosity, and total nitrogen and carbon in low elevations. Nutrient processes and NH4+ and NO3− availability, however, were best explained by vegetation type and time after flooding. Phalaris plots maintained higher rates of nitrification and higher concentrations of available NH4+ and NO3−. These results suggest that invasion by Phalarismay make nitrogen more readily available and could help to reinforce this species' persistence in floodplain wetlands. They also raise the possibility that Phalaris may decrease floodplain N storage capacity and influence downstream transport of N to coastal zones.

  18. Minimal invasive biopsy results of 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital mammography screening. High prevalence but also high predictive value for malignancy

    Weigel, S.; Heindel, W.; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster; Decker, T.; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster; Korsching, E.; Biesheuvel, C.; Woestmann, A.; Boecker, W.; Hungermann, D.; Roterberg, K.; Tio, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate, the histological spectrum and the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential (B3)' in digital mammography screening. Methods and Materials: Consecutive data of 37 178 participants of one digital unit of the German screening program were included. Results: The B 3 rate was 15.1 % (148/979). The frequencies of lesion subtypes were as follows: atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type (AEPDT) 35.1 % (52/148), radial scar (RS) 28.4 % (42/148), papillary lesions (PAP) 20.3 % (30/148), lobular carcinoma in situ 8.8 % (13/148), flat epithelial atypia 5.4 % (8/148), and mucocele-like lesions 2.0 % (3/148). The PPV for malignancy in surgical excisions was overall 0.28 (25/91); in detail 0.40 (19/47) for AEPDT, 0.20 (5/25) for RS, 0.08 (1/12) for PAP. Conclusion: Despite a higher B 3 rate of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital screening, the benign surgical biopsy rate is not disproportionally increased compared with analog screening programs. Together with defined management protocols, this results in an increased cancer detection rate per screening participant with surgical excision. (orig.)

  19. Minimal invasive biopsy results of 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital mammography screening. High prevalence but also high predictive value for malignancy

    Weigel, S.; Heindel, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Decker, T. [Dietrich Bonhoeffer Klinikum, Neubrandenburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Korsching, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioinformatik; Biesheuvel, C.; Woestmann, A.; Boecker, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Hungermann, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Gerhard-Domagk-Inst. fuer Pathologie; Roterberg, K.; Tio, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Bereich Senologie

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate, the histological spectrum and the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential (B3)' in digital mammography screening. Methods and Materials: Consecutive data of 37 178 participants of one digital unit of the German screening program were included. Results: The B 3 rate was 15.1 % (148/979). The frequencies of lesion subtypes were as follows: atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type (AEPDT) 35.1 % (52/148), radial scar (RS) 28.4 % (42/148), papillary lesions (PAP) 20.3 % (30/148), lobular carcinoma in situ 8.8 % (13/148), flat epithelial atypia 5.4 % (8/148), and mucocele-like lesions 2.0 % (3/148). The PPV for malignancy in surgical excisions was overall 0.28 (25/91); in detail 0.40 (19/47) for AEPDT, 0.20 (5/25) for RS, 0.08 (1/12) for PAP. Conclusion: Despite a higher B 3 rate of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital screening, the benign surgical biopsy rate is not disproportionally increased compared with analog screening programs. Together with defined management protocols, this results in an increased cancer detection rate per screening participant with surgical excision. (orig.)

  20. The impact of portable high-efficiency particulate air filters on the incidence of invasive aspergillosis in a large acute tertiary-care hospital.

    Abdul Salam, Zakir-Hussain; Karlin, Rubiyah Binte; Ling, Moi Lin; Yang, Kok Soong

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide, the frequency of invasive fungal infections has been increasing, with a corresponding increase in the numbers of high-risk patients. Exposure reduction through the use of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters has been the preferred primary preventive strategy for these high-risk patients. Although the efficiency and benefits of fixed HEPA filters is well proven, the benefits of portable HEPA filters are still inconclusive. This was a retrospective study to assess the impact of 48 portable HEPA filter units deployed in selected wards in Singapore General Hospital, an acute tertiary-care hospital in Singapore. Data were extracted between December 2005 and June 2008 on the diagnoses at discharge and microbiological and histological laboratory findings. All patients with possible, probable, or proven invasive aspergillosis (IA) were included. In wards with portable HEPA filters, the incidence rate of IA of 34.61/100,000 patient-days in the pre-installation period was reduced to 17.51/100,000 patient-days in the post-installation period (P = .01), for an incidence rate ratio of 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.97). In wards with no HEPA filters, there was no significant change in the incidence rate during the study period. Portable HEPA filters were associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.49 (95% CI, 0.28-0.85; P = .01), adjusted for diagnosis and length of hospital stay. Portable HEPA filters are effective in the prevention of IA. The cost of widespread portable HEPA filtration in hospitals will be more than offset by the decreases in nosocomial infections in general and in IA in particular. Copyright (c) 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

    Sacks Frank M

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pressure with lower sodium intake for both diet groups. Although some critics would argue otherwise, these findings provide important new evidence for the value of the DASH diet and sodium reduction in controlling blood pressure.

  2. Matrix effect in analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry

    Andoralov A.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For modern food safety control are using techniques that allow to determinate a large number of components. So for determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables commonly used methods of gas and liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass-spectrometric detection. This system allows to carry out quantitative determination several hundreds of pesticides and their identification by the characteristic fragments of the mass spectrum. The main problem when using mass spectrometric detection is a matrix effect, which is caused by the influence of matrix components extracted with pesticides from the sample. In this work, attempts have been made to reduce the influence of the matrix in the analysis of pesticide residues by high performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC / TOFMS.

  3. Consuming High-Carotenoid Fruit and Vegetables Influences Skin Yellowness and Plasma Carotenoids in Young Women: A Single-Blind Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Burrows, Tracy L; Wood, Lisa G; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Collins, Clare E

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids from fruits and vegetables (F/V) leads to accumulations in human skin, altering skin yellowness. The influence of the quantity of F/V consumed on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations has not been examined previously. To compare the influence of consuming high-carotenoid-containing F/V (HCFV) (176,425 μg beta carotene/wk) vs low-carotenoid F/V (LCFV) (2,073 μg beta carotene/wk) on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations, over 4 weeks. A single-blind randomized controlled crossover trial from October 2013 to March 2014. Thirty women were randomized to receive 7 daily servings of HCFV or LCFV for 4 weeks. Following a 2-week washout period they followed the alternate intervention. Skin color (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* color space, where L* represents skin lightness and positive values of a* and b* represent degrees of redness and yellowness, respectively) was assessed by reflectance spectroscopy in both sun-exposed and nonexposed skin areas. Fasting plasma carotenoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, before and after each intervention period. Linear mixed models were used to determine the HCFV and LCFV response on skin color and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for intervention order, time, and interaction between baseline differences and time. There were no significant differences in mean daily fruit (P=0.42) and vegetable (P=0.17) intakes between HCFV and LCFV groups. Dietary alpha carotene, beta carotene, lutein, and beta cryptoxanthin intakes were significantly different between the two groups (Pcarotenoid concentrations were significantly higher following HCFV than LCFV over 4 weeks. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Manual Mapping and Automated Object-Based Image Analysis of Non-Submerged Aquatic Vegetation from Very-High-Resolution UAS Images

    Eva Husson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vegetation has important ecological and regulatory functions and should be monitored in order to detect ecosystem changes. Field data collection is often costly and time-consuming; remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems (UASs provides aerial images with sub-decimetre resolution and offers a potential data source for vegetation mapping. In a manual mapping approach, UAS true-colour images with 5-cm-resolution pixels allowed for the identification of non-submerged aquatic vegetation at the species level. However, manual mapping is labour-intensive, and while automated classification methods are available, they have rarely been evaluated for aquatic vegetation, particularly at the scale of individual vegetation stands. We evaluated classification accuracy and time-efficiency for mapping non-submerged aquatic vegetation at three levels of detail at five test sites (100 m × 100 m differing in vegetation complexity. We used object-based image analysis and tested two classification methods (threshold classification and Random Forest using eCognition®. The automated classification results were compared to results from manual mapping. Using threshold classification, overall accuracy at the five test sites ranged from 93% to 99% for the water-versus-vegetation level and from 62% to 90% for the growth-form level. Using Random Forest classification, overall accuracy ranged from 56% to 94% for the growth-form level and from 52% to 75% for the dominant-taxon level. Overall classification accuracy decreased with increasing vegetation complexity. In test sites with more complex vegetation, automated classification was more time-efficient than manual mapping. This study demonstrated that automated classification of non-submerged aquatic vegetation from true-colour UAS images was feasible, indicating good potential for operative mapping of aquatic vegetation. When choosing the preferred mapping method (manual versus automated the desired level of

  5. Intraspecies differenes in phenotypic plasticity: Invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    High phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of plants, as high plasticity may enlarge the breath of environments in which the plants can survive and reproduce. Here we compare the phenotypic plasticity of invasive and non-invasive populations of the same species...... hypothesized that the phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits like growth and photosynthesis were higher in the invasive than in the non-invasive population. The invasive population acclimated to elevated temperatures through increased rates of photosynthesis (range: Pamb: 8–452 mol O2 g−1 DM h−1......-harvesting complex. Hence, the invasive population of C. demersum from New Zealand had higher phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature than the non-invasive Danish population. This might be the result of genetic evolution since its introduction to New Zealand five decades ago, but further studies are needed...

  6. A Community-Based Marketing Campaign at Farmers Markets to Encourage Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in Rural Counties With High Rates of Obesity, Kentucky, 2015-2016.

    DeWitt, Emily; McGladrey, Margaret; Liu, Emily; Peritore, Nicole; Webber, Kelly; Butterworth, Brooke; Vail, Ann; Gustafson, Alison

    2017-08-31

    Availability of farmers markets may increase fruit and vegetable consumption among rural residents of the United States. We conducted a community-based marketing campaign, Plate it Up Kentucky Proud (PIUKP), in 6 rural communities over 2 years to determine the association between exposure to the campaign and fruit and vegetable purchases, adjusted for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program recipient status. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds of the PIUKP campaign influencing purchases. Awareness of the PIUKP marketing campaign was significantly associated with a willingness to prepare fruits and vegetables at home. Using marketing strategies at farmers markets may be an effective way to improve fruit and vegetable purchases in rural communities.

