WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly inelastic spheres

  1. Inelastic accretion of inertial particles by a towed sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Robin; Henry, Christophe; Hachem, Elie; Bec, Jérémie

    2018-02-01

    The problem of accretion of small particles by a sphere embedded in a mean flow is studied in the case where the particles undergo inelastic collisions with the solid object. The collision efficiency, which gives the flux of particles experiencing at least one bounce on the sphere, is found to depend upon the sphere Reynolds number only through the value of the critical Stokes number below which no collision occurs. In the absence of molecular diffusion, it is demonstrated that multiple bounces do not provide enough energy dissipation for the particles to stick to the surface within a finite time. This excludes the possibility of any kind of inelastic collapse, so that determining an accretion efficiency requires modeling more precisely particle-surface microphysical interactions. A straightforward choice is to assume that the particles stick when their kinetic energy at impact is below a threshold. In this view, numerical simulations are performed to describe the statistics of impact velocities at various values of the Reynolds number. Successive bounces are shown to enhance accretion. These results are put together to provide a general qualitative picture on how the accretion efficiency depends upon the nondimensional parameters of the problem.

  2. Brownian relaxation of an inelastic sphere in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, G. A., E-mail: gab@gab.com.au [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    The procedures that are used to calculate the forces and moments on an aerodynamic body in the rarefied gas of the upper atmosphere are applied to a small sphere of the size of an aerosol particle at sea level. While the gas-surface interaction model that provides accurate results for macroscopic bodies may not be appropriate for bodies that are comprised of only about a thousand atoms, it provides a limiting case that is more realistic than the elastic model. The paper concentrates on the transfer of energy from the air to an initially stationary sphere as it acquires Brownian motion. Individual particle trajectories vary wildly, but a clear relaxation process emerges from an ensemble average over tens of thousands of trajectories. The translational and rotational energies in equilibrium Brownian motion are determined. Empirical relationships are obtained for the mean translational and rotational relaxation times, the mean initial power input to the particle, the mean rates of energy transfer between the particle and air, and the diffusivity. These relationships are functions of the ratio of the particle mass to an average air molecule mass and the Knudsen number, which is the ratio of the mean free path in the air to the particle diameter. The ratio of the molecular radius to the particle radius also enters as a correction factor. The implications of Brownian relaxation for the second law of thermodynamics are discussed.

  3. Fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations for inelastic hard spheres or disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J Javier; Maynar, P; de Soria, M I García

    2011-04-01

    Starting from the fluctuating Boltzmann equation for smooth inelastic hard spheres or disks, closed equations for the fluctuating hydrodynamic fields to Navier-Stokes order are derived. This requires deriving constitutive relations for both the fluctuating fluxes and the correlations of the random forces. The former are identified as having the same form as the macroscopic average fluxes and involving the same transport coefficients. On the other hand, the random force terms exhibit two peculiarities as compared with their elastic limit for molecular systems. First, they are not white but have some finite relaxation time. Second, their amplitude is not determined by the macroscopic transport coefficients but involves new coefficients. ©2011 American Physical Society

  4. Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Reyes, Francisco, E-mail: fvega@unex.es; Santos, Andrés, E-mail: andres@unex.es [Departamento de Física and Instituto de Computación Científica Avanzada (ICCAEx), Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method), we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called “lifted-tennis-ball” behavior)

  5. Homogeneous Free Cooling State in Binary Granular Fluids of Inelastic Rough Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andrés

    2011-05-01

    In a recent paper [A. Santos, G. M. Kremer, and V. Garzó, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 184, 31-48 (2010)] the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational granular temperatures in a granular fluid mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres have been derived. In the present paper the energy production rates are explicitly decomposed into equipartition rates (tending to make all the temperatures equal) plus genuine cooling rates (reflecting the collisional dissipation of energy). Next the homogeneous free cooling state of a binary mixture is analyzed, with special emphasis on the quasi-smooth limit. A previously reported singular behavior (according to which a vanishingly small amount of roughness has a finite effect, with respect to the perfectly smooth case, on the asymptotic long-time translational/translational temperature ratio) is further elaborated. Moreover, the study of the time evolution of the temperature ratios shows that this dramatic influence of roughness already appears in the transient regime for times comparable to the relaxation time of perfectly smooth spheres.

  6. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  7. A variable hard sphere-based phenomenological inelastic collision model for rarefied gas flow simulations by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanth, P S; Kakkassery, Jose K; Vijayakumar, R, E-mail: y3df07@nitc.ac.in, E-mail: josekkakkassery@nitc.ac.in, E-mail: vijay@nitc.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode - 673 601, Kerala (India)

    2012-04-01

    A modified phenomenological model is constructed for the simulation of rarefied flows of polyatomic non-polar gas molecules by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. This variable hard sphere-based model employs a constant rotational collision number, but all its collisions are inelastic in nature and at the same time the correct macroscopic relaxation rate is maintained. In equilibrium conditions, there is equi-partition of energy between the rotational and translational modes and it satisfies the principle of reciprocity or detailed balancing. The present model is applicable for moderate temperatures at which the molecules are in their vibrational ground state. For verification, the model is applied to the DSMC simulations of the translational and rotational energy distributions in nitrogen gas at equilibrium and the results are compared with their corresponding Maxwellian distributions. Next, the Couette flow, the temperature jump and the Rayleigh flow are simulated; the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of nitrogen are numerically estimated and compared with experimentally measured values. The model is further applied to the simulation of the rotational relaxation of nitrogen through low- and high-Mach-number normal shock waves in a novel way. In all cases, the results are found to be in good agreement with theoretically expected and experimentally observed values. It is concluded that the inelastic collision of polyatomic molecules can be predicted well by employing the constructed variable hard sphere (VHS)-based collision model.

  8. Comparison study of inelastic analysis codes for high temperature structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. K.; Geon, G. P.; Lee, J. H

    2004-02-01

    LMR high temperature structures subjected to operating and transient loadings may exhibit very complex deformation behaviors due to the use of ductile material such as 316SS and the systematic analysis technology of high temperature structure for reliable safety assessment is essential. In this project, comparative study with developed inelastic analysis program NONSTA and the existing analysis codes was performed applying various types of loading including non-proportional loading. The performance of NONSTA was confirmed and the effect of inelastic constants on the analysis result was analyzed. Also, the applicability of the inelastic analysis was enlarged as a result of applying both the developed program and the existing codes to the analyses of the enhanced creep behavior and the elastic follow-up behavior of high temperature structures and the necessary items for improvements were deduced. Further studies on the improvement of NONSTA program and the decision of the proper values of inelastic constants are necessary.

  9. Inclusive quasielastic and deep inelastic electron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    With high electron energies a kinematic regime can be reached where it will be possible to separate quasielastic and deep inelastic scattering. We present a short description of these processes which dominate the inclusive spectrum. Using the highest momentum transfer data available to guide our estimates, we give the kinematic requirements and the cross sections expected. These results indicate that inclusive scattering at high q has a yet unfilled potential. 18 refs., 13 figs

  10. Inelastic nucleon diffraction at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goggi, G.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments carried out at ISR and at FNAL which have yielded a substantial amount of data on double diffraction processes, which were unambiguously indentified and measured and which provide new tools to study the dynamical properties shared by different classes of diffractive reactions are identified. In this review interest is focused on the experimental aspects of inclusive and exclusive results both on single and double diffraction and on the problems arising from their comparison. Problems covered include; inclusive and semi-inclusive diffraction, multiparticle inclusive studies, single-particle inclusive studies, resonance region, high mass region, exclusive single diffractive reactions, mass spectra, cross sections, t-dependence, decay angular properties, and double diffraction. (U.K.)

  11. High pressure gas spheres for neutron and photon experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, G.; Petrich, D.; Käppeler, F.; Kaltenbaek, J.; Leugers, B.; Reifarth, R.

    2009-09-01

    High pressure gas spheres have been designed and successfully used in several nuclear physics experiments on noble gases. The pros and cons of this solution are the simple design and the high reliability versus the fact that the density is limited to 40-60% of liquid or solid gas samples. Originally produced for neutron capture studies at keV energies, the comparably small mass of the gas spheres were an important advantage, which turned out to be of relevance for other applications as well. The construction, performance, and operation of the spheres are described and examples for their use are presented.

  12. Compression cracking of plastic spheres: a high speed photography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majzoub, R.; Chaudhri, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Failure of brittle spheres under compressive loading, both quasi static and dynamic, is a technologically important problem. However, so far, neither the stress state in a loaded nor the failure process in understood clearly. In fact, because the process of the failure of a loaded sphere is very rapid, it has not been possible to follow it when making static observations. We have, therefore, carried out a high-speed photographic study using framing rates of up to 200,000 frames per second to follow the sequence of events when polished 12.7 mm diameter spheres of acrylic resin are fragmented using a low-velocity impact apparatus. The latter consist of a 5.7 kg hammer, which is allowed to drop on to the test sphere from a height of 1.3 m and the entire event of impact and ensuing fracture is photographed with a rotating mirror camera (C-4). Form numerous impact experiments it has been found that as the impact load increases gradually, plastic flow and flattering of the sphere occurs at the contact region. The size of the flattened region continuous to grow with increasing impact load and when this region becomes sufficiently large, usually one or two cracks initiate at the periphery of the contact rather than in the bulk of the sphere. The surface cracks then grow into the bulk of the sphere at velocities in the range of 600-800 m s/sup -1/. It is interesting to note these crack velocities are the maximum observed velocities in this material, but these are only approx. 0.8 of the Rayleigh wave velocity, which is the theoretically predicted maximum crack velocity in brittle materials. It is argued that in order to cause the catastrophic failure of a solid sphere, it is necessary to cause plasticity in it which then leads to the generation of tensile hoop stresses at the circle of contact between the sphere and platen. (author)

  13. A dynamic elastic and inelastic scattering theory of high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhonglin

    1990-01-01

    A review is given on the applications of elastic multislice theory for simulating the images and diffractions of reflection electron microscopy. The limitation of this theory is illustrated according to some experimental observations. A generalized elastic and inelastic multislice theory is then introduced from quantum mechanics; its applications for approaching inelastic plasmon excitation and phonon excitation (or thermal diffuse scattering) are discussed. The energy-filtered inelastic high resolution images can be simulated based on this theory

  14. The inelastic contribution to high resolution images of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, O.L.; Ahn, C.C.; Wood, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of the contribution due to inelastically scattered electrons to unfiltered HREM images is examined, with emphasis on imaging of defects in semiconductors. Whenever the low energy loss spectrum contains sharp peaks, the contribution is not featureless. At specimen thickness of a few tens of nm, it may change the image appearance in a major way. The strongest effect occurs in high resolution, medium voltage (200 to 500 kV) electron microscope images of defects at focus values minimizing the contrast of the elastic image in low Z materials such as Al and Si. In higher Z materials or those with no sharp 'plasmons', the contribution is small. 23 refs., 8 figs

  15. High energy deep inelastic scattering in perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallon, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, we deal with high energy Deep Inelastic Scattering in Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In this work, two main topics are emphasized: The first one deals with dynamics based on perturbative renormalization group, and on perturbative Regge approaches. We discuss the applicability of these predictions, the possibility of distinguishing them in the HERA experiments, and their unification. We prove that the perturbative Regge dynamic can be successfully applied to describe the HERA data. Different observables are proposed for distinguishing these two approaches. We show that these two predictions can be unified in a system of equations. In the second one, unitarization and saturation problems in high energy QCD are discussed. In the multi-Regge approach, equivalent to the integrable one-dimensional XXX Heisenberg spin chain, we develop methods in order to solve this system, based on the Functional Bethe Ansatz. In the dipole model context, we propose a new formulation of unitarity and saturation effects, using Wilson loops. (author)

  16. Inelastic neutron scattering from high-density fcc 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.; Eckert, J.; Shirane, G.

    1978-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations in high-density crystals of fcc 4 He have been measured along high-symmetry directions by the neutron-inelastic-scattering technique. A recent study of the lattice dynamics of fcc 4 He by Eckert et al. has been extended to cover the fcc phase diagram at pressures below 5 kbar. Molar volumes of 9.03, 9.43, and 9.97 cm 3 /mole have been studied in the temperature range from near the melting curve to near the fcc-hcp transition line. The phonon dispersion relations are in good agreement with a first-order self-consistent phonon theory calculation by Goldman. The observed phonon-group line shapes at large energy and momentum transfers show evidence for multiphonon scattering in agreement with calculations by Glyde. Eckert et al. reported extremely large anharmonic isochoric temperature shifts of the phonon energies. The present work studied the shifts as a function of molar volume and temperature. Mode-Grueneisen-parameter dispersion curves have been measured using the present data and earlier measurements at lower density in the fcc phase by Traylor et al. Macroscopic Grueneisen parameters have been calculated from the phonon density of states obtained from the data

  17. Production of graphite spheres with a high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherry, V.

    1976-01-01

    It is possible to obtain small spheres with a diameter of approximately 1,000 μm with the help of an automated press fitted with a profiled plunger. The spheres consist of graphite and a binder. Depending on the size of the plunger, 1 + 6 Σn (n = 0,1,2,...) spheres of equivalent diameter may be pressed with one stroke of the plunger. The spheres are bound to each other by a thin burr. The green end product is obtained by breaking the sheets of spheres and deburring them. (orig.) [de

  18. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-01-01

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation

  19. Large inelastic deformation analysis of steel pressure vessels at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2001-01-01

    This publication describes the calculation methodology developed for a large inelastic deformation analysis of pressure vessels at high temperature. Continuum mechanical formulation related to a large deformation analysis is presented. Application of the constitutive equations is simplified when the evolution of stress and deformation state of an infinitesimal material element is considered in the directions of principal strains determined by the deformation during a finite time increment. A quantitative modelling of time dependent inelastic deformation is applied for reactor pressure vessel steels. Experimental data of uniaxial tensile, relaxation and creep tests performed at different laboratories for reactor pressure vessel steels are investigated and processed. An inelastic deformation rate model of strain hardening type is adopted. The model simulates well the axial tensile, relaxation and creep tests from room temperature to high temperature with only a few fitting parameters. The measurement data refined for the inelastic deformation rate model show useful information about inelastic deformation phenomena of reactor pressure vessel steels over a wide temperature range. The methodology and calculation process are validated by comparing the calculated results with measurements from experiments on small scale pressure vessels. A reasonably good agreement, when taking several uncertainties into account, is obtained between the measured and calculated results concerning deformation rate and failure location. (orig.)

  20. Experience with conventional inelastic analysis procedures in very high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, R.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional incremental plasticity and creep analysis procedures for inelastic analysis are applied to hot flue gas cleanup system components. These flue gas systems operate at temperatures where plasticity and creep are very much intertwined while the two phenomena are treated separately in the conventional inelastic analysis procedure. Data for RA333 material are represented in forms appropriate for the conventional inelastic analysis procedures. Behavior is predicted for typical operating cycles. Creep-fatigue damage is estimated based upon usage fractions. Excessive creep damage is predicted; the major contributions occur during high stress short term intervals caused by rapid temperature changes. In this paper these results are presented for discussion of the results and their interpretation in terms of creep-fatigue damage for very high temperature applications

  1. Structure functions and parton distributions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    1993-08-01

    The possibilities to measure structure functions, to extract parton distributions, and to measure α s and Λ QCD in current and future high energy deep inelastic scattering experiments are reviewed. A comparison is given for experiments at HERA, an ep option at LEP xLHC, and a high energy neutrino experiment. (orig.)

  2. High resolution measurements and study of the neutron inelastic scattering reaction on 56Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, E.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution measures of neutrons inelastic scattering cross section, have been performed on 56 Fe from 862 KeV to 3 MeV. The time of flight method has been used on the GELINA source of the IRMM in Geel (Belgium). Four barium fluoride scintillators, placed around the samples, recorded the gamma rays emissions coming from the iron and the boron. A study of the correlations between the partial elastic and inelastic lengths has been performed taking into account first transmission measures realized at Geel. (A.L.B.)

  3. Incorporation of high-level nuclear waste in gel spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Bond, W.D.; Angelini, P.; Stinton, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Waste sludge is incorporated in gel spheres by the method of internal gelation. Gel spheres containing up to 90 wt % waste have been produced from defense and commercial wastes. A generic cesium-bearing waste form has been developed. Pyrolytic carbon and SiC coatings reduce the leachability of all tested articles to the detection limits

  4. Non-eikonal effects in high-energy scattering IV. Inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, S.A.; Kok, L.P.; Rinat, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Amplitudes of inelastically scattered high-energy projections were calculated. In the scattering on 12 C(Tsub(P)=1 GeV) sizeable non-eikonal corrections in diffraction extrema even for relatively small q 2 are demonstrated. At least part of the anomaly in the 3 - distribution may be due to these non-eikonal effects. (B.G.)

  5. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  6. N-Doped carbon spheres with hierarchical micropore-nanosheet networks for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoupei; Zhang, Jianan; Shang, Pei; Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zhimin; Xu, Qun

    2014-10-18

    N-doped carbon spheres with hierarchical micropore-nanosheet networks (HPSCSs) were facilely fabricated by a one-step carbonization and activation process of N containing polymer spheres by KOH. With the synergy effect of the multiple structures, HPSCSs exhibit a very high specific capacitance of 407.9 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) (1.2 times higher than that of porous carbon spheres) and a robust cycling stability for supercapacitors.

  7. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-01

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  8. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-26

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  9. Acid functionalized, highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres: an effective solid acid for hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijun; Li, Xiutao; Cao, Quan; Mu, Xindong

    2011-02-01

    Highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres with sulfonic acid groups were successfully prepared from glucose by hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the as-synthesized carbonaceous materials were uniform, spherical in shape with an average diameter of about 450 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) proved that -SO3H, -COOH, OH groups were grafted on the surface of the carbonaceous spheres during the sulfonation. Interestingly, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres exhibited high dispersibility in the polar solvent due to the hydrophilic groups on the surface. The mechanism of the formation for the carbonaceous spheres was also discussed based on the analysis of structure and composition. At last, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres were employed as solid acid to hydrolyze starch and cellulose. By comparison, the as-synthesized catalyst showed considerable high yield of glucose.

  10. Acid functionalized, highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres: an effective solid acid for hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yijun; Li Xiutao; Cao Quan; Mu Xindong

    2011-01-01

    Highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres with sulfonic acid groups were successfully prepared from glucose by hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the as-synthesized carbonaceous materials were uniform, spherical in shape with an average diameter of about 450 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) proved that –SO 3 H, –COOH, OH groups were grafted on the surface of the carbonaceous spheres during the sulfonation. Interestingly, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres exhibited high dispersibility in the polar solvent due to the hydrophilic groups on the surface. The mechanism of the formation for the carbonaceous spheres was also discussed based on the analysis of structure and composition. At last, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres were employed as solid acid to hydrolyze starch and cellulose. By comparison, the as-synthesized catalyst showed considerable high yield of glucose.

  11. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1993-02-01

    The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program

  12. Neutron spin echo and high resolution inelastic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of neutrons spin echo (NSE) technique are considered. It is shown that the basis of NSE principle is a single step measurement of the change of the neutron velocity in the scattering process. The backscattering soectroscopy and the NSE techniques are compared. The NSF spectrometer is described. It is shown that 0.5 MeV energy resolution achieved in the NSE experiment is about 40 times superior to those achieved by the other techniques. The NSE technique has the unique feature that provides high resolution in neutron energy change independently of the monochromatization of the beam. The NSE instrument not only covers a wider dynamic range on a pulsed source that on a continuous one, but also collects data more efficiently

  13. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1990-10-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  14. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1991-05-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is not fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using Bragg scattering filters to suppress unwanted radiation. These have led to a Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to make a novel independent determination of interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na metal and the charge density wave satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. Using a specially constructed sample cell which enables us to vary temperatures from -10 C to 110 C, we have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. Included are the temperature and Q dependence of the scattering in pentadecane and diffusion in glycerol

  15. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imberti, S. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Amaldi' , Rome (Italy) and CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: silvia.imberti@roma2.infn.it; Andreani, C. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Garbuio, V. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Gorini, G. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G.Occhialini' , Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM, Milan (Italy); Pietropaolo, A. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Senesi, R. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G.Occhialini' , Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM, Milan (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1 deg. <2{theta}<5 deg. This equipment allows High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering (HINS) measurements to be performed in the (q,{omega}) kinematical region at low wavevector (q<10A{sup -1}) and high energy (unlimited) transfer -bar {omega}>500meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20A{sup -1}high energy transfer (-bar {omega}>1eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed.

  16. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueff, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  17. Inclusive gluon production in deep inelastic scattering at high parton density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Tuchin, Kirill

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the cross section of single inclusive gluon production in deep inelastic scattering at very high energies in the saturation regime, where the parton densities inside hadrons and nuclei are large and the evolution of structure functions with energy is nonlinear. The expression we obtain for the inclusive gluon production cross section is generated by this nonlinear evolution. We analyze the rapidity distribution of the produced gluons as well as their transverse momentum spectrum given by the derived expression for the inclusive cross section. We propose an ansatz for the multiplicity distribution of gluons produced in nuclear collisions which includes the effects of nonlinear evolution in both colliding nuclei

  18. The very low angle detector for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering on the VESUVIO spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelli Cippo, E.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank has been installed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The new device allows for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering measurements, at energies above 1 eV, maintaining the wave vector transfer lower than 10A -1 . This opens a still unexplored region of the kinematical (q,ω) space, enabling new and challenging experimental investigations in condensed matter. This paper describes the main instrumental features of the VLAD device, including instrument design, detector response, and calibration procedure

  19. The very low angle detector for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering on the VESUVIO spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelli Cippo, E.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Pietropaolo, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , CNISM-Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); NAST Center - Nanoscienze-Nanotecnologie-Strumentazione, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@mib.infn.it; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro NAST - Nanoscienze-Nanotecnologie-Strumentazione, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire 0QX OX11 (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank has been installed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The new device allows for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering measurements, at energies above 1 eV, maintaining the wave vector transfer lower than 10A{sup -1}. This opens a still unexplored region of the kinematical (q,{omega}) space, enabling new and challenging experimental investigations in condensed matter. This paper describes the main instrumental features of the VLAD device, including instrument design, detector response, and calibration procedure.

  20. The very low angle detector for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering on the VESUVIO spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelli Cippo, E.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.

    2008-05-01

    The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank has been installed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The new device allows for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering measurements, at energies above 1 eV, maintaining the wave vector transfer lower than 10Å-1. This opens a still unexplored region of the kinematical (q, ω) space, enabling new and challenging experimental investigations in condensed matter. This paper describes the main instrumental features of the VLAD device, including instrument design, detector response, and calibration procedure.

  1. Charged Particle Production in High Q2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, $\\xp$, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic $\\ep$ scattering at high $Q^2$ in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality $100 < Q^2 < 20 000 \\GeV^{2}$. Compared with previous results presented by HERA experiments this analysis has a significantly higher statistical precision and extends the phase space to higher $Q^{2}$ and to the full range of $\\xp$. The results are compared with $e^+e^-$ annihilation data and with various calculations based on perturbative QCD using different models of the hadronisation process.

  2. The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashdan, M.; Farhan, A.M.; Hassib, E.; Kareem, W. Abdel

    2006-01-01

    The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy is investigated within the multiple scattering theory. The multiple integrals are evaluated by Monte Carlo method as well as by the optical limit approximation of the Glauber model. Calculations are performed for 14-23 N, 16-24 O and 18-26 F isotopes colliding with carbon target around 1 GeV. It is found that rms radii and the density distributions show a halo structure of 22 N, 23 O and 24 F

  3. Future needs for inelastic analysis in design of high-temperature nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The role that inelastic analyses play in the design of high-temperature nuclear plant components is described. The design methodology, which explicitly accounts for nonlinear material deformation and time-dependent failure modes, requires a significant level of realism in the prediction of structural response. Thus, material deformation and failure modeling are, along with computational procedures, key parts of the methodology. Each of these is briefly discussed along with validation by comparisons with benchmark structural tests, and problem areas and needs are discussed for each

  4. Charged particle production in high Q deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Avila, K. B. Cantun; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A. Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-10-01

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, x, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at high Q in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality 100

  5. Charged particle production in high Q2 deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Avila, K. B. Cantun; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A. Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, xp, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at high Q2 in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality 100

  6. High-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering to study the high-frequency atomic dynamics of disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, G.

    2008-01-01

    The use of momentum-resolved inelastic X-ray scattering with meV energy resolution to study the high-frequency atomic dynamics in disordered systems is here reviewed. The typical realization of this experiment is described together with some common models used to interpret the measured spectra and to extract parameters of interest for the investigation of disordered systems. With the help of some selected examples, the present status of the field is discussed. Particular attention is given to those results which are still open for discussion or controversial, and which will require further development of the technique to be fully solved. Such an instrumental development seems nowadays possible at the light of recently proposed schemes for advanced inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometers. (author)

  7. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS-CO-Cys). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS-CO-Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  8. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  9. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberti, S.; Andreani, C.; Garbuio, V.; Gorini, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.

    2005-11-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1∘500 meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20 Å-11 eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed.

  10. Investigation of high-energy inelastic neutron scattering from liquid water confined in silica xerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelli-Cippo, E.; Andreani, C.; Casalboni, M.; Dire, S.; Fernandez-Canoto, D.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Pietropaolo, A.; Prosposito, P.; Schutzmann, S.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy inelastic neutron scattering (HINS) employing epithermal neutrons is a new technique under development at the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, aiming to access the high-energy and low wave-vector transfer region in neutron scattering experiments at eV energies. New neutron detectors have been developed for HINS based on the resonant detector (RD). These make use of the detection of prompt gammas after neutron absorption in an analyzer foil. The RD is used in the very low angle detector (VLAD) bank, which will extend the explored kinematical region to momentum transfer -1 , whilst still keeping energy transfer >300 meV. The final VLAD will cover the scattering range 1-5 o and will be installed by the end of 2005. The results obtained with prototype VLAD detectors on polycrystalline ice and liquid water in silica xerogels provide a demonstration of the feasibility of the measurements under realistic conditions

  11. Study of the γ decay of high-lying states in 208Pb via inelastic scattering of 17O ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespi F.C.L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A measurement of the high-lying states in 208Pb has been made using 17O beams at 20 MeV/u. The gamma decay following inelastic excitation was measured with the detector system AGATA Demonstrator based on segmented HPGe detectors, coupled to an array of large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillators and to an array of Si detectors. Preliminary results in comparison with (γ,γ’ data, for states in the 5-8 MeV energy interval, are presented.

  12. Acoustic examinations of elastic and inelastic properties of high-pressure polyethylene with different radiation prehistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardashev, B.K.; Nikanorov, S.P.; Kravchenko, V.S.; Malinov, V.I.; Punin, V.T.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of vibrational deformation amplitude on the dynamic elasticity modulus and internal friction of high-pressure polyethylene samples with different histories is studied. Acoustic measurements are made by a resonance method using the longitudinal vibrations of a composite piezoelectric vibrator at a frequency of ∼ 100 kHz. It is found that the microplasticity remains almost unaffected upon irradiation and aging, while the elasticity modulus and breaking elongation per unit length considerably depend on the history and are clearly correlated with each other. The observed effects are explained by the fact that atom-atom interaction and defects inside polymer macromolecules substantially influence the elastic modulus and breaking strength, while the inelastic microplastic strain is most likely associated with molecule-molecule interaction, which is insignificantly affected by irradiation [ru

  13. Innovative diffraction gratings for high-resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, D.L.; Warwick, T.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Padmore, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) requires diffraction gratings with very exacting characteristics. The gratings should provide both very high dispersion and high efficiency which are conflicting requirements and extremely challenging to satisfy in the soft x-ray region for a traditional grazing incidence geometry. To achieve high dispersion one should increase the groove density of a grating; this however results in a diffraction angle beyond the critical angle range and results in drastic efficiency loss. The problem can be solved by use of multilayer coated blazed gratings (MBG). In this work we have investigated the diffraction characteristics of MBGs via numerical simulations and have developed a procedure for optimization of grating design for a multiplexed high resolution imaging spectrometer for RIXS spectroscopy to be built in sector 6 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We found that highest diffraction efficiency can be achieved for gratings optimized for 4"t"h or 5"t"h order operation. Fabrication of such gratings is an extremely challenging technological problem. We present a first experimental prototype of these gratings and report its performance. High order and high line density gratings have the potential to be a revolutionary new optical element that should have great impact in the area of soft x-ray RIXS.

  14. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for 3D Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Yoon, Euisik

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is critical in studying cancer pathology and drug response. Though 3D cancer sphere culture can be performed in low-adherent dishes or well plates, the unregulated cell aggregation may skew the results. On contrary, microfluidic 3D culture can allow precise control of cell microenvironments, and provide higher throughput by orders of magnitude. In this chapter, we will look into engineering innovations in a microfluidic platform for high-throughput cancer cell sphere formation and review the implementation methods in detail.

  16. High-field 3He-F interaction at the surface of fluorocarbon spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhl, A.; Chapellier, M.; Rasmussen, Finn Berg

    1984-01-01

    High-field experiments on the relaxation betweenF in small Teflon spheres andHe on the surface are reported. WithHe as a monolayer, coupling times are found to be less than 5 sec, in magnetic fields up to 3 T and temperatures down to 50 mK, where electronic centers are completely polarized...

  17. Synthesis and magnetic properties of highly dispersed tantalum carbide nanoparticles decorated on carbon spheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhattacharjee, K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decoration of carbon spheres (CS) by highly dispersed tantalum carbide nanoparticles (TaC NPs) was achieved, for the first time by a unique carbothermal reduction method at 1350 °C for 30 min under reduced oxygen partial pressure. TaC NPs...

  18. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imberti, S.; Andreani, C.; Garbuio, V.; Gorini, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1 deg. -1 ) and high energy (unlimited) transfer -bar ω>500meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20A -1 -1 ) and high energy transfer (-bar ω>1eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed

  19. A development report on the inelastic analysis program for the high temperature structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, J. H.

    2001-04-01

    LMR high temperature structures such as reactor vessel and reactor internal structures are subject to high temperature operating loads thus they can undergo damage due to creep, creep-fatigue, and ratcheting behavior. In this project, NONSTA-EP program implementing combined isotropic and kinematic hardening behavior and NONSTA-VP program implementing Chaboche model, which is so called viscoplasticity model, have been developed and have been continuously improved. In the year of 2000, NONSTA-OW program implementing Ohno-Wang model which can simulate progressive plasticity (that is ratcheting) more precisely compared to other models. One of the characteristics of inelastic constitutive equations is to have various numbers of material parameters to simulate complex material behaviors realistically and it is very important to obtain these material parameters. In this project, the improved method to obtain these material parameters has been studied with the optimal technique and by conducting material characteristic tests under high temperature conditions. The feasibility of the developed program with Ohno-Wang model, which contains 9 isotropic constitutive equations, has been studied through the example problem

  20. A highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive hydrogel spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2015-01-01

    Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/alginate hydrogel spheres is reported. Conductive and piezoresistive spheres are embedded between conductive electrodes (indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate films) and subjected to environmental pressure. The detection mechanism is based on the piezoresistivity of the SWCNT/alginate conductive spheres and on the sphere-electrode contact. Step-by-step, we optimized the design parameters to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. The optimized hydrogel sensor exhibited a satisfactory sensitivity (0.176 ΔR/R0/kPa-1) and a low detectable limit (10 Pa). Moreover, a brief response time (a few milliseconds) and successful repeatability were also demonstrated. Finally, the efficiency of this strategy was verified through a series of practical tests such as monitoring human wrist pulse, detecting throat muscle motion or identifying the location and the distribution of an external pressure using an array sensor (4 × 4). © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. High-Precision Registration of Point Clouds Based on Sphere Feature Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud registration is a key process in multi-view 3D measurements. Its precision affects the measurement precision directly. However, in the case of the point clouds with non-overlapping areas or curvature invariant surface, it is difficult to achieve a high precision. A high precision registration method based on sphere feature constraint is presented to overcome the difficulty in the paper. Some known sphere features with constraints are used to construct virtual overlapping areas. The virtual overlapping areas provide more accurate corresponding point pairs and reduce the influence of noise. Then the transformation parameters between the registered point clouds are solved by an optimization method with weight function. In that case, the impact of large noise in point clouds can be reduced and a high precision registration is achieved. Simulation and experiments validate the proposed method.

  2. Nanoporous CuS nano-hollow spheres as advanced material for high-performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, Hamid [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moosavifard, Seyyed Ebrahim, E-mail: info_seyyed@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Elyasi, Saeed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahraki, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Nanoporous CuS nano-hollow spheres were synthesized by a facile method. • Nano-hollow spheres have a large specific surface area (97 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and nanoscale shell thickness (<20 nm). • Such unique structures exhibit excellent electrochemical properties for high-performance SCs. - Abstract: Due to unique advantages, the development of high-performance supercapacitors has stimulated a great deal of scientific research over the past decade. The electrochemical performance of a supercapacitor is strongly affected by the surface and structural properties of its electrode materials. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of high-performance supercapacitor electrode material based on CuS nano-hollow spheres with nanoporous structures, large specific surface area (97 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and nanoscale shell thickness (<20 nm). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and facilitated ion transport. The CuS nano-hollow spheres electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance including a maximum specific capacitance of 948 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}, significant rate capability of 46% capacitance retention at a high current density of 50 A g{sup −1}, and outstanding long-term cycling stability at various current densities. This work not only demonstrates the promising potential of the CuS-NHS electrodes for application in high-performance supercapacitors, but also sheds a new light on the metal sulfides design philosophy.

  3. Optimum measurement and analysis of small polarization asymmetry in high-energy inelastic scattering using a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.

    1976-01-01

    Optimum linear filter theory is employed for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio in measurements of small polarization asymmetry in the presence of severe counting efficiency fluctuation, most likely to occur in high-energy inclusive and inelastic scattering experiments, using a polarized target. The r.m.s. error of the polarization asymmetry is obtained in closed form, allowing numeric optimization of the operation of the target. Guidelines are given for processing the record of data. (Auth.)

  4. High energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the SRI-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrander, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    This report is a combination of vugraphs and two papers. The vugraphs give information on the beamline at the APS for IXS and the science addressable by IXS. They also cover the 10 milli-eV resolution spectrometer and the 200 milli-eV resolution spectrometer. The first paper covers the performance of the focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for the inelastic x-ray scattering. The second paper discusses inelastic x-ray scattering from TiC and Ti single crystals

  5. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analysis and test results for the defense high level waste shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.A.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the US DOE/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and DOT regulations. General Atomics designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Labs. (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This paper will compare the results of the two analytical approaches and with model testing results. The purpose of this work is to provide data to support licensing of the DHLW cask and to support the acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing

  6. Supplemental figures: “Dielectron and heavy-quark production in inelastic and high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV”

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This note provides supplemental figures for the paper “Dielectron and heavy-quark production in inelastic and high-multiplicity proton–proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV” [CERN-EP-2018-122].

  7. Characterisation and stabilisation of the surface region of a highly polished silicon crystal sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Typically a single crystal silicon wafer has a native oxide layer a few nm thick which changes slowly with time. A number of parameters such as hydrocarbons, water vapour, storage environment can affect this layer. The thickness of the layer is also orientation dependent. In the case of a silicon sphere the situation becomes more complex, because all orientations are present and the process of polishing involves a higher pressure and also high local temperatures. A highly polished single crystal sphere 93.6 mm in diameter is being used to determine the Avogadro constant with an uncertainty of ≤ 1 x 10 -8 . This will then be used to obtain an atomic definition of the kilogram. The composition and structure of the surface oxide layer play an important role in this measurement. Firstly the density of the oxide layer is different from that of silicon. Secondly since the diameter is measured by optical interferometry, corrections must be applied for the phase change in the reflected light beam due to the surface layer. Thirdly the orientation dependence of the layer complicated the corrections to be applied. Fourthly if measurements are made over a period of time, any changes in the surface layer must be taken into account. Given the accuracy required in the determination, the surface layer is a determining factor in the final result. A number of techniques such as spectroscopic ellipsometry and ion beam analysis are being used to study the composition and structure of the surface of a silicon sphere. Cleaning techniques such as HF and low temperature ultraviolet (ozone) are being developed to produce a clean surface. The next step involves deposition of a stable and uniform surface oxide layer a few nm thick. Techniques being investigated for this include ultra violet ozone deposition at 450 deg C and plasma deposition. The paper describes work at the NML in achieving an appropriate stable surface on the silicon sphere

  8. Inelastic scattering and endohedral complex formation in high-energy collisions of fullerenes with He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, J.H.; Mowrey, R.C.; Ross, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since the original postulation of its icosahedral structure by Smalley and Kroto in 1985, C 60 (also known as buckminsterfullerene) has fascinated investigators in a variety of fields. With the publication of a synthetic method for the bulk production of C 60 , there has been an explosion of research interest in this molecule. A number of intriguing experimental results have been published, including work in the area of mass spectrometry. For example, at a workshop at the 1991 ASMS meeting, Schwartz and coworkers reported a remarkable result. They showed that high energy collisions of C 60 + with He resulted not only in the expected formation of collision-induced dissociation (CID) products such as C 56 + and C 58 + (C 2 loss is the main fragmentation pathway for C 60 ), but also in the formation of products such as C 56 + + 4 and C 58 + + 4. Careful experiments with He showed that the products were C 56 He + and C 58 He + , most likely formed by the uptake of He by C 60 + during the collision. Subsequent experiments in this laboratory were able to directly observe the C 60 He + product, the product ion shifts in kinetic energy by an amount equal to the center-of-mass collision energy, consistent with kinematic arguments. C 60 He + was also observed by the Gross group and the Schwarz group. Gross and coworkers also showed that inelastic scattering processes can be observed in the collision spectrum. More recently, the Anderson group has studied reverse processes, in which ions such as He + , Li + , and C + undergo collisions with C 60 and are taken up in the collision

  9. Preparation of graphene oxide-wrapped carbon sphere@silver spheres for high performance chlorinated phenols sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Tian, E-mail: gantsjy@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Lv, Zhen; Sun, Junyong; Shi, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yanming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Hierarchical CS@Ag@GO composite was obtained by a simple solution route. • Signal amplification is achieved for sensitive detection of chlorinated phenols. • The low-cost method exhibits wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy. • The method can be successfully applied to detect chlorinated phenols in waters. - Abstract: A template-activated strategy was developed to construct core/shell structured carbon sphere@silver composite based on one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The CS@Ag possessed a uniform three-dimensional interconnected microstructure with an enlarged surface area and catalytic activity, which was further mechanically protected by graphene oxide (GO) nanolayers to fabricate intriguing configuration, which was beneficial for efficiently preventing the aggregation and oxidation of AgNPs and improving the electrical conductivity through intimate contact. By immobilizing this special material on electrode surface, the CS@Ag@GO was further used for sensitive determination of chlorinated phenols including 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. The tailored structure, fast electron transfer ability and facile preparation of CS@Ag@GO made it a promising electrode material for practical applications in phenols sensing.

  10. Bond-orientational analysis of hard-disk and hard-sphere structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, V; Kumaran, V

    2006-05-28

    We report the bond-orientational analysis results for the thermodynamic, random, and homogeneously sheared inelastic structures of hard-disks and hard-spheres. The thermodynamic structures show a sharp rise in the order across the freezing transition. The random structures show the absence of crystallization. The homogeneously sheared structures get ordered at a packing fraction higher than the thermodynamic freezing packing fraction, due to the suppression of crystal nucleation. On shear ordering, strings of close-packed hard-disks in two dimensions and close-packed layers of hard-spheres in three dimensions, oriented along the velocity direction, slide past each other. Such a flow creates a considerable amount of fourfold order in two dimensions and body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure in three dimensions. These transitions are the flow analogs of the martensitic transformations occurring in metals due to the stresses induced by a rapid quench. In hard-disk structures, using the bond-orientational analysis we show the presence of fourfold order. In sheared inelastic hard-sphere structures, even though the global bond-orientational analysis shows that the system is highly ordered, a third-order rotational invariant analysis shows that only about 40% of the spheres have face-centered-cubic (fcc) order, even in the dense and near-elastic limits, clearly indicating the coexistence of multiple crystalline orders. When layers of close-packed spheres slide past each other, in addition to the bct structure, the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure is formed due to the random stacking faults. Using the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis and an analysis based on the 14-faceted polyhedra having six quadrilateral and eight hexagonal faces, we show the presence of bct and hcp signatures in shear ordered inelastic hard-spheres. Thus, our analysis shows that the dense sheared inelastic hard-spheres have a mixture of fcc, bct, and hcp structures.

  11. High count problems in elemental analysis using pulsed neutron inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartsky, D; Wielopolski, L; Ellis, K J; Cohn, S H [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA). Medical Dept.

    1983-03-01

    Elemental analysis by neutron inelastic scattering using a miniature intense pulsed neutron source ('Zetatron') was evaluated. The particular problems associated with detector pulse-pile-up during the neutron burst and the limited ability of the analyzer to process on average more than one detector pulse per neutron burst were examined. The severity of these problems is described and a solution using a multiple ADC system is proposed.

