WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly hydrogenated methane

  1. Methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Marko; Busch, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The biologic methanation of exclusively gases like hydrogen and carbon dioxide is feasible. • Electrical energy can be stored in the established gas grid by conversion to methane. • The quality of produced biogas is very high (c CH4 = 98 vol%). • The conversion rate is depending on H 2 -flow rate. - Abstract: A new method for the methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide is presented. In a novel anaerobic trickle-bed reactor, biochemical catalyzed methanation at mesophilic temperatures and ambient pressure can be realized. The conversion of gaseous substrates by immobilized hydrogenotrophic methanogens is a unique feature of this reactor type. The already patented reactor produces biogas which has a very high quality (c CH4 = 97.9 vol%). Therefore, the storage of biogas in the existing natural gas grid is possible without extensive purification. The specific methane production was measured with P = 1.17 Nm CH4 3 /(m R 3 d). It is conceivable to realize the process at sites that generate solar or wind energy and sites subject to the conditions for hydrogen electrolysis (or other methods of hydrogen production). The combination with conventional biogas plants under hydrogen addition to methane enrichment is possible as well. The process enables the coupling of various renewable energy sources

  2. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  3. Microwave Hydrogen Production from Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    combustion NOx control of reciprocating engine exhaust and fuel cell application of biogas . Our target is to obtain the methane conversion efficiency...demonstration of MW technology removing and destroying hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and siloxanes from biogas produced by Sacramento Regional Wastewater...running on biogas and is currently conducting the field demonstration of the unit at Tollenaar Dairy in Elk Grove, CA. SMUD, California Air Resources

  4. A Green Process for High-Concentration Ethylene and Hydrogen Production from Methane in a Plasma-Followed-by-Catalyst Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kangjun; Li Xiaosong; Zhu Aimin

    2011-01-01

    A green process for the oxygen-free conversion of methane to high-concentration ethylene and hydrogen in a plasma-followed-by-catalyst (PFC) reactor is presented. Without any catalysts and with pure methane used as the feed gas, a stable kilohertz spark discharge leads to an acetylene yield of 64.1%, ethylene yield of 2.5% and hydrogen yield of 59.0% with 80.0% of methane conversion at a methane flow rate of 50 cm 3 /min and a specific input energy of 38.4 kJ/L. In the effluent gas from a stable kilohertz spark discharge reactor, the concentrations of acetylene, ethylene and hydrogen were 18.1%, 0.7% and 66.9%, respectively. When catalysts Pd-Ag/SiO 2 were employed in the second stage with discharge conditions same as in the case of plasma alone, the PFC reactor provides an ethylene yield of 52.1% and hydrogen yield of 43.4%. The concentrations of ethylene and hydrogen in the effluent gas from the PFC reactor were found to be as high as 17.1% and 62.6%, respectively. Moreover, no acetylene was detected in the effluent gas. This means that a high concentration of ethylene and oxygen-free hydrogen can be co-produced directly from methane in the PFC reactor.

  5. Anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage for hydrogen and methane production in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under high organic loading rate (OLR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shim, Hojae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR 999078 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Anaerobic hydrogen and methane production from cassava stillage in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were investigated in this study. Results showed that the heat-pretreatment of inoculum did not enhance hydrogen yield compared to raw inoculum under mesophilic condition after continuous operation. However, the hydrogen yield increased from about 14 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under mesophilic condition to 69.6 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under thermophilic condition due to the decrease of propionate concentration and inhibition of homoacetogens. Therefore, temperature was demonstrated to be more important than pretreatment of inoculum to enhance the hydrogen production. Under high organic loading rate (OLR) (>10 gVS/(L.d)), the two-phase thermophilic CSTR for hydrogen and methane production was stable with hydrogen and methane yields of 56.6 mlH{sub 2}/gVS and 249 mlCH{sub 4}/gVS. The one-phase thermophilic CSTR for methane production failed due to the accumulation of both acetate and propionate, leading to the pH lower than 6. Instead of propionate alone, the accumulations of both acetate and propionate were found to be related to the breakdown of methane reactor. (author)

  6. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Taner [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  7. Composite hydrogen-solid methane moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picton, D.; Bennington, S.; Ansell, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, J.; Broome, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of Monte-Carlo calculations for a coupled moderator on a low-power pulsed neutron spallation source and is part of the design study for a second target station for the ISIS spallation source. Various options were compared including hydrogen, solid methane, grooving the solid methane and compound moderators made of hydrogen in front of solid methane. To maximise the neutron current at low energies two strategies appear to emerge from the calculations. For instruments that view a large area of moderator surface a layer of hydrogen in front of a thin solid-methane moderator is optimum, giving a gain of about a factor 10 relative to the current liquid hydrogen moderator on the existing ISIS tantalum target. For instruments that only view a restricted area higher flux, corresponding to a gain of 13.5, can be achieved with the use of a single groove or re-entrant hole in the moderator. (orig.)

  8. Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choin, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial

  9. Numerical analysis of performance of steam reformer of methane reforming hydrogen production system connected with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Huaqiang; Jiang Shengyao; Zhang Youjie

    2007-01-01

    Methane conversion rate and hydrogen output are important performance indexes of the steam reformer. The paper presents numerical analysis of performance of the reformer connected with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor HTR-10. Setting helium inlet flow rate fixed, performance of the reformer was examined with different helium inlet temperature, pressure, different process gas temperature, pressure, flow rate, and different steam to carbon ratio. As the range concerned, helium inlet temperature has remarkable influence on the performance, and helium inlet temperature, process gas temperature and pressure have little influence on the performance, and improving process gas flow rate, methane conversion rate decreases and hydrogen output increases, however improving steam to carbon ratio has reverse influence on the performance. (authors)

  10. Storage of hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide in highly porous covalent organic frameworks for clean energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Yaghi, Omar M

    2009-07-01

    Dihydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms of seven porous covalent organic frameworks (COFs). The uptake behavior and capacity of the COFs is best described by classifying them into three groups based on their structural dimensions and corresponding pore sizes. Group 1 consists of 2D structures with 1D small pores (9 A for each of COF-1 and COF-6), group 2 includes 2D structures with large 1D pores (27, 16, and 32 A for COF-5, COF-8, and COF-10, respectively), and group 3 is comprised of 3D structures with 3D medium-sized pores (12 A for each of COF-102 and COF-103). Group 3 COFs outperform group 1 and 2 COFs, and rival the best metal-organic frameworks and other porous materials in their uptake capacities. This is exemplified by the excess gas uptake of COF-102 at 35 bar (72 mg g(-1) at 77 K for hydrogen, 187 mg g(-1) at 298 K for methane, and 1180 mg g(-1) at 298 K for carbon dioxide), which is similar to the performance of COF-103 but higher than those observed for COF-1, COF-5, COF-6, COF-8, and COF-10 (hydrogen at 77 K, 15 mg g(-1) for COF-1, 36 mg g(-1) for COF-5, 23 mg g(-1) for COF-6, 35 mg g(-1) for COF-8, and 39 mg g(-1) for COF-10; methane at 298 K, 40 mg g(-1) for COF-1, 89 mg g(-1) for COF-5, 65 mg g(-1) for COF-6, 87 mg g(-1) for COF-8, and 80 mg g(-1) for COF-10; carbon dioxide at 298 K, 210 mg g(-1) for COF-1, 779 mg g(-1) for COF-5, 298 mg g(-1) for COF-6, 598 mg g(-1) for COF-8, and 759 mg g(-1) for COF-10). These findings place COFs among the most porous and the best adsorbents for hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide.

  11. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible microwave plasma methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  12. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1769 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) methane (CH{sub 4}) reformation (H{sub 2}SMR) (2H{sub 2}S + CH{sub 4} = CS{sub 2} + 4H{sub 2}) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H{sub 2}S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H{sub 2}SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure - a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H{sub 2}SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH{sub 4} to H{sub 2}S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H{sub 2}SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H{sub 2}SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively. (author)

  13. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) methane (CH 4) reformation (H 2SMR) (2H 2S + CH 4 = CS 2 + 4H 2) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H 2S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H 2SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS 2), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure-a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H 2SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH 4 to H 2S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H 2SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H 2SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively.

  14. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is...

  15. Effect of pressure on high Karlovitz number lean turbulent premixed hydrogen-enriched methane-air flames using LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicoria, David; Chan, C. K.

    2017-07-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to investigate the effect of pressure on lean CH4-H2-air turbulent premixed flames at high Karlovitz number for mixtures up to 60% of hydrogen in volume. The subfilter combustion term representing the interaction between turbulence and chemistry is modelled using the PaSR model, along with complex chemistry using a skeletal mechanism based on GRI-MECH3.0. The influence of pressure at high turbulence levels is studied by means of the local flame structure, and the assessment of species formation inside the flame. Results show that the ratio of turbulent flame thickness to laminar flame thickness δt/δu increases faster with pressure, and increases with the fraction of hydrogen in the mixture, leading to higher ratio of turbulent to laminar flame speed. The flame displays smaller structures and higher degree of wrinkling at higher pressure. Final species of CO2 and H2O formation is almost independent of pressure. For intermediate species CO and OH, an increase in pressure at constant volume fraction of hydrogen β leads to a decrease of emission of these species.

  16. Analysis of energy efficiency of methane and hydrogen-methane blends in a PFI/DI SI research engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catapano, F.; Di Iorio, S.; Sementa, P.; Vaglieco, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, even more attention was paid to the alternative fuels that allow both reducing the fossil fuel consumption and the pollutant emissions. Gaseous fuels like methane and hydrogen are the most interesting in terms of engine application. This paper reports a comparison between methane and different methane/hydrogen mixtures in a single-cylinder Port Fuel/Direct Injection spark ignition (PFI/DI SI) engine operating under steady state conditions. It is representative of the gasoline engine for automotive application. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were evaluated. Moreover, 2D-digital cycle resolved imaging was performed with high spatial and temporal resolution in the combustion chamber. In particular, it allows characterizing the combustion by means of the flame propagation in terms of mean radius and velocity. Moreover, the interaction of turbulence with the local flame was evaluated. For both the engine configurations, it was observed that the addition of hydrogen results in a more efficient combustion, even though the engine configuration plays an important role. In PFI mode, the lower density of hydrogen causes a lower energy input. In DI mode, instead, the larger hydrogen diffusivity counteracts the charge stratification especially for larger hydrogen content. - Highlights: • The effect of hydrogen on methane combustion was investigated in an optical PFI/DI SI engine. • The effect of hydrogen addition for PFI and DI configurations was evaluated on the same engine. • The flame front propagation was characterized by means of 2-D digital imaging.

  17. Heat transfer comparison between methane and hydrogen in a spark ignited engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierens, Roger; Demuynck, Joachim; Paepe, Michel de; Verhelst, Sebastian [Ghent Univ. (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is one of the alternative fuels which are being investigated at Ghent University. NO{sub x} emissions will occur at high engine loads and they are a constraint for power and efficiency optimization. The formation of NO{sub x} emissions is temperature dependent. Consequently, the heat transfer from the burning gases to the cylinder walls has to be accurately modelled if precise computer calculations of the emissions are wanted. Several engine heat transfer models exist but they have been cited to be inaccurate for hydrogen. We have measured the heat flux in a spark ignited engine with a commercially available heat flux sensor. This paper investigates the difference between the heat transfer of hydrogen and a fossil fuel, in this case methane. Measurements with the same indicated power output are compared and the effect of the heat loss on the indicated efficiency is investigated. The power output of hydrogen combustion is lowered by burning lean in contrast to using a throttle in the case of methane. Although the peak in the heat flux of hydrogen is 3 times higher compared to methane for a high engine power output, the indicated efficiency is only 3% lower. The heat loss for hydrogen at a low engine load is smaller than that of methane which results in a higher indicated efficiency. The richness of the hydrogen-air mixture has a great influence on the heat transfer process in contrast to the in-cylinder mass in the case of methane. (orig.)

  18. Asymptotic analysis of methane-hydrogen-air mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, R.T.E.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an asymptotic analysis of de Goey et al.concerning premixed stoichiometric methane-hydrogen-air flames is analyzed in depth. The analysis is performed with up to 50 mole percent of hydrogen in the fuel, at gas inlet temperatures ranging from 300 K to 650 K and pressures from 1 to 15

  19. Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choin, Byung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial temperature over 920 K, the threshold temperature for autoignition in methane jets, exhibited features typical of either a tribrachial edge or mild combustion depending on fuel mole fraction and the liftoff height increased with jet velocity. The liftoff height in the hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime was dependent on the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the addition of small amounts of hydrogen, as was the case for pure methane jets. When the initial temperature was below 920 K, where the methane fuel did not show autoignition behavior, the flame was autoignited by the addition of hydrogen, which is an ignition improver. The liftoff height demonstrated a unique feature in that it decreased nonlinearly as the jet velocity increased. The differential diffusion of hydrogen is expected to play a crucial role in the decrease in the liftoff height with increasing jet velocity.

  20. Methane and hydrogen production from crop biomass through anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, O.

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of methane and hydrogen production from energy crops through anaerobic digestion was evaluated in this thesis. The effects of environmental conditions, e.g. pH and temperature, as well as inoculum source on H{sub 2} yield were studied in batch assays. In addition, the effects of pre-treatments on methane and hydrogen yield as well as the feasibility of two-stage H{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} production was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of storage on methane yield of grasses was evaluated. Monodigestion of grass silage for methane production was studied, as well as shifting the methanogenic process to hydrogenic. Hydrogen production from grass silage and maize was shown to be possible with heat-treated inoculum in batch assays, with highest H{sub 2} yields of 16.0 and 9.9 ml gVS{sub added}-1 from untreated grass silage and maize, respectively. Pre-treatments (NaOH, HCl and water-extraction) showed some potential in increasing H{sub 2} yields, while methane yields were not affected. Two-stage H{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} producing process was shown to improve CH{sub 4} yields when compared to traditional one-stage CH{sub 4} process. Methane yield from grass silage monodigestion in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 kgVS (m3d)-1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days was at most 218 l kgVS{sub fed}-1. Methanogenic process was shifted to hydrogenic by increasing the OLR to 10 kgVS (m3d)-1 and shortening the HRT to 6 days. Highest H{sub 2} yield from grass silage was 42 l kgVS{sub fed}-1 with a maximum H{sub 2} content of 24 %. Energy crops can be successfully stored even for prolonged periods without decrease in methane yield. However, under sub-optimal storage conditions loss in volatile solids (VS) content and methane yield can occur. According to present results energy crops such as grass silage and maize can be converted to hydrogen or methane in AD process. Hydrogen energy yields are typically only 2-5 % of the

  1. Preparation and characterization of a nickel/alumina composite membrane for high temperature hydrogen separation. Application in a membrane reactor for the dry reforming of methane; De la synthese d'une membrane composite nikel/ceramique permselective a l'hydrogene au reacteur membranaire. Application au reformage du methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, St.

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop composite inorganic membranes based on nickel or palladium supported on a porous ceramic for high temperature hydrogen separation. These membranes were used in a membrane reactor for the dry reforming of methane in order to shift the chemical equilibrium towards the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The metal layers were deposited on a tubular alumina support by electroless plating. The Ni and the Pd layers are 1 micron thick. The hydrogen permeation tests were done for high temperatures. The Pd/ceramic membrane is permselective to hydrogen and the H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor (single gas) is 60 at 400 deg C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 1 bar. With a gas mixture, the H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor is 13. This membrane is not completely dense and the transport mechanism of hydrogen through the Pd layer is mixed: solution-diffusion through the metal bulk and surface diffusion through the defects of the film. However, an embrittlement of the palladium layer under hydrogen atmosphere was observed at 500 deg C. The Ni/ceramic membrane is stable until 600 deg C, its permselectivity to hydrogen increases with the temperature. The use of a sweep gas can provide a H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor (mixture) of about 25. The main diffusion mechanism is surface diffusion through the pores. Both membranes are not catalytic. Thus, some catalysts composed of nickel and cobalt supported on MgO, SiO{sub 2} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared. These systems allow to reach theoretical limits of conversion calculated for a conventional fixed bed reactor. In the membrane reactor, an enhancement of the methane conversion (15-20%) is observed with both membranes due the selective removal of hydrogen during the reaction. The Ni/ceramic membrane more stable, more permeable and as selective as the palladium one is a brand new material for high temperature hydrogen separation. (author)

  2. Hydrogen and Methane Response of Pd Gate MOS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Pandey

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensor based on Pd/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor was fabricated on p type (1-6 ΩCm Si with thermal oxide layer of thickness about 33Ǻ. Sensor properties of the MOS structure were studied towards hydrogen (500- 3500 ppm in air and methane gas (1000-2500 ppm in air at room temperature and 140˚C respectively. The response of the sensor was measured as shift in C-V curve of the MOS structure. The sensitivity of the sensor towards the hydrogen (73 % at 0.03 V bias was better than methane (19.1 % at 0.68 V bias. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy and AFM image of the metal film show the porous structure which believed to be facilitating the catalytic oxidation of the insulator surface and higher gas response. High sensitivity of the sensor can be attributed to the change of interface state density on exposure of gases along with the formation of dipole layer.

  3. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane/hydrogen mixtures in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2012-04-01

    Autoignited lifted flame behavior in laminar jets of methane/hydrogen mixture fuels has been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. Three regimes of autoignited lifted flames were identified depending on initial temperature and hydrogen to methane ratio. At relatively high initial temperature, addition of a small amount of hydrogen to methane improved ignition appreciably such that the liftoff height decreased significantly. In this hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime, the liftoff height increased with jet velocity, and the characteristic flow time - defined as the ratio of liftoff height to jet velocity - correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. At lower temperature, the autoignited lifted flame demonstrated a unique feature in that the liftoff height decreased with increasing jet velocity. Such behavior has never been observed in lifted laminar and turbulent jet flames. A transition regime existed between these two regimes at intermediate temperature. © 2011 The Combustion Institute.

  4. Hydrogen production from steam methane reforming and electrolysis as part of a near-term hydrogen infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, K.

    2003-01-01

    Building a complete hydrogen infrastructure for a transportation system based on Fuel Cells (FC) and hydrogen is a risky and expensive ordeal, especially given that it is not known with complete certainty that Fuel Cells will indeed replace the gasoline ICE. But how can we expect the diffusion of an automotive technology if there is no infrastructure to support its fuel needs? This gives rise to a chicken and egg type problem. One way to get around this problem is to produce hydrogen when and where it is needed. This solves the problems of high costs associated with expensive pipeline distribution networks, the high energy-intensities associated with liquefaction of hydrogen and the high costs of cryogenic equipment. This paper will consider the advantages and disadvantages of two such hydrogen production mechanisms, namely, onsite production of hydrogen from Electrolysis and onsite production of hydrogen from Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). Although SMR hydrogen may be more economical due to the availability and low cost of methane, under certain market and technological conditions onsite electrolytic hydrogen can be more attractive. The paper analyses the final price of delivered hydrogen based on its sensitivity to market conditions and technology developments. (author)

  5. Solubilities of hydrogen and methane in coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ho-mu; Sebastian, H M; Simnick, J J; Chao, Kwang Chu

    1981-04-01

    The solubilities of hydrogen and methane in Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) and Solvent Refined Coal II (SRC-II) coal liquids are determined at 190 and 270 C and pressures to 250 atm. Two narrow boiling distillate cuts from EDS and three from SRC-II are studied.

  6. Investigation of combustion characteristics of methane-hydrogen fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetkin, A. V.; Suris, A. L.; Litvinova, O. A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical investigations of combustion characteristics of methane-hydrogen fuel used at present in tube furnaces of some petroleum refineries are carried out and possible problems related to change-over of existing furnaces from natural gas to methane-hydrogen fuel are analyzed. The effect of the composition of the blended fuel, associated temperature and emissivity of combustion products, temperature of combustion chamber walls, mean beam length, and heat release on variation in the radiation heat flux is investigated. The methane concentration varied from 0 to 100%. The investigations were carried out both at arbitrary given gas temperatures and at effective temperatures determined based on solving a set of equations at various heat-release rates of the combustion chamber and depended on the adiabatic combustion temperature and the temperature at the chamber output. The approximation dependence for estimation of the radiation heat exchange rate in the radiant chamber of the furnace at change-over to fuel with a greater hydrogen content is obtained. Hottel data were applied in the present work in connection with the impossibility to use approximated formulas recommended by the normative method for heat calculation of boilers to determine the gas emissivity, which are limited by the relationship of partial pressures of water steam and carbon dioxide in combustion products . The effect of the methane-hydrogen fuel on the equilibrium concentration of nitrogen oxides is also investigated.

  7. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  8. Production of hydrogen via methane reforming using atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, Mariusz; Dors, Miroslaw [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Mizeraczyk, Jerzy [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Marine Electronics, Gdynia Maritime University, Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, results of hydrogen production via methane reforming in the atmospheric pressure microwave plasma are presented. A waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type microwave plasma source (MPS) was used to convert methane into hydrogen. Important advantages of the presented waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS are: stable operation in various gases (including air) at high flow rates, no need for a cooling system, and impedance matching. The plasma generation was stabilized by an additional swirled nitrogen flow (50 or 100 l min{sup -1}). The methane flow rate was up to 175 l min{sup -1}. The absorbed microwave power could be changed from 3000 to 5000 W. The hydrogen production rate and the corresponding energy efficiency in the presented methane reforming by the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS were up to 255 g[H{sub 2}] h{sup -1} and 85 g[H{sub 2}] kWh{sup -1}, respectively. These parameters are better than those typical of the conventional methods of hydrogen production (steam reforming of methane and water electrolysis). (author)

  9. Conversion of methane to hydrogen by a pulsed plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbanzadeh, A. M.; Matin, N.; Parandvar, M. R.; Rasouli, C.; Mazouchi, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    A pulsed atmospheric glow discharge, employing corona as a preionization, was used to convert methane to hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons. The experimental results showed that the overall conversion and specific energy, defined as energy needed to dissociate one mole methane, was mainly dependent on E/P, banking capacitance, repetition rate and flow rate. The dependence on E/P, especially, is more pronounced. The minimum specific energy was less than 1 MJ and it is expected that it could be further lowered by choosing higher E/P, lower banking capacitance and introducing an oxidizer to enhance the conversion efficiency

  10. Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC (www.scilab.org). Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

  11. Optimization of a Pd-based membrane reactor for hydrogen production from methane steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, C.E.; Silva, L.C.; Murata, V.V. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    In this work, it is proposed a phenomenological model in steady state to describe the performance of a membrane reactor for hydrogen production through methane steam reform as well as it is performed an optimization of operating conditions. The model is composed by a set of ordinary differential equations from mass, energy and momentum balances and constitutive relations. They were used two different intrinsic kinetic expressions from literature. The results predicted by the model were validated using experimental data. They were investigated the effect of five important process parameters, inlet reactor pressure (PR0), methane feed flow rate (FCH40), sweep gas flow rate (FI), external reactor temperature (TW) and steam to methane feed flow ratio (M), both on methane conversion (XCH{sub 4} ) and hydrogen recovery (YH{sub 2}). The best operating conditions were obtained through simple parametric optimization and by a method based on gradient, which uses the computer code DIRCOL in FORTRAN. It is shown that high methane conversion (96%) as well as hydrogen recovery (91%) can be obtained, using the optimized conditions. (author)

  12. Hydrogen and methane production from condensed molasses fermentation soluble by a two-stage anaerobic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Liang, You-Chyuan; Lay, Chyi-How [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Science; Chen, Chin-Chao [Chungchou Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China). Environmental Resources Lab.; Chang, Feng-Yuan [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Research Center for Energy and Resources

    2010-07-01

    The treatment of condensed molasses fermentation soluble (CMS) is a troublesome problem for glutamate manufacturing factory. However, CMS contains high carbohydrate and nutrient contents and is an attractive and commercially potential feedstock for bioenergy production. The aim of this paper is to produce hydrogen and methane by two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. The fermentative hydrogen production from CMS was conducted in a continuously-stirred tank bioreactor (working volume 4 L) which was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h, organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 5.5 and sewage sludge as seed. The anaerobic methane production was conducted in an up-flow bioreactor (working volume 11 L) which was operated at a HRT of 24 -60 hrs, OLR of 4.0-10 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 7.0 with using anaerobic granule sludge from fructose manufacturing factory as the seed and the effluent from hydrogen production process as the substrate. These two reactors have been operated successfully for more than 400 days. The steady-state hydrogen content, hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield in the hydrogen fermentation system were 37%, 169 mmol-H{sub 2}/L-d and 93 mmol-H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate{sub removed}, respectively. In the methane fermentation system, the peak methane content and methane production rate were 66.5 and 86.8 mmol-CH{sub 4}/L-d with methane production yield of 189.3 mmol-CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub removed} at an OLR 10 kg/m{sup 3}-d. The energy production rate was used to elucidate the energy efficiency for this two-stage process. The total energy production rate of 133.3 kJ/L/d was obtained with 5.5 kJ/L/d from hydrogen fermentation and 127.8 kJ/L/d from methane fermentation. (orig.)

  13. Preliminary risk analysis of an Hydrogen production plant using the reformed process of methane with vapor coupled to a high temperature nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores y Flores, A.; Nelson E, P.F.; Francois L, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to identify the different types of dangers, as well as their causes, probabilities and consequences of the same ones, inside plants, industries and any process to classify the risks. This work is focused in particular to a study using the technical HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) for a plant of reformed of methane with vapor coupled to a nuclear reactor of the type HTTR (High Temperature Test Reactor), which is designed to be built in Japan. In particular in this study the interaction is analyzed between the nuclear reactor and the plant of reformed of methane with vapor. After knowing the possible causes of risk one it is built chart of results of HAZOP to have a better vision of the consequences of this faults toward the buildings and constructions, to people and the influence of the fault on each plant; for what there are proposed solutions to mitigate these consequences or to avoid them. The work is divided in three sections: a brief introduction about the technique of HAZOP; some important aspects of the plant of reformed of methane with vapor; and the construction of the chart of results of HAZOP. (Author)

  14. Catalytic activity of mono and bimetallic Zn/Cu/MWCNTs catalysts for the thermocatalyzed conversion of methane to hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdelyi, B. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Moyzesova 11, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelium 9, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Oriňak, A., E-mail: andrej.orinak@upjs.sk [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Moyzesova 11, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Oriňaková, R. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Moyzesova 11, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Lorinčík, J. [Research Center Rez, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic); Jerigová, M. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina 842 15 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Velič, D. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina 842 15 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); International Laser Centre, Ilkovičová 3, 841 01 Bratislava (Slovakia); Mičušík, M. [Polymer institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravská cesta 9, 84541 Bratislava (Slovakia); and others

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Zn/Cu/MWCNTs catalyst with good activity. • Methane conversion to hydrogen with high effectivity. • ZnO/Cu responsible for catalytic activity. - Abstract: Mono and bimetallic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) fortified with Cu and Zn metal particles were studied to improve the efficiency of the thermocatalytic conversion of methane to hydrogen. The surface of the catalyst and the dispersion of the metal particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It was confirmed that the metal particles were successfully dispersed on the MWCNT surface and XPS analysis showed that the Zn was oxidised to ZnO at high temperatures. The conversion of methane to hydrogen during the catalytic pyrolysis was studied by pyrolysis gas chromatography using different amounts of catalyst. The best yields of hydrogen were obtained using pyrolysis conditions of 900 °C and 1.2 mg of Zn/Cu/MWCNT catalyst for 1.5 mL of methane.The initial conversion of methane to hydrogen obtained with Zn/Cu/MWCNTs was 49%, which represent a good conversion rate of methane to hydrogen for a non-noble metal catalyst.