  7. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk) Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability 
and Nutritional Value.

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mehr, Hamed Mahdavian; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi

    2015-03-01

    In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel) and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well--balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation-sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  8. Invasive predators and global biodiversity loss.

    Doherty, Tim S; Glen, Alistair S; Nimmo, Dale G; Ritchie, Euan G; Dickman, Chris R

    2016-10-04

    Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally, and invasive mammalian predators are particularly damaging, having contributed to considerable species decline and extinction. We provide a global metaanalysis of these impacts and reveal their full extent. Invasive predators are implicated in 87 bird, 45 mammal, and 10 reptile species extinctions-58% of these groups' contemporary extinctions worldwide. These figures are likely underestimated because 23 critically endangered species that we assessed are classed as "possibly extinct." Invasive mammalian predators endanger a further 596 species at risk of extinction, with cats, rodents, dogs, and pigs threatening the most species overall. Species most at risk from predators have high evolutionary distinctiveness and inhabit insular environments. Invasive mammalian predators are therefore important drivers of irreversible loss of phylogenetic diversity worldwide. That most impacted species are insular indicates that management of invasive predators on islands should be a global conservation priority. Understanding and mitigating the impact of invasive mammalian predators is essential for reducing the rate of global biodiversity loss.

  9. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  10. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Bron James E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO, driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO, soybean (SO or linseed (LO oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain

  11. Native plant community response to alien plant invasion and removal

    Jara ANDREU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the potential ecological impacts of invasive species, removal of alien plants has become an important management challenge and a high priority for environmental managers. To consider that a removal effort has been successful requires both, the effective elimination of alien plants and the restoration of the native plant community back to its historical composition and function. We present a conceptual framework based on observational and experimental data that compares invaded, non-invaded and removal sites to quantify invaders’ impacts and native plant recover after their removal. We also conduct a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of plant invaders and the consequences of their removal on the native plant community, across a variety of ecosystems around the world. Our results that invasion by alien plants is responsible for a local decline in native species richness and abundance. Our analysis also provides evidence that after removal, the native vegetation has the potential to recover to a pre-invasion target state. Our review reveal that observational and experimental approaches are rarely used in concert, and that reference sites are scarcely employed to assess native species recovery after removal. However, we believe that comparing invaded, non-invaded and removal sites offer the opportunity to obtain scientific information with relevance for management.

  12. Using vegetation structure estimates derived from multi-source remote sensing to predict dynamics of a semi-arid ecosystem in the western US

    Shrestha, R.; Mitchell, J. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of species and vegetation types across the western US are expected to shift in response to climate change. Previous studies have documented the change in fire regime and the increasing fire-invasive grass cycle occurring in the western U.S. The change in vegetation structure due to climate change and invasive species alters the fuel load, making these ecosystems vulnerable to high-severity fire. Synergistic remote sensing data, such as hyperspectral data and high-resolution lidar, can be leveraged to capture the composition and structural variability of short-statured semiarid vegetation (e.g. sagebrush, annual grasses). We use a random-forests based fusion technique to integrate multi-source airborne data (hyperspectral and LiDAR) and generate spatially-explicit estimates of vegetation composition and structure (biomass, cover, density, height, LAI) and associated uncertainty across a climate and elevation gradient in southern Idaho. The results will be used to initialize an individual-based terrestrial biosphere model (Ecosystem Demography, ED2) and estimate structural dynamics under future scenarios. This study will provide a basis for understanding feedback mechanisms related to changing climate conditions, fire regimes and patterns of non-native plant invasion. The forthcoming field and remote sensing collection campaigns are also designed for parameterizing a dryland shrub plant functional type in the ED2 model.

  13. Mapping invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR satellite imagery for decision support

    Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Scarbrough, Kirk A.; Powell, Richard B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Huberty, Brian; Jenkins, Liza K.; Banda, Elizabeth C.; Galbraith, David M.; Laubach, Zachary M.; Riordan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The invasive variety of Phragmites australis (common reed) forms dense stands that can cause negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands including habitat degradation and reduced biological diversity. Early treatment is key to controlling Phragmites, therefore a map of the current distribution is needed. ALOS PALSAR imagery was used to produce the first basin-wide distribution map showing the extent of large, dense invasive Phragmites-dominated habitats in wetlands and other coastal ecosystems along the U.S. shore of the Great Lakes. PALSAR is a satellite imaging radar sensor that is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the detection and delineation of these tall (up to 5 m), high density, high biomass invasive Phragmites stands. Classification was based on multi-season ALOS PALSAR L-band (23 cm wavelength) HH and HV polarization data. Seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) datasets were used to improve discrimination of Phragmites by taking advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Extensive field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in 2010–2011 to aid in mapping and for accuracy assessments. Overall basin-wide map accuracy was 87%, with 86% producer's accuracy and 43% user's accuracy for invasive Phragmites. The invasive Phragmites maps are being used to identify major environmental drivers of this invader's distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool.

  14. Fatty acid composition of commercial vegetable oils from the French market analysed using a long highly polar column

    Vingering Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern for consumed fat by western populations has raised the question of the level and the quality of fat intake, especially the composition of fatty acids (FA and their impact on human health. As a consequence, consumers and nutritionists have requested updated publications on FA composition of food containing fat. In the present study, fourteen different kinds of edible oils (rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, argan, groundnut, grape seed, sesame, sunflower, walnut and organic walnut, avocado, wheat germ, and two combined oils were analysed for FA determination using a BPX-70 60 m highly polar GC column. Oils were classified according to the classification of Dubois et al. (2007, 2008. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA group oils, including rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, and avocado oils, contained mainly oleic acid (OA. Groundnut and argan oils, also rich in MUFA, showed in addition high linoleic acid (LA contents. In the polyunsaturated (PUFA group, grape seed oil presented the highest LA content while sunflower, sesame, and wheat germ oils showed noticeable MUFA amounts in addition to high PUFA contents. Walnut oils, also rich in LA, showed the highest linolenic acid (ALA content. The n-6/n-3 ratio of each oil was calculated. Trans-FA (TFA was also detected and quantified. Results were compared with the data published during the past decade, and the slight discrepancies were attributed to differences in origin and variety of seed-cultivars, and in seed and oil processes.

  15. Non-invasive analysis of hormonal variations and effect of postmenopausal Vagifem treatment on women using in vivo high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, A; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-07-21

    This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of applying high wavenumber (HW) confocal Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive assessment of menopause-related hormonal changes in the cervix as well as for determining the effect of Vagifem(®) treatment on postmenopausal women with atrophic cervix. A rapid HW confocal Raman spectroscopy system coupled with a ball lens fiber-optic Raman probe was utilized for in vivo cervical tissue Raman measurements at 785 nm excitation. A total of 164 in vivo HW Raman spectra (premenopausal (n = 104), postmenopausal-prevagifem (n = 34), postmenopausal-postvagifem (n = 26)) were measured from the normal cervix of 26 patients undergoing colposcopy. We established the biochemical basis of premenopausal, postmenopausal-prevagifem and postmenopausal-postvagifem cervix using semiquantitative biomolecular modeling derived from Raman-active biochemicals (i.e., lipids, proteins and water) that play a critical role in HW Raman spectral changes associated with the menopausal process. The diagnostic algorithms developed based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one patient-out, cross-validation yielded the diagnostic sensitivities of 88.5%, 91.2% and 88.5%, and specificities of 91.7%, 90.8% and 99.3%, respectively, for non-invasive in vivo discrimination among premenopausal, postmenopausal-prevagifem and postmenopausal-postvagifem cervix. This work demonstrates for the first time that HW confocal Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with biomolecular modeling can be a powerful diagnostic tool for identifying hormone/menopause-related variations in the native squamous epithelium of normal cervix, as well as for assessing the effect of Vagifem treatment on postmenopausal atrophic cervix in vivo during clinical colposcopic inspections.

  16. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Hoser, Mark J; Mansukoski, Hannu K; Morrical, Scott W; Eboigbodin, Kevin E

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA). SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO) into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  17. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  18. Development of solvent-free offset ink using vegetable oil esters and high molecular-weight resin.

    Park, Jung Min; Kim, Young Han; Kim, Sung Bin

    2013-01-01

    In the development of solvent-free offset ink, the roles of resin molecular weight and used solvent on the ink performance were evaluated by examining the relationship between the various properties of resin and solvent and print quality. To find the best performing resin, the soy-oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was applied to the five modified-phenolic resins having different molecular weights. It is found from the experimental results that the ink made of higher molecular weight and better solubility resin gives better printability and print quality. It is because larger molecular weight resin with better solubility gives higher rate of ink transfer. From the ink application of different esters to high molecular weight resin, the best printing performance was yielded from the soy-oil fatty acid butyl ester (FABE). It is due to its high kinematic viscosity resulting in the smallest change of ink transfer weight upon multiple number of printing, which improves the stability of ink quality.

  19. Galactomannan and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Screening for Invasive Aspergillosis Among High-Risk Hematology Patients: A Diagnostic Meta-analysis.

    Arvanitis, Marios; Anagnostou, Theodora; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-10-15

    Screening of high-risk patients for invasive aspergillosis (IA) has the potential to decrease the use of empiric antifungal agents. However, the performance of different screening methods has not been studied. We performed a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the diagnostic performance of galactomannan (GM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as weekly screening tests in high-risk populations. The sensitivity and specificity of 6 approaches combining GM and PCR were estimated using the bivariate model. Thirteen studies with 1670 patients met our inclusion criteria. Single positive test results had modest sensitivity and specificity for screening (respectively, 92% and 90% for GM; 84% and 76% for PCR). The screening approach with the highest sensitivity was the one that used at least 1 GM- or PCR-positive result to define a positive episode, achieving a sensitivity of 99%, significantly higher than any single test (P = .0018 compared with GM and P value of 100%, whereas the presence of at least 2 positive results is highly suggestive of an active infection with a positive predictive value of 88%. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) and Preferences for Risk Information among High School Students in Sweden.