  12. Schematic large-dimension coupled-channel study of strong inelastic excitations to high-lying states in colliding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, M. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Kernfysisch Versneller Inst.; Nakano, M.; Yahiro, M.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    A mechanism of the strong inelastic excitation of colliding nuclei (e.g. deep inelastic heavy-ion collision) was studied in a schematic way based on a coupled channel (CC) framework. The purpose of this work is to see the gross behavior of the inelastic excitation strength versus epsilon (i.e. energy spectrum) for the assumed specific types of CC potentials between a large number of inelastic channels. Schematic large dimension CC calculation was considered rather than small-dimension CC calculation. The coupled N + 1 equations can be reduced to uncoupled N + 1 equations through the wellknown unitary transformation. An interesting case is that there exists strong channel independent coupling between any pair of the channels, all of which are almost degenerate in internal energy as compared with incoming c.m. energy. It was found that inelastic scattering hardly occurred while the collision was almost confined to the elastic component. The numerical calculation of S-matrix was carried out. Other cases, such as zero CC potential, the coupling between inelastic channel and entrance channel, and the case that the thickness of the coupling was changed, were investigated. As the results of the present study, it can be said that this CC coupling model may be useful for discussing continuum-continuum interactions in a breakup reaction by simulating the continuum states with many channels made discrete.

  13. Simulation of rotary-drum and repose tests for frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    The effects of rotation rate and interparticle friction on the bulk flow behavior in rotating horizontal cylinders are studied via particle-dynamic simulations. Assemblies of inelastic, frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters are utilized, and rotation rates from quasistatic to centrifuging are examined. Flow phenomena explored include size segregation, avalanching, slumping and centrifuging. Simulated drum flows with two sizes of frictional spheres showed very rapid segregation of species perpendicular to the drum axis; however, simulations of up to 10 revolutions, utilizing periodic-boundary ends, did not exhibit the experimentally observed axial segregation into stripes. Angles of repose for uniform-sized spheres in slowly rotating cylinders varied from 13 to 31 degrees as the friction coefficient varied from 0.02 to 1.0. For simulated rotation rates higher than the threshold to obtain uniform flow conditions, the apparent angle of repose increases as the rotation rats increases, consistent with experiments. Also, simulations with rigid clusters of 4 spheres in a tetrahedral shape or 8 spheres in a cubical arrangement, demonstrate that particle shape strongly influences the repose angle. Simulations of cubical 8-sphere clusters, with a surface coefficient of friction of 0.1, produced apparent angles of repose exceeding 35 degrees, compared to 23 degrees for assemblies of single spheres interacting with the same force model parameters. Centrifuging flows at very high rotation rates exist as stationary beds moving exactly as the outer rotating wall. At somewhat slower speeds the granular bed remains in contact with the wall but exhibits surface sliding down the rising inner bed surface, moving a short distance on each revolution. At still slower speeds particles rain from the surface of the upper half of the rotating bed.

  14. Enthalpy-based equation of state for highly porous materials employing modified soft sphere fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bishnupriya; Menon, S. V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Enthalpy-based equation of state based on a modified soft sphere model for the fluid phase, which includes vaporization and ionization effects, is formulated for highly porous materials. Earlier developments and applications of enthalpy-based approach had not accounted for the fact that shocked states of materials with high porosity (e.g., porosity more than two for Cu) are in the expanded fluid region. We supplement the well known soft sphere model with a generalized Lennard-Jones formula for the zero temperature isotherm, with parameters determined from cohesive energy, specific volume and bulk modulus of the solid at normal condition. Specific heats at constant pressure, ionic and electronic enthalpy parameters and thermal excitation effects are calculated using the modified approach and used in the enthalpy-based equation of state. We also incorporate energy loss from the shock due to expansion of shocked material in calculating porous Hugoniot. Results obtained for Cu, even up to initial porosities ten, show good agreement with experimental data.

  15. Constitutive equations for describing high-temperature inelastic behavior of structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.N.; Pugh, C.E.; Corum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper addresses constitutive equations for the description of inelastic behavior of LMFBR structural alloys at elevated temperatures. Both elastic-plastic (time-independent) and creep (time-dependent) deformations are considered for types 304 and 316 stainless steel and 2 1 / 4 Cr--1 Mo steel. The constitutive equations identified for interim use in design analyses are described along with the assumptions and data on which they are based. Areas where improvements are needed are identified, and some alternate theories that are being pursued are outlined

  16. Fine structure of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, A.

    2005-02-01

    In the present work the phenomenon of fine structure in the region of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance in a number of heavy and medium-heavy nuclei is systematically investigated for the first time. High energy-resolution inelastic proton scattering experiments were carried out in September-October 2001 and in October 2003 at the iThemba LABS cyclotron facility in South Africa with an incident proton energy of 200 MeV. The obtained data with the energy resolution of triangle E 58 Ni, 89 Y, 90 Zr, 120 Sn, 142 Nd, 166 Er, 208 Pb), thereby establishing the global character of this phenomenon. Fine structure can be described using characteristic energy scales, appearing as a result of the decay of collective modes towards the compound nucleus through a hierarchy of couplings to complex degrees of freedom. For the extraction of the characteristic energy scales from the spectra an entropy index method and a novel technique based on the wavelet analysis are utilized. The global analysis of available data shows the presence of three groups of scales, according to their values. To the first group belong the scales with the values around and below 100 keV, which were detected in all the nuclei studied. The second group contains intermediate scales in the range of 100 keV to 1 MeV. These scales show large variations depending on the nuclear structure of the nucleus. The largest scales above 1 MeV are classified to the third group, describing the global structure of the resonance (the width). The interpretation of the observed scales is realized via the comparison with microscopic model calculations including the coupling of the initial one-particle-one-hole excitations to more complex configurations. A qualitative agreement of the experimentally observed scales with those obtained from the theoretical predictions supports the suggestion of the origin of fine structure from the coupling to the two-particle-two-hole states. However, quantitatively, large deviations are

  17. Monodisperse, submicrometer-scale platinum colloidal spheres with high electrocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lixue; Wang, Liang; Guo, Shaojun; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130022 Jilin, Changchun (China)

    2009-02-15

    Monodisperse, submicrometer-scale platinum (Pt) colloidal spheres were prepared through a simple direct chemical reduction of p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-chloroplatinic acid (H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}) coordination polymer colloids. It was found that the prepared Pt colloids had the similar size and morphology with their coordination polymer precursors, and the prepared Pt colloids with rough surfaces were three-dimensional (3D) structured assemblies of high-density small Pt nanoparticles. The electrochemical experiments confirmed that the prepared Pt colloids possessed a high electrocatalytic activity towards mainly four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water, making the prepared Pt colloids potential candidates for the efficient cathode material in fuel cells. (author)

  18. Laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen confined in highly porous hollow sphere xerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Somesfalean, Gabriel; He, Sailing

    2014-02-10

    An Al2O3 xerogel with a distinctive microstructure is studied for the application of laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen. The xerogel has an exceptionally high porosity (up to 88%) and a large pore size (up to 3.6 µm). Using the method of gas-in-scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS), a long optical path length (about 3.5m) and high enhancement factor (over 300 times) are achieved as the result of extremely strong multiple-scattering when the light is transmitted through the air-filled, hollow-sphere alumina xerogel. We investigate how the micro-physical feature influences the optical property. As part of the optical sensing system, the material's gas exchange dynamics are also experimentally studied.

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of high performance polyhedron sphere like lithium manganese oxide for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Donglei; Wei, Xiuge; Chang, Zhaorong; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Bao; Shangguan, Enbo; Chang, Kun; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Polyhedron structured sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor via a solid state reaction at a temperature of 800 °C exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling performance at both 25 °C and 55 °C. - Highlights: • Polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 was synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor. • The polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling performance. • The polyhedron sphere-like structure spinel LiMn 2 O 4 suppresses the dissolution of manganese ions. • The polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 has high diffusion coefficient of Li + . - Abstract: Polyhedron structured sphere-like lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) is successfully synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor via a solid state reaction at a temperature of 800 °C. For comparison, LiMn 2 O 4 materials with nanorod and octahedron structures are also obtained from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor at temperatures of 700 °C and 900 °C, respectively. The galvanostatic charge–discharge result shows that the polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 sample exhibits the best electrochemical performance at high rate and high temperature. After 100 cycles at 5 C, this electrode is able to maintain 94% of its capacity at 25 °C and 81% at 55 °C. This is attributed to that the polyhedron sphere-like spinel LiMn 2 O 4 can suppress the dissolution of manganese ions. Based on Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 sample has the lowest BET surface area, largest diffusion coefficient of Li + and least charge transfer resistance. This study provides an insight into the capacity fading of LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes and the polyhedron structured sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 can be a promising material for lithium ion batteries

  20. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres were prepared. • The obtained materials have a good capacitive deionization performance. • The electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance. - Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m 2 /g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  1. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong, E-mail: dszhang@shu.edu.cn

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres were prepared. • The obtained materials have a good capacitive deionization performance. • The electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance. - Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m{sup 2}/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  2. Inelastic electron scattering from 3He and 4He in the threshold region at high momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, S.; Arnold, R.G.; Chertok, B.T.; Szalata, Z.M.; Day, D.; McCarthy, J.S.; Martin, F.; Mecking, B.A.; Sick, I.; Tamas, G.

    1981-01-01

    The cross section for inclusive inelastic electron scattering from the helium isotopes has been measured at momentum transfers squared of 0.8 less than or equal to Q 2 less than or equal to 5.0 (GeV/c) 2 for 3 He and 0.8 less than or equal to Q 2 less than or equal to 2.4 (GeV/c) 2 for 4 He. The data were taken at 10 0 and cover the range 1.0 2 /2M/sub He/ν, which includes the elastic peak, nuclear breakup threshold, the high momentum tail of the quasi elastic scattering, and pion production. The structure function, νW 2 , derived from the data is approaching a scaling limit at high Q 2 . It can be factored into a product of functions of Q 2 and of x as predicted by some models

  3. One-step synthesis of hierarchically porous hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres with high photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiping; Ren, Feng; Yang, Jinlin; Su, Weiming; Sun, Zhiming; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Chang-an

    2016-03-01

    Hierarchically porous hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres were solvothermally synthesized successfully by using tetrabutyl titanate as titanium precursor and hydrated metal sulfates as soft templates. The as-prepared TiO2 spheres with hierarchically pore structures and high specific surface area and pore volume consisted of highly crystallized anatase TiO2 nanocrystals hybridized with a small amount of metal oxide from the hydrated sulfate. The proposed hydrated-sulfate assisted solvothermal (HAS) synthesis strategy was demonstrated to be widely applicable to various systems. Evaluation of the hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres for the photo-decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation revealed that they exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and durability.

  4. Precision mechanical structure of an ultra-high-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Goetze, Kurt A.; Roberts, Timothy

    2015-04-14

    A method and an ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer including a precision mechanical structure for positioning inelastic X-ray scattering optics are provided. The spectrometer includes an X-ray monochromator and an X-ray analyzer, each including X-ray optics of a collimating (C) crystal, a pair of dispersing (D) element crystals, anomalous transmission filter (F) and a wavelength (W) selector crystal. A respective precision mechanical structure is provided with the X-ray monochromator and the X-ray analyzer. The precision mechanical structure includes a base plate, such as an aluminum base plate; positioning stages for D-crystal alignment; positioning stages with an incline sensor for C/F/W-crystal alignment, and the positioning stages including flexure-based high-stiffness structure.

  5. Inelastic scattering of high transfer moment electrons to the first excited state (Jsup(π)=3-) of 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Dominique.

    1979-10-01

    A determination was made of an angular distribution of the inelastic scattering cross-sections of electrons by the first excited state (Jsup(π)=3 - , E*=2.615 MeV) of 208 Pb. The statistical accuracy of previous data was improved between 2 and 2.7 fm -1 and the area of transfer of moment was extended up to qsub(max)=3.4 fm -1 . Cross-sections up to 10 -37 cm 2 /sr were determined whereas the limit reached before was 7x10 -35 cm 2 /sr. In order to determine the transition charge density, it was put into parametric form by a Fourier-Bessel development using 12 coefficients and an 11 fm cut-off radius. The model error inherent in this method is reduced to an insignificant contribution by the sufficiently high transfer of moment. The experimental transition charge density was compared with the theoretical predictions [fr

  6. Measurement of charged and neutral current e-p deep inelastic scattering cross sections at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-03-01

    Deep inelastic e - p scattering has been studied in both the charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared, Q 2 , between 400 GeV 2 and the kinematic limit of 87500 GeV 2 using the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections, dσ/dQ 2 , are presented. For Q 2 ∝M W 2 , where M W is the mass of the W boson, the CC and NC cross sections have comparable magnitudes, demonstrating the equal strengths of the weak and electromagnetic interactions at high Q 2 . The Q 2 dependence of the CC cross section determines the mass term in the CC propagator to be M W =76±16±13 GeV. (orig.)

  7. Nano-micro carbon spheres anchored on porous carbon derived from dual-biomass as high rate performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaobo; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Baihui; Xia, Hui; Zhou, Jianfei; Xie, Wenke; Li, Hongjian

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical nano-micro carbon spheres@rice straw-derived porous carbon composites are successfully synthesized by the in situ decoration of the porous carbon with carbon spheres from glucose under the assistance of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide micelles and further activated by KOH. The scanning electron microscope images clearly show the carbon spheres disperse homogeneously and orderly onto the surface and in the inner macropores of the porous carbon. The diameter of the carbon spheres varies from 475 nm to 1.6 μm, which can be easily controlled by introducing extra inducing agent. The optimal composites exhibit a large specific surface area (1122 m2 g-1), rich content of oxygen (14.2 wt %), and tunable hierarchical porous structure. When used as supercapacitor electrodes, the novel composites with abundant fruits present a high specific capacitance of 337 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, excellent rate retention of 83% from 1 to 20 A g-1 and a good cycling stability with 96% capacitance retention after 10000 cycles. In this strategy, the thought of shared ion-buffering reservoirs is proposed and the mutual promotion effects between the carbon spheres and porous carbon in the composites are also practically demonstrated to contribute the enhanced electrochemical performances.

  8. Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering at High Q2 with Longitudinally Polarised Lepton Beams at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kramer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Pandurovic, M.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive e\\pmp single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current deep inelastic scattering processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken at a centre-of-mass energy of \\surds = 319GeV with a total integrated luminosity of 333.7 pb-1 shared between two lepton beam charges and two longitudinal lepton polarisation modes. The differential cross sections are measured in the range of negative fourmomentum transfer squared, Q2, between 60 and 50 000GeV2, and Bjorken x between 0.0008 and 0.65. The measurements are combined with earlier published unpolarised H1 data to improve statistical precision and used to determine the structure function xF_3^gammaZ. A measurement of the neutral current parity violating structure function F_2^gammaZ is presented for the first time. The polarisation dependence of the charged current total cross section is also measured. The new measurements are well described by a next-to-leading order QCD fit based on all published H1 inclusi...

  9. KS0 production at high Q2 in deep inelastic ep scattering at H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Tabasco, Julia Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    The production of K S 0 mesons is studied using deep-inelastic scattering events (DIS) recorded with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. The measurements are performed in the phase space defined by the four-momentum transfer squared of the photon, 145 GeV 2 2 . The differential production cross sections of the K S 0 meson are presented as function of the kinematic variables Q 2 and x, the transverse momentum p T and the pseudorapidity η of the particle in laboratory frame, and as function of the momentum fraction x p BF and transverse momentum p T BF in the Breit Frame. Moreover, the K S 0 production rate is compared to the production of charged particles and to the production of DIS events in the same region of phase space. The data are compared to theoretical predictions, based on leading order Monte Carlo programs with matched parton showers. The Monte Carlo models are also used for studies of the flavour contribution to the K S 0 production and parton density function dependence. (orig.)

  10. Sputtering and inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, I.A.; Tsepelevic, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data and models of a new type of material sputtering with ions of relatively high energies due to inelastic (electron) processes are reviewed. This area of investigations began to develop intensively during the latest years. New experimental data of the authors on differential characteristics of ultradisperse gold and americium dioxide layers with fission fragments are given as well. Practical applications of the new sputtering type are considered as well as setup of possibl experiments at heavy multiply charged ion accelerators

  11. Fe-Catalyzed Synthesis of Porous Carbons Spheres with High Graphitization Degree for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Shi, Hongwei; Zhuo, Xin; Hu, Yalin

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a facile and efficient Fe-catalyzed method for fabrication of porous carbons spheres with high graphitization degree (GNPCs) using glucose as carbon precursor at relatively low carbonization temperature. GNPCs not only have relatively large accessible ion surface area to accommodate greater capacity but also high graphitization degree to accelerate ion diffusion. As a typical application, we demonstrate that GNPCs exhibit excellent electrochemical performance for use in supercapacitors, with high specific capacity of 150.6 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 and good rate capability and superior cycling stability over 10,000 cycles, confirming their potential application for energy storage. Moreover, it is believed that this method offers a new strategy for synthesis of porous carbons with high graphitization degree.

  12. High-pressure cells for study of condensed matter by diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering at low temperatures and in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, R. A.; Strassle, Th; Podlesnyak, A.; Keller, L.; Fak, B.; Mesot, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed and implemented series of new original clamp high-pressure cells for neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering at low temperatures. The cells design allows one to place them in the standard cryostats or cryomagnets used on neutron sources. Some results obtained for ZnCr2Se4 are demonstrated as an example.

  13. Multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres for high-performance acetone gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ya; Zhu, Zongye; Ding, Degong; Lu, Wenbo; Xue, Qingzhong

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres have been successfully prepared by using carbonaceous microspheres as templates. It is found that the multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres based sensor shows optimal sensing performances (response value of 38.2, response/recovery time of 19 s/71 s) toward 500 ppm acetone at 200 °C. In addition, this sensor exhibits a low detection limit of 0.5 ppm acetone (response value of 1.36) and a good selectivity toward hydrogen, methane, ethanol, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that acetone gas response of multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres is significantly better than that of ZnCo2O4 nanotubes and ZnCo2O4 nanosheets. High acetone response of the multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres is attributed to the enhanced gas accessibility of the multi-shell morphology caused by the small crystalline size and high specific surface area while the short response/recovery time is mainly related to the rapid gas diffusion determined by the highly porous structure. Our work puts forward an exciting opportunity in designing various yolk-shelled structures for multipurpose applications.

  14. Study of sodium film-boiling heat transfer from a high-temperature sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Belguet, A.

    2013-01-01

    During a severe accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, molten fuel may come into contact with the surrounding liquid sodium, resulting in a so-called Fuel-Coolant Interaction. This work aims at providing a better understanding and knowledge of the associated heat transfer, likely to be in the film-boiling regime and required to study the risks related to a vapor explosion. Scarce literature has been found on sodium film boiling, both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view. Only one experiment has been conducted to investigate sodium pool film-boiling heat transfer. In our analysis of the experiment, two film-boiling regimes have been identified: a stable film boiling regime, without liquid-solid contact, and an unstable film-boiling regime, with contacts. Besides, the only theoretical model dedicated to sodium film boiling has shown some weaknesses. First, a scaling analysis of the problem has been proposed for free and forced convection, considering the two extreme cases of saturated and highly subcooled liquid. This simplified approach, which shows a good agreement with the experimental data, provides the dimensionless numbers which should be used to build correlations. A theoretical model has been developed to describe sodium film-boiling heat transfer from a hot sphere in free and forced convection, whatever the liquid subcooling. It is based on a two-phase laminar boundary layer integral method and includes the inertial and convective terms in the vapor momentum and energy equations, usually neglected. The radiation has been taken into account in the interfacial energy balance and contributes directly to produce vapor. This model enables to predict the heat lost from a hot body within an acceptable error compared to the tests results especially when the experimental uncertainties are considered. The heat partition between liquid heating and vaporization, essential to study the vapor explosion phenomenon, is also estimated. The influence of

  15. High-performance carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres for supercapacitors with low series resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Bin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Xiaohua, E-mail: hudacxh62@yahoo.com.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Guo, Kaimin [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China); Xu, Longshan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Chen, Chuansheng [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China); Yan, Haimei; Chen, Jianghua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} CNTs-implanted porous carbon spheres are prepared by using gelatin as soft template. {yields} Homogeneously distributed CNTs form a well-develop network in carbon spheres. {yields} CNTs act as a reinforcing backbone assisting the formation of pore structure. {yields} CNTs improve electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of supercapacitor. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres were prepared by an easy polymerization-induced colloid aggregation method using gelatin as a soft template. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements reveal that the materials are mesoporous carbon spheres, with a diameter of {approx}0.5-1.0 {mu}m, a specific surface area of 284 m{sup 2}/g and average pore size of 3.9 nm. Using the carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres as electrode material for supercapacitors in an aqueous electrolyte solution, a low equivalent series resistance of 0.83 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and a maximum specific capacitance of 189 F/g with a measured power density of 8.7 kW/kg at energy density of 6.6 Wh/kg are obtained.

  16. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres for High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Kretschmer, Katja; Xie, Xiuqiang; Munroe, Paul; Peng, Zhangquan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-12-01

    As a new family member of room-temperature aprotic metal-O 2 batteries, Na-O 2 batteries, are attracting growing attention because of their relatively high theoretical specific energy and particularly their uncompromised round-trip efficiency. Here, a hierarchical porous carbon sphere (PCS) electrode that has outstanding properties to realize Na-O 2 batteries with excellent electrochemical performances is reported. The controlled porosity of the PCS electrode, with macropores formed between PCSs and nanopores inside each PCS, enables effective formation/decomposition of NaO 2 by facilitating the electrolyte impregnation and oxygen diffusion to the inner part of the oxygen electrode. In addition, the discharge product of NaO 2 is deposited on the surface of individual PCSs with an unusual conformal film-like morphology, which can be more easily decomposed than the commonly observed microsized NaO 2 cubes in Na-O 2 batteries. A combination of coulometry, X-ray diffraction, and in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry provides compelling evidence that the operation of the PCS-based Na-O 2 battery is underpinned by the formation and decomposition of NaO 2 . This work demonstrates that employing nanostructured carbon materials to control the porosity, pore-size distribution of the oxygen electrodes, and the morphology of the discharged NaO 2 is a promising strategy to develop high-performance Na-O 2 batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Exact theory of dense amorphous hard spheres in high dimension. II. The high density regime and the Gardner transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchan, Jorge; Parisi, Giorgio; Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Zamponi, Francesco

    2013-10-24

    We consider the theory of the glass phase and jamming of hard spheres in the large space dimension limit. Building upon the exact expression for the free-energy functional obtained previously, we find that the random first order transition (RFOT) scenario is realized here with two thermodynamic transitions: the usual Kauzmann point associated with entropy crisis and a further transition at higher pressures in which a glassy structure of microstates is developed within each amorphous state. This kind of glass-glass transition into a phase dominating the higher densities was described years ago by Elisabeth Gardner, and may well be a generic feature of RFOT. Microstates that are small excitations of an amorphous matrix-separated by low entropic or energetic barriers-thus emerge naturally, and modify the high pressure (or low temperature) limit of the thermodynamic functions.

  18. Graphene Spheres-CuO Nanoflowers Composites for Use as a High Performance Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene spheres decorated with CuO nanoflowers were successfully synthesized via a spray-drying method. Scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy were used to confirm that the graphene formed spherical structures and that the CuO nanoflowers were well dispersed on the surface of these graphene spheres. These novel nanocomposites had an enhanced photocatalytic performance, achieving a 95.2% decomposition of methyl orange after 15 min in the presence of H2O2 when irradiated by visible light. These nanocomposites performed much better than CuO powders alone.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Monodispersed Polysulfide Spheres for Building Structural Colors with High Color Visibility and Broad Viewing Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feihu; Tang, Bingtao; Wu, Suli; Zhang, Shufen

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis and assembly of monodispersed colloidal spheres are currently the subject of extensive investigation to fabricate artificial structural color materials. However, artificial structural colors from general colloidal crystals still suffer from the low color visibility and strong viewing angle dependence which seriously hinder their practical application in paints, colorimetric sensors, and color displays. Herein, monodispersed polysulfide (PSF) spheres with intrinsic high refractive index (as high as 1.858) and light-absorbing characteristics are designed, synthesized through a facile polycondensation and crosslinking process between sodium disulfide and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Owing to their high monodispersity, sufficient surface charge, and good dispersion stability, the PSF spheres can be assembled into large-scale and high-quality 3D photonic crystals. More importantly, high structural color visibility and broad viewing angle are easily achieved because the unique features of PSF can remarkably enhance the relative reflectivity and eliminate the disturbance of scattering and background light. The results of this study provide a simple and efficient strategy to create structural colors with high color visibility, which is very important for their practical application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon hollow spheres derived from polypyrrole for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bingjie; Li, Peipei; Liu, Yan; Lin, Shanshan; Gao, Bifen; Lin, Bizhou

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon hollow spheres (NPCHSs) have been prepared by a carbonization and subsequent chemical activation route using dehydrated polypyrrole hollow spheres as the precursor and KOH as the activating agent. NPCHSs are interconnected into a unique 3D porous network, which endows the as-prepared carbon to exhibit a large specific surface area of 1155 m2 g-1 and a high specific capacitance of 232 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. The as-obtained NPCHSs present a high-level heteroatom doping with N, O and P contents of 11.4, 6.7 and 3.5 wt%, respectively. The capacitance of NPCHSs has been retained at 89.1% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a relatively high current density of 5 A g-1. Such excellent performance suggests that NPCHSs are attractive electrode candidates for electrical double layer capacitors.

  1. Use of a high repetition rate neutron generator for in vivo body composition measurements via neutron inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, J.J.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.; Weinlein, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A small D-T neutron generator with a high pulse rate is used for the in vivo measurement of body carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. The core of the neutron generator is a 13 cm-long Zetatron tube pulsed at a rate of 10 kHz delivering 10 3 to 10 4 neutrons per pulse. A target-current feedback system regulates the source of the accelerator to assure constant neutron output. Carbon is measured by detecting the 4.44 MeV γ-rays from inelastic scattering. The short half-life of the 4.44 MeV state of carbon requires detection of the γ-rays during the 10 μs neutron pulse. Generators with low pulsing rate were found inappropriate for carbon measurements because of their low duty-cycle (high neutron output during the pulse). In vivo measurements were performed with normal volunteers using a scanning bed facility for a dose less than 25 mrem. This technique offers medical as well as general bulk analysis applications. 8 refs., 5 figs

  2. Instantaneous axial force of a high-order Bessel vortex beam of acoustic waves incident upon a rigid movable sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G; Fellah, Z E A

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation examines the instantaneous force resulting from the interaction of an acoustical high-order Bessel vortex beam (HOBVB) with a rigid sphere. The rigid sphere case is important in fluid dynamics applications because it perfectly simulates the interaction of instantaneous sound waves in a reduced gravity environment with a levitated spherical liquid soft drop in air. Here, a closed-form solution for the instantaneous force involving the total pressure field as well as the Bessel beam parameters is obtained for the case of progressive, stationary and quasi-stationary waves. Instantaneous force examples for progressive waves are computed for both a fixed and a movable rigid sphere. The results show how the instantaneous force per unit cross-sectional surface and unit pressure varies versus the dimensionless frequency ka (k is the wave number in the fluid medium and a is the sphere's radius), the half-cone angle β and the order m of the HOBVB. It is demonstrated here that the instantaneous force is determined only for (m,n) = (0,1) (where n is the partial-wave number), and vanishes for m>0 because of symmetry. In addition, the instantaneous force and normalized amplitude velocity results are computed and compared with those of a rigid immovable (fixed) sphere. It is shown that they differ significantly for ka values below 5. The proposed analysis may be of interest in the analysis of instantaneous forces on spherical particles for particle manipulation, filtering, trapping and drug delivery. The presented solutions may also serve as a method for comparison to other solutions obtained by strictly numerical or asymptotic approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Convergent Polishing: A Simple, Rapid, Full Aperture Polishing Process of High Quality Optical Flats & Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745

  4. Searching for Hα emitting sources around MWC 758. SPHERE/ZIMPOL high-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huélamo, N.; Chauvin, G.; Schmid, H. M.; Quanz, S. P.; Whelan, E.; Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Montesinos, B.; Alcalá, J. M.; Benisty, M.; Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. de; Mendigutía, I.; Bouy, H.; Merín, B.; de Boer, J.; Garufi, A.; Pantin, E.

    2018-05-01

    Context. MWC 758 is a young star surrounded by a transitional disk. The disk shows an inner cavity and spiral arms that could be caused by the presence of protoplanets. Recently, a protoplanet candidate has been detected around MWC 758 through high-resolution L'-band observations. The candidate is located inside the disk cavity at a separation of 111 mas from the central star, and at an average position angle of 165.5°. Aims: We aim at detecting accreting protoplanet candidates within the disk of MWC 758 through angular spectral differential imaging (ASDI) observations in the optical regime. In particular, we explore the emission at the position of the detected planet candidate. Methods: We have performed simultaneous adaptive optics observations in the Hα line and the adjacent continuum using SPHERE/ZIMPOL at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Results: The data analysis does not reveal any Hα signal around the target. The derived contrast curve in the B_Ha filter allows us to derive a 5σ upper limit of 7.6 mag at 111 mas, the separation of the previously detected planet candidate. This contrast translates into a Hα line luminosity of LHα ≲ 5×10-5 L⊙ at 111 mas. Assuming that LHα scales with Lacc as in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) as a first approximation, we can estimate an accretion luminosity of Lacc http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/613/L5Based on observations obtained at Paranal Observatory under program 096.C-0267(A) and 96.C-0248(A).

  5. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassauer, Sergej; Neumann-Cosel, Peter von; Tamii, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF) in nuclei in an energy range of about 5-23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method) allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) crucial for the modelling of (n,γ) and (γ,n) reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  6. High resolution inelastic electron scattering on 90Zr at low momentum transfer and strong fragmentation of the magnetic quadrupole strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuer, D.; Frey, R.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Richter, A.; Spamer, E.; Titze, O.; Knuepfer, W.

    1980-01-01

    High-resolution (FWHM approx. 30 keV) inelastic electron scattering on 90 Zr at low momentum transfer (0.20 -1 ) has been used to study magnetic transitions at excitation energies Esub(x) = 8-10 MeV. The experimental data were analyzed in the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) with wave functions calculated in the random phase approximation (RPA). Three Jsup(π) = 1 + states have been identified Esub(x) = 8.233, 9.000 and 9.371 MeV. There is some indication of further very fragmented dipole strength and the upper limit for the total M1 strength in the investigated energy region is ΣB(M1)up 2 sub(K). It is much smaller than any theoretical prediction. Furthermore, a large number of 2 - states has been observed, with the center of gravity located at Esub(x) approx. 9 MeV. These states carry a total strength of ΣB(M2)up = 1000 μ 2 sub(K) x fm 2 . Their strong fragmentation is in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations, but the deduced strength is much smaller than theoretically predicted. In addition the distributions of spacings and radiative widths of the 2 - states are consistent with a Wigner and a Porter-Thomas distribution, respectively. (orig.)

  7. NiO as a test case for high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiringhelli, G; Matsubara, M; Dallera, C; Fracassi, F; Gusmeroli, R; Piazzalunga, A; Tagliaferri, A; Brookes, N B; Kotani, A; Braicovich, L

    2005-01-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L 2,3 edges of 3d transition metal compounds has recently become a high resolution spectroscopic technique thanks to improvements in the instrumentation. We have chosen the prototypical case of NiO to explore the various levels of interpretation applicable to L 3 RIXS spectra of strongly correlated electron systems. Starting from a set of experimental data measured across the Ni L 3 absorption edge with 550 meV combined energy resolution, we analyse the rich spectral structure within an atomic framework. The spectra can be separated into dd and charge transfer excitation regions. The dd excitations can be interpreted and well reproduced within a crystal field model. The charge transfer excitations are analysed through the comparison with calculations made in the Anderson impurity model. A series of parameters belonging to the proposed models (crystal field strength, charge transfer energy, hybridization integrals) can thus be extracted in a very direct and unambiguous way

  8. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassauer Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF in nuclei in an energy range of about 5–23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR crucial for the modelling of (n,γ and (γ,n reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  9. Synthesis of highly uniform Cu2O spheres by a two-step approach and their assembly to form photonic crystals with a brilliant color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Chang, Jie; Wu, Suli; Tang, Bingtao; Zhang, Shufen

    2016-03-21

    Monodisperse semiconductor colloidal spheres with a high refractive index hold great potential for building photonic crystals with a strong band gap, but the difficulty in separating the nucleation and growth processes makes it challenging to prepare highly uniform semiconductor colloidal spheres. Herein, real monodisperse Cu2O spheres were prepared via a hot-injection & heating-up two-step method using diethylene glycol as a milder reducing agent. The diameter of the as prepared Cu2O spheres can be tuned from 90 nm to 190 nm precisely. The SEM images reveal that the obtained Cu2O spheres have a narrow size distribution, which permits their self-assembly to form photonic crystals. The effects of precursor concentration and heating rates on the size and morphology of the Cu2O spheres were investigated in detail. The results indicate that the key points of the method include the burst nucleation to form seeds at a high temperature followed by rapid cooling to prevent agglomeration, and appropriate precursor concentration as well as a moderate growth rate during the further growth process. Importantly, photonic crystal films exhibiting a brilliant structural color were fabricated with the obtained monodisperse Cu2O spheres as building blocks, proving the possibility of making photonic crystals with a strong band gap. The developed method was also successfully applied to prepare monodisperse CdS spheres with diameters in the range from 110 nm to 210 nm.

  10. Partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OLIMOV, K.; LUTPULLAEV, S.L.; PETROV, V.I.; OLIMOV, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    New experimental data on the partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in "1"6Op-collisions at 3.25 A GeV/s, pC-interactions at 4.2 and 9.9 GeV/s, and d,α,C(C)-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/s are presented. It is established that the behavior of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions at intermediate energies (<10 GeV) in hadron-nucleus collisions has a transitional character, reaching the limiting value at ultrahigh energies. It is shown that the mean values of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions decrease with an increase in mass number of the projectile nucleus. (authors)

  11. Trial fabrication of a secondary x-ray spectrometer with high energy resolution for use in x-ray resonant inelastic scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazumi, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    An instrument was fabricated for use of x-ray resonant inelastic scattering with high-energy resolution in expectation of finding new physical phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems. In the scattering x-ray spectrometer, an asymmetric Johanson crystal spectrometer, which was deployed in an asymmetric Rowland configuration, was designed, fabricated and assessed. The performance expected theoretically for the Johanson spectrometer was recognized from experiments by use of synchrotron radiation. (Y. Kazumata)

  12. Structure of highly asymmetric hard-sphere mixtures: an efficient closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amokrane, S; Ayadim, A; Malherbe, J G

    2005-11-01

    A simple modification of the reference hypernetted chain (RHNC) closure of the multicomponent Ornstein-Zernike equations with bridge functions taken from Rosenfeld's hard-sphere bridge functional is proposed. Its main effect is to remedy the major limitation of the RHNC closure in the case of highly asymmetric mixtures--the wide domain of packing fractions in which it has no solution. The modified closure is also much faster, while being of similar complexity. This is achieved with a limited loss of accuracy, mainly for the contact value of the big sphere correlation functions. Comparison with simulation shows that inside the RHNC no-solution domain, it provides a good description of the structure, while being clearly superior to all the other closures used so far to study highly asymmetric mixtures. The generic nature of this closure and its good accuracy combined with a reduced no-solution domain open up the possibility to study the phase diagram of complex fluids beyond the hard-sphere model.

  13. Synthesis of hierarchical mesoporous lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide spheres with high rate capability for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Huang, Yudai; Cai, Yanjun; Guo, Yong; Wang, Xingchao; Jia, Dianzeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Pang, Weikong; Guo, Zaiping; Zong, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 spheres have been synthesized by urea-assisted solvothermal method with adding Triton X-100. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscope. The results show that the as-prepared samples can be indexed as hexagonal layered structure with hierarchical architecture, and the possible formation mechanism is speculated. When evaluated as cathode material, the hierarchical mesoporous LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 spheres show good electrochemical properties with high initial discharge capacity of 129.9 mAh g-1, and remain the discharge capacity of 95.5 mAh g-1 after 160 cycles at 10C. The excellent electrochemical performance of the as-prepared sample can be attributed to its stable hierarchical mesoporous framework in conjunction with large specific surface, low cation mixing and small particle size. They not only provide a large number of reaction sites for surface or interface reaction, but also shorten the diffusion length of Li+ ions. Meanwhile, the mesoporous spheres composed of nanoparticles can contribute to high rate ability and buffer volume changes during charge/discharge process.

  14. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Geloni, Gianluca [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Madsen, Anders [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd’ko, Yuri, E-mail: shvydko@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-12

    This article explores novel opportunities for ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) at high-repetition-rate self-seeded XFELs. These next-generation light sources are promising a more than three orders of magnitude increase in average spectral flux compared with what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. In combination with the advanced IXS spectrometer described here, this may become a real game-changer for ultra-high-resolution X-ray spectroscopies, and hence for the studies of dynamics in condensed matter systems. Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup −1} spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup −1} are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10{sup 12} photons s{sup −1} in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  15. Construction of an apparatus for the investigation of inelastic electron scattering processes at high energy resolution and experimental determination of appearance energies of various atoms, molecules and small van-der-Waals clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, C.

    1993-03-01

    A new experimental setup is presented, which enables the investigation of inelastic electron scattering processes at high energy resolution with dE n + cluster ions, n>3, is supported by these measurements

  16. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization...... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  17. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations with the extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometer at high-energy mixed fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00406842; Bay, Aurelio; Silari, Marco; Aroua, Abbas

    The use of spectrometry to provide information for neutron radiation protection has become an increasingly important activity over recent years. The need for spectral data arises because neither area survey instruments nor personal dosimeters give the correct dose equivalent results at all neutron energies. It is important therefore to know the spectra of the fields in which these devices are used. One of the systems most commonly employed in neutron spectrometry and dosimetry is the Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS). The extended- range BSS that was used for this work, consists of 7 spheres with an overall response to neutrons up to 2 GeV. A 3He detector is used as a thermal counter in the centre of each sphere. In the context of this thesis the BSS was calibrated in monoenergetic neutron fields at low and intermediate energies. It was also used for measurements in several high energy mixed fields. These measurements have led to the calculation of neutron yields and spectral fluences from unshielded targets....

  18. Antisolvent Precipitation for the Synthesis of Monodisperse Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Spheres as Highly Effective Solid Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cheng Chao; Dou, Jian; Chen, Luwei; Lin, Jianyi; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a low-cost reaction protocol to synthesize mesoporous Nb 2O 5-based solid acid catalysts with external shape control. In the synthesis, monodisperse glycolated niobium oxide spheres (GNOS) were prepared by means of a simple antisolvent precipitation approach and subsequently converted to mesoporous niobium oxide spheres (MNOS) with a large surface area of 312m 2g -1 by means of the hydrothermal treatment. The antisolvent acetone used to obtain GNOS was recovered through distillation at high purity. The obtained mesoporous MNOS were functionalized further with sulfate anions at different temperatures or incorporated with tungstophosphoric acid to obtain recyclable solid acid catalysts. These MNOS-based catalysts showed excellent performance in a wide range of acid-catalyzed reactions, such as Friedel-Crafts alkylation, esterification, and hydrolysis of acetates. As they are monodisperse spheres with diameters in the submicrometer range, the catalysts can be easily separated and reused. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Antisolvent Precipitation for the Synthesis of Monodisperse Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Spheres as Highly Effective Solid Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cheng Chao

    2012-03-20

    We have developed a low-cost reaction protocol to synthesize mesoporous Nb 2O 5-based solid acid catalysts with external shape control. In the synthesis, monodisperse glycolated niobium oxide spheres (GNOS) were prepared by means of a simple antisolvent precipitation approach and subsequently converted to mesoporous niobium oxide spheres (MNOS) with a large surface area of 312m 2g -1 by means of the hydrothermal treatment. The antisolvent acetone used to obtain GNOS was recovered through distillation at high purity. The obtained mesoporous MNOS were functionalized further with sulfate anions at different temperatures or incorporated with tungstophosphoric acid to obtain recyclable solid acid catalysts. These MNOS-based catalysts showed excellent performance in a wide range of acid-catalyzed reactions, such as Friedel-Crafts alkylation, esterification, and hydrolysis of acetates. As they are monodisperse spheres with diameters in the submicrometer range, the catalysts can be easily separated and reused. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Measurement of high-Q2 deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Kooijman, P.

    2006-01-01

    The cross sections for charged and neutral current deep inelastic scattering in e+p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam have been measured using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 23.8 pb−1 at , are given for both

  1. Simplified analytical methods and experimental correlations of damping in piping during dynamic high-level inelastic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    Simplified methods for predicting equivalent viscous damping are used to assess damping contributions due to piping inelastic plastic hinge action and support snubbers. These increments are compared to experimental findings from shake and snap-back tests of several pipe systems. Good correlations were found confirming the usefulness of the simplified methods

  2. Soft electromagnetic bremsstrahlung in inelastic hadronic collisions at high and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckl, R.