  15. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in methane plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, François; Derenne, Sylvie; Lombardi, Guillaume; Hassouni, Khaled; Michau, Armelle; Reinhardt, Peter; Duhamel, Rémi; Gonzalez, Adriana; Biron, Kasia

    2017-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) is commonly used to reconstruct the chemical processes at the origin of water and organic compounds in the early solar system. On the one hand, the large enrichments in deuterium of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from the carbonaceous meteorites are interpreted as a heritage of the interstellar medium or resulting from ion-molecule reactions taking place in the diffuse part of the protosolar nebula. On the other hand, the molecular structure of this IOM suggests that organic radicals have played a central role in a gas-phase organosynthesis. So as to reproduce this type of chemistry between organic radicals, experiments based on a microwave plasma of CH4 have been performed. They yielded a black organic residue in which ion microprobe analyses revealed hydrogen isotopic anomalies at a submicrometric spatial resolution. They likely reflect differences in the D/H ratios between the various CHx radicals whose polymerization is at the origin of the IOM. These isotopic heterogeneities, usually referred to as hot and cold spots, are commensurable with those observed in meteorite IOM. As a consequence, the appearance of organic radicals in the ionized regions of the disk surrounding the Sun during its formation may have triggered the formation of organic compounds.

  16. Methane Pyrolysis for Hydrogen & Carbon Nanotube Recovery from Sabatier Products, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible catalytic methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  17. Hydrogen production by methane reforming based on micro-gap discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N N; Wang, M X; Liu, K Y; Bai, M D

    2013-01-01

    Based on micro-gap strong ionization discharge, this paper presents a study of hydrogen production by methane reforming at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without catalyst. Influence rules of conversion of methane and production of hydrogen were studied by changing discharge power and feed gas flow rate. Results show that when the discharge power was about 341 W, the discharge gap was 0.47 mm and the flow rate of feed gas was 100 mL min −1 , the conversion of methane and yield of hydrogen reached optimization. The conversion rate of methane and the highest yield of hydrogen were 68.14 % and 51.34 %, respectively.

  18. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane/hydrogen mixtures in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flame behavior in laminar jets of methane/hydrogen mixture fuels has been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. Three regimes of autoignited lifted flames were identified depending on initial temperature and hydrogen

  19. Photosynthesis of hydrogen and methane as key components for clean energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng Sing Tan et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While researchers are trying to solve the world's energy woes, hydrogen is becoming the key component in sustainable energy systems. Hydrogen could be produced through photocatalytic water-splitting technology. It has also been found that hydrogen and methane could be produced through photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide with water. In this exploratory study, instead of coating catalysts on a substrate, pellet form of catalyst, which has better adsorption capacity, was used in the photo-reduction of carbon dioxide with water. In the experiment, some water was first absorbed into titanium dioxide pellets. Highly purified carbon dioxide gas was then discharged into a reactor containing these wet pellets, which were then illuminated continuously using UVC lamps. Gaseous samples accumulated in the reactor were extracted at different intervals to analyze the product yields. The results confirmed that methane and hydrogen were photosynthesized using pellet form of TiO2 catalysts. Hydrogen was formed at a rate as high as 0.16 micromoles per hour (μmol h−1. The maximum formation rate of CH4 was achieved at 0.25 μmol h−1 after 24 h of irradiation. CO was also detected.

  20. Application of microscopy technology in thermo-catalytic methane decomposition to hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Irene Lock Sow, E-mail: irene.sowmei@gmail.com; Lock, S. S. M., E-mail: serenelock168@gmail.com; Abdullah, Bawadi, E-mail: bawadi-abdullah@petronas.com.my [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, 31750, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Hydrogen production from the direct thermo-catalytic decomposition of methane is a promising alternative for clean fuel production because it produces pure hydrogen without any CO{sub x} emissions. However, thermal decomposition of methane can hardly be of any practical and empirical interest in the industry unless highly efficient and effective catalysts, in terms of both specific activity and operational lifetime have been developed. In this work, bimetallic Ni-Pd on gamma alumina support have been developed for methane cracking process by using co-precipitation and incipient wetness impregnation method. The calcined catalysts were characterized to determine their morphologies and physico-chemical properties by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. The results suggested that that the catalyst which is prepared by the co-precipitation method exhibits homogeneous morphology, higher surface area, have uniform nickel and palladium dispersion and higher thermal stability as compared to the catalyst which is prepared by wet impregnation method. This characteristics are significant to avoid deactivation of the catalysts due to sintering and carbon deposition during methane cracking process.

  1. The production of hydrogen through the uncatalyzed partial oxidation of methane in an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ghazi A.; Wierzba, I. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    The thermodynamic and kinetic limitations of the uncatalyzed partial oxidation of methane for the production of synthesis gas, which is made up of mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a variety of proportions, are reviewed. It is suggested that such processes can be made to proceed successfully in a conventional internal combustion engine when operated on excessively rich mixtures of methane and oxygenated air. This is achieved while simultaneously producing power and regenerative exhaust gas heating. Experimental results are described that show a dual fuel engine of the compression ignition type with pilot liquid fuel injection can be operated on excessively rich mixtures of methane and air supplemented with oxygen gas to produce hydrogen rich gas with high methane conversion rates. Similarly, a spark ignition engine was reported to be equally capable of such production and performance. It is shown that there are viable prospects for the simultaneous production of synthesis gas in engines with efficient useful mechanical power and exhaust gas regenerative heating. (author)

  2. High density hydrogen research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The interest in the properties of very dense hydrogen is prompted by its abundance in Saturn and Jupiter and its importance in laser fusion studies. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the metallic form of hydrogen may be a superconductor at relatively high temperatures and/or exist in a metastable phase at ambient pressure. For ten years or more, laboratories have been developing the techniques to study hydrogen in the megabar region (1 megabar = 100 GPa). Three major approaches to study dense hydrogen experimentally have been used, static presses, shockwave compression, and magnetic compression. Static tchniques have crossed the megabar threshold in stiff materials but have not yet been convincingly successful in very compressible hydrogen. Single and double shockwave techniques have improved the precision of the pressure, volume, temperature Equation of State (EOS) of molecular hydrogen (deuterium) up to near 1 Mbar. Multiple shockwave and magnetic techniques have compressed hydrogen to several megabars and densities in the range of the metallic phase. The net result is that hydrogen becomes conducting at a pressure between 2 and 4 megabars. Hence, the possibility of making a significant amount of hydrogen into a metal in a static press remains a formidable challenge. The success of such experiments will hopefully answer the questions about hydrogen's metallic vs. conducting molecular phase, superconductivity, and metastability. 4 figures, 15 references

  3. Thermo-electrochemical production of compressed hydrogen from methane with near-zero energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerød-Fjeld, Harald; Clark, Daniel; Yuste-Tirados, Irene; Zanón, Raquel; Catalán-Martinez, David; Beeaff, Dustin; Morejudo, Selene H.; Vestre, Per K.; Norby, Truls; Haugsrud, Reidar; Serra, José M.; Kjølseth, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Conventional production of hydrogen requires large industrial plants to minimize energy losses and capital costs associated with steam reforming, water-gas shift, product separation and compression. Here we present a protonic membrane reformer (PMR) that produces high-purity hydrogen from steam methane reforming in a single-stage process with near-zero energy loss. We use a BaZrO3-based proton-conducting electrolyte deposited as a dense film on a porous Ni composite electrode with dual function as a reforming catalyst. At 800 °C, we achieve full methane conversion by removing 99% of the formed hydrogen, which is simultaneously compressed electrochemically up to 50 bar. A thermally balanced operation regime is achieved by coupling several thermo-chemical processes. Modelling of a small-scale (10 kg H2 day-1) hydrogen plant reveals an overall energy efficiency of >87%. The results suggest that future declining electricity prices could make PMRs a competitive alternative for industrial-scale hydrogen plants integrating CO2 capture.

  4. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage....... Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Study about hydrogen and methanation as power surplus valorization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of technologies that allow converting power into gas as ways of providing added value to power surpluses. In the Anglo-Saxon world, and in numerous other countries, this concept is known as Power-to-Gas (PtG or P2G). The massive integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources ((wind and photovoltaic principally) into electricity systems implies more and more time periods during which production will exceed consumption. The volumes at stake could surpass the conventional capacities of flexibility and storage of the electricity system: the conversion into another energy carrier therefore appears as a solution for giving value to these surpluses. As the basic technology of Power-to-Gas, electrolysis converts electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen gas (H2), by separating molecules of water (H 2 O). The gas produced can be used on-site in different manners, for example by a manufacturer for it's own process needs or by a filling station for hydrogen-fuelled vehicles (fuel-cell motorisation), or it can be stored locally for being later converted back into power through a fuel-cell. However it can also be directly injected into the gas distribution or transmission networks, thus creating a coupling of various energy networks and carriers: in this way the possibilities to create added-value from power surpluses are significantly increased and diversified both in terms of final use as well as across a scope of time and space. The development of Power-to-Gas can be summarized in three key steps. In the short to mid-term, hydrogen represents, when incorporated into the gas network in limited proportions (a few %) and/or used directly in some niche markets (particularly via fuel cells) a way to provide added value to substantial renewable electricity surpluses.. In the longer term, a transition toward synthetic methane production would allow to overcome all technical barriers linked with gas

  6. Effects of hydrogen addition and nitrogen dilution on the laminar flame characteristics of premixed methane-air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahtouh, T.; Halter, F.; Mounaim-Rousselle, C. [Institut PRISME, Universite d' Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci-45072, Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Samson, E. [PSA Peugeot Citroen (France)

    2009-10-15

    The effect of hydrogen addition and nitrogen dilution on laminar flame characteristics was investigated. The spherical expanding flame technique, in a constant volume bomb, was employed to extract laminar flame characteristics. The mole fraction of hydrogen in the methane-hydrogen mixture was varied from 0 to 1 and the mole fraction of nitrogen in the total mixture (methane-hydrogen-air-diluent) from 0 to 0.35. Measurements were performed at an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa and an initial temperature of 300 K. The mixtures investigated were under stoichiometric conditions. Based on experimental measurements, a new correlation for calculating the laminar burning velocity of methane-hydrogen-air-nitrogen mixtures is proposed. The laminar burning velocity was found to increase linearly with hydrogen mass fraction for all dilution ratios while the burned gas Markstein length decreases with the increase in hydrogen amount in the mixture except for high hydrogen mole fractions (>0.6). Nitrogen dilution has a nonlinear reducing effect on the laminar burning velocity and an increasing effect on the burned gas Markstein length. The experimental results and the proposed correlation obtained are in good agreement with literature values. (author)

  7. Synergistic methane formation kinetics for hydrogen impact on carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasz, A.A.; Davis, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    A physical/chemical model is presented for the reaction kinetics for methane formation from carbon, due to bombardment by energetic (∼ 100's eV) H + ions and thermal (∼ 1 eV) H 0 atoms. While the model was developed for H + and H 0 , it can be readily applied to non-hydrogenic energetic particles (ions or atoms, e.g., Ar + , He + , He) in combination with thermal (∼ 1 eV) hydrogen (again ions or atoms) impacting on carbon. Both collisional (in the case of the energetic particles) and chemical reaction processes are included. Special cases of sub-eV H 0 alone, energetic H + alone and combined H 0 plus H + were considered and fitted to experimental data. Generally good agreement was found between theoretical predictions and experimental results over the experimental flux and H + energy ranges studied (H 0 flux: 6x10 14 - 7x10 15 H 0 /cm 2 s, H + flux: 6x10 12 - 5x10 15 H + /cm 2 s, H + energy: 300 eV/H + and 1 keV/H + )

  8. Methane Formation by Flame-Generated Hydrogen Atoms in the Flame Ionization Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1996-01-01

    , and conceivably all hydrocarbons are quantitatively converted into methane at temperatures below 600 C, that is, before the proper combustion has started. The splitting of the C-C bonds is preceded by hydrogenation of double and triple bonds and aromatic rings. The reactions, no doubt, are caused by hydrogen...... atoms, which are formed in the burning hydrogen and which diffuse into the inner core of the flame. The quantitative formation of methane appears to explain the "equal per carbon" rule for the detector response of hydrocarbons, since all carbons are "exchanged" for methane molecules....

  9. Biocatalytic methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in an anaerobic three-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M; Koschack, T; Busch, G

    2015-02-01

    A new type of anaerobic trickle-bed reactor was used for biocatalytic methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide under mesophilic temperatures and ambient pressure in a continuous process. The conversion of gaseous substrates through immobilized hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea in a biofilm is a unique feature of this type of reactor. Due to the formation of a three-phase system on the carrier surface and operation as a plug flow reactor without gas recirculation, a complete reaction could be observed. With a methane concentration higher than c(CH4) = 98%, the product gas exhibits a very high quality. A specific methane production of P(CH4) = 1.49 Nm(3)/(m(3)(SV) d) was achieved at a hydraulic loading rate of LR(H2) = 6.0 Nm(3)/(m(3)(SV) d). The relation between trickle flow through the reactor and productivity could be shown. An application for methane enrichment in combination with biogas facilities as a source of carbon dioxide has also been positively proven. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Session 4: Combinatorial research of methane catalytic decomposition on supported nitride catalysts for CO-free hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianghan, Shen; Hua, Wang; Zhongmin, Liu; Hongchao, Liu [Natural Gas Utilization and Applied Catalysis Lab., Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian P. R. (China)

    2004-07-01

    CO-free Hydrogen production is needed for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMs) because CO strongly poisons the anode-electrocatalysts. Methane directly catalytic decomposition is an attractive way to produce CO-free hydrogen for the large abundance of methane and its high H/C ratio. It is more effective to employ high-throughput screening (HTS) technology in heterogeneous catalysis. In this paper, a combinatorial multi-stream reaction system with online multi-stream mass spectrometer screening (MSMSS) detection technique was applied to study the decomposition of methane over supported MoN{sub x}O{sub y} catalysts (supports = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, SBA-15, ZSM-5,13X, and NaY), which is a catalyst system seldom reported recently. (authors)

  11. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly...... diluted in nitrogen. It was found that under the investigated conditions, the onset temperature for methane oxidation ranged from 723 K under reducing conditions to 750 K under stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions. The RCM experiments were carried out at pressures of 15–80 bar and temperatures of 800......–1250 K under stoichiometric and fuel-lean (Φ=0.5) conditions. Ignition delays, in the range of 1–100 ms, decreased monotonically with increasing pressure and temperature. A chemical kinetic model for high-pressure methane oxidation was established, with particular emphasis on the peroxide chemistry...

  12. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs

  13. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane andPropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-08-20

    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs.

  14. The effect of moderators on the reactions of hot hydrogen atoms with methane

    CERN Document Server

    Estrup, Peder J.

    1960-01-01

    The reaction of recoil tritium with methane has been examined in further detail. The previous hypothesis that this system involves a hot displacement reaction of high kinetic energy hydrogen to give CH$_{3}$T, CH$_{2}$T and HT is confirmed. The effect of moderator on this process is studied by the addition of noble gases. As predicted these gases inhibit the hot reaction action, their efficiency in this respect being He > Ne > A > Se. The data are quantitatively in accord with a theory of hot atom kinetics. The mechanism of the hot displacement process is briefly discussed.

  15. Reactive ion etching of tellurite and chalcogenide waveguides using hydrogen, methane, and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, K. T.; Madden, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report in detail on the reactive plasma etching properties of tellurium and demonstrate a high quality etching process using hydrogen, methane, and argon. Very low loss planar ridge waveguides are demonstrated. Optical losses in tellurium dioxide waveguides below 0.1 dB/cm in most of the near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum and at 1550 nm have been achieved--the lowest ever reported by more than an order of magnitude and clearly suitable for planar integrated devices. The etch process is also shown to be suitable for chalcogenide glasses which may be of importance in applications such as phase change memory devices and nonlinear integrated optics.

  16. Effect of hydrogen on hydrogen-methane turbulent non-premixed flame under MILD condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardani, Amir; Tabejamaat, Sadegh [Department of Aerospace engineering, Amirkabir university of technology (Tehran polytechnic), Hafez Ave., PO. Box: 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    Energy crises and the preservation of the global environment are placed man in a dilemma. To deal with these problems, finding new sources of fuel and developing efficient and environmentally friendly energy utilization technologies are essential. Hydrogen containing fuels and combustion under condition of the moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) are good choices to replace the traditional ones. In this numerical study, the turbulent non-premixed CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2} jet flame issuing into a hot and diluted co-flow air is considered to emulate the combustion of hydrogen containing fuels under MILD conditions. This flame is related to the experimental condition of Dally et al. [Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2002) 1147-1154]. In general, the modelling is carried out using the EDC model, to describe turbulence-chemistry interaction, and the DRM-22 reduced mechanism and the GRI2.11 full mechanism to represent the chemical reactions of H{sub 2}/methane jet flame. The effect of hydrogen content of fuel on flame structure for two co-flow oxygen levels is studied by considering three fuel mixtures, 5%H{sub 2}+95%CH{sub 4}, 10%H{sub 2}+90%CH{sub 4} and 20% H{sub 2}+80%CH{sub 4}(by mass). In this study, distribution of species concentrations, mixture fraction, strain rate, flame entrainment, turbulent kinetic energy decay and temperature are investigated. Results show that the hydrogen addition to methane leads to improve mixing, increase in turbulent kinetic energy decay along the flame axis, increase in flame entrainment, higher reaction intensities and increase in mixture ignitability and rate of heat release. (author)

  17. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Gersen, Sander; Levinsky, Howard; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly

  18. Hydrogenation of carbon to methane in reduced sponge iron, chromium, and ferrochromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qayyum, M A; Reeve, D A

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogenation of excess carbon to methane in reduced sponge iron, chromium and ferrochromium under isothermal and temperature-programmed conditions indicates that it is possible to control the residual carbon content of the metallized products which may be an advantage if further processing of the products is contemplated. Hydrogenation starts above 800/sup 0/C and a shrinking-core kinetic model fits the experimental data. The mean apparent activation energy for the hydrogenation of residual carbon to methane in sponge iron, chromium and ferrochromium is 21 kcal/mole.

  19. Experimental evaluation of methane dry reforming process on a membrane reactor to hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabiano S.A.; Benachour, Mohand; Abreu, Cesar A.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering], Email: f.aruda@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In a fixed bed membrane reactor evaluations of methane-carbon dioxide reforming over a Ni/{gamma}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were performed at 773 K, 823 K and 873 K. A to convert natural gas into syngas a fixed-bed reactor associate with a selective membrane was employed, where the operating procedures allowed to shift the chemical equilibrium of the reaction in the direction of the products of the process. Operations under hydrogen permeation, at 873 K, promoted the increase of methane conversion, circa 83%, and doubled the yield of hydrogen production, when compared with operations where no hydrogen permeation occurred. (author)

  20. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  1. High-resolution passive sampling of dissolved methane in the water column of lakes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A. E.; Cadieux, S. B.; White, J. R.; Pratt, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic lakes are important participants in the global carbon cycle, releasing methane in a warming climate and contributing to a positive feedback to climate change. In order to yield detailed methane budgets and understand the implications of warming on methane dynamics, high-resolution profiles revealing methane behavior within the water column need to be obtained. Single day sampling using disruptive techniques has the potential to result in biases. In order to obtain high-resolution, undisturbed profiles of methane concentration and isotopic composition, this study evaluates a passive sampling method over a multi-day equilibration period. Selected for this study were two small lakes (Gatos Research Methane Carbon Isotope Analyzer. PDB sampling and pump sampling resulted in statistically similar concentrations (R2=0.89), ranging from 0.85 to 135 uM from PDB and 0.74 to 143 uM from pump sampling. In anoxic waters of the lake, where concentrations were high enough to yield robust isotopic results on the LGR MCIA, δ13C were also similar between the two methods, yielding -73‰ from PDB and -74‰ from pump sampling. Further investigation will produce results for a second lake and methane carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition for both lakes. Preliminary results for this passive sampling method are promising. We envision the use of this technique in future studies of dissolved methane and expect that it will provide a more finely resolved vertical profile, allowing for a more complete understanding of lacustrine methane dynamics.

  2. Analyses of one-step liquid hydrogen production from methane and landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Conventional liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) production consists of two basic steps: (1) gaseous hydrogen (GH{sub 2}) production via steam methane reformation followed by purification by means of pressure swing adsorption (PSA), and (2) GH{sub 2} liquefaction. LH{sub 2} produced by the conventional processes is not carbon neutral because of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission from PSA operation. A novel concept is herein presented and flowsheeted for LH{sub 2} production with zero carbon emission using methane (CH{sub 4}) or landfill gas as feedstock. A cryogenic process is used for both H{sub 2} separation/purification and liquefaction. This one-step process can substantially increase the efficiency and reduce costs because no PSA step is required. Furthermore, the integrated process results in no CO{sub 2} emissions and minimal H{sub 2} losses. Of the five flowsheets presented, one that combines low and high temperature CO/CH{sub 4} reforming reactions in a single reactor shows the highest overall efficiency with the first and second law efficiencies of 85% and 56%, respectively. The latter figure assumes 10% overall energy loss and 30% efficiency for the cryogenic process. (author)

  3. Biological methanation of hydrogen within biogas plants: A model-based feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensmann, A.; Hanke-Rauschenbach, R.; Heyer, R.; Kohrs, F.; Benndorf, D.; Reichl, U.; Sundmacher, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation study about direct methanation of hydrogen within biogas plants. • In stationary operation two limitations, namely biological and transfer limit. • Biological limit at 4m H2 3 /m CO2 3 due to stoichiometry. • Dynamic behaviour shows three qualitatively different step responses. • A simple control scheme to meet the output quality was developed. - Abstract: One option to utilize excess electric energy is its conversion to hydrogen and the subsequent methanation. An alternative to the classical chemical Sabatier process is the biological methanation (methanogenesis) within biogas plants. In conventional biogas plants methane and carbon dioxide is produced. The latter can be directly converted to methane by feeding hydrogen into the reactor, since hydrogenotrophic bacteria are present. In the present contribution, a comprehensive simulation study with respect to stationary operating conditions and disturbances is presented. It reveals two qualitative different limitations, namely a biological limit (appr. at 4m H2 3 /m CO2 3 corresponds to 4.2m H2,STP 3 /m liq 3 /d) as well as a transfer limit. A parameter region for a safe operation was defined. The temporary operation with stationary unfeasible conditions was analysed and thereby three qualitatively different disturbances can be distinguished. In one of these the operation for several days is possible. On the basis of these results, a controller was proposed and tested that meets the demands on the conversion of hydrogen and also prevents the washout of the microbial community due to hydrogen overload

  4. Thermodynamic analysis on the CO2 conversion processes of methane dry reforming for hydrogen production and CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyi; Liu, Liping

    2017-12-01

    Based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization, the thermodynamic analysis on the CO2 conversion processes of dry reforming of methane for H2 and CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether was carried out. The composition of the reaction system was determined on the basis of reaction mechanism. The effects of reaction temperature, pressure and raw material composition on the equilibrium conversion and the selectivity of products were analyzed. The results show that high temperature, low pressure, CO2/CH4 molar ratio of 1.0-1.5 and appropriate amount of oxygen are beneficial to the dry reforming of methane. For CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether, low temperature, high pressure, the appropriate H2/CO2 and the proper CO addition in feed are favorable. The calculated results are compared with the relevant studies, indicating that industrial catalytic technology needs further improvement.

  5. Oxidation of methane and hydrogen on Ce1-xGdxO2-δ flourrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, K.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of methane and hydrogen was studied on cone shaped electrodes with the composition Ce1-xGdxO2-delta (x equals 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4). It was shown that the area specific resistance values measured at open-circuit voltage (OCV) for the oxidation of both methane and hydrogen is lowest...... for the composition Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95. The OCV in wet methane was shown to depend on the material composition. It was shown that stable operation in wet methane could be achieved as long as the temperature was kept below 750degreesC. (C) 2004 The Electrochemical Society....

  6. Comparison methods between methane and hydrogen combustion for useful transfer in furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiea, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen use by industrial combustion are critically presented. Greenhouse effect due natural water vapors from atmosphere and these produced by hydrogen industrial combustion is critically analyzed, together with problems of gas fuels containing hydrogen as the relative largest component. A comparison method between methane and hydrogen combustion for pressure loss in burner feeding pipe, is conceived. It is deduced the ratio of radiation useful heat transfer characteristics and convection heat transfer coefficients from combustion gases at industrial furnaces and heat recuperators for hydrogen and methane combustion, establishing specific comparison methods. Using criterial equations special processed for convection heat transfer determination, a calculation generalizing formula is established. The proposed comparison methods are general valid for different gaseous fuels. (author)

  7. Numerical analysis of hydrogen and methane propagation during testing of combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The research of gas-fuelled combustion engines using hydrogen or methane require accordingly equipped test benches which take respect to the higher dangerous of self ignition accidents. This article deals with numerical calculations of flow in laboratory during simulated leakage of gas-fuel from fuel system of tested engine. The influences of local suction and influences of roof exhausters on the flow in the laboratory and on the gas propagation are discussed. Results obtained for hydrogen and for methane are compared. Conclusions for design and performance of suction devices and test benches are deduced from these results.

  8. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olijhoek, D.W.; Hellwing, A.L.F.; Brask, M.; Weisbjerg, M.R.; Højberg, O.; Larsen, M.K.; Dijkstra, Jan; Erlandsen, E.J.; Lund, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient

  9. Hydrogen production by dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide in one-dimensional nickel-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez U, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is development of nickel catalysts supported over 1D matrix of cerium oxide, to be used in dry reforming methane reaction with carbon dioxide for hydrogen production. The catalysts were characterized by: Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (Sem), Surface Area (Bet method) an X Ray Diffraction (XRD). The TPR technique allowed to define reduction temperature of the active phase in the catalyst, Sem technique showed that the CeO_2 matrix had a nano rod morphology. XRD allowed to identify the crystalline phases of the catalysts. Finally, the catalysts were tested in the dry reforming methane reaction, high catalytic activity and hydrogen production were performed at 700 degrees Celsius and the catalyst with 30 wt.% of nickel. (Author)

  10. New optical method for heat flux measurements in stagnation point laminar methane/air flames and hydrogen/methane/air flames using thermographic phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmnefi, Mohamed Salem

    2010-11-24

    In the present study, a new optical method was implemented to study the heat transfer from flat stagnation point flames which can be regarded as one-dimensional in the central part. Premixed methane-air flames and hydrogen-methane-air flames were investigated. The effects of burner-to-plate distance and the fresh gas mixture velocity on heat transfer were examined. Experiments were performed using light induced phosphorescence from thermographic phosphors to study the wall temperatures and heat fluxes of nearly one-dimensional flat premixed flames impinging upward normally on a horizontal water cooled circular flat plate. The investigated flames were stoichiometric, lean and rich laminar methane/air flames with different equivalence ratios of {phi} =1, {phi} = 0.75 and {phi} = 1.25 and stoichiometric laminar hydrogen/methane/air flames. Mixtures of air with 10, 25, 50 and 75 % hydrogen in methane (CH{sub 4}) as well as a pure hydrogen flames at ambient pressure were investigated. The central part of this plate was an alumina ceramic plate coated from both sides with chromium doped alumina (ruby) and excited with a Nd:YAG laser or a green light emitting diode (LED) array to measure the wall temperature from both sides and thus the heat flux rate from the flame. The outlet velocity of the gases was varied from 0.1 m/s to 1.2 m/s. The burner to plate distance ranged from 0.5 to 2 times the burner exit diameter (d = 30 mm).The accuracy of the method was evaluated. The measured heat flux indicate the change of the flame stabilization mechanism from a burner stabilized to a stagnation plate stabilized flame. The results were compared to modeling results of a one dimensional stagnation point flow, with a detailed reaction mechanism. In order to prove the model, also measured gas phase temperatures by OH LIF for a stoichiometric stagnation point flame were discussed. It turns out that the flame stabilization mechanism and with it the heat fluxes change from low to high

  11. Decomposition of methane hydrate for hydrogen production using microwave and radio frequency in-liquid plasma methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Ismail; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi

    2015-01-01

    This research involves two in-liquid plasma methods of methane hydrate decomposition, one using radio frequency wave (RF) irradiation and the other microwave radiation (MW). The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a practical process for decomposition of methane hydrate directly at the subsea site for fuel gas production. The mechanism for methane hydrate decomposition begins with the dissociation process of methane hydrate formed by CH_4 and water. The process continues with the simultaneously occurring steam methane reforming process and methane cracking reaction, during which the methane hydrate is decomposed releasing CH_4 into H_2, CO and other by-products. It was found that methane hydrate can be decomposed with a faster rate of CH_4 release using microwave irradiation over that using radio frequency irradiation. However, the radio frequency plasma method produces hydrogen with a purity of 63.1% and a CH conversion ratio of 99.1%, which is higher than using microwave plasma method which produces hydrogen with a purity of 42.1% and CH_4 conversion ratio of 85.5%. - Highlights: • The decomposition of methane hydrate is proposed using plasma in-liquid method. • Synthetic methane hydrate is used as the sample for decomposition in plasma. • Hydrogen can be produced from decomposition of methane hydrate. • Hydrogen purity is higher when using radio frequency stimulation.