    Georgsson, Susanne; Sahlin, Ellika; Iwarsson, Moa; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Gustavsson, Peter; Iwarsson, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) was recently introduced for prenatal testing of genetic disorders. Cell-free fetal DNA is present in maternal blood during pregnancy and enables detection of fetal chromosome aberrations in a maternal blood sample. The public perspective to this new, simple method has not been illuminated. The views of young people (i.e. future parents) are important to develop suitable counseling strategies regarding prenatal testing. The aim was to explore Swedish high school students' attitudes, knowledge and preferences regarding NIPT. A questionnaire was completed by 305 students recruited from one high school in Stockholm, November and December 2014. Most students (80 %) considered prenatal testing as good. The majority (65 %) was positive or very positive towards NIPT and 62 % stated that they potentially would like to undergo the test if they or their partner was pregnant. The vast majority (94 %) requested further information about NIPT. Most students (61 %) preferred verbal information, whereas 20 % preferred information via the Internet. The majority of the high school students was positive towards prenatal testing and most was positive towards NIPT. Further, information was requested by the vast majority before making a decision about NIPT. Most of the students preferred verbal information and to a lesser extent information via the Internet. The attitudes, knowledge and preferences for risk information concerning NIPT in young adults are important, in order to increase knowledge on how to educate and inform future parents.

  1. Selection of a MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Subpopulation with High Sensitivity to IL-1β: Characterization of and Correlation between Morphological and Molecular Changes Leading to Increased Invasiveness

    Eloy Andres Pérez-Yépez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer and inflammation are closely related in tumor malignancy prognosis. Breast cancer MCF-7 cells have a poor invasive phenotype, although, under IL-1β stimulus, acquire invasive features. Cell response heterogeneity has precluded precise evaluation of the malignant transition. MCF-7A3 cells were selected for high sensitivity to IL-1β stimulus, uniform expression of CXCR4, and stability of IL1-RI. Structural changes, colony formation ability, proliferation rate, chemotaxis, Matrigel invasion, E-cadherin mRNA expression and protein localization were determined in these cells and in MCF-7 parental cells under the stimulus of IL-1β. Selected MCF-7A3 cells showed a uniform response to IL-1β stimulation increasing features of invasive cells such as scattering, colony formation, proliferation, chemokinesis and invasion. Basal expression of E-cadherin mRNA was higher, and IL-1β stimulus had no further effect at early times of cytokine exposure. Total E-cadherin levels remained unchanged in parental cells, whereas levels decreased, as MCF-7A3 cells became fibroblastoid or scattered. Triton X-100 soluble/insoluble E-cadherin ratios were highly increased in these cells, while, in MCF-7pl cells, ratios could not be correlated with morphology changes. MCF-7A3 cells uniform response to IL-1β allowed characterization of changes induced by the cytokine that had not been assessed when using heterogeneous cell lines.

  2. Vegetation of high-altitude fens and restio marshlands of the Hottentots Holland Mountains, Western Cape, South Africa

    E. J. J. Sieben

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Seepages occurring at high altitudes in the Hottentots Holland Mountains (HHM (Western Cape Province. South Africa were subject to a phytosociological survey. Relevé sampling method and classification procedures of the floristic-sociological (Braun-Blanquet approach as well as numerical data analyses (numerical classification and ordination were used to reveal syn- taxonomic patterns and characterize the position of the syntaxa along major environmental gradients. Nine plant communities were recognized, three of which were classified as associations, following formal syntaxonomic and nomenclatural rules of the floristic-sociological approach Most of the studied mire communities were dominated by low-growing clonal restios (Restionaceae. whereas some consisted of other types of graminoids. The most important species determining the structure (and function of the mire communities on sandstones of the HHM include restios Anthochortus crinalis, Chondropetalum deustum.C. mucronatum, Elegia intermedia. E. thyrsifera. Restio subtilis. R. purpurascens. cyperoids Epischoenus villosus. Ficinia argy-ropa, grasses Ehrharta setacea subsp. setacea. Pentameris hirtiglumis as well as shrubs Berzelia squarrosa. Cliffortia tricuspi- data. Erica intenallaris and Grubbia rosmarinifolia. Protea lacticolor and Restio perplexus dominate a rare shale band seep­age community. There are two major groups of communities—the fens (dominated by carpets of Anthochortus crinalis and other low-growing species and the restio marshlands (mosaics of low tussocks of Restio subtilis and tall Chondropetalum mucrona­tum. The degree of soil (and water minerotrophy was found to be the most important differentiating feature between the mire (fen and restio marshland communities studied. The soils in the centre of mires were found to have high contents of peat and showed very little influence from the underlying sandstone. The soils along the mire margins had a greater admixture of

  3. TrkB is highly expressed in NSCLC and mediates BDNF-induced the activation of Pyk2 signaling and the invasion of A549 cells

    Zhang, Siyang; Guo, Dawei; Luo, Wenting; Zhang, Qingfu; Zhang, Ying; Li, Chunyan; Lu, Yao; Cui, Zeshi; Qiu, Xueshan

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant regulation in the invasion of cancer cells is closely associated with their metastatic potentials. TrkB functions as a receptor tyrosine kinase and is considered to facilitate tumor metastasis. Pyk2 is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and integrates signals in cell invasion. However, little is known about the expression of TrkB in NSCLC and whether Pyk2 is involved in TrkB-mediated invasion of A549 cells. The expression of TrkB was investigated in NSCLC by immunohistochemical staining. Both HBE and A549 cells were treated with BDNF. The expression of TrkB, Pyk2 and ERK phosphorylations were assessed by western blot. Besides, A549 cells were transfected with TrkB-siRNA or Pyk2-siRNA, or treated with ERK inhibitor where indicated. Transwell assay was performed to evaluate cell invasion. 40 cases (66.7%) of NSCLC were found higher expression of TrkB and patients with more TrkB expression had significant metastatic lymph nodes (p = 0.028). BDNF facilitated the invasion of A549 cells and the activations of Pyk2 in Tyr402 and ERK. However, the effects of BDNF were not observed in HBE cells with lower expression of TrkB. In addition, the increased Pyk2 and ERK activities induced by BDNF were significantly inhibited by blocking TrkB expression, so was the invasion of A549 cells. Knockdown studies revealed the essential role of Pyk2 for BDNF-induced cell invasion, since the invasion of A549 cells was abolished by Pyk2-siRNA. The application of ERK inhibitor also showed the suppressed ERK phosphorylation and cell invasion. These data indicated that higher expression of TrkB in NSCLC was closely correlated with lymph node metastasis, and BDNF probably via TrkB/Pyk2/ERK promoted the invasion of A549 cells

  4. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  5. Evaluation of Exercise Response in a Young, High Risk Population: Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (ICPET) in Active Duty Soldiers

    2017-03-17

    funding source for your study [e.g., S9 MOW CRD Graduate Health Sciences Educa tion (GHSE) (SGS O&M); SGS R&D; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP...Fidelity Hemodynamic Waveform and Data Repository for Training A llied Health Personnel and Research 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED...Ph.D. February 11 , 2015 FROM: PROJECT TITLE: Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) Institutional Review Board (408191-1] High-Fidelity Hemodynamic

  6. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  7. Multiclass determination of phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Alarcón-Flores, María Isabel; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2013-11-15

    In this study a simultaneous determination of several classes of phytochemicals (isoflavones, glucosinolates, flavones, flavonols and phenolic acids) in tomato, broccoli, carrot, eggplant and grape has been carried out by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Solid-liquid extraction assisted by rotary agitator was utilised, using a mixture of methanol:water (80:20, v/v) as solvent. The analytical procedure was validated in all the matrices, obtaining recoveries ranging from 60% to 120% with repeatability values (expressed as relative standard deviations, RSDs) lower than 25%. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were always equal or lower than 50μg/kg, except for some glucosinolates (125μg/kg). Finally the method was applied to different matrices such as tomato, broccoli, carrot, grape and eggplant, observing that chlorogenic acid was detected in most of the samples at higher concentrations in relation to the other compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  9. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  10. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  11. PTP1B Deficiency Enables the Ability of a High-Fat Diet to Drive the Invasive Character of PTEN-Deficient Prostate Cancers.

    Labbé, David P; Uetani, Noriko; Vinette, Valérie; Lessard, Laurent; Aubry, Isabelle; Migon, Eva; Sirois, Jacinthe; Haigh, Jody J; Bégin, Louis R; Trotman, Lloyd C; Paquet, Marilène; Tremblay, Michel L

    2016-06-01

    Diet affects the risk and progression of prostate cancer, but the interplay between diet and genetic alterations in this disease is not understood. Here we present genetic evidence in the mouse showing that prostate cancer progression driven by loss of the tumor suppressor Pten is mainly unresponsive to a high-fat diet (HFD), but that coordinate loss of the protein tyrosine phosphatase Ptpn1 (encoding PTP1B) enables a highly invasive disease. Prostate cancer in Pten(-/-)Ptpn1(-/-) mice was characterized by increased cell proliferation and Akt activation, interpreted to reflect a heightened sensitivity to IGF-1 stimulation upon HFD feeding. Prostate-specific overexpression of PTP1B was not sufficient to initiate prostate cancer, arguing that it acted as a diet-dependent modifier of prostate cancer development in Pten(-/-) mice. Our findings offer a preclinical rationale to investigate the anticancer effects of PTP1B inhibitors currently being studied clinically for diabetes treatment as a new modality for management of prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3130-5. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Serum galactomannan screening for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in children after stem cell transplantation or with high-risk leukemia.