    1978-01-01

    Electromagnetic bremsstrahlung in hadronic collisions was studied extensively at low and intermediate energies. It was found that the infrared divergent term of the cross section describes the data well up to surprisingly large photon energies. Using essentially the same soft photon approximation, production of low mass-low energy electron pairs via internal conversion of soft virtual bremsstrahlung accompanying the production of charged hadrons in hadron-hadron collisions at very high and intermediate energies. The resulting electron yields explain, at least in part, the direct electrons with small transverse momenta seen at the ISR, and are in no contradiction to the rates observed at LAMPF

  3. Comparison study of inelastic analyses for high temperature structure subjected to cyclic creep loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    It is necessary to develop a reliable numerical analysis method to simulate the plasticity and creep behavior of LMR high temperature structures. Since general purpose finite element analysis codes such as ABAQUS and ANSYS provide various models for plastic hardening and creep equation of Norton's power law, it is possible to perform the separate iscoplasticity analysis. In this study, the high temperature structural analysis program(NONSTA-VP) implementing Chaboche's unified visco plasticity equation into ABAQUS has been developed and the viscoplastic response of the 316 SS plate having a circular hole subjected to a cyclic creep loading has been analyzed. The results among the separate visco plasticity analyses and the unified visco plasticity analysis using NONSTA-VP have been compared and the results from NONSTA-VP shows remarkable responses of stress relaxation and creep behavior during hold time compared to those from separate visco plasticity analyses. Also, it is anticipated to reduce the conservatism arising from using elastic approach for creep-fatigue damage analysis since the stress range and the strain range from the unified visco plasticity analysis has been greatly reduced compared to those from separate visco plasticity analyses and elastic analysis

  4. High-Resolution Mapping of Yield Curve Shape and Evolution for Porous Rock: The Effect of Inelastic Compaction on Porous Bassanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, John D.; Faulkner, Daniel R.; Leclère, Henri; Wheeler, John

    2018-02-01

    Porous rock deformation has important implications for fluid flow in a range of crustal settings as compaction can increase fluid pressure and alter permeability. The onset of inelastic strain for porous materials is typically defined by a yield curve plotted in differential stress (Q) versus effective mean stress (P) space. Empirical studies have shown that these curves are broadly elliptical in shape. Here conventional triaxial experiments are first performed to document (a) the yield curve of porous bassanite (porosity ≈ 27-28%), a material formed from the dehydration of gypsum, and (b) the postyield behavior, assuming that P and Q track along the yield surface as inelastic deformation accumulates. The data reveal that after initial yield, the yield surface cannot be perfectly elliptical and must evolve significantly as inelastic strain is accumulated. To investigate this further, a novel stress-probing methodology is developed to map precisely the yield curve shape and subsequent evolution for a single sample. These measurements confirm that the high-pressure side of the curve is partly composed of a near-vertical limb. Yield curve evolution is shown to be dependent on the nature of the loading path. Bassanite compacted under differential stress develops a heterogeneous microstructure and has a yield curve with a peak that is almost double that of an equal porosity sample that has been compacted hydrostatically. The dramatic effect of different loading histories on the strength of porous bassanite highlights the importance of understanding the associated microstructural controls on the nature of inelastic deformation in porous rock.

  5. Glimpses of black hole formation/evaporation in highly inelastic, ultra-planckian string collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Addazi, Andrea; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2017-02-22

    We revisit possible glimpses of black-hole formation by looking at ultra-planckian string-string collisions at very high final-state multiplicity. We compare, in particular, previous results using the optical theorem, the resummation of ladder diagrams at arbitrary loop order, and the AGK cutting rules, with the more recent study of $2 \\rightarrow N$ scattering at $N \\sim s M_P^{-2} \\gg 1$. We argue that some apparent tension between the two approaches disappears once a reinterpretation of the latter's results in terms of suitably defined infrared-safe cross sections is adopted. Under that assumption, the typical final state produced in an ultra-planckian collision does indeed appear to share some properties with those expected from the evaporation of a black hole of mass $\\sqrt{s}$, although no sign of thermalization is seen to emerge at this level of approximation.

  6. Study of the high lying states of 12C by inelastic scattering of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Martin, P.; Saintignon, P. de; Loiseaux, J.-M.

    1977-03-01

    Beams of 45MeV and 155MeV protons and 60MeV alphas have been used to investigate the high lying continuum of 12 C. Various multipolarities and strengths have been located between 15MeV and 30MeV excitation energy. Isovector E1 states have been located at excitation energies between 20 and 30MeV; E2 states at 15.3, 18.4MeV (T=0); E3 state at 21.65MeV (T=0); E4 state at 19.6MeV (T=0); M2 state at 19.2MeV (T=1). The results are analyzed in terms of both collective and microscopic model calculations

  7. Comparison of elastic and inelastic seismic response of high temperature piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, F.M.; McCabe, S.L.; Liu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A study of high temperature power piping systems is presented. The response of the piping systems is determined when subjected to seismic disturbances. Two piping systems are presented, a main steam line, and a cold reheat line. Each of the piping systems are modeled using the ANSYS computer program and two analyses are performed on each piping system. First, each piping system is subjected to a seismic disturbance and the pipe material is assumed to remain linear and elastic. Next the analysis is repeated for each piping system when the pipe material is modeled as having elastic-plastic behavior. The results of the linear elastic analysis and elastic-plastic analysis are compared for each of the two pipe models. The pipe stresses, strains, and displacements, are compared. These comparisons are made so that the effect of the material yielding can be determined and to access what error is made when a linear analysis is performed on a system that yields

  8. Glimpses of black hole formation/evaporation in highly inelastic, ultra-planckian string collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addazi, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di L’Aquila,67010 Coppito, L’Aquila (Italy); LNGS, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,67010 Assergi (Italy); Bianchi, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata andI.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Veneziano, Gabriele [Collége de France,11 place M. Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza,00185 Roma (Italy)

    2017-02-22

    We revisit possible glimpses of black-hole formation by looking at ultra-planckian string-string collisions at very high final-state multiplicity. We compare, in particular, previous results using the optical theorem, the resummation of ladder diagrams at arbitrary loop order, and the AGK cutting rules, with the more recent study of 2→N scattering at N∼sM{sub P}{sup −2}≫1. We argue that some apparent tension between the two approaches disappears once a reinterpretation of the latter’s results in terms of suitably defined infrared-safe cross sections is adopted. Under that assumption, the typical final state produced in an ultra-planckian collision does indeed appear to share some properties with those expected from the evaporation of a black hole of mass √s, although no sign of thermalization is seen to emerge at this level of approximation.

  9. Prediction of high level vibration test results by use of available inelastic analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a cooperative study between the United States and Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan agreed to perform a test program that would subject a large scale piping model to significant plastic strains under excitation conditions much greater than the design condition for nuclear power plants. The objective was to compare the results of the tests with state-of-the-art analyses. Comparisons were done at different excitation levels from elastic to elastic-plastic to levels where cracking was induced in the test model. The program was called the high Level Vibration Test (HLVT). The HLVT was performed on the seismic table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center in Japan. The test model was constructed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system which was previously tested by NUPEC as part of their seismic proving test program. A comparison of various analysis techniques with test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values than in the overall response values. This prediction error is magnified as the plasticity in the test model increases. There is no significant difference in the peak responses between the simplified and the detailed analyses. A comparison between various detailed finite element model runs indicates that the material properties and plasticity modeling have a significant impact on the plastic strain responses under dynamic loading reversals. 5 refs., 12 figs

  10. Inelastic strong interactions at high energies. Final report, June 1, 1976-May 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suranyi, P.

    1984-01-01

    Work in Reggeon Field Theory is described. Multiparticle processes were studied. Cut RFT's were examined and convergence of perturbation expansions was considered. An RFT with an internal symmetry was also investigated. We made a study of model independent predictions for various high energy cross-sections, introducing the concept of sections. We examined the quantum mechanics of polynomial potentials as a model for quantum field theories. We determined various convergence properties of approximate calculational methods. Various aspects of GUT's were studied. The Higgs sector was examined and various symmetry breaking patterns were found using different representations for the Higgs. Bounds were put on parameters of the theory at finite temperature. Lattice gauge theories were studied. We looked at one exactly soluble one-dimensional model, and then began an extended investigation of Hamiltonian Lattice gauge theories. We studied the weak coupling behavior of global and local abelian lattice gauge theories in arbitrary dimensions, using various periodic trial functions and the WKB approximation. Supersymmetry and supergravity were investigated. We examine the compatibility of scale transformations in super space and the properties of scale invarient theories in ordinary spacetime. We discovered the largest possible local linear symmetry which is allowed given the structure of spacetime. We developed a systematic method for performing dimensional reduction on theories which admit abelian killing vectors. 68 references

  11. Highly conductive bridges between graphite spheres to improve the cycle performance of a graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Umeno, Tatsuo; Mizuma, Koutarou [Research Center, Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Hibiki-machi 1-3, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0021 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-01-10

    Spherical carbon-coated natural graphite (SCCNG) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but the smooth surface of graphite spheres is difficult to wet with an aqueous binder solution, and lacks electrical contacts. As a result, the cycle performance of such a graphite anode material is not satisfactory. An effective method has been introduced to tightly connect adjacent SCCNG particles by a highly conductive binder, viz. acetylene black bridges. The effect of the conductive bridges on the cyclability of SCCNG electrode has been investigated. (author)

  12. Measurement of high-Q2 charged current cross sections in e+p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenberg, J.

    2004-06-01

    Cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering have been measured in e + p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in the running periods 1999 and 2000 correspond to an integrated luminosity of 61 pb -1 . Single differential cross sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx and dσ/dy have been measured for Q 2 >200 GeV 2 , as well as the double differential reduced cross section d 2 σ/dxdQ 2 in the kinematic range 280 GeV 2 2 2 and 0.008 - p charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections. The helicity structure is investigated in particular. The mass of the space-like W boson propagator has been determined from a fit to dσ/dQ 2 . (orig.)

  13. Experimental device for the study of elastic and inelastic diffusion at high-energy He+-He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnac, R.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Baudon, J.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental device for studying heavy particle collisions in the energy range 5 to 40 keV is described. Differential inelastic cross sections are measured by means of an energy loss analysis at scattering angles ranging from 0.5 to 4 0 . Typical energy loss spectra obtained at 6.5 keV and 40 keV are given for two diffusion angles. (author)

  14. A measurement of the nucleon structure function from muon-carbon deep inelastic scattering at high Q/sup 2/

    CERN Document Server

    Bollini, D; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bozzo, M; Brun, R; Cvach, J; Dobrowolski, T; Fadeev, N G; Feltesse, J; Frabetti, P L; Gennow, H; Golutvin, I A; Goossens, M; Heiman, G; Jamnik, D; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kisselev, V S; Klein, M; Kopp, R; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kukhtin, V V; Maillard, J; Malasoma, J M; Meyer-Berkhout, U; Milsztajn, A; Monari, L; Navach, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Piemontese, L; Pilcher, J E; Renardy, J F; Sacquin, Yu; Savin, I A; Schinzel, D; Smadja, G; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Teichert, K M; Tirler, R; Verrecchia, P; Vesztergombi, G; Virchaux, M; Volodko, A G; Voss, R; Zácek, J; Zupancic, Crtomir

    1981-01-01

    Deep inelastic scattering cross sections have been measured with the CERN SPS muon beam at incident energies of 120 and 200 GeV. Approximately 10000 events at each energy used to obtain the structure function F/sub 2/(x, Q/sup 2/) in the kinematic region 0.3

  15. Porous Carbon Spheres Doped with Fe_3C as an Anode for High-Rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shouhui; Wu, Jiafeng; Zhou, Rihui; Zuo, Li; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C was prepared via hydrothermal reaction. • The resulted material was fabricated as an anode for high-rate lithium-ion batteries. • A stepwise increase profile was shown in the discharge/charge process. • Pseudocapacity was one of the properties owned by the as-prepared anode. - Abstract: The search of advanced anodes has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands on high rate performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). It was observed that the capacity of Fe_3C as an anode is larger than its theoretical one, which might be attributed to the pseudocapacity on the interface between the carbide and electrolyte. In this work, a novel carbon sphere doped with Fe_3C nanoparticles was fabricated and tested as the anode in LIBs. In the first place, iron precursors were embedded in the cross-link polymer resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) spheres via a facile hydrothermal reaction, in which RF served as the carbon source and ethanol as a dispersant agent. Consequently, the hydrothermal products were carbonized successively at 700 °C under inert atmosphere to obtain porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C. When the composite severed as an anode in LIBs, its discharge capacity increased to the largest during the first 250-400 cycles, then dropped down to a similar level of that after 1000 cycles at different current rates. The discharge capacity of the composite increased from ∼300 mAh g"−"1 to ∼540 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 100 mA g"−"1 during the initial hundreds cycles, and even a discharge capacity of ∼230 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 2000 mA g"−"1. Moreover, it was observed that a discharge plateau gradually appeared between 0.7∼1.1 V during the first hundreds of cycles. The electrochemical behaviors of the anode before 1000 discharge/charge cycles were compared with that after 1000 discharge/charge cycles by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to find

  16. Deep inelastic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental situation of the deep inelastic scattering for electrons (muons) is reviewed. A brief history of experimentation highlights Mohr and Nicoll's 1932 experiment on electron-atom scattering and Hofstadter's 1950 experiment on electron-nucleus scattering. The phenomenology of electron-nucleon scattering carried out between 1960 and 1970 is described, with emphasis on the parton model, and scaling. Experiments at SLAC and FNAL since 1974 exhibit scaling violations. Three muon-nucleon scattering experiments at BFP, BCDMA, and EMA, currently producing new results in the high Q 2 domain suggest a rather flat behaviour of the structure function at fixed x as a function of Q 2 . It is seen that the structure measured in DIS can then be projected into a pure hadronic process to predict a cross section. Protonneutron difference, moment analysis, and Drell-Yan pairs are also considered

  17. Elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepffer, C.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Richter, A.

    1977-02-01

    In the field of elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering, the following issues are dealt with: semiclassical descriptive approximations, optical potentials, barriers, critical radii and angular momenta, excitation functions and the application to superheavy ions and high energies. (WL) [de

  18. Leading particle in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading particle effect in deep inelastic scattering is considered. The change of the characteris cs shape of the leading particle inclusive spectrum with Q 2 is estimated to be rather significant at very high Q 2

  19. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering; Electrons correles sous haute pression: une approche par diffusion inelastique des rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueff, J.P

    2007-06-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  20. High-resolution inelastic electron scattering on 208Pb at 50 and 63.5 MeV and fragmentation of the magnetic quadrupole strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuepfer, W.; Frey, R.; Richter, A.; Schwierczinski, A.; Spamer, E.; Titze, O.

    1977-12-01

    High-resolution inelastic electron scattering (FWHM approximately equal to 33 keV) with 50 MeV and 63.5 MeV electrons on 208 Pb has been used to study magnetic excitations between Esub(x) = 6 MeV and 8 MeV. Angular distributions were analyzed in terms of the DWBA with RPA wave functions. Eight Isup(π) = 2- states carrying a total strength ΣB(M2) = 8500 μ 2 sub(K) fm 2 have been found. The strong fragmentation is in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. (orig.) [de

  1. Observation of the Hadronic Final State Charge Asymmetry in High Q^2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Asmone, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100

  2. Observation of the hadronic final state charge asymmetry in high Q2 deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.

    2009-06-01

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100 2 2 . The difference between the event normalised distributions of the scaled momentum, x p , for positively and negatively charged particles, measured in the current region of the Breit frame, is studied together with its evolution as a function of Q. The results are compared to Monte Carlo models at the hadron and parton level. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of charged and neutral current e-p deep inelastic scattering cross sections at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R.L.; Zhang, H.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Haas, T.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.; Katz, U.F.; Mari, S.M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, C.; Schattevoy, R.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Llewellyn, T.J.; Morgado, C.J.S.; Norman, D.J.P.; O'Mara, J.A.; Tapper, R.J.; Wilson, S.S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R.R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Parsons, J.A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P.B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajac, J.; Kotanski, A.; Przybycien, M.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J.K.; Coldewey, C.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasinski, M.; Gilkinson, D.J.; Glasman, C.; Goettlicher, P.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gutjahr, B.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Hessling, H.; Hultschig, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Koepke, L.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Loehr, B.; Loewe, M.; Lueke, D.; Manczak, O.; Ng, J.S.T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.

    1995-01-01

    Deep inelastic e - p scattering has been studied in both the charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared Q 2 above 400GeV 2 using the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections dσ/dQ 2 are presented. From the Q 2 dependence of the CC cross section, the mass term in the CC propagator is determined to be M W =76±16±13 GeV

  4. Subcooled film boiling heat transfer on a high temperature sphere in very dilute Al2O3 nano-fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun Sun Park; Dereje Shiferaw; Bal Raj Sehgal

    2005-01-01

    found in similar experiments with distilled water. The experiments have also shown that if some nano-particles stick to the surface of the hot sphere (in the event that the surface is not washed in-between the experiments), film boiling practically disappears and the quench proceeds very rapidly. In this study, a series of quenching experiments with a high temperature sphere in subcooled Al 2 O 3 nano-fluids with the very dilute concentrations of 0.01 to 0.05 g/liter are conducted to investigate the characteristics of film boiling and compare to those in pure water tests. One stainless steel sphere of 10 mm in diameter is heated to the initial sphere temperature up to 1100 K in the induction furnace and plunged by a pneumatic actuator into a pool of the dilute nano-fluid at the liquid subcooling of about 20 K by a pneumatic actuator. The transient center temperature is continually recorded and monitored with a data acquisition system. The center temperature data is analyzed to obtain sphere wall heat fluxes and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The test results are carefully compared with our previous experimental results for nano-fluids with the higher concentrations of nano-particles in water. (authors)

  5. Interatomic inelastic current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim; Solomon, Gemma C.; Hansen, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In order to identify the location of an inelastic event and to distinguish between situations that are before or after this event, we derive equations for the interatomic inelastic transmission as a perturbation series in the electron-phonon interaction. This series contains both even and odd...... to second order and the 1st order correction represents the lowest order term of this new family of terms. We apply this to three model systems and are able to distinguish between situations before and after the inelastic event as steps in the 2nd order transmission. We also see that when the transmission...

  6. Lattice dynamics at high pressure: application of inelastic X-ray scattering and ab-initio calculations -MgO at 35 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, Subrata

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Until recently, inelastic neutron scattering (INS) has been extensively used to study the phonon dispersion throughout the Brillouin zone and phonon density of states in crystalline materials. The weak interaction of neutrons with matter and the typical size of the neutron beams require the use of cm-size single crystals that puts an upper limit to the measurement of phonon dispersion at high pressure to about 10-15 Gpa by INS. Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) using third generation synchrotron sources now makes it possible to measure the phonon dispersion at high pressures up to 50 GP A in crystals tens of microns in size mounted in a diamond-anvil cell, usually using He as the pressure transmitting medium. We have used this technique to measure the longitudinal acoustic and optic phonon branches of MgO along the Γ-X direction at 35 Gpa. The experimentally observed phonon-branches are in remarkable agreement with ab-initio quantum mechanical calculations using the density-functional perturbation theory. The derived thermodynamic properties, such as specific heat and the entropy are in very good agreement with values obtained from a thermodynamically assessed data set

  7. Definition by modelling, optimization and characterization of a neutron spectrometry system based on Bonner spheres extended to the high-energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research thesis first describes the problematic of the effects of natural radiation on micro- and nano-electronic components, and the atmospheric-radiative stress of atmospheric neutrons from cosmic origin: issue of 'Single event upsets', present knowledge of the atmospheric radiative environment induced by cosmic rays. The author then presents the neutron-based detection and spectrometry by using the Bonner sphere technique: principle of moderating spheres, definition and mathematical formulation of neutron spectrometry using Bonner spheres, active sensors of thermal neutrons, response of a system to conventional Bonner spheres, extension to the range of high energies. Then, he reports the development of a Bonner sphere system extended to the high-energy range for the spectrometry of atmospheric neutrons: definition of a conventional system, Monte Carlo calculation of response functions, development of the response matrix, representation and semi-empirical verification of fluence response, uncertainty analysis, extension to high energies, and measurement tests of the spectrometer. He reports the use of a Monte Carlo simulation to characterize the spectrometer response in the high-energy range

  8. Inelastic J/ψphotoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.; Steegborn, J.; Zerwas, P.M.

    1994-11-01

    Inelastic photoproduction of J/ψ particles at high energies is one of the processes to determine the gluon distribution in the nucleon. We have calculated the QCD radiative corrections to the color-singlet model of this reaction. They are large at moderate photon energies, but decrease with increasing energies. The cross section and the J/ψ energy spectrum are compared with the available fixed-target photoproduction data and predictions are given for the HERA energy range. (orig.)

  9. Deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1977-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron (muon) nucleon and neutrino nucleon scattering as well as electron positron annihilation into hadrons are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. The emphasis is placed on comparisons of quantum chromodynamics with the data. (orig.) [de

  10. High-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and neutron powder diffraction study of the adsorption of dihydrogen by the Cu(II) metal–organic framework material HKUST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; David, William I.F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Millange, Franck [Institut Lavoisier Versailles (CNRS UMR 8180), Université de Versailles, 78035 Versailles (France); Walton, Richard I., E-mail: r.i.walton@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-12

    Highlights: • Binding sites for dihydrogen in a metal–organic framework have been identified. • The combination of diffraction and spectroscopy shows competitive filling of various adsorption sites. • Inelastic neutron scattering over wide-momentum transfer reveals new models for hydrogen-framework interactions. - Abstract: We present new high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra (measured using the TOSCA and MARI instruments at ISIS) and powder neutron diffraction data (measured on the diffractometer WISH at ISIS) from the interaction of the prototypical metal–organic framework HKUST-1 with various dosages of dihydrogen gas. The INS spectra show direct evidence for the sequential occupation of various distinct sites for dihydrogen in the metal–organic framework, whose population is adjusted during increasing loading of the guest. The superior resolution of TOSCA reveals subtle features in the spectra, not previously reported, including evidence for split signals, while complementary spectra recorded on MARI present full information in energy and momentum transfer. The analysis of the powder neutron patterns using the Rietveld method shows a consistent picture, allowing the crystallographic indenisation of binding sites for dihydrogen, thus building a comprehensive picture of the interaction of the guest with the nanoporous host.

  11. High-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and neutron powder diffraction study of the adsorption of dihydrogen by the Cu(II) metal–organic framework material HKUST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; David, William I.F.; Millange, Franck; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Binding sites for dihydrogen in a metal–organic framework have been identified. • The combination of diffraction and spectroscopy shows competitive filling of various adsorption sites. • Inelastic neutron scattering over wide-momentum transfer reveals new models for hydrogen-framework interactions. - Abstract: We present new high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra (measured using the TOSCA and MARI instruments at ISIS) and powder neutron diffraction data (measured on the diffractometer WISH at ISIS) from the interaction of the prototypical metal–organic framework HKUST-1 with various dosages of dihydrogen gas. The INS spectra show direct evidence for the sequential occupation of various distinct sites for dihydrogen in the metal–organic framework, whose population is adjusted during increasing loading of the guest. The superior resolution of TOSCA reveals subtle features in the spectra, not previously reported, including evidence for split signals, while complementary spectra recorded on MARI present full information in energy and momentum transfer. The analysis of the powder neutron patterns using the Rietveld method shows a consistent picture, allowing the crystallographic indenisation of binding sites for dihydrogen, thus building a comprehensive picture of the interaction of the guest with the nanoporous host

  12. High resolution inelastic gamma-ray measurements with a white neutron source from 1 to 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced reactions have recently been made at the spallation neutron source at the WNR target area of LAMPF using germanium detectors. These experiments provide extensive excitation function data for inelastic neutron scattering as well as for other reactions such as (n,{alpha}), (n,n{alpha}), (n,p), (n,np), (n,nnp) and (n,xn) for 1 {le} {times} {le} 11. The continuous energy coverage available from 1 MeV to over 200 MeV is ideal for excitation function measurements and greatly extends the energy range for such data. The results of these measurements will provide a database for interpretation of gamma-ray spectra from the planned Mars Observer mission, aid in radiation transport calculations, allow verification of nuclear reaction models, and improve the evaluated neutron reaction data base.

  13. High resolution inelastic gamma-ray measurements with a white neutron source from 1 to 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced reactions have recently been made at the spallation neutron source at the WNR target area of LAMPF using germanium detectors. These experiments provide extensive excitation function data for inelastic neutron scattering as well as for other reactions such as (n,α), (n,nα), (n,p), (n,np), (n,nnp) and (n,xn) for 1 ≤ x ≤ 11. The continuous energy coverage available from 1 MeV to over 200 MeV is ideal for excitation function measurements and greatly extends the energy range for such data. The results of these measurements will provide a database for interpretation of gamma-ray spectra from the planned Mars Observer mission, aid in radiation transport calculations, allow verification of nuclear reaction models, and improve the evaluated neutron reaction data base

  14. Measurement of Inclusive Jet Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at High Q$^{2}$ and Determination of the Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive jet production is studied in neutral current deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at large four momentum transfer squared Q^2>150 GeV^2 with the H1 detector at HERA. Single and double differential inclusive jet cross sections are measured as a function of Q^2 and of the transverse energy E_T of the jets in the Breit frame. The measurements are found to be well described by calculations at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The running of the strong coupling is demonstrated and the value of alpha_s(M_Z) is determined. The ratio of the inclusive jet cross section to the inclusive neutral current cross section is also measured and used to extract a precise value for alpha_s(M_Z)=0.1193+/-0.0014(exp.)^{+0.0047}_{-0.0030}(th.)+/-0.0016(pdf).

  15. Measurement of inclusive jet production in deep-inelastic scattering at high Q and determination of the strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-09-01

    Inclusive jet production is studied in neutral current deep-inelastic positron proton scattering at large four momentum transfer squared Q>150GeV with the H1 detector at HERA. Single and double differential inclusive jet cross sections are measured as a function of Q and of the transverse energy E of the jets in the Breit frame. The measurements are found to be well described by calculations at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The running of the strong coupling is demonstrated and the value of α(M) is determined. The ratio of the inclusive jet cross section to the inclusive neutral current cross section is also measured and used to extract a precise value for α(M)=0.1193±0.0014(exp.)-0.0030+0.0047(th.)±0.0016(pdf).

  16. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field, Part II: Bonner sphere spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegel, B.; Agosteo, S.; Bedogni, R.; Caresana, M.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Ferrarini, M.; Hohmann, E.; Hranitzky, C.; Kasper, A.; Khurana, S.; Mares, V.; Reginatto, M.; Rollet, S.; Ruehm, W.; Schardt, D.; Silari, M.; Simmer, G.; Weitzenegger, E.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. A major task of the CONRAD Work Package 'complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces' was to organise a benchmark exercise in a workplace field at a high-energy particle accelerator where neutrons are the dominant radiation component. The CONRAD benchmark exercise took place at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany in July 2006. In this paper, the results of the spectrometry using four extended -range Bonner sphere spectrometers of four different institutes are reported. Outside Cave A the neutron spectra were measured with three spectrometers at six selected positions and ambient dose equivalent values were derived for use in the intercomparison with other area monitors and dosemeters. At a common position all three spectrometers were used to allow a direct comparison of their results which acts as an internal quality assurance. The comparison of the neutron spectra measured by the different groups shows very good agreement. A detailed analysis presents some differences between the shapes of the spectra and possible sources of these differences are discussed. However, the ability of Bonner sphere spectrometers to provide reliable integral quantities like fluence and ambient dose equivalent is well demonstrated in this exercise. The fluence and dose results derived by the three groups agree very well within the given uncertainties, not only with respect to the total energy region present in this environment but also for selected energy regions which contribute in certain strength to the total values. In addition to the positions outside Cave A one spectrometer was used to measure the neutron spectrum at one position in the entry maze of Cave A. In this case a comparison was possible to earlier measurements.

  17. Effect of admixed high-density polyethylene (HDPE) spheres on contraction stress and properties of experimental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracane, J L; Ferracane, L L; Braga, R R

    2003-07-15

    Additives that provide stress relief may be incorporated into dental composites to reduce contraction stress (CS). This study attempted to test the hypothesis that conventional fillers could be replaced by high-density polyethylene (HDPE) spheres in hybrid and nanofill composites to reduce CS, but with minimal effect on mechanical properties. Nanofill and hybrid composites were made from a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin having either all silica nanofiller or 75 wt.% strontium glass + 5 wt.% silica and replacing some of the nanofiller or the glass with 0%, 5% (hybrid only), 10% or 20 wt.% HDPE. The surface of the HDPE was either left untreated or had a reactive gas surface treatment (RGST). Contraction stress (CS) was monitored for 10 min in a tensilometer (n = 5) after light curing for 60 s at 390 mW/cm(2). Other specimens (n = 5) were light cured 40 s from two sides in a light-curing unit and aged 1 d in water before testing fracture toughness (K(Ic)), flexure strength (FS), and modulus (E). Results were analyzed by ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparison test at p HDPE except for FS-10% HDPE hybrid (RGST higher). An increased level of HDPE reduced contraction stress for both types of composites. Flexure strength, modulus (hybrid only), and fracture toughness were also reduced as the concentration of HDPE increased. SEM showed evidence for HDPE debonding and plastic deformation during fracture of the hybrid composites. In conclusion, the addition of HDPE spheres reduces contraction stress in composites, either through stress relief or a reduction in elastic modulus. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 66B: 318-323, 2003

  18. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Vescovi, Dalila; Berzi, Diego; Richard, Patrick; Brodu, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed av...

  19. Facile synthesis of flower-like BiOI hierarchical spheres at room temperature with high visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao-jing; Li, Fa-tang; Li, Dong-yan; Liu, Rui-hong; Liu, Shuang-jun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flower-like BiOI hierarchical sphere is obtained in the presence of ethylene glycol. • A template free hydrolysis route is employed at room temperature. • Ethylene glycol plays an important role in assembling BiOI nanoflakes to form spheres. • The BiOI sphere shows high visible-light photocatalytic activity and good stability. - Abstract: Flower-like BiOI hierarchical spheres are prepared at room temperature via a template free route simply by dropping water into ethylene glycol (EG) solution containing reactants based on the hydrolysis and oriented assembly roles of water and EG, respectively. The BiOI samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption, emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–Vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic reaction rate constant of the as-prepared BiOI hierarchical spheres is 15.8, 13.3, and 2.0 times that of BiOI nanoflakes obtained in the absence of EG in degradation of anionic dye (methyl orange), cationic dye (methylene blue), and colorless target pollutant (phenol), respectively, under the visible-light irradiation, which can be attributed to its unique flower-like structure for utilization of light, small crystal size, and large specific surface area

  20. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO 2 , the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO 2 @CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO 2 . After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO 2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO 2 -based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutron physical investigations on the shutdown effect of small boronated absorbing spheres for pebble-bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouridis, S.; Schurrer, F.; Muller, H.; Ninaus, W.; Oswald, K.; Neef, R.D.; Schaal, H.

    1987-01-01

    An emergency shutdown system for high-temperature gas-cooled pebble-bed reactors is proposed in addition to the common absorber rod shutdown system. This system is based on the strongly absorbing effect of small boronated graphite spheres (called KLAK), which trickle in case of emergency by gravity from the top reflector into the reactor core. The inner reflector of the Siemens-Argonaut reactor was substituted by an assembly of spherical Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor fuel elements, and the shutdown effect was examined by installing well-defined KLAK nests inside this assembly. The purpose was to develop and prove a calculational procedure for determining criticality values for assemblies of large fuel spheres and small absorbing spheres

  2. A highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive hydrogel spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Mulle, Matthieu; Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube

  3. Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide as a high sensitivity of gas sensor for NO2 detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhibin; Tan, Li; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Fusheng

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as one of the most serious air pollution is harmful to people's health, therefore high-performance gas sensors is critically needed. Here, Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (Cu@CS/RGO) composite have been prepared as NO2 gas sensor material. Carbon sphere in the interlayer of RGO can increase the specific surface area of RGO. Copper nanoparticles decorated on the surface of CS can effectively enhance the adsorption activity of RGO as supplier of free electrons. The experimental results showed that its particular structure improved the gas sensitivity of RGO at different NO2 concentrations at room temperature.

  4. Anomalous thermal expansion, negative linear compressibility, and high-pressure phase transition in ZnAu2(CN) 4 : Neutron inelastic scattering and lattice dynamics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mayanak K.; Singh, Baltej; Mittal, Ranjan; Zbiri, Mohamed; Cairns, Andrew B.; Goodwin, Andrew L.; Schober, Helmut; Chaplot, Samrath L.

    2017-12-01

    We present temperature-dependent inelastic-neutron-scattering measurements, accompanied by ab initio calculations of the phonon spectra and elastic properties as a function of pressure to quantitatively explain an unusual combination of negative thermal expansion and negative linear compressibility behavior of ZnAu2(CN) 4 . The mechanism of the negative thermal expansion is identified in terms of specific anharmonic phonon modes that involve bending of the -Zn-NC-Au-CN-Zn- linkage. The soft phonon at the L point at the Brillouin zone boundary quantitatively relates to the high-pressure phase transition at about 2 GPa. The ambient pressure structure is also found to be close to an elastic instability that leads to a weakly first-order transition.

  5. The role of symmetry in the theory of inelastic high-energy electron scattering and its application to atomic-resolution core-loss imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C

    2015-04-01

    The inelastic scattering of a high-energy electron in a solid constitutes a bipartite quantum system with an intrinsically large number of excitations, posing a considerable challenge for theorists. It is demonstrated how and why the utilization of symmetries, or approximate symmetries, can lead to significant improvements in both the description of the scattering physics and the efficiency of numerical computations. These ideas are explored thoroughly for the case of core-loss excitations, where it is shown that the coupled angular momentum basis leads to dramatic improvements over the bases employed in previous work. The resulting gains in efficiency are demonstrated explicitly for K-, L- and M-shell excitations, including such excitations in the context of atomic-resolution imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The utilization of other symmetries is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of the Inclusive e{\\pm}p Scattering Cross Section at High Inelasticity y and of the Structure Function FL

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F D; Andreev, V; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Baghdasaryan, S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Behrend, O; Belov, P; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, D; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bylinkin, A; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Ceccopieri, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dobre, M; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Grebenyuk, A; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C.W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Huber, F; Jacquet, M; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Kretzschmar, J; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P.J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lipka, K; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Pahl, P; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pirumov, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Radescu, V; Raicevic, N; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P.C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, I; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sykora, T; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas, A; Vazdik, Y; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2011-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the inclusive neutral current e\\pm p scattering cross section using data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA during the years 2003 to 2007 with proton beam energies Ep of 920, 575, and 460 GeV. The kinematic range of the measurement covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV2 < Q2 < 120 GeV2, small values of Bjorken x, 2.9 \\cdot 10-5 < x < 0.01, and extends to high inelasticity up to y = 0.85. The structure function FL is measured by combining the new results with previously published H1 data at Ep = 920 GeV and Ep = 820 GeV. The new measurements are used to test several phenomenological and QCD models applicable in this low Q2 and low x kinematic domain.

  7. High-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and neutron powder diffraction study of the adsorption of dihydrogen by the Cu(II) metal-organic framework material HKUST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; David, William I. F.; Millange, Franck; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-12-01

    We present new high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra (measured using the TOSCA and MARI instruments at ISIS) and powder neutron diffraction data (measured on the diffractometer WISH at ISIS) from the interaction of the prototypical metal-organic framework HKUST-1 with various dosages of dihydrogen gas. The INS spectra show direct evidence for the sequential occupation of various distinct sites for dihydrogen in the metal-organic framework, whose population is adjusted during increasing loading of the guest. The superior resolution of TOSCA reveals subtle features in the spectra, not previously reported, including evidence for split signals, while complementary spectra recorded on MARI present full information in energy and momentum transfer. The analysis of the powder neutron patterns using the Rietveld method shows a consistent picture, allowing the crystallographic indenisation of binding sites for dihydrogen, thus building a comprehensive picture of the interaction of the guest with the nanoporous host.

  8. Component-Customizable Porous Rare-Earth-Based Colloidal Spheres towards Highly Effective Catalysts and Bioimaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng Chao; Rui, Xianhong; Wei, Weifeng; Chen, Libao; Yu, Yan

    2017-11-16

    Multicomponent porous colloidal spheres are of interest because they not only show a combination of the properties associated with all different components, but also usually present synergy effects. However, a combination of different components in a single porous sphere is still greatly challenged due to the different precipitation behaviors of each component. In this work, we have developed a general synthetic route to prepare several categories of porous monodisperse rare-earth (RE)-based colloidal spheres with customizable elemental compositions and a uniform element distribution. The two-step synthetic strategy is based on the integration of coordination chemistry precipitation of RE ions and a subsequent ion-exchange process, which steers clear of obstacles, such as differences in solubility product constant, that are to be found in traditional co-precipitation methods. Our approach provides a new mixing mechanism to realize homogeneous distribution of each element within the porous spheres. An array of binary, ternary, and even senary RE colloidal porous spheres with diameters of 500 nm to 700 nm has been successfully synthesized. Taking advantage of their good dispersibility, porosity, and customizable components, these porous RE oxide spheres show excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, and promising application in single-phase multifunctional bioprobes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Using High-Resolution Data to Test Parameter Sensitivity of the Distributed Hydrological Model HydroGeoSphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cornelissen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Parameterization of physically based and distributed hydrological models for mesoscale catchments remains challenging because the commonly available data base is insufficient for calibration. In this paper, we parameterize a mesoscale catchment for the distributed model HydroGeoSphere by transferring evapotranspiration parameters calibrated at a highly-equipped headwater catchment in addition to literature data. Based on this parameterization, the sensitivity of the mesoscale catchment to spatial variability in land use, potential evapotranspiration and precipitation and of the headwater catchment to mesoscale soil and land use data was conducted. Simulations of the mesoscale catchment with transferred parameters reproduced daily discharge dynamics and monthly evapotranspiration of grassland, deciduous and coniferous vegetation in a satisfactory manner. Precipitation was the most sensitive input data with respect to total runoff and peak flow rates, while simulated evapotranspiration components and patterns were most sensitive to spatially distributed land use parameterization. At the headwater catchment, coarse soil data resulted in a change in runoff generating processes based on the interplay between higher wetness prior to a rainfall event, enhanced groundwater level rise and accordingly, lower transpiration rates. Our results indicate that the direct transfer of parameters is a promising method to benefit highly equipped simulations of the headwater catchments.

  10. Inclusive deep inelastic scattering at high Q{sup 2} with longitudinally polarised lepton beams at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2012-06-15

    Inclusive e{sup {+-}}p single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current deep inelastic scattering processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=319 GeV with a total integrated luminosity of 333.7 pb{sup -1} shared between two lepton beam charges and two longitudinal lepton polarisation modes. The differential cross sections are measured in the range of negative four-momentum transfer squared, Q{sup 2}, between 60 and 50000 GeV{sup 2}, and Bjorken x between 0.0008 and 0.65. The measurements are combined with earlier published unpolarised H1 data to improve statistical precision and used to determine the structure function xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3}. A measurement of the neutral current parity violating structure function F{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 2} is presented for the first time. The polarisation dependence of the charged current total cross section is also measured. The new measurements are well described by a next-to-leading order QCD fit based on all published H1 inclusive cross section data which are used to extract the parton distribution functions of the proton.

  11. Normative regulation of material incentives for workers in the sphere of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytova, Anna; Matys, Elena; Zotkina, Natalia; Reshetnikova, Irina; Meller, Natalia; Nekrasova, Inna

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of normative and legal regulation of incentives for workers of the building companies. The company considered is engaged in high-rise construction. The part of the document "Regulations for the incentives of employees of the enterprise" is presented. This document is introduced into the practical activities of the Tyumen enterprise. The presented part of the document regulates the issues of material incentives for employees of the enterprise. The document "Regulations for the incentives of employees of the enterprise" is developed in accordance with the approach proposed by author. The document was developed, after the authors had carried out an analysis of the scheme of incentives at the enterprise.

  12. Reduced graphene oxide supported highly porous V2O5 spheres as a high-power cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Zhu, Jixin; Sim, Daohao; Xu, Chen; Zeng, Yi; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2011-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported highly porous polycrystalline V(2)O(5) spheres (V(2)O(5)/rGO) were prepared by using a solvothermal approach followed by an annealing process. Initially, reduced vanadium oxide (rVO) nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 10-50 nm were formed through heterogeneous nucleation on rGO sheets during the solvothermal process. These rVO nanoparticles were oxidized to V(2)O(5) after the annealing process in air at 350 °C and assembled into polycrystalline porous spheres with sizes of 200-800 nm. The weight ratio between the rGO and V(2)O(5) is tunable by changing the weight ratio of the precursors, which in turn affects the morphology of V(2)O(5)/rGO composites. The V(2)O(5)/rGO composites display superior cathode performances with highly reversible specific capacities, good cycling stabilities and excellent rate capabilities (e.g. 102 mA h g(-1) at 19 C).

  13. Determination of workplace neutron spectra at a high energy hadron accelerator using active and passive Bonner sphere spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedogni, R.; Esposito, A.; Chiti, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the 2006 experimental benchmark organized at the GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) by the EC CONRAD network, a neutron dosimetry intercomparison was performed in a workplace field around a carbon target hit by 400 MeV/u 12 C ions. The radiation protection group of the INFN-LNF participated to the intercomparison with a Bonner sphere spectrometer equipped with an active 6 LiI(Eu) scintillator and a set of passive detectors, namely MCP-6s (80mgcm -2 )/MCP-7 TLD pairs from TLD Poland. Both active and passive spectrometers, independently tested and calibrated, were used to determine the field and dosimetric quantities in the measurement point. The FRUIT unfolding code, developed at the INFN-LNF radiation protection group, was used to unfold the raw BSS data. This paper compares the results of the active or passive spectrometers, obtaining a satisfactory agreement in terms of both spectrum shape and value of the integral quantities, as the neutron fluence or the ambient dose equivalent. These results allow qualifying the BSS based on TLD pairs as a reliable passive method to be used around high energy particle accelerators even in low dose rate areas. This is particularly useful in those workplaces where the active instruments could be disturbed by the presence of pulsed fields, large photon fluence or electromagnetic noise

  14. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-sphere-supported Au-nanoparticle catalysts with high activity for CO oxidation at ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lili; Huang, Shouying; Zhu, Baolin; Zhang, Shoumin; Huang, Weiping, E-mail: hwp914@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, College of Chemistry, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), and Tianjin Key Lab of Metal and Molecule-based Material Chemistry (China)

    2016-11-15

    Mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-sphere-supported Au-nanoparticles (Au/m-TiO{sub 2}-spheres) catalysts have been synthesized by a simple method using tetrabutyl titanate as TiO{sub 2} precursor and characterized with XRD, BET, ICP, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis DRS, XPS, as well as FT-IR. The samples with the size in the range of 200–400 nm were almost perfectly spherical. The average diameter of pores was about 3.6 nm, and the mesopore size distribution was in the range of 2–6 nm with a narrow distribution. When the catalyst was calcined at 300 °C, the Au NPs with the size ca. 5 nm were highly dispersed on the surfaces of m-TiO{sub 2} spheres and partially embedded in the supports. Remarkably, the specific surface area of the Au/m-TiO{sub 2}-spheres was as high as 117 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The CO-adsorbed catalyst showed an apparent IR adsorption peak at 1714 cm{sup −1} that matched with bridging model CO. It means the catalysts should be of high catalytic activity for the CO oxidation due to they could adsorb and activate CO commendably. When Au-content was 0.48 wt.%, the Au/m-TiO{sub 2}-spheres could convert CO completely into CO{sub 2} at ambient temperature.