  12. Stability and Behaviors of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen Micro Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Takamitsu; Kinoshita, Koichiro; Kitamura, Hideki; Tanigawa, Ryoichi

    The flame stability limits essentially define the fundamental operation of the combustion system. Recently the micro diffusion flame has been remarked. The critical conditions of the flame stability limit are highly dependent on nozzle diameter, species of fuel and so on. The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen is formed by using the micro-scale nozzle of which inner diameter is less than 1mm. The configurations and behaviors of the flame are observed directly and visualized by the high speed video camera The criteria of stability limits are proposed for the micro diffusion flame. The objectives of the present study are to get further understanding of lifting/blow-off for the micro diffusion flame. The results obtained are as follows. (1) The behaviors of the flames are classified into some regions for each diffusion flame. (2) The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane cannot be sustained, when the nozzle diameter is less than 0.14 mm. (3) The diffusion flame cannot be sustained below the critical fuel flow rate. (4) The minimum flow which is formed does not depends on the average jet velocity, but on the fuel flow rate. (5) the micro flame is laminar. The flame length is decided by fuel flow rate.

  13. Hydrogen generator, via catalytic partial oxidation of methane for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Vincenzo; Pino, Lidia; Di Leonardo, Raffaele; Lagana', Massimo; Maggio, Gaetano

    It is well known that the most acknowledged process for generation of hydrogen for fuel cells is based upon the steam reforming of methane or natural gas. A valid alternative could be a process based on partial oxidation of methane, since the process is mildly exothermic and therefore not energy intensive. Consequently, great interest is expected from conversion of methane into syngas, if an autothermal, low energy intensive, compact and reliable process could be developed. This paper covers the activities, performed by the CNR Institute of Transformation and Storage of Energy (CNR-TAE), on theoretical and experimental studies for a compact hydrogen generator, via catalytic selective partial oxidation of methane, integrated with second generation fuel cells (EC-JOU2 contract). In particular, the project focuses the attention on methane partial oxidation via heterogeneous selective catalysts, in order to: demonstrate the basic catalytic selective partial oxidation of methane (CSPOM) technology in a subscale prototype, equivalent to a nominal output of 5 kWe; develop the CSPOM technology for its application in electric energy production by means of fuel cells; assess, by a balance of plant analysis, and a techno-economic evaluation, the potential benefits of the CSPOM for different categories of fuel cells.

  14. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  15. A two-stage bioprocess for hydrogen and methane production from rice straw bioethanol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Chao-Wei; Chung, Man-Chien

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of operating pressure on the biological hydrogen methanation in trickle-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Timo; Lindner, Jonas; Bär, Katharina; Mörs, Friedemann; Graf, Frank; Lemmer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of pressures up to 9bar absolute on the productivity of trickle-bed reactors for biological methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, experiments were carried out in a continuously operated experimental plant with three identical reactors. The pressure increase promises a longer residence time and improved mass transfer of H 2 due to higher gas partial pressures. The study covers effects of different pressures on important parameters like gas hourly space velocity, methane formation rate, conversion rates and product gas quality. The methane content of 64.13±3.81vol-% at 1.5bar could be increased up to 86.51±0.49vol-% by raising the pressure to 9bar. Methane formation rates of up to 4.28±0.26m 3 m -3 d -1 were achieved. Thus, pressure increase could significantly improve reactor performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  18. Effects of probiotics on the faecal production of hydrogen and methane in patients with meteorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Julie Bernstorf; Jespersen, Lene; Westermann, Peter

    Meteorism is a dominating problem in the western world, especially in women. The condition is very difficult to quantify, and effective and documented therapies are not avaiable. We wanted to develop a method for measuring anaerobic production of hydrogen and methane in faeces, and to correlate t...

  19. Properties of large-scale methane/hydrogen jet fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, E. [CEA Saclay, DEN, LTMF Heat Transfer and Fluid Mech Lab, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jamois, D.; Leroy, G.; Hebrard, J. [INERIS, F-60150 Verneuil En Halatte (France); Jallais, S. [Air Liquide, F-78350 Jouy En Josas (France); Blanchetiere, V. [GDF SUEZ, 93 - La Plaine St Denis (France)

    2009-12-15

    A future economy based on reduction of carbon-based fuels for power generation and transportation may consider hydrogen as possible energy carrier Extensive and widespread use of hydrogen might require a pipeline network. The alternatives might be the use of the existing natural gas network or to design a dedicated network. Whatever the solution, mixing hydrogen with natural gas will modify the consequences of accidents, substantially The French National Research Agency (ANR) funded project called HYDROMEL focuses on these critical questions Within this project large-scale jet fires have been studied experimentally and numerically The main characteristics of these flames including visible length, radiation fluxes and blowout have been assessed. (authors)

  20. Two phases fermentative process for hydrogen and methane production from cassava wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryane Mota Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hydrogen and methane production was investigated in two phases of fermentative process. Objective: At the acidogenic phase, an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was fed with cassava wastewater producing hydrogen. Methods: Expanded clay was used as a support material for biomass immobilization. The reactor was operated with HRT ranging from 8-1 h. Results: The best hydrogen yield production was 1.91 mol H2/mol glucose at HRT of 2 h. At the methanogenic phase, the acidogenic process effluent fed a fixed-bed reactor producing methane. Conclusion: Sururu (Mytella falcata shells was used as support acted as pH neutralizer in the fixed-bed reactor, yielding best (0.430±0.150 Lmethane/gCOD with 12h HRT phase.

  1. Hydrogen and methane production from desugared molasses using a two‐stage thermophilic anaerobic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongjan, Prawit; O-Thong, Sompong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen and methane production from desugared molasses by a two‐stage thermophilic anaerobic process was investigated in a series of two up‐flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The first reactor that was dominated with hydrogen‐producing bacteria of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharo......Hydrogen and methane production from desugared molasses by a two‐stage thermophilic anaerobic process was investigated in a series of two up‐flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The first reactor that was dominated with hydrogen‐producing bacteria of Thermoanaerobacterium...... molasses. Furthermore, the mixed gas with a volumetric content of 16.5% H2, 38.7% CO2, and 44.8% CH4, containing approximately 15% energy by hydrogen is viable to be bio‐hythane....

  2. Sequential hydrogen and methane coproduction from sugary wastewater treatment by "CSTRHyd-UASBMet" system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Potentiality of sequential hydrogen bioproduction from sugary wastewater treatment was investigated using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for various substrate COD concentrations and HRTs. At optimum substrate concentration of 6 g COD/L, hydrogen could be efficiently produced from CSTR with the highest production rate of 3.00 (±0.04) L/L reactor d at HRT of 6 h. The up flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was used for continuous methane bioproduction from the effluents of hydrogen bioproduction. At optimal HRT 12 h, methane could be produced with a production rate of 2.27 (±0.08) L/L reactor d and the COD removal efficiency reached up to the maximum 82.3%.

  3. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from industrial gases by hydrogen or methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann Pirez, M.

    2004-12-01

    This work deals with the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), contained in the effluents of industrial plants, by hydrogen or methane. The aim is to replace ammonia, used as reducing agent, in the conventional process. The use of others reducing agents such as hydrogen or methane is interesting for different reasons: practical, economical and ecological. The catalyst has to convert selectively NO into N 2 , in presence of an excess of oxygen, steam and sulfur dioxide. The developed catalyst is constituted by a support such as perovskites, particularly LaCoO 3 , on which are dispersed noble metals (palladium, platinum). The interaction between the noble metal and the support, generated during the activation of the catalyst, allows to minimize the water and sulfur dioxide inhibitor phenomena on the catalytic performances, particularly in the reduction of NO by hydrogen. (O.M.)

  4. Reaction-transport simulations of non-oxidative methane conversion with continuous hydrogen removal: Homogeneous-heterogeneous methane reaction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lin; Borry, Richard W.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    Detailed kinetic-transport models were used to explore thermodynamic and kinetic barriers in the non-oxidative conversion of CH4 via homogeneous and homogeneous-heterogeneous pathways and the effects of continuous hydrogen removal and of catalytic sites on attainable yields of useful C2-C10 products. The homogeneous kinetic model combines separately developed models for low-conversion pyrolysis and for chain growth to form large aromatics and carbon. The H2 formed in the reaction decreases CH4 pyrolysis rates and equilibrium conversions and it favors the formation of lighter products. The removal of H2 along tubular reactors with permeable walls increases reaction rates and equilibrium CH4 conversions. C2-C10 yields reach values greater than 90 percent at intermediate values of dimensionless transport rates (delta=1-10), defined as the ratio hydrogen transport and methane conversion rates. Homogeneous reactions require impractical residence times, even with H2 removal, because of slow initiation and chain transfer rates. The introduction of heterogeneous chain initiation pathways using surface sites that form methyl radicals eliminates the induction period without influencing the homogeneous product distribution. Methane conversion, however, occurs predominately in the chain transfer regime, within which individual transfer steps and the formation of C2 intermediates become limited by thermodynamic constraints. Catalytic sites alone cannot overcome these constraints. Catalytic membrane reactors with continuous H2 removal remove these thermodynamic obstacles and decrease the required residence time. Reaction rates become limited by homogeneous reactions of C2 products to form C6+ aromatics. Higher delta values lead to subsequent conversion of the desired C2-C10 products to larger polynuclear aromatics. We conclude that catalytic methane pyrolysis at the low temperatures required for restricted chain growth and the elimination of thermodynamics constraints via

  5. Enhanced coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi-Yu; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage anaerobic fermentation process including H(2) fermentation I, H(2) fermentation II, methane fermentation was developed for the coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks. Hydrogen production from cornstalks using direct microbial conversion by Clostridium thermocellum 7072 was markedly enhanced in the two-stage thermophilic hydrogen fermentation process integrated with alkaline treatment. The highest total hydrogen yield from cornstalks in the two-stage fermentation process reached 74.4 mL/g-cornstalk. The hydrogen fermentation effluents and alkaline hydrolyzate were further used for methane fermentation by anaerobic granular sludge, and the total methane yield reached 205.8 mL/g-cornstalk. The total energy recovery in the three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis reached 70.0%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An integrated system for hydrogen and methane production during landfill leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, H.M.; Nakhla, G.; El Naggar, H. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a patent-pending integrated waste-to-energy system that includes a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler and a second stage conventional anaerobic digester for the production of methane gas. This chemical-free process was tested using a synthetic wastewater/leachate solution at 37 degrees C for 45 days. During the experimental period, the biohydrogenator steadily produced hydrogen (H{sub 2}) with no methane. The maximum hydrogen yield was 400 ml H{sub 2}/g glucose with an average of 345 ml H{sub 2}/g glucose, as compared to 141 and 118 ml H{sub 2}/g glucose for two consecutive runs done in parallel using a conventional continuously stirrer tank reactor. The maximum and average hydrogen production rates in the biohydrogen reactor with gravity settler were 22 and 19 L H{sub 2}/day, the maximum yield was 2.8 mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose higher than 1.6-2.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose reported for continuous-flow reactors. The methane yield for the second stage approached a maximum value of 426 ml methane/g chemical oxygen demand (COD) removed.

  7. Enhancement of bioenergy production from organic wastes by two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated a two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane process for increasing bioenergy production from organic wastes. A two-stage process with hydraulic retention time (HRT) 3d for hydrogen reactor and 12d for methane reactor, obtained 11% higher energy compared to a single......:12 to 1:14, 6.7%, more energy could be obtained. Microbial community analysis indicated that the dominant bacterial species were different in the hydrogen reactors (Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum-like species) and methane reactors (Clostridium thermocellum-like species). The changes...

  8. Conversion of Methane to C2 Hydrocarbons and Hydrogen Using a Gliding Arc Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shuanghui; Wang Baowei; Lv Yijun; Yan Wenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Methane conversion has been studied using gliding arc plasma in the presence of argon. The process was conducted at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The focus of this research was to develop a process of converting methane to C 2 hydrocarbons and hydrogen. The main parameters, including the CH 4 /Ar mole ratio, the CH 4 flow rate, the input voltage, and the minimum electrode gap, were varied to investigate their effects on methane conversion rate, product distribution, energy consumption, carbon deposit, and reaction stability. The specific energy requirement (SER) was used to express the energy utilization efficiency of the process and provided a practical guidance for optimizing reaction conditions for improving energy efficiency. It was found that the carbon deposition was not conducive to methane conversion, and the gliding arc plasma discharge reached a stable state twelve minutes later. Optimum conditions for methane conversion were suggested. The maximum methane conversion rate of 43.39% was obtained under the optimum conditions. Also, C 2 hydrocarbons selectivity, C 2 hydrocarbons yield, H 2 selectivity, H 2 yield and SER were 87.20%, 37.83%, 81.28%, 35.27%, and 2.09 MJ/mol, respectively.

  9. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis: candidates for room temperature methane and hydrogen gas sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O crystallite size and crystallinity on the gassensing performance of hydrogen and methane gases was also evaluated. Sensing film based on ZnOnanoparticles has numerous advantages in terms of its reliability and high sensitivity. These sensingmaterials revealed...

  10. Hydrogen production by catalytic processing of renewable methane-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Biomass-derived methane-rich gases such as landfill gas (LFG), biogas and digester gas are promising renewable resources for near-future production of hydrogen. The technical and economical feasibility of hydrogen production via catalytic reforming of LFG and other methane-rich gases is evaluated in this paper. The thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and experimental measurements of reformation of methane-rich CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures over Ni-based catalyst were conducted. The problems associated with the catalyst deactivation due to carbon lay down and effects of steam and oxygen on the process sustainability were explored. Two technological approaches distinguished by the mode of heat input to the endothermic process (i.e., external vs autothermal) were modeled using AspenPlus trademark chemical process simulator and validated experimentally. A 5 kW{sub th} pilot unit for hydrogen production from LFG-mimicking CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixture was fabricated and operated. A preliminary techno-economic assessment indicates that the liquid hydrogen production costs are in the range of 3.00-7.00 per kilogram depending upon the plant capacity, the process heat input option and whether or not carbon sequestration is included in the process. (author)

  11. High-pressure structures of methane hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, H; Uchihara, Y; Fujihisa, H; Sakashita, M; Katoh, E; Aoki, K; Yamamoto, Y; Nagashima, K; Yagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Three high-pressure structures of methane hydrate, a hexagonal structure (str. A) and two orthorhombic structures (str. B and str. C), were found by in situ x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The well-known structure I (str. I) decomposed into str. A and fluid at 0.8 GPa. Str. A transformed into str. B at 1.6 GPa, and str. B further transformed into str. C at 2.1 GPa which survived above 7.8 GPa. The fluid solidified as ice VI at 1.4 GPa, and the ice VI transformed to ice VII at 2.1 GPa. The bulk moduli, K 0 , for str. I, str. A, and str. C were calculated to be 7.4, 9.8, and 25.0 GPa, respectively

  12. Heterogeneous Catalysis: Deuterium Exchange Reactions of Hydrogen and Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirich, Anne; Miller, Trisha Hoette; Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Two gas phase deuterium/hydrogen exchange reactions are described utilizing a simple inexpensive glass catalyst tube containing 0.5% Pd on alumina through which gas mixtures can be passed and products collected for analysis. The first of these exchange reactions involves H[subscript 2] + D[subscript 2], which proceeds at temperatures as low as 77…

  13. Optimizing a steam-methane reformer for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; Westendorp, G.

    2009-01-01

    By means of steam reforming, natural gas is converted to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The reactions take place in reactor tubes which are covered with catalyst at the inside, where the reactive mixture flows. At the outside they are heated by combustion of natural gas with air. In this paper the

  14. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions using surplus electricity in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Ville; Väisänen, Sanni; Inkeri, Eero; Soukka, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission reductions using power-to-x processes are studied using life cycle assessment. • Surplus electricity use led to greenhouse gas emission reductions in all studied cases. • Highest reductions can be achieved by using hydrogen to replace fossil based hydrogen. • High reductions are also achieved when fossil transportation fuels are replaced. - Abstract: Using a life cycle perspective, potentials for greenhouse gas emission reductions using various power-to-x processes via electrolysis have been compared. Because of increasing renewable electricity production, occasionally surplus renewable electricity is produced, which leads to situations where the price of electricity approach zero. This surplus electricity can be used in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis and other additional processes. Life cycle assessments have been utilized to compare these options in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. All of the power-to-x options studied lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions as compared to conventional production processes based on fossil fuels. The highest greenhouse gas emission reductions can be gained when hydrogen from steam reforming is replaced by hydrogen from the power-to-x process. High greenhouse gas emission reductions can also be achieved when power-to-x products are utilized as an energy source for transportation, replacing fossil transportation fuels. A third option with high greenhouse gas emission reduction potential is methane production, storing and electricity conversion in gas engines during peak consumption hours. It is concluded that the power-to-x processes provide a good potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.

  15. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico

    2013-01-01

    membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater......Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  16. Iron ore catalysts for methane decomposition to make CO x free hydrogen and carbon nano material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu; Enakonda, Linga Reddy; Li, Sheng; Gary, Daniel; Del-Gallo, Pascal; Mennemann, Christina; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    In this work, for the first time, iron ores with 91.7%–96.2% FeO, 1.3%–2.3% AlO, 1.2%–4.5% SiO, 1.3%–3.9% NaO, were studied directly as bulk catalysts for methane decomposition. By hydrogen pre-reduction at 850 °C, FeO species on iron ores were

  17. Comparison between Hydrogen and Methane Fuels in a 3-D Scramjet at Mach 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    scramjet using a cavity based flame holder in the T4 shock tunnel at The University of Queensland, as well as a companion fundamental CFD study. The...shock tunnel. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Airbreathing Engines, Hypersonics , Propulsion, AOARD 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18...Report Comparison between hydrogen, methane and ethylene fuels in a 3-D Scramjet at Mach 8 Professor Michael K. Smart Chair of Hypersonic Propulsion

  18. Comparison between Hydrogen, Methane and Ethylene Fuels in a 3-D Scramjet at Mach 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    scramjet using a cavity based flame holder in the T4 shock tunnel at The University of Queensland, as well as a companion fundamental CFD study. The...shock tunnel. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Airbreathing Engines, Hypersonics , Propulsion, AOARD 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18...Report Comparison between hydrogen, methane and ethylene fuels in a 3-D Scramjet at Mach 8 Professor Michael K. Smart Chair of Hypersonic Propulsion

  19. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Tagesson, Håkan Torbern

    2013-01-01

    The northern latitudes are experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the mid-latitudes, and there is growing concern about feedbacks between this warming and methane production and release from high-latitude soils. Studies of methane emissions carried out in the Arctic, particularly those...

  20. The formation of nitrogeneous compounds in the γ-radiolyses of liquid nitrogen solutions of hydrogen, methane, and ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horigome, Keiichi; Hirokami, Shun-ichi; Sato, Shin

    1978-01-01

    The γ-radiolyses of liquid nitrogen solutions of hydrogen, methane, and ethane have been reinvestigated. A complete survey of nitrogen-containing products has been attempted. The nitrogeneous compounds observed were ammonia (0.7) and hydrogen azide (0.02) in the case of hydrogen, ammonia (0.3), hydrogen cyanide (0.1), methyl azide (0.01), and a polymer in the case of methane, and ammonia (0.3), hydrogen cyanide (0.05), acetonitrile (0.04), ethyl azide (0.01), and a polymer in the case of ethane. The values in parentheses are the G-values obtained at optimum conditions. The hydrolysis of the polymer obtained with methane gave formaldehyde in amounts which correspond to the fact that the G-value of the nitrogen atoms which were converted into the polymer is about 1.0. In order to explain these results, possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. (auth.)

  1. Hydrogen or synthesis gas production via the partial oxidation of methane over supported nickel-cobalt catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Alaric C.W. [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833 (Singapore); Chen, Luwei; Lin, Jianyi [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833 (Singapore); Kee Leong, Weng [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Johnson, Brian F.G.; Khimyak, Tetyana [University Chemical Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, UK CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Activity, selectivity, and coking-resistance of a series of Ni{sub x}Co{sub y} (where x,y are the respective metal loadings of 0, 1, 2 or 3 wt.%; x+y=3) bimetallic catalysts supported on CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been studied for hydrogen/synthesis gas production via the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of methane. Catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray fluorescence multi-element analysis (XRF). Their activity for the partial oxidation of methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (at 1 bar, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 144,000cm{sup 3}g{sup -1}h{sup -1} and CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} molar ratio of 2) was investigated, and coke deposited on the spent catalysts was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The activity was found to decrease in the order of Ni{sub 2}Co>Ni{sub 3}>NiCo{sub 2}>>Co{sub 3}, while CO and H{sub 2} selectivities were found to be in the order ofNi{sub 2}Co>Ni{sub 3}{approx}NiCo{sub 2}>Co{sub 3}. Ni{sub 2}Co is also shown to be more resistant to coking as compared to Ni{sub 3}, which is a current catalyst of choice. Results show that not only does Ni{sub 2}Co have the highest activity and selectivity among all the catalysts tested, it is also relatively resistant to coking. This finding would be helpful for catalyst design to achieve high coking resistivity catalysts for hydrogen production from CPO of methane. (author)

  2. Towards the methane society? Use of hydrogen for upgrading biogas and synthetic methane production. Phase 1. Final report; Pae vej mod metansamfundet? - anvendelse af brint til opgradering af biogas og kunstig metanfremstilling. Fase 1. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Claus [Agro Business Park, Tjele (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Biogas consists of methane (CH4) and CO{sub 2}. If you react hydrogen produced with wind power with CO{sub 2} in sulfur purified biogas you get biogas upgraded to pure methane, ie. to natural gas quality. The pure methane can for example be sold via the natural gas grid or pressurized and sold for transport. The purpose of the present project is to contribute to the development of a concept and a technology that can store wind energy into the existing natural gas network through the upgrading of CO{sub 2} in biogas. Overall the project combines the technique and concept of electrolysis, biogas upgrading and natural gas network, so that: - electrolysis creates hydrogen and heat from wind turbines; - CO{sub 2} in biogas reacts with H2 from the electrolysis and produces CH4 and high-value steam by biogas reacting directly with H2 in a catalyst ; - The natural gas network is used as distribution and storage of the produced methane. The following main results are achieved in the first phase: - Design and construction of a pilot plant for the purification of biogas, which allows a Sabatier reaction later in the methanization process; - Sensitivity analyses have been carried out of methane prices, which have proven to be competitive compared to other upgrading technologies in the market; - A business plan is developed for a demonstration plant, which among other things will be used in phase 2: demonstration plant. The competitor analysis shows, among other things, a higher efficiency rate of the Danish technology than on the methanization plants being developed in Germany. (LN)

  3. Diagnosis of a short-pulse dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure in helium with hydrogen-methane admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastuta, A. V.; Pohoata, V.; Mihaila, I.; Topala, I.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we present results from electrical, optical, and spectroscopic diagnosis of a short-pulse (250 ns) high-power impulse (up to 11 kW) dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure running in a helium/helium-hydrogen/helium-hydrogen-methane gas mixture. This plasma source is able to generate up to 20 cm3 of plasma volume, pulsed in kilohertz range. The plasma spatio-temporal dynamics are found to be developed in three distinct phases. All the experimental observations reveal a similar dynamic to medium power microsecond barrier discharges, although the power per pulse and current density are up to two orders of magnitude higher than the case of microsecond barrier discharges. This might open the possibility for new applications in the field of gas or surface processing, and even life science. These devices can be used in laboratory experiments relevant for molecular astrophysics.

  4. Methane Storage in Nanoporous Media as Observed via High-Field NMR Relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, A.; Kausik, R.

    2015-08-01

    The storage properties of methane gas in Vycor porous glass (5.7 nm) are characterized in a wide pressure range from 0.7 to 89.7 MPa using nuclear magnetic resonance. We demonstrate the capability of high-field nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxometry for the determination of the methane-gas storage capacity and the measurement of the hydrogen index, to a high degree of accuracy. This helps determine the excess gas in the pore space which can be identified to exhibit Langmuir properties in the low pressure regime of 0.7 to 39.6 MPa. The Langmuir model enables us to determine the equilibrium density of the monolayer of adsorbed gas to be 8.5% lower than that of liquid methane. We also identify the signatures of multilayer adsorption at the high pressure regime from 39.6 to 89.7 MPa and use the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller theory to determine the number of adsorbed layers of methane gas. We show how these measurements help us differentiate the gas stored in the Vycor pore space into free and adsorbed fractions for the entire pressure range paving way for similar applications such as studying natural-gas storage in gas shale rock or hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

  5. Projected hydrogen cost from methane reforming for North America 2015-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderveen, K.; Lutz, A.; Klebanoff, L.; Drennen, T.; Keller, J.; Drennen, T.; Kamery, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H 2 Sim) was used to project the cost for hydrogen at the point of sale to light duty vehicles for distributed, small-scale steam methane reforming. Projections cover the period from 2010-2050 in North America, and take into account assumptions about the quantity of recoverable natural gas remaining in North America. We conclude that there is a window for distributed reforming to play a positive role in supplying a H 2 fuel infrastructure, but this window is closing rapidly. The analysis assumes that production from natural gas reserves in North America will peak sometime before 2050 and demand will cause the price to rise after the peak of production in a manner consistent with Hotelling's model. We consider three scenarios for when the peak occurs, and evaluate the impact on the cost of hydrogen fuel produced via distributed small scale reforming in these three scenarios. (authors)

  6. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments...

  7. Effect of Different Operating Temperatures on the Biological Hydrogen Methanation in Trickle Bed Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lemmer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reactor efficiency, this study investigated the influence of temperature on the biological hydrogen methanation (BHM in trickle-bed reactors (TBR. Rising temperatures increase the metabolic activity of methanogenic microorganisms, thus leading to higher reactor specific methane formation rates (MFR. In order to quantify the potential for improved performance, experiments with four different operating temperatures ranging from 40 to 55 °C were carried out. Methane content increased from 88.29 ± 2.12 vol % at 40 °C to 94.99 ± 0.81 vol % at 55 °C with a stable biological process. Furthermore, a reactor specific methane formation rate (MFR of up to 8.85 ± 0.45 m3 m−3 d−1 was achieved. It could be shown that the microorganisms were able to adapt to higher temperatures within hours. The tests showed that TBR performance with regard to BHM can be significantly increased by increasing the operating temperature.

  8. Assessment of hydrothermal pretreatment of various lignocellulosic biomass with CO2 catalyst for enhanced methane and hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Monlau, Florian; Barakat, Abdellatif; Ferrer, Ivet; Kaparaju, Prasad; Trably, Eric; Carrère, Hélène

    2017-09-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment of five lignocellulosic substrates (i.e. wheat straw, rice straw, biomass sorghum, corn stover and Douglas fir bark) were conducted in the presence of CO 2 as a catalyst. To maximize disintegration and conversion into bioenergy (methane and hydrogen), pretreatment temperatures and subsequent pressures varied with a range of 26-175 °C, and 25-102 bars, respectively. Among lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, hydrothermal pretreatment caused the highest reduction (23-42%) in hemicelluloses while delignification was limited to only 0-12%. These reductions in structural integrity resulted in 20-30% faster hydrolysis rates during anaerobic digestion for the pretreated substrates of straws, sorghum, and corn stover while Douglas fir bark yielded 172% faster hydrolysis/digestion due to its highly refractory nature in the control. Furans and phenolic compounds formed in the pretreated hydrolyzates were below the inhibitory levels for methane and hydrogen production which had a range of 98-340 ml CH 4 /g volatile solids (VS) and 5-26 ml H 2 /g VS, respectively. Results indicated that hydrothermal pretreatment is able to accelerate the rate of biodegradation without generating high levels of inhibitory compounds while showing no discernible effect on ultimate biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial methane from in situ biodegradation of coal and shale: A review and reevaluation of hydrogen and carbon isotope signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David S.; Blair, Neal E.; Martini, Anna M.; Larter, Steve; Orem, William H.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.