    Gefen, Aharon; Zaidman, Irina; Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Avidor, Israela; Hakim, Fahed; Weyl Ben-Arush, Myriam; Kassis, Imad

    2015-03-01

    Both transplanted and leukemia patients are at high risk (HR) for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Methods for rapid diagnosis are crucial. Our objective was to investigate the impact of serial serum galactomannan assay (GMA) screening on IPA diagnosis in children. Between January 2010 and December 2011, all children following stem cell transplantation (SCT) or with HR leukemia were prospectively included. Serum samples for GMA were taken once-twice weekly. Results >.5 were considered positive. Patients suspected of having IPA were stratified as possible, probable, and definite. Forty-six children (median age, 8 years) were included, 38 after SCT (32 allogeneic), 8 with HR leukemia. A total of 510 samples were taken; screening period was 1-6 months for 34 patients. GMA was negative in 28 patients, all but one without suspicion of IPA. Eighteen patients had positive GMA: while four (22%) were upgraded to probable IPA, fourteen (78%) were considered as false positives (FP), some associated with piperacillin-tazobactam treatment. GMA sensitivity and specificity were 0.8 and 0.66, respectively; positive- and negative-predictive values (PPV, NPV) were 0.22 and 0.96, respectively. GMA may have a role in evaluating HR children for IPA. Both NPV and FP rates are high. The cost benefit of early detection versus over-diagnosis should be further studied.

  13. FY1995 development of highly qualified less invasive surgery system; 1995 nendo higly qualified LIS (teishinshu geka shujutsu) system no sogoteki kaihatsu kenkyu

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The risk of complications related to high pressure pneumo-peritoneum as well as the restrictions applied to the maneuvering limit further development of laparoscope surgery in various fields. To eliminate such restrictions, we developed the original method of gasless laparoscopic surgery, namely the abdominal wall lifting with double subcutaneous wiring and adjustable plate lifting. These include (1) the ceiling and the lateral wall is much higher and wider than the pneumoperitoneal method (2) less post-operative pain due to non-injury of nerves and muscle layers, and (3) the shape of lifting area and the lifting direction can be adjusted for different cases, and (4) ability to perform extremely difficult cases of severe intraabdominal adhesions. The ultimate goal of this research project is the achievement of truly safe and secure operative method of minimally invasive surgery. Some of the new laparoscopic instruments we invented include the 'Ojigi' rotatable spatula, several motor forceps and sensory forceps. In gasless laparoscopic surgery, the effective intraabdominal space creation is done by the abdominal wall lifting with double subcutaneous wiring and adjustable plate lifting. In addition, the newly developed rotatable operating table is extremely effective in maximizing the intraabdominal space. To improve the visual quality of laparoscope surgery, we developed several advanced cameras which take advantages of high definition TV and three dimensional display. (NEDO)

  14. Effectivity of intravescical thermo-chemotherapy prophylaxis for patients with high recurrence and progression risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Gözen, Ali Serdar; Umari, Paolo; Scheitlin, Walter; Su, Fuat Ernis; Akin, Yigit; Rassweiler, Jens

    2017-06-30

    Background&Aim: High grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is common in urological practice. Most of these cancers are or become refractory to intravesical immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Here we evaluated the efficacy of combined local bladder hyperthermia and intravesical mitomycin-C (MMC) instillation in patients with high-risk recurrent NMIBC. Between February 2014 and December 2015, 18 patients with high risk NMIBC were enrolled. Patients were treated in an outpatient basis with 6 weekly induction sessions followed by monthly maintenance sessions with intravesical MMC in local hyperthermia with bladder wall thermo-chemotherapy (BWT) system (PelvixTT system, Elmedical Ltd., Hod Hasharon, Israel). The follow-up regimen included cystoscopy after the induction cycle and thereafter with regular intervals. Time to disease recurrence was defined as time from the first intravesical treatment to endoscopic or histological documentation of a new bladder tumour. Adverse events were recorded according to CTC 4.0 (Common Toxicity Criteria) score system. Mean age was 72 (32-87) years. 10 patients had multifocal disease, 9 had CIS, 6 had recurrent disease and 2 had highly recurrent disease (> 3 recurrences in a 24 months period). 6 patients underwent previous intravesical chemotherapy with MMC. The average number of maintenance sessions per patient was 7.6. After a mean follow-up of 433 days, 15 patients (83.3%) were recurrence-free. 3 patients had tumour recurrence after a mean period of 248 days without progression. Side effects were limited to grade 1 in 2 patients and grade 2 in 1 patient. BWT seems to be feasible and safe in high grade NMIBC. More studies are needed to identify the subgroup of patients who may benefit more from this treatment.

  15. Effectivity of intravescical thermo-chemotherapy prophylaxis for patients with high recurrence and progression risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Ali Serdar Gözen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background&Aim: High grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC is common in urological practice. Most of these cancers are or become refractory to intravesical immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Here we evaluated the efficacy of combined local bladder hyperthermia and intravesical mitomycin-C (MMC instillation in patients with high-risk recurrent NMIBC. Materials and methods: Between February 2014 and December 2015, 18 patients with high risk NMIBC were enrolled. Patients were treated in an outpatient basis with 6 weekly induction sessions followed by monthly maintenance sessions with intravesical MMC in local hyperthermia with bladder wall thermo-chemotherapy (BWT system (PelvixTT system, Elmedical Ltd., Hod Hasharon, Israel. The follow-up regimen included cystoscopy after the induction cycle and thereafter with regular intervals. Time to disease recurrence was defined as time from the first intravesical treatment to endoscopic or histological documentation of a new bladder tumour. Adverse events were recorded according to CTC 4.0 (Common Toxicity Criteria score system. Results: Mean age was 72 (32-87 years. 10 patients had multifocal disease, 9 had CIS, 6 had recurrent disease and 2 had highly recurrent disease (> 3 recurrences in a 24 months period. 6 patients underwent previous intravesical chemotherapy with MMC. The average number of maintenance sessions per patient was 7.6. After a mean follow-up of 433 days, 15 patients (83.3% were recurrence-free. 3 patients had tumour recurrence after a mean period of 248 days without progression. Side effects were limited to grade 1 in 2 patients and grade 2 in 1 patient. Conclusions: BWT seems to be feasible and safe in high grade NMIBC. More studies are needed to identify the subgroup of patients who may benefit more from this treatment.

  16. East African Cenozoic vegetation history.

    Linder, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C 3 grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C 3 grassland was replaced by C 4 savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood

  17. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of

  18. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  19. Determination of six parabens residues in fresh-cut vegetables using QuEChERS with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    In this study, an optimized QuEChERS sample preparation method was developed to analyze residues of six parabens: methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, isopropyl-, n-butyl-, and isobutyl-paraben in five fresh-cut vegetables (potato, broccoli, carrot, celery and cabbage) with high performance liquid chromatogr...

  20. Current clinical practice gaps in the treatment of intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with emphasis on the use of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG): results of an international individual patient data survey (IPDS)

    Witjes, J.A.; Palou, J.; Soloway, M.; Lamm, D.; Kamat, A.M.; Brausi, M.; Persad, R.; Buckley, R.; Colombel, M.; Bohle, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the management of intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), particularly with regard to the use of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy, in North America and Europe. To compare NMIBC management practices to European Association of Urology (EAU)

  1. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  2. Monitoring presence and advance of the alien invasive western corn rootworm beetle in eastern Slovenia with highly sensitive Metcalf traps.

    Hummel, H E; Urek, G; Modic, S; Hein, D F

    2005-01-01

    The American Chrysomelid beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (D.v.v.), also called the western corn rootworm, spread from the location of its original introduction into Europe, Belgrade airport (BACA 1993), in all directions. Within a decade it occupied almost all countries of South-eastern and Central Europe. However, it reached Slovenia as late as 2003: Only 19 specimen were found in maize fields of the eastern and also western provinces. Already in the summer of 2004, their number had risen to 386 which were mainly found in the eastern provinces near the borders to Croatia, Austria and Hungary. For their monitoring, a simple trap is being described which can be acquired in high numbers at a very low price and can guaranty a most sensitive detection of beetles. The Metcalf cup trap which in Slovenia so far has been unknown performed the task of monitoring quite well at five locations. It will also facilitate the future search for new and increasing infestations. Comparing 2004 with the year 2003, D.v.v. expanded its range in eastern Slovenia by about 15 km. These new infestations will include territories in which fields of the regionally Important oil seed pumpkin Cucurbita pepo are located. With important traffic connections between South-eastern and Central Europe, Slovenia will occupy a bridgehead function in the preventive protection of maize from D.v.v. spreading into more northerly European regions including western Austria and southern Germany.

  3. Rapid and low-invasive functional brain mapping by realtime visualization of high gamma activity for awake craniotomy.

    Kamada, K; Ogawa, H; Kapeller, C; Prueckl, R; Guger, C

    2014-01-01

    For neurosurgery with an awake craniotomy, the critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by electrocortical stimulation (ECS). High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram (ECoG) is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used realtime HGA mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Three patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. After the craniotomy, we recorded ECoG activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated realtime HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared to ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. The investigation times of HGA mapping was significantly shorter than that of ECS mapping. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI, however, did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate functional mapping.

  4. Forecasting the impact of an invasive macrophyte species in the littoral zone through aquatic insect species composition

    Hugo H. L. Saulino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Invasive macrophytes threaten freshwater ecosystem biodiversity. We analyzed the impact of the invasive white ginger lily (Hedychium coronarium J. König, Zingiberaceae on aquatic insect assemblages living in the littoral zone of a tropical reservoir. We took aquatic insect samples in the littoral zone on four main vegetal profile banks: white ginger monotypic bank, forest partially invaded, native macrophyte monotypic bank and riparian forest. At each vegetal bank, we measured abiotic variables such as dissolved oxygen, pH, water temperature and depth. We analyzed the aquatic insects through abundance, richness and Simpson diversity. We used the non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (nMDS analysis to analyze the spatial distribution of each assemblage, and Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM to verify differences amongst dissimilarity distances. Additionally, we analyzed the main taxa associated with invasive macrophytes through indicator species analyses using IndVal index. We observed that the invasive macrophyte banks presented higher abundance of associated specimens, as well as lower dissimilarity of aquatic insect assemblages. Additionally, invasive macrophytes shifted the water pH and littoral depth of reservoir banks. The IndVal index indicated eight aquatic insects as indicator species. Labrundinia unicolor Silva, 2013, Ablabesmyia depaulai Neubern, 2013 and Diastatops Rambur, 1842 were indicator species on banks. We concluded that invasion of white ginger lily caused loss of shallow littoral habitat and altered the pH of the surrounding water probably by high decomposition rate and high production of plant biomass. We suggest the use of species of aquatic insects as indicator species to monitor white ginger lily impact in freshwater systems.