  15. Transformation between surface spherical harmonic expansion of arbitrary high degree and order and double Fourier series on sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2018-02-01

    In order to accelerate the spherical harmonic synthesis and/or analysis of arbitrary function on the unit sphere, we developed a pair of procedures to transform between a truncated spherical harmonic expansion and the corresponding two-dimensional Fourier series. First, we obtained an analytic expression of the sine/cosine series coefficient of the 4 π fully normalized associated Legendre function in terms of the rectangle values of the Wigner d function. Then, we elaborated the existing method to transform the coefficients of the surface spherical harmonic expansion to those of the double Fourier series so as to be capable with arbitrary high degree and order. Next, we created a new method to transform inversely a given double Fourier series to the corresponding surface spherical harmonic expansion. The key of the new method is a couple of new recurrence formulas to compute the inverse transformation coefficients: a decreasing-order, fixed-degree, and fixed-wavenumber three-term formula for general terms, and an increasing-degree-and-order and fixed-wavenumber two-term formula for diagonal terms. Meanwhile, the two seed values are analytically prepared. Both of the forward and inverse transformation procedures are confirmed to be sufficiently accurate and applicable to an extremely high degree/order/wavenumber as 2^{30} {≈ } 10^9. The developed procedures will be useful not only in the synthesis and analysis of the spherical harmonic expansion of arbitrary high degree and order, but also in the evaluation of the derivatives and integrals of the spherical harmonic expansion.

  16. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Deep inelastic lepton-nucleon interaction experiments are renewed. Singlet and non-singlet structure functions are measured and the consistency of the different results is checked. A detailed analysis of the scaling violation is performed in terms of the quantum chromodynamics predictions [fr

  17. Spray-Drying-Induced Assembly of Skeleton-Structured SnO2/Graphene Composite Spheres as Superior Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongdong; Kong, Zhen; Liu, Xuehua; Fu, Aiping; Wang, Yiqian; Guo, Yu-Guo; Guo, Peizhi; Li, Hongliang; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2018-01-24

    Three-dimensional skeleton-structured assemblies of graphene sheets decorated with SnO 2 nanocrystals are fabricated via a facile and large-scalable spray-drying-induced assembly process with commercial graphene oxide and SnO 2 sol as precursors. The influences of different parameters on the morphology, composition, structure, and electrochemical performances of the skeleton-structured SnO 2 /graphene composite spheres are studied by XRD, TGA, SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy, and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques. Electrochemical properties of the composite spheres as the anode electrode for lithium-ion batteries are evaluated. After 120 cycles under a current density of 100 mA g -1 , the skeleton-structured SnO 2 /graphene spheres still display a specific discharge capacity of 1140 mAh g -1 . It is roughly 9.5 times larger than that of bare SnO 2 clusters. It could still retain a stable specific capacity of 775 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles under a high current density of 2000 mA g -1 , exhibiting extraordinary rate ability. The superconductivity of the graphene skeleton provides the pathway for electron transportation. The large pore volume deduced from the skeleton structure of the SnO 2 /graphene composite spheres increases the penetration of electrolyte and the diffusion of lithium ions and also significantly enhances the structural integrity by acting as a mechanical buffer.

  18. Inelastic J/ψphotoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.

    1995-04-01

    Inelastic photoproduction of J/ψ particles at high energies is one of the processes to determine the gluon distribution in the nucleon. The QCD radiative corrections to the color-singlet model of this reaction have recently been calculated. They are large at moderate photon energies, but decrease with increasing energies. I compare the cross section and the J/ψ energy spectrum with the available fixed-target photoproduction data. Predictions for the HERA energy range are given which demonstrate the sensitivity of the result to the parametrization of the gluon distribution in the small-x region. (orig.)

  19. High-density fluid-perturbation theory based on an inverse 12th-power hard-sphere reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1979-01-01

    A variational theory is developed that is accurate at normal liquid densities and densities up to 4 times that of the argon triple point. This theory uses the inverse 12th-power potential as a reference system. The properties of this reference system are expressed in terms of hard-sphere packing fractions by using a modified form of hard-space variational theory. As a result of this ''bootstrapping,'' a variational procedure may be followed that employs the inverse 12th-power system as a reference but uses the hard-sphere packing fraction as the scaling parameter with which to minimize the Helmholtz free energy

  20. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL IN THE SPHERE OF HIGH-TECH MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhela Zakhitovna Namitulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented research topic is particularly relevant due to the high value and the need to strengthen fi nancial control for the development of the military-industrial complex (MIC, to ensure the country's economic security, preservation and development of scientifi c and technical potential. The urgency of acquiring those aspects of economic relations which are connected with the supply the export of high-tech military products in a limited budget funding State should have levers of infl uence on the functioning of the military-industrial complex, the ability to pursue an independent foreign military-technical policy. In the new economic conditions, it became necessary to address the problems of fi nancial security of the defense-industrial complex, in order to strengthen the independence and security of Russia, as well as the need to give priority nature of the measures of state control in the economy related to the implementation of the defense order, ie, in the sphere of military-industrial complex. At the present stage of economic development of Russia, the rate of growth of the national economy largely depends on what the situation is in the military-industrial complex (MIC. This is due to the fact that the defense industry is the most high-quality, high-tech economy. It concentrated the largest part of the Russian potential, the best staff of scientists and experts. Products and DIC technology widely used in other industries. The modern military-industrial complex produces a signifi cant part of civil production. DIC integration with civilian industries – it is also a technological basis for solving the basic problems currently facing the Russian economy, and, above all, the basis of the formation of a new technological basis for the development of high technology and competitive products, which determines the pace of scientifi c and technological progress and the growth of the national economy. Objectives. The aim of the paper is the

  1. A novel 3D structure composed of strings of hierarchical TiO{sub 2} spheres formed on TiO{sub 2} nanobelts with high photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yongjian [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Meicheng, E-mail: mcli@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Suzhou Institute, North China Electric Power University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Song, Dandan; Li, Xiaodan; Yu, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-03-15

    A novel hierarchical titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) composite nanostructure with strings of anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts framework (TiO{sub 2} HSN) is successfully synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Particularly, the strings of hierarchical spheres are assembled by very thin TiO{sub 2} nanosheets, which are composed of highly crystallized anatase nanocrystals. Meanwhile, the HSN has a large surface area of 191 m{sup 2}/g, which is about 3 times larger than Degussa P25. More importantly, the photocatalytic activity of HSN and P25 were evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under UV light illumination, and the TiO{sub 2} HSN shows enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with Degussa P25, as result of its continuous hierarchical structures, special conductive channel and large specific surface area. With these features, the hierarchical TiO{sub 2} may have more potential applications in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells and lithium ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Novel TiO{sub 2} with anatase micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts is synthesized. Enhanced photocatalysis is attributed to hierarchical structures (3D spheres), conductive channel (1D nanobelts) and large specific surface area (2D nanosheet). Highlights: • The novel TiO{sub 2} nanostructure (HSN) is fabricated for the first time. • HSN is composed of strings of anatase hierarchical spheres and rutile nanobelt. • HSN presents a larger S{sub BET} of 191 m{sup 2}/g, 3 times larger than the Degussa P25 (59 m{sup 2}/g). • HSN owns three kinds of dimensional TiO{sub 2} (1D, 2D and 3D) simultaneously. • HSN exhibits better photocatalytic performance compared with Degussa P25.

  2. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean hadron multiplicity in the target fragmentation range of deep inelastic scattering processes. It is shown that in the high-x region the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current fragmentation region and in the target fragmentation region tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity for the Drell-Yan process is considered

  3. N, S co-doped carbon spheres with highly dispersed CoO as non-precious metal catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linlin; Guo, Xingpeng; Zhang, Guoan

    2017-08-01

    It is still a great challenge in preparing non-precious metal catalysts with high activity and long-term stability to substitute for precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Herein, we report a novel and facile catalyst-N, S co-doped carbon spheres with highly dispersed CoO (CoO@NS-CSs), where biomass glucose spheres act as carbon precursor and H2S, NH3 derived from the decomposition of thiourea not only provide N, S sources but also can etch carbon spheres to produce nanoporous structure. CoO@NS-CSs catalyst exhibits excellent ORR activity with a high onset potential of 0.946 V vs. RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.821 V vs. RHE through a four-electron pathway in alkaline solution, which is comparable to commercial Pt/C catalyst (onset potential: 0.926 V vs. RHE, half-wave potential: 0.827 V vs. RHE). Furthermore, both the long-term stability and methanol-tolerance of CoO@NS-CSs catalyst are superior to those of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The excellent ORR performance of CoO@NS-CSs catalyst can be attributed to its micro-mesopore structure, high specific surface area (667 m2 g-1), and highly dispersed CoO. This work manifests that the obtained CoO@NS-CSs catalyst is promising to be applied to fuel cells.

  4. Public Sphere as Digital Assemblage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    the 1990s onwards digitalization brought concepts of network and complexity into the theoretical discourse. This relational turn changed the social ontology of the public sphere into a dynamic and complex system, erasing the division between the fields of reality (the world), representation (discourse......Normative theories of public sphere have struggled with the topic of materiality. The historical narrative of the ‘public sphere’ situated the phenomenon in specific spaces, where practices (public deliberation) and language (discourse) constructed political agencies, and further publics. From......), and subjectivity (agency). This changed the public sphere into an assemblage consisting of both human and non-human actors interactingin a highly dynamic, networked environment. This paper proposes a framework for considering this new materiality in the field of the public sphere: the assemblage and complexity...

  5. Liquid theory with high accuracy and broad applicability: Coupling parameter series expansion and non hard sphere perturbation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic and structural properties of liquids are of fundamental interest in physics, chemistry, and biology, and perturbation approach has been fundamental to liquid theoretical approaches since the dawn of modern statistical mechanics and remains so to this day. Although thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT is widely used in the chemical physics community, one of the most popular versions of the TPT, i.e. Zwanzig (Zwanzig, R. W. J. Chem. Phys. 1954, 22, 1420-1426 1st-order high temperature series expansion (HTSE TPT and its 2nd-order counterpart under a macroscopic compressibility approximation of Barker-Henderson (Barker, J. A.; Henderson, D. J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 2856-2861, have some serious shortcomings: (i the nth-order term of the HTSE is involved with reference fluid distribution functions of order up to 2n, and the higher-order terms hence progressively become more complicated and numerically inaccessible; (ii the performance of the HTSE rapidly deteriorates and the calculated results become even qualitatively incorrect as the temperature of interest decreases. This account deals with the developments that we have made over the last five years or so to advance a coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE and a non hard sphere (HS perturbation strategy that has scored some of its greatest successes in overcoming the above-mentioned difficulties. In this account (i we expatiate on implementation details of our schemes: how input information indispensable to high-order truncation of the CPSE in both the HS and non HS perturbation schemes is calculated by an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory; how high-order thermodynamic quantities, such as critical parameters and excess constant volume heat capacity, are extracted from the resulting excess Helmholtz free energy with irregular and inevitable numerical errors; how to select reference potential in the non HS perturbation scheme. (ii We give a quantitative analysis on why

  6. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  7. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II; Geloni, Gianluca; Madsen, Anders [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd' ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup -1} spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup -1} are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10{sup 12} ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  8. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubar, Oleg; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm -1 spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm -1 are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10 12 ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  9. Fabrication of magnetic hydroxypropyl cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid) porous spheres via Pickering high internal phase emulsion for removal of Cu(2+) and Cd(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Zheng, Yian; Zong, Li; Wang, Feng; Wang, Aiqin

    2016-09-20

    A series of magnetic hydroxypropyl cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid) porous spheres were prepared via O/W Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) integrated precipitation polymerization. The structure and composition of modified Fe3O4 and porous structures were characterized by TEM, XRD, TGA and SEM. The results indicated that the silanized Fe3O4 can influence greatly the pore structure of magnetic porous sphere in addition to non-negligible impacts of the proportion of mixed solvent and co-surfactant. The adsorption experiment demonstrated that the adsorption equilibrium can be reached within 40min and the maximal adsorption capacity was 300.00mg/g for Cd(2+) and 242.72mg/g for Cu(2+), suggesting its fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity. After five adsorption-desorption cycles, no significant changes in the adsorption capacity were observed, suggesting its excellent reusability. The magnetic porous sphere can be easily separated from the solution and then find its potential as a recyclable material for highly efficient removal of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acoustic radiation force on an air bubble and soft fluid spheres in ideal liquids: example of a high-order Bessel beam of quasi-standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2009-04-01

    The partial wave series for the scattering of a high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) of acoustic quasi-standing waves by an air bubble and fluid spheres immersed in water and centered on the axis of the beam is applied to the calculation of the acoustic radiation force. A HOBB refers to a type of beam having an axial amplitude null and an azimuthal phase gradient. Radiation force examples obtained through numerical evaluation of the radiation force function are computed for an air bubble, a hexane, a red blood and mercury fluid spheres in water. The examples were selected to illustrate conditions having progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves with appropriate selection of the waves' amplitude ratio. An especially noteworthy result is the lack of a specific vibrational mode contribution to the radiation force determined by appropriate selection of the HOBB parameters.

  11. Damage-induced nonassociated inelastic flow in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Brodsky, N.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model recently developed by CHAN, et al. (1992), for describing time-dependent, pressure-sensitive inelastic flow and damage evolution in crystalline solids was evaluated against triaxial creep experiments on rock salt. Guided by experimental observations, the kinetic equation and the flow law for damage-induced inelastic flow in the model were modified to account for the development of damage and inelastic dilatation in the transient creep regime. The revised model was then utilized to obtain the creep response and damage evolution in rock salt as a function of confining pressure and stress difference. Comparison between model calculation and experiment revealed that damage-induced inelastic flow is nonassociated, dilatational, and contributes significantly to the macroscopic strain rate observed in rock salt deformed at low confining pressures. The inelastic strain rate and volumetric strain due to damage decrease with increasing confining pressures, and all are suppressed at sufficiently high confining pressures

  12. Design and Synthesis of Hierarchical SiO2@C/TiO2 Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Shunsheng; Yin, Zhengliang; Cheng, Li; Wu, Limin

    2017-09-06

    TiO 2 has been widely investigated as an electrode material because of its long cycle life and good durability, but the relatively low theoretical capacity restricts its practical application. Herein, we design and synthesize novel hierarchical SiO 2 @C/TiO 2 (HSCT) hollow spheres via a template-directed method. These unique HSCT hollow spheres combine advantages from both TiO 2 such as cycle stability and SiO 2 with a high accessible area and ionic transport. In particular, the existence of a C layer is able to enhance the electrical conductivity. The SiO 2 layer with a porous structure can increase the ion diffusion channels and accelerate the ion transfer from the outer to the inner layers. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the HSCT-hollow-sphere-based electrode manifests a high specific capacitance of 1018 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 which is higher than those for hollow TiO 2 (113 F g -1 ) and SiO 2 /TiO 2 (252 F g -1 ) electrodes, and substantially higher than those of all the previously reported TiO 2 -based electrodes.

  13. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Assisted Fabrication of Hollow Carbon Spheres/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunqiang; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Shulan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Li

    2018-05-22

    Three-dimensional hollow carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (DHCSs/RGO) nanocomposites with high-level heteroatom doping and hierarchical pores are fabricated via a versatile method. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) that serves as a dispersant and nucleating agent is used as the nonremoval template for synthesizing melamine resin (MR) spheres with abundant heteroatoms, which are subsequently composited with graphene oxide (GO). Use of PVA and implementation of freezing treatment prevent agglomeration of MR spheres within the GO network. Molten KOH is used to achieve the one-step carbonization/activation/reduction for the synthesis of DHCSs/RGO. DHCSs/RGO annealed at 700 °C shows superior discharge capacity of 1395 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and 606 mA h/g at 5 A/g as well as excellent retentive capacity of 755 mA h/g after 600 cycles at a current density of 2 A/g. An extra CO 2 activation leads to further enhancement of electrochemical performance with outstanding discharge capacity of 1709 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and 835 mA h/g at 2 A/g after 600 cycles. This work may improve our understanding of the synthesis of graphene-like nanocomposites with hollow and porous carbon architectures and fabrication of high-performance functional devices.

  14. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of defect-mediated Cd1-xZnxS/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres for highly efficient hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruifeng; Zhang, Yihe; Li, Baoying; Yu, Xuelian; Liu, Huijuan; An, Xiaoqiang; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-06-28

    Moderate efficiency and the utilization of noble metal cocatalysts are the key factors that restrict the large-scale application of photocatalytic hydrogen production. To develop more efficient photocatalysts based on earth abundant elements, either a new material strategy or a fundamental understanding of the semiconductor/cocatalyst interfaces is highly desirable. In this paper, we studied the feasibility of in situ formation of defect-rich cocatalysts on graphene-based photocatalysts. A facile biomolecule-assisted strategy was used to self-assmble Cd1-xZnxS/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres. The defect-mediated cocatalyst and synergetic charge transfer around heterostructured interfaces exhibit a significant impact on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of multicomponent solid solutions. With engineered interfacial defects, Cd0.8Zn0.2S/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres exhibited a 63-fold improved H2 production rate, which was even 2 and 3.8 times higher than those of CdS/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres and Cd0.8Zn0.2S/Pt. Therefore, our research provides a promising approach for the rational design of high-efficiency and low-cost photocatalysts for solar fuel production.

  15. Measurement of the inclusive e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross section at high inelasticity y and of the structure function F{sub L}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    A measurement is presented of the inclusive neutral current e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross section using data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA during the years 2003 to 2007 with proton beam energies E{sub p} of 920, 575, and 460 GeV. The kinematic range of the measurement covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 120 GeV{sup 2}, small values of Bjorken x, 2.9 . 10{sup -5} < x < 0.01, and extends to high inelasticity up to y=0.85. The structure function FL is measured by combining the new results with previously published H1 data at E{sub p} = 920 GeV and E{sub p} = 820 GeV. The new measurements are used to test several phenomenological and QCD models applicable in this low Q{sup 2} and low x kinematic domain. (orig.)

  16. Hollow SnO2@Co3O4 core-shell spheres encapsulated in three-dimensional graphene foams for high performance supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Huang, Sheng-Yun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Kai; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Xu, Jian-Bin; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are fabricated using 300 nm spherical SiO2 particles as template. Then three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are successfully obtained through self-assembly in hydrothermal process from graphene oxide nanosheets and metal oxide hollow spheres. The three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated architectures could greatly improve the capacity, cycling stability and rate capability of hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres electrodes due to the highly conductive networks and flexible buffering matrix. The three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Synergistic interaction and controllable active sites of nitrogen and sulfur co-doping into mesoporous carbon sphere for high performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taeseob; Kim, Myeongjin; Park, Dabin; Kim, Jooheon

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped mesoporous carbon sphere (NSMCS) was prepared as a metal-free catalyst by an economical and facile pyrolysis process. The mesoporous carbon spheres were derived from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as the carbon source and the nitrogen and sulfur dopants were derived from urea and p-benzenedithiol, respectively. The doping level and chemical states of nitrogen and sulfur in the prepared NSMCS can be easily adjusted by controlling the pyrolysis temperature. The NSMCS pyrolyzed at 900 °C (NSMCS-900) exhibited higher oxygen reduction reaction activity than the mesoporous carbon sphere doped solely with nitrogen or sulfur, due to the synergistic effect of co-doping. Among all the NSMCS samples, NSMCS-900 exhibited excellent ORR catalytic activity owing to the presence of a highly active site, consisting of pyridinic N, graphitic N, and thiophene S. Remarkably, the NSMCS-900 catalyst was comparable with commercial Pt/C, in terms of the onset and the half-wave potentials and showed better durability than Pt/C for ORR in an alkaline electrolyte. The approach demonstrated in this work could be used to prepare promising metal-free electrocatalysts for application in energy conversion and storage.

  18. Inelastic scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, O.A.

    1984-06-01

    The paper reviews the main problems concerning the mechanism of the inelastic scatterings of neutrons by nuclei, concentrating on the different models which calculate the angular distributions. In the region of overlapping levels, both the compound nucleus mechanism and the preequilibrium Griffin (exciton) model are discussed, and their contribution relative to that of a direct mechanism is considered. The parametrization of the level density and of the nuclear moment of inertia are also discussed. The excitation functions of discrete levels are also presented, and the importance of elucidating their five structure (for practical calculations, such as for shielding) is pointed out

  19. Deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-03-01

    The report is based on an invited talk given at a conference on ''Neutron Scattering at ISIS: Recent Highlights in Condensed Matter Research'', which was held in Rome, 1988, and is intended as an introduction to the techniques of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:- the impulse approximation I.A., scaling behaviour, kinematical consequences of energy and momentum conservation, examples of measurements, derivation of the I.A., the I.A. in a harmonic system, and validity of the I.A. in neutron scattering. (U.K.)

  20. Average multiplications in deep inelastic processes and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Inclusive production of hadrons in deep inelastic proceseseus is considered. It is shown that at high energies the jet evolution in deep inelastic processes is mainly of nonperturbative character. With the increase of a final hadron state energy the leading contribution to an average multiplicity comes from a parton subprocess due to production of massive quark and gluon jets and their further fragmentation as diquark contribution becomes less and less essential. The ratio of the total average multiplicity in deep inelastic processes to the average multiplicity in e + e - -annihilation at high energies tends to unity

  1. Sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes for high-rate and cycling-stable li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li(1.2)Ni(0.13)Mn(0.54)Co(0.13)O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAh g(-1)) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  2. Study of magnetic excitations in the high critical temperature La2-xSrxCuO4 superconductor with neutrons inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we question the relevance of spin correlations in the problem of high-T c superconductivity. To characterize these correlations, we present a detailed inelastic neutron scattering study of the magnetic excitations spectrum, in the high T c La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 copper oxide superconductor, as a function of temperature and strontium content x. Our study demonstrates the existence of two distinct types of fluctuations. The first type corresponds to two-dimensional isotropic fluctuations peaked at incommensurate points around the antiferromagnetic wavevector. These fluctuations show a gap below T c . The second type of fluctuations corresponds to two-dimensional very low energy, typically 1 MeV, antiferromagnetic correlations. They arise at low temperatures, for T ≤T f ∼ 10 K ≤T c . Different scenarios are discussed, namely particle-hole excitation arising because of nesting properties of the Fermi surface, stripes, and localized carriers in the CuO 2 plane because of the La/Sr substitution disorder. Next, aiming to study the interrelation between magnetism and superconductivity, we present a theoretical perturbative treatment of the t-t'-J model. This model is believed to describe the physics of the CuO 2 plane. The considered quasiparticles describe the motion of a doped hole, followed by localized spins on the copper sites. For a given doping x, two phases can exist, containing either x or 1 + x of these quasiparticles. We show at in the second phase, the exchange interaction between localized spins, combined to the intrinsic anharmonicity of these quasiparticles leads to an attractive interaction between them. We study the stability and the symmetry of a superconducting phase based on this mechanism. (author)

  3. Polarization phenomena in inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaar, B.J.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to clarify the principles of inelastic scattering using the distorted wave Born approximation, concentrating on inelastic proton scattering. The principle aspects and merits of the microscopic description and the necessity of including the N-N spin orbit force are discussed. (7 figures) (U.S.)

  4. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu A.; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A. S.; Orlov, I.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rychter, A.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3) targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single

  5. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  6. High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for Characterizing the Efficacy of Photo Dynamic Therapy in 3D Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Zhang, Zhixiong; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), wherein light sensitive non-toxic agents are locally and selectively activated using light, has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional cancer chemotherapy. Yet to date, PDT efficacy has been mostly characterized using 2D cultures. Compared to 2D cultures, 3D sphere culture generates unique spatial distributions of nutrients and oxygen for the cells that better mimics the in-vivo conditions. Using a novel polyHEMA (non-adherent polymer) fabrication process, we developed a microfluidic sphere formation platform that can (1) generate 1,024 uniform (size variation successfully characterized the different responses in 2D and 3D cell culture to PDT. Furthermore, we investigated the treatment resistance effect in cancer cells induced by tumor associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although the CAFs can enhance the resistance to traditional chemotherapy agents, no significant difference in PDT was observed. The preliminary results suggest that the PDT can be an attractive alternative cancer therapy, which is less affected by the therapeutic resistance induced by cancer associated cells.

  7. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T >approx. 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  8. Analysis of inelastic neutron scattering results on model compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vibrational spectroscopy; nitrogenous bases; inelastic neutron scattering. PACS No. ... obtain good quality, high resolution results in this region. Here the .... knowledge of the character of each molecular transition as well as the calculated.

  9. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Mossbauer radiation: Progress report, March 1, 1985-October 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1987-10-01

    A facility for high intensity Moessbauer scattering has been commissioned at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue University using special isotopes produced at MURR. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out, including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 which indicates phason rather than phonon behavior. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have also been carried out using scattering to filter unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape. This method allows complete correction for source resonance self-absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. This analysis is important to both the funadmental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct elastic fractions and lineshape parameters. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron (MICE) spectroscopy, lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  10. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation. Progress report, March 1, 1985-October 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, J.G.

    1985-10-01

    The past year has seen the completion of most of the design and construction phases of our instrument development and the beginning of our scientific investigations. Many technical difficulties relating to mechanical strains in the source cryostat and in the Microfoil Internal Conversion Electron (MICE) detector assembly caused by cycling them between 300 and 100 K have been overcome. The scientific work has been highlighted by the performance of the MICE detector and how it has allowed us to measure the asymmetry parameters in 183 W and 182 W much more reliably than in the past and by the high momentum resolution made possible with our intense sources as demonstrated by studies on Si

  11. A multislice theory of electron inelastic scattering in a solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.L.

    1989-01-01

    A multislice theory is proposed to solve Yoshioka's coupling equations for elastic and inelastic scattered high-energy electrons in a solid. This method is capable, in principle, of including the non-periodic crystal structures and the electron multiple scattering among all the excited states in the calculations. It is proved that the proposed theory for calculating the energy-filtered inelastic images, based on the physical optics approach, is equivalent to the quantum-mechanical theory under some approximations. The basic theory of simulating the energy-filtered inelastic image of core-shell losses and thermal diffuse scattering is outlined. (orig.)

  12. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  13. Inelastic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Many observations suggest that much of the matter of the universe is nonbaryonic. Recently, the DAMA NaI dark matter direct detection experiment reported an annual modulation in their event rate consistent with a WIMP relic. However, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Ge experiment excludes most of the region preferred by DAMA. We demonstrate that if the dark matter can only scatter by making a transition to a slightly heavier state (Δm∼100 keV), the experiments are no longer in conflict. Moreover, differences in the energy spectrum of nuclear recoil events could distinguish such a scenario from the standard WIMP scenario. Finally, we discuss the sneutrino as a candidate for inelastic dark matter in supersymmetric theories

  14. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  15. Wave packet autocorrelation functions for quantum hard-disk and hard-sphere billiards in the high-energy, diffraction regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussev, Arseni; Dorfman, J R

    2006-07-01

    We consider the time evolution of a wave packet representing a quantum particle moving in a geometrically open billiard that consists of a number of fixed hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers. Using the technique of multiple collision expansions we provide a first-principle analytical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function for the wave packet in the high-energy diffraction regime, in which the particle's de Broglie wavelength, while being small compared to the size of the scatterers, is large enough to prevent the formation of geometric shadow over distances of the order of the particle's free flight path. The hard-disk or hard-sphere scattering system must be sufficiently dilute in order for this high-energy diffraction regime to be achievable. Apart from the overall exponential decay, the autocorrelation function exhibits a generally complicated sequence of relatively strong peaks corresponding to partial revivals of the wave packet. Both the exponential decay (or escape) rate and the revival peak structure are predominantly determined by the underlying classical dynamics. A relation between the escape rate, and the Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the counterpart classical system, previously known for hard-disk billiards, is strengthened by generalization to three spatial dimensions. The results of the quantum mechanical calculation of the time-dependent autocorrelation function agree with predictions of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory.

  16. A Powerful Public Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public......The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public...

  17. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Y.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3) targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year 2010 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a 160 GeV/c muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about four the overall statistics with resp...

  18. Deeply inelastic scattering at small x in 20 min

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A status report is presented on new phenomena that are anticipated in deeply inelastic scattering in the low x→0 region. A summary of the theoretical situation in the region of small x is given, including the importance for the understanding of high energy interaction in QCD, and the low x behaviour of deep inelastic structure function. This new area of physics will be studied experimentally at HERA. (R.P.) 16 refs.; 6 figs

  19. Coulomb Distortion in the Inelastic Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Solvignon, Dave Gaskell, John Arrington

    2009-09-01

    The Coulomb distortion effects have been for a long time neglected in deep inelastic scattering for the good reason that the incident energies were very high. But for energies in the range of earlier data from SLAC or at JLab, the Coulomb distortion could have the potential consequence of affecting the A-dependence of the EMC effect and of the longitudinal to transverse virtual photon absorption cross section ratio $R(x,Q^2)$.

  20. Deep inelastic collisions viewed as Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.H.E.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1980-01-01

    Non-equilibrium transport processes like Brownian motion, are studied since perhaps 100 years and one should ask why does one not use these theories to explain deep inelastic collision data. These theories have reached a high standard of sophistication, experience, and precision that I believe them to be very usefull for our problem. I will try to sketch a possible form of an advanced theory of Brownian motion that seems to be suitable for low energy heavy ion collisions. (orig./FKS)

  1. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.S.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean multiplicity of hadrons in the target-fragmentation region in the process of deep inelastic scattering. It is shown that in the region of large x the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current- and target-fragmentation regions tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity in the Drell-Yan process is also discussed

  2. Linear transforms for Fourier data on the sphere: application to high angular resolution diffusion MRI of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Justin P; Leahy, Richard M

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel family of linear transforms that can be applied to data collected from the surface of a 2-sphere in three-dimensional Fourier space. This family of transforms generalizes the previously-proposed Funk-Radon Transform (FRT), which was originally developed for estimating the orientations of white matter fibers in the central nervous system from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data. The new family of transforms is characterized theoretically, and efficient numerical implementations of the transforms are presented for the case when the measured data is represented in a basis of spherical harmonics. After these general discussions, attention is focused on a particular new transform from this family that we name the Funk-Radon and Cosine Transform (FRACT). Based on theoretical arguments, it is expected that FRACT-based analysis should yield significantly better orientation information (e.g., improved accuracy and higher angular resolution) than FRT-based analysis, while maintaining the strong characterizability and computational efficiency of the FRT. Simulations are used to confirm these theoretical characteristics, and the practical significance of the proposed approach is illustrated with real diffusion weighted MRI brain data. These experiments demonstrate that, in addition to having strong theoretical characteristics, the proposed approach can outperform existing state-of-the-art orientation estimation methods with respect to measures such as angular resolution and robustness to noise and modeling errors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Solvothermal synthesis of monodisperse LiFePO4 micro hollow spheres as high performance cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiliu; Hu, Mingjun; Xi, Liujiang; Ma, Ruguang; Dong, Yucheng; Chung, C Y

    2013-09-25

    A microspherical, hollow LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode material with polycrystal structure was simply synthesized by a solvothermal method using spherical Li3PO4 as the self-sacrificed template and FeCl2·4H2O as the Fe(2+) source. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the LFP micro hollow spheres have a quite uniform size of ~1 μm consisting of aggregated nanoparticles. The influences of solvent and Fe(2+) source on the phase and morphology of the final product were chiefly investigated, and a direct ion exchange reaction between spherical Li3PO4 templates and Fe(2+) ions was firstly proposed on the basis of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) transformation of the products. The LFP nanoparticles in the micro hollow spheres could finely coat a uniform carbon layer ~3.5 nm by a glucose solution impregnating-drying-sintering process. The electrochemical measurements show that the carbon coated LFP materials could exhibit high charge-discharge capacities of 158, 144, 125, 101, and even 72 mAh g(-1) at 0.1, 1, 5, 20, and 50 C, respectively. It could also maintain 80% of the initial discharge capacity after cycling for 2000 times at 20 C.

  4. Inelastic scattering and deformation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive study of nuclear shape parameters by electron scattering, μ meson atomic transitions, Coulomb excitation and direct nuclear inelastic scattering. Inelastic scattering of strongly absorbed particles, e.g., alpha-particles and heavy ions, at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier probe the charge and mass distributions within the nucleus. This paper summarizes measurements in this field performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  5. The effect of rotational and translational energy exchange on tracer diffusion in rough hard sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Olga; Thachuk, Mark

    2011-03-21

    A study is presented of tracer diffusion in a rough hard sphere fluid. Unlike smooth hard spheres, collisions between rough hard spheres can exchange rotational and translational energy and momentum. It is expected that as tracer particles become larger, their diffusion constants will tend toward the Stokes-Einstein hydrodynamic result. It has already been shown that in this limit, smooth hard spheres adopt "slip" boundary conditions. The current results show that rough hard spheres adopt boundary conditions proportional to the degree of translational-rotational energy exchange. Spheres for which this exchange is the largest adopt "stick" boundary conditions while those with more intermediate exchange adopt values between the "slip" and "stick" limits. This dependence is found to be almost linear. As well, changes in the diffusion constants as a function of this exchange are examined and it is found that the dependence is stronger than that suggested by the low-density, Boltzmann result. Compared with smooth hard spheres, real molecules undergo inelastic collisions and have attractive wells. Rough hard spheres model the effect of inelasticity and show that even without the presence of attractive forces, the boundary conditions for large particles can deviate from "slip" and approach "stick."

  6. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  7. Effective exchange potentials for electronically inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, D.W.; Staszewska, G.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose new methods for solving the electron scattering close coupling equations employing equivalent local exchange potentials in place of the continuum-multiconfiguration-Hartree--Fock-type exchange kernels. The local exchange potentials are Hermitian. They have the correct symmetry for any symmetries of excited electronic states included in the close coupling expansion, and they have the same limit at very high energy as previously employed exchange potentials. Comparison of numerical calculations employing the new exchange potentials with the results obtained with the standard nonlocal exchange kernels shows that the new exchange potentials are more accurate than the local exchange approximations previously available for electronically inelastic scattering. We anticipate that the new approximations will be most useful for intermediate-energy electronically inelastic electron--molecule scattering

  8. Significance of matrix diagonalization in modelling inelastic electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Z. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hambach, R. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); University of Jena, Jena 07743 (Germany); Kaiser, U.; Rose, H. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Electron scattering is always applied as one of the routines to investigate nanostructures. Nowadays the development of hardware offers more and more prospect for this technique. For example imaging nanostructures with inelastic scattered electrons may allow to produce component-sensitive images with atomic resolution. Modelling inelastic electron scattering is therefore essential for interpreting these images. The main obstacle to study inelastic scattering problem is its complexity. During inelastic scattering, incident electrons entangle with objects, and the description of this process involves a multidimensional array. Since the simulation usually involves fourdimensional Fourier transforms, the computation is highly inefficient. In this work we have offered one solution to handle the multidimensional problem. By transforming a high dimensional array into twodimensional array, we are able to perform matrix diagonalization and approximate the original multidimensional array with its twodimensional eigenvectors. Our procedure reduces the complicated multidimensional problem to a twodimensional problem. In addition, it minimizes the number of twodimensional problems. This method is very useful for studying multiple inelastic scattering. - Highlights: • 4D problems are involved in modelling inelastic electron scattering. • By means of matrix diagonalization, the 4D problems can be simplified as 2D problems. • The number of 2D problems is minimized by using this approach.

  9. Nitrogen-doped carbon spheres: A new high-energy-density and long-life pseudo-capacitive electrode material for electrochemical flow capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shujin; Wang, Miao; Xu, Xingtao; Li, Yandong; Li, Yanjiang; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2017-04-01

    One of the most challenging issues in developing electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) technology is the design and synthesis of active electrode materials with high energy density and long cycle life. However, in practical cases, the energy density and cycle ability obtained currently cannot meet the practical need. In this work, we propose a new active material, nitrogen-doped carbon spheres (NCSs), as flowable electrodes for EFC application. The NCSs were prepared via one-pot hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of resorcinol/formaldehyde as carbon precursors and melamine as nitrogen precursor, followed by carbonization in nitrogen flow at various temperatures. The results of EFC experiments demonstrate that NCSs obtained at 800°C exhibit a high energy density of 13.5Whkg -1 and an excellent cycle ability, indicating the superiority of NCSs for EFC application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  11. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulov, S.B.; Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I.; Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I.; Tkaczyk, W.; Finger, M.; Sonsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10 16 -10 18 eV.

  12. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulov, S.B., E-mail: shaul@sci.lebedev.r [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tkaczyk, W. [Department of Experimental Physics of University of Lodz (Poland); Finger, M. [Karlov University, Prague (Czech Republic); Sonsky, M. [COMPAS Consortium, Turnov (Czech Republic)

    2009-12-15

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV.

  13. Molecular dynamics study of the coordination sphere of trivalent lanthanum in a highly concentrated LiCl aqueous solution: A combined classical and ab initio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuilleumier, R.; Petit, L.; Maldivi, P.; Adamo, C.

    2008-01-01

    The first coordination sphere of trivalent lanthanum in a highly concentrated (14 M) lithium chloride solution is studied with a combination of classical molecular dynamics and density functional theory based first principle molecular dynamics. This method enables us to obtain a solvation shell of La 3+ containing 2 chloride ions and 6 water molecules. After refinement using first principle molecular dynamics, the resulting cation-water and cation-anion distances are in very good agreement with experiment. The 2 Cl - and the 6 water molecules arrange in a square anti-prism around La 3+ . Exchange of water molecules was also observed in the first-principle simulation, with an intermediate structure comprising 7 water molecules stable for 2.5 ps. Finally, evaluation of dipole moments using maximally localized Wannier functions shows a substantial polarization of the chloride anions and the water molecules in the first solvation shell of trivalent lanthanum. (authors)

  14. Excitation of the shear horizontal mode in a monolayer by inelastic helium atom scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, L. W.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2005-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of a low-energy atomic helium beam (HAS) by a physisorbed monolayer is treated in the one-phonon approximation using a time-dependent wave,packet formulation. The calculations show that modes with shear horizontal polarization can be excited near high symmetry azimuths....... The diffraction and inelastic processes arise from a strong coupling of the incident atom to the target and the calculated results show large departures from expectations based on analogies to inelastic thermal neutron scattering....

  15. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} charged current cross sections in e{sup +}p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenberg, J

    2004-06-01

    Cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering have been measured in e{sup +}p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in the running periods 1999 and 2000 correspond to an integrated luminosity of 61 pb{sup -1}. Single differential cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy have been measured for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}, as well as the double differential reduced cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2} in the kinematic range 280 GeV{sup 2}inelastic scattering cross sections. The helicity structure is investigated in particular. The mass of the space-like W boson propagator has been determined from a fit to d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}. (orig.)

  16. Prospects of high-resolution resonant X-ray inelastic scattering studies on solid materials, liquids and gases at diffraction-limited storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Thorsten; Groot, Frank M. F. de; Rubensson, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Diffraction-limited storage rings will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments to new limits. In this article the types of improved soft X-ray RIXS studies that will become possible with these instrumental improvements are envisioned. The spectroscopic technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) will particularly profit from immensely improved brilliance of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs). In RIXS one measures the intensities of excitations as a function of energy and momentum transfer. DLSRs will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size to new limits. With RIXS one nowadays probes a broad range of electronic systems reaching from simple molecules to complex materials displaying phenomena like peculiar magnetism, two-dimensional electron gases, superconductivity, photovoltaic energy conversion and heterogeneous catalysis. In this article the types of improved RIXS studies that will become possible with X-ray beams from DLSRs are envisioned

  17. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current deep inelastic e{sup +}p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] [and others; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration

    2012-08-15

    Measurements of neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e{sup +}p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the reduced cross-section {sigma} were measured in the kinematic region Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2} and y<0.9, where Q{sup 2} is the four-momentum transfer squared, x the Bjorken scaling variable, and y the inelasticity of the interaction. The measurements were performed separately for positively and negatively polarised positron beams. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The structure functions F{sub 3} and F{sup {gamma}Z}{sub 3} were determined by combining the e{sup +}p results presented in this paper with previously published e{sup -}p neutral current results. The asymmetry parameter A{sup +} is used to demonstrate the parity violation predicted in electroweak interactions. The measurements are well described by the predictions of the Standard Model.

  18. The sphere-PAC fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.

    2000-01-01

    Sphere-PAC fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-PAC fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  19. The sphere-pac fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.; Nordstroem, L.A.; Hellwig, C.