    2017-01-01

    Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of methane, water, and inorganic carbon are widely utilized in natural gas systems for distinguishing microbial and thermogenic methane and for delineating methanogenic pathways (acetoclastic, hydrogenotrophic, and/or methylotrophic methanogenesis). Recent studies of coal and shale gas systems have characterized in situ microbial communities and provided stable isotope data (δD-CH4, δD-H2O, δ13C-CH4, and δ13C-CO2) from a wider range of environments than available previously. Here we review the principal biogenic methane-yielding pathways in coal beds and shales and the isotope effects imparted on methane, document the uncertainties and inconsistencies in established isotopic fingerprinting techniques, and identify the knowledge gaps in understanding the subsurface processes that govern H and C isotope signatures of biogenic methane. We also compare established isotopic interpretations with recent microbial community characterization techniques, which reveal additional inconsistencies in the interpretation of microbial metabolic pathways in coal beds and shales. Collectively, the re-assessed data show that widely-utilized isotopic fingerprinting techniques neglect important complications in coal beds and shales.Isotopic fingerprinting techniques that combine δ13C-CH4 with δD-CH4 and/or δ13C-CO2have significant limitations: (1) The consistent ~ 160‰ offset between δD-H2O and δD-CH4 could imply that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is the dominant metabolic pathway in microbial gas systems. However, hydrogen isotopes can equilibrate between methane precursors and coexisting water, yielding a similar apparent H isotope signal as hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, regardless of the actual methane formation pathway. (2) Non-methanogenic processes such as sulfate reduction, Fe oxide reduction, inputs of thermogenic methane, anaerobic methane oxidation, and/or formation water interaction can cause the apparent carbon

  10. Hydrogen amplification of coke oven gas by reforming of methane in a ceramic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuwen; Li, Qian; Shen, Peijun; Liu, Yong; Yang, Zhibin; Ding, Weizhong; Lu, Xionggang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 275 Mail Box, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2008-07-15

    To maximize hydrogen production from coke oven gas (COG), partial oxidation of methane in COG was studied thermodynamically and experimentally. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that an optimal hydrogen yield of 1.04-1.10 mole per mole of the consumed COG can be achieved when the initial ratio of O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is 0.57-0.46 in a temperature range of 800-900 C, and the corresponding amplification of original hydrogen in COG reaches 1.8-1.9 times. The amplification of original hydrogen was carried out in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor, and the hydrogen yield in the lab scale was about 80% more than that of original H{sub 2} in model COG. In a large hydrogen content in COG, the ceramic membrane reactors made from perovskite mixed-conducting oxygen-permeable materials must have higher stability to withstand the harsh reduction condition. (author)

  11. Effect of Catalytic Cylinders on Autothermal Reforming of Methane for Hydrogen Production in a Microchamber Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multicylinder microchamber reactor is designed on autothermal reforming of methane for hydrogen production, and its performance and thermal behavior, that is, based on the reaction mechanism, is numerically investigated by varying the cylinder radius, cylinder spacing, and cylinder layout. The results show that larger cylinder radius can promote reforming reaction; the mass fraction of methane decreased from 26% to 21% with cylinder radius from 0.25 mm to 0.75 mm; compact cylinder spacing corresponds to more catalytic surface and the time to steady state is decreased from 40 s to 20 s; alteration of staggered and aligned cylinder layout at constant inlet flow rates does not result in significant difference in reactor performance and it can be neglected. The results provide an indication and optimize performance of reactor; it achieves higher conversion compared with other reforming reactors.

  12. Effect of catalytic cylinders on autothermal reforming of methane for hydrogen production in a microchamber reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunfei; Guo, Hongliang; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Junchen; Yang, Zhongqing; Tang, Qiang; Ji, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A new multicylinder microchamber reactor is designed on autothermal reforming of methane for hydrogen production, and its performance and thermal behavior, that is, based on the reaction mechanism, is numerically investigated by varying the cylinder radius, cylinder spacing, and cylinder layout. The results show that larger cylinder radius can promote reforming reaction; the mass fraction of methane decreased from 26% to 21% with cylinder radius from 0.25 mm to 0.75 mm; compact cylinder spacing corresponds to more catalytic surface and the time to steady state is decreased from 40 s to 20 s; alteration of staggered and aligned cylinder layout at constant inlet flow rates does not result in significant difference in reactor performance and it can be neglected. The results provide an indication and optimize performance of reactor; it achieves higher conversion compared with other reforming reactors.

  13. Methane emissions from a high arctic valley: findings and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, Mikhail; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Ström, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Wet tundra ecosystems are well-known to be a significant source of atmospheric methane. With the predicted stronger effect of global climate change on arctic terrestrial ecosystems compared to lower-latitudes, there is a special obligation to study the natural diversity and the range of possible...... feedback effects on global climate that could arise from Arctic tundra ecosystems. One of the prime candidates for such a feedback mechanism is a potential change in the emissions of methane. Long-term datasets on methane emissions from high arctic sites are almost non-existing but badly needed...... for analyses of controls on interannual and seasonal variations in emissions. To help fill this gap we initiated a measurement program in a productive high arctic fen in the Zackenberg valley, NE Greenland. Methane flux measurements have been carried out at the same location since 1997. Compared...

  14. An integrated system for hydrogen and methane production during landfill leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, Hesham [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The patent-pending integrated waste-to-energy system comprises both a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler (Biohydrogenator), followed by a second stage conventional anaerobic digester for the production of methane gas. This chemical-free process has been tested with a synthetic wastewater/leachate solution, and was operated at 37 C for 45 d. The biohydrogenator (system (A), stage 1) steadily produced hydrogen with no methane during the experimental period. The maximum hydrogen yield was 400 mL H{sub 2}/g glucose with an average of 345 mL H{sub 2}/g glucose, as compared to 141 and 118 mL H{sub 2}/g glucose for two consecutive runs done in parallel using a conventional continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR, System (B)). Decoupling of the solids retention time (SRT) from the hydraulic retention time (HRT) using the gravity settler showed a marked improvement in performance, with the maximum and average hydrogen production rates in system (A) of 22 and 19 L H{sub 2}/d, as compared with 2-7 L H{sub 2}/d in the CSTR resulting in a maximum yield of 2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose much higher than the 1.1-1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose observed in the CSTR. Furthermore, while the CSTR collapsed in 10-15 d due to biomass washout, the biohydrogenator continued stable operation for the 45 d reported here and beyond. The methane yield for the second stage in system (A) approached a maximum value of 426 mL CH{sub 4}/gCOD removed, while an overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 94% was achieved in system (A). (author)

  15. Laminar flame properties and flame acceleration prediction of hydrogen-methane mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudoro, K. [Inst. de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement CNRS Orleans (France); Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DSR/SAGR, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chaumeix, N. [Inst. de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement CNRS Orleans (France); Bentaib, A. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DSR/SAGR, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Paillard, C-E. [Inst. de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement CNRS Orleans (France)

    2011-07-01

    The combustion of a binary mixture of methane and hydrogen has been studied using 2 different experimental setups: the spherical bomb to investigate the fundamental flame properties of this mixture with air, initially at 100 kPa, at different initial temperatures (300 - 363 K) and for a wide range of equivalence ratios (0.8 - 1.4); ENACCEF to investigate the flame acceleration phenomena in smooth tube for mixtures initially at ambient conditions and for equivalence ratios ranging between 0.57 and 0.84. A detailed kinetic mechanism has been used to derive the activation energies needed for the flame acceleration analysis. (author)

  16. Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Methane HCCI Engine Ignition Timing and Emissions Using a Multi-zone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-han; Wang, Chun-mei; Tang, Hua-xin; Zuo, Cheng-ji; Xu, Hong-ming

    2009-06-01

    Ignition timing control is of great importance in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. The effect of hydrogen addition on methane combustion was investigated using a CHEMKIN multi-zone model. Results show that hydrogen addition advances ignition timing and enhances peak pressure and temperature. A brief analysis of chemical kinetics of methane blending hydrogen is also performed in order to investigate the scope of its application, and the analysis suggests that OH radical plays an important role in the oxidation. Hydrogen addition increases NOx while decreasing HC and CO emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) also advances ignition timing; however, its effects on emissions are generally the opposite. By adjusting the hydrogen addition and EGR rate, the ignition timing can be regulated with a low emission level. Investigation into zones suggests that NOx is mostly formed in core zones while HC and CO mostly originate in the crevice and the quench layer.

  17. Iron ore catalysts for methane decomposition to make CO x free hydrogen and carbon nano material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2018-03-27

    In this work, for the first time, iron ores with 91.7%–96.2% FeO, 1.3%–2.3% AlO, 1.2%–4.5% SiO, 1.3%–3.9% NaO, were studied directly as bulk catalysts for methane decomposition. By hydrogen pre-reduction at 850 °C, FeO species on iron ores were gradually reduced into FeO, FeO and then finally into Fe species. After reduction of 1.6 g of iron ore catalysts of 50 µm particle size with 100 mL/min pure H for 3.5 h at 850 °C, CMD life testing was conducted at 850 °C and GHSV of 3.75 L/g h and the catalyst showed a stable methane conversion for 5 h. When methane decomposition proceeded on Fe sites, FeC species would be formed to deposit graphite around themselves to finally form carbon nano onions. This carbon nano onions material showed excellent application for wastewater purification. All samples were fully characterized with XRF, XRD, H-TPR, TEM and Raman.

  18. Hydrogen production through sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming and membrane technology: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.; Servili, S.

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry, more and more waste gases are emitted into the atmosphere. In terms of total air emissions, CO 2 is emitted in the greatest amount, accounting for 99 wt% of the total air emissions, therefore contributing to global warming, the so-called 'Greenhouse Effect'. The recovery and disposal of CO 2 from flue gas is currently the object of great international interest. Most of the CO 2 comes from the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation, industrial boilers, residential and commercial heating, and transportation sectors. Consequently, in the last years' interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier has significantly increased both for vehicle fuelling and stationary energy production from fuel cells. The benefits of a hydrogen energy policy are the reduction of the greenhouse effect, principally due to the centralization of the emission sources. Moreover, an improvement to the environmental benefits can be achieved if hydrogen is produced from renewable sources, as biomass. The present paper provides an overview of the steam methane reforming (SMR) process and methodologies for performances improvement such as hydrogen removal, by selective permeation through a membrane or simultaneous reaction of the targeted molecule with a chemical acceptor, and equilibrium shift by the addition of a CO 2 acceptor to the reactor. In particular, attention was focused on the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) process in which sorbents are added in order to enhance the reactions and realize in situ CO 2 separation. The major operating parameters of SE-SMR are described by the authors in order to project and then realize the innovative carbonation reactor developed in previous studies

  19. Formation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films of controlled hardness from a methane plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandentop, G.J.; Kawasaki, M.; Nix, R.M.; Brown, I.G.; Salmeron, M.; Somorjai, G.A.; Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720)

    1990-01-01

    Studies of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) film deposition revealed that methyl radicals are the precursor species responsible for the bulk mass deposition of the films, while the ions act to improve the mechanical properties. The films were deposited on Si(100) substrates both on the powered (negatively self-biased) and on the grounded electrodes from a methane rf plasma (13.56 MHz) at 68 to 70 mTorr and 300 to 370 K. The films produced on the powered electrode exhibited superior mechanical properties, such as high hardness. A mass spectrometer was used to identify neutral species and positive ions incident on the electrodes from the plasma, and also to measure ion energies. Methyl radicals were incident on the electrode surface with an estimated flux of 10 16 cm -2 s -1 , for a rf power of 50 W. Methyl radicals appear to be the dominant intermediates in the growth of the soft carbon polymer, and there is a remarkable decrease in deposition rate due to the introduction of NO, a radical scavenger. A novel pulsed biasing technique was used so that the role of ions in the plasma could be studied separately. It was found that the hardness of the films depends on the power supplied by the ions to the growing film surface (the time averaged difference between the plasma potential and the electrode potential), but not on the energy of individual ions. The pulsed biasing technique offers an efficient method to adjust the film hardness by independent control of the neutral radical and ion fluxes to the surface

  20. Generation of Hydrogen and Methane during Experimental Low-Temperature Reaction of Ultramafic Rocks with Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Donaldson, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks is widely recognized as a source of molecular hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) to support microbial activity, but the extent and rates of formation of these compounds in low-temperature, near-surface environments are poorly understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the production of H2 and CH4 during low-temperature reaction of water with ultramafic rocks and minerals. Experiments were performed by heating olivine or harzburgite with aqueous solutions at 90°C for up to 213 days in glass bottles sealed with butyl rubber stoppers. Although H2 and CH4 increased steadily throughout the experiments, the levels were very similar to those found in mineral-free controls, indicating that the rubber stoppers were the predominant source of these compounds. Levels of H2 above background were observed only during the first few days of reaction of harzburgite when CO2 was added to the headspace, with no detectable production of H2 or CH4 above background during further heating of the harzburgite or in experiments with other mineral reactants. Consequently, our results indicate that production of H2 and CH4 during low-temperature alteration of ultramafic rocks may be much more limited than some recent experimental studies have suggested. We also found no evidence to support a recent report suggesting that spinels in ultramafic rocks may stimulate H2 production. While secondary silicates were observed to precipitate during the experiments, formation of these deposits was dominated by Si released by dissolution of the glass bottles, and reaction of the primary silicate minerals appeared to be very limited. While use of glass bottles and rubber stoppers has become commonplace in experiments intended to study processes that occur during serpentinization of ultramafic rocks at low temperatures, the high levels of H2, CH4, and SiO2 released during heating indicate that these reactor materials are unsuitable for this purpose.

  1. Autothermal catalytic pyrolysis of methane as a new route to hydrogen production with reduced CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Hydrogen production plants are among major sources of CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to explore new routes to hydrogen production from natural gas (or methane) with drastically reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. One approach analyzed in this paper is based on thermocatalytic decomposition (or pyrolysis) of methane into hydrogen gas and elemental carbon over carbon-based catalysts. Several heat input options to the endothermic process are discussed in the paper. The authors conduct thermodynamic analysis of methane decomposition in the presence of small amounts of oxygen in an autothermal (or thermo-neutral) regime using AspenPlus(TM) chemical process simulator. Methane conversion, products yield, effluent gas composition, process enthalpy flows as a function of temperature, pressure and O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio has been determined. CO{sub 2} emissions (per m{sup 3} of H{sub 2} produced) from the process could potentially be a factor of 3-5 less than from conventional hydrogen production processes. Oxygen-assisted decomposition of methane over activated carbon (AC) and AC-supported iron catalysts over wide range of temperatures and O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratios was experimentally verified. Problems associated with the catalyst deactivation and the effect of iron doping on the catalyst stability are discussed. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Requirements in Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Consortia Exclude Hydrogen, Acetate, and Methanol as Possible Electron Shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, K.B.; Finster, K.; Ramsing, N.B.

    2001-07-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) has long remained an enigma in microbial ecology. In the process the net reaction appears to be an oxidation of methane with sulfate as electron acceptor. In order to explain experimental data such as effects of inhibitors and isotopic signals in biomarkers it has been suggested that the process is carried out by a consortium of bacteria using an unknown compound to shuttle electrons between the participants. The overall change in free energy during AMO with sulfate is very small (?22 kJ mol-1) at in situ concentrations of methane and sulfate. In order to share the available free energy between the members of the consortium, the concentration of the intermediate electron shuttle compound becomes crucial. Diffusive flux of a substrate (i.e, the electron shuttle) between bacteria requires a stable concentration gradient where the concentration is higher in the producing organism than in the consuming organism. Since changes in concentrations cause changes in reaction free energies, the diffusive flux of a catabolic product/substrate between bacteria is associated with a net loss of available energy. This restricts maximal inter-bacterial distances in consortia composed of stationary bacteria. A simple theoretical model was used to describe the relationship between inter-bacterial distances and the energy lost due to concentration differences in consortia. Key parameters turned out to be the permissible concentration range of the electron shuttle in the consortium (i.e., the concentration range that allows both participants to gain sufficient energy) and the stoichiometry of the partial reactions. The model was applied to two known consortia degrading ethanol and butyrate and to four hypothetical methane-oxidizing consortia (MOC) based on interspecies transfer of hydrogen, methanol, acetate, or formate, respectively. In the first three MOCs the permissible distances between producers and consumers of the transferred compounds were

  3. Numerical Study of Contaminant Effects on Combustion of Hydrogen, Ethane, and Methane in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H. T.; Thomas, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to assess the effects of vitiated air on the chemical kinetics of hydrogen, ethane, and methane combustion with air. A series of calculations in static reacting systems was performed, where the initial temperature was specified and reactions occurred at constant pressure. Three different types of test flow contaminants were considered: NP, H2O, and a combustion of H2O and CO2. These contaminants are present in the test flows of facilities used for hypersonic propulsion testing. The results were computed using a detailed reaction mechanism and are presented in terms of ignition and reaction times. Calculations were made for a wide range of contaminant concentrations, temperatures and pressures. The results indicate a pronounced kinetic effect over a range of temperatures, especially with NO contamination and, to a lesser degree, with H2O contamination. In all cases studied, CO2 remained kinetically inert, but had a thermodynamic effect on results by acting as a third body. The largest effect is observed with combustion using hydrogen fuel, less effect is seen with combustion of ethane, and little effect of contaminants is shown with methane combustion.

  4. Carbon potential measurement on the Mo-MoC0.47 system by methane - hydrogen equilibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthasivan, K.; Kaliappan, I.; Chandramouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Mathews, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium plutonium mixed carbides are potential candidate fuel materials for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. The carbon potential of the fuel is an important thermochemical property which strongly influences the carbon transport between the clad and the fuel. The carbon potential of the fuel is altered during irradiation of the fuel in the reactor. This is due to the formation of various fission products and their binary and ternary carbides. Molybdenum is a fission product with a high yield which can alter the carbon potential of the fuel. The present work forms part of our studies on the carbon potential measurements in the U - Mo - C ternary system. The carbon potential of the Mo-Mo 2 C couple measured by the methane hydrogen gas equilibration technique is presented here and the results are compared with the values cited in the literature. (author)

  5. The influence of methane/argon plasma composition on the formation of the hydrogenated amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Weng, Chih-Chiang; Hsieh, Jui-Fu; Chang, Chia-Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsien; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the a-C:H films was particularly correlated with the mixed ratio of methane/argon plasma. For a constant supply of energy and flowing rate, the optical emission from H α intensity linearly increased with the addition of methane in argon plasma, while that from intensities of radiation of diatmoic radicals (CH*and C 2 *) exponentially decreased. For the a-C:H films, the added methane in argon plasma tended to raise the quantity of hydrogenated carbon or sp 3 C-H structure, which exponentially decreased the nano-hardness and friction coefficient of the films. In contrast, the electric resistance of the films enlarged dramatically with the increase of the methane content in argon plasma. It is therefore advantageous to balance the mechanical properties and electrical resistance of the a-C:H film by adjusting plasma composition in the course of the film-growing process.

  6. 2D heat and mass transfer modeling of methane steam reforming for hydrogen production in a compact reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Meng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A heat and mass transfer model is developed for a compact reformer. ► Hydrogen production from methane steam reforming is simulated. ► Increasing temperature greatly increases the reaction rates at the inlet. ► Temperature in the downstream is increased at higher rate of heat supply. ► Larger permeability enhances gas flow and reaction rates in the catalyst layer. - Abstract: Compact reformers (CRs) are promising devices for efficient fuel processing. In CRs, a thin solid plate is sandwiched between two catalyst layers to enable efficient heat transfer from combustion duct to the reforming duct for fuel processing. In this study, a 2D heat and mass transfer model is developed to investigate the fundamental transport phenomenon and chemical reaction kinetics in a CR for hydrogen production by methane steam reforming (MSR). Both MSR reaction and water gas shift reaction (WGSR) are considered in the numerical model. Parametric simulations are performed to examine the effects of various structural/operating parameters, such as pore size, permeability, gas velocity, temperature, and rate of heat supply on the reformer performance. It is found that the reaction rates of MSR and WGSR are the highest at the inlet but decrease significantly along the reformer. Increasing the operating temperature raises the reaction rates at the inlet but shows very small influence in the downstream. For comparison, increasing the rate of heat supply raises the reaction rates in the downstream due to increased temperature. A high gas velocity and permeability facilitates gas transport in the porous structure thus enhances reaction rates in the downstream of the reformer.

  7. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from industrial gases by hydrogen or methane; Reduction catalytique selective des oxydes d'azote (NO{sub x}) provenant d'effluents gazeux industriels par l'hydrogene ou le methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann Pirez, M

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), contained in the effluents of industrial plants, by hydrogen or methane. The aim is to replace ammonia, used as reducing agent, in the conventional process. The use of others reducing agents such as hydrogen or methane is interesting for different reasons: practical, economical and ecological. The catalyst has to convert selectively NO into N{sub 2}, in presence of an excess of oxygen, steam and sulfur dioxide. The developed catalyst is constituted by a support such as perovskites, particularly LaCoO{sub 3}, on which are dispersed noble metals (palladium, platinum). The interaction between the noble metal and the support, generated during the activation of the catalyst, allows to minimize the water and sulfur dioxide inhibitor phenomena on the catalytic performances, particularly in the reduction of NO by hydrogen. (O.M.)

  8. Decomposition of methane to hydrogen using nanosecond pulsed plasma reactor with different active volumes, voltages and frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifeh, Omid; Mosallanejad, Amin; Taghvaei, Hamed; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Shariati, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CH 4 conversion into H 2 is investigated in a nanosecond pulsed DBD reactor. • The absence of CO and CO 2 in the product gas is highly favorable. • Effects of external electrode length, applied voltage and frequency are examined. • The maximum efficiency of 7.23% is achieved at the electrode length of 15 cm. • The maximum CH 4 conversion of 87.2% is obtained at discharge power 268.92 W. - Abstract: In this paper, the methane conversion into hydrogen is investigated experimentally in a nanosecond pulsed DBD reactor. In order to achieve pure hydrogen production with minimum power consumption, effects of some operating parameters including external electrode length, applied voltage and pulse repetition frequency have been evaluated. Results show that although higher CH 4 conversion and H 2 concentration can be obtained at longer electrode lengths, higher applied voltages and pulse repetition frequencies, these parameters should be optimized for efficient hydrogen production. Actually, the maximum CH 4 conversion of 87.2% and maximum hydrogen percentage of 80% are obtained at the external electrode length, discharge power, voltage and frequency of 15 cm, 268.92 W, 12 kV and 10 kHz, respectively. However, the maximum efficiency of 7.23% is achieved at the external electrode length of 15 cm, applied voltage of 6 kV, pulse repetition frequency of 0.9 kHz and discharge power of 4 W. Furthermore, at this condition, due to low temperature of discharge zone very little amount of solid carbon was observed on the inner electrode surface of the reactor.

  9. Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Liu, Chujie [Laboratory of Seismology and Physics of Earth’s Interior, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lin, Jung-Fu, E-mail: afu@jsg.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Advanced Technology Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-04-21

    Determination of the full elastic constants (c{sub ij}) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases′ compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.

  10. Optimizing a High-Temperature Hydrogen Co-generation Reactor for Both Economic and Environmental Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Wood, Thomas W.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Johnson, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes outcomes for a 3000 MWt High Temperature Gas Reaction nuclear power plant, given price and cost assumptions, and determined what level of hydrogen and electricity production would optimize the plant economically and environmentally (carbon reduction). The tradeoff between producing hydrogen through steam methane reformation and producing electricity is so disproportionate, that advanced reactors will likely be used only as peaking plants for electricity unless policymakers intervene with incentives to change the mix of electricity and hydrogen. The magnitude of the increase in electric prices or decrease in hydrogen prices required to allow electricity production indicate that substantial error in cost estimates would be required to change our analysis.

  11. Composition variability of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and effects on hydrogen and methane production potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-02-01

    The composition of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) strongly depends on the place and time of collection for a specific municipality or area. Moreover synthetic food waste or organic waste from cafeterias and restaurants may not be representative of the overall OFMSW received at treatment facilities for source-separated waste. This work is aimed at evaluating the composition variability of OFMSW, the potential productions of hydrogen and methane from specific organic waste fractions typically present in MSW and the effects of waste composition on overall hydrogen and methane yields. The organic waste fractions considered in the study were: bread-pasta, vegetables, fruits, meat-fish-cheese and undersieve 20mm. Composition analyses were conducted on samples of OFMSW that were source segregated at household level. Batch tests for hydrogen and methane productions were carried out under mesophilic conditions on selected fractions and OFMSW samples. Results indicated that the highest production of hydrogen was achieved by the bread-pasta fraction while the lowest productions were measured for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The results indicated that the content of these two fractions in organic waste had a direct influence on the hydrogen production potentials of OFMSW. The higher the content of bread-pasta fraction, the higher the hydrogen yields were while the contrary was observed for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The definition of waste composition therefore represents fundamental information to be reported in scientific literature to allow data comparison. The variability of OFMSW and its effects on hydrogen potentials might also represents a problematic issue in the management of pilot or full-scale plants for the production of hydrogen by dark fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous hydrogen and methane production from Agave tequilana bagasse hydrolysate by sequential process to maximize energy recovery efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel Corona, Virginia; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2018-02-01

    Continuous H 2 and CH 4 production in a two-stage process to increase energy recovery from agave bagasse enzymatic-hydrolysate was studied. In the first stage, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and stirring speed on volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) was evaluated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); by controlling the homoacetogenesis with the agitation speed and maintaining an OLR of 44 g COD/L-d, it was possible to reach a VHPR of 6 L H 2 /L-d, equivalent to 1.34 kJ/g bagasse. In the second stage, the effluent from CSTR was used as substrate to feed a UASB reactor for CH 4 production. Volumetric methane production rate (VMPR) of 6.4 L CH 4 /L-d was achieved with a high OLR (20 g COD/L-d) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT, 14 h), producing 225 mL CH 4 /g-bagasse equivalent to 7.88 kJ/g bagasse. The two-stage continuous process significantly increased energy conversion efficiency (56%) compared to one-stage hydrogen production (8.2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Study of Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Khzouz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature methane steam reforming for hydrogen production, using experimental developed Ni/Al2O3 catalysts is studied both experimentally and numerically. The catalytic activity measurements were performed at a temperature range of 500–700 °C with steam to carbon ratio (S/C of 2 and 3 under atmospheric pressure conditions. A mathematical analysis to evaluate the reaction feasibility at all different conditions that have been applied by using chemical equilibrium with applications (CEA software and in addition, a mathematical model focused on the kinetics and the thermodynamics of the reforming reaction is introduced and applied using a commercial finite element analysis software (COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. The experimental results were employed to validate the extracted simulation data based on the yields of the produced H2, CO2 and CO at different temperatures. A maximum hydrogen yield of 2.7 mol/mol-CH4 is achieved at 700 °C and S/C of 2 and 3. The stability of the 10%Ni/Al2O3 catalyst shows that the catalyst is prone to deactivation as supported by Thermogravimetric Analysis TGA results.

  14. Carbon and hydrogen isotope composition and C-14 concentration in methane from sources and from the atmosphere: Implications for a global methane budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlen, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: biogenic methane studies; forest soil methane uptake; rice field methane sources; atmospheric measurements; stratospheric samples; Antarctica; California; and Germany.