  5. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  6. Overexpression of long non-coding RNA TUG1 predicts poor prognosis and promotes cancer cell proliferation and migration in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Iliev, Robert; Kleinova, Renata; Juracek, Jaroslav; Dolezel, Jan; Ozanova, Zuzana; Fedorko, Michal; Pacik, Dalibor; Svoboda, Marek; Stanik, Michal; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    Long non-coding RNA TUG1 is involved in the development and progression of a variety of tumors. Little is known about TUG1 function in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The aims of our study were to determine expression levels of long non-coding RNA TUG1 in tumor tissue, to evaluate its relationship with clinico-pathological features of high-grade MIBC, and to describe its function in MIBC cells in vitro. TUG1 expression levels were determined in paired tumor and adjacent non-tumor bladder tissues of 47 patients with high-grade MIBC using real-time PCR. Cell line T-24 and siRNA silencing were used to study the TUG1 function in vitro. We observed significantly increased levels of TUG1 in tumor tissue in comparison to adjacent non-tumor bladder tissue (P TUG1 levels were significantly increased in metastatic tumors (P = 0.0147) and were associated with shorter overall survival of MIBC patients (P = 0.0241). TUG1 silencing in vitro led to 34 % decrease in cancer cell proliferation (P = 0.0004) and 23 % reduction in migration capacity of cancer cells (P TUG1 silencing on cell cycle distribution and number of apoptotic cells. Our study confirmed overexpression of TUG1 in MIBC tumor tissue and described its association with worse overall survival in high-grade MIBC patients. Together with in vitro observations, these data suggest an oncogenic role of TUG1 and its potential usage as biomarker or therapeutic target in MIBC.

  7. Osteoid osteoma: Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound for entirely non-invasive treatment. A prospective developmental study

    Napoli, A.; de Soccio, V.; Cartocci, G.; Boni, F.; Anzidei, M.; Catalano, C.

    2017-03-01

    To determine the effect of acoustic energy delivered during MR guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatment of symptomatic osteoid osteomas. This prospective, IRB approved study involved 15 consecutive patients (11 m; 4f; mean age, 21) with clinical and imaging diagnosis of Osteoid Osteoma; all patients underwent MRgFUS ablation (ExAblate, InSightec; Discovery 750 MR unit, GE). Lesions located in the vertebral body were excluded, while lesions in proximity to joints or neurovascular bundles were included. Treatment success was determined at clinical and imaging follow-up at 1, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. A visual Analog Pain Score (VAS) was used to assess changes in symptoms. Bone changes at nidus site were evaluated on the basis of CT and dynamic ce-MR imaging (Gd-Bopta; Bracco) pre- and post-treatment. Treatment was carried out using a variable number of sonications (mean 4±1.8) with a mean energy deposition of 866±211 J. There were no treatment- or anesthesia-related complications. A statistically significant (p=0.001) difference was noted between the overall pre- and post-treatment mean VAS scores (8.3±1.6 and 0.6±1.5, respectively). Two treatments were conducted in patients with prior CTgRFA failure and needed two different session for achieving complete clinical successful. At imaging, edema and hyperemia associated with typical osteoid osteoma, gradually disappeared in all lesions. No apparent relationship between nidus vascular extinction and successful outcome was found. Variable reabsorption degree of sclerotic reaction was observed with nidus disappearance in 4 cases (27%). Treatment of osteoid osteoma using MR guided Focused Ultrasound can be performed safely with a high rate of success and without treatment related morbidity; our results indicated also a positive trend to bone rearrangement after treatment.

  8. Rapid and minimum invasive functional brain mapping by real-time visualization of high gamma activity during awake craniotomy.

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kapeller, Christoph; Hiroshima, Satoru; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping during an awake craniotomy. The critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by ECS. High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used real-time HGA mapping and functional neuronavigation integrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Four patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. During the craniotomy, we recorded electrocorticogram activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated real-time HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared with ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. We found different HGA dynamics of language tasks in frontal and temporal regions. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate identification of motor and frontal language areas. Furthermore, real-time HGA mapping sheds light on underlying physiological mechanisms related to human brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-04-14

    The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  10. Direct determination of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol in edible vegetable oils by isotope dilution - ultra high performance liquid chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Li, Heli; Chen, Dawei; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Shen, Jianzhong; Wu, Yongning

    2015-09-04

    A selective and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method coupled with matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction was developed for the direct determination of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) in edible vegetable oils. The method integrated the isotope dilution technique, MSPD extraction and UHPLC - MS/MS analysis with multi-reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity within the range of 0.01-10mgL(-1) with the correlation coefficient not less than 0.999. Limits of detection (LODs) and limit of quantification (LOQs) of the 3-MCPD esters fell into the range of 0.0001-0.02mgkg(-1) and 0.0004-0.05mgkg(-1), respectively. The recoveries for the spiked extra virgin olive oils ranged from 94.4% to 108.3%, with the relative standard deviations (RSD) ranging from 0.6% to 10.5%. The method was applied for the oil sample (T2642) of the official Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) in 2014 and other real samples from supermarket, and the results showed that the present method was comparative to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method based on the improved German Society for Fat Science (DGF) standard method C-III 18 (09) except for palm oil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Three years exclusion of large herbivores in a high arctic mire in NE Greenland resulted in changed vegetation density and greenhouse gas emission and uptake

    Falk, Julie M.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin; Ström, Lena

    2014-05-01

    Herbivory is an important part of many ecosystems and their presence effects the ecosystems carbon balance with both direct and indirect effects. Little is known about what will happen to an arctic ecosystem that is influenced by herbivory, if the animals disappear. We hypothesized that trampling and grazing by large herbivores influence the vegetation density and composition and hereby the carbon balance. Method: In 2010 an in-situ field experiment in Zackenberg, NE Greenland, were initiated to study the effects of herbivory on the vegetation and carbon balance. Exclosures were established to exclude the muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), which are a natural part of these ecosystems. The experiment consists of five block replicates with three treatments within each block, i.e., control, exclosure and a snow fence (the treatment area is 10x10 m and the fences are 1 m high). During the growing season we have since 2011 performed weekly measurements of CO2 and CH4fluxes, the concentration of labile substrate for CH4 formation (organic acid concentration) in pore-water and additional ecosystem properties, i.e., water table depth, active layer depth and soil temperature. In 2013 a detailed analysis of the vascular plant species composition and density within each measurement plot were performed. Furthermore biomass (including mosses) samples 20x20 cm were harvested within all treatments. Results: The third year after the initiation of the experiment we observed a clear effect of excluding muskoxen grazing from the ecosystem. The exclosures had lower uptake of CO2 and lower CH4 emission. The vegetation analysis inside the plots showed a decrease in total number of vascular tillers and of Eriophorum scheuchzeri (ES) tillers. Correspondingly, the biomass samples from the exclosures had lower number of total plant tillers, ES tillers, total green leaves and green ES leaves and the height of all vascular plants and of ES plants were higher. Finally, the dry weight of the biomass

  12. Adults and Children in Low-Income Households that Participate in Cost-Offset Community Supported Agriculture Have High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption.

    Hanson, Karla L; Kolodinsky, Jane; Wang, Weiwei; Morgan, Emily H; Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Ammerman, Alice S; Sitaker, Marilyn; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-07-08

    This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2-12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 ( n = 41) and February 2016 ( n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables. FVI relative to United States (US) recommendations and averages, and across seasons, were tested with non-parametric tests and paired t -tests ( p < 0.05). Both adults and children in the CO-CSA had higher FVI than the US averages, and more often met recommendations for vegetables. Some summer fruits and vegetables were more often eaten when locally in-season. The CO-CSA model warrants further examination as an avenue for improving vegetable consumption among adults and children in low-income households. However, causality between CO-CSA participation and FVI cannot be inferred, as CO-CSA participants may be positive deviants with respect to FVI. A multi-state randomized controlled trial is currently underway to evaluate impacts of CO-CSAs on FVI and related outcomes.

  13. Highly invasive alien plant Reynoutria japonica Houtt. represents a novel source for pharmaceutical industry - evidence from phenolic profile and biological activity

    Božin Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reynoutria japonica is on the IUCN list of the Worlds’100 worst invasive species, but it is also, especially its rhizome, an integral part of traditional chinese medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of selected phenolic compounds in rhizome, stems, leaves and inflorescence methanol extracts of this plant, their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity. The chemical profile of the examined extracts was obtained by a high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro assays on DPPH, OH and NO radicals were used to estimate antioxidant potential and Ellman’s method was applied for the determination of anticholinesterase activity. Leaves and rhizome extracts were found to be rich in rosmarinic and chlorogenic acid, and selected flavonoids. Resveratrol was exclusively present in rhizome and stems extracts. All the investigated extracts expressed certain antioxidant activity, where leaves extract was the most active. However, rhizome extract was the strongest inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. These findings indicate that there is a possibility of R. japonica exploitation for the isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds used in pharmaceutical and food industry.

  14. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  15. The Hydromechanics of Vegetation for Slope Stabilization

    Mulyono, A.; Subardja, A.; Ekasari, I.; Lailati, M.; Sudirja, R.; Ningrum, W.

    2018-02-01

    Vegetation is one of the alternative technologies in the prevention of shallow landslide prevention that occurs mostly during the rainy season. The application of plant for slope stabilization is known as bioengineering. Knowledge of the vegetative contribution that can be considered in bioengineering was the hydrological and mechanical aspects (hydromechanical). Hydrological effect of the plant on slope stability is to reduce soil water content through transpiration, interception, and evapotranspiration. The mechanical impact of vegetation on slope stability is to stabilize the slope with mechanical reinforcement of soils through roots. Vegetation water consumption varies depending on the age and density, rainfall factors and soil types. Vegetation with high ability to absorb water from the soil and release into the atmosphere through a transpiration process will reduce the pore water stress and increase slope stability, and vegetation with deep root anchoring and strong root binding was potentially more significant to maintain the stability of the slope.