    2001-01-01

    Sphere-pac fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-pac fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  20. Ni supported CdIn2S4 spongy-like spheres: a noble metal free high-performance sunlight driven photocatalyst for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Manh-Hiep; Nguyen, Chinh-Chien; Sakar, M; Do, Trong-On

    2017-11-08

    Nickel supported CdIn 2 S 4 (Ni-CIS) spongy-like spheres have been developed using alcoholysis followed by a sulfidation process. The formation of nanocrystalline-single phase CdIn 2 S 4 was confirmed using X-ray diffraction studies. Electron microscopy images showed that the spongy-like spheres are composed of CdIn 2 S 4 nanoparticles with average sizes of around 25 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated the presence of elements with their respective stable oxidation states that led to the formation of single phase CdIn 2 S 4 with enhanced structural integrity and chemical composition. The absorption spectra indicated the visible light activity of the material and the band gap energy is deduced to be 2.23 eV. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized Ni-CIS in relation to its ability to produce hydrogen under solar light irradiation is estimated to be 1060 μmol g -1 h -1 , which is around 5.5 and 3.6 fold higher than that of Pt-CIS (180 μmol g -1 h -1 ) and Pd-CIS (290 μmol g -1 h -1 ), respectively, as obtained in this study. Accordingly, the mechanism of the observed efficiency of the Ni-CIS nanoparticles is also proposed. The recyclability test showed consistent hydrogen evolution efficiency over 3 cycles (9 h), which essentially revealed the excellent photo- and chemical-stability of the photocatalyst. The strategy to utilize non-noble metals such as Ni, rather than noble-metals, as a co-catalyst opens up a new possibility to develop low cost and high-performance sunlight-driven photocatalysts as achieved in this study.

  1. Graphs with Eulerian unit spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    d-spheres in graph theory are inductively defined as graphs for which all unit spheres S(x) are (d-1)-spheres and that the removal of one vertex renders the graph contractible. Eulerian d-spheres are geometric d-spheres which are d+1 colorable. We prove here that G is an Eulerian sphere if and only if the degrees of all the (d-2)-dimensional sub-simplices in G are even. This generalizes a Kempe-Heawood result for d=2 and is work related to the conjecture that all d-spheres have chromatic numb...

  2. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  3. Inelastic light scattering in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchinskii, M. M.

    The papers presented in this volume are concerned with a variety of problems in optics and solid state physics, such as Raman scattering of light in crystals and disperse media, Rayleigh and inelastic scattering during phase transitions, characteristics of ferroelectrics in relation to the general soft mode concept, and inelastic spectral opalescence. A group-theory approach is used to classify the vibrational spectra of the crystal lattice and to analyze the properties of idealized crystal models. Particular attention is given to surface vibrational states and to the study of the surface layers of crystals and films by light scattering methods.

  4. Spinning the fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenstein, David; Dzienkowski, Eric; Lashof-Regas, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We construct various exact analytical solutions of the SO(3) BMN matrix model that correspond to rotating fuzzy spheres and rotating fuzzy tori. These are also solutions of Yang Mills theory compactified on a sphere times time and they are also translationally invariant solutions of the N=1"∗ field theory with a non-trivial charge density. The solutions we construct have a ℤ_N symmetry, where N is the rank of the matrices. After an appropriate ansatz, we reduce the problem to solving a set of polynomial equations in 2N real variables. These equations have a discrete set of solutions for each value of the angular momentum. We study the phase structure of the solutions for various values of N. Also the continuum limit where N→∞, where the problem reduces to finding periodic solutions of a set of coupled differential equations. We also study the topology change transition from the sphere to the torus.

  5. Search for T=2 dibaryons in the rvec p+p→π-+X reaction and study of highly inelastic NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes-Comets, M.P.; Courtat, P.; Frascaria, R.; Le Bornec, Y.; Loireleux, E.; Reide, F.; Tatischeff, B.; Willis, N.; Aslanides, E.; Benabdelouahed, D.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bergdolt, G.; Bing, O.; Fassnacht, P.; Hibou, F.; Boivin, M.; Chisholm, A.; Kerboul, C.; Moalem, A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to search for isospin-2 dibaryons and to study the inelastic nucleon-nucleon channels producing at least two pions, the differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for the p(rvec p,π - )X reaction with polarized proton beams of 1.45, 2.1, and 2.7 GeV. The pions were detected at an angle of 13.8 degree by the SPESIII spectrometer located at Laboratoire National Saturne. No statistically significant evidence for structures corresponding to πNN bound states or six-quark states could be established. However, upper limits to the cross section for such processes are deduced. The data analysis in terms of phase space has shown that as the bombarding energy increases, N * N final states have to be taken into account besides the usual NΔ and ΔΔ processes in order to adequately describe our results

  6. Measurement of the proton structure from high-Q2 neutral current events in e+p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurbusch, H.

    2002-09-01

    Inclusive Neutral Current cross sections in e + p deep inelastic scattering yielding the generalised structure function F 2 have been measured in the regime of Q 2 > 185 GeV 2 . The data sample of 63.2 pb -1 was collected in the 1999/2000 data-taking period of the ZEUS experiment at the HERA collider. The centre-of-mass energy was √(s) = 318 GeV. Statistical and systematic uncertainties have been calculated throughout the kinematical range of the data. Systematic uncertainties were studied including photoproduction background, first-level trigger efficiency and the hadronic final state in the Forward Tracking Devices of the detector. The structure function F 2 was measured more precisely than in earlier measurements due to the larger data set and due to increased knowledge about systematic effects. The results are in good agreement with the Standard Model evaluated with the CTEQ5D parton distribution functions. (orig.)

  7. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alekseev, M G; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anosov, V; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bodlak, M; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P.D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Gorzellik, M; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Guskov, A; Guthorl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Hashimoto, R; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hinterberger, F; Hoppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joerg, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kral, Z; Kramer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu. V; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A S; Orlov, I; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rodionov, V; Rondio, E; Rychter, A; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schluter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schonning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Szabeleski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH$_{3}$) targets are presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year $2010$ with the COMPASS spectrometer using a $160\\,\\mbox{GeV}/c$ muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about three the available statistics of the previously published data taken in the year $2007$. The measured sizeable asymmetry is in good agreement with the published data. An approximate equality of the Collins asymmetry and the dihadron asymmetry is observed, suggesting a common physical mechanism in the underlying fragmentation.

  8. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon–proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3 targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year 2010 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a 160 GeV/c muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about four the overall statistics with respect to the previously published data taken in the year 2007. The measured sizeable asymmetry is in good agreement with the published data. An approximate equality of the Collins asymmetry and the dihadron asymmetry is observed, suggesting a common physical mechanism in the underlying fragmentation.

  9. Boundary-integral equation formulation for time-dependent inelastic deformation in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S

    1977-01-01

    The mathematical structure of various constitutive relations proposed in recent years for representing time-dependent inelastic deformation behavior of metals at elevated temperatues has certain features which permit a simple formulation of the three-dimensional inelasticity problem in terms of real time rates. A direct formulation of the boundary-integral equation method in terms of rates is discussed for the analysis of time-dependent inelastic deformation of arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional metallic bodies subjected to arbitrary mechanical and thermal loading histories and obeying constitutive relations of the kind mentioned above. The formulation is based on the assumption of infinitesimal deformations. Several illustrative examples involving creep of thick-walled spheres, long thick-walled cylinders, and rotating discs are discussed. The implementation of the method appears to be far easier than analogous BIE formulations that have been suggested for elastoplastic problems.

  10. Hierarchical sulfur-impregnated hydrogenated TiO2 mesoporous spheres comprising anatase nanosheets with highly exposed (001) facets for advanced Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Changzhou; Zhu, Siqi; Cao, Hui; Hou, Linrui; Lin, Jingdong

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we purposefully designed hierarchical hydrogenated TiO2 spheres (HTSs) constructed from ultrathin anatase nanosheets with highly exposed (001) facets, and further utilized them as an efficient encapsulated host of sulfur species for advanced Li-S batteries (LSBs). Strikingly, the as-fabricated hybrid S/HTSs cathode exhibited high Coulombic efficiency (>94%), exceptional long cycling performance (capacity decay of ˜0.399% per cycle at 0.5 C), and large reversible discharge capacity (˜579 mAh g-1 at 2.0 C) at high C rates, benefiting from better electronic conductivity, smaller charge transfer resistance and strong chemical bonding between {{{{S}}}n}2- and the reduced (001) facets of HTSs, according to experimental measurements and systematical theoretical calculations. More significantly, our in-depth insights into the mechanism involved in the hybrid S/HTSs could efficiently guide future design, optimization and synthesis of other metal oxide-based matrixes with specific exposed crystal facets for next-generation advanced LSBs.

  11. A parametric model to describe neutron spectra around high-energy electron accelerators and its application in neutron spectrometry with Bonner Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Roberto; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Esposito, Adolfo

    2010-03-01

    Due to the increased interest of the scientific community in the applications of synchrotron light, there is an increasing demand of high-energy electron facilities, testified by the construction of several new facilities worldwide. The radiation protection around such facilities requires accurate experimental methods to determine the dose due to prompt radiation fields. Neutron fields, in particular, are the most complex to measure, because they extend in energy from thermal (10 -8 MeV) up to hundreds MeV and because the responses of dosemeters and survey meters usually have large energy dependence. The Bonner Spheres Spectrometer (BSS) is in practice the only instrument able to respond over the whole energy range of interest, and for this reason it is frequently used to derive neutron spectra and dosimetric quantities in accelerator workplaces. Nevertheless, complex unfolding algorithms are needed to derive the neutron spectra from the experimental BSS data. This paper presents a parametric model specially developed for the unfolding of the experimental data measured with BSS around high-energy electron accelerators. The work consists of the following stages: (1) Generation with the FLUKA code, of a set of neutron spectra representing the radiation environment around accelerators with different electron energies; (2) formulation of a parametric model able to describe these spectra, with particular attention to the high-energy component (>10 MeV), which may be responsible for a large part of the dose in workplaces; and (3) implementation of this model in an existing unfolding code.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of NiCo2O4 Double-Shelled Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Sodium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong; Zhou, Yanping; Luo, Bin; Zhu, Huacheng; Chu, Wei; Huang, Kama

    2018-03-01

    The ternary transitional metal oxide NiCo2O4 is a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity and superior electrical conductivity. However, its sodium storage capability is severely limited by the sluggish sodiation/desodiation reaction kinetics. Herein, NiCo2O4 double-shelled hollow spheres were synthesized via a microwave-assisted, fast solvothermal synthetic procedure in a mixture of isopropanol and glycerol, followed by annealing. Isopropanol played a vital role in the precipitation of nickel and cobalt, and the shrinkage of the glycerol quasi-emulsion under heat treatment was responsible for the formation of the double-shelled nanostructure. The as-synthesized product was tested as an anode material in a sodium ion battery, was found to exhibit a high reversible specific capacity of 511 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, and deliver high capacity retention after 100 cycles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Rational synthesis of graphene-encapsulated uniform MnMoO4 hollow spheres as long-life and high-rate anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huaixin; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yufei; Qian, Yong; Geng, Hongbo

    2018-03-29

    In this manuscript, the graphene-encapsulated MnMoO 4 hollow spheres (MnMoO 4 @G) synthesized by an effective strategy were reported. Benefiting from the intriguing hybrid architecture of hollow structure and conductive graphene network, the MnMoO 4 @G composite displays superior electrochemical performance with high specific capacity of 1142 mA h g -1 , high reversible cycling stability of 921 mA h g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 after 70 cycles, and stable rate performance (around 513 mA h g -1 at a current density of 4.0 A g -1 ). The remarkable battery performance can be attributed to the rational design of the architecture, which not only ensures the fast transport of electrons and lithium ions within the electrode material, but also effectively relax the stress induced by the insertion/extraction of lithium ions. This facile synthetic method can extend to other transition metal oxides with large volume excursions and poor electric conductivity and promotes the development of transition metal oxides as high-performance LIB anode material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A parametric model to describe neutron spectra around high-energy electron accelerators and its application in neutron spectrometry with Bonner Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedogni, Roberto; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Esposito, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased interest of the scientific community in the applications of synchrotron light, there is an increasing demand of high-energy electron facilities, testified by the construction of several new facilities worldwide. The radiation protection around such facilities requires accurate experimental methods to determine the dose due to prompt radiation fields. Neutron fields, in particular, are the most complex to measure, because they extend in energy from thermal (10 -8 MeV) up to hundreds MeV and because the responses of dosemeters and survey meters usually have large energy dependence. The Bonner Spheres Spectrometer (BSS) is in practice the only instrument able to respond over the whole energy range of interest, and for this reason it is frequently used to derive neutron spectra and dosimetric quantities in accelerator workplaces. Nevertheless, complex unfolding algorithms are needed to derive the neutron spectra from the experimental BSS data. This paper presents a parametric model specially developed for the unfolding of the experimental data measured with BSS around high-energy electron accelerators. The work consists of the following stages: (1) Generation with the FLUKA code, of a set of neutron spectra representing the radiation environment around accelerators with different electron energies; (2) formulation of a parametric model able to describe these spectra, with particular attention to the high-energy component (>10 MeV), which may be responsible for a large part of the dose in workplaces; and (3) implementation of this model in an existing unfolding code.

  15. Hierarchical cobalt poly-phosphide hollow spheres as highly active and stable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianli; Pi, Mingyu; Wang, Xiaodeng; Guo, Weimeng; Zhang, Dingke; Chen, Shijian

    2018-01-01

    Exploring highly-efficient and low-cost non-noble metal electrocatalyst toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is highly desired for renewable energy system but remains challenging. In this work, three dimensional hierarchical porous cobalt poly-phosphide hollow spheres (CoP3 HSs) were prepared by topotactic phosphidation of the cobalt-based precursor via vacuum encapsulation technique. As a porous HER cathode, the CoP3 HSs delivers remarkable electrocatalytic performance over the wide pH range. It needs overpotentials of -69 mV and -118 mV with a small Tafel slope of 51 mV dec-1 to obtain current densities of 10 mA cm-2 and 50 mA cm-2, respectively, and maintains its electrocatalytic performance over 30 h in acidic solution. In addition, CoP3 also exhibit superior electrocatalytic performance and stability under neutral and alkaline conditions for the HER. Both experimental measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to explore the mechanism behind the excellent HER performance. The results of our study make the porous CoP3 HSs as a promising electrocatalyst for practical applications toward energy conversion system and present a new way for designing and fabricating HER electrodes through high degree of phosphorization and nano-porous architecture.

  16. Inelastic scattering of quasifree electrons on O7+ projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Grabbe, S.; Richard, P.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute doubly differential cross sections (DDCS close-quote s) for the resonant inelastic scattering of quasifree target electrons on H-like projectiles have been measured. Electron spectra for 20.25-MeV O 7+ projectiles on an H 2 target were measured. The spectra contain a resonant contribution from the 3l3l ' doubly excited states of O 6+ , which decay predominantly to the 2l states of the O 7+ via autoionization, and a nonresonant contribution from the direct excitation of the projectiles to the O 7+ (2l) state by the quasifree target electrons. Close-coupling R-matrix calculations for the inelastic scattering of free electrons on O 7+ ions were performed. The relation between the electron-ion inelastic scattering calculation and the electron DDCS close-quote s for the ion-atom collision was established by using the inelastic scattering model (ISM). We found excellent agreement between the theoretical and measured resonant peak positions and relative peak heights. The calculated absolute double differential cross sections for the resonance processes are also in good agreement with the measured data. The implication is that collisions of highly charged ions on hydrogen can be used to obtain high-resolution, angle- resolved differential inelastic electron-scattering cross section. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. High Density Sphere Culture of Adult Cardiac Cells Increases the Levels of Cardiac and Progenitor Markers and Shows Signs of Vasculogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Vukusic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D environment and high cell density play an important role in restoring and supporting the phenotypes of cells represented in cardiac tissues. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the suitability of high density sphere (HDS cultures for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology. Primary adult cardiac cells from nine human biopsies were cultured using different media for up to 9 weeks. The possibilities to favor a certain cell phenotype and induce production of extra cellular matrix (ECM were studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Defined media gave significant increase in both cardiac- and progenitor-specific markers and also an intraluminal position of endothelial cells over time. Cardiac media showed indication of differentiation and maturity of HDS considering the ECM production and activities within NOTCH regulation but no additional cardiac differentiation. Endothelial media gave no positive effects on endothelial phenotype but increased proliferation without fibroblast overgrowth. In addition, indications for early vasculogenesis were found. It was also possible to affect the Wnt signaling in HDS by addition of a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings show the suitability of HDS as in vitro model for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology.

  18. Phase-pure β-NiMoO4 yolk-shell spheres for high-performance anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jee Hyun; Park, Gi Dae; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2015-01-01

    Phase-pure β-NiMoO 4 yolk-shell spheres for lithium-ion battery anodes were prepared for the first time by one-pot spray pyrolysis, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. The yolk-shell-structured β-NiMoO 4 powders exhibited high initial discharge/charge capacities (1634/1253 mA h g −1 ) at a current density of 1000 mA g −1 . After 200 cycles, these powders exhibited a high discharge capacity of 1292 mA h g −1 , whereas the initial discharge capacity (1341 mA h g −1 ) of the filled structured NiMoO 4 powders was dramatically decreased to 479 mA h g −1 . The significant enhancement of the cycling performance of the β-NiMoO 4 powders with ultrafine crystallite size was attributed to the structural stability of the yolk-shell structure

  19. Fabrication of Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)@Ag Spheres with High Surface Charge Intensity and their Self-Assembly into Photonic Crystal Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiajie; Fan, Genrui; Wu, Suli; Su, Xin; Xia, Hongbo; Zhang, Shu-Fen

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we developed a method to prepare monodisperse poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)@Ag (PSMA@Ag) core-shell microspheres with high surface charge intensity by using an in situ reduction method. In this method, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid tetrasodium salt (Na 4 EDTA) was used as a reducing agent to promote the growth of Ag, and at the same time endowed the PSMA@Ag spheres with a surface charge. The monodispersity of PSMA and PSMA@Ag and the ordered array of the photonic crystal films were characterized by using SEM. The formation of Ag nanoparticles was confirmed by using TEM, HR-TEM, and XRD characterizations. Due to the existence of surface charges, the obtained PSMA@Ag microspheres easily self-assembled to form photonic crystal structures. In addition, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the PSMA@Ag photonic crystal films was evaluated by detecting the signal from Raman probe molecules, 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP). The PSMA@Ag photonic crystal films exhibited a high SERS effect, a low detection limit of up to 10 -8 for 4-ATP, good uniformity, and reproducibility.

  20. Facile Synthesis of V2O5 Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional V2O5 hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V2O5 materials are composed of microspheres 2–3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V2O5 hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V2O5 cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V2O5 hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Ni hollow spheres as catalysts for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changwei [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hu, Yonghong; Rong, Jianhua; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, San Ping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we successfully synthesized Ni hollow spheres consisting of needle-like nickel particles by using silica spheres as template with gold nanoparticles seeding method. The Ni hollow spheres are applied to methanol and ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The results show that the Ni hollow spheres give a very high activity for alcohol electrooxidation at a very low nickel loading of 0.10 mg cm{sup -2}. The current on Ni hollow spheres is much higher than that on Ni particles. The onset potential and peak potential on Ni hollow spheres are more negative than that on Ni particles for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation. The Ni hollow spheres may be of great potential in alcohol sensor and direct alcohol fuel cells. (author)

  2. On the use of hot-sphere anemometers in a highly transient flow in a double-skin facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Kalyanova, Olena; Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    measured by the anemometer. Temperature compensation is the working principle of anemometers. The ability to compensate for different temperatures when exposed to solar radiation is investigated in a controlled environment using a powerful lamp as a radiant heat source. In the double-skin façade, both...... from the measurement of air velocity in the occupied zone. The velocity is higher and the flow is more transient, the anemometer is subjected to high loads of direct solar radiation and wide temperature ranges and, finally, the direction of the flow is important. The flow in the double-skin façade...

  3. Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering

  4. Inelastic diffraction nuclear processes with redistribution of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.G.; Goryachij, V.V.; Peresypkin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The inelastic nuclear processes at high energies with redistribution of particles are described within the framework of the diffraction approach. The capture processes (p,d) and (p,p'n) generated by the high energy nucleon collision with nuclei are considered. The angular distribution of 4 He(p,d) 3 He reaction is calculated and compared with experimental data

  5. Status of the development of electron volt inelastic neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newport, R.J.; Taylor, A.D.; Williams, W.G.

    1984-05-01

    High energy inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy is reviewed in the light of material presented at the 'High Energy Excitations in Condensed Matter' (HEECM) Workshop, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory 13-15 February 1984. Particular attention is paid to the development of instrumentation based on nuclear resonance analysers. (author)

  6. Design of 3D Graphene-Oxide Spheres and Their Derived Hierarchical Porous Structures for High Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuangnan; Gadipelli, Srinivas; Yang, Yuchen; Guo, Zhengxiao

    2017-11-01

    Graphene-oxide (GO) based porous structures are highly desirable for supercapacitors, as the charge storage and transfer can be enhanced by advancement in the synthesis. An effective route is presented of, first, synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) assembly of GO sheets in a spherical architecture (GOS) by flash-freezing of GO dispersion, and then development of hierarchical porous graphene (HPG) networks by facile thermal-shock reduction of GOS. This leads to a superior gravimetric specific capacitance of ≈306 F g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 , with a capacitance retention of 93% after 10 000 cycles. The values represent a significant capacitance enhancement by 30-50% compared with the GO powder equivalent, and are among the highest reported for GO-based structures from different chemical reduction routes. Furthermore, a solid-state flexible supercapacitor is fabricated by constructing the HPG with polymer gel electrolyte, exhibiting an excellent areal specific capacitance of ≈220 mF cm -2 at 1.0 mA cm -2 with exceptional cyclic stability. The work reveals a facile but efficient synthesis approach of GO-based materials to enhance the capacitive energy storage. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A Highly Stable and Magnetically Recyclable Nanocatalyst System: Mesoporous Silica Spheres Embedded with FeCo/Graphitic Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles and Pt Nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da Jeong; Li, Yan; Kim, Yun Jin; Hur, Nam Hwi; Seo, Won Seok

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a highly stable and magnetically recyclable nanocatalyst system for alkene hydrogenation. The materials are composed of mesoporous silica spheres (MSS) embedded with FeCo/graphitic shell (FeCo/GC) magnetic nanoparticles and Pt nanocatalysts (Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS). The Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS have superparamagnetism at room temperature and show type IV isotherm typical for mesoporous silica, thereby ensuring a large enough inner space (surface area of 235.3 m(2)  g(-1), pore volume of 0.165 cm(3)  g(-1), and pore diameter of 2.8 nm) to undergo catalytic reactions. We have shown that the Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS system readily converts cyclohexene into cyclohexane, which is the only product isolated and Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS can be seperated very quickly by an external magnetic field after the catalytic reaction is finished. We have demonstrated that the recycled Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS can be reused further for the same hydrogenation reaction at least four times without loss in the initial catalytic activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Study of electric monopole transitions between the ground state and the first excited O+-state in 40,42,44,48Ca with high resolution inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strottman, D.; Graef, H.D.; Feldmeier, H.; Manakos, P.; Richter, A.; Spamer, E.

    1977-11-01

    Monopole transitions from the O + 1 ground states to O + 2 excited states at 3.353 MeV ( 40 Ca), 1.837 MeV ( 42 Ca), 1.884 MeV ( 44 Ca) and 4.272 Mev ( 48 Ca) have been investigated with high resolution inelastic electron scattering (FWHM approximately equal to 30 keV) at low momentum transfer (0.29 fm -1 -1 ). The respective monopole matrix elements are (2.53 +- 0.41) fm 2 , (5.24 +- 0.39) fm 2 , (5.45 +- 0.41) fm 2 and (2.28 +- 0.49) fm 2 . These results are used together with known ground state charge radii and the average number of holes in the sd-shell in the ground state to estimate the number of particle-hole excitations in the wavefunctions of th excited O + states. (orig.) [de

  9. ORGANIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie HAINES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The critical analysis of Habermas’ Public Sphere Theory and the comparative undertaking to the current day enables us to assert that in contemporary society, public sphere is no longer a political public sphere, this dimension being completed by a societal dimension, the public sphere has extended and now we can talk about partial public spheres in an ever more commercial environment. The new rebuilding and communication technologies create a new type of public character: the visible sphere – non-located, non-dialogical and open. Information and communication are more and more involved in the restructuring of capitalism on an international scale and the reorganization of leadership and management systems. The reevaluation of the public sphere, public opinion, communication allows us to define public sphere according to the profound mutations from today’s democratic societies.

  10. K{sub S}{sup 0} production at high Q{sup 2} in deep inelastic ep scattering at H1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Tabasco, Julia Elizabeth

    2010-12-15

    The production of K{sub S}{sup 0} mesons is studied using deep-inelastic scattering events (DIS) recorded with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. The measurements are performed in the phase space defined by the four-momentum transfer squared of the photon, 145 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2}. The differential production cross sections of the K{sub S}{sup 0} meson are presented as function of the kinematic variables Q{sup 2} and x, the transverse momentum p{sub T} and the pseudorapidity {eta} of the particle in laboratory frame, and as function of the momentum fraction x{sub p}{sup BF} and transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup BF} in the Breit Frame. Moreover, the K{sub S}{sup 0} production rate is compared to the production of charged particles and to the production of DIS events in the same region of phase space. The data are compared to theoretical predictions, based on leading order Monte Carlo programs with matched parton showers. The Monte Carlo models are also used for studies of the flavour contribution to the K{sub S}{sup 0} production and parton density function dependence. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of high-Q2 neutral current deep inelastic e-p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of the neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e - p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised electron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections dσ/dQ 2 , dσ/dx and dσ/dy and the double-differential cross sections in Q 2 and x are measured in the kinematic region y 2 > 185GeV 2 for both positively and negatively polarised electron beams and for each polarisation state separately. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 169.9 pb -1 taken with the ZEUS detector in 2005 and 2006 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318GeV. The structure functions xF 3 and xF 3 γZ are determined by combining the e - p results presented in this paper with previously measured e + p neutral current data. The asymmetry parameter A - is used to demonstrate the parity violating effects of electroweak interactions at large spacelike photon virtuality. The measurements agree well with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current deep inelastic e{sup -}p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Measurements of the neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e{sup -}p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised electron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the double-differential cross sections in Q{sup 2} and x are measured in the kinematic region y < 0.9 and Q{sup 2} > 185GeV{sup 2} for both positively and negatively polarised electron beams and for each polarisation state separately. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 169.9 pb{sup -1} taken with the ZEUS detector in 2005 and 2006 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318GeV. The structure functions xF{sub 3} and xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}}{sup Z} are determined by combining the e{sup -}p results presented in this paper with previously measured e{sup +}p neutral current data. The asymmetry parameter A{sup -} is used to demonstrate the parity violating effects of electroweak interactions at large spacelike photon virtuality. The measurements agree well with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics; Max-Planck-Inst., Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-08-15

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e{sup +}p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 132 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is presented at positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beams. The single-differential cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy are presented for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}. The reduced cross-section {sigma} is presented in the kinematic range 200

  14. The inelastic scattering of medium energy α particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crut, M.

    1960-01-01

    The aim of this work is to find out what are the properties of the so-called 'anomalous states' in medium weight nuclei. These states preferentially excited in the inelastic scattering of medium energy charged particles have an excitation energy at about 4 MeV for nuclei with Z ≤ 29 and in the range 2-3 MeV for high Z nuclei. From a combination of angular distribution data in the elastic and inelastic scattering of 30 MeV α particles, and correlation data between inelastic α particles and deexcitation γ rays, we show that for even-even nuclei, we can attribute spin 3 and parity minus to these 'anomalous states'. This is quite in agreement with the interpretation of these levels suggested by Lane as due to collective octupole oscillations. We give a resume of the theories used in the analysis of the data and a description of the experimental set-up. (author) [fr

  15. Inelastic electron scattering influence on the strong coupling oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabovich, A.M.; Voitenko, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    The superconducting order parameters Δ and energy gap Δ g are calculated taking into account the pair-breaking inelastic quasiparticle scattering by thermal Bose-excitations, e.g., phonons. The treatment is self-consistent because the scattering amplitude depends on Δ. The superconducting transition for any strength of the inelastic scattering is the phase transition of the first kind and the dependences Δ (T) and Δ g (T) tend to rectangular curve that agrees well with the experiment for high-Tc oxides. On the basis of the developed theory the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate R s in the superconducting state is calculated. The Hebel-Slichter peak in R s (T) is shown to disappear for strong enough inelastic scattering

  16. Spin-polarized inelastic tunneling through insulating barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Tran, M; Jaffrès, H; Seneor, P; Deranlot, C; Petroff, F; George, J-M; Lépine, B; Ababou, S; Jézéquel, G

    2009-05-01

    Spin-conserving hopping transport through chains of localized states has been evidenced by taking benefit of the high degree of spin-polarization of CoFeB-MgO-CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions. In particular, our data show that relatively thick MgO barriers doped with boron favor the activation of spin-conserving inelastic channels through a chain of three localized states and leading to reduced magnetoresistance effects. We propose an extension of the Glazman-Matveev theory to the case of ferromagnetic reservoirs to account for spin-polarized inelastic tunneling through nonmagnetic localized states embedded in an insulating barrier.

  17. An inelastic neutron scattering study of hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Klausen, Stine Nyborg; Lefmann, K

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic dynamics in nanocrystalline hematite by inelastic neutron scattering at the high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer IRIS at ISIS. Compared to previous inelastic neutron scattering experiments an improvement of the resolution function is achieved and more detailed...... moment at the antiferromagnetic Bragg reflection. We have studied different weightings of the particle size distribution. The data and their temperature dependence can with good agreement be interpreted on the basis of the Neel-Brown theory for superparamagnetic relaxation and a model for the collective...

  18. Highlights of electron-proton deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltesse, J.

    1996-02-01

    Salient results on deep inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS collaborations are reviewed. These include preliminary measurements of the proton structure function F 2 extending to new regimes at both high Q 2 and low Q 2 and x, studies of the hadronic final states and discussion on QCD interpretations of low x data. New determination of α s from jet rates in deep inelastic scattering based on 1994 data are presented. A consistent picture of the gluon density in the proton at low x from a variety of processes is obtained. (author)

  19. Polarization transfer in inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Polarization transfer experiments are now feasible for inelastic scattering experiments on complex nuclei. Experiments thus far have dealt with the spin-flip probability; this observable is sensitive to the action of spin-spin and tensor forces in inelastic scattering. Spin-flip probabilities at E approx. 40 MeV in isoscalar transitions in 12 C(12.71 MeV) and 15 O(8.89 MeV) show considerable deviation from DWBA-shell model predictions; this deviation indicates evidence for more complex reaction mechanisms. Experiments at intermediate energies will soon be possible and will yield data of much higher precision than is possible at lower (E < 100 MeV) energies. These experiments hold exciting promise in such areas as nuclear critical opalescence. 7 figures, 1 table

  20. Inelastic neutron scattering from clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudel, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic excitations in clusters of paramagnetic ions have non-vanishing cross-sections for inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Exchange splittings can be determined, the temperature dependence of exchange can be studied, intra- and intercluster effects can be separated and magnetic form factors determined. INS provides a more direct access to the molecular properties than bulk techniques. Its application is restricted to complexes with no or few (< 10%) hydrogen atoms

  1. Diagnosis of a Poorly Performing Liquid Hydrogen Bulk Storage Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Angela G.

    2011-01-01

    There are two 850,000 gallon Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A and the other at Launch Pad B. The LH2 Sphere at Pad B has had a high boiloff rate since being brought into service in the 1960's. The daily commodity loss was estimated to be approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the minimum required by the sphere's specification. Additionally, after being re-painted in the late 1990's a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere which resulted in a poor paint bond, and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of Space Shuttle program service which provided a unique opportunity to diagnose the sphere's poor performance. The sphere was drained and inerted, and then opened from the annular relief device on the top where a series of boroscoping operations were accomplished. Boroscoping revealed a large Perlite insulation void in the region of the sphere where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and off-loaded into the annular void region until the annulus was full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  2. Synthesis of functionalized 3D porous graphene using both ionic liquid and SiO2 spheres as ``spacers'' for high-performance application in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Li, Na; Liu, Jiawei; Cai, Kai; Foda, Mohamed F.; Lei, Xiaomin; Han, Heyou

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a high-capacity supercapacitor material based on functionalized three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene was fabricated by low temperature hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) using both ionic liquid (IL) and SiO2 spheres as ``spacers''. In the synthesis, the introduction of dual ``spacers'' effectively enlarged the interspace between graphene sheets and suppressed their re-stacking. In addition, the IL also acted as a structure-directing agent playing a crucial role in inducing the formation of unique 3D architectures. Consequently, fast electron/ion transport channels were successfully constructed and numerous oxygen-containing groups on graphene sheets were effectively reserved, which had unique advantages in decreasing ion diffusion resistance and providing additional pseudocapacitance. As expected, the obtained material exhibited superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to single ``spacer'' designed electrodes and simultaneously maintained excellent cycling stability. In particular, there was nearly no loss of its initial capacitance after 3000 cycles. In addition, we further assembled a symmetric two-electrode device using the material, which showed outstanding flexibility and low equivalent series resistance (ESR). More importantly, it was capable of yielding a maximum power density of about 13.3 kW kg-1 with an energy density of about 7.0 W h kg-1 at a voltage of 1.0 V in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. All these impressive results demonstrate that the material obtained by this approach is greatly promising for application in high-performance supercapacitors.In this work, a high-capacity supercapacitor material based on functionalized three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene was fabricated by low temperature hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) using both ionic liquid (IL) and SiO2 spheres as ``spacers''. In the synthesis, the introduction of dual ``spacers'' effectively enlarged the interspace between graphene sheets

  3. Synthesis of functionalized 3D porous graphene using both ionic liquid and SiO2 spheres as "spacers" for high-performance application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Li, Na; Liu, Jiawei; Cai, Kai; Foda, Mohamed F; Lei, Xiaomin; Han, Heyou

    2015-01-14

    In this work, a high-capacity supercapacitor material based on functionalized three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene was fabricated by low temperature hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) using both ionic liquid (IL) and SiO2 spheres as "spacers". In the synthesis, the introduction of dual "spacers" effectively enlarged the interspace between graphene sheets and suppressed their re-stacking. In addition, the IL also acted as a structure-directing agent playing a crucial role in inducing the formation of unique 3D architectures. Consequently, fast electron/ion transport channels were successfully constructed and numerous oxygen-containing groups on graphene sheets were effectively reserved, which had unique advantages in decreasing ion diffusion resistance and providing additional pseudocapacitance. As expected, the obtained material exhibited superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to single "spacer" designed electrodes and simultaneously maintained excellent cycling stability. In particular, there was nearly no loss of its initial capacitance after 3000 cycles. In addition, we further assembled a symmetric two-electrode device using the material, which showed outstanding flexibility and low equivalent series resistance (ESR). More importantly, it was capable of yielding a maximum power density of about 13.3 kW kg(-1) with an energy density of about 7.0 W h kg(-1) at a voltage of 1.0 V in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. All these impressive results demonstrate that the material obtained by this approach is greatly promising for application in high-performance supercapacitors.

  4. VMware vSphere Design

    CERN Document Server

    Guthrie, Forbes; Saidel-Keesing, Maish

    2011-01-01

    The only book focused on designing VMware vSphere implementations.VMware vSphere is the most widely deployed virtualization platform today. Considered the most robust and sophisticated hypervisor product, vSphere is the de facto standard for businesses, both large and small. This book is the only one of its kind to concisely explain how to execute a successful vSphere architecture, tailored to meet your company's needs. Expert authors share with you the factors that shape the design of a vSphere implementation. Learn how to make the right design decisions for your environment.Explores the late

  5. Study of the giant multipole resonances, especially the isoscalar giant E2 resonance in 208Pb by inelastic electron scattering with medium and high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehner, E.G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances were looked for by inelastic electron scattering up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of Esub(o) = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. Basing on this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as a superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forwards angles a further weak excitation appears at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is also observed in (α,α') scattering experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has partly to be assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gels because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. Study of the giant multipole resonances especially of the isoscalar giant E2 resonance in 208Pb by medium and high energy resolution inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehner, G.

    1982-01-01

    In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV were looked for by medium resolution inelastic electron scattering. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of E 0 = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. On the base of this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forward angles a further weak excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV appears which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is observed also in (α, α') experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also a Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has to be partly assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gets because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de

  7. Hadronic parity violation and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-P.; Prezeau, G.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We compute contributions to the parity-violating (PV) inelastic electron-deuteron scattering asymmetry arising from hadronic PV. While hadronic PV effects can be relatively important in PV threshold electrodisintegration, we find that they are highly suppressed at quasielastic kinematics. The interpretation of the PV quasielastic asymmetry is, thus, largely unaffected by hadronic PV

  8. Instantons in the QCD vacuum and in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, F.

    1999-01-01

    We give a brief status report on our on-going investigation of the prospects to discover QCD instantons in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at HERA. A recent high-quality lattice study of the topological structure of the QCD vacuum is exploited to provide crucial support of our predictions for DIS, based on instanton perturbation theory

  9. Spectrometer for neutron inelastic scattering investigations of microsamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurov, A.M.; Kozlenko, D.P.; Platonov, S.L.; Savenko, B.N.; Glazkov, V.P.; Krasnikov, Yu.M.; Naumov, I.V.; Pukhov, A.V.; Somenkov, V.A.; Syrykh, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    A new neutron spectrometer for investigation of inelastic neutron scattering on polycrystal microsamples under high pressure in sapphire and diamond anvils cells is described. The spectrometer is operating at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in JINR. Parameters and methodical peculiarities of the spectrometer and the examples of experimental studies are given. (author)

  10. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating

  11. Deep inelastic processes and the parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.

    The lecture was intended as an elementary introduction to the physics of deep inelastic phenomena from the point of view of theory. General formulae and facts concerning inclusive deep inelastic processes in the form: l+N→l'+hadrons (electroproduction, neutrino scattering) are first recalled. The deep inelastic annihilation e + e - →hadrons is then envisaged. The light cone approach, the parton model and their relation are mainly emphasized

  12. Deep inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-07-01

    From the review of deep inelastic electron and muon scattering it is concluded that the puzzle of deep inelastic scattering versus annihilation was replaced with the challenge of the new particles, that the evidence for the simplest quark-algebra models of deep inelastic processes is weaker than a year ago. Definite evidence of scale breaking was found but the specific form of that scale breaking is difficult to extract from the data. 59 references

  13. Use of inelastic analysis in cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, Douglas J.; Breivik, Nicole L.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of inelastic analysis are discussed. Example calculations and designs showing the implications and significance of factors affecting inelastic analysis are given. From the results described in this paper it can be seen that inelastic analysis provides an improved method for the design of casks. It can also be seen that additional code and standards work is needed to give designers guidance in the use of inelastic analysis. Development of these codes and standards is an area where there is a definite need for additional work. The authors hope that this paper will help to define the areas where that need is most acute

  14. Elastic and inelastic psi production by muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.C.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented on the elastic and inelastic production of psi (3.1). The elastic data are qualitative agreement with the predictions of photon-gluon fusion but have a steeper dependence on Q 2 than the model predicts. A QCD calculation accounts well for the shape of the inelastic data in inelasticity, Q 2 and E/sub γ/, but fails to account for the absolute cross section. At 209 GeV, the cross-section for elastic psi production is 0.36 +- 0.07 nb; for inelastic, 0.28 +- 0.06nb

  15. Beyond fuzzy spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindarajan, T R; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Shreecharan, T

    2010-01-01

    We study polynomial deformations of the fuzzy sphere, specifically given by the cubic or the Higgs algebra. We derive the Higgs algebra by quantizing the Poisson structure on a surface in R 3 . We find that several surfaces, differing by constants, are described by the Higgs algebra at the fuzzy level. Some of these surfaces have a singularity and we overcome this by quantizing this manifold using coherent states for this nonlinear algebra. This is seen in the measure constructed from these coherent states. We also find the star product for this non-commutative algebra as a first step in constructing field theories on such fuzzy spaces.

  16. Falling-sphere radioactive viscometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R. de.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the falling sphere viscometric method was studies experimentally using a sphere tagged with 198 Au radiosotopo, the objective being the demosntration of the advantages of this technique in relation to the traditional method. The utilisation of the falling radioactive sphere permits the point-point monitoring of sphere position as a function of count rate. The fall tube wall and end effects were determined by this technique. Tests were performed with spheres of different diameters in four tubes. The application of this technique demosntrated the wall and end effects in sphere speed. The case of sphere fall in the steady slow regime allowed the determination of the terminal velocity, showing the increase of botton end effect as the sphere approaches the tube base. In the case the transient slow regime, the sphere was initially in a state of respose near the top surface. The data obtained show the influence of the free surface and wall on the sphere acceleration. These experimental data were applied to the Basset equation on order to verify the behaviour of the terms in this equation. (author) [pt

  17. Inelastic dark matter in light of DAMA/LIBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Spencer; Weiner, Neal; Kribs, Graham D.; Tucker-Smith, David

    2009-01-01

    Inelastic dark matter, in which weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleus scatterings occur through a transition to an excited WIMP state ∼100 keV above the ground state, provides a compelling explanation of the DAMA annual modulation signal. We demonstrate that the relative sensitivities of various dark matter direct detection experiments are modified such that the DAMA annual modulation signal can be reconciled with the absence of a reported signal at CDMS-Soudan, XENON10, ZEPLIN, CRESST, and KIMS for inelastic WIMPs with masses O(100 GeV). We review the status of these experiments, and make predictions for upcoming ones. In particular, we note that inelastic dark matter leads to highly suppressed signals at low energy, with most events typically occurring between 20 and 45 keV (unquenched) at xenon and iodine experiments, and generally no events at low (∼10 keV) energies. Suppressing the background in this high-energy region is essential to testing this scenario. The recent CRESST data suggest seven observed tungsten events, which is consistent with expectations from this model. If the tungsten signal persists at future CRESST runs, it would provide compelling evidence for inelastic dark matter, while its absence should exclude it.