  15. An Eco-Friendly Improved Protocol for the Synthesis of Bis(3-indolyl)methanes Using Poly(4-vinylpyridinium)hydrogen Sulfate as Efficient, Heterogeneous, and Recyclable Solid Acid Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banothu, Janardhan; Gali, Rajitha; Velpula, Ravibabu; Bavantula, Rajitha; Crooks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Highly efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bis(3-indolyl)methanes by the electrophilic substitution reaction of indole with aldehydes catalyzed by poly(4-vinylpyridinium)hydrogen sulfate was described. Excellent yields, shorter reaction times, simple work-up procedure, avoiding hazardous organic solvents, and reusability of the catalyst are the most obvious advantages of this method. PMID:24052864

  16. Numerical analysis of hydrogen production via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor using concentrated solar irradiation as heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Tan, Jianyu; Shuai, Yong; Gong, Liang; Tan, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 production by hybrid solar energy and methane steam reforming is analyzed. • MCRT and FVM coupling method is used for chemical reaction in solar porous reactor. • LTNE model is used to study the solid phase and fluid phase thermal performance. • Modified P1 approximation programmed by UDFs is used for irradiative heat transfer. - Abstract: The calorific value of syngas can be greatly upgraded during the methane steam reforming process by using concentrated solar energy as heat source. In this study, the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) coupling method is developed to investigate the hydrogen production performance via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor which includes the mass, momentum, energy and irradiative transfer equations as well as chemical reaction kinetics. The local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model is used to provide more temperature information. The modified P1 approximation is adopted for solving the irradiative heat transfer equation. The MCRT method is used to calculate the sunlight concentration and transmission problems. The fluid phase energy equation and transport equations are solved by Fluent software. The solid phase energy equation, irradiative transfer equation and chemical reaction kinetics are programmed by user defined functions (UDFs). The numerical results indicate that concentrated solar irradiation on the fluid entrance surface of solar chemical reactor is highly uneven, and temperature distribution has significant influence on hydrogen production

  17. High-pressure raman study on single crystalline methane hydrate surrounded by methane in a diamond anvil cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Y; Sasaki, S; Kume, T; Shimizu, H

    2008-01-01

    High-pressure Raman measurements have been performed for single crystalline methane hydrate (MH) surrounded by fluid or solid methane in a diamond anvil cell. We successfully obtained the pure O-H stretching and lattice vibration spectra in MH-sI and MH-II phases. In these Raman spectra, there is no Raman band from water or ice-VI. The observed pressure of phase transformation from MH-sI to MH-II is 0.9 GPa, which is the same result as methane hydrate surrounded by water

  18. Permeation, diffusion and dissolution of hydrogen isotopes, methane and inert gases through/in a tetrafluoroethylene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, M.; Miyake, H.; Ashida, K.; Watanabe, K.

    1982-01-01

    Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) is widely used for conventional tritium handling systems such as vacuum seals, tubing and so on. We measured the permeation of the three hydrogen isotopes, methane and the inert gases through a TFE film at room temperature by means of the time-lag method in order to establish the physicochemical properties which determine the solubility and diffusivity of those gases. It was found that the diffusion constant of the inert gases changed exponentially with the heat of vaporization and the solubility was an exponential function of the Lennard-Jones force constant of the gases. On the other hand, hydrogen isotopes and methane deviated from these relations. It is concluded that chemical interactions between the solute and the solvent play an important role for the dissolution and the diffusion of these gases in TFE. (orig.)

  19. Methane accumulation and forming high saturations of methane hydrate in sandy sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T.; Waseda, A. [JAPEX Research Center, Chiba (Japan); Fujii, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Upstream Technology Unit

    2008-07-01

    Methane supplies for marine gas hydrates are commonly attributed to the microbial conversion of organic materials. This study hypothesized that methane supplies were related to pore water flow behaviours and microscopic migration in intergranular pore systems. Sedimentology and geochemistry analyses were performed on sandy core samples taken from the Nankai trough and the Mallik gas hydrate test site in the Mackenzie Delta. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of geologic and sedimentolic controls on the formation and preservation of natural gas hydrates. Grain size distribution curves indicated that gas hydrate saturations of up to 80 per cent in pore volume occurred throughout the hydrate-dominant sand layers in the Nankai trough and Mallik areas. Water permeability measurements showed that the highly gas hydrate-saturated sands have a permeability of a few millidarcies. Pore-space gas hydrates occurred primarily in fine and medium-grained sands. Core temperature depression, core observations, and laboratory analyses of the hydrates confirmed the pore-spaces as intergranular pore fillings. Results of the study suggested that concentrations of gas hydrates may require a pore space large enough to occur within a host sediments, and that the distribution of porous and coarser-grained sandy sediments is an important factor in controlling the occurrence of gas hydrates. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Shape and structural motifs control of MgTi bimetallic nanoparticles using hydrogen and methane as trace impurities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, Gopi; de Graaf, Sytze; ten Brink, Gert H.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report the influence of methane/hydrogen on the nucleation and formation of MgTi bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by gas phase synthesis. We show that a diverse variety of structural motifs can be obtained from MgTi alloy, TiCx/Mg/MgO, TiCx/MgO and TiHx/MgO core/shell NPs via

  1. Hydrogen production using thermocatalytic decomposition of methane on Ni30/activated carbon and Ni30/carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srilatha, K; Viditha, V; Srinivasulu, D; Ramakrishna, S U B; Himabindu, V

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen is an energy carrier of the future need. It could be produced from different sources and used for power generation or as a transport fuel which mainly in association with fuel cells. The primary challenge for hydrogen production is reducing the cost of production technologies to make the resulting hydrogen cost competitive with conventional fuels. Thermocatalytic decomposition (TCD) of methane is one of the most advantageous processes, which will meet the future demand, hence an attractive route for COx free environment. The present study deals with the production of hydrogen with 30 wt% of Ni impregnated in commercially available activated carbon and carbon black catalysts (samples coded as Ni30/AC and Ni30/CB, respectively). These combined catalysts were not attempted by previous studies. Pure form of hydrogen is produced at 850 °C and volume hourly space velocity (VHSV) of 1.62 L/h g on the activity of both the catalysts. The analysis (X-ray diffraction (XRD)) of the catalysts reveals moderately crystalline peaks of Ni, which might be responsible for the increase in catalytic life along with formation of carbon fibers. The activity of carbon black is sustainable for a longer time compared to that of activated carbon which has been confirmed by life time studies (850 °C and 54 sccm of methane).

  2. A comparative parametric study of a catalytic plate methane reformer coated with segmented and continuous layers of combustion catalyst for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhwa, Mayur; Parmar, Rajesh D.; Thurgood, Christopher P.

    2017-03-01

    A parametric comparison study is carried out between segmented and conventional continuous layer configurations of the coated combustion-catalyst to investigate their influence on the performance of methane steam reforming (MSR) for hydrogen production in a catalytic plate reactor (CPR). MSR is simulated on one side of a thin plate over a continuous layer of nickel-alumina catalyst by implementing an experimentally validated surface microkinetic model. Required thermal energy for the MSR reaction is supplied by simulating catalytic methane combustion (CMC) on the opposite side of the plate over segmented and continuous layer of a platinum-alumina catalyst by implementing power law rate model. The simulation results of both coating configurations of the combustion-catalyst are compared using the following parameters: (1) co-flow and counter-flow modes between CMC and MSR, (2) gas hourly space velocity and (3) reforming-catalyst thickness. The study explains why CPR designed with the segmented combustion-catalyst and co-flow mode shows superior performance not only in terms of high hydrogen production but also in terms of minimizing the maximum reactor plate temperature and thermal hot-spots. The study shows that the segmented coating requires 7% to 8% less combustion-side feed flow and 70% less combustion-catalyst to produce the required flow of hydrogen (29.80 mol/h) on the reforming-side to feed a 1 kW fuel-cell compared to the conventional continuous coating of the combustion-catalyst.

  3. Improving accuracy and precision of ice core δD(CH4 analyses using methane pre-pyrolysis and hydrogen post-pyrolysis trapping and subsequent chromatographic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bock

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Firn and polar ice cores offer the only direct palaeoatmospheric archive. Analyses of past greenhouse gas concentrations and their isotopic compositions in air bubbles in the ice can help to constrain changes in global biogeochemical cycles in the past. For the analysis of the hydrogen isotopic composition of methane (δD(CH4 or δ2H(CH4 0.5 to 1.5 kg of ice was hitherto used. Here we present a method to improve precision and reduce the sample amount for δD(CH4 measurements in (ice core air. Pre-concentrated methane is focused in front of a high temperature oven (pre-pyrolysis trapping, and molecular hydrogen formed by pyrolysis is trapped afterwards (post-pyrolysis trapping, both on a carbon-PLOT capillary at −196 °C. Argon, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, unpyrolysed methane and krypton are trapped together with H2 and must be separated using a second short, cooled chromatographic column to ensure accurate results. Pre- and post-pyrolysis trapping largely removes the isotopic fractionation induced during chromatographic separation and results in a narrow peak in the mass spectrometer. Air standards can be measured with a precision better than 1‰. For polar ice samples from glacial periods, we estimate a precision of 2.3‰ for 350 g of ice (or roughly 30 mL – at standard temperature and pressure (STP – of air with 350 ppb of methane. This corresponds to recent tropospheric air samples (about 1900 ppb CH4 of about 6 mL (STP or about 500 pmol of pure CH4.

  4. Hydrogen and Carbon Black Production from the Degradation of Methane by Thermal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Cottet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Methane gas (CH4 is the main inducer of the so called greenhouse gases effect. Recent scientific research aims to minimize the accumulation of this gas in the atmosphere and to develop processes capable of producing stable materials with added value. Thermal plasma technology is a promising alternative to these applications, since it allows obtaining H2 and solid carbon from CH4, without the parallel formation of byproducts such as CO2 and NOx. In this work, CH4 was degraded by thermal plasma in order to produce hydrogen (H2 and carbon black. The degradation efficiency of CH4, selectivity for H2 production as well as the characterization of carbon black were studied. The best results were obtained in the CH4 flow rate of 5 L min-1 the degradation percentage and the selectivity for H2 production reached 98.8 % and 48.4 %, respectively. At flow rates of less than 5 L min-1 the selectivity for H2 production increases and reaches 91.9 %. The carbon black has obtained amorphous with hydrophobic characteristics and can be marketed to be used in composite material, and can also be activated chemically and/or physically and used as adsorbent material.

  5. A Nanomesoporous Catalyst from Modified Red Mud and Its Application for Methane Decomposition to Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of nanomesoporous modified red mud (MRM catalyst was prepared and utilized for catalytic methane decomposition (CMD to produce hydrogen. The modification process significantly simplified the mineral composition of the red mud (RM; in the meantime, the physical and chemical structure of RM was changed. TEM images suggested that MRM was a kind of nanomesoporous material assembled by a number of uniformly nanoscale particles, BET results showed that the pore size distributions of MRM were ranged from 3 to 12 nm, and the specific surface area and total pore volumes of red mud improved from 8.00 m2/g and 0.08 cm3/g to 190.61 m2/g and 0.39 cm3/g, respectively. The catalytic performance of the catalysts has been tested at 800°C; the results showed that MRM exhibited much higher activity and stability than RM for CMD.

  6. Calorimetric Thermoelectric Gas Sensor for the Detection of Hydrogen, Methane and Mixed Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Hee Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel miniaturized calorimeter-type sensor device with a dual-catalyst structure was fabricated by integrating different catalysts on the hot (Pd/θ-Al2O3 and cold (Pt/α-Al2O3 ends of the device. The device comprises a calorimeter with a thermoelectric gas sensor (calorimetric-TGS, combining catalytic combustion and thermoelectric technologies. Its response for a model fuel gas of hydrogen and methane was investigated with various combustor catalyst compositions. The calorimetric-TGS devices detected H2, CH4, and a mixture of the two with concentrations ranging between 200 and 2000 ppm at temperatures of 100–400 °C, in terms of the calorie content of the gases. It was necessary to reduce the much higher response voltage of the TGS to H2 compared to CH4. We enhanced the H2 combustion on the cold side so that the temperature differences and response voltages to H2 were reduced. The device response to H2 combustion was reduced by 50% by controlling the Pt concentration in the Pt/α-Al2O3 catalyst on the cold side to 3 wt%.

  7. Hydrogen purification by selective methanation of CO in CO/CO2/H2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Mette; Johannessen, Tue; Livbjerg, Hans

    down through the reactor and inside the catalyst pellets/particles. The small particles, which have a rather high effectiveness factor with respect to methanation of CO, have a high CO selectivity, whereas the larger pellets have very low selectivity even at high CO inlet concentrations. Negative...... of reaction kinetics and pore diffusion is crucial for interpreting the experimental data. We have found that the selectivity decreases by increasing the reactor temperature or catalyst particle size and when the CO inlet concentration is reduced. As a result, the selectivity drops significantly...... in an integral reactor operating at high CO-conversion. The lower limit of CO concentration in the outlet is determined by the quasi-equilibrium between CO removal and CO production from CO2....

  8. Combinatorial and conventional studies on new highly selective methanation catalysts for the removal of small amounts of CO from hydrogen-rich gas mixtures; Kombinatorische und konventionelle Untersuchungen zu neuen hochselektiven Methanisierungskatalysatoren zur Entfernung geringer Mengen an CO aus wasserstoffreichen Gasgemischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, Michael

    2008-04-15

    New tailor-made catalysts for the purification of hydrogen-rich reformates by the selective methanation of CO were developed using combinatorial methods. The optimization of the catalysts was achieved within 3 or 4 generations while Ni-based oxides generally proved most promising. Conventional validations confirmed the successive enhancement of the materials. All in all, a number of catalysts providing higher CO hydrogenation activities combined with a lower reactivity towards the undesired methanation of the excess CO{sub 2} in comparison to an industrial reference was discovered. The application of numerous characterization techniques to the optimization sequence Ni{sub 100} - Zr{sub 10}Ni{sub 90} - Re{sub 2}Zr{sub 10}Ni{sub 88} - Re{sub 0,6}Zr{sub 15}Ni{sub 84,4} resulted in the following model: The catalysts are present in their as-prepared state as mixed metal oxide, which is (partly) demixed during the reductive pretreatment. The resulting (Re)Ni-particles seem to represent the actual active component while ZrO{sub 2} could stabilize the dispersion. Alloying with Ni, Re seems to modify the surface of the catalyst in such a way that it only marginally interacts with CO{sub 2}. Solo methanation tests unambiguously reveal that the increase in selectivity is not connected to a competition between CO and CO{sub 2} for adsorption sites but is based on a loss of the intrinsic reactivity of the respective samples towards the methanation of CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  9. Optimization of separate hydrogen and methane production from cassava wastewater using two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) system under thermophilic operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intanoo, Patcharee; Rangsanvigit, Pramoch; Malakul, Pomthong; Chavadej, Sumaeth

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the separate hydrogen and methane productions from cassava wastewater by using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under thermophilic operation. Recycle ratio of the effluent from methane bioreactor-to-feed flow rate was fixed at 1:1 and pH of hydrogen UASB unit was maintained at 5.5. At optimum COD loading rate of 90 kg/m3 d based on the feed COD load and hydrogen UASB volume, the produced gas from the hydrogen UASB unit mainly contained H2 and CO2 which provided the maximum hydrogen yield (54.22 ml H2/g COD applied) and specific hydrogen production rate (197.17 ml/g MLVSSd). At the same optimum COD loading rate, the produced gas from the methane UASB unit mainly contained CH4 and CO2 without H2 which were also consistent with the maximum methane yield (164.87 ml CH4/g COD applied) and specific methane production rate (356.31 ml CH4/g MLVSSd). The recycling operation minimized the use of NaOH for pH control in hydrogen UASB unit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of bacterial methane and its formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, A.; Wada, E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic incubations of paddy soil collected from Konosu, Japan, were carried out for 10 weeks to clarify the general principles that govern the variation of carbon isotopic composition of bacterial methane from freshwater areas. The δ 13 C value of produced CH 4 was highly variable ranging from -60 to -33%, corresponding to change in its formation pathways: acetate fermentation and CO 2 /H 2 reduction. The δ 13 C value of CH 4 from CO 2 /H 2 was estimated as -77 to -60%, adopting 45% of δ 13 C difference between the CH 4 and its source CO 2 . The δ 13 C value of methyl carbon of acetate accumulated with addition of inhibitor for methanogenesis ranged from -43 to -30%, which was considered with the δ 13 C value of CH 4 from acetate. Variability of CH 4 δ 13 C resulted from the difference in contribution of each biological process. It was demonstrated that δ 13 C value of methane was a useful indicator for assessing the contribution of each process in wetlands and paddy fields. (author)

  11. High efficiency atomic hydrogen source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagomarsino, V.; Bassi, D.; Bertok, E.; De Paz, M.; Tommasini, F.

    1974-01-01

    This work presents preliminary results of research intended to produce a M.W. discharge atomic hydrogen source with good dissociation at pressures larger than 10 torr. Analysis of the recombination process at these pressures shows that the volume recombination by three body collisions may be more important than wall recombination or loss of atoms by diffusion and flow outside the discharge region

  12. Circulating fluidized bed reformer-regenerator system for hydrogen production from methane. Paper no. IGEC-1-092

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, P.; Elnashaie, S.S.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Steam reforming is presently the principal route for large-scale hydrogen production from natural gas. This paper proposes a novel concept of a reactor-regenerator type circulating fluidized bed (Prasad and Elnashaie, 2002) for efficient production of hydrogen. Carbon is optimally allowed to form on the catalyst in the reactor section through methane cracking and Boudouard coking reactions, and the deactivated catalyst is regenerated in the regenerator by burning off the carbon. This concept of carbon formation and burning cannot be used in a fixed bed configuration but is possible in the proposed novel Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) configuration, which employs a reactor-regenerator type of configuration. Allowing both carbon formation and steam reforming to occur simultaneously by introducing steam as part of the feed, gives more than 3 moles hydrogen per mole of methane at almost zero energy consumption. The steam can be fed as water at room temperature, and the hot catalyst returning from the regenerator can be used to vaporize it into steam. This route is the most efficient from both hydrogen yield and energy consumption points of view. This CFB configuration exhibits the bifurcation behavior and the present paper reports an investigation of its static bifurcation characteristics through a rigorous mathematical model. (author)

  13. Effect of hydrogen addition on burning rate and surface density of turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, H.; Tayebi, B.; Galizzi, C.; Escudie, D.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen (H 2 ) is a clean burning component, but relatively expensive. Mixing a small amount of hydrogen with other fuels is an effective way to use H 2 . H 2 enriched combustion significantly improves fuel efficiency and reduces pollutant (nitrogen oxide and particulate matter) emissions. This presentation discussed the effect of hydrogen addition on burning rate and surface density of turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames. The presentation discussed flame configuration; the experimental methodology using laser tomography; and results for typical images, burning velocity, ratio of turbulent to laminar burning velocities, flame surface density, curvature, flame brush thickness, and integrated flame surface area. It was concluded that the increase of turbulent burning velocity was faster than that of laminar burning velocity, which contradicted traditional theory. figs.

  14. Methane- and Hydrogen-Influenced Microbial Communities in Hydrothermal Plumes above the Atlantis Massif, Mid Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C. L.; Schrenk, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems associated with slow-spreading mid ocean ridges emit copious amounts of hydrogen and methane into the deep-sea, generated through a process known as serpentinization. Hydrothermal plumes carrying the reduced products of water-rock interaction dissipate and mix with deep seawater, and potentially harbor microbial communities adapted to these conditions. Methane and hydrogen enriched hydrothermal plumes were sampled from 3 sites near the Atlantis Massif (30°N, Mid Atlantic Ridge) during IODP Expedition 357 and used to initiate cultivation experiments targeting methanotrophic and hydrogenotrophic microorganisms. One set of experiments incubated the cultures at in situ hydrostatic pressures and gas concentrations resulting in the enrichment of gammaproteobacterial assemblages, including Marinobacter spp. That may be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. A second set of experiments pursued the anaerobic enrichment of microbial communities on solid media, resulting in the enrichment of alphaproteobacteria related to Ruegeria. The most prodigious growth in both case occurred in methane-enriched media, which may play a role as both an energy and carbon source. Ongoing work is evaluating the physiological characteristics of these isolates, including their metabolic outputs under different physical-chemical conditions. In addition to providing novel isolates from hydrothermal habitats near the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, these experiments will provide insight into the ecology of microbial communities from serpentinization influenced hydrothermal systems that may aid in future exploration of these sites.

  15. Characterisation of water hyacinth with microwave-heated alkali pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and hydrogen/methane fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Song, Wenlu; Ding, Lingkan; Xie, Binfei; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-04-01

    Microwave-heated alkali pretreatment (MAP) was investigated to improve enzymatic digestibility and H2/CH4 production from water hyacinth. SEM revealed that MAP deconstructed the lignocellulose matrix and swelled the surfaces of water hyacinth. XRD indicated that MAP decreased the crystallinity index from 16.0 to 13.0 because of cellulose amorphisation. FTIR indicated that MAP effectively destroyed the lignin structure and disrupted the crystalline cellulose to reduce crystallinity. The reducing sugar yield of 0.296 g/gTVS was achieved at optimal hydrolysis conditions (microwave temperature = 190°C, time = 10 min, and cellulase dosage = 5 wt%). The sequentially fermentative hydrogen and methane yields from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis were increased to 63.9 and 172.5 mL/gTVS, respectively. The energy conversion efficiency (40.0%) in the two-stage hydrogen and methane cogeneration was lower than that (49.5%) in the one-stage methane production (237.4 mL/gTVS) from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of hydrogen from organic waste via hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, M.; Davis, B.R.; Roy, A.; Daugulis, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an integrated process is proposed that converts organic waste to hydrogen via hydrogen sulphide. The designed bioreactor has achieved high volumetric productivities comparable to methanogenic bioreactors. Proposed process has advantages of bio-methane production and is more resilient to process upset. Thermochemical conversion of hydrogen sulphide to hydrogen is exothermic and also requires smaller plant infrastructure

  17. Performance and microbial community analysis of two-stage process with extreme thermophilic hydrogen and thermophilic methane production from hydrolysate in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongjan, Prawit; O-Thong, Sompong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    The two-stage process for extreme thermophilic hydrogen and thermophilic methane production from wheat straw hydrolysate was investigated in up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. Specific hydrogen and methane yields of 89ml-H2/g-VS (190ml-H2/g-sugars) and 307ml-CH4/g-VS, respectively were...... energy of 13.4kJ/g-VS. Dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria in the H2-UASB reactor were Thermoanaerobacter wiegelii, Caldanaerobacter subteraneus, and Caloramator fervidus. Meanwhile, the CH4-UASB reactor was dominated with methanogens of Methanosarcina mazei and Methanothermobacter defluvii. The results...

  18. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of mixed waste streams to separate generation of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Horam, N.J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the net energy potential of single stage mesophilic reactor and two phase mesophilic reactor (hydrogeniser followed by methaniser) using the mix of process industrial food waste (IFW) and sewage sludge (SS). Two-phase reactor efficiency was analysed based on individual optimum influent/environmental (C:N and pH) and reactor/engineering (HRT and OLR) conditions achieved using the batch and continuous reactor study for the hydrogen and methane. Optimum C:N 20 and pH 5.5{+-}0.5 was observed using the Bio-H{sub 2} potential (BHP) and C:N 15 and pH 6.5{+-}0.3 for the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. The maximum hydrogen content of 47% (v/v) was achieved using OLR 6 g VS/L/d and HRT of 5 days. Increase in hydrogen yield was noticed with consistent decrease in OLR. The volatile solids (VS) removal and hydrogen yield was observed in range 41.3 to 47% and 112.3 to 146.7 mL/ gVS{sub removed}. The specific hydrogen production rate improved at low OLR, 0.2 to 0.4 L/(L.d) using OLR 7.1 and 6 g VS/L/d respectively was well corroborated comparable to previous reported results at OLR 6 gVS/L/d using the enriched carbohydrate waste stream in particular to food wastes. A significant increase in VFA concentrations were noticed shifting OLR higher from 6 g VS/L/d thereby unbalancing the reactor pH and the biogas yield respectively. In similar, maximum methane content of 70% (v/v) was achieved using OLR of 3.3 gVS/L/d and HRT of 10 days. Slight decrease in methane content was noticed thereby increasing HRT to 12 and 15 days respectively. The volatile solids (VS) removal and specific methane production rate was observed in range 57.6 to 68.7 and 0.22 to 1.19 L/(L.d). The specific methane production potential improved thereby reducing the HRT and optimum yield was recorded as 476.6 mL/gVS{sub removed} using OLR 3.3 gVS/L/d. The energy potential of optimum condition in single stage hydorgeniser is 2.27 MW/tonne VS{sub fed}. Using the

  19. Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Methane from Sugar Beet Molasses in a Two Phase Anaerobic Digestion System in UASB Reactors under Thermophilic Temperature (55 Deg C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongjan, P.; Villafa, S.; Beltran, P.; Min, B.; Angelidaki, I. (Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark, DK-2800, Lyngby (Denmark)). e-mail: pak@env.dtu.dk

    2008-10-15

    Simultaneous production of hydrogen and methane in two sequential stages of acidogenic and methanogenic step was investigated in two serial operated up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors at thermophilic temperature (55 deg C). Hydrogen production from molasses was carried out in the first reactor at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. Molasses were converted into hydrogen with the yield of 1.3 mole-H{sub 2}/mole-hexose{sub added} or 82.7 ml- H{sub 2}/g-VS{sub added} of molasses, and the hydrogen productivity was 2696 ml-H{sub 2}/dxl{sub reactor}. The effluent (mainly butyrate, acetate and lactate) after the acidogenic process was subsequently fed to the second reactor for methane production at HRT of 3 days. Methane production yield of 255 ml-H{sub 2}/g-VS{sub added} of influent or 130.1 ml-H{sub 2}/g-VS{sub added} of molasses and methane production rate of 1056 ml/dxl{sub reactor} were obtained. Significant decrease of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was also observed in the effluent of the second reactor. A two phase anaerobic digestion was successfully demonstrated for molasses as a potential substrate to produce hydrogen and subsequent methane in the UASB reactors

  20. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  1. High-temperature measurements of methane and acetylene using quantum cascade laser absorption near 8 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M.B.; Javed, T.; Farooq, A.

    2015-01-01

    The mid-infrared wavelength region near 8 μm contains absorption bands of several molecules such as water vapor, hydrogen peroxide, nitrous oxide, methane and acetylene. A new laser absorption sensor based on the ν 4 band of methane and the ν 4 +ν 5 band of acetylene is reported for interference-free, time-resolved measurements under combustion-relevant conditions. A detailed line-selection procedure was used to identify optimum transitions. Methane and acetylene were measured at the line centers of Q12 (1303.5 cm −1 ) and P23 (1275.5 cm −1 ) transitions, respectively. High-temperature absorption cross sections of methane and acetylene were measured at peaks (on-line) and valleys (off-line) of the selected absorption transitions. The differential absorption strategy was employed to eliminate interference absorption from large hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed behind reflected shock waves over a temperature range of 1200–2200 K, between pressures of 1–4 atm. The diagnostics were then applied to measure the respective species time-history profiles during the shock-heated pyrolysis of n-pentane. - Highlights: • Methane measured at the peak of Q(12) transition in the ν 4 band. • Acetylene measured at the peak of P(23) transition in the ν 4 +ν 5 band. • Differential absorption strategy employed to eliminate broadband interference absorption. • Absorption cross-sections measured over 1200–2200 K and 1–4 atm. • Methane and acetylene time-histories measured during the pyrolysis of n-pentane

  2. Ruthenium-platinum bimetallic catalysts supported on silica: characterization and study of benzene hydrogenation and CO methanation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, D.K.; Rao, K.M.; Sundararaman, N.; Chandavar, K.

    1986-12-15

    Ru-Pt/SiO/sub 2/ bimetallic catalysts with varying Ru:Pt ratio have been prepared and studied with the aim to establish if they contain coclusters or isolated ruthenium and platinum particles. X-ray diffraction studies show that individual crystallites of ruthenium and platinum are present and no coclusters are formed. Metal dispersion has been determined by hydrogen chemisorption and surface composition of the catalysts has been obtained from XPS. It was found that preoxidation of the catalysts prior to reduction is essential for good platinum dispersion. The experimental turnover number (TN) for benzene hydrogenation on the bimetallic catalysts agrees very well with that of the weighted average on the individual metal catalysts and this may be taken as a kinetic evidence for the absence of coclusters. Carbon monoxide methanation activity of the bimetallic catalysts is quite similar to that of the supported platinum catalyst. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Observation of Binding and Rotation of Methane and Hydrogen within a Functional Metal–Organic Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Savage, Mathew

    2016-07-27

    The key requirement for a portable store of natural gas is to maximize the amount of gas within the smallest possible space. The packing of methane (CH4) in a given storage medium at the highest possible density is, therefore, a highly desirable but challenging target. We report a microporous hydroxyl-decorated material, MFM-300(In) (MFM = Manchester Framework Material, replacing the NOTT designation), which displays a high volumetric uptake of 202 v/v at 298 K and 35 bar for CH4 and 488 v/v at 77 K and 20 bar for H2. Direct observation and quantification of the location, binding, and rotational modes of adsorbed CH4 and H2 molecules within this host have been achieved, using neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering experiments, coupled with density functional theory (DFT) modeling. These complementary techniques reveal a very efficient packing of H2 and CH4 molecules within MFM-300(In), reminiscent of the condensed gas in pure component crystalline solids. We also report here, for the first time, the experimental observation of a direct binding interaction between adsorbed CH4 molecules and the hydroxyl groups within the pore of a material. This is different from the arrangement found in CH4/water clathrates, the CH4 store of nature.