  16. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses. Genetic manipulation is becoming an important method for broccoli improvement. In the present study, a reproducible and highly efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12 days old aseptically grown seedlings whereas leaf and petiole explants were excised from 18 to 20 days old green house grown seedlings and surface sterilized. These explants were cultured on shoot induction medium containing different concentration and combination of BAP and NAA. High efficiency shoot regeneration has been achieved in hypocotyl (83.33 %), cotyledon (90.11 %), leaf (62.96 %) and petiole (91.10 %) explants on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA 2.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA, 4.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA respectively. Petiole explants showed maximum shoot regeneration response as compared to other explants. MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA was found best for root regeneration (100 %) from in vitro developed shoots. The regenerated complete plantlets were transferred to the pots containing cocopeat and successfully acclimatized. This optimized regeneration protocol can be efficiently used for genetic transformation in broccoli. This is the first comparative report on multiple shoot induction using four different types of explants viz. hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole.

  17. Towards a more detailed representation of high-latitude vegetation in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORC-HL-VEGv1.0)

    Druel, Arsène; Peylin, Philippe; Krinner, Gerhard; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Peregon, Anna; Bastrikov, Vladislav; Kosykh, Natalya; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina

    2017-12-01

    Simulation of vegetation-climate feedbacks in high latitudes in the ORCHIDEE land surface model was improved by the addition of three new circumpolar plant functional types (PFTs), namely non-vascular plants representing bryophytes and lichens, Arctic shrubs and Arctic C3 grasses. Non-vascular plants are assigned no stomatal conductance, very shallow roots, and can desiccate during dry episodes and become active again during wet periods, which gives them a larger phenological plasticity (i.e. adaptability and resilience to severe climatic constraints) compared to grasses and shrubs. Shrubs have a specific carbon allocation scheme, and differ from trees by their larger survival rates in winter, due to protection by snow. Arctic C3 grasses have the same equations as in the original ORCHIDEE version, but different parameter values, optimised from in situ observations of biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) in Siberia. In situ observations of living biomass and productivity from Siberia were used to calibrate the parameters of the new PFTs using a Bayesian optimisation procedure. With the new PFTs, we obtain a lower NPP by 31 % (from 55° N), as well as a lower roughness length (-41 %), transpiration (-33 %) and a higher winter albedo (by +3.6 %) due to increased snow cover. A simulation of the water balance and runoff and drainage in the high northern latitudes using the new PFTs results in an increase of fresh water discharge in the Arctic ocean by 11 % (+140 km3 yr-1), owing to less evapotranspiration. Future developments should focus on the competition between these three PFTs and boreal tree PFTs, in order to simulate their area changes in response to climate change, and the effect of carbon-nitrogen interactions.

  18. Supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum K68 and Fruit-Vegetable Ferment along with High Fat-Fructose Diet Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome in Rats with Insulin Resistance

    Hui-Yu Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum K68 (isolated from fu-tsai and fruit-vegetable ferment (FVF have been tested for antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in a rat model of insulin resistance, induced by chronic high fat-fructose diet. Fifty rats were equally assigned into control (CON, high fat-fructose diet (HFFD, HFFD plus K68, HFFD plus FVF, and HFFD plus both K68 and FVF (MIX groups. Respective groups were orally administered with K68 (1×109 CFU/0.5 mL or FVF (180 mg/kg or MIX for 8 weeks. We found that HFFD-induced increased bodyweights were prevented, and progressively increased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were reversed (P<0.01 by K68 and FVF treatments. Elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and HOMA-IR values were controlled in supplemented groups. Furthermore, dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs with HFFD, was significantly (P<0.01 attenuated with MIX. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, were controlled (P<0.01 by K68, FVF, and MIX treatments. Moreover, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were substantially (P<0.01 restored by all treatments. Experimental evidences demonstrate that K68 and FVF may be effective alternative medicine to prevent HFFD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, possibly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacies.

  19. Anomalously high activities of 137Cs in soils and vegetation on and near a diabase outcrop in La Sierra de Lema, Venezuela

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Alfonso, J.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of routine soil sampling to determine the 137 Cs background activities country-wide in Venezuela, it was decided to further investigate El Mirador (Lookout) area at the base of the Sierra de Lema mountain range. In April 2003 (A), soil samples were collected at eight sites on and around the edge of the diabase outcrop to confirm that this area had anomalously high 137 Cs activities. In July 2003 (B), not only soil samples were collected again, but also black mat, palm tree leaves and trunks, fruit bushes leaves and its fruit and fern leaves. The 137 Cs content was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy by a comparative method with reference materials. The 137 Cs activity values range from 16.3 to 30.8 Bq x kg -1 in the soil samples collected in July 2003, 20.7-32.1 Bq x kg -1 for the black mat, 26.3-38.4 Bq x kg -1 for the palm leaves, 16.8-31.2 Bq x kg -1 for the palm trunks and 17.6-27.3 Bq x kg -1 for the fruit bush leaves, while, the 137 Cs activity values for the whole fruit were between 23.4 and 30.7 Bq x kg -1 ; but, the value of the 137 Cs activity in the center of the fruit (the edible part) was 51.6 Bq x kg -1 , and the value of the 137 Cs activity for the fern leaves was 51.8 Bq x kg -1 . Thus, most of the 137 Cs activity values determined in the soil, black mat and vegetation samples from El Mirador (Lookout) were considered anomalously high with respect to those found near the equator and in other areas of Venezuela. Only the center of the fruit from the Clusia grandiflora bushes and the fern leaves had high activity ratios, about a factor of three and could be considered as biomonitors that concentrate and retain the 137 Cs. Finally, these anomalously high 137 Cs activities have been attributed not only to the rich organic soils, as sinks, but also due to the affect of the cloud forests. (author)

  20. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  1. Temporal reflectance changes in vegetables

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    Quality control in the food industry is often performed by measuring various chemical compounds of the food involved. We propose an imaging concept for acquiring high quality multispectral images to evaluate changes of carrots and celeriac over a period of 14 days. Properties originating...... in the surface chemistry of vegetables may be captured in an integrating sphere illumination which enables the creation of detailed surface chemistry maps with a good combination of spectral and spatial resolutions. Prior to multispectral image recording, the vegetables were prefried and frozen at -30Â......°C for four months. During the 14 days of image recording, the vegetables were kept at +5°C in refrigeration. In this period, surface changes and thereby reflectance properties were very subtle. To describe this small variation we employed advanced statistical techniques to search a large featurespace...

  2. Investing in rangeland restoration in the Arid West, USA: countering the effects of an invasive weed on the long-term fire cycle.

    Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca; Englin, Jeffrey; Nalle, Darek

    2009-01-01

    In large areas of the arid western United States, much of which are federally managed, fire frequencies and associated management costs are escalating as flammable, invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) increases its stronghold. Cheatgrass invasion and the subsequent increase in fire frequency result in the loss of native vegetation, less predictable forage availability for livestock and wildlife, and increased costs and risk associated with firefighting. Revegetation following fire on land that is partially invaded by cheatgrass can reduce both the dominance of cheatgrass and its associated high fire rate. Thus restoration can be viewed as an investment in fire-prevention and, if native seed is used, an investment in maintaining native vegetation on the landscape. Here we develop and employ a Markov model of vegetation dynamics for the sagebrush steppe ecosystem to predict vegetation change and management costs under different intensities and types of post-fire revegetation. We use the results to estimate the minimum total cost curves for maintaining native vegetation on the landscape and for preventing cheatgrass dominance. Our results show that across a variety of model parameter possibilities, increased investment in post-fire revegetation reduces long-term fire management costs by more than enough to offset the costs of revegetation. These results support that a policy of intensive post-fire revegetation will reduce long-term management costs for this ecosystem, in addition to providing environmental benefits. This information may help justify costs associated with revegetation and raise the priority of restoration in federal land budgets.

  3. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan.

    Jih-Luh Tang

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFIs is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6% patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs. Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106. Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100-2.141, p value = 0.012. Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of posaconazole versus fluconazole or itraconazole in the prevention of invasive fungal infections among high-risk neutropenic patients in Spain

    Grau Santiago

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole compared with standard azole therapy (SAT; fluconazole or itraconazole for the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFI and the reduction of overall mortality in high-risk neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. The perspective was that of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS. Methods A decision-analytic model, based on a randomised phase III trial, was used to predict IFI avoided, life-years saved (LYS, total costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; incremental cost per LYS over patients' lifetime horizon. Data for the analyses included life expectancy, procedures, and costs associated with IFI and the drugs (in euros at November 2009 values which were obtained from the published literature and opinions of an expert committee. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PAS was performed. Results Posaconazole was associated with fewer IFI (0.05 versus 0.11, increased LYS (2.52 versus 2.43, and significantly lower costs excluding costs of the underlying condition (€6,121 versus €7,928 per patient relative to SAT. There is an 85% probability that posaconazole is a cost-saving strategy compared to SAT and a 97% probability that the ICER for posaconazole relative to SAT is below the cost per LYS threshold of €30,000 currently accepted in Spain. Conclusions Posaconazole is a cost-saving prophylactic strategy (lower costs and greater efficacy compared with fluconazole or itraconazole in high-risk neutropenic patients.

  5. Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest

    Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas

  6. Use of Plastic Mulch for Vegetable Production

    Maughan, Tiffany; Drost, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic mulches are used commercially for both vegetables and small fruit crops. Vegetable crops well suited for production with plastic mulch are typically high value row crops. This fact sheet describes the advantages, disadvantages, installation, and planting considerations. It includes sources for plastic and equipment.

  7. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  8. Early versus delayed invasive strategy for intermediate- and high-risk acute coronary syndromes managed without P2Y12 receptor inhibitor pretreatment: Design and rationale of the EARLY randomized trial.