  18. Elastic and inelastic photon scattering on the atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskarev, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Works on investigation of elastic and inelastic scattering of photons on heavy and intermediate nuclei are briefly reviewed. Theoretical problems of nuclear and electron Tompson, Releev and Delbrueck scatterings as well as nuclear resonance scattering are briefly discussed. It is shown that differential cross section of coherent elastic scattering is expressed by means of partial amplitudes of shown processes. Experimental investigations on elastic scattering in the region of threshold energies of photonucleon reactions are described. Problems of theoretical description of elastic scattering in different variants of collective models are considered. Discussed are works, investigating channels of inelastic photon scattering with excitation of nuclear Raman effect. It is noted that to describe channels of inelastic photon scattering it is necessary to use models, that correctly regard the microscopic structure of giant resonance levels to obtain information on the nature of these levels. Investigations of processes of photon elastic and inelastic scattering connected with fundamental characteristics of atomic nucleus, permit to obtain valuable spectroscopic information on high-lying levels of nucleus. Detail investigation of photon scattering in a wide range of energies is necessary [ru

  19. Process development and fabrication for sphere-pac fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, R.K.; Campbell, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium fuel rods containing sphere-pac fuel have been fabricated for in-reactor tests and demonstrations. A process for the development, qualification, and fabrication of acceptable sphere-pac fuel rods is described. Special equipment to control fuel contamination with moisture or air and the equipment layout needed for rod fabrication is described and tests for assuring the uniformity of the fuel column are discussed. Fuel retainers required for sphere-pac fuel column stability and instrumentation to measure fuel column smear density are described. Results of sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication campaigns are reviewed and recommended improvements for high throughput production are noted

  20. IBM WebSphere Application Server 80 Administration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Steve

    2011-01-01

    IBM WebSphere Application Server 8.0 Administration Guide is a highly practical, example-driven tutorial. You will be introduced to WebSphere Application Server 8.0, and guided through configuration, deployment, and tuning for optimum performance. If you are an administrator who wants to get up and running with IBM WebSphere Application Server 8.0, then this book is not to be missed. Experience with WebSphere and Java would be an advantage, but is not essential.

  1. Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badelek, B.

    1992-01-01

    Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering is analysed using the double interaction formalism where we relate shadowing to inclusive diffractive processes. Both the vector meson and parton contributions are considered for low and high Q 2 values including QCD corrections with parton recombination for high Q 2 . These Q 2 values were chosen to correspond to existing experimental data and to the possible HERA measurements. Detailed discussion of various shadowing mechanisms is given. As expected the shadowing effects are found to be very small, less then 2% or so, in agreement with the recent precise measurements performed by the New Muon Collaboration. The contribution of shadowing term to the Gottfried sum the region x > 0.004 and for Q 2 = 4 GeV 2 is estimated to be equal to -0.025. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  2. The thermal conductivity of beds of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Shapiro, M.; Longest, A.W.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal conductivities (k) of beds of solid and hollow microspheres were measured using two radial heat flow techniques. One technique provided k-data at 300 K for beds with the void spaces between particles filled with argon, nitrogen, or helium from 5 kPa to 30 MPa. The other technique provided k-data with air at atmospheric pressure from 300 to 1000 K. The 300 K technique was used to study bed systems with high k-values that can be varied by changing the gas type and gas pressure. Such systems can be used to control the operating temperature of an irradiation capsule. The systems studied included beds of 500 μm dia solid Al 2 O 3 , the same Al 2 O 3 spheres mixed with spheres of silica--alumina or with SiC shards, carbon spheres, and nickel spheres. Both techniques were used to determine the k-value of beds of hollow spheres with solid shells of Al 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 /center dot/7 w/o Cr 2 O 3 , and partially stabilized ZrO 2 . The hollow microspheres had diameters from 2100 to 3500 μm and wall thicknesses from 80 to 160 μm. 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Topics in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandzura, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Several topics in deep inelastic lepton--nucleon scattering are discussed, with emphasis on the structure functions appearing in polarized experiments. The major results are: infinite set of new sum rules reducing the number of independent spin dependent structure functions (for electroproduction) from two to one; the application of the techniques of Nachtmann to extract the coefficients appearing in the Wilson operator product expansion; and radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients of free field theory. Also discussed are the use of dimensional regularization to simplify the calculation of these radiative corrections

  4. Inelastic scattering from amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.

    1985-08-01

    The potential of inelastic neutron scattering techniques for surveying various aspects of the dynamics of amorphous solids is briefly reviewed. The recent use of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source to provide detailed information on the optical vibrations of glasses is discussed in more detail. The density of states represents an averaged quantity which gives information about the general characteristics of the structure and bonding. More extensive information can be obtained by studying the detailed wavevector dependence of the dynamic structure factor. 15 refs., 7 figs

  5. Analytic functionals on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Morimoto, Mitsuo

    1998-01-01

    This book treats spherical harmonic expansion of real analytic functions and hyperfunctions on the sphere. Because a one-dimensional sphere is a circle, the simplest example of the theory is that of Fourier series of periodic functions. The author first introduces a system of complex neighborhoods of the sphere by means of the Lie norm. He then studies holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the complex sphere. In the one-dimensional case, this corresponds to the study of holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the annular set in the complex plane, relying on the Laurent series expansion. In this volume, it is shown that the same idea still works in a higher-dimensional sphere. The Fourier-Borel transformation of analytic functionals on the sphere is also examined; the eigenfunction of the Laplacian can be studied in this way.

  6. Consequences of inelastic discrete-level neutron-collision mechanics for inelastic continuum scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E. (Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands))

    1983-01-01

    From the collision mechanics of inelastic discrete-level scattering several properties are derived for the secondary-neutron energy distribution (SNED) for inelastic continuum scattering, when conceived as scattering with continuously-distributed inelastic levels. Using assumptions about the level density and neutron cross section the SNED can be calculated and some examples are shown. A formula is derived to calculate from a given inelastic continuum SNED a function, which is proportional to the level density and the neutron cross section. From this relation further conditions follow for the SNED. Representations for the inelastic continuum SNED currently in use do not, in general, satisfy most of the derived conditions.

  7. Consequences of inelastic discrete-level neutron-collision mechanics for inelastic continuum scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    From the collision mechanics of inelastic discrete-level scattering several properties are derived for the secondary-neutron energy distribution (SNED) for inelastic continuum scattering, when conceived as scattering with continuously-distributed inelastic levels. Using assumptions about the level density and neutron cross section the SNED can be calculated and some examples are shown. A formula is derived to calculate from a given inelastic continuum SNED a function, which is proportional to the level density and the neutron cross section. From this relation further conditions follow for the SNED. Representations for the inelastic continuum SNED currently in use do not, in general, satisfy most of the derived conditions. (author)

  8. vSphere design best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Bolander, Brian

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide full of hands-on examples of real-world design best practices. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive, there are more details on the concepts used.If you wish to learn about vSphere best practices and how to apply them when designing virtual, high performance, reliable datacenters that support business critical applications to work more efficiently and to prepare for official certifications, this is the book for you. Readers should possess a good working knowledge of vSphere as well as servers, storage, and networking.

  9. Earthquake response of inelastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Vaity, K.N.; Reddy, .R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    The most commonly used method in the seismic analysis of structures is the response spectrum method. For seismic re-evaluation of existing facilities elastic response spectrum method cannot be used directly as large deformation above yield may be observed under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). The plastic deformation, i.e. hysteretic characteristics of various elements of the structure cause dissipation of energy. Hence the values of damping given by the code, which does not account hysteretic energy dissipation cannot be directly used. In this paper, appropriate damping values are evaluated for 5-storey, 10-storey and 15-storey shear beam structures, which deform beyond their yield limit. Linear elastic analysis is performed for the same structures using these damping values and the storey forces are compared with those obtained using inelastic time history analysis. A damping model, which relates ductility of the structure and damping, is developed. Using his damping model, a practical structure is analysed and results are compared with inelastic time history analysis and the comparison is found to be good

  10. πN inelastic reaction index, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Masaaki; Kichimi, Hiromichi; Oyanagi, Yoshio; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Takahashi, Kasuke.

    1977-08-01

    This report prepared by the KEK-PDG (Particle Data Group of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki, Japan) is a document compilation which covers 298 literatures dealing with πN inelastic reactions which were published in either of the following journals in the years of 1974, 1975 and 1976: Nuovo Cimento, Nuovo Cimento Letters, Nuclear Physics, Physics Letters, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Soviet Journal of Nuclear Physics and JETP Letters. Five indices are also given to facilitate the use of this compilation. Almost all the pages of this report is devoted to the listing of the five indices (accelerator, detector, reaction, beam momentum, and data description indices). In the appendix, some abbreviations for accelerators, detectors, institutions, and particles are listed. The descriptors for reaction data, and for particle properties, and beam momentum designations are also listed in the appendix. (Aoki, K.)

  11. Boson structure functions from inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The even /sup 104-110/Pd isotopes and /sup 196/Pt have been investigated at NIKHEF-K by high-resolution inelastic electron scattering. A new IBA-2 calculation has been performed for the Pd isotopes, in which the ratio of the proton and neutron coupling constants is taken from pion scattering. One set of boson structure functions sufficed for the description of the first and second E2-excitations in all Pd isotopes. The data showed no sensitivity for different structure functions for proton and neutron bosons. A preliminary analysis of a number of negative parity states (3/sup -/,5/sup -/ and 7/sup -/), observed in /sup 196/Pt, was performed through the introduction of an f-boson. The first E4-excitation in the palladium isotopes can be reasonably described with a β-structure function, but all other E4-excitations require the introduction of g-boson admixtures

  12. Research status on hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying system in HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianjin; Zhang He; Huang Zhiyong; Q, Weiwei; Bo Hanliang

    2014-01-01

    The absorber sphere pneumatic conveying system in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor was a special application of pneumatic conveying technique. The whole conveying process was an intermittent circulation of absorber spheres between the side reflector boring and the sphere storage vessel in the reactor. The absorber spheres were designed to drop into the reflector borings by its own gravity when the sphere discharge valve was opened by the driving mechanism. The absorber spheres in the reflector boring were transported back to the sphere storage vessel when the reactor needs to be started up. The hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior characteristics of the absorber spheres were very important for the design and operation of this special pneumatic conveying system. The whole conveying process of absorber spheres was consisted of four subprocesses, i.e. the spheres discharge from the sphere storage vessel and the side reflector boring, entrainment of spheres in the feeder, conveying of spheres in the transport pipe, gas-solid separation and pile of spheres in the sphere storage vessel. The research status on hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior of the absorber spheres in the pneumatic conveying system of HTR-PM were introduced mainly from the viewpoint of granular flow and gas-solid flow. The experimental systems and apparatus constructed and numerical simulation work conducted for absorber sphere pneumatic conveying process investigation were introduced. Some typical experimental and numerical simulation results of the hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior characteristics of the absorber spheres conveying were briefly reported. (author)

  13. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined

  14. Pele's tears and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Quane, S.; Russell, K.

    2011-12-01

    Pele's tears are a well known curiosity commonly associated with low viscosity basaltic explosive eruptions. However, these pyroclasts are rarely studied in detail and there is no full explanation for their formation. These intriguing pyroclasts have smooth glassy surfaces, vesiculated interiors, and fluidal morphologies tending towards droplets and then spheres as they decrease in size to Pele's tears from the 1959 fire-fountaining eruption of Kilauea Iki involving size and density measurements. Using thin section and SEM analysis we also consider their internal and external morphologies, porosity and bubble size distributions, and surface textures. Finally we consider the mechanisms of magma fragmentation, timescales of relaxation, and cooling rates that are responsible for their formation.

  15. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  16. Spherical Approximation on Unit Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Samir Bhaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a Jackson type theorem for functions in LP spaces on sphere And study on best approximation of  functions in  spaces defined on unit sphere. our central problem is to describe the approximation behavior of functions in    spaces for  by modulus of smoothness of functions.

  17. Template method synthesis of mesoporous carbon spheres and its applications as supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgosz, Karolina; Chen, Xuecheng; Kierzek, Krzysztof; Machnikowski, Jacek; Kalenczuk, Ryszard J.; Mijowska, Ewa

    2012-05-01

    Mesoporous carbon spheres (MCS) have been fabricated from structured mesoporous silica sphere using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with ethylene as a carbon feedstock. The mesoporous carbon spheres have a high specific surface area of 666.8 m2/g and good electrochemical properties. The mechanism of formation mesoporous carbon spheres (carbon spheres) is investigated. The important thing is a surfactant hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), which accelerates the process of carbon deposition. An additional advantage of this surfactant is an increase the yield of product. These mesoporous carbon spheres, which have good electrochemical properties is suitable for supercapacitors.

  18. Construction method of pre assembled unit of bolt sphere grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L. W.; Guo, F. L.; Wang, J. L.; Bu, F. M.

    2018-03-01

    The traditional construction of bolt sphere grid has many disadvantages, such as high cost, large amount of work at high altitude and long construction period, in order to make up for these shortcomings, in this paper, a new and applicable construction method is explored: setting up local scaffolding, installing the bolt sphere grid starting frame on the local scaffolding, then the pre assembled unit of bolt sphere grid is assembled on the ground, using small hoisting equipment to lift pre assembled unit to high altitude and install. Compared with the traditional installation method, the construction method has strong practicability and high economic efficiency, and has achieved good social and economic benefits.

  19. Deep inelastic scattering and disquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most comprehensive and detailed analyses of the existing data on the structure function F 2 (x, Q 2 ) of free nucleons, from the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of charged leptons on hydrogen and deuterium targets, have proved beyond any doubt that higher twist, 1/Q 2 corrections are needed in order to obtain a perfect agreement between perturbative QCD predictions and the data. These higher twist corrections take into account two quark correlations inside the nucleon; it is then natural to try to model them in the quark-diquark model of the proton. In so doing all interactions between the two quarks inside the diquark, both perturbative and non perturbative, are supposed to be taken into account. (orig./HSI)

  20. Jets in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, L.

    1995-01-01

    Jet production in deep inelastic scattering provides a basis for the investigation of various phenomena related to QCD. Two-jet production at large Q 2 has been studied and the distributions with respect to the partonic scaling variables have been compared to models and to next to leading order calculations. The first observations of azimuthal asymmetries of jets produced in first order α s processes have been obtained. The gluon initiated boson-gluon fusion process permits a direct determination of the gluon density of the proton from an analysis of the jets produced in the hard scattering process. A comparison of these results with those from indirect extractions of the gluon density provides an important test of QCD. (author)

  1. Microwave properties of sphere-, flake-, and disc-shaped BaFe12O19 nanoparticle inks for high-frequency applications on printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllymäki, S.; Maček Kržmanc, M.; Sloma, M.; Juuti, J.; Nelo, M.; Teirikangas, M.; Jakubowska, M.; Suvorov, D.; Jantunen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical (diameter 50–200 nm), flake- (diameter 40–200 nm), and disc-shaped (diameter 10–20 nm) BaFe 12 O 19 nanoparticles were synthesized with a wet chemical method, and their permittivity, electric loss tangent, permeability, and magnetic loss tangent were measured in the 0.045–10 GHz range. The materials were prepared using a solution of 12% PMMA resin in a butyldiglycol solvent for 10–50 wt% filling content. Microstrip transmission-line perturbation was used to measure complex permeability and the split post dielectric resonator method was employed to measure dielectric properties. The frequency dependence of the permeability and permittivity spectra of the composites was affected by their shape and filling fraction. The composites made with spherical particles had higher permeability values (1.4–1.75) at 1 GHz than the composites made with flake (1.25–1.6) or disc particles (1.1–1.3), but the spherical particles caused more losses. The flake particle composite provided permeability and magnetic loss characteristics at both 1 GHz and 7 GHz superior to those of the sphere particle composite in low-loss RF applications. The magnetic loss tangent of PMMA/BaFe 12 O 19 was 0.2–0.3 at 1 GHz, being lower than that of state-of-the-art PANI/BaFe 12 O 19 composites. The sphere composite inks showed permeability values less than 1 at 1–4 GHz ferromagnetic resonance (FMR); they could be used as a tunable material in microwave applications. The sphere and flake composite inks also had sufficient printing quality for the screen-printing fabrication method.

  2. Ultrafine Sn nanoparticles embedded in shell of N-doped hollow carbon spheres as high rate anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Peng; Cao, Zhenzhen; Wang, Chao; Zheng, Jiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, Xinhua, E-mail: xhxutju@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Dynamic covalent bond in polymeric nanoparticles is used to induce hollow Sn{sup 4+}-MOPs. • Ultrafine Sn nanoparticles uniformly embedded in shell of N-doped hollow carbon spheres is successfully synthesized by pyrolysis of the Sn{sup 4+}-MOPs precursor. • The composite exhibits superior cycle stability and rate capacity. - Abstract: A novel reversible interaction in polymeric nanoparticles is used to induce hollow Sn{sup 4+}-MOPs. Then ultrafine Sn nanoparticles uniformly embedded in shell of N-doped hollow carbon spheres is successfully synthesized by pyrolysis of the Sn{sup 4+}-MOPs precursor. In this architecture, the N-doped carbon shells can effectively avoid the direct exposure of embedded Sn nanoparticles to the electrolyte and efficiently accommodate the volume change of Sn nanoparticles. Furthermore, the hollow structure of carbon sphere can prevent Sn nanoparticles aggregation over repeated cycling and shorten the diffusion path of both electrons and ions. As a consequence, this N-doped hollow Sn/C anode delivers a reversible capacity of 606 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} after 250 cycles and a reversible capacity of 221 mA h g{sup −1} even at a much higher current density of 10 A g{sup −1}, which are much better than those of pure Sn nanoparticles. The desirable cyclic stability and rate capability were attributed to the unique architecture that provided fast pathway for electron transport and simultaneously solved the major issues of Sn-based anodes, such as pulverization, aggregation and loss of electrical contact.

  3. Microwave properties of sphere-, flake-, and disc-shaped BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticle inks for high-frequency applications on printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myllymäki, S. [Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014 (Finland); Maček Kržmanc, M. [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sloma, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME) Department of Silicon Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Juuti, J.; Nelo, M.; Teirikangas, M. [Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014 (Finland); Jakubowska, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME) Department of Silicon Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Suvorov, D. [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jantunen, H. [Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014 (Finland)

    2016-12-01

    Spherical (diameter 50–200 nm), flake- (diameter 40–200 nm), and disc-shaped (diameter 10–20 nm) BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles were synthesized with a wet chemical method, and their permittivity, electric loss tangent, permeability, and magnetic loss tangent were measured in the 0.045–10 GHz range. The materials were prepared using a solution of 12% PMMA resin in a butyldiglycol solvent for 10–50 wt% filling content. Microstrip transmission-line perturbation was used to measure complex permeability and the split post dielectric resonator method was employed to measure dielectric properties. The frequency dependence of the permeability and permittivity spectra of the composites was affected by their shape and filling fraction. The composites made with spherical particles had higher permeability values (1.4–1.75) at 1 GHz than the composites made with flake (1.25–1.6) or disc particles (1.1–1.3), but the spherical particles caused more losses. The flake particle composite provided permeability and magnetic loss characteristics at both 1 GHz and 7 GHz superior to those of the sphere particle composite in low-loss RF applications. The magnetic loss tangent of PMMA/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was 0.2–0.3 at 1 GHz, being lower than that of state-of-the-art PANI/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} composites. The sphere composite inks showed permeability values less than 1 at 1–4 GHz ferromagnetic resonance (FMR); they could be used as a tunable material in microwave applications. The sphere and flake composite inks also had sufficient printing quality for the screen-printing fabrication method.

  4. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.; Brodu, N.

    2014-05-01

    We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature.

  5. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.; Brodu, N.

    2014-01-01

    We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature

  6. Hadron-nucleon inelastic collision mean free path in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of atomic nuclei, used as targets in high energy hadron-nucleus collision experiments, are defined on the basis of the data on the nuclei sizes and radial nucleon density distributions in nuclei. Average mean free path for inelastic hadron-nucleon collisions in nuclei is estimated using existing experimental data on the pion-xenon nucleus collisions and the connection of it with the cross-section for hadron-nucleon elementary inelastic collisions is discussed

  7. Observation of events with an energetic forward neutron in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1996-05-01

    In deep inelastic neutral current scattering of positrons and protons at the center of mass energy of 300 GeV, we observe, with the ZEUS detector, events with a high energy neutron produced at very small scattering angles with respect to the proton direction. The events constitute a fixed fraction of the deep inelastic, neutral current event sample independent of Bjorken x and Q 2 in the range 3.10 -4 BJ -3 and 10 2 2 . (orig.)

  8. Positron interactions with water–total elastic, total inelastic, and elastic differential cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattersall, Wade; Chiari, Luca; Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P.; White, Ron D.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, Stephen J.; Garcia, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions

  9. Direct evidence for inelastic neutron 'acceleration' by 177Lum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, O.; Meot, V.; Rosse, B.; Belier, G.; Daugas, J.-M.; Morel, P.; Letourneau, A.; Menelle, A.

    2011-01-01

    The inelastic neutron acceleration cross section on the long-lived metastable state of 177 Lu has been measured using a direct method. High-energy neutrons have been detected using a specially designed setup placed on a cold neutron beam extracted from the ORPHEE reactor in Saclay. The 146±19 b inelastic neutron acceleration cross section in the ORPHEE cold neutron flux confirms the high cross section for this process on the 177 Lu m isomer. The deviation from the 258±58 b previously published obtained for a Maxwellian neutron flux at a 323 K temperature could be explained by the presence of a low energy resonance. Resonance parameters are deduced and discussed.

  10. Fe2O3 hollow sphere nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wen, Yang; Xu, Bing; Lu, Lu; Ren, Reiming

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted increasing interest in electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites were successfully prepared through facile low temperature water-bath method with carbon sphere as hard template. The morphology and microstructure of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Through hydrolysis mechanism, using ferric chloride direct hydrolysis, iron hydroxide coated on the surface of carbon sphere, after high temperature calcination can form the hollow spherical iron oxide materials. Electrochemical performances of the hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammery (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The Pure hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites achieves a specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 at the current density of 85 mA g-1. The results indicate that the uniform dispersion of hollow ball structure can effectively reduce the particle reunion in the process of charging and discharging.

  11. Pool boiling from rotating and stationary spheres in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuan, Winston M.; Schwartz, Sidney H.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented for a preliminary experiment involving saturated pool boiling at 1 atm from rotating 2 and 3 in. diameter spheres which were immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Additional results are presented for a stationary, 2 inch diameter sphere, quenched in LN2, which were obtained utilizing a more versatile and complete experimental apparatus that will eventually be used for additional rotating sphere experiments. The speed for the rotational tests was varied from 0 to 10,000 rpm. The stationary experiments parametrically varied pressure and subcooling levels from 0 to 600 psig and from 0 to 50 F, respectively. During the rotational tests, a high speed photographic analysis was undertaken to measure the thickness of the vapor film surrounding the sphere. The average Nusselt number over the cooling period was plotted against the rotational Reynolds number. Stationary sphere results included local boiling heat transfer coefficients at different latitudinal locations, for various pressure and subcooling levels.

  12. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  13. Simulation of a complete inelastic neutron scattering experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, H.; Lefmann, K.; Lake, B.

    2002-01-01

    A simulation of an inelastic neutron scattering experiment on the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 is presented. The complete experiment, including sample, is simulated using an interface between the experiment control program and the simulation software package (McStas) and is compared...... with the experimental data. Simulating the entire experiment is an attractive alternative to the usual method of convoluting the model cross section with the resolution function, especially if the resolution function is nontrivial....

  14. Forward jet production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, A.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Reimer, Petr; Sedlák, Jaroslav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2006), s. 27-42 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05LA259 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : HI experiment * ep scattering * deep inelastic * cross section * quantum chromodynamics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.251, year: 2006

  15. Inelastic neutron spectra and cross sections for 238 U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilov, N.V.; Kagalenko, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The report discusses the experimental facilities of IPPE, results of spectra and cross sections investigations. The problems of existing data libraries were highlighted. Some of these problems for example, inelastic spectra at high energy may be solved by correct theoretical calculation. Others like level cross sections at E > 2 MeV and the possible structure of excitation function for group levels between 0.5 to 0.85 MeV demand new experimental efforts. 21 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Inelastic scattering of neutrons by spin waves in terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden

    1966-01-01

    Measurements of spin-wave dispersion relations for magnons propagating in symmetry directions in ferromagnetic Tb; it is first experiment to give detailed information on magnetic excitations in heavy rare earths; Tb was chosen for these measurements because it is one of few rare-earth metals which...... does not have very high thermal-neutron capture cross section, so that inelastic neutron scattering experiments can give satisfactory information on magnon dispersion relations....

  17. Inelastic scattering of fast electrons by crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Josefsson, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    Generalized fundamental equations for electron diffraction in crystals, which include the effect of inelastic scattering described by a nonlocal interaction, are derived. An expression is obtained for the cross section for any specific type of inelastic scattering (e.g. inner-shell ionization, Rutherford backscattering). This result takes into account all other (background) inelastic scattering in the crystal leading to absorption from the dynamical Bragg-reflected beams, in practice mainly due to thermal diffuse scattering. There is a contribution to the cross section from all absorbed electrons, which form a diffuse background, as well as from the dynamical electrons. The approximations involved, assuming that the interactions leading to inelastic scattering can be described by a local potential are discussed, together with the corresponding expression for the cross section. It is demonstrated by means of an example for K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy that nonlocal effects can be significant. 47 refs., 4 figs

  18. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskin, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The new ep-collider HERA gives us the possibility to study the diffractive dissociation of virtual photon in deep inelastic ep-collision. The process of photon dissociation in deep inelastic scattering is the most direct way to measure the value of triple-pomeron vertex G 3P . It was shown that the value of the correct bare vertex G 3P may more than 4 times exceeds its effective value measuring in the triple-reggeon region and reaches the value of about 40-50% of the elastic pp-pomeron vertex. On the contrary in deep inelastic processes the perpendicular momenta q t of the secondary particles are large enough. Thus in deep inelastic reactions one can measure the absolute value of G 3P vertex in the most direct way and compare its value and q t dependence with the leading log QCD predictions

  19. Mean associative multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The associative hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic and Drell--Yan processes are studied. In particular the mean multiplicities in different hard processes in QCD are found to be determined by the mean multiplicity in parton jet [ru

  20. Multiplicity distributions in inelastic reactions on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Caneschi, L; Schwimmer, A

    1976-01-01

    The multiplicity distribution of the number of knocked-out nucleons and the correlation of the former with the multiplicity of the produced mesons, in inelastic particle-nucleus scattering, are computed.

  1. Deep inelastic inclusive weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of deep inelastic inclusive interactions is reviewed, emphasizing applications to electromagnetic and weak charged current processes. The following reactions are considered: e + N → e + X, ν + N → μ - + X, anti ν + N → μ + + X where X denotes a summation over all final state hadrons and the ν's are muon neutrinos. After a discussion of scaling, the quark-parton model is invoked to explain the principle experimental features of deep inelastic inclusive reactions

  2. Synthesis of solid and hollow ATO spheres by carbothermal reduction of ATO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Chunfang; Huang Zaiyin; Liao Dankui; Tan Xuecai; Wu Jian; Yuan Aiqun

    2007-01-01

    Solid and hollow ATO spheres were fabricated by heating ATO nanoparticles and graphite mixture in a tube furnace. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by EDS, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and HRTEM. The size of the solid spheres could be controlled by adjusting the rate of Ar flow and deposition positions. The hollow spheres were synthesized in an alumina tube system under conditions of a relatively high oxygen concentration. The growth mechanism of solid and hollow spheres was analysed

  3. In-depth magnetic characterization of a [2 × 2] Mn(III) square grid using SQUID magnetometry, inelastic neutron scattering, and high-field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konstantatos, Andreas; Bewley, Robert; Barra, Anne Laure

    2016-01-01

    . Combined inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments provided the necessary information in order to successfully model the magnetic properties of Mn4. The resulting model takes into account both the magnitude and the relative orientations of the single...

  4. Finite element analysis of inelastic structural behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes recent achievements in the finite element analysis of inelastic material behavior. The main purpose is to examine the interaction of three disciplines; (i) the finite element formulation of large deformation problems in the light of a systematic linearization, (ii) the constitutive modelling of inelastic processes in the rate-dependent and rate-independent response regime and (iii) the numerical solution of nonlinear rate problems via incremental iteration techniques. In the first part, alternative finite element models are developed for the idealization of large deformation problems. A systematic approach is presented to linearize the field equations locally by an incremental procedure. The finite element formulation is then examined for the description of inelastic material processes. In the second part, nonlinear and inelastic material phenomena are classified and illustrated with representative examples of concrete and metal components. In particular, rate-dependent and rate-independent material behavior is examined and representative constitutive models are assessed for their mathematical characterization. Hypoelastic, elastoplastic and endochronic models are compared for the description rate-independent material phenomena. In the third part, the numerial solution of inelastic structural behavior is discussed. In this context, several incremental techniques are developed and compared for tracing the evolution of the inelastic process. The numerical procedures are examined with regard to stability and accuracy to assess the overall efficiency. The 'optimal' incremental technique is then contrasted with the computer storage requirements to retain the data for the 'memory-characteristics' of the constitutive model

  5. SPHERE: Irradiation of sphere-pac fuel of UPuO2−x containing 3% Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Agata, E.; Hania, P.R.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.; Sciolla, C.; Baas, P.J.; Kamer, S.; Okel, R.A.F.; Bobeldijk, I.; Delage, F.; Bejaoui, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SPHERE is designed to check the behaviour of MADF sphere-pac concept. • MADF sphere-pac are compared with MADF pellet. • Swelling, helium release and restructuring behaviour will be the main output of the experiment. • An experiment to check sphere-pac MABB fuel behaviour is now under design. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like 241 Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. The SPHERE irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of European experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS, MARIOS) performed in the HFR (High Flux Reactor). The SPHERE experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project FAIRFUELS of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental works in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuels, the release or trapping of helium as well as helium induced fuel swelling have been shown to be the key issues for the design of Am-bearing targets. The main objective of the SPHERE experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of fuel containing 3% of americium and to compare the behaviour of sphere-pac fuel to pellet fuel, in particular the role of microstructure and temperature on fission gas release (mainly He) and on fuel swelling. The SPHERE experiment is being irradiated since September 2013 in the HFR in Petten (The Netherlands) and is expected to be terminated in spring 2015. The experiment has been designed to last up to 18 reactor cycles (corresponding to 18 months) but may reach its target earlier. This paper discusses the rationale and objective of the SPHERE experiment and provides a general description of its design

  6. Differential Calculus on Quantum Spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Welk, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We study covariant differential calculus on the quantum spheres S_q^2N-1. Two classification results for covariant first order differential calculi are proved. As an important step towards a description of the noncommutative geometry of the quantum spheres, a framework of covariant differential calculus is established, including a particular first order calculus obtained by factorization, higher order calculi and a symmetry concept.

  7. Revealing inner shell dynamics with inelastic X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franck, C.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many opportunities provided by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to extend the study of intra-atomic dynamics. As a means of testing dynamic response, inelastic x-ray scattering is particularly promising since it allows us to independently vary the period of the exciting field in both space and time. As an example of this type of work, the author presents experiments performed at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) laboratory, a prototype for the APS. This was inner shell inelastic scattering with a twist: in order to explore a new distance scale an x-ray fluorescence trigger was employed. Aside for the atomic insight gained, the experiment taught them the importance of the time structure of the synchrotron beam for coincidence experiments which are dominated by accidental events

  8. An attempt to apply the inelastic thermal spike model to surface modifications of CaF2 induced by highly charged ions: comparison to swift heavy ions effects and extension to some others material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, C; Khomrenkov, V; Wang, Y Y; Wang, Z G; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2017-03-08

    Surface damage appears on materials irradiated by highly charged ions (HCI). Since a direct link has been found between surface damage created by HCI with the one created by swift heavy ions (SHI), the inelastic thermal spike model (i-TS model) developed to explain track creation resulting from the electron excitation induced by SHI can also be applied to describe the response of materials under HCI which transfers its potential energy to electrons of the target. An experimental description of the appearance of the hillock-like nanoscale protrusions induced by SHI at the surface of CaF 2 is presented in comparison with track formation in bulk which shows that the only parameter on which we can be confident is the electronic energy loss threshold. Track size and electronic energy loss threshold resulting from SHI irradiation of CaF 2 is described by the i-TS model in a 2D geometry. Based on this description the i-TS model is extended to three dimensions to describe the potential threshold of appearance of protrusions by HCI in CaF 2 and to other crystalline materials (LiF, crystalline SiO 2 , mica, LiNbO 3 , SrTiO 3 , ZnO, TiO 2 , HOPG). The strength of the electron-phonon coupling and the depth in which the potential energy is deposited near the surface combined with the energy necessary to melt the material defines the classification of the material sensitivity. As done for SHI, the band gap of the material may play an important role in the determination of the depth in which the potential energy is deposited. Moreover larger is the initial potential energy and larger is the depth in which it is deposited.

  9. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, Steven; Hicks, Sally; Vanhoy, Jeffrey; McEllistrem, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium ( 23 Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56 Fe and 54 Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23 Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-@@energy (few MeV) fast-@@neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-@@region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., @@ 2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  10. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Steven [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hicks, Sally [Univ. of Dallas, TX (United States); Vanhoy, Jeffrey [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); McEllistrem, Marcus [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium (23Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56Fe and 54Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-­energy (few MeV) fast-­neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-­region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., β2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  11. Endochronic theory for inelasticity and failure analysis of concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Bhat, P.D.; Shieh, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    A gradual accumulation of inelastic strain can be most conveniently described in terms of the so-called intrinsic time, whose increment depends on the time increment as well as the strain increments. This approach, which gives a particularly simple description of irreversibility of strain at unloading and cyclic loading, was previously developed for metals and is extended herein to concrete by introducing the hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of inelastic strain, the inelastic dilatancy produced by deviator strains, and the strain-softening tendency at high stress. Failure envelopes are obtained as a collection of the peaks of stress-strain diagrams. By comparison with experimental data from the literature, it is demonstrated that the proposed model predicts quite closely: stress-strain diagrams for concretes of different strength; uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial stress-strain diagrams and failure envelopes; failure envelopes for combined torsion and compression, lateral strains and volume expansion in uniaxial and biaxial tests; the behavior of spirally confined concrete; hysteresis loops or repeated high compression; cyclic creep up to 10/sup 6/ cycles; the strain rate effect; the decrease of long time strength; and the increase of short-time strength due to low stress creep.

  12. Endochronic theory for inelasticity and failure analysis of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Bhat, P.D.; Shieh, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    A gradual accumulation of inelastic strain can be most conveniently described in terms of the so-called intrinsic time, whose increment depends on the time increment as well as the strain increments. This approach, which gives a particularly simple description of irreversibility of strain at unloading and cyclic loading, was previously developed for metals and is extended herein to concrete by introducing the hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of inelastic strain, the inelastic dilatancy produced by deviator strains, and the strain-softening tendency at high stress. Failure envelopes are obtained as a collection of the peaks of stress-strain diagrams. By comparison with experimental data from the literature, it is demonstrated that the proposed model predicts quite closely: stress-strain diagrams for concretes of different strength; uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial stress-strain diagrams and failure envelopes; failure envelopes for combined torsion and compression, lateral strains and volume expansion in uniaxial and biaxial tests; the behavior of spirally confined concrete; hysteresis loops or repeated high compression; cyclic creep up to 10 6 cycles; the strain rate effect; the decrease of long time strength; and the increase of short-time strength due to low stress creep

  13. White Dwarf Stars as Polytropic Gas Spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Nouh, M. I.; Saad, A. S.; Elkhateeb, M. M.; Korany, B.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the highly degeneracy of electrons in white dwarf stars, we expect that the relativistic effects play very important role in these stars. In the present article, we study the properties of the condensed matter in white dwarfs using Newtonian and relativistic polytropic fluid sphere. Two polytropic indices (namely n=3 and n=1.5) are proposed to investigate the physical characteristics of the models. We solve the Lane-Emden equations numerically.. The results show that the relativistic e...

  14. Quantum effects in deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-07-01

    In the Impulse Approximation (IA), which is used to interpret deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measurements, it is assumed both that the target system can be treated as a gas of free atoms and that the struck atom recoils freely after the collision with the neutron. Departures from the IA are generally attributed to final state effects (FSE), which are due to the inaccuracy of the latter assumption. However it is shown that even when FSE are neglected, significant departures from the IA occur at low temperatures due to inaccuracies in the former assumption. These are referred to as initial state effects (ISE) and are due to the quantum nature of the initial state. Comparison with experimental data and exactly soluble models shows that ISE largely account for observed asymmetries and peak shifts in the neutron scattering function S(q,ω), compared with the IA prediction. It is shown that when FSE are neglected, ISE can also be neglected when either the momentum transfer or the temperature is high. Finally it is shown that FSE should be negligible at high momentum transfers in systems other than quantum fluids and that therefore in this regime the IA is reached in such systems. (author)

  15. NiCo2O4 surface coating Li[Ni0.03Mn1.97]O4 micro-/nano- spheres as cathode material for high-performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Pan; Dong, Hui; Xu, Yunlong; Zhao, Chongjun; Liu, Dong

    2018-01-01

    Here we report a novel transitional metal oxide (NiCo2O4) coated Li[Ni0.03Mn1.97]O4 micro-/nano- spheres as high-performance Li-ion battery cathode material. A thin layer of ∼10 nm NiCo2O4 was formed by simple wet-chemistry approach adjacent to the surface of Li[Ni0.03Mn1.97]O4 micro-/nano- spheres, leading to significantly enhanced battery electrochemical performance. The optimized sample(1 wt%) not only delivers excellent discharge capacity and cycling stability improvement at both room temperature and elevated temperatures, but also effectively prevents Mn dissolution while retaining its coating structure intact according to XRF and TEM results. The CV and EIS break-down analysis indicated a much faster electrochemical reaction kinetics, more reversible electrode process and greatly reduced charge transfer and Warburg resistance, clearly illustrating the dual role of NiCo2O4 coating to boost electron transport and Li+ diffusion, and alleviation of manganese dissolving. This approach may render as an efficient technique to realize high-performance lithium ion battery cathode material.

  16. Inelastic behaviour of collagen networks in cell–matrix interactions and mechanosensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hamid; Arora, Pamma D.; Simmons, Craig A.; Janmey, Paul A.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of extracellular matrix proteins strongly influence cell-induced tension in the matrix, which in turn influences cell function. Despite progress on the impact of elastic behaviour of matrix proteins on cell–matrix interactions, little is known about the influence of inelastic behaviour, especially at the large and slow deformations that characterize cell-induced matrix remodelling. We found that collagen matrices exhibit deformation rate-dependent behaviour, which leads to a transition from pronounced elastic behaviour at fast deformations to substantially inelastic behaviour at slow deformations (1 μm min−1, similar to cell-mediated deformation). With slow deformations, the inelastic behaviour of floating gels was sensitive to collagen concentration, whereas attached gels exhibited similar inelastic behaviour independent of collagen concentration. The presence of an underlying rigid support had a similar effect on cell–matrix interactions: cell-induced deformation and remodelling were similar on 1 or 3 mg ml−1 attached collagen gels while deformations were two- to fourfold smaller in floating gels of high compared with low collagen concentration. In cross-linked collagen matrices, which did not exhibit inelastic behaviour, cells did not respond to the presence of the underlying rigid foundation. These data indicate that at the slow rates of collagen compaction generated by fibroblasts, the inelastic responses of collagen gels, which are influenced by collagen concentration and the presence of an underlying rigid foundation, are important determinants of cell–matrix interactions and mechanosensation. PMID:25392399

  17. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Wellman, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The use of inelastic analysis methods instead of the traditional elastic analysis methods in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transport packagings leads to a better understanding of the response of the package to mechanical loadings. Thus, better assessment of the containment, thermal protection, and shielding integrity of the package after a structure accident event can be made. A more accurate prediction of the package response can lead to enhanced safety and also allow for a more efficient use of materials, possibly leading to a package with higher capacity or lower weight. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using inelastic analysis in the design of RAM shipping packages. The use of inelastic analysis presents several problems to the package designer. When using inelastic analysis the entire nonlinear response of the material must be known, including the effects of temperature changes and strain rate. Another problem is that there currently is not an acceptance criteria for this type of analysis that is approved by regulatory agencies. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on failure stress, failure strain , or plastic energy density could be developed. For both elastic and inelastic analyses it is also important to include other sources of stress in the analyses, such as fabrication stresses, thermal stresses, stresses from bolt preloading, and contact stresses at material interfaces. Offsetting these added difficulties is the improved knowledge of the package behavior. This allows for incorporation of a more uniform margin of safety, which can result in weight savings and a higher level of confidence in the post-accident configuration of the package. In this paper, comparisons between elastic and inelastic analyses are made for a simple ring structure and for a package to transport a large quantity of RAM by rail (rail cask) with lead gamma shielding to illustrate the differences in the two analysis techniques

  18. Study of inelastic decay of amplitudes in 49V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    Inelastic decay amplitudes from d-wave resonances in 49 V were obtained for 80 resonances in the proton energy range 2.2 to 3.1 MeV. With the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and high resolution system at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, an overall resolution of 350 eV was obtained. The experiment consisted of measurements of the angular distributions of the inelastically scattered protons and the subsequent deexcitation gamma rays. Forty five resonances were assigned J/sup π/ = 5/2 + , while thirty five resonances were assigned 3/2 + . The magnitudes of three inelastic decay amplitudes and the relative signs between these three amplitudes were determined. Large amplitude correlations were observed; the data are in the striking disagreement with the extreme statistical model. The present results provide the first explicit test of the multivariate reduced width amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter; the agreement is excellent. The physical origin of these channel correlations has not yet been explained

  19. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2011-06-20

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined across a broad range of impact Reynolds numbers, 0.2 a Re = (DU0/Il) a 1.2\\' 105. Initially, a thin air pocket is formed due to the lubrication pressure in the air layer between the sphere and the liquid surface. As the liquid surface deforms, the liquid contacts the sphere at a finite radius, producing a thin sheet of air which usually contracts to a nearly hemispherical bubble at the bottom tip of the sphere depending on the impact parameters and liquid properties. When a bubble is formed, the final bubble size increases slightly with the sphere diameter, decreases with impact speed but appears independent of liquid viscosity. In contrast, for the largest viscosities tested herein, the entrapped air remains in the form of a sheet, which subsequently deforms upon close approach to the base of the tank. The initial contact diameter is found to conform to scalings based on the gas Reynolds number whilst the initial thickness of the air pocket or adimplea scales with a Stokes\\' number incorporating the influence of the air viscosity, sphere diameter and impact speed and liquid density. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  20. Criticality of a 237Np sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Loaiza, David J.; Kimpland, Robert H.; Hayes, David K.; Cappiello, Charlene C.; Myers, William L.; Jaegers, Peter J.; Clement, Steven D.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.