  4. Observation of Binding and Rotation of Methane and Hydrogen within a Functional Metal–Organic Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Savage, Mathew; da Silva, Ivan; Johnson, Mark; Carter, Joseph H.; Newby, Ruth; Suetin, Mikhail; Besley, Elena; Manuel, Pascal; Rudić, Svemir; Fitch, Andrew N.; Murray, Claire; David, William I. F.; Yang, Sihai; Schrö der, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The key requirement for a portable store of natural gas is to maximize the amount of gas within the smallest possible space. The packing of methane (CH4) in a given storage medium at the highest possible density is, therefore, a highly desirable but challenging target. We report a microporous hydroxyl-decorated material, MFM-300(In) (MFM = Manchester Framework Material, replacing the NOTT designation), which displays a high volumetric uptake of 202 v/v at 298 K and 35 bar for CH4 and 488 v/v at 77 K and 20 bar for H2. Direct observation and quantification of the location, binding, and rotational modes of adsorbed CH4 and H2 molecules within this host have been achieved, using neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering experiments, coupled with density functional theory (DFT) modeling. These complementary techniques reveal a very efficient packing of H2 and CH4 molecules within MFM-300(In), reminiscent of the condensed gas in pure component crystalline solids. We also report here, for the first time, the experimental observation of a direct binding interaction between adsorbed CH4 molecules and the hydroxyl groups within the pore of a material. This is different from the arrangement found in CH4/water clathrates, the CH4 store of nature.

  5. Hydrogen and methane generation from large hydraulic plant: Thermo-economic multi-level time-dependent optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarolo, M.; Magistri, L.; Massardo, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate H 2 and CH 4 production from very large hydraulic plant (14 GW). • We employ only “spilled energy”, not used by hydraulic plant, for H 2 production. • We consider the integration with energy taken from the grid at different prices. • We consider hydrogen conversion in chemical reactors to produce methane. • We find plants optimal size using a time-dependent thermo-economic approach. - Abstract: This paper investigates hydrogen and methane generation from large hydraulic plant, using an original multilevel thermo-economic optimization approach developed by the authors. Hydrogen is produced by water electrolysis employing time-dependent hydraulic energy related to the water which is not normally used by the plant, known as “spilled water electricity”. Both the demand for spilled energy and the electrical grid load vary widely by time of year, therefore a time-dependent hour-by-hour one complete year analysis has been carried out, in order to define the optimal plant size. This time period analysis is necessary to take into account spilled energy and electrical load profiles variability during the year. The hydrogen generation plant is based on 1 MWe water electrolysers fuelled with the “spilled water electricity”, when available; in the remaining periods, in order to assure a regular H 2 production, the energy is taken from the electrical grid, at higher cost. To perform the production plant size optimization, two hierarchical levels have been considered over a one year time period, in order to minimize capital and variable costs. After the optimization of the hydrogen production plant size, a further analysis is carried out, with a view to converting the produced H 2 into methane in a chemical reactor, starting from H 2 and CO 2 which is obtained with CCS plants and/or carried by ships. For this plant, the optimal electrolysers and chemical reactors system size is defined. For both of the two solutions, thermo

  6. De-oxygenation of CO2 by using Hydrogen, Carbon and Methane over Alumina-Supported Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Y. Raskar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The de-oxygenation of CO2 was explored by using hydrogen, methane, carbon etc., over alumina supported catalysts. The alumina-supported ruthenium, rhodium, platinum, molybdenum, vanadium and magnesium catalysts were first reduced in hydrogen atmosphere and then used for the de-oxygenation of CO2. Furthermore, experimental variables for the de-oxygenation of CO2 were temperature (range 50 to 650 oC, H2/CO2 mole ratios (1.0 to 5, and catalyst loading (0.5 to 10 wt %. During the de-oxygenation of CO2 with H2 or CH4 or carbon, conversion of CO2, selectivity to CO and CH4 were estimated. Moreover, 25.4 % conversion of CO2 by hydrogen was observed over 1 wt% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at 650 oC with 33.8 % selectivity to CH4. However, 8.1 to 13.9 % conversion of CO2 was observed over 1 wt% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at 550 oC in the presence of both H2 and CH4. Moreover, 42.8 to 79.4 % CH4 was converted with 9 to 23.1 % selectivity to CO. It was observed that the de-oxygenation of CO2 by hydrogen, carbon and methane produced carbon, CO and CH4. © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th February 2012; Revised: 23rd April 2012; Accepted: 24th April 2012[How to Cite: R. Y. Raskar, K. B. Kale, A. G. Gaikwad. (2011. De-oxygenation of CO2 by using Hydrogen, Carbon and Methane over Alumina-Supported Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 59-69.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1631.59-69][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1631.59-69 ] | View in 

  7. Adsorbed Carbon Formation and Carbon Hydrogenation for CO_2 Methanation on the Ni(111) Surface: ASED-MO Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Sang Joon; Kang, Hae Jin; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sung Bae; Park, Dong Ho; Huh, Do Sung

    2005-01-01

    Using the ASED-MO (Atom Superposition and Electron Delocalization-Molecular Orbital) theory, we investigated carbon formation and carbon hydrogenation for CO_2 methanation on the Ni (111) surface. For carbon formation mechanism, we calculated the following activation energies, 1.27 eV for CO_2 dissociation, 2.97 eV for the CO, 1.93 eV for 2CO dissociation, respectively. For carbon methanation mechanism, we also calculated the following activation energies, 0.72 eV for methylidyne, 0.52 eV for methylene and 0.50 eV for methane, respectively. We found that the calculated activation energy of CO dissociation is higher than that of 2CO dissociation on the clean surface and base on these results that the CO dissociation step are the ratedetermining of the process. The C-H bond lengths of CH_4 the intermediate complex are 1.21 A, 1.31 A for the C···H_(_1_), and 2.82 A for the height, with angles of 105 .deg. for H_(_1_)CH and 98 .deg. for H_(_1_)CH_(_1_)

  8. Effect of oxygen and hydrogen on microstructure of pyrolytic carbon deposited from thermal decomposition of methane and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Biyun; Zhang, Shouyang; He, LiQun; Gu, Shengyue

    2018-05-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is the most extensive industrial preparation of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. Precursor affects the CVI process considerably. In the present study, using carbon fiber bundles as preforms, methane and ethanol as precursors, the C/C composites were densified by decomposition of various gases in CVI. The thickness and texture of deposited pyrolytic carbon (PyC) were characterized by polarized light microscopy (PLM). The microstructure of PyC was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The morphologies of PyC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of PyC was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adding hydrogen in methane precursor resulted in a sharp decrease in the deposition rate and texture of PyC. Mixture of methane and ethanol as the precursor improved the deposition rate and texture remarkably. Besides, O element in ethanol was not remained as a constitution of PyC, and it was removed before the formation of PyC.

  9. A Novel Framework for Quantifying past Methane Recycling by Sphagnum-Methanotroph Symbiosis Using Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Ratios of Leaf Wax Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jonathan E.; Isles, Peter D. F.; Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of atmospheric methane is strongly linked to variations in Earth's climate. Currently, we can directly reconstruct the total atmospheric concentration of methane, but not individual terms of the methane cycle. Northern wetlands, dominated by Sphagnum, are an important contributor of atmospheric methane, and we seek to understand the methane cycle in these systems. We present a novel method for quantifying the proportion of carbon Sphagnum assimilates from its methanotrophic symbionts using stable isotope ratios of leaf-wax biomarkers. Carbon isotope ratios of Sphagnum compounds are determined by two competing influences, water content and the isotope ratio of source carbon. We disentangled these effects using a combined hydrogen and carbon isotope approach. We constrained Sphagnum water content using the contrast between the hydrogen isotope ratios of Sphagnum and vascular plant biomarkers. We then used Sphagnum water content to calculate the carbon isotope ratio of Sphagnum's carbon pool. Using a mass balance equation, we calculated the proportion of recycled methane contributed to the Sphagnum carbon pool, 'PRM.' We quantified PRM in peat monoliths from three microhabitats in the Mer Bleue peatland complex. Modern studies have shown that water table depth and vegetation have strong influences on the peatland methane cycle on instrumental time scales. With this new approach, delta C-13 of Sphagnum compounds are now a useful tool for investigating the relationships among hydrology, vegetation, and methanotrophy in Sphagnum peatlands over the time scales of entire peatland sediment records, vital to our understanding of the global carbon cycle through the Late Glacial and Holocene.

  10. High-temperature measurements of methane and acetylene using quantum cascade laser absorption near 8μm

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, M.B.

    2015-04-01

    The mid-infrared wavelength region near 8 mu m contains absorption bands of several molecules such as water vapor, hydrogen peroxide, nitrous oxide, methane and acetylene. A new laser absorption sensor based on the v(4) band of methane and the v(4)+v(5) band of acetylene is reported for interference-free, time-resolved measurements under combustion-relevant conditions. A detailed line-selection procedure was used to identify optimum transitions. Methane and acetylene were measured at the line centers of Q12 (1303.5 cm(-1)) and P23 (1275.5 cm(-1)) transitions, respectively. High-temperature absorption cross sections of methane and acetylene were measured at peaks (on-line) and valleys (off-line) of the selected absorption transitions. The differential absorption strategy was employed to eliminate interference absorption from large hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed behind reflected shock waves over a temperature range of 1200-2200 K, between pressures of 1-4 atm. The diagnostics were then applied to measure the respective species time-history profiles during the shock-heated pyrolysis of n-pentane. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a 'hydrogen economy.' The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  12. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  13. Development of methane conversion improvement method by recycling of residual methane for steam reforming as a part of R and D of HTGR-hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Hino, Ryutaro; Koiso, Hiroshi.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to improve methane conversion for an HTGR-steam reforming system by recycling of residual methane. The residual methane in a product gas after steam reforming was recycled with a gas separator of polyimide membrane. Gas separation characteristics of the separator were investigated experimentally and numerically, and an experimental study on recycling system was carried out. The results showed that the recycling system improves apparent methane conversion, ratio of methane conversion to methane supply from a cylinder, from 20 to 32% compared with those without recycling. (author)

  14. Fe catalysts for methane decomposition to produce hydrogen and carbon nano materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu; Enakonda, Linga Reddy; Harb, Moussab; Saih, Youssef; Aguilar Tapia, Antonio; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Hazemann, Jean-louis; Li, Jun; Wei, Nini; Gary, Daniel; Del-Gallo, Pascal; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Conducting catalytic methane decomposition over Fe catalysts is a green and economic route to produce H2 without CO/CO2 contamination. Fused 65wt% and impregnated 20wt% Fe catalysts were synthesized with different additives to investigate their activity, whereas showing Fe-Al2O3 combination as the best catalyst. Al2O3 is speculated to expose more Fe00 for the selective deposition of carbon nano tubes (CNTs). A fused Fe (65wt%)-Al2O3 sample was further investigated by means of H2-TPR, in-situ XRD, HRTEM and XAS to conclude 750°C is the optimized temperature for H2 pre-reduction and reaction to obtain a high activity. Based on density functional theory (DFT) study, a reaction mechanism over Fe catalysts was proposed to explain the formation of graphite from unstable supersaturated iron carbides decomposition. A carbon deposition model was further proposed which explains the formation of different carbon nano materials.

  15. Fe catalysts for methane decomposition to produce hydrogen and carbon nano materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2017-02-21

    Conducting catalytic methane decomposition over Fe catalysts is a green and economic route to produce H2 without CO/CO2 contamination. Fused 65wt% and impregnated 20wt% Fe catalysts were synthesized with different additives to investigate their activity, whereas showing Fe-Al2O3 combination as the best catalyst. Al2O3 is speculated to expose more Fe00 for the selective deposition of carbon nano tubes (CNTs). A fused Fe (65wt%)-Al2O3 sample was further investigated by means of H2-TPR, in-situ XRD, HRTEM and XAS to conclude 750°C is the optimized temperature for H2 pre-reduction and reaction to obtain a high activity. Based on density functional theory (DFT) study, a reaction mechanism over Fe catalysts was proposed to explain the formation of graphite from unstable supersaturated iron carbides decomposition. A carbon deposition model was further proposed which explains the formation of different carbon nano materials.

  16. Ni/Ce-MCM-41 mesostructured catalysts for simultaneous production of hydrogen and nanocarbon via methane decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, J.C.; Wang, J.A.; Chen, L.F.; Valenzuela, M.A. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Col. Zacatenco, Av. Politecnico s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico); Garcia-Ruiz, A. [UPIICSA, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Te 950 Col. Granjas-Mexico, 08400 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Toledo, J.A.; Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C. [Programa de Molecular Ingenieria, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Novaro, O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-04-15

    For the first time, simultaneous production of hydrogen and nanocarbon via catalytic decomposition of methane over Ni-loaded mesoporous Ce-MCM-41 catalysts was investigated. The catalytic performance of the Ni/Ce-MCM-41 catalysts is very stable and the reaction activity remained almost unchanged during 1400 min steam on time at temperatures 540, 560 and 580 C, respectively. The methane conversion level over these catalysts reached 60-75% with a 100% selectivity towards hydrogen. TEM observations revealed that most of the Ni particles located on the tip of the carbon nanofibers/nanotubes in the used catalysts, keeping their exposed surface clean during the test and thus remaining active for continuous reaction without obvious deactivation. Two kinds of carbon materials, graphitic carbon (C{sub g}) as major and amorphous carbon (C{sub A}) as minor were produced in the reaction, as confirmed by XRD analysis and TEM observations. Carbon nanofibers/nanotubes had an average diameter of approximately 30-50 nm and tens micrometers in length, depending on the reaction temperature, reaction time and Ni particle diameter. Four types of carbon nanofibers/nanotubes were detected and their formations greatly depend on the reaction temperature, time on steam and degree of the interaction between the metallic Ni and support. The respective mechanisms of the formation of nanocarbons were postulated and discussed. (author)

  17. Analysis of hydrogen and methane in seawater by "Headspace" method: Determination at trace level with an automatic headspace sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donval, J P; Guyader, V

    2017-01-01

    "Headspace" technique is one of the methods for the onboard measurement of hydrogen (H 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) in deep seawater. Based on the principle of an automatic headspace commercial sampler, a specific device has been developed to automatically inject gas samples from 300ml syringes (gas phase in equilibrium with seawater). As valves, micro pump, oven and detector are independent, a gas chromatograph is not necessary allowing a reduction of the weight and dimensions of the analytical system. The different steps from seawater sampling to gas injection are described. Accuracy of the method is checked by a comparison with the "purge and trap" technique. The detection limit is estimated to 0.3nM for hydrogen and 0.1nM for methane which is close to the background value in deep seawater. It is also shown that this system can be used to analyze other gases such as Nitrogen (N 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and light hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of CO-rich Hydrogen Gas from Methane Dry Reforming over Co/CeO2 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele V. Ayodele

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Production of CO-rich hydrogen gas from methane dry reforming was investigated over CeO2-supported Co catalyst. The catalyst was synthesized by wet impregnation and subsequently characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, liquid N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA for the structure, surface and thermal properties. The catalytic activity test of the Co/CeO2 was investigated between 923-1023 K under reaction conditions in a stainless steel fixed bed reactor. The composition of the products (CO2 and H2 from the methane dry reforming reaction was measured by gas chromatography (GC coupled with thermal conductivity detector (TCD. The effects of feed ratios and reaction temperatures were investigated on the catalytic activity toward product selectivity, yield, and syngas ratio. Significantly, the selectivity and yield of both H2 and CO increases with feed ratio and temperature. However, the catalyst shows higher activity towards CO selectivity. The highest H2 and CO selectivity of 19.56% and 20.95% respectively were obtained at 1023 K while the highest yield of 41.98% and 38.05% were recorded for H2 and CO under the same condition. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 21st January 2016; Revised: 23rd February 2016; Accepted: 23rd February 2016 How to Cite: Ayodele, B.V., Khan, M.R., Cheng, C. K. (2016. Production of CO-rich Hydrogen Gas from Methane Dry Reforming over Co/CeO2 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 210-219 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.552.210-219 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.552.210-219

  19. Studies of the use of high-temperature nuclear heat from an HTGR for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, D. D.; Fontaine, R. W.; Quade, R. N.; Halvers, L. J.; Jahromi, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study which surveyed various methods of hydrogen production using nuclear and fossil energy are presented. A description of these methods is provided, and efficiencies are calculated for each case. The process designs of systems that utilize the heat from a general atomic high temperature gas cooled reactor with a steam methane reformer and feed the reformer with substitute natural gas manufactured from coal, using reforming temperatures, are presented. The capital costs for these systems and the resultant hydrogen production price for these cases are discussed along with a research and development program.

  20. Studies of the use of high-temperature nuclear heat from an HTGR for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, D.D.; Fontaine, R.W.; Quade, R.N.; Halvers, L.J.; Jahromi, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study which surveyed various methods of hydrogen production using nuclear and fossil energy are presented. A description of these methods is provided, and efficiencies are calculated for each case. The process designs of systems that utilize the heat from a general atomic high temperature gas cooled reactor with a steam methane reformer and feed the reformer with substitute natural gas manufactured from coal, using reforming temperatures, are presented. The capital costs for these systems and the resultant hydrogen production price for these cases are discussed along with a research and development program

  1. Hydrogen production by dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide in one-dimensional nickel-based catalysts; Produccion de hidrogeno mediante el reformado seco de metano con dioxido de carbono en catalizadores unidimensionales a base de niquel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez U, A. C.

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis is development of nickel catalysts supported over 1D matrix of cerium oxide, to be used in dry reforming methane reaction with carbon dioxide for hydrogen production. The catalysts were characterized by: Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (Sem), Surface Area (Bet method) an X Ray Diffraction (XRD). The TPR technique allowed to define reduction temperature of the active phase in the catalyst, Sem technique showed that the CeO{sub 2} matrix had a nano rod morphology. XRD allowed to identify the crystalline phases of the catalysts. Finally, the catalysts were tested in the dry reforming methane reaction, high catalytic activity and hydrogen production were performed at 700 degrees Celsius and the catalyst with 30 wt.% of nickel. (Author)

  2. High-temperature measurements of methane and acetylene using quantum cascade laser absorption near 8μm

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, M.B.; Javed, Tamour; Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    The mid-infrared wavelength region near 8 mu m contains absorption bands of several molecules such as water vapor, hydrogen peroxide, nitrous oxide, methane and acetylene. A new laser absorption sensor based on the v(4) band of methane and the v(4

  3. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of methane and C2+ alkanes in electrical spark discharge: implications for identifying sources of hydrocarbons in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, Jon; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    The low-molecular-weight alkanes--methane, ethane, propane, and butane--are found in a wide range of terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings. The development of robust criteria for distinguishing abiogenic from biogenic alkanes is essential for current investigations of Mars' atmosphere and for future exobiology missions to other planets and moons. Here, we show that alkanes synthesized during gas-phase radical recombination reactions in electrical discharge experiments have values of δ(2)H(methane)>δ(2)H(ethane)>δ(2)H(propane), similar to those of the carbon isotopes. The distribution of hydrogen isotopes in gas-phase radical reactions is likely due to kinetic fractionations either (i) from the preferential incorporation of (1)H into longer-chain alkanes due to the more rapid rate of collisions of the smaller (1)H-containing molecules or (ii) by secondary ion effects. Similar δ(13)C(C1-C2+) and δ(2)H(C1-C2+) patterns may be expected in a range of extraterrestrial environments where gas-phase radical reactions dominate, including interstellar space, the atmosphere and liquid hydrocarbon lakes of Saturn's moon Titan, and the outer atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus. Radical recombination reactions at high temperatures and pressures may provide an explanation for the combined reversed δ(13)C(C1-C2+) and δ(2)H(C1-C2+) patterns of terrestrial alkanes documented at a number of high-temperature/pressure crustal sites.

  4. Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production: A thermodynamic energy balance of a model system to demonstrate net energy feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babson, David M.; Bellman, Karen; Prakash, Shaurya; Fennell, Donna E.

    2013-01-01

    During anaerobic digestion, organic matter is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, and organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia. Generally, ammonia is recycled as a fertilizer or removed via nitrification–denitrification in treatment systems; alternatively it could be recovered and catalytically converted to hydrogen, thus supplying additional fuel. To provide a basis for further investigation, a theoretical energy balance for a model system that incorporates anaerobic digestion, ammonia separation and recovery, and conversion of the ammonia to hydrogen is reported. The model Anaerobic Digestion-Bioammonia to Hydrogen (ADBH) system energy demands including heating, pumping, mixing, and ammonia reforming were subtracted from the total energy output from methane and hydrogen to create an overall energy balance. The energy balance was examined for the ADBH system operating with a fixed feedstock loading rate with C:N ratios (gC/gN) ranging from 136 to 3 which imposed corresponding total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations of 20–10,000 mg/L. Normalizing total energy potential to the methane potential alone indicated that at a C:N ratio of 17, the energy output was greater for the ADBH system than from anaerobic digestion generating only methane. Decreasing the C:N ratio increased the methane content of the biogas comprising primarily methane to >80% and increased the ammonia stripping energy demand. The system required 23–34% of the total energy generated as parasitic losses with no energy integration, but when internally produced heat and pressure differentials were recovered, parasitic losses were reduced to between 8 and 17%. -- Highlights: •Modeled an integrated Anaerobic Digestion-Bioammonia to Hydrogen (ADBH) system. •Demonstrated positive net energy produced over a range of conditions by ADBH. •Demonstrated significant advantages of dual fuel recovery for energy gain by >20%. •Suggested system design considerations for energy recovery with

  5. Catalysis mechanism of Pd-promoted γ-alumina in the thermal decomposition of methane to hydrogen: A density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, M. Abdus; Abdullah, Bawadi

    2017-01-01

    Thermo-catalytic methane decomposition to elemental hydrogen mechanism in transitional metals (Pd, Ni & Mo) promoted Al_2O_3 (001) catalyst have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT). Decomposition reactions are spontaneous and favourable above 775 K for all promoter. Pd-promoted Al_2O_3 (001) catalyst demonstrates a breakthrough decomposition activity in hydrogen production as compared to Ni− and Mo-promoted Al_2O_3 (001) catalysts. The activation energy (E_a) range of the catalysis for Pd promoted Al_2O_3 (001) catalysts is 0.003–0.34 eV. Whereas, Ni and Mo promoted Al_2O_3 (001) catalysts display activation energy E_a in the range of 0.63–1.15 eV and 0.04–5.98 eV, respectively. Pd-promoted catalyst also shows a higher adsorption energy (−0.68 eV) and reactivity than that of Ni and Mo promoted Al_2O_3 (001) catalysts. The rates of successive decomposition of methane are found to be 16.15 × 10"1"2, 15.95 × 10"1"2 and 16.09 × 10"1"2 s"−"1 for the promoter of Pd, Ni and Mo, respectively. Pd promoted Al_2O_3 (001) catalyst reduces the methane decomposition temperature (775 K) and deactivation rate significantly. The catalytic conditions and catalyst is promising in producing hydrogen to support hydrogen economy. - Highlights: • Transition metals (Pd, Ni & Mo) promoted γ-alumina catalysts are designed successfully. • Pd-promoted catalyst showed breakthrough activity in methane decomposition to hydrogen. • DFT study explored the catalysis mechanism of methane decomposition at atomic level. • Pd-promoted catalyst reduced temperature and activation barrier of methane decomposition reaction significantly.

  6. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  7. Influence analysis of electronically and vibrationally excited particles on the ignition of methane and hydrogen under the conditions of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminskii, M. A.; Konina, K. M.; Potapkin, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    The vibronic and electronic energy relaxation phenomena in the specific conditions of a gas turbine engine were investigated in this paper. The plasma-chemical mechanism has been augmented with the results of recent investigations of the processes that involve electronically and vibrationally excited species. The updated mechanism was employed for the computer simulation of plasma-assisted combustion of hydrogen-air and methane-air mixtures under high pressure and in the range of initial temperatures T  =  500-900 K. The updated mechanism was verified using the experimental data. The influence of electronically excited nitrogen on the ignition delay time was analyzed. The rate coefficient of the vibration-vibration exchange between N2 and HO2 was calculated as well as the rate coefficient of HO2 decomposition.

  8. Non-oxidative methane dehydroaromatization reaction over highly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradeep Kumar Budde

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... damental science to advanced engineering technology for conversion of .... C using an automatic micropore physisorption ana- lyzer (Micrometrics ASAP ..... MoO2 species with methane to form molybdenum car- bide species.

  9. Decreasing methane production in hydrogenogenic UASB reactors fed with cheese whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo-Reyes, Julián; Celis, Lourdes B.; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2014-01-01

    One of the problems in fermentative hydrogen producing reactors, inoculated with pre-treated anaerobic granular sludge, is the eventual methane production by hydrogen-consuming methanogens. In this study, strategies such as reduction of pH and HRT, organic shock loads and repeated biomass heat treatment were applied to hydrogenogenic UASB reactors fed with cheese whey, that showed methane production after certain time of continuous operation (between 10 and 60 days). The reduction of pH to 4.5 not only decreased methane production but also hydrogen production. Organic shock load (from 20 to 30 g COD/L-d) was the more effective strategy to decrease the methane production rate (75%) and to increase the hydrogen production rate (172%), without stopping reactor operation. Repeated heat treatment of the granular sludge was the only strategy that inhibited completely methane production, leading to high volumetric hydrogen production rates (1.67 L H 2 /L-d), however this strategy required stopping reactor operation; in addition homoacetogenesis, another hydrogen-consuming pathway, was not completely inhibited. This work demonstrated that it was possible to control the methane activity in hydrogen producing reactors using operational strategies. - Highlights: • Operational strategies control methane in hydrogen production from cheese whey. • Organic shock load increased the hydrogen production rate. • Operation pH below 5 decreased both the hydrogen and methane production. • Second biomass heat treatment inhibits completely methanogenesis. • Homoacetogens play a negative role in fermentative hydrogen production

  10. The Opportunity for High-Performance Biomaterials from Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Peter James; Laycock, Bronwyn; Mahamud, Syarifah Nuraqmar Syed; Jensen, Paul Douglas; Lant, Paul Andrew; Tyson, Gene; Pratt, Steven

    2016-02-03

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers are widely recognised as outstanding candidates to replace conventional petroleum-derived polymers. Their mechanical properties are good and can be tailored through copolymer composition, they are biodegradable, and unlike many alternatives, they do not rely on oil-based feedstocks. Further, they are the only commodity polymer that can be synthesised intracellularly, ensuring stereoregularity and high molecular weight. However, despite offering enormous potential for many years, they are still not making a significant impact. This is broadly because commercial uptake has been limited by variable performance (inconsistent polymer properties) and high production costs of the raw polymer. Additionally, the main type of PHA produced naturally is poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), which has limited scope due to its brittle nature and low thermal stability, as well as its tendency to embrittle over time. Production cost is strongly impacted by the type of the feedstock used. In this article we consider: the production of PHAs from methanotrophs using methane as a cost-effective substrate; the use of mixed cultures, as opposed to pure strains; and strategies to generate a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer (PHBV), which has more desirable qualities such as toughness and elasticity.