    Lemesle, Gilles; Laine, Marc; Pankert, Mathieu; Puymirat, Etienne; Cuisset, Thomas; Boueri, Ziad; Maillard, Luc; Armero, Sébastien; Cayla, Guillaume; Bali, Laurent; Motreff, Pascal; Peyre, Jean-Pascal; Paganelli, Franck; Kerbaul, François; Roch, Antoine; Michelet, Pierre; Baumstarck, Karine; Bonello, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    According to recent literature, pretreatment with a P2Y 12 ADP receptor antagonist before coronary angiography appears no longer suitable in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) due to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. Optimal delay of the invasive strategy in this specific context is unknown. We hypothesize that without P2Y 12 ADP receptor antagonist pretreatment, a very early invasive strategy may be beneficial. The EARLY trial (Early or Delayed Revascularization for Intermediate- and High-Risk Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes?) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, 2-parallel-group study that plans to enroll 740 patients. Patients are eligible if the diagnosis of intermediate- or high-risk NSTE-ACS is made and an invasive strategy intended. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio. In the control group, a delayed strategy is adopted, with the coronary angiography taking place between 12 and 72 hours after randomization. In the experimental group, a very early invasive strategy is performed within 2 hours. A loading dose of a P2Y 12 ADP receptor antagonist is given at the time of intervention in both groups. Recruitment began in September 2016 (n = 558 patients as of October 2017). The primary endpoint is the composite of cardiovascular death and recurrent ischemic events at 1 month. The EARLY trial aims to demonstrate the superiority of a very early invasive strategy compared with a delayed strategy in intermediate- and high-risk NSTE-ACS patients managed without P2Y 12 ADP receptor antagonist pretreatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  10. Fungal associations of roots of dominant and sub-dominant plants in high-alpine vegetation systems with special reference to mycorrhiza.

    Haselwandter, K; Read, D J

    1980-04-01

    Types of root infection were analysed in healthy dominant and sub-dominant plants of zonal and azonal vegetation above the timberline in the Central and Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. In the open nival zone vegetation, infection by fungi of the Rhizoctonia type was predominant, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, which was mostly of the fine endophyte (Glomus tenuis) type, being light and mainly restricted to grasses in closed vegetation patches. More extensive Glomus tenuis infection was found in the alpine grass heath, but in Carex, Rhizoctonia was again the most important fungus. The ericaceous plants of the dwarf shrub heath have typical ericoid infection, but quantitative analysis reveals a decrease of infection intensity with increase of altitude. The possible function of the various types of root infection are discussed, and the status of Rhizoctonia as a possible mycorrhizal fungus is considered.

  11. Effect of the consumption of a fruit and vegetable soup with high in vitro carotenoid bioaccessibility on serum carotenoid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress in young men.

    Martínez-Tomás, Rebeca; Larqué, Elvira; González-Silvera, Daniel; Sánchez-Campillo, María; Burgos, María Isabel; Wellner, Anna; Parra, Soledad; Bialek, Lucy; Alminger, Marie; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of the daily intake of a fruit & vegetable soup with high in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids on β-carotene and lycopene serum concentrations. Fourteen healthy young men (24 ± 1 years) received 300 mL/day of a carrot, tomato, and broccoli soup, containing 3.9 mg β-carotene and 4 mg lycopene, for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. The serum carotenoid response and oxidative markers were analyzed after 3 and 4 weeks of soup consumption and after a 4-week washout. The in vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene and lycopene was 55 and 43%, respectively, in the soup. Serum β-carotene concentrations were significantly higher than baseline (0.33 ± 0.05 μmol/L) after 3 weeks (0.69 ± 0.06 μmol/L) and 4 weeks (0.78 ± 0.10 μmol/L) of soup consumption (P soup supplementation compared with baseline, while superoxide dismutase was significantly lower only after 3 weeks. Glutathione reductase, lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative markers remained unchanged. The soup contributed to increasing the concentration of each carotenoid by more than 100% after 3 and 4 weeks of consumption, the maximum increase being observed after 4 weeks. Oxidative markers did not show any variation except for GPx. Serum lycopene half-life was longer than that of β-carotene, which may be important for studies evaluating both carotenoids.

  12. Predicting spread of invasive exotic plants into de-watered reservoirs following dam removal on the Elwha River, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Woodward, Andrea; Torgersen, Christian E.; Chenoweth, Joshua; Beirne, Katherine; Acker, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service is planning to start the restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem in Olympic National Park by removing two high head dams beginning in 2011. The potential for dispersal of exotic plants into dewatered reservoirs following dam removal, which would inhibit restoration of native vegetation, is of great concern. We focused on predicting long-distance dispersal of invasive exotic plants rather than diffusive spread because local sources of invasive species have been surveyed. We included the long-distance dispersal vectors: wind, water, birds, beavers, ungulates, and users of roads and trails. Using information about the current distribution of invasive species from two surveys, various geographic information system techniques and models, and statistical methods, we identified high-priority areas for Park staff to treat prior to dam removal, and areas of the dewatered reservoirs at risk after dam removal.

  13. Geomorphology and vegetation mapping the ice-free terrains of the Western Antarctic Peninsula region using very high resolution imagery from an UAV

    Vieira, G.; Mora, C.; Pina, P.; Bandeira, L.; Hong, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is one of the Earth's regions with a fastest warming signal since the 1950's with an increase of over +2.5 ºC in MAAT. Significant changes have been reported for glaciers, ice-shelves, sea-ice and also for the permafrost environment. Mapping and monitoring the ice-free areas of the WAP has been until recently limited by the available aerial photo surveys, but also by the scarce high resolution satellite imagery (e.g. QuickBird, WorldView, etc.) that are seriously constrained by the high cloudiness of the region. Recent developments in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's), which have seen significant technological advances and price reduction in the last few years, allow for its systematical use for mapping and monitoring in remote environments. In the framework of projects PERMANTAR-3 (PTDC/AAG-GLO/3908/2012 - FCT) and 3DAntártida (Ciência Viva), we complement traditional terrain surveying and mapping, satellite remote sensing (SAR and optical) and D-GPS deformation monitoring, with the application of an UAV. In this communication, we present the results from the application of a Sensefly ebee UAV in mapping the vegetation and geomorphological processes (e.g. sorted circles), as well as for digital elevation model generation in a test site in Barton Pen., King George Isl.. The UAV is a lightweight (ci. 700g) aircraft, with a 96 cm wingspan, which is portable and easy to transport. It allows for up to 40 min flight time, with application of RGB or NIR cameras. We have tested the ebee successfully with winds up to 10 m/s and obtained aerial photos with a ground resolution of 4 cm/pixel. The digital orthophotomaps, high resolution DEM's together with field observations have allowed for deriving geomorphological maps with unprecedented detail and accuracy, providing new insight into the controls on the spatial distribution of geomorphological processes. The talk will focus on the first results from the field surveys of February and

  14. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA in the invasive alien Fallopia japonica: seasonal variation, differences among habitats types, and comparison with native species

    Damian Chmura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase activity (NRA was studied in the invasive alien plant F. japonica (Japanese knotweed during the vegetation season and among natural, semi-natural, and human-made habitats and compared with NRA in selected native species. NRA was measured directly in the field from the beginning of May until the beginning of October. NRA was much higher than in the plant’s native range, i.e., East Asia, and showed a high degree of variation over time with the highest values being reached at the stage of fast vegetative growth and at the beginning of fruiting. NRA was highest on dumping sites probably due to the high nitrogen input into soils and near traffic and the emission of NOx by vehicles. A comparison of the enzyme activity in four selected native plant species indicated that NRA in F. japonica was the highest with the exception of Urtica dioica, which exhibited a similar activity of the enzyme. A detailed comparison with this species showed that differences between these species on particular dates were influenced by differences in the phenology of both plants. The initial results that were obtained suggest that nitrogen pollution in an environment can contribute to habitat invasibility and a high level of NRA, which in addition to the many plant traits that are commonly accepted as characteristic of invasiveness features, may be an important factor that enhances invasion success.

  15. A high-resolution non-invasive approach to quantify oxygen transport across the capillary fringe and within the underlying groundwater.

    Haberer, Christina M; Rolle, Massimo; Liu, Sanheng; Cirpka, Olaf A; Grathwohl, Peter

    2011-03-25

    Oxygen transport across the capillary fringe is relevant for many biogeochemical processes. We present a non-invasive technique, based on optode technology, to measure high-resolution concentration profiles of oxygen across the unsaturated/saturated interface. By conducting a series of quasi two-dimensional flow-through laboratory experiments, we show that vertical hydrodynamic dispersion in the water-saturated part of the capillary fringe is the process limiting the mass transfer of oxygen. A number of experimental conditions were tested in order to investigate the influence of grain size and horizontal flow velocity on transverse vertical dispersion in the capillary fringe. In the same setup, analogous experiments were simultaneously carried out in the fully water-saturated zone, therefore allowing a direct comparison with oxygen transfer across the capillary fringe. The outcomes of the experiments under various conditions show that oxygen transport in the two zones of interest (i.e., the unsaturated/saturated interface and the saturated zone) is characterized by very similar transverse dispersion coefficients. An influence of the capillary fringe morphology on oxygen transport has not been observed. These results may be explained by the narrow grain size distribution used in the experiments, leading to a steep decline in water saturation at the unsaturated/saturated interface and to the absence of trapped gas in this transition zone. We also modeled flow (applying the van Genuchten and the Brooks-Corey relationships) and two-dimensional transport across the capillary fringe, obtaining simulated profiles of equivalent aqueous oxygen concentration that were in good agreement with the observations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. HumanMethylation450K Array–Identified Biomarkers Predict Tumour Recurrence/Progression at Initial Diagnosis of High-risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Mark O Kitchen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC is a clinically unpredictable disease. Despite clinical risk estimation tools, many patients are undertreated with intra-vesical therapies alone, whereas others may be over-treated with early radical surgery. Molecular biomarkers, particularly DNA methylation, have been reported as predictive of tumour/patient outcomes in numerous solid organ and haematologic malignancies; however, there are few reports in HR-NMIBC and none using genome-wide array assessment. We therefore sought to identify novel DNA methylation markers of HR-NMIBC clinical outcomes that might predict tumour behaviour at initial diagnosis and help guide patient management. Patients and methods: A total of 21 primary initial diagnosis HR-NMIBC tumours were analysed by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays and subsequently bisulphite Pyrosequencing. In all, 7 had not recurred at 1 year after resection and 14 had recurred and/or progressed despite intra-vesical BCG. A further independent cohort of 32 HR-NMIBC tumours (17 no recurrence and 15 recurrence and/or progression despite BCG were also assessed by bisulphite Pyrosequencing. Results: Array analyses identified 206 CpG loci that segregated non-recurrent HR-NMIBC tumours from clinically more aggressive recurrence/progression tumours. Hypermethylation of CpG cg11850659 and hypomethylation of CpG cg01149192 in combination predicted HR-NMIBC recurrence and/or progression within 1 year of diagnosis with 83% sensitivity, 79% specificity, and 83% positive and 79% negative predictive values. Conclusions: This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of a unique HR-NMIBC tumour cohort encompassing known 1-year clinical outcomes. Our analyses identified potential novel epigenetic markers that could help guide individual patient management in this clinically unpredictable disease.