    2003-01-01

    A critical mass experiment using a 6-kg 237 Np sphere has been performed. The purpose of the experiment is to get a better estimate of the critical mass of 237 Np. To attain criticality, the 237 Np sphere was surrounded with 93 wt% 235 U shells. A 1/M as a function of uranium mass was performed. An MCNP neutron transport code was used to model the experiment. The MCNP code yielded a k eff of 0.99089 ± 0.0003 compared with a k eff 1.0026 for the experiment. Based on these results, it is estimated that the critical mass of 237 Np ranges from kilogram weights in the high fifties to low sixties. (author)

  1. Mesoporous hollow spheres from soap bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianglin; Liang, Fuxin; Liu, Jiguang; Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2012-02-01

    The smaller and more stable bubbles can be generated from the large parent bubbles by rupture. In the presence of a bubble blowing agent, hollow spheres can be prepared by bubbling a silica sol. Herein, the trapped gas inside the bubble acts as a template. When the porogen, i.e., other surfactant, is introduced, a mesostructured shell forms by the co-assembly with the silica sol during sol-gel process. Morphological evolution emphasizes the prerequisite of an intermediate interior gas flow rate and high exterior gas flow rate for hollow spheres. The method is valid for many compositions from inorganic, polymer to their composites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deep Inelastic Scattering in Conformal QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Penedones, Joao

    2010-01-01

    We consider the Regge limit of a CFT correlation function of two vector and two scalar operators, as appropriate to study small-x deep inelastic scattering in N=4 SYM or in QCD assuming approximate conformal symmetry. After clarifying the nature of the Regge limit for a CFT correlator, we use its conformal partial wave expansion to obtain an impact parameter representation encoding the exchange of a spin j Reggeon for any value of the coupling constant. The CFT impact parameter space is the three-dimensional hyperbolic space H3, which is the impact parameter space for high energy scattering in the dual AdS space. We determine the small-x structure functions associated to the exchange of a Reggeon. We discuss unitarization from the point of view of scattering in AdS and comment on the validity of the eikonal approximation. We then focus on the weak coupling limit of the theory where the amplitude is dominated by the exchange of the BFKL pomeron. Conformal invariance fixes the form of the vector impact factor a...

  3. Inclusive deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    This experiment aims at measuring deep-inelastic inclusive muon scattering to the highest energy and Q$^{2}$ made available by the high intensity muon beam M$^{2}$ and at investigating events in which several muons are simultaneously produced. The momentum of the incident beam is measured with momentum hodoscopes, its time and space coordinates at several positions along the target with additional hodoscopes. The beam halo is detected by an array of anticounters. The target has a length of 40 m of either graphite or liquid hydrogen or liquid deuterium and is surrounded by a magnetized torus which acts as a spectrometer for scattered muons. \\\\ \\\\This magnet has a diameter of 2.75 m and is divided into 10 separate supermodules, 8 of which are presently in use. Each supermodule consists of 8 modules (each module contains 0.44 m of steel), 8 planes of (3m x 3m) MWPC, and 2 planes of circular trigger counters subdivided in rings. The first 6 supermodules are equipped each with a 5 m long target. Muons scattered i...

  4. Inelastic neutron scattering of amorphous ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Susumu; Suzuki, Yoshiharu

    2001-01-01

    We measured the inelastic neutron scattering from high-density amorphous (HDA) and low-density amorphous (LDA) ice produced by pressurizing and releasing the pressure. We found a clear difference between the intermolecular vibrations in HDA and those in LDA ice: LDA ice has peaks at 22 and 33 meV, which are also seen in the spectrum of lattice vibrations in ice crystal, but the spectrum of HDA ice does not have these peaks. The excitation energy of librational vibrations in HDA ice is 10 meV lower than that in LDA ice. These results imply that HDA ice includes 2- and 5-coordinated hydrogen bonds that are created by breakage of hydrogen bonds and migration of water molecules into the interstitial site, while LDA ice contains mainly 4-coordinated hydrogen bonds and large cavities. Furthermore, we report the dynamical structure factor in the amorphous ice and show that LDA ice is more closely related to the ice crystal structure than to HDA ice. (author)

  5. Hard diffraction and deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes - shadow physics - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word diffraction is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. The author defines this term to mean: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the open-quotes legoclose quotes phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing subenergy s=e Δη , but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼log(s). The term hard diffraction shall simply refer to those diffractive process which have jets in the final-state phase-space

  6. Implications of stress range for inelastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabin, M.E.; Dhalla, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    The elastic stress range over a complete load cycle is routinely used to formulate simplified rules regarding the inelastic behavior of structures operating at elevated temperature. For example, a 300 series stainless steel structure operating at elevated temperature, in all probability, would satisfy the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria if the linearized elastic stress range is less than three times the material yield strength. However, at higher elastic stress ranges it is difficult to judge, a priori, that a structural component would comply with inelastic Code criteria after a detailed inelastic analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that it is not the elastic stress range but the stress intensities at specific times during a thermal transient which provide a better insight into the inelastic response of the structure. The specific example of the CRBRP flued head design demonstrates that the temperature differential between various parts of the structure can be changed by modifying the insulation pattern and heat flow path in the structure, without significantly altering the elastic stress range over a complete load cycle. However, the modified design did reduce the stress intensity during steady state elevated temperature operation. This modified design satisfied the inelastic Code criteria whereas the initial design failed to comply with the strain accumulation criterion

  7. The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spier Moreira Alves, Daniele; Behbahani, Siavosh R.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Schuster, Philip; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Composite dark matter is a natural setting for implementing inelastic dark matter - the O(100 keV) mass splitting arises from spin-spin interactions of constituent fermions. In models where the constituents are charged under an axial U(1) gauge symmetry that also couples to the Standard Model quarks, dark matter scatters inelastically off Standard Model nuclei and can explain the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal. This article describes the early Universe cosmology of a minimal implementation of a composite inelastic dark matter model where the dark matter is a meson composed of a light and a heavy quark. The synthesis of the constituent quarks into dark hadrons results in several qualitatively different configurations of the resulting dark matter composition depending on the relative mass scales in the system.

  8. Inelastic instruments at the ISIS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    This summarises the status of the inelastic spectrometers at the ISIS facility and gives some highlights from their scientific programme. The inelastic spectrometers HET, TFXA and IRIS are now being used routinely by UK and International research groups and have produced notable scientific results. Work has progressed steadily on eVS. The PRISMA spectrometer, the product of a collaboration between CNR, Italy and RAL, was installed this summer. Earlier this year an agreement was reached in principle between the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the University of Wurzburg (West Germany) to build a second spectrometer (ROTAX) for the study of coherent inelastic excitations. A more sophisticated technical concept than that of PRISMA, based on a nonuniformly rotating analyser, it will allow a greater flexibility in the choice of dynamic scans. Substantial progress has also been made on the design of MARI, the sister spectrometer to HET, which is being built as part of the UK-Japan collaboration on pulsed neutron scattering. (author)

  9. Troubleshooting vSphere storage

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step example-oriented tutorial aimed at showing the reader how to troubleshoot a variety of vSphere storage problems, and providing the reader with solutions that can be completed with minimal effort and time in order to limit damage to work.If you are a vSphere administrator, this is the book for you. This book will provide you with 'need to know' information about the various storage transports that ESXi utilizes, the tools and techniques we can use to identify problems, and the fundamental knowledge and steps to take to troubleshoot storage-related issues. Prior knowledge

  10. Inelastic electron holography: First results with surface plasmons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Roeder; Hannes, Lichte [Triebenberg Labor, Institute for Structure Physics, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Inelastic interaction and wave optics seem to be incompatible in that inelastic processes destroy coherence, which is the fundamental requirement for holography. In special experiments it is shown that energy transfer larger than some undoubtedly destroys coherence of the inelastic electron with the elastic remainder. Consequently, the usual inelastic processes, such as phonon-, plasmon- or inner shell-excitations with energy transfer of several out to several, certainly produce incoherence with the elastic ones. However, it turned out that within the inelastic wave, *newborn* by the inelastic process, there is a sufficiently wide area of coherence for generating *inelastic holograms*. This is exploited to create holograms with electrons scattered at surface-plasmons, which opens up quantum mechanical investigation of these inelastic processes.

  11. Inelastic analysis methods for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.T.; Spence, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of pipework systems which operate in an environment where local inelastic strains are evident is one of the most demanding problems facing the stress analyst in the nuclear field. The spatial complexity of even the most modest system makes a detailed analysis using finite element techniques beyond the scope of current computer technology. For this reason the emphasis has been on simplified methods. It is the aim of this paper to provide a reasonably complete, state-of-the-art review of inelastic pipework analysis methods and to attempt to highlight areas where reliable information is lacking and further work is needed. (orig.)

  12. Inelastic neutron scattering from glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchenau, U.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron spectra below and above the glass transition temperature show a pronounced difference between strong and fragile glass formers in Angell's fragility scheme. The strong anharmonic increase of the inelastic scattering with increasing temperature in fragile substances is absent in the strongest glass former SiO 2 . That difference is reflected in the temperature dependence of Brillouin sound velocities above the glass transition. Coherent inelastic neutron scattering data indicate a mixture of sound waves and local modes at the low frequency boson peak. A relation between the fragility and the temperature dependence of the transverse hypersound velocity at the glass temperature is derived. (author)

  13. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    The γ-rays associated with deep inelastic collisions can give information about the magnitude and orientation of the angular momentum transferred in these events. In this review, special emphasis is placed on understanding the origin and nature of these γ-rays in order to avoid some of the ambiguities that can arise. The experimental information coming from these γ-ray studies is reviewed, and compared briefly with that obtained by other methods and also with the expectations from current models for deep inelastic collisions. 15 figures

  14. Nuclear structure in deep-inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concentrates on recent deep inelastic experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory and the nuclear structure effects evident in reactions between super heavy nuclei. Experiments indicate that these reactions evolve gradually from simple transfer processes which have been studied extensively for lighter nuclei such as 16 O, suggesting a theoretical approach connecting the one-step DWBA theory to the multistep statistical models of nuclear reactions. This transition between quasi-elastic and deep inelastic reactions is achieved by a simple random walk model. Some typical examples of nuclear structure effects are shown. 24 refs., 9 figs

  15. Departures from the impulse approximation in deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new formulation of the impulse approximation (IA) in deep inelastic neutron scattering is developed. It is shown that observed departures from the IA at intermediate momentum transfers are caused by the quantum nature of the initial state rather than final state effects, as has previously been assumed and that these effects become small at high temperatures. It is also argued that final state broadening is significant for He liquids in all feasible experiments, but that in other systems the IA is approached at high momentum transfers. (author)

  16. Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2017-11-01

    When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  17. Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T greater than or equal to 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  18. A kinetic model of droplet heating and evaporation: Effects of inelastic collisions and a non-unity evaporation coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.; Xie, Jianfei; Shishkova, Irina N.; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Heikal, Morgan Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The previously developed kinetic model for droplet heating and evaporation into a high pressure air is generalised to take into account the combined effects of inelastic collisions between molecules in the kinetic region, a non-unity evaporation

  19. Neuroscience in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-04-26

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroscience in the Public Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-01-01

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere.

  1. Scattering characteristics of relativistically moving concentrically layered spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Timothy J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Breakall, James K.; Bohren, Craig F.

    2018-02-01

    The energy extinction cross section of a concentrically layered sphere varies with velocity as the Doppler shift moves the spectral content of the incident signal in the sphere's co-moving inertial reference frame toward or away from resonances of the sphere. Computations for hollow gold nanospheres show that the energy extinction cross section is high when the Doppler shift moves the incident signal's spectral content in the co-moving frame near the wavelength of the sphere's localized surface plasmon resonance. The energy extinction cross section of a three-layer sphere consisting of an olivine-silicate core surrounded by a porous and a magnetite layer, which is used to explain extinction caused by interstellar dust, also depends strongly on velocity. For this sphere, computations show that the energy extinction cross section is high when the Doppler shift moves the spectral content of the incident signal near either of olivine-silicate's two localized surface phonon resonances at 9.7 μm and 18 μm.

  2. Application of identifying transmission spheres for spherical surface testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Christopher B.; Ye, Xin; Li, Xueyuan; Wang, Quanzhao; Tang, Shouhong; Han, Sen

    2017-06-01

    We developed a new application on Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) to identify correct transmission spheres (TS) for Spherical Surface Testing (SST). Spherical surfaces are important optical surfaces, and the wide application and high production rate of spherical surfaces necessitates an accurate and highly reliable measuring device. A Fizeau Interferometer is an appropriate tool for SST due to its subnanometer accuracy. It measures the contour of a spherical surface using a common path, which is insensitive to the surrounding circumstances. The Fizeau Interferometer transmits a wide laser beam, creating interference fringes from re-converging light from the transmission sphere and the test surface. To make a successful measurement, the application calculates and determines the appropriate transmission sphere for the test surface. There are 3 main inputs from the test surfaces that are utilized to determine the optimal sizes and F-numbers of the transmission spheres: (1) the curvatures (concave or convex), (2) the Radii of Curvature (ROC), and (3) the aperture sizes. The application will firstly calculate the F-numbers (i.e. ROC divided by aperture) of the test surface, secondly determine the correct aperture size of a convex surface, thirdly verify that the ROC of the test surface must be shorter than the reference surface's ROC of the transmission sphere, and lastly calculate the percentage of area that the test surface will be measured. However, the amount of interferometers and transmission spheres should be optimized when measuring large spherical surfaces to avoid requiring a large amount of interferometers and transmission spheres for each test surface. Current measuring practices involve tedious and potentially inaccurate calculations. This smart application eliminates human calculation errors, optimizes the selection of transmission spheres (including the least number required) and interferometer sizes, and increases efficiency.

  3. The onset of cavitation during the collision of a sphere with a wetted surface

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Uddin, Jamal; Marston, Jeremy; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the onset of cavitation during the collision of a sphere with a solid surface covered with a layer of Newtonian liquid. The conventional theory dictates cavitation to initiate during depressurization, i.e. when the sphere rebounds from the solid surface. Using synchronized dual-view high-speed imaging, we provide conclusive experimental evidence that confirms this scenario- namely-that cavitation occurs only after the sphere makes initial contact with the solid surface. Similar to previous experimental observations for spheres released above the liquid surface, bubbles are formed on the sphere surface during entry into the liquid layer. These were found to squeeze radially outwards with the liquid flow as the sphere approached the solid surface, producing an annular bubble structure unrelated to cavitation. In contrast, spheres released below the liquid surface did not exhibit these patterns. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

  4. Measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; 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Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-07-16

    A measurement is presented of the inelastic proton-proton cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. Using the CMS detector at the LHC, the inelastic cross section is measured through two independent methods based on information from (i) forward calorimetry (for pseudorapidity 3 200 MeV. The measurements cover a large fraction of the inelastic cross section for particle production over about 9 units of pseudorapidity and down to small transverse momenta. The results are compared with those of other experiments, and with models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions.

  5. Mechanical Energy Changes in Perfectly Inelastic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Suppose a block of mass "m"[subscript 1] traveling at speed "v"[subscript 1] makes a one-dimensional perfectly inelastic collision with another block of mass "m"[subscript 2]. What else does one need to know to calculate the fraction of the mechanical energy that is dissipated in the collision? (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Parity violation in deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souder, P. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    AA beam of polarized electrons at CEBAF with an energy of 8 GeV or more will be useful for performing precision measurements of parity violation in deep inelastic scattering. Possible applications include precision tests of the Standard Model, model-independent measurements of parton distribution functions, and studies of quark correlations.

  7. Some applications of polarized inelastic neutron scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief account of applications of polarized inelastic neutron scattering in condensed matter research is given. ... the itinerant antiferromagnet chromium we demonstrate that the dynamics of the longitudinal and transverse excitations are very different, resolving a long standing puzzle concerning the slope of their dispersion.

  8. Developments in inelastic instrumentation at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.D.; Bowden, Z.A.; Carlile, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors summarize developments on the three scheduled inelastic spectrometers HET, TFXA and IRIS and illustrate their scientific program with some recent highlights. They give details of commissioning experiments on PRISMA and discuss the status of the eVS and polarization programs. The status of the MARI project is reviewed. 15 refs., 22 figs

  9. Particle Production in Deep Inelastic Muon Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, John James [MIT

    1991-01-01

    The E665 spectrometer at Fermila.b measured Deep-Inelastic Scattering of 490 GeV /c muons off several targets: Hydrogen, Deuterium, and Xenon. Events were selected from the Xenon and Deuterium targets, with a range of energy exchange, $\

  10. Influence functionals in deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the concept of influence functionals introduced by Feynman and Vernon could be applied to the study of deep inelastic reactions among heavy ions if the coupling between the relative motion and the internal degrees of freedom has a separable form as suggested by Hofmann and Siemens. (Auth.)

  11. Coherence effects in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.; Loennblad, L.; Pettersson, U.

    1988-09-01

    We present a framework for deep inelastic scattering, with bound state properties in accordance with a QCD force field acting like a vortex line in a colour superconducting vacuum, which implies some simple coherence effects. Within this scheme one may describe the results of present energies very well, but one obtains an appreciable depletion of gluon radiation in the HERA energy regime. (authors)

  12. Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...

  13. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    My objective in this talk is to consider the question: 'What can be learned about deep inelastic collisions (DIC) from studying the associated gamma-rays'. First, I discuss the origin and nature of the gamma-rays from DIC, then the kinds of information gamma-ray spectra contain, and finally come to the combination of these two subjects. (orig./HSI)

  14. Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K.

    1995-01-01

    Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems 124,112 Sn + 58,64 Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system 136 Xe + 64 Ni and currently measured the system 124 Xe + 58 Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring

  15. Elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of experiments in the field of elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering is discussed. The talk is divided into discussions of the single arm inclusive experiments at SLAC and Fermilab; the multiparticle inclusive experiments at SLAC, Fermilab und Cornell, and a description of selected results from exclusive channel measurements on electroproduced final states. (orig.) [de

  16. Approximate analyses of inelastic effects in pipework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation shows figures concerned with analyses of inelastic effects in pipework as follows: comparison of experimental and calculated simplified analyses results for free end rotation and for circumferential strain; interrupted stress relaxation; regenerated relaxation caused by reversed yield; buckling of straight pipe under combined bending and torsion; results of fatigues test of pipe bend

  17. Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems {sup 124,112}Sn + {sup 58,64}Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni and currently measured the system {sup 124}Xe + {sup 58}Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring.

  18. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  19. Squeeze flow of a Carreau fluid during sphere impact

    KAUST Repository

    Uddin, J.

    2012-07-19

    We present results from a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the squeeze flow induced when a solid sphere impacts onto a thin, ultra-viscous film of non-Newtonian fluid. We examine both the sphere motion through the liquid as well as the fluid flow field in the region directly beneath the sphere during approach to a solid plate. In the experiments we use silicone oil as the model fluid, which is well-described by the Carreau model. We use high-speed imaging and particle tracking to achieve flow visualisation within the film itself and derive the corresponding velocity fields. We show that the radial velocity either diverges as the gap between the sphere and the wall diminishes (Z tip → 0) or that it reaches a maximum value and then decays rapidly to zero as the sphere comes to rest at a non-zero distance (Z tip = Z min ) away from the wall. The horizontal shear rate is calculated and is responsible for significant viscosity reduction during the approach of the sphere. Our model of this flow, based on lubrication theory, is solved numerically and compared to experimental trials. We show that our model is able to correctly describe the physical features of the flow observed in the experiments.

  20. Hydrodynamics and burn of optimally imploded deuterium-tritium spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.; Morse, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    The phenomenology of optimized laser-driven DT sphere implosions leading to efficient thermonuclear burn is reviewed. The optimal laser deposition profile for spheres is heuristically derived. The performance of a 7.5 μg sphere, exposed to its optimal 5.3 kJ pulse, is scrutinized in detail. The timing requirements for efficient central ignition of propagating burn in the sphere are carefully explored. The difficulties stemming from superthermal electron production and thermal flux limitation are discussed. The hydro-burn performance of spheres is characterized as a function of the pulse energy, peak power, time scale, pulse exponent, wavelength, and on the degree of flux limitation. The optimal pulse parameters are determined for spheres with masses ranging from 40 ng to 250 μg, requiring from 50 J to 150 kJ of input energy, and the corresponding optimal performance levels are calculated. Discussion is given to the hydro-burn performance of new structured fusion targets, in which the DT is contained as a gas or frozen as an ice shell inside a high Z pusher-tamper layer

  1. Squeeze flow of a Carreau fluid during sphere impact

    KAUST Repository

    Uddin, J.; Marston, J. O.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the squeeze flow induced when a solid sphere impacts onto a thin, ultra-viscous film of non-Newtonian fluid. We examine both the sphere motion through the liquid as well as the fluid flow field in the region directly beneath the sphere during approach to a solid plate. In the experiments we use silicone oil as the model fluid, which is well-described by the Carreau model. We use high-speed imaging and particle tracking to achieve flow visualisation within the film itself and derive the corresponding velocity fields. We show that the radial velocity either diverges as the gap between the sphere and the wall diminishes (Z tip → 0) or that it reaches a maximum value and then decays rapidly to zero as the sphere comes to rest at a non-zero distance (Z tip = Z min ) away from the wall. The horizontal shear rate is calculated and is responsible for significant viscosity reduction during the approach of the sphere. Our model of this flow, based on lubrication theory, is solved numerically and compared to experimental trials. We show that our model is able to correctly describe the physical features of the flow observed in the experiments.

  2. Hard Distraction and Deep Inelastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BJORKEN, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes- 'shadow physics' - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word 'diffraction' is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. So I here begin by defining what I mean by the term: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the 'lego' phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing sub energy Δη, but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼ logs. The term 'hard diffraction' shall simply refer to those diffractive processes which have jets in the final-state phase-space. We may also distinguish, if desired, two subclasses, as suggested by Ingelman i) Diffractive hard processes have jets on only one side of the rapidity gap. ii) Hard diffractive processes have jets on both sides of the rapidity gap

  3. Elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensky, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we are studying elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few-body systems within the framework of chiral effective theory. We consider two specific reactions involving pions on few-nucleon systems, namely pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, and incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron. These two reactions are closely related to the issue of dispersive and absorptive corrections to the pion-deuteron scattering length, which we also consider in our analysis. The incoherent pion photoproduction is also considered as the possible source for a high-precision determination of the neutron-neutron scattering length. (orig.)

  4. Development of inelastic neutron spectrometer (DC-TOF) and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Je Geun; So, J. Y.; Moon, M. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, C. H.; Nam, U. W.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, H. J.

    2010-08-01

    DC-TOF is an inelastic neutron spectrometer with potentially very wide applications to areas such as physics, chemistry, biology, and material engineering. And it is the most technically challenging and advanced instrument by using high speed choppers rotating up to 20,000 RPM and wide detector of steradian producing data in the order of a few hundred Mbyte. Through this project, we have successfully developed DC-TOF at KAERI with the development of the following key technologies : - Detector Electronics - Data acquisition software - Data reduction software. We believe that DC-TOF will become a workhorse instrument for the wide community of sciences in Korea

  5. Magnetic inelastic scattering: Present results and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, R.

    1996-04-01

    Experience over the last 15 years has shsown that pulsed neutron spectrometers are able to contribute to the field of magnetic inelastic scattering. Such spectrometers have high resolution and wide dynamic range, both of which are necessary in order to characterize the magnetic response of the complex systems of current interest, ranging from rare earth-transition metal permanent magnets to quantum critical scatterers. Howevera, all these studies have been constrained by current flux limitations. The development of more powerful spallation neutron sources, such as the JHP, is likely to transform these interesting demonstrations of the potential of pulsed neutron scattering into routine tools for the study of magnetic correlations.

  6. Elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensky, V.

    2007-09-29

    In the present work, we are studying elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few-body systems within the framework of chiral effective theory. We consider two specific reactions involving pions on few-nucleon systems, namely pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, and incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron. These two reactions are closely related to the issue of dispersive and absorptive corrections to the pion-deuteron scattering length, which we also consider in our analysis. The incoherent pion photoproduction is also considered as the possible source for a high-precision determination of the neutron-neutron scattering length. (orig.)

  7. Inclusive and exclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, J.

    1985-11-01

    In this talk, I will present some deep inelastic electron scattering experiments done recently at Saclay with the purpose of studying high momentum components in the nucleus, many body effects as correlations, exchange currents, and the electron-nucleon interaction inside the nuclear medium. For that purpose we have performed (e,e') and (ee'p) experiments. When we detect only the scattered electron, we get some average properties less sensitive to final state interaction; in ee'p measurements we are more specific

  8. Test Results of PBMR Fuel Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshcheev, Konstantin; Diakov, Alexander; Beltyukov, Igor; Barybin, Andrey; Chernetsov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Results of pre-irradiation testing of fuel spheres (FS) and coated particles (CP) manufactured by PBMR SOC (Republic of South Africa) are described. The stable high quality level of major characteristics (dimensions, CP coating structure, uranium-235 contamination of the FS matrix graphite and the outer PyC layer of the CP coating) are shown. Results of a methodical irradiation test of two FS in helium and neon medium at temperatures of 800 to 1300 °C with simultaneous determination of release-to-birth ratios for major gaseous fission products (GFP) are described. (author)

  9. On the simplified path integral on spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Golm (Germany); Corradini, Olindo [Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Modena (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Golm (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We have recently studied a simplified version of the path integral for a particle on a sphere, and more generally on maximally symmetric spaces, and proved that Riemann normal coordinates allow the use of a quadratic kinetic term in the particle action. The emerging linear sigma model contains a scalar effective potential that reproduces the effects of the curvature. We present here further details of the construction, and extend its perturbative evaluation to orders high enough to read off the type-A trace anomalies of a conformal scalar in dimensions d = 14 and d = 16. (orig.)

  10. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  11. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  12. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education......, the allocation of (or selection into) learning places, teaching–learning practices, teachers’ treatment of students, and student evaluations of grade distribution. We discuss the literature on the beliefs by students and teachers about the just distribution of educational goods in these five domains......, and on the practices used in the actual allocation of these goods. In line with normative ‘spheres of justice’ arguments in social theory, we conclude that the ideals of social justice within schools vary strongly according to the particular resource to be distributed. Moreover, these ideals often do not correspond...

  13. The optical levitation of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosen, G.

    1979-01-01

    In this article we are dealing with optical levitation, that is the possibility of maintaining particles in a stable equilibrium position in air or vacuum by means of laser beams. In the first part, we review the methods used to calculate the force exerted on a sphere by a laser beam. The axial and transverse force components could be obtained either by applying Debye theory to laser beams which have a non-uniform energy distribution or by using, in the case of large spheres, a geometrical optics approach. From the results achieved with the geometrical optics approach, we derive, in a second part, the required stable equilibrium conditions for a sphere placed either in a vertical beam or in two horizontal ones having the same axis but opposite direction. In the last part, we describe in detail the levitation experiments carried out using either a vertical or two horizontal beams. In conclusion, we point out some applications of optical levitation, emphasizing especially the suspension by optical levitation of the targets used in laser fusion experiments. (author) [fr

  14. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

    2001-08-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of

  15. Mastering VMware vSphere 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A new and updated edition of bestselling Mastering VMware vSphere 4 Written by leading VMware expert, this book covers all the features and capabilities of VMware vSphere. You'll learn how to install, configure, operate, manage, and secure the latest release.Covers all the new features and capabilities of the much-anticipated new release of VMware vSphereDiscusses the planning, installation, operation, and management for the latest releaseReviews migration to the latest vSphere softwareOffers hands-on instruction and clear explanations with real-world examples Mastering VMware vSphere is the

  16. QCD expectations for deep inelastic scattering at small x and their phenomenological implications for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1994-05-01

    The basic QCD expectations concerning the deep inelastic scattering at low x where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the BFKL equation which sums the leading powers of ln (1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implications of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which has become accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 which are based on the BFKL equation and the high energy k T factorization theorem. These predictions are compared with the results of structure function analysis based on Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations and confronted with the recent data from HERA. We discuss jet production and transverse energy flow in deep inelastic lepton scattering as the measurements which may be particularly suitable for revealing the QCD dynamics at small x. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs

  17. The sphere-PAC fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, H

    2000-07-01

    Sphere-PAC fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-PAC fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  18. Inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances of high energy resolution (ΔE approx. 30 keV FWHM) inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer (q -1 ) using selected experimental data from the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator are discussed. Strong emphasis is given to a comparison of the data with theoretical nuclear model predictions. Of the low multipolarity electric transitions investigated, as examples only E1 transitions to unnatural parity states in 11 B and E2 transitions of the very fragmented isoscalar quadrupole giant resonance in 208 Pb are considered. In 11 B the role of the Os hole in the configuration of the 1/2 + , 3/2 + and 5/2 + states is quantitatively determined via an interference mechanism in the transition probability. By comparison of the high resolution data with RPA calculations the E2 EWSR in 208 Pb is found to be much less exhausted than anticipated from previous medium energy resolution (e,e) and hadron scattering experiments. In the case of M1 transitions it is shown that the simplest idealized independent particle shell-model prediction breaks down badly. In 28 Si, ground-state correlations influence largely the detected M1 strength and such ground-state correlations are also responsible for the occurence of a strong M1 transition to a state at Ex = 10.319 MeV in 40 Ca. In 90 Zr only about 10% of the theoretically expected M1 strength is seen in (e,e) and in 140 Ce and 208 Pb none (detection limit 1-2 μ 2 K). In the case of 208 Pb high resolution spectra exist now up to an excitation energy of Ex = approx. 12MeV. The continuous decrease of the M1 strength with mass number is corroborated by the behaviour of strong but very fragmented M2 transitions which are detected in 28 Si, 90 Zr, 140 Ce and 208 Pb concentrated at an excitation energy E x approx. 44A -1 / 3 MeV. In 90 Zr, the distribution of spacings and widths of the many Jπ = 2 states are consistent with a Wigner and Porter-Thomas distribution, respectively. (orig.) 891 KBE/orig. 892 ARA

  19. A FEW CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SPHERE OF FINANCIAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bota Anton Florin

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses his financial affairs sphere, looking at this issue under a double aspect: analysis of the financial relations sphere and analyzing the financial activity sphere. Analysis of the financial relations sphere is made on the basis of fou

  20. Value of αs from deep-inelastic-scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    We report the value of α s obtained from QCD analysis of existing data on deep-inelastic scattering of charged leptons off proton and deuterium and estimate its theoretical uncertainties with particular attention paid to impact of the high-twist contribution to the deep-inelastic-scattering structure functions. Taking into account the major uncertainties the value αNNLO s (M Z )=0.1143±0.0014(exp.)±0.0013(theor.) is obtained. An extrapolation of the LO-NLO-NNLO results to the higher orders makes it possible to estimate αN 3 LO s (M Z )∼0.113. (author)

  1. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of informativeness of nonlinear plasma physics scenarios is explained. Natural ideas of developing highly informative models of plasma kinetics are spelled out. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves in a weakly turbulent inhomogeneous plasma is developed with consideration of possible changes in wave polarization. In addition, a new formula for wave drift in spatial positions and wave vectors is derived. New scenarios of the respective wave drift and inelastic scattering are compared with the previous visions. The results indicate the need for further revision of the traditional understanding of nonlinear plasma phenomena

  2. A simple model for the quark fragmentation functions seen in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiden, A.

    1977-01-01

    Using some simple assumptions, a calculation is presented of the quark fragmentation functions seen in deep inelastic processes. The results provide evidence for the conjecture that both jets seen in high p(perpendicular) reactions at the ISR stem from similar parents. The calculated functions are in excellent agreement with the inclusive distributions seen in γp and anti γp scattering, and in particular explain the puzzling presence of leading π - 's from the fragmentation of a leading up quark. The results are also in agreement with the charge ratios extracted from deep inelastic electron scattering. (Auth.)

  3. Study of the continuum in heavy ion inelastic spectra by light particle coincidence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpaci, J.A.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Chomaz, P.; Frascaria, N.; Garron, J.P.; Roynette, J.C.; Suomijarvi, T.; Van der Woude, A.; Alamanos, N.; Fernandez, B.; Gillibert, A.; Van der Woude, A.; Lepine, A.

    1990-01-01

    The continuum in heavy ion inelastic spectra contains, in addition to the excitation of target nucleus states, contributions from pick-up break-up and knock out reactions. In the case of the 40 Ca + 40 Ca collision at 50 MeV/N these contributions are separated and their relative importance assessed by the measurement of light charged particles in coincidence with the inelastically scattered fragments. The pick-up break-up contribution is found to make up less than half of the cross section at high excitation energies, conversely, the knock out process is important

  4. Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2005-06-01

    Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.

  5. Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2005-01-01

    Ever since Karl Schwarzschild's 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star--a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density--the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres

  6. SURFACES OF HARD-SPHERE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In various situations surfaces appear that are formed by systems of hard spheres. Examples are porous layers as surfaces of sand heaps and biofilms or fracture surfaces of concrete. The present paper considers models where a statistically homogeneous system of hard spheres with random radii is intersected by a plane and the surface is formed by the spheres with centers close to this plane. Formulae are derived for various characteristics of such surfaces: for the porosity profile, i.e. the local porosity in dependence on the distance from the section plane and for the geometry of the sphere caps that look above the section plane.It turns out that these characteristics only depend on the first-order characteristics of the sphere system, its sphere density and the sphere radius distribution.Comparison with empirically studied biofilms shows that the model is realistic.

  7. Fusion breeder sphere - PAC blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Palmer, B.J.F.

    1987-11-01

    There is a considerable world-wide effort directed toward the production of materials for fusion reactors. Many ceramic fabrication groups are working on making lithium ceramics in a variety of forms, to be incorporated into the tritium breeding blanket which will surround the fusion reactor. Current blanket designs include ceramic in either monolithic or packed sphere bed (sphere-pac) forms. The major thrust at AECL is the production of lithium aluminate spheres to be incorporated in a sphere-pac bed. Contemporary studies on breeder blanket design offer little insight into the requirements on the sizes of the spheres. This study examined the parameters which determine the properties of pressure drop and coolant requirements. It was determined that an optimised sphere-pac bed would be composed of two diameters of spheres: 75 weight % at 3 mm and 25 weight % at 0.3 mm

  8. Stem/progenitor cells derived from the cochlear sensory epithelium give rise to spheres with distinct morphologies and features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diensthuber, Marc; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates regenerate lost sensory hair cells by means of asymmetric division of supporting cells. Inner ear or lateral line supporting cells in birds, amphibians, and fish consequently serve as bona fide stem cells resulting in high regenerative capacity of hair cell-bearing organs. Hair cell regeneration does not happen in the mammalian cochlea, but cells with proliferative capacity can be isolated from the neonatal cochlea. These cells have the ability to form clonal floating colonies, so-called spheres, when cultured in nonadherent conditions. We noticed that the sphere population derived from mouse cochlear sensory epithelium cells was heterogeneous, consisting of morphologically distinct sphere types, hereby classified as solid, transitional, and hollow. Cochlear sensory epithelium-derived stem/progenitor cells initially give rise to small solid spheres, which subsequently transition into hollow spheres, a change that is accompanied by epithelial differentiation of the majority of sphere cells. Only solid spheres, and to a lesser extent, transitional spheres, appeared to harbor self-renewing stem cells, whereas hollow spheres could not be consistently propagated. Solid spheres contained significantly more rapidly cycling Pax-2-expressing presumptive otic progenitor cells than hollow spheres. Islet-1, which becomes upregulated in nascent sensory patches, was also more abundant in solid than in hollow spheres. Likewise, hair cell-like cells, characterized by the expression of multiple hair cell markers, differentiated in significantly higher numbers in cell populations derived from solid spheres. We conclude that cochlear sensory epithelium cell populations initially give rise to small solid spheres that have self-renewing capacity before they subsequently convert into hollow spheres, a process that is accompanied by loss of stemness and reduced ability to spontaneously give rise to hair cell-like cells. Solid spheres might, therefore, represent

  9. Inelastic electron scattering from a moving nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, S.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Griffioen, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The authors propose to measure inelastically scattered electrons in coincidence with spectator protons emitted backwards relative to the virtual photon direction in the reaction d(e, e{prime}p{sub s})X. In a simple spectator model, the backward proton has equal and opposite momentum to the neutron before it is struck, allowing the authors to study the dependence on kinematics and off-shell behaviour of the electron-nucleon inelastic cross section. If the photon couples to a quark in a 6-quark bag, a different dependence of the cross section on the kinematic variables (x, Q{sup 2}, and p{sub s}) can be observed. This proposed experiment requires large acceptance and beam energies above 6 GeV. It is ideally suited for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS).

  10. Review of inelastic proton-proton reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston

    1973-01-01

    The most important new results on inelastic proton-proton scattering obtained with the new machines, I.S.R. and N.A.L., are: (1) The inelastic cross-section increases monotonically with energy from threshold to 1500 GeV/c. Above 6 GeV/c the energy variation has a s /sup +0.04/ behaviour. (2) Scaling is observed at I.S.R. energies in pion production. Confirmation is obtained of the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. (3) The results are in general, consistent with the two-component model-one class of events being produced by diffraction dissociation and the other by a short-range-order process (e.g. the multiperipheral model). (4) There are indications that the protons have a granular structure; this from observation of secondaries of large transverse momenta. (33 refs).

  11. Response of subsystems on inelastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.; Mahin, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary analysis are performed to obtain insight into the seismic response of subsystems supported on simple structures that yield during severe earthquake ground motions. Current design recommendations for subsystems accounting for yielding of the supporting structures are assessed and found to be unconservative. An amplification factor is defined to quantify the effects of inelastic deformations of the supporting structure on subsystem response. Design guidelines are formulated for predicting the amplification factor based on statistical evaluation of the results generated for ten earthquake ground motions. Using these values, design floor response spectra can be obtained from conventional linear elastic floor response spectra accounting for yielding of the supporting structure without having to perform inelastic analysis. The effects of non-zero subsystem mass are examined. The recommended amplification factors are found to be applicable even when the mass of subsystem approaches that of the supporting structure

  12. Parity violation in deep inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1979-11-01

    Neutral currents in electron scattering and the Weinberg-Salam model are reviewed. This generally accepted model is consistent with experimental results from neutrino interactions; an appropriate deep inelastic electron scattering experiment would measure couplings that don't involve neutrinos to see if they are also correctly described by the theory. The SLAC-Yale experiment measures a difference in the e-d inelastic cross section for right- and left-handed electrons. The polarized source, beam monitors, scattering experiment, checks of helicity dependence, and results are described. It is concluded that the data obtained are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model, and that the best value of sin 2 theta/sub W/ for these data is in excellent agreement with the average values of that parameter deduced from neutrino experiments. Future experiments with polarized electrons are discussed. 12 figures, 2 tables

  13. On a simplified inelastic analysis of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarka, J.; Engel, J.J.; Inglebert, G.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper two main problems are considered: the derivation of cyclic constitutive relations during inelastic regime where hardening, softening and creep can occur, and the development of the eventual periodical state in the structure during cyclic thermodynamical loadings. We give a very simple and practical framework to solve these problems in one unique manner. Its essential feature consits in the introduction of a family of internal parameters which characterize local inelastic mechanisms and the family of transformed internal parameters which are linearly linked to the previous ones through a symmetrical non-negative matrix and are indeed the opposite of the associated residual stresses. Thanks to that, the treatment of the local plastic or viscoplastic yield conditions can be easily made from only the classical simple purely elastic (or viscoelastic) analysis. This property allows important results during cyclic loadings: conditions for elastic shakedown, plastic shakedown, ratcheting and bounds for the limiting state. Several examples are given in the text. (orig.)