  11. The Opportunity for High-Performance Biomaterials from Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James Strong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA biopolymers are widely recognised as outstanding candidates to replace conventional petroleum-derived polymers. Their mechanical properties are good and can be tailored through copolymer composition, they are biodegradable, and unlike many alternatives, they do not rely on oil-based feedstocks. Further, they are the only commodity polymer that can be synthesised intracellularly, ensuring stereoregularity and high molecular weight. However, despite offering enormous potential for many years, they are still not making a significant impact. This is broadly because commercial uptake has been limited by variable performance (inconsistent polymer properties and high production costs of the raw polymer. Additionally, the main type of PHA produced naturally is poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, which has limited scope due to its brittle nature and low thermal stability, as well as its tendency to embrittle over time. Production cost is strongly impacted by the type of the feedstock used. In this article we consider: the production of PHAs from methanotrophs using methane as a cost-effective substrate; the use of mixed cultures, as opposed to pure strains; and strategies to generate a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymer (PHBV, which has more desirable qualities such as toughness and elasticity.

  12. Very High Energy Neutron Scattering from Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, R A; Stock, C; Bennington, S M; Taylor, J; Gidopoulos, N I

    2010-01-01

    The neutron scattering from hydrogen in polythene has been measured with the direct time-of flight spectrometer, MARI, at the ISIS facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with incident neutron energies between 0.5 eV and 600 eV. The results of experiments using the spectrometer, VESUVIO, have given intensities from hydrogen containing materials that were about 60% of the intensity expected from hydrogen. Since VESUVIO is the only instrument in the world that routinely operates with incident neutron energies in the eV range we have chosen to measure the scattering from hydrogen at high incident neutron energies with a different type of instrument. The MARI, direct time-of-flight, instrument was chosen for the experiment and we have studied the scattering for several different incident neutron energies. We have learnt how to subtract the gamma ray background, how to calibrate the incident energy and how to convert the spectra to an energy plot . The intensity of the hydrogen scattering was independent of the scattering angle for scattering angles from about 5 degrees up to 70 degrees for at least 3 different incident neutron energies between 20 eV and 100 eV. When the data was put on an absolute scale, by measuring the scattering from 5 metal foils with known thicknesses under the same conditions we found that the absolute intensity of the scattering from the hydrogen was in agreement with that expected to an accuracy of ± 5.0% over a wide range of wave-vector transfers between 1 and 250 A -1 . These measurements show that it is possible to measure the neutron scattering with incident neutron energies up to at least 100 eV with a direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer and that the results are in agreement with conventional scattering theory.

  13. Preliminary risk analysis of an Hydrogen production plant using the reformed process of methane with vapor coupled to a high temperature nuclear reactor; Analisis preliminar de riesgo de una planta de produccion de hidrogeno utilizando el proceso de reformado de metano con vapor acoplada a un reactor nuclear de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores y Flores, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: alain_fyf@yahoo.com; Nelson E, P.F.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It is necessary to identify the different types of dangers, as well as their causes, probabilities and consequences of the same ones, inside plants, industries and any process to classify the risks. This work is focused in particular to a study using the technical HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) for a plant of reformed of methane with vapor coupled to a nuclear reactor of the type HTTR (High Temperature Test Reactor), which is designed to be built in Japan. In particular in this study the interaction is analyzed between the nuclear reactor and the plant of reformed of methane with vapor. After knowing the possible causes of risk one it is built chart of results of HAZOP to have a better vision of the consequences of this faults toward the buildings and constructions, to people and the influence of the fault on each plant; for what there are proposed solutions to mitigate these consequences or to avoid them. The work is divided in three sections: a brief introduction about the technique of HAZOP; some important aspects of the plant of reformed of methane with vapor; and the construction of the chart of results of HAZOP. (Author)

  14. Comparison and evaluation of methods for the determination of flammability limits, applied to methane/hydrogen/air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoor, F. van den; Hermanns, R.T.E.; Oijen, J.A. van; Verplaetsen, F.; Goey, L.P.H. de

    2008-01-01

    Different methods, both experimental and numerical, to determine the flammability limits are compared and evaluated, exemplified by a determination of the flammability limits of methane/hydrogen/air mixtures for hydrogen fuel molar fractions of 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6, at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Two different experimental methods are used. The first method uses a glass tube with visual observation of the flame, whereas the second method uses a closed spherical vessel with a pressure rise criterion to determine whether flame propagation has occurred. In addition to these experiments, the flammability limits are determined numerically. Unsteady planar and spherically expanding flames are calculated with a one-dimensional flame code with the inclusion of radiation heat loss in the optically thin limit. Comparison of the experimental results with the results of the planar flame calculations shows large differences, especially for lean mixtures. These differences increase with increasing hydrogen content in the fuel. Better agreement with the experimental results is found for the spherically expanding flame calculations. A limiting burning velocity of 5 cm/s is found to predict the upper flammability limit determined with the tube method very well, whereas the limiting flame temperature approach was found to give poorer agreement. Further analysis indicates that the neglect of flame front instabilities is the probable cause of the large differences between experimental and numerical results at the lower flammability limit

  15. Design of adiabatic fixed-bed reactors for the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas. Application to production of methanol and hydrogen-for-fuel-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, de C.R.H.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Berger, R.J.; Marin, G.B.M.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Adiabatic fixed-bed reactors for the catalytic partial oxidn. (CPO) of methane to synthesis gas were designed at conditions suitable for the prodn. of methanol and hydrogen-for-fuel-cells. A steady-state, one-dimensional heterogeneous reactor model was applied in the simulations. Intra-particle

  16. Vanadium alloy membranes for high hydrogen permeability and suppressed hydrogen embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hee; Park, Hyeon Cheol; Lee, Jaeho; Cho, Eunseog; Lee, Sang Mock

    2013-01-01

    The structural properties and hydrogen permeation characteristics of ternary vanadium–iron–aluminum (V–Fe–Al) alloy were investigated. To achieve not only high hydrogen permeability but also strong resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, the alloy composition was modulated to show high hydrogen diffusivity but reduced hydrogen solubility. We demonstrated that matching the lattice constant to the value of pure V by co-alloying lattice-contracting and lattice-expanding elements was quite effective in maintaining high hydrogen diffusivity of pure V

  17. Identification, Attribution, and Quantification of Highly Heterogeneous Methane Sources Using a Mobile Stable Isotope Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, E.; Rella, C.; Cunningham, K.

    2012-04-01

    Despite methane's importance as a potent greenhouse gas second only to carbon dioxide in the magnitude of its contribution to global warming, natural contributions to the overall methane budget are only poorly understood. A big contributor to this gap in knowledge is the highly spatially and temporally heterogeneous nature of most natural (and for that matter anthropogenic) methane sources. This high degree of heterogeneity, where the methane emission rates can vary over many orders of magnitude on a spatial scale of meters or even centimeters, and over a temporal scale of minutes or even seconds, means that traditional methods of emissions flux estimation, such as flux chambers or eddy-covariance, are difficult or impossible to apply. In this paper we present new measurement methods that are capable of detecting, attributing, and quantifying emissions from highly heterogeneous sources. These methods take full advantage of the new class of methane concentration and stable isotope analyzers that are capable of laboratory-quality analysis from a mobile field platform in real time. In this paper we present field measurements demonstrating the real-time detection of methane 'hot spots,' attribution of the methane to a source process via real-time stable isotope analysis, and quantification of the emissions flux using mobile concentration measurements of the horizontal and vertical atmospheric dispersion, combined with atmospheric transport calculations. Although these techniques are applicable to both anthropogenic and natural methane sources, in this initial work we focus primarily on landfills and fugitive emissions from natural gas distribution, as these sources are better characterized, and because they provide a more reliable and stable source of methane for quantifying the measurement uncertainty inherent in the different methods. Implications of these new technologies and techniques are explored for the quantification of natural methane sources in a variety of

  18. Hydrogen Production from Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming over Yttrium Promoted Ni/SBA-16 Oxygen Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Daneshmand-Jahromi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the modification of Ni/SBA-16 oxygen carrier (OC with yttrium promoter is investigated. The yttrium promoted Ni-based oxygen carrier was synthesized via co-impregnation method and applied in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process, which is used for the production of clean energy carrier. The reaction temperature (500–750 °C, Y loading (2.5–7.4 wt. %, steam/carbon molar ratio (1–5, Ni loading (10–30 wt. % and life time of OCs over 16 cycles at 650 °C were studied to investigate and optimize the structure of OC and process temperature with maximizing average methane conversion and hydrogen production yield. The synthesized OCs were characterized by multiples techniques. The results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX of reacted OCs showed that the presence of Y particles on the surface of OCs reduces the coke formation. The smaller NiO species were found for the yttrium promoted OC and therefore the distribution of Ni particles was improved. The reduction-oxidation (redox results revealed that 25Ni-2.5Y/SBA-16 OC has the highest catalytic activity of about 99.83% average CH4 conversion and 85.34% H2 production yield at reduction temperature of 650 °C with the steam to carbon molar ratio of 2.

  19. High Time Resolution Measurements of Methane Fluxes From Enteric Fermentation in Cattle Rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, C. R.; Herndon, S.; Fortner, E.; Roscioli, J. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Castelán, O.; Ku Vera, J.; Castillo, E.

    2013-12-01

    Methane accounts for roughly 20% of the global radiative climate forcing in the last two and a half centuries. Methane emissions arise from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In some areas enteric fermentation in livestock produces over 90% of agricultural methane. In the spring of 2013, as a part of the Short Lived Climate Forcer-Mexico field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory in partnership with the Molina Center for the Environment studied methane production associated with enteric fermentation in the rumen of cattle. A variety of different breeds and stocks being raised in two agricultural and veterinary research facilities located in different areas of Mexico were examined. Methane fluxes were quantified using two methods: 1) an atmospherically stable gaseous tracer release was collocated with small herds in a pasture, allowing tracer ratio flux measurements; 2) respiratory CO2 was measured in tandem with methane in the breath of individual animals allowing methane production to be related to metabolism. The use of an extensive suite of very high time response instruments allows for differentiation of individual methane producing rumination events and respiratory CO2 from possible background interferences. The results of these studies will be presented and compared to data from traditional chamber experiments.

  20. High-temperature conversion of methane on a composite gadolinia-doped ceria-gold electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, O.A.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    1999-01-01

    Direct electrochemical oxidation of methane was attempted on a gadolinia-doped ceria Ce(0.6)Gd(0.4)O(1.8) (CG4) electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell using a porous gold-CG4 mixture as current collector Gold is relatively inert to methane in contrast to other popular SOFC anode materials such as n......Direct electrochemical oxidation of methane was attempted on a gadolinia-doped ceria Ce(0.6)Gd(0.4)O(1.8) (CG4) electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell using a porous gold-CG4 mixture as current collector Gold is relatively inert to methane in contrast to other popular SOFC anode materials...... such as nickel and platinum. CG4 was found to exhibit a low electrocatalytic activity for methane oxidation as well as no significant reforming activity implying that the addition of an electrocatalyst or cracking catalyst to the CG4 anode is required for SOFC operating on methane. The methane conversion...... observed at the open-circuit potential and low anodic overpotentials seems to be due to thermal methane cracking in the gas phase and on the alumina surfaces in the cell housing. At high anodic overpotentials, at electrode potentials where oxygen evolution was expected to take place, the formation of CO(2...

  1. Reverse microemulsion prepared Ni–Pt catalysts for methane cracking to produce COx-free hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2017-09-08

    A monodispersed 15 nm Ni9Pt1 catalyst synthesized via a reverse microemulsion method, shows a lower activation energy than both Ni and Pt catalysts during the methane cracking reaction. Thanks to the synergic effect of Ni–Pt alloy, this catalyst presents a stable H2 formation rate at 700 °C, and forms carbon nanotubes, anchoring the catalyst particles on top.

  2. Reverse microemulsion prepared Ni–Pt catalysts for methane cracking to produce COx-free hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu; Harb, Moussab; Enakonda, Linga Reddy; Al Mana, Noor; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    A monodispersed 15 nm Ni9Pt1 catalyst synthesized via a reverse microemulsion method, shows a lower activation energy than both Ni and Pt catalysts during the methane cracking reaction. Thanks to the synergic effect of Ni–Pt alloy, this catalyst presents a stable H2 formation rate at 700 °C, and forms carbon nanotubes, anchoring the catalyst particles on top.

  3. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, K.D.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L.; Powell, L.E.; Raj, T.; Roettger, G.E.; Sutton, T.G. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The separative performance of the authors` ceramic membranes has been determined in the past using a permeance test system that measured flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275 C. From these data, the separation factor was determined for a particular gas pair from the ratio of the pure gas specific flows. An important project goal this year has been to build a Mixed Gas Separation System (MGSS) for measuring the separation efficiencies of membranes at higher temperatures and using mixed gases. The MGSS test system has been built, and initial operation has been achieved. The MGSS is capable of measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 100 psi using a binary gas mixture such as hydrogen/methane. The mixed gas is fed into a tubular membrane at pressures up to 100 psi, and the membrane separates the feed gas mixture into a permeate stream and a raffinate stream. The test membrane is sealed in a stainless steel holder that is mounted in a split tube furnace to permit membrane separations to be evaluated at temperatures up to 600 C. The compositions of the three gas streams are measured by a gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors. The test system also measures the temperatures and pressures of all three gas streams as well as the flow rate of the feed stream. These data taken over a range of flows and pressures permit the separation efficiency to be determined as a function of the operating conditions. A mathematical model of the separation has been developed that permits the data to be reduced and the separation factor for the membrane to be determined.

  4. State of the art and environmental benefits using methane-hydrogen blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, D.

    2007-01-01

    Hythane is the patented mixture of 15% (by energy content) of hydrogen in CNG: in other proportions the blend is called HCNG. Hydrogen addition to CNG extends the lean burn limit of a natural gas engine, and has the potential to lower the nitrogen oxides emissions and to improve the engine thermal efficiency, with minor hardware changes necessary. This paper reports the benefits of hydrogen to CNG in S.I. engine, and a brief review of the results obtained in this field [it

  5. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  6. Rapid Hydrogen and Methane Sensors for Wireless Leak Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under NASA STTR NNK07EA39C, ASR&D developed passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors that utilize Pd nanocluster films on self-assembled...

  7. Nanoporous MoS2 monolayer as a promising membrane for purifying hydrogen and enriching methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yadong; Meng, Zhaoshun; Shi, Qi; Gao, Haiqi; Liu, Yuzhen; Wang, Yunhui; Rao, Dewei; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng

    2017-09-01

    We present a theoretical prediction of a highly efficient membrane for hydrogen purification and natural gas upgrading, i.e. laminar MoS2 material with triangular sulfur-edged nanopores. We calculated from first principles the diffusion barriers of H2 and CO2 across monolayer MoS2 to be, respectively, 0.07 eV and 0.17 eV, which are low enough to warrant their great permeability. The permeance values for H2 and CO2 far exceed the industrially accepted standard. Meanwhile, such a porous MoS2 membrane shows excellent selectivity in terms of H2/CO, H2/N2, H2/CH4, and CO2/CH4 separation (>103, >  103, >  106, and  >  104, respectively) at room temperature. We expect that the findings in this work will expedite theoretical or experimental exploration on gas separation membranes based on transition metal dichalcogenides.

  8. Evaluation of an integrated methane autothermal reforming and high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authayanun, Suthida; Saebea, Dang; Patcharavorachot, Yaneeporn; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance and efficiency of an integrated autothermal reforming and HT-PEMFC (high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system fueled by methane. Effect of the inclusion of a CO (carbon monoxide) removal process on the integrated HT-PEMFC system was considered. An increase in the S/C (steam-to-carbon) ratio and the reformer temperature can enhance the hydrogen fraction while the CO formation reduces with increasing S/C ratio. The fuel processor efficiency of the methane autothermal reformer with a WGS (water gas shift reactor) reactor, as the CO removal process, is higher than that without a WGS reactor. A higher fuel processor efficiency can be obtained when the feed of the autothermal reformer is preheated to the reformer temperature. Regarding the cell performance, the reformate gas from the methane reformer operated at T in  = T R and with a high S/C ratio is suitable for the HT-PEMFC system without a WGS reactor. When considering the HT-PEMFC system with a WGS reactor, the CO poisoning has less significant impact on the cell performance and the system can be operated over a broader range to minimize the required total active area. A WGS reactor is necessary for the methane autothermal reforming and HT-PEMFC integrated system with regard to the system efficiency. - Highlights: • An integrated autothermal reforming and HT-PEMFC system was studied. • The HT-PEMFC system with and without a CO removal process was considered. • Parametric analysis was performed to obtain a high system efficiency. • The HT-PEMFC system with the WGS reactor can be run over a broader range. • The efficiencies of the HT-PEMFC systems without and with a WGS reactor were reported

  9. Hydrogen production from high-moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Adschiri, T.; Ekbom, T. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming methane at elevated pressures. The goal of this research is to develop commercial processes for the catalytic steam reforming of biomass and other organic wastes at high pressures. This approach avoids the high cost of gas compression and takes advantage of the unique properties of water at high pressures. Prior to this year the authors reported the ability of carbon to catalyze the decomposition of biomass and related model compounds in supercritical water. The product gas consists of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and traces of higher hydrocarbons. During the past year the authors have: (a) developed a method to extend the catalyst life, (b) begun studies of the role of the shift reaction, (c) completed studies of carbon dioxide absorption from the product effluent by high pressure water, (d) measured the rate of carbon catalyst gasification in supercritical water, (e) discovered the pumpability of oil-biomass slurries, and (f) completed the design and begun fabrication of a flow reactor that will steam reform whole biomass feedstocks (i.e. sewage sludge) and produce a hydrogen rich synthesis gas at very high pressure (>22 MPa).

  10. Thermodynamic comparison of two processes of hydrogen production: steam methane reforming-A solar thermochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomri, Rabah; Boumaza, Mourad

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is mainly employed like primary product, for the synthesis of ammonia. The ammonia is synthesized by chemically combining hydrogen and nitrogen under pressure, in the presence of a catalyst. This ammonia is used, for the production of the nitrate fertilizers. Nowadays hydrogen gains more attention mainly because, it is regarded as a future significant fuel by much of experts. The widespread use of hydrogen as source of energy could help to reduce the concern concerning the safety of energy, the total change of climate and the quality of air. Hydrogen is presented then as an excellent alternate initially and as substitute thereafter. It can play a role even more significant than conventional energies. Indeed, it has the advantage of being nonpolluting and it can use the same means of transport as conventional energies. For Algeria, it proves of importance capital. It not only makes it possible to increase and diversify its energy reserves and its exports but also to provide for its energy needs which become increasingly significant. Although hydrogen can be produced starting from a large variety of resources using a range of various technologies, the natural gas is generally preferred and will remain in the near future the principal primary product for the manufacture of hydrogen. Currently the most effective means of production of hydrogen is the Steam Reforming of Natural Gas (SMR). This process is seen as a one of principal technologies for the production of hydrogen. The disadvantages of this process it's that it consumes a great quantity of primary energy and that it releases in the atmosphere the gases that contribute to the warming of the plane. Among the alternatives processes of hydrogen production one can quote solar thermochemical processes. In this study, an exergetic analysis of the process of hydrogen production based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions is presented. In the first part of this study, an exergetic analysis is made for a temperature of the

  11. First high energy hydrogen cluster beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Hadinger, G.; Martin, J.

    1993-03-01

    The hydrogen cluster accelerator of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPN Lyon) has been upgraded by adding a Variable Energy Post-accelerator of RFQ type (VERFQ). This operation has been performed in the frame of a collaboration between KfK Karlsruhe, IAP Frankfurt and IPN Lyon. The facility has been designed to deliver beams of mass selected Hn + clusters, n chosen between 3 and 49, in the energy range 65-100 keV/u. For the first time, hydrogen clusters have been accelerated at energies as high as 2 MeV. This facility opens new fields for experiments which will greatly benefit from a velocity range never available until now for such exotic projectiles. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig

  12. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production

  13. Deactivation of nickel catalysts in the methanization of hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixtures under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeeb, H P

    1979-01-01

    The deactivation course of nickel methanization catalysts was investigated in the temperature range of 310/sup 0/C to 370/sup 0/C and in the pressure region of 20 to 80 bar. Raising the CO partial pressure accelerated the deactivation whereas raising the H/sub 2/ partial pressure slowed it down. An influence of the temperature could not be clearly recognized. The deactivation got slower with greater dwell time and larger degree of conversion. Two hypotheses to explain the deactivation are given.

  14. Hydrogen high pressure proportional drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Balaev, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation performances of a proportional drift detector PDD are described. High sensitivity of the applied PAD makes it possible to detect the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the energy range of recoil protons as low as 1 keV. The PDD is filled with hydrogen up to the pressure at 40 bars. High purity of the gas is maintained by a continuously operating purification system. The detector has been operating for several years in a neutron beam at the North Area of the CERN SPS

  15. High temperature energy storage performances of methane reforming with carbon dioxide in a tubular packed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Chen, Yuan; Ding, Jing; Wang, Weilong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy storage of methane reforming in a tubular packed reactor is investigated. • Thermochemical storage efficiency approaches maximum at optimal temperature. • Sensible heat and heat loss play important roles in the energy storage system. • The reaction and energy storage models of methane reforming reactor are established. • The simulated methane conversion and energy storage efficiency fit with experiments. - Abstract: High temperature heat transfer and energy storage performances of methane reforming with carbon dioxide in tubular packed reactor are investigated under different operating conditions. Experimental results show that the methane reforming in tubular packed reactor can efficiently store high temperature thermal energy, and the sensible heat and heat loss besides thermochemical energy storage play important role in the total energy storage process. When the operating temperature is increased, the thermochemical storage efficiency first increases for methane conversion rising and then decreases for heat loss rising. As the operating temperate is 800 °C, the methane conversion is 79.6%, and the thermochemical storage efficiency and total energy efficiency can be higher than 47% and 70%. According to the experimental system, the flow and reaction model of methane reforming is established using the laminar finite-rate model and Arrhenius expression, and the simulated methane conversion and energy storage efficiency fit with experimental data. Along the flow direction, the fluid temperature in the catalyst bed first decreases because of the endothermic reaction and then increases for the heat transfer from reactor wall. As a conclusion, the maximum thermochemical storage efficiency will be obtained under optimal operating temperature and optimal flow rate, and the total energy efficiency can be increased by the increase of bed conductivity and decrease of heat loss coefficient.

  16. Hydrogen distribution in a containment with a high-velocity hydrogen-steam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.R.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.; Claybrook, S.W.

    1982-09-01

    Hydrogen mixing and distribution tests are reported for a modeled high velocity hydrogen-steam release from a postulated small pipe break or release from a pressurizer relief tank rupture disk into the lower compartment of an Ice Condenser Plant. The tests, which in most cases used helium as a simulant for hydrogen, demonstrated that the lower compartment gas was well mixed for both hydrogen release conditions used. The gas concentration differences between any spatial locations were less than 3 volume percent during the hydrogen/steam release period and were reduced to less than 0.5 volume percent within 20 minutes after termination of the hydrogen source. The high velocity hydrogen/steam jet provided the dominant mixing mechanism; however, natural convection and forced air recirculation played important roles in providing a well mixed atmosphere following termination of the hydrogen source. 5 figures, 4 tables

  17. Origin of methane and sources of high concentrations in Los Angeles groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin; McMahon, Peter B.; Land, Michael; Wright, Michael; Johnson, Theodore; Landon, Matthew K.

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, samples from 37 monitoring wells at 17 locations, within or near oil fields, and one site >5 km from oil fields, in the Los Angeles Basin, California, were analyzed for dissolved hydrocarbon gas isotopes and abundances. The wells sample a variety of depths of an aquifer system composed of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments under various conditions of confinement. Concentrations of methane in groundwater samples ranged from 0.002 to 150 mg/L—some of the highest concentrations reported in a densely populated urban area. The δ13C and δ2H of the methane ranged from −80.8 to −45.5 per mil (‰) and −249.8 to −134.9‰, respectively, and, along with oxidation‐reduction processes, helped to identify the origin of methane as microbial methanogenesis and CO2 reduction as its main formation pathway. The distribution of methane concentrations and isotopes is consistent with the high concentrations of methane in Los Angeles Basin groundwater originating from relatively shallow microbial production in anoxic or suboxic conditions. Source of the methane is the aquifer sediments rather than the upward migration or leakage of thermogenic methane associated with oil fields in the basin.

  18. Operation of a two-stage continuous fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from artificial food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Kohki; Mizuno, Shiho; Umeda, Yoshito; Sakka, Makiko [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Osaka, Noriko [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakka, Kazuo [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    An anaerobic two-stage continuous fermentation process with combined thermophilic hydrogenogenic and methanogenic stages (two-stage fermentation process) was applied to artificial food wastes on a laboratory scale. In this report, organic loading rate (OLR) conditions for hydrogen fermentation were optimized before operating the two-stage fermentation process. The OLR was set at 11.2, 24.3, 35.2, 45.6, 56.1, and 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with a temperature of 60 C, pH5.5 and 5.0% total solids. As a result, approximately 1.8-2.0 mol-H{sub 2} mol-hexose{sup -1} was obtained at the OLR of 11.2-56.1 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}. In contrast, it was inferred that the hydrogen yield at the OLR of 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} decreased because of an increase in lactate concentration in the culture medium. The performance of the two-stage fermentation process was also evaluated over three months. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of methane fermentation was able to be shortened 5.0 days (under OLR 12.4 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} conditions) when the OLR of hydrogen fermentation was 44.0 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the average gasification efficiency of the two-stage fermentation process was 81% at the time. (orig.)

  19. Research and development program of hydrogen production system with high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Shiozawa, S.; Ogawa, M.; Inagaki, Y.; Nishihara, T.; Shimizu, S.

    2000-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing a hydrogen production system with a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). While the HTGR hydrogen production system has the following advantages compared with a fossil-fired hydrogen production system; low operation cost (economical fuel cost), low CO 2 emission and saving of fossil fuel by use of nuclear heat, it requires some items to be solved as follows; cost reduction of facility such as a reactor, coolant circulation system and so on, development of control and safety technologies. As for the control and safety technologies, JAERI plans demonstration test with hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane coupling to 30 Wt HTGR, named high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Prior to the demonstration test, a 1/30-scale out-of-pile test facility is in construction for safety review and detailed design of the HTTR hydrogen production system. Also, design study will start for reduction of facility cost. Moreover, basic study on hydrogen production process without CO 2 emission is in progress by thermochemical water splitting. (orig.)

  20. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  1. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1998-08-01

    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.

  2. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  3. Catalysis mechanism of Pd-promoted γ-alumina in the thermal decomposition of methane to hydrogen: A density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, M. Abdus; Abdullah, Bawadi, E-mail: bawadi_abdullah@utp.edu.my

    2017-02-15

    Thermo-catalytic methane decomposition to elemental hydrogen mechanism in transitional metals (Pd, Ni & Mo) promoted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) catalyst have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT). Decomposition reactions are spontaneous and favourable above 775 K for all promoter. Pd-promoted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) catalyst demonstrates a breakthrough decomposition activity in hydrogen production as compared to Ni− and Mo-promoted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) catalysts. The activation energy (E{sub a}) range of the catalysis for Pd promoted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) catalysts is 0.003–0.34 eV. Whereas, Ni and Mo promoted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) catalysts display activation energy E{sub a} in the range of 0.63–1.15 eV and 0.04–5.98 eV, respectively. Pd-promoted catalyst also shows a higher adsorption energy (−0.68 eV) and reactivity than that of Ni and Mo promoted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) catalysts. The rates of successive decomposition of methane are found to be 16.15 × 10{sup 12}, 15.95 × 10{sup 12} and 16.09 × 10{sup 12} s{sup −1} for the promoter of Pd, Ni and Mo, respectively. Pd promoted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) catalyst reduces the methane decomposition temperature (775 K) and deactivation rate significantly. The catalytic conditions and catalyst is promising in producing hydrogen to support hydrogen economy. - Highlights: • Transition metals (Pd, Ni & Mo) promoted γ-alumina catalysts are designed successfully. • Pd-promoted catalyst showed breakthrough activity in methane decomposition to hydrogen. • DFT study explored the catalysis mechanism of methane decomposition at atomic level. • Pd-promoted catalyst reduced temperature and activation barrier of methane decomposition reaction significantly.