  17. Non-invasive characterization of polyurethane-based tissue constructs in a rat abdominal repair model using high frequency ultrasound elasticity imaging.

    Yu, Jiao; Takanari, Keisuke; Hong, Yi; Lee, Kee-Won; Amoroso, Nicholas J; Wang, Yadong; Wagner, William R; Kim, Kang

    2013-04-01

    The evaluation of candidate materials and designs for soft tissue scaffolds would benefit from the ability to monitor the mechanical remodeling of the implant site without the need for periodic animal sacrifice and explant analysis. Toward this end, the ability of non-invasive ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) to assess temporal mechanical property changes in three different types of porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds was evaluated in a rat abdominal wall repair model. The polymers utilized were salt-leached scaffolds of poly(carbonate urethane) urea, poly(ester urethane) urea and poly(ether ester urethane) urea at 85% porosity. A total of 60 scaffolds (20 each type) were implanted in a full thickness muscle wall replacement in the abdomens of 30 rats. The constructs were ultrasonically scanned every 2 weeks and harvested at weeks 4, 8 and 12 for compression testing or histological analysis. UEI demonstrated different temporal stiffness trends among the different scaffold types, while the stiffness of the surrounding native tissue remained unchanged. The changes in average normalized strains developed in the constructs from UEI compared well with the changes of mean compliance from compression tests and histology. The average normalized strains and the compliance for the same sample exhibited a strong linear relationship. The ability of UEI to identify herniation and to characterize the distribution of local tissue in-growth with high resolution was also investigated. In summary, the reported data indicate that UEI may allow tissue engineers to sequentially evaluate the progress of tissue construct mechanical behavior in vivo and in some cases may reduce the need for interim time point animal sacrifice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A phytosociological analysis and description of wetland vegetation and ecological factors associated with locations of high mortality for the 2010-11 Rift Valley fever outbreak in South Africa.

    Brand, Robert F; Rostal, Melinda K; Kemp, Alan; Anyamba, Assaf; Zwiegers, Herman; Van Huyssteen, Cornelius W; Karesh, William B; Paweska, Janusz T

    2018-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in Africa and parts of the Middle East. It is an emerging zoonotic disease threat to veterinary and public health. Outbreaks of the disease have severe socio-economic impacts. RVF virus emergence is closely associated with specific endorheic wetlands that are utilized by the virus' mosquito vectors. Limited botanical vegetation surveys had been published with regard to RVF virus (RVFV) ecology. We report on a phytosociological classification, analysis and description of wetland vegetation and related abiotic parameters to elucidate factors possibly associated with the 2010-2011 RVFV disease outbreak in South Africa. The study sites were located in the western Free State and adjacent Northern Cape covering an area of ~40,000 km2 with wetlands associated with high RVF mortality rates in livestock. Other study sites included areas where no RVF activity was reported during the 2010-11 RVF outbreak. A total of 129 plots (30 m2) were selected where a visible difference could be seen in the wetland and upland vegetation. The Braun-Blanquet method was used for plant sampling. Classification was done using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis. The vegetation analysis resulted in the identification of eight plant communities, seven sub-communities and two variants. Indirect ordination was carried out using CANOCO to investigate the relationship between species and wetland ecology. The study also identified 5 categories of wetlands including anthropogenic wetlands. Locations of reported RVF cases overlapped sites characterized by high clay-content soils and specific wetland vegetation. These findings indicate ecological and environmental parameters that represent preferred breeding habitat for RVFV competent mosquito vectors.

  19. Vegetation change: a reunifying concept in plant ecology

    Davis, M. A.; Pergl, Jan; Truscott, A.; Kollmann, J.; Bakker, J. P.; Domenech, R.; Prach, Karel; Prieur-Richard, A.; Veeneklaas, R. M.; Pyšek, Petr; del Moral, R.; Hobbs, R. J.; Collins, S. L.; Pickett, S. T. A.; Reich, P. B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2005), s. 69-76 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation succession * climate change * plant invasions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.053, year: 2005

  20. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  1. Invasion by Cordgrass Increases Microbial Diversity and Alters Community Composition in a Mangrove Nature Reserve

    Min Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasion by exotic plant species can alter ecosystem function and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effects on belowground microbial communities. Here we investigated the effects of exotic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora invasion on the distribution of soil bacterial communities in a mangrove nature reserve of the Jiulong River Estuary, southeast China using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and multivariate statistical analysis. Our results showed that S. alterniflora invasion altered soil properties, and significantly increased soil bacterial taxa richness, primarily by stimulating an increase in conditionally rare or rare taxa, and changes in community composition and function. Abundant, conditionally rare and rare subcommunities exhibited similar response patterns to environment changes, with both conditionally rare and rare taxa showing a stronger response than abundant ones. Habitat generalists were detected among abundant, conditionally rare and rare taxa, whereas habitat specialists were only identified among conditionally rare taxa and rare taxa. In addition, we found that vegetation was the key factor driving these patterns. However, our comparative analysis indicated that both environmental selection, and neutral process, significantly contributed to soil bacterial community assembly. These results could improve the understanding of the microbial processes and mechanisms of cordgrass invasion, and offer empirical data of use in the restoration and management of the mangrove wetlands.

  2. Predictive Mapping of Dwarf Shrub Vegetation in an Arid High Mountain Ecosystem Using Remote Sensing and Random Forests

    Kim André Vanselow

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In many arid mountains, dwarf shrubs represent the most important fodder and firewood resources; therefore, they are intensely used. For the Eastern Pamirs (Tajikistan, they are assumed to be overused. However, empirical evidence on this issue is lacking. We aim to provide a method capable of mapping vegetation in this mountain desert. We used random forest models based on remote sensing data (RapidEye, ASTER GDEM and 359 plots to predictively map total vegetative cover and the distribution of the most important firewood plants, K. ceratoides and A. leucotricha. These species were mapped as present in 33.8% of the study area (accuracy 90.6%. The total cover of the dwarf shrub communities ranged from 0.5% to 51% (per pixel. Areas with very low cover were limited to the vicinity of roads and settlements. The model could explain 80.2% of the total variance. The most important predictor across the models was MSAVI2 (a spectral vegetation index particularly invented for low-cover areas. We conclude that the combination of statistical models and remote sensing data worked well to map vegetation in an arid mountainous environment. With this approach, we were able to provide tangible data on dwarf shrub resources in the Eastern Pamirs and to relativize previous reports about their extensive depletion.

  3. Diversity of wetland vegetation in the Bulgarian high mountains, main gradients and context-dependence of the pH role

    Hájková, Petra; Hájek, Michal; Apostolova, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 184, - (2006), s. 111-130 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6163302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation * wetlands * pH Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.383, year: 2006

  4. Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Epstein, H.E.; Box, E.O.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Goswami, S.; Iversen, C.M.; Kattge, J.; Norby, R.J.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Xu, X.

    2014-01-01

    Background Earth system models describe the physical, chemical and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the

  5. Herbicides: an unexpected ally for native plants in the war against invasive species

    Andrea Watts; Tim Harrington; Dave Peter

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are primarily used for protecting agricultural crops from weeds and controlling vegetation competition in newly planted forest stands. Yet for over 40 years, they have also proven useful in controlling invasive plant species in natural areas. Nonnative invasive plant species, if not controlled, can displace native species and disrupt an ecosystem by changing...

  6. Applying ecological concepts to the management of widespread grass invasions [Chapter 7

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Jeanne C. Chambers; Rhonda Loh; J. Tim Tunison

    2009-01-01

    The management of plant invasions has typically focused on the removal of invading populations or control of existing widespread species to unspecified but lower levels. Invasive plant management typically has not involved active restoration of background vegetation to reduce the likelihood of invader reestablishment. Here, we argue that land managers could benefit...

  7. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  8. Satellite-based annual evaporation estimates of invasive alien plant ...

    ... of densely-invaded riparian areas is likely more pronounced. We concluded that the clearing of IAPs by the WFW programme has a positive effect on the availability of water resources through a reduction in ET. Keywords: invasive alien plants; indigenous vegetation; remote sensing; water use; evapotranspiration; SEBAL; ...

  9. Minimally invasive prediction of ScvO2 in high-risk surgery : The introduction of a model Index of Oxygenation

    de Grooth, Harm-Jan S.; Vos, Jaap Jan; Scheeren, Thomas; van Beest, Paul

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the trilateral relationship between cardiac index (CI), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and subsequently develop a model to predict ScvO2 on minimal invasive manner in patients undergoing major

  10. Mapping invasive woody species in coastal dunes in the Netherlands: a remote sensing approach using LIDAR and high-resolution aerial photographs

    Hantson, W.P.R.; Kooistra, L.; Slim, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Questions Does remote sensing improve classification of invasive woody species in dunes, useful for shrub management? Does additional height information and an object-based classifier increase woody species classification accuracy? Location The dunes of Vlieland, one of the Wadden Sea Islands, the

  11. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.