  14. Inelastic analysis of solids and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kojic, M; Bathe, K J; Koji?, Milo

    2005-01-01

    Inelastic Analysis of Solids and Structures presents in a unified manner the physical and theoretical background of inelastic material models and computational methods, and illustrates the behavior of the models in typical engineering conditions.It is based on experimental observations and principles of mechanics, thus describing computational algorithms for stress calculation and presenting solved examples.The theoretical background is given to an extent necessary to describe the commonly employed material models in metal isotropic and orthotropic plasticity, thermoplasticity and viscoplasticity, and the plasticity of geological materials.The computational algorithms are developed in a unified manner with some detailed derivations of the algorithmic relations.The solved examples are designed to give insight into the material behavior in various engineering conditions, and to demonstrate the application of the computational algorithms.

  15. On deep inelastic lepton-nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garsevanishvili, V.R.; Darbaidze, Ya.Z.; Menteshashvili, Z.R.; Ehsakiya, Sh.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of building relativistic theory of nuclear reactions by way of involving relativistic methods, developed in the elementary particle theory, becomes rather actual at the time being. The paper presents some results of investigations into deep inelastic lepton-nuclear processes lA → l'(A-1)x, with the spectator nucleus-fragment in the finite state. To describe the reactions lA → l'(A-1)x (where l=an electron, muan, neutrino, antineutrino), the use is made of the self-similarity principle and multiparticle quasipotential formalism in the ''light front'' variables. The expressions are obtained for the differential cross-sections of lepton-nuclear processes and for the structure functions of deep inelastic scattering of neutrinos (antineutrinos) and charged leptons by nuclei

  16. Inelastic neutron scattering from superconducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time the differential cross section for the inelastic magnetic neutron scattering by superconducting rings is derived taking account of the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with the magnetic field generated by the superconducting current. Calculations of the scattering cross section are carried out for cold neutrons and thin film rings from type-II superconductors with the magnetic fields not exceeding the first critical field.

  17. Recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, KR

    1995-01-01

    This is a collection of papers dedicated to Prof T C Woo to mark his 70th birthday. The papers focus on recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity, which are related to Prof Woo's work. Prof Woo's recent work concentrates on the viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of metals and plastics when thermal effects are significant, and the papers here address open questions in these and related areas.

  18. Deuteron structure in the deep inelastic regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A.; Tarutina, T. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP/CONICET y Departamento de Fisica, La Plata (Argentina); Vento, V. [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica-IFIC, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    We study nuclear effects in the deuteron in the deep inelastic regime using the newest available data. We put special emphasis on their Q{sup 2} dependence. The study is carried out using a scheme which parameterizes, in a simple manner, these effects by changing the proton and neutron stucture functions in medium. The result of our analysis is compared with other recent proposals. We conclude that precise EMC ratios cannot be obtained without considering the nuclear effects in the deuteron. (orig.)

  19. Inelastic neutron scattering from cerium under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainford, B.D.; Buras, B.; Lebech, B.

    1976-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering from Ce metal at 300K was studied both below and above the first order γ-α phase transition, using a triple axis spectrometer. It was found that (a) there is no indication of any residual magnetic scattering in the collapsed α phase and (b) the energy width of the paramagnetic scattering in the γ-phase increases with pressure. (Auth.)

  20. Deep Inelastic Scattering at the Amplitude Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    The deep inelastic lepton scattering and deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections can be interpreted in terms of the fundamental wavefunctions defined by the light-front Fock expansion, thus allowing tests of QCD at the amplitude level. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gauge theory and string theory provides remarkable new insights into QCD, including a model for hadronic wavefunctions which display conformal scaling at short distances and color confinement at large distances

  1. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A. (Lebedev Physical Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p{sub t} and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.).

  2. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p t and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.)

  3. ORSPHERE: CRITICAL, BARE, HEU(93.2)-METAL SPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2013-09-01

    In the early 1970’s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an attempt to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950’s (HEU-MET-FAST-001). The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. “The very accurate description of this sphere, as assembled, establishes it as an ideal benchmark for calculational methods and cross-section data files.” (Reference 1) While performing the ORSphere experiments care was taken to accurately document component dimensions (±0. 0001 in. for non-spherical parts), masses (±0.01 g), and material data The experiment was also set up to minimize the amount of structural material in the sphere proximity. A three part sphere was initially assembled with an average radius of 3.4665 in. and was then machined down to an average radius of 3.4420 in. (3.4425 in. nominal). These two spherical configurations were evaluated and judged to be acceptable benchmark experiments; however, the two experiments are highly correlated.

  4. Inelastic analysis of prestressed concrete secondary containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.; Chitnuyanondh, L.; Wong, C.; Rijub-Agha, K.Y.

    1978-07-01

    An elastic-plastic constitutive model for the simulation of stress-strain response of concrete under any biaxial combination of compressive and/or tensile stresses is developed. An effective tensile stress-strain curve is obtained indirectly from experimental results of a test on a large scale prestressed concrete wall segment. These concrete properties are then utilized in predicting the response of a second test and the results compared with the experiment. Modificications to the BOSOR5 program, in order to incorporate the new constitutive relation into it, are described. Techniques of modelling structures in order to perform inelastic analysis of thin shell axisymmetric prestressed concrete secondary containments are investigated. The results of inelastic BOSOR5 analyses of two different models of the University of Alberta Test Structure are presented. The predicted deterioration of the structure and the limit states associated with its behaviour are determined and discussed. It is concluded that the technique is a practical one which can be used for the inelastic analysis of Gentilly-type containment structures. (author)

  5. Deep-inelastic electron-proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainton, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    Recent measurements by the H1 collaboration at HERA of the cross section for deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering in which the proton interacts with minimal energy transfer and limited 4-momentum transfer squared are presented in the form of the contribution F 2 D(3) to the proton structure function F 2 . By parametrising the cross section phenomenologically in terms of a leading effective Regge pole exchange and comparing the result with a similar parametrisation of hadronic pp physics, the proton interaction is demonstrated to be dominantly of a diffractive nature. The quantitative interpretation of the parametrisation in terms of the properties of an effective leading Regge pole exchange, the pomeron (IP), shows that there is no evidence for a 'harder' BFKL-motivated IP in such deep-inelastic proton diffraction. The total contribution of proton diffraction to deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering is measured to be ∝10% and to be rather insensitive to Bjorken-x and Q 2 . A first measurement of the partonic structure of diffractive exchange is presented. It is shown to be readily interpreted in terms of the exchange of gluons, and to suggest that the bulk of diffractive momentum transfer is carried by a leading gluon. (orig.)

  6. Effect of Hollow Sphere Size and Distribution on the Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Properties of Al-A380-Al2O3 Syntactic Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    heat exchangers, flotation devices, energy absorbers and as decorative building materials. A class of foam material, where the voids are contained...hollow spheres are presented in Table 1 (information provided by suppliers). The hollow spheres were supplied by C-E Minerals in standard size...through TACOM R&D Contract# W56HZV-08-C-0716. The authors would also like to acknowledge and thank C-E Minerals for providing the ALODUR alumina

  7. Treatment of primary liver tumors with Yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere) in high risk patients: analysis of survival and toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kelli A; McIntosh, Alyson F; Shilling, A Tanner; Hagspiel, Klaus D; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Berg, Carl; Caldwell, Stephen H; Northup, Patrick G; Angle, Fritz; Mulder, Robert; Rich, Tyvin A

    2009-02-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to obtain information regarding the survival and toxicities after Yttrium-90 microspheres treatment in patients with primary liver malignancies. Baseline, treatment, and follow-up data were collected and analyzed for 21 patients treated with Yttrium-90 microspheres. Survival analysis was then performed. The results of this study showed that median survival for all the patients was 120 days. Twenty of 21 patients were categorized as high-risk with a median survival of 114 days. It was also found that one high-risk patient has survived 858 days with no recurrence of disease. Acute grade 3-5 toxicities were recorded for nine patients and consisted of elevations in AST and bilirubin, thrombocytopenia, abdominal pain, ascites, nausea, fatigue, and death. This study concluded that Yttrium-90 is a low-toxicity, outpatient alternative for individuals with liver cancer and without many options. The maximal value, however, may lie in the treatment of low-risk patients.

  8. VMware vSphere design

    CERN Document Server

    Guthrie, Forbes

    2013-01-01

    Achieve the performance, scalability, and ROI your business needs What can you do at the start of a virtualization deployment to make things run more smoothly? If you plan, deploy, maintain, and optimize vSphere solutions in your company, this unique book provides keen insight and solutions. From hardware selection, network layout, and security considerations to storage and hypervisors, this book explains the design decisions you'll face and how to make the right choices. Written by two virtualization experts and packed with real-world strategies and examples, VMware v

  9. A reliable parameter to standardize the scoring of stem cell spheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhou

    Full Text Available Sphere formation assay is widely used in selection and enrichment of normal stem cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs, also known as tumor initiating cells (TICs, based on their ability to grow in serum-free suspension culture for clonal proliferation. However, there is no standardized parameter to accurately score the spheres, which should be reflected by both the number and size of the spheres. Here we define a novel parameter, designated as Standardized Sphere Score (SSS, which is expressed by the total volume of selected spheres divided by the number of cells initially plated. SSS was validated in quantification of both tumor spheres from cancer cell lines and embryonic bodies (EB from mouse embryonic stem cells with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  10. Coupling effects of giant resonances on the elastic and inelastic scattering of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaroche, J.P.; Tornow, W.

    1983-01-01

    While the inelastic scattering of high energy hadrons is commonly used for the study of giant resonances in nuclei, it is just recently that one has thought to take into account these states in the analysis of proton scattering at low incident energies (E 0 and S 1 . (Auth.)

  11. Direct measurement of the inelastic neutron acceleration by 177mLu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelle A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The inelastic neutron acceleration (INNA cross section on the long-lived isomer state of 177mLu has been measured from a new isomeric target using a direct method. The detection of high energy neutrons has been performed using a specially designed setup and a cold neutron beam at the ORPHEE reactor facility in Saclay.

  12. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of GaPO4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The measurements in low-cristobalite phase of GaPO4 are car- ried out using high-resolution ... energy transfer range 0–160 meV. Semiempirical interatomic ... Inelastic neutron scattering; phonons; thermal expansion. PACS Nos 78.70.

  13. Inelastic X-ray scattering activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering requires an energy determination before and after the scattering process together with a technique to vary at least one energy continuously in a controlled way. Sufficiently monochromatic beams can only be produced by Bragg reflection from single crystals. Stationary X-ray monochromators are standard equipment of conventional X-ray generators to select a particular characteristic line. Quite often they are curved to focus on the sample or the detector. Devices with variable Bragg angle have been and are used as analyzers in Compton scattering which is inelastic X-ray scattering with moderate resolution. With the rapidly increasing availability of synchrotron radiation (SR) monochromators and analyzers became more and more sophisticated improving momentum (Q) resolution and only somewhat the energy resolution ΔE which stays in the order of eV. Very high energy resolution can only be obtained with Bragg angles Theta near to 90 0 . This field is the topic of the present paper

  14. Inelastic light scattering spectroscopy of semiconductor nitride nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J.M.; Lazic, S.; Sanchez-Paramo, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Rueda, F. [Materials Science Institute of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cerutti, L.; Ristic, J.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSIT, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Trampert, A.; Jahn, U. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    A review of inelastic light scattering measurements on group III-nitride nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. The nanocolumns are hexagonal, high quality single crystals with diameters in the range of 20 to 100 nm, with no traces of extended defects. GaN nanocolumns grown on bare Si substrates with both (111) and (100) orientation display narrow phonon peaks, indicating the absence of strain inhomogeneities. This opens the possibility of efficient integration of the nanocolumns as optoelectronic devices with the complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Measurements of the E{sub 2} phonon frequency on AlGaN nanocolumns indicate a linear dependence of the Al concentration on the Al relative flux, up to 60%. The E{sub 2} peak width increases with Al content due to phonon damping by alloy scattering. Inelastic light scattering measurements in InN nanocolumns display a coupled LO phonon-plasmon mode together with uncoupled phonons. The coupled mode is not observed in a reference compact sample. The origin of the coupled mode is attributed to spontaneous accumulation of electrons at the lateral surfaces of the nanocolumns. The presence of free electrons in the nanocolumns is confirmed by infrared reflectance measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Inelastic light scattering spectroscopy of semiconductor nitride nanocolumns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, J.M.; Lazic, S.; Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Agullo-Rueda, F.; Cerutti, L.; Ristic, J.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J.; Calleja, E.; Trampert, A.; Jahn, U.

    2007-01-01

    A review of inelastic light scattering measurements on group III-nitride nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. The nanocolumns are hexagonal, high quality single crystals with diameters in the range of 20 to 100 nm, with no traces of extended defects. GaN nanocolumns grown on bare Si substrates with both (111) and (100) orientation display narrow phonon peaks, indicating the absence of strain inhomogeneities. This opens the possibility of efficient integration of the nanocolumns as optoelectronic devices with the complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Measurements of the E 2 phonon frequency on AlGaN nanocolumns indicate a linear dependence of the Al concentration on the Al relative flux, up to 60%. The E 2 peak width increases with Al content due to phonon damping by alloy scattering. Inelastic light scattering measurements in InN nanocolumns display a coupled LO phonon-plasmon mode together with uncoupled phonons. The coupled mode is not observed in a reference compact sample. The origin of the coupled mode is attributed to spontaneous accumulation of electrons at the lateral surfaces of the nanocolumns. The presence of free electrons in the nanocolumns is confirmed by infrared reflectance measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Experimental determination of the dynamics of an acoustically levitated sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Nicolás, E-mail: nico@fisica.edu.uy [Centro Universitario de Paysandú, Universidad de la República, Paysandú (Uruguay); Andrade, Marco A. B. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Canetti, Rafael [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-14

    Levitation of solids and liquids by ultrasonic standing waves is a promising technique to manipulate materials without contact. When a small particle is introduced in certain areas of a standing wave field, the acoustic radiation force pushes the particle to the pressure node. This movement is followed by oscillations of the levitated particle. Aiming to investigate the particle oscillations in acoustic levitation, this paper presents the experimental and numerical characterization of the dynamic behavior of a levitated sphere. To obtain the experimental response, a small sphere is lifted by the acoustic radiation force. After the sphere lift, it presents a damped oscillatory behavior, which is recorded by a high speed camera. To model this behavior, a mass-spring-damper system is proposed. In this model, the acoustic radiation force that acts on the sphere is theoretically predicted by the Gor'kov theory and the viscous forces are modeled by two damping terms, one term proportional to the square of the velocity and another term proportional to the particle velocity. The proposed model was experimentally verified by using different values of sound pressure amplitude. The comparison between numerical and experimental results shows that the model can accurately describe the oscillatory behavior of the sphere in an acoustic levitator.

  17. Experimental determination of the dynamics of an acoustically levitated sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Nicolás; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Canetti, Rafael; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2014-01-01

    Levitation of solids and liquids by ultrasonic standing waves is a promising technique to manipulate materials without contact. When a small particle is introduced in certain areas of a standing wave field, the acoustic radiation force pushes the particle to the pressure node. This movement is followed by oscillations of the levitated particle. Aiming to investigate the particle oscillations in acoustic levitation, this paper presents the experimental and numerical characterization of the dynamic behavior of a levitated sphere. To obtain the experimental response, a small sphere is lifted by the acoustic radiation force. After the sphere lift, it presents a damped oscillatory behavior, which is recorded by a high speed camera. To model this behavior, a mass-spring-damper system is proposed. In this model, the acoustic radiation force that acts on the sphere is theoretically predicted by the Gor'kov theory and the viscous forces are modeled by two damping terms, one term proportional to the square of the velocity and another term proportional to the particle velocity. The proposed model was experimentally verified by using different values of sound pressure amplitude. The comparison between numerical and experimental results shows that the model can accurately describe the oscillatory behavior of the sphere in an acoustic levitator

  18. Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2016-04-05

    We present new observations from an experimental investigation of the classical problem of the crown splash and sealing phenomena observed during the impact of spheres onto quiescent liquid pools. In the experiments, a 6 m tall vacuum chamber was used to provide the required ambient conditions from atmospheric pressure down to of an atmosphere, whilst high-speed videography was exploited to focus primarily on the above-surface crown formation and ensuing dynamics, paying particular attention to the moments just prior to the surface seal. In doing so, we have observed a buckling-type azimuthal instability of the crown. This instability is characterised by vertical striations along the crown, between which thin films form that are more susceptible to the air flow and thus are drawn into the closing cavity, where they atomize to form a fine spray within the cavity. To elucidate to the primary mechanisms and forces at play, we varied the sphere diameter, liquid properties and ambient pressure. Furthermore, a comparison between the entry of room-temperature spheres, where the contact line pins around the equator, and Leidenfrost spheres (i.e. an immersed superheated sphere encompassed by a vapour layer), where there is no contact line, indicates that the buckling instability appears in all crown sealing events, but is intensified by the presence of a pinned contact line. © 2016 Cambridge University Press.

  19. Gel-sphere-pac fuel for thermal reactors: assessment of fabrication technology and irradiation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, R.L. Norman, R.E.; Notz, K.J. (comps.)

    1979-11-01

    Recent interest in proliferation-resistant fuel cycles for light-water reactors has focused attention on spiked plutonium and /sup 233/U-Th fuels, requiring remote refabrication. The gel-sphere-pac process for fabricating metal-clad fuel elements has drawn special attention because it involves fewer steps. Gel-sphere-pac fabrication technology involves two major areas: the preparation of fuel spheres of high density and loading these spheres into rods in an efficiently packed geometry. Gel sphere preparation involves three major steps: preparation of a sol or of a special solution (broth), gelation of droplets of sol or broth to give semirigid spheres of controlled size, and drying and sintering these spheres to a high density. Gelation may be accomplished by water extraction (suitable only for sols) or ammonia gelation (suitable for both sols and broths but used almost exclusively with broths). Ammonia gelation can be accomplished either externally, via ammonia gas and ammonium hydroxide, or internally via an added ammonia generator such as hexamethylenetetramine. Sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication involves controlled blending and metering of three sizes of spheres into the rod and packing by low- to medium-energy vibration to achieve about 88% smear density; these sizes have diametral ratios of about 40:10:1 and are blended in size fraction amounts of about 60% coarse, 18% medium, and 22% fine. Irradiation test results indicate that sphere-pac fuel performs at least as well as pellet fuel, and may in fact offer an advantage in significantly reducing mechanical and chemical interaction between the fuel and cladding. The normal feed for gel sphere preparation, heavy metal nitrate solution, is the usual product of fuel reprocessing, so that fabrication of gel spheres performs all the functions performed by both conversion and pellet fabrication in the case of pellet technology.

  20. Gel-sphere-pac fuel for thermal reactors: assessment of fabrication technology and irradiation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, R.L.; Norman, R.E.; Notz, K.J.

    1979-11-01

    Recent interest in proliferation-resistant fuel cycles for light-water reactors has focused attention on spiked plutonium and 233 U-Th fuels, requiring remote refabrication. The gel-sphere-pac process for fabricating metal-clad fuel elements has drawn special attention because it involves fewer steps. Gel-sphere-pac fabrication technology involves two major areas: the preparation of fuel spheres of high density and loading these spheres into rods in an efficiently packed geometry. Gel sphere preparation involves three major steps: preparation of a sol or of a special solution (broth), gelation of droplets of sol or broth to give semirigid spheres of controlled size, and drying and sintering these spheres to a high density. Gelation may be accomplished by water extraction (suitable only for sols) or ammonia gelation (suitable for both sols and broths but used almost exclusively with broths). Ammonia gelation can be accomplished either externally, via ammonia gas and ammonium hydroxide, or internally via an added ammonia generator such as hexamethylenetetramine. Sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication involves controlled blending and metering of three sizes of spheres into the rod and packing by low- to medium-energy vibration to achieve about 88% smear density; these sizes have diametral ratios of about 40:10:1 and are blended in size fraction amounts of about 60% coarse, 18% medium, and 22% fine. Irradiation test results indicate that sphere-pac fuel performs at least as well as pellet fuel, and may in fact offer an advantage in significantly reducing mechanical and chemical interaction between the fuel and cladding. The normal feed for gel sphere preparation, heavy metal nitrate solution, is the usual product of fuel reprocessing, so that fabrication of gel spheres performs all the functions performed by both conversion and pellet fabrication in the case of pellet technology

  1. Theory of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, B.; Robaschik, D.; Wieczorek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The description of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering in the lowest order of the electromagnetic and weak coupling constants leads to a study of virtual Compton amplitudes and their absorptive parts. Some aspects of quantum chromodynamics are discussed. Deep inelastic scattering enables a central quantity of quantum field theory, namely the light cone behaviour of the current commutator. The moments of structure functions are used for the description of deep inelastic scattering. (author)

  2. Poisson denoising on the sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J.; Starck, J. L.; Fadili, J.; Grenier, I.; Casandjian, J. M.

    2009-08-01

    In the scope of the Fermi mission, Poisson noise removal should improve data quality and make source detection easier. This paper presents a method for Poisson data denoising on sphere, called Multi-Scale Variance Stabilizing Transform on Sphere (MS-VSTS). This method is based on a Variance Stabilizing Transform (VST), a transform which aims to stabilize a Poisson data set such that each stabilized sample has an (asymptotically) constant variance. In addition, for the VST used in the method, the transformed data are asymptotically Gaussian. Thus, MS-VSTS consists in decomposing the data into a sparse multi-scale dictionary (wavelets, curvelets, ridgelets...), and then applying a VST on the coefficients in order to get quasi-Gaussian stabilized coefficients. In this present article, the used multi-scale transform is the Isotropic Undecimated Wavelet Transform. Then, hypothesis tests are made to detect significant coefficients, and the denoised image is reconstructed with an iterative method based on Hybrid Steepest Descent (HST). The method is tested on simulated Fermi data.

  3. Impact of a Hydrophobic Sphere onto a Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Edmonds, John; Galeano-Rios, Carlos A.; Milewski, Paul A.

    2017-11-01

    Small hydrophobic particles impacting a water surface can rebound completely from the interface (Lee & Kim, Langmuir, 2008). In the present work, we focus on the bouncing dynamics of millimetric hydrophobic spheres impacting the surface of a quiescent water bath. Particular attention is given to the dependence of the normal coefficient of restitution and contact time on the impact velocity and the radius and density of the sphere. Our experimental observations are compared to the predictions of a fluid model derived from linearized Navier-Stokes under the assumption of a high Reynolds number regime (Galeano-Rios et al., JFM, in press). In the model, the motions of the sphere and the fluid interface are found by imposing the natural geometric and kinematic compatibility conditions. Future directions will be discussed. C.A.G.-R. and P.A.M. gratefully acknowledge support through the EPSRC project EP/N018176/1.

  4. Thin-film technology development for the PowerSphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James H.; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander; Liu, Simon; Rawal, Suraj P.; Perry, Alan R.; Marshall, Craig H.; Lin, John K.; Scarborough, Stephen E.; Curtis, Henry B.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Peterson, Todd T.

    2005-01-01

    The PowerSphere concept consists of a relatively large spherical solar array, which would be deployed from a microsatellite. The PowerSphere will enable microsatellite missions across NASA enterprises and DoD missions by providing ample electric power at an affordable cost. The PowerSphere design provides attitude-independent electric power and thermal control for an enclosed microsatellite payload. The specific power design is scalable, robust in high radiation environments and provides sufficient electric power to allow the use of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion enables precise positioning of microsatellites, which is required for inspectors that would be deployed to observe the International Space Station, Space Shuttle or large unmanned spacecraft

  5. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned

  6. The Positive Freedom of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2015-01-01

    calls for new reflections on the possible relationship between media, public sphere and democracy. This paper argues that we should change the questions that are raised when we try to assess the public sphere. It is argued that the traditional (Enlightenment) focus upon negative liberties and the truth-value......The relationship between democracy and the media since the appearance of Habermas' major texts in the 1960s has been articulated through theories of the public sphere. The structure of the public sphere is significantly influenced by the communicative media, and the emergence of the internet thus...

  7. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program is aimed at the quantitative study of surface dynamical processes (vibrational, magnetic excitations) in crystalline slabs, ultrathin-layered materials, and chemisorbed systems on substrates, and of the geometric structure connected to these dynamical excitations. High-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful probe. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50-300 eV). The analyses has been used to study surfaces of ordered alloys (NiAl). Ab-initio surface lattice dynamical results were combined with phonon-loss cross sections to achieve a more accurate microscopic description. First-principles phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross-section calculations. The combined microscopic approach was used to analyze EELS data of Cu(0001) and Ag(001) at two points. Positron diffraction is discussed as a structural and imaging tool. The relation between geometric structure of a film and its local magnetic properties will be studied in the future, along with other things

  8. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping, E-mail: zjuwuping@njnu.edu.cn; Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming, E-mail: zhouyiming@njnu.edu.cn; Lu, Tianhong

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO{sub 2} spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g{sup −1}), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g{sup −1})

  9. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping; Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming; Lu, Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO 2 spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g −1 after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g −1 ), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g −1 )

  10. Lowest order in inelastic tunneling approximation : efficient scheme for simulation of inelastic electron tunneling data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, E.T.R.; Flipse, C.F.J.; Cerda, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an efficient and accurate formalism which allows the simulation at the ab initio level of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy data under a scanning tunneling microscope setup. It exploits fully the tunneling regime by carrying out the structural optimization and vibrational

  11. Characterization of silane coated hollow sphere alumina-reinforced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silane coated hollow sphere alumina ceramic particles were moulded with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to form a series of composites with alumina weight percent in the range from 15 to 50. The composites were prepared in a cylindrical mould using powder-processing technique. The composites ...

  12. Crystallizing hard-sphere glasses by doping with active particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Ran; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization and vitrification are two different routes to form a solid. Normally these two processes suppress each other, with the glass transition preventing crystallization at high density (or low temperature). This is even true for systems of colloidal hard spheres, which are commonly used as

  13. Deep inelastic scattering and asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1985-01-01

    I recall some facets of the history of the field of deep inelastic scattering. I show how there was a very fruitful interplay between phenomenology on the one side and more abstract field theoretical considerations on the other side, where Kurt Symanzik, whose memory we honour today, made important contributions. Finally I make some remarks on the most recent developments in this field which have to do with the so-called EMC-effect, where EMC stands for European Muon Collaboration. (orig./HSI)

  14. Deep inelastic scattering of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    These lectures developed path integral methods for use in the theory of heavy ion reactions. The effects of internal degrees of freedom on the relative motion were contained in an influence functional which was calculated for several simple models of the internal structure. In each model the influence functional had a simple Gaussian structure suggesting that the relative motion of the nuclei in a deep inelastic collision could be described by a Langevin equation. The form of the influence functional determines the average damping force and the correlation function of the fluctuating Langevin force. (author)

  15. Deep inelastic scattering of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    These lecture notes show how path integral methods can be used in the theory of heavy ion reactions. The effects of internal degrees of freedom on the relative motion are contained in an influence functional which is calculated for several simple models of the internal structure. In each model the influence functional has a simple Gaussian structure which suggests that the relative motion of the nuclei in a deep inelastic collision can be described by a Langevin equation. The form of the influence functional determines the average damping force and the correlation function of the fluctuating Langevin force. (author)

  16. Nonadiabatic effects in inelastic collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, Andrey K

    2009-01-01

    The standard adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approach to inelastic collisional processes is revised. It is shown that the widely used standard interpretation of this approach has fundamental limitations leading to physical artefacts or to uncertainties in numerical calculations due to neglecting the electron translation problem. It is demonstrated that the Born-Oppenheimer approach itself does not have such limitations. The particular full quantum solution of the electron translation problem within the Born-Oppenheimer approach by means of the reprojection procedure is discussed in the paper together with the practical applications.

  17. The theory of deeply inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2012-01-01

    The nucleon structure functions probed in deep-inelastic scattering at large virtualities form an important tool to test Quantum Chromdynamics (QCD) through precision measurements of the strong coupling constant α s (M Z 2 ) and the different parton distribution functions. The exact knowledge of these quantities is also of importance for all precision measurements at hadron colliders. During the last two decades very significant progress has been made in performing precision calculations. We review the theoretical status reached for both unpolarized and polarized lepton-hadron scattering based on perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  18. Hadron final states in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1976-05-01

    Lectures are presented dealing mainly with the description and discussion of hadron final states in electroproduction, colliding beams, and neutrino reactions from the point of view of the simple parton model. Also the space-time evolution of final states in the parton model is considered. It is found that the picture of space-time evolution of hadron final states in deep inelastic processes isn't totally trivial and that it can be made consistent with the hypotheses of the parton model. 39 references

  19. Inelastic response spectra of simple degrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreaus, U.; Ceradini, G.; D'Asdia, P.; Gaudenzi, P.

    1985-01-01

    Ductility was first stated, for single-degree-of-freedom elastic-perfectly plastic systems as the ratio of maximum to yield displacements. An alternative approach, aimed to reduce design forces for ductile structures and based on the energy dissipated during earthquake allows to obtain more reliable ductility factors even when system restoring characteristics are affected by deterioration during loading history. Inelastic response of SDOF systems has been investigated under seimic excitation, assuming stable and degrading constitutive laws to model their structural behaviour. Energy spectra and ductility requirent diagrams are generated and compared with those of the corresponding elastic-perfectly plastic systems. (orig.)

  20. Radiative corrections to deep inelastic muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhundov, A.A.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Lohman, W.

    1986-01-01

    A summary is given of the most recent results for the calculaion of radiative corrections to deep inelastic muon-nucleon scattering. Contributions from leptonic electromagnetic processes up to the order a 4 , vacuum polarization by leptons and hadrons, hadronic electromagnetic processes approximately a 3 and γZ interference have been taken into account. The dependence of the individual contributions on kinematical variables is studied. Contributions, not considered in earlier calculations of radiative corrections, reach in certain kinematical regions several per cent at energies above 100 GeV

  1. The theory of deeply inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2012-08-31

    The nucleon structure functions probed in deep-inelastic scattering at large virtualities form an important tool to test Quantum Chromdynamics (QCD) through precision measurements of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2}) and the different parton distribution functions. The exact knowledge of these quantities is also of importance for all precision measurements at hadron colliders. During the last two decades very significant progress has been made in performing precision calculations. We review the theoretical status reached for both unpolarized and polarized lepton-hadron scattering based on perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  2. Sphere Rényi entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2013-01-01

    I give some scalar field theory calculations on a d-dimensional lune of arbitrary angle, evaluating, numerically, the effective action which is expressed as a simple quadrature, for conformal coupling. Using this, the entanglement and Rényi entropies are computed. Massive fields are also considered and a renormalization to make the (one-loop) effective action vanish for infinite mass is suggested and used, not entirely successfully. However a universal coefficient is derived from the large mass expansion. From the deformation of the corresponding lune result, I conjecture that the effective action on all odd manifolds with a simple conical singularity has an extremum when the singularity disappears. For the round sphere, I show how to convert the quadrature form of the conformal Laplacian determinant into the more usual sum of Riemann ζ-functions (and log 2). (paper)

  3. Measurement of photon production in the very forward direction in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-06-15

    The production of photons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. The analysis covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex 6inelasticity 0.057.9 as a function of its transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup lead} and longitudinal momentum fraction of the incoming proton x{sub L}{sup lead}. In addition, the cross sections are studied as a function of the sum of the longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub L}{sup sum} of all photons in the pseudorapidity range {eta}>7.9. The cross sections are normalised to the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross section and compared to the predictions of models of deep-inelastic scattering and models of the hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of photon production in the very forward direction in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, LPNHE, Paris (France); Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Univ. of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia)] [and others

    2011-10-15

    The production of photons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. The analysis covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex 6inelasticity 0.057.9 as a function of its transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup lead} and longitudinal momentum fraction of the incoming proton x{sub L}{sup lead}. In addition, the cross sections are studied as a function of the sum of the longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub L}{sup sum} of all photons in the pseudorapidity range {eta}>7.9. The cross sections are normalised to the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross section and compared to the predictions of models of deep-inelastic scattering and models of the hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays. (orig.)

  5. Incremental-hinge piping analysis methods for inelastic seismic response prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquay, K.R.; Castle, W.R.; Larson, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper proposes nonlinear seismic response prediction methods for nuclear piping systems based on simplified plastic hinge analyses. The simplified plastic hinge analyses utilize an incremental series of flat response spectrum loadings and replace yielded components with hinge elements when a predefined hinge moment is reached. These hinge moment values, developed by Rodabaugh, result in inelastic energy dissipation of the same magnitude as observed in seismic tests of piping components. Two definitions of design level equivalent loads are employed: one conservatively based on the peaks of the design acceleration response spectra, the other based on inelastic frequencies determined by the method of Krylov and Bogolyuboff recently extended by Lazzeri to piping. Both definitions account for piping system inelastic energy dissipation using Newmark-Hall inelastic response spectrum reduction factors and the displacement ductility results of the incremental-hinge analysis. Two ratchet-fatigue damage models are used: one developed by Rodabaugh that conservatively correlates Markl static fatigue expressions to seismic tests to failure of piping components; the other developed by Severud that uses the ratchet expression of Bree for elbows and Edmunds and Beer for straights, and defines ratchet-fatigue interaction using Coffin's ductility based fatigue equation. Comparisons of predicted behavior versus experimental results are provided for a high-level seismic test of a segment of a representative nuclear plant piping system. (orig.)

  6. Study on seismic design margin based upon inelastic shaking test of the piping and support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Takami; Eto, Kazutoshi; Ikeda, Kazutoyo; Yoshii, Toshiaki; Kondo, Masami; Tai, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, according to the revised Regulatory Guide for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities, September 2006, criteria of design basis earthquakes of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities become more severe. Then, evaluating seismic design margin took on a great importance and it has been profoundly discussed. Since seismic safety is one of the major key issues of nuclear power plant safety, it has been demonstrated that nuclear piping system possesses large safety margins by various durability test reports for piping in ultimate conditions. Though the knowledge of safety margin has been accumulated from these reports, there still remain some technical uncertainties about the phenomenon when both piping and support structures show inelastic behavior in extremely high seismic excitation level. In order to obtain the influences of inelastic behavior of the support structures to the whole piping system response when both piping and support structures show inelastic behavior, we examined seismic proving tests and we conducted simulation analyses for the piping system which focused on the inelastic behavior of the support to the whole piping system response. This paper introduces major results of the seismic shaking tests of the piping and support system and the simulation analyses of these tests. (author)

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review current research on minerals using inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics calculations. Inelastic neutron scattering studies in combination with first principles and atomistic calculations provide a detailed understanding of the phonon dispersion relations, density of states and their manifestations in ...

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review current research on minerals using inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics calculations. Inelastic neutron scattering studies in combination with first principles and atomistic calculations provide a detailed understanding of the phonon dispersion relations, density of states and their ...

  9. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Vutha, Amar C.

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.

  10. Reversible thermal gelation in soft spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapnistos, M.; Vlassopoulos, D.; Fytas, G.

    2000-01-01

    Upon heating, concentrated solutions of star polymers and block copolymer micelles in a good solvent, representing soft spheres, undergo a reversible gelation. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of clusters causing a partial dynamic arrest of the swollen interpenetrating spheres at hi...

  11. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutha, Amar C

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic and molecular physics. (paper)

  12. Slow electron contribution to inelastic reflection anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podsvirov, O.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is electron contribution with low energy (up to 1 keV) to the anisotropy of electron inelastic reflection (IRE) from silicon monocrystal (111) within 12-50 keV energy range of primary electrons. Experimental data on IRE anisotropy are presented: delay curves for silicon monocrystal, permitting to separate electrons with the energy up to 1 keV, dependences of IRE anisotropy on the energy of primary electrons for the systems - monocrystalline silicon-amorphous silicon film and delay curves for such systems (film thickness varies from 20 to 2000 A). Suggested is a phenomenologic model, permitting to take into account the contribution of slow electrons to IRE anisotropy: it is supposed, that three groups of electrons take part in the formation of the latter: elastic and inelastic reflected electrons, slow electrons, excited by primary electrons and slow electrons, generated by the reverse flow of the scattered electrons. Contribution of electrons, different by origin, to IRE anisotropy is evaluated in accordance with the experimental data on the basis of this model. It is stated, that slow electrons constitute approximately one half of the IRE anisotropy value, the contribution of both groups of slow electrons being approximately equal

  13. Phenomenology of deep-inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1983-03-01

    The field of heavy-ion deep-inelastic reactions is reviewed with particular attention to the experimental picture. The most important degrees of freedom involved in the process are identified and illustrated with relevant experiments. Energy dissipation and mass transfer are discussed in terms of particles and/or phonons exchanged in the process. The equilibration of the fragment neutron-to-proton ratios is inspected for evidence of giant isovector resonances. The angular momentum effects are observed in the fragment angular distributions and the angular momentum transfer is inferred from the magnitude and alignment of the fragments spins. The possible sources of light particles accompanying the deep-inelastic reactions are discussed. The use of the sequentially emitted particles as angular momentum probes is illustrated. The significance and uses of a thermalized component emitted by the dinucleus is reviewed. The possible presence of Fermi jets in the prompt component is shown to be critical to the justification of the one-body theories

  14. The phenomenology of deep-inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The field of heavy-ion deep-inelastic reactions is reviewed with particular attention to the experimental picture. The most important degrees of freedom involved in the process are identified and illustrated with relevant experiments. Energy dissipation and mass transfer are discussed in terms of particles and/or phonons exchanged in the process. The equilibration of the fragment neutron-to-proton ratios is inspected for evidence of giant isovector resonances. The angular momentum effects are observed in the fragment angular distributions and the angular momentum transfer is inferred from the magnitude and alignment of the fragments spins. The possible sources of light particles accompanying the deep-inelastic reactions are discussed. The use of the sequentially emitted particles as angular momentum probes is illustrated. The significance and uses of a thermalized component emitted by the dinucleus is reviewed. The possible presence of Fermi jets in the prompt component is shown to be critical to the justification of the one-body theories. (orig.)

  15. Antinucleon-nucleus elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Millener, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT = 0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 40 refs., 13 figs

  16. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Saiz, E; Riley, D [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gregori, G; Clarke, R J; Neely, D; Notley, M M; Spindloe, C [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX (United Kingdom); Gericke, D O; Vorberger, J; Wunsch, K [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Barbrel, B; Koenig, M [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Laser Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique - Universite Paris-6, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Freeman, R R; Weber, R L; Van Woerkom, L [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Price, D [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Khattak, F Y [Department of Physics, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat-26000, NWFP (Pakistan); Pelka, A; Roth, M; Schollmeier, M [Institut fur Kernphysik, Technische Universitat Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    One of the grand challenges of contemporary physics is understanding strongly interacting quantum systems comprising such diverse examples as ultracold atoms in traps, electrons in high-temperature superconductors and nuclear matter. Warm dense matter, defined by temperatures of a few electron volts and densities comparable with solids, is a complex state of such interacting matter. Moreover, the study of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where it is encountered during the implosion phase, and it also represents laboratory analogues of astrophysical environments found in the core of planets and the crusts of old stars. Here we demonstrate how warm dense matter states can be diagnosed and structural properties can be obtained by inelastic X-ray scattering measurements on a compressed lithium sample. Combining experiments and ab initio simulations enables us to determine its microscopic state and to evaluate more approximate theoretical models for the ionic structure. (authors)

  17. Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, D.; Gamberg, L.; Musch, B.U.; Prokudin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of weighted asymmetries is revisited for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. Advantages of employing these Bessel weights are that they suppress (divergent) contributions from high transverse momentum and that soft factors cancel in (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries. Also, the resulting compact expressions immediately connect to previous work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and to quantities accessible in lattice QCD. Bessel weighted asymmetries are thus model independent observables that augment the description and our understanding of correlations of spin and momentum in nucleon structure.

  18. Inelastic x-ray scattering from polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, I.

    2008-09-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is a tool to determine the phonon dispersion along high symmetry directions in single crystals. However, novel materials and crystals under extreme conditions are often only available in form of polycrystalline samples. Thus the investigation is limited to orientation-averaged properties. To overcome these limitations, a methodology to extract the single crystal phonon dispersion from polycrystalline materials was developed. The approach consists of recording IXS spectra over a large momentum transfer region and confront them with a Born - von Karman model calculation. A least-square refinement of the model IXS spectra then provides the single crystal dispersion scheme. In this work the method is developed on the test case Be. Further studies were performed on more and more complex systems, in order to explore the limitations. This novel application of IXS promises to be a valuable tool in cases where single crystalline materials are not available. (author)

  19. Comparison of deep inelastic scattering with photoproduction interactions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aid, S.; Andrieu, B.

    1995-08-01

    Photon-proton (γp) interactions with Q 2 -2 GeV 2 and deep-inelastic scattering (γ * p) interactions with photon virtualities Q 2 > 5 GeV 2 are studied at the high energy electron-proton collider HERA. The transverse energy flow and relative rates of large rapidity gap events are compared in the two event samples. The observed similarity between γp and γ * p interactions can be understood in a picture where the photon develops as a hadronic object. The transverse energy density measured in the central region of the collision, at η * = 0 in the γ * p centre of mass frame, is compared with data from hadron-hadron interactions as function of the CMS energy of the collision. (orig.)

  20. Model-Free Views of Deep Inelastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Julian

    2014-11-01

    Perhaps I should point out first that my choice of topic was dictated by the injunction that the nature of this symposium should revolve around subjects that might be conceivably of interest to Viki. Viki has, along with most high energy physicists been very interested in the subject of deep inelastic electron scattering. With his characteristic attention to directly visualizable approaches to physical phenomena, he has dealt with this in terms of rather specific models, attempting then to give very elementary explanations of these fascinating phenomena. I thought he might be interested to see the other side of the coin, namely, the extent to which one can correlate and comprehend these physical effects without the use of specific models. I think this may lend a certain useful balance to the way things are looked at these days. So my remarks are directed to Viki but you're all welcome to eavesdrop...