  4. A new type of hydrogen generator-HHEG (high-compressed hydrogen energy generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, H.; Tojima, K.; Takeda, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' We have developed a new type of hydrogen generator named HHEG (High-compressed Hydrogen Energy Generator). HHEG can produce 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle without any mechanical compressor. HHEG is a kind of PEM(proton exchange membrane)electrolysis. It was well known that compressed hydrogen could be generated by water electrolysis. However, the conventional electrolysis could not generate 35 MPa or higher pressure that is required for fuel cell vehicle, because electrolysis cell stack is destroyed in such high pressure. In HHEG, the cell stack is put in high-pressure vessel and the pressure difference of oxygen and hydrogen that is generated by the cell stack is always kept at nearly zero by an automatic compensator invented by Mitsubishi Corporation. The cell stack of HHEG is not so special one, but it is not broken under such high pressure, because the automatic compensator always offsets the force acting on the cell stack. Hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle must be produce by no emission energy such as solar and atomic power. These energies are available as electricity. So, water electrolysis is the only way of producing hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen fuel is also 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen and will become 70 MPa in near future. But conventional mechanical compressor is not useful for such high pressure hydrogen fuel, because of the short lifetime and high power consumption. Construction of hydrogen station network is indispensable in order to come into wide use of fuel cell vehicles. For such network contraction, an on-site type hydrogen generator is required. HHEG can satisfy above these requirements. So we can conclude that HHEG is the only way of realizing the hydrogen economy. (author)

  5. Carbon (14C,13C) and hydrogen (D) isotope measurements on atmospheric methane and its sources (sinks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, I.; Doerr, H.

    1991-07-01

    Concentrations and isotope ratios ( 13 C/ 12 C and D/H) of atmospheric methane and methane from other sources were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy in specially prepared samples. The results were used for assessing the atmospheric methane inventory. (BBR) [de

  6. Evidence for a hydrogen-sink mechanism of (+)catechin-mediated emission reduction of the ruminant greenhouse gas methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Methane formation in the rumen is a major cause of greenhouse gas emission. Plant secondary compounds in ruminant diets, such as essential oils, saponins and tannins, are known to affect methane production. However, their methane-lowering properties have generally been associated with undesired side

  7. Effects of three methane mitigation agents on parameters of kinetics of total and hydrogen gas production, ruminal fermentation and hydrogen balance using in vitro technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Yang, Shan; Deng, Jin Ping; Tang, Shao Xun; Tan, Zhi Liang

    2016-02-01

    Methane (CH4 ) can be mitigated through directly inhibiting methanogen activity and starving methanogens by hydrogen (H2 ) sink. Three types of mechanism (i.e. bromoethanesulphonate (BES), nitrate and emodin) and doses of CH4 mitigation agents were employed to investigate their pathways of CH4 inhibition. Results indicated that both BES and emodin inhibited CH4 production and altered H2 balance, which could be accompanied by decreased dry matter disappearance (DMD), fractional rate of gH2 formation, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, ability to produce and use reducing equivalences and molecular H2 , and increased final asymptotic gH2 production, time to the peak of gH2 , discrete lag time of gH2 production and fermentation efficiency. However, emodin decreased gas volume produced by rapidly fermentable components of substrate and the rate of fermentation at early stage of incubation, while BES supplementation inhibited gas volume produced by both rapidly and slowly fermentable components of substrate and the rate of fermentation at middle or late stage of incubation. The nitrate supplementation inhibited CH4 production without affecting VFA profile, because of its dual role as H2 sink and being toxic to methanogens. Nitrate supplementation had more complicated pattern of fermentation, VFA production and profile and H2 balance in comparison to BES and emodin supplementation. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. In silico design of porous polymer networks: high-throughput screening for methane storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard L; Simon, Cory M; Smit, Berend; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2014-04-02

    Porous polymer networks (PPNs) are a class of advanced porous materials that combine the advantages of cheap and stable polymers with the high surface areas and tunable chemistry of metal-organic frameworks. They are of particular interest for gas separation or storage applications, for instance, as methane adsorbents for a vehicular natural gas tank or other portable applications. PPNs are self-assembled from distinct building units; here, we utilize commercially available chemical fragments and two experimentally known synthetic routes to design in silico a large database of synthetically realistic PPN materials. All structures from our database of 18,000 materials have been relaxed with semiempirical electronic structure methods and characterized with Grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations for methane uptake and deliverable (working) capacity. A number of novel structure-property relationships that govern methane storage performance were identified. The relationships are translated into experimental guidelines to realize the ideal PPN structure. We found that cooperative methane-methane attractions were present in all of the best-performing materials, highlighting the importance of guest interaction in the design of optimal materials for methane storage.

  9. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N

    2017-09-01

    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  10. Raman spectrum of methane in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ethane, and propane environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Using binary CH4 - mixtures with varied concentrations of H2, N2, CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 and a fixed ambient pressure of 25 bar, the influence of the environment on spectral characteristics (Raman shift, half-width, peak intensity) of Q-branches of the ν1, ν2, ν3, and 2ν4 methane Raman bands are investigated. It is found that depending on the environment these bands demonstrate different changes in their Raman shifts and half-widths. It is shown that the ratios of peak intensities I(ν2)/I(ν1), I(ν3)/I(ν1) and I(2ν4)/I(ν1) are very sensitive to the environment. The Raman shifts and half-widths of CH4 bands are assumed to depend on the absolute concentration of molecules in the analyzed medium. The data obtained would be useful in Raman diagnostics of natural gas.

  11. Impacts of a massive release of methane and hydrogen sulfide on oxygen and ozone during the late Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiho, Kunio; Koga, Seizi

    2013-08-01

    The largest mass extinction of animals and plants in both the ocean and on land occurred in the late Permian (252 Ma), largely coinciding with the largest flood basalt volcanism event in Siberia and an oceanic anoxic/euxinic event. We investigated the impacts of a massive release of methane (CH4) from the Siberian igneous province and the ocean and/or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from the euxinic ocean on oxygen and ozone using photochemical model calculations. Our calculations indicated that an approximate of 14% decrease in atmospheric O2 levels would have occurred in the case of a large combined CH4 and H2S flux to the atmosphere, whereas an approximate of 8 to 10% decrease would have occurred from the CH4 flux and oxidation of all H2S in the ocean. The slight decrease in atmospheric O2 levels may have contributed to the extinction event. We demonstrate for the first time that a massive release of CH4 from the Siberian igneous province and a coincident massive release of CH4 and H2S did not cause ozone collapse. A collapse of stratospheric ozone leading to an increase in UV is not supported by the maximum model input levels for CH4 and H2S. These conclusions on O2 and O3 are correspondent to every H2S release percentages from the ocean to the atmosphere.

  12. Enhancement of organic matter degradation and methane gas production of anaerobic granular sludge by degasification of dissolved hydrogen gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hisashi; Bandara, Wasala M K R T W; Sasakawa, Manabu; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Takahashi, Masahiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    A hollow fiber degassing membrane (DM) was applied to enhance organic matter degradation and methane gas production of anaerobic granular sludge process by reducing the dissolved hydrogen gas (D-H 2 ) concentration in the liquid phase. DM was installed in the bench-scale anaerobic granular sludge reactors and D-H 2 was removed through DM using a vacuum pump. Degasification improved the organic matter degradation efficiency to 79% while the efficiency was 62% without degasification at 12,000mgL -1 of the influent T-COD concentration. Measurement of D-H 2 concentrations in the liquid phase confirmed that D-H 2 was removed by degasification. Furthermore, the effect of acetate concentrations on the organic matter degradation efficiency was investigated. At acetate concentrations above 3gL -1 , organic matter degradation deteriorated. Degasification enhanced the propionate and acetate degradation. These results suggest that degasification reduced D-H 2 concentration and volatile fatty acids concentrations, prevented pH drop, and subsequent enhanced organic matter degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen and methane syntheses through radiation catalysis. Progress report, June 1, 1977--August 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, J.G.

    1978-09-01

    Preliminary testing was performed of the concept of an electronic theory of catalysis to relate electrical properties of the catalysts to increased rates in radiation-induced reactions. The first system selected for study was the radiolysis of water as stimulated by absorption of gamma radiation, a system that has been thoroughly tested by numerous workers all in excellent agreement. Early results indicate a significant correspondence between hydrogen gas yield and the forbidden band gap (Eg) of the catalyst substrate, when Eg approximates the energy of the hydrogen-oxygen bond in the water molecule. Catalysts tested were TiO 2 , SrTiO 3 , Sb 2 O 3 , MoO 3 , Nb 2 O 5 , SnO 2 , CaO, HfO 2 , In 2 O 3 , and V 2 O 5 . Equipment to measure dielectric properties of solids has been built and calibrated, and will now be applied to pre- and post-irradiation testing of the catalysts used. Separate abstracts were prepared for the appendices: one a review of existing analytical models of photoelectrochemical cells and the other a theoretical modeling of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces

  15. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  16. Carbon and hydrogen isotope composition and C-14 concentration in methane from sources and from the atmosphere: Implications for a global methane budget. Final report, 1 January-30 June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlen, M.

    1994-03-01

    The topics covered include the following: biogenic methane studies; forest soil methane uptake; rice field methane sources; atmospheric measurements; stratospheric samples; Antarctica; California; and Germany

  17. Experimental Study of Hydrogen Addition Effects on a Swirl-Stabilized Methane-Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of H2 addition on a premixed methane-air flame was studied experimentally with a swirl-stabilized gas turbine model combustor. Experiments with 0%, 25%, and 50% H2 molar fraction in the fuel mixture were conducted under atmospheric pressure. The primary objectives are to study the impacts of H2 addition on flame lean blowout (LBO limits, flame shapes and anchored locations, flow field characteristics, precessing vortex core (PVC instability, as well as the CO emission performance. The flame LBO limits were identified by gradually reducing the equivalence ratio until the condition where the flame physically disappeared. The time-averaged CH chemiluminescence was used to reveal the characteristics of flame stabilization, e.g., flame structure and stabilized locations. In addition, the inverse Abel transform was applied to the time-averaged CH results so that the distribution of CH signal on the symmetric plane of the flame was obtained. The particle image velocimetry (PIV was used to detect the characteristics of the flow field with a frequency of 2 kHz. The snapshot method of POD (proper orthogonal decomposition and fast Fourier transform (FFT were adopted to capture the most prominent coherent structures in the turbulent flow field. CO emission was monitored with an exhaust probe that was installed close to the combustor exit. The experimental results indicated that the H2 addition extended the flame LBO limits and the operation range of low CO emission. The influence of H2 addition on the flame shape, location, and flow field was observed. With the assistance of POD and FFT, the combustion suppression impacts on PVC was found.

  18. Are high rates of sulphate reduction associated with anaerobic oxidation of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devol, A H; Ahmed, S I

    1981-01-01

    Classical models of sulphur diagenesis in marine sediments are based on the assumption that the rate of sulphate reduction is first order with respect to oxidizable particulate organic carbon (POC). This assumption requires that oxidizable POC, sulphate concentration and the sulphate reduction rate be highest at the top of the sulphate reduction zone and decrease exponentially with increasing sediment depth. However, to explain recent observations of concave upwards methane distributions, the anaerobic consumption of methane has been proposed. Furthermore, it has been proposed that this consumption takes place near the bottom of the sulphate reducing zone where sulphate concentrations are low. Thus, if sulphate reducing bacteria are associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane, a peak in sulphate reduction rate might be expected in this deep consumption zone. The importance of the process in sedimentary sulphur diagenesis is indicated by calculations estimating that 30 to 75% of the downward sulphate flux at depth may be consumed by methane oxidation within this zone. We present here profiles of sulphate reduction rate in anoxic sediments that show distinct local maxima at the depth where the anaerobic oxidation of methane would be expected. Our measurements were made during July and August 1978 in Saanich Inlet, an anoxic fjord located on the south-east of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The inlet has a shallow sill (approx 70 m) which restricts circulation of the deeper water (maximum depth 225 m) inside the basin to the extent that for about 8 months of the year the bottom waters contain hydrogen sulphide, the inlet is an ideal location for studying sedimentary sulphate reduction because reactions with oxygen and the effects of burrowing organisms can be neglected.

  19. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from industrial gases by hydrogen or methane; Reduction catalytique selective des oxydes d'azote (NO{sub x}) provenant d'effluents gazeux industriels par l'hydrogene ou le methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann Pirez, M

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), contained in the effluents of industrial plants, by hydrogen or methane. The aim is to replace ammonia, used as reducing agent, in the conventional process. The use of others reducing agents such as hydrogen or methane is interesting for different reasons: practical, economical and ecological. The catalyst has to convert selectively NO into N{sub 2}, in presence of an excess of oxygen, steam and sulfur dioxide. The developed catalyst is constituted by a support such as perovskites, particularly LaCoO{sub 3}, on which are dispersed noble metals (palladium, platinum). The interaction between the noble metal and the support, generated during the activation of the catalyst, allows to minimize the water and sulfur dioxide inhibitor phenomena on the catalytic performances, particularly in the reduction of NO by hydrogen. (O.M.)

  20. A car-borne highly sensitive near-IR diode-laser methane detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, A G; Ershov, Oleg V; Shapovalov, Yu P

    2003-01-01

    A highly sensitive automated car-borne detector for measuring methane concentration in real time is designed, developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. Measurements were made with the help of an uncooled tunable near-IR 1.65-μm laser diode. The detector consists of a multipass optical cell with a 45-m long optical path and a base length of 0.5 m. The car-borne detector is intended for monitoring the methane concentration in air from the moving car to reveal the leakage of domestic gas. The sensitivity limit (standard deviation) under field conditions is 1 ppm (20 ppb under laboratory conditions) for a measuring time of 0.4 s. The measuring technique based on the detection of a single methane line ensured a high selectivity of methane detector relative to other gases. The methane detector can be easily modified for measuring other simple-molecule gases (e.g., CO, CO 2 , HF, NO 2 , H 2 O) by replacing the diode laser and varying the parameters of the control program. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  1. Hydrogen production from catalytic decomposition of methane; Produccion de hidrogeno a partir de la descomposicion termica catalitica del biogas de digestion anaerobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belsue Echevarria, M.; Etxebeste Juarez, O.; Perez Gil, S.

    2002-07-01

    The need of substitution of part of the energy obtained from fossil fuels instead of energy from renewable sources, together with the minimal emissions of CO{sub ''} and CO that are expected with these technologies, make renewable sources a very attractive predecessor for the production of hydrogen. In this situation, a usable source for hydrogen production is the biogas achieved by means of technologies like the anaerobic digestion of different kinds of biomass (MSW, sewage sludge, stc.). In this article we suggest the Thermal Catalytic Decomposition of the methane contained in this biogas, after separation of pollutants like CO{sub ''}, H{sub 2}S. steam. This technology will give hydrogen, usable in fuel cells, and nanoestructured carbon as products. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. Anomalously deep penetration of hydrogen into niobium under action of pulse high temperature hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.

    2011-01-01

    The method of elastic recoil detection (ERD) has been used for the study of storage and redistribution processes of hydrogen atoms under the influence of pulse high temperature hydrogen plasma obtained using the 'Plasma Focus' PF-4 set-up in three high purity niobium foils. It was established that with an increase of number of PF-4 set-up pulses there occur spreading and transfer of implanted hydrogen atoms to large depths in three Nb-foils which are significantly larger than the projected range of hydrogen ions (with the velocity ∼ 10 8 cm/s). The maximum hydrogen concentration up to 60 at. % is reached in the nearest to Ph-4 surface of the third Nb-foil at 20 impulses of the Ph-4 set-up. The observed phenomenon can be described by transfer of implanted hydrogen atoms under the action of powerful shock waves, created by pulse hydrogen plasma and (or) by accelerating hydrogen atom diffusion under the influence of compression straining wave at the front of the shock wave at redistribution of hydrogen atoms at large depths. Similar behavior was discovered and described also in series of nickel, vanadium, niobium and tantalum foils (two or three foils and more in a series) including series of foils from heterogeneous (different) materials, which were studied, too

  3. Kinetics of methane decomposition to CO{sub x}-free hydrogen and carbon nanofiber over Ni-Cu/MgO catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghei, Maryam; Karimzadeh, Ramin [Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran); Rashidi, Alimorad; Izadi, Nosrat [Research Center of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Kinetic modeling of methane decomposition to CO{sub x}-free hydrogen and carbon nanofiber has been carried out in the temperature range 550-650 C over Ni-Cu/MgO catalyst from CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2} mixtures at atmospheric pressure. Assuming the different mechanisms of the reaction, several kinetic models were derived based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. The optimum value of kinetic parameters has been obtained by Genetic Algorithm and statistical analysis has been used for the model discrimination. The suggested kinetic model relates to the mechanism when the dissociative adsorption of methane molecule is the rate-determining stage and the estimated activation energy is 50.4 kJ/mol in agreement with the literature. The catalyst deactivation was found to be dependent on the time, reaction temperature, and partial pressures of methane and hydrogen. Inspection of the behavior of the catalyst activity in relation to time, led to a model of second order for catalyst deactivation. (author)

  4. Metaproteomics analysis of the functional insights into microbial communities of combined hydrogen and methane production by anaerobic fermentation from reed straw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jia

    Full Text Available A metaproteomic approach was used to analyse the proteins expressed and provide functional evidence of key metabolic pathways in the combined production of hydrogen and methane by anaerobic fermentation (CHMP-AF for reed straw utilisation. The functions and structures of bacteria and archaea populations show significant succession in the CHMP-AF process. There are many kinds of bacterial functional proteins, mainly belonging to phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Ferredoxin-NADP reductase, present in bacteria in genus Azotobacter, is an important enzyme for NADH/NAD+ equilibrium regulation in hydrogen production. The archaeal functional proteins are mainly involved in methane metabolism in energy metabolism, such as acetyl-CoA decarboxylase, and methyl-coenzyme M reductase, and the acetic acid pathway exhibited the highest proportion of the total. The archaea of genus Methanosarcina in phylum Euryarchaeota can produce methane under the effect of multi-functional proteins through acetic acid, CO2 reduction, and methyl nutrient pathways. The study demonstrates metaproteomics as a new way of uncovering community functional and metabolic activity. The combined information was used to identify the metabolic pathways and organisms crucial for lignocellulosic biomass degradation and biogas production. This also regulates the process from its protein levels and improves the efficiency of biogas production using reed straw biomass.

  5. Metaproteomics analysis of the functional insights into microbial communities of combined hydrogen and methane production by anaerobic fermentation from reed straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    A metaproteomic approach was used to analyse the proteins expressed and provide functional evidence of key metabolic pathways in the combined production of hydrogen and methane by anaerobic fermentation (CHMP-AF) for reed straw utilisation. The functions and structures of bacteria and archaea populations show significant succession in the CHMP-AF process. There are many kinds of bacterial functional proteins, mainly belonging to phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. Ferredoxin-NADP reductase, present in bacteria in genus Azotobacter, is an important enzyme for NADH/NAD+ equilibrium regulation in hydrogen production. The archaeal functional proteins are mainly involved in methane metabolism in energy metabolism, such as acetyl-CoA decarboxylase, and methyl-coenzyme M reductase, and the acetic acid pathway exhibited the highest proportion of the total. The archaea of genus Methanosarcina in phylum Euryarchaeota can produce methane under the effect of multi-functional proteins through acetic acid, CO2 reduction, and methyl nutrient pathways. The study demonstrates metaproteomics as a new way of uncovering community functional and metabolic activity. The combined information was used to identify the metabolic pathways and organisms crucial for lignocellulosic biomass degradation and biogas production. This also regulates the process from its protein levels and improves the efficiency of biogas production using reed straw biomass. PMID:28817657

  6. A new method for the simultaneous enhancement of methane yield and reduction of hydrogen sulfide production in the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Hu, Chongliang; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang

    2017-11-01

    The biogas generated from anaerobic digestion (AD) also includes undesirable by-product such as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which must be removed before the biogas can be used as a clean energy source. Therefore, it is necessary to find an appropriate strategy to simultaneously enhance the methane yield and reduce H 2 S production. An efficient strategy-pretreating sludge at pH 10 for 8d and adjusting the system at neutral pH to produce methane for 20d-is reported for the synchronous enhancement of methane production and reduction of H 2 S production during AD. The experimental results showed that the cumulative methane yield was 861.2±6.1mL/g volatile solids (VS) of sludge pretreated at pH 10 in semi-continuous stirred anaerobic reactors for 84d, an increase of 49.6% over the yield in the control. Meanwhile, the cumulative production of H 2 S was 144.1×10 -4 mL/g VS, 54.2% lower than that in the control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Production of Methane, Hydrogen, and Organic Compounds in Ultramafic-Hosted Hydrothermal Vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlou, J.L.; Holm, N.G.; Mousis, O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both hydrogen and methane are consistently discharged in large quantities in hydrothermal fluids issued from ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields discovered along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Considering the vast number of these fields discovered or inferred, hydrothermal fluxes represent a significant input of H2 and CH4 to the ocean. Although there are lines of evidence of their abiogenic formation from stable C and H isotope results, laboratory experiments, and thermodynamic data, neither their origin nor the reaction pathways generating these gases have been fully constrained yet. Organic compounds detected in the fluids may also be derived from abiotic reactions. Although thermodynamics are favorable and extensive experimental work has been done on Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions, for instance, nothing is clear yet about their origin and formation mechanism from actual data. Since chemolithotrophic microbial communities commonly colonize hydrothermal vents, biogenic and thermogenic processes are likely to contribute to the production of H2, CH4, and other organic compounds. There seems to be a consensus toward a mixed origin (both sources and processes) that is consistent with the ambiguous nature of the isotopic data. But the question that remains is, to what proportions? More systematic experiments as well as integrated geochemical approaches are needed to disentangle hydrothermal geochemistry. This understanding is of prime importance considering the implications of hydrothermal H2, CH4, and organic compounds for the ocean global budget, global cycles, and the origin of life. Key Words: Hydrogen—Methane—Organics—MAR—Abiotic synthesis—Serpentinization—Ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal vents. Astrobiology 15, 381–399. PMID:25984920

  8. Co-production of hydrogen and methane from herbal medicine wastewater by a combined UASB system with immobilized sludge (H2 production) and UASB system with suspended sludge (CH4 production).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caiyu; Hao, Ping; Qin, Bida; Wang, Bing; Di, Xueying; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    An upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) system with sludge immobilized on granular activated carbon was developed for fermentative hydrogen production continuously from herbal medicine wastewater at various organic loading rates (8-40 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) d(-1)). The maximum hydrogen production rate reached 10.0 (±0.17) mmol L(-1) hr(-1) at organic loading rate of 24 g COD L(-1) d(-1), which was 19.9% higher than that of suspended sludge system. The effluents of hydrogen fermentation were used for continuous methane production in the subsequent UASB system. At hydraulic retention time of 15 h, the maximum methane production rate of 5.49 (±0.03) mmol L(-1) hr(-1) was obtained. The total energy recovery rate by co-production of hydrogen and methane was evaluated to be 7.26 kJ L(-1) hr(-1).

  9. Combustion of methane-oxygen and methane-oxygen-CFC mixtures initiated by a high-current slipping surface discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossyi, I.A.; Silakov, V.P.; Tarasova, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the destruction of chlorofluorocarbon (CF 2 Cl 2 ) molecules in a methane-oxygen (air) gas mixture whose combustion is initiated by a high-current slipping surface discharge. It is found that a three-component CH 4 + O 2 (air)+ CF 2 Cl 2 gas mixture (even with a considerable amount of the third component) demonstrates properties of explosive combustion involving chain reactions that are typical of two-component CH 4 + O 2 mixtures. Experiments show the high degree of destruction (almost complete decomposition) of chlorofluorocarbons contained in the mixture during one combustion event. The combustion dynamics is studied. It is shown that the combustion initiated by a slipping surface discharge has a number of characteristic features that make it impossible to identify the combustion dynamics with the formation of a combustion or detonation wave. The features of the effects observed can be related to intense UV radiation produced by a pulsed high-current surface discharge

  10. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10 15 cm -3 has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium β-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H 2 with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10 7 cm -3 and are estimated to contain 10 8 H atoms each

  11. High-pressure torsion for new hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, Kaveh; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2018-01-01

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) is widely used as a severe plastic deformation technique to create ultrafine-grained structures with promising mechanical and functional properties. Since 2007, the method has been employed to enhance the hydrogenation kinetics in different Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Recent studies showed that the method is effective not only for increasing the hydrogenation kinetics but also for improving the hydrogenation activity, for enhancing the air resistivity and more importantly for synthesizing new nanostructured hydrogen storage materials with high densities of lattice defects. This manuscript reviews some major findings on the impact of HPT process on the hydrogen storage performance of different titanium-based and magnesium-based materials.

  12. Rapid sediment accumulation results in high methane effluxes from coastal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372629199; Lenstra, W.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411295977; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip; Sapart, C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31400596X; van der Veen, C.; Röckmann, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159424003

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings,

  13. An integrated approach for estimation of methane emissions from wetlands and lakes in high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C.; Bowling, L. C.; Podest, E.; Bohn, T. J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of significant alteration in the extent of lakes and wetlands in high latitude regions due in part to thawing permafrost, as well as other changes governing surface and subsurface hydrology. Methane is a 23 times more efficient greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide; changes in surface water extent, and the associated subsurface anaerobic conditions, are important controls on methane emissions in high latitude regions. Methane emissions from wetlands vary substantially in both time and space, and are influenced by plant growth, soil organic matter decomposition, methanogenesis, and methane oxidation controlled by soil temperature, water table level and net primary productivity (NPP). The understanding of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of surface saturation, thermal regime and carbon substrate in northern Eurasian wetlands from point measurements are limited. In order to better estimate the magnitude and variability of methane emissions from northern lakes and wetlands, we present an integrated assessment approach based on remote sensing image classification, land surface modeling and process-based ecosystem modeling. Wetlands classifications based on L-band JERS-1 SAR (100m) and ALOS PALSAR (~30m) are used together with topographic information to parameterize a lake and wetland algorithm in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model at 25 km resolution. The enhanced VIC algorithm allows subsurface moisture exchange between surface water and wetlands and includes a sub-grid parameterization of water table position within the wetland area using a generalized topographic index. Average methane emissions are simulated by using the Walter and Heimann methane emission model based on temporally and spatially varying soil temperature, net primary productivity and water table generated from the modified VIC model. Our five preliminary study areas include the Z. Dvina, Upper Volga, Yeloguy, Syum, and Chaya

  14. Numerical study of the behavior of methane-hydrogen/air pre-mixed flame in a micro reactor equipped with catalytic segmented bluff body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Tabejamaat, Sadegh; Zarvandi, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    In this work, combustion characteristics of premixed methane-hydrogen/air in a micro reactor equipped with a catalytic bluff body is investigated numerically. In this regard, the detailed chemistry schemes for gas phase (homogeneous) and the catalyst surface (heterogeneous) are used. The applied catalytic bluff body is coated with a thin layer of platinum (Pt) on its surface. Also, the lean reactive mixture is entered to the reactor with equivalence ratio 0.9. The results of this study showed that the use of catalytic bluff body in the center of a micro reactor can significantly increase the flame stability, especially at high velocities. Moreover, it is found that a catalytic bluff body with several cavities on its surface and also high thermal conductivity improves the flame stability more than a catalytic bluff body without cavities and low thermal conductivity. Finally, it is maintained that the most advantage of using the catalytic bluff body is its easy manufacturing process as compared to the catalytic wall. This matter seems to be more prevalent when we want to create several cavities with various sizes on the bluff-body. - Highlights: • Presence of a bluff body in a micro reactor can move the flame towards the upstream. • Catalytic bluff body can significantly increase flame stability at high velocities. • Creating non-catalytic cavities on the bluff body promotes homogeneous reactions. • Segmented catalytic bluff body improves the flame stability more than a simple one. • Creating the segments on a bluff body is easier compared to a wall

  15. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ceramic gas separation membranes can provide very high separation factors if the pore size is sufficiently small to separate gas molecules by molecular sieving and if oversized pores are adequately limited. Ceramic membranes typically have some pores that are substantially larger than the mean pore size and that should be regarded as defects. To assess the effects of such defects on the performance of ceramic membranes, a simple mathematical model has been developed to describe flow through a gas separation membrane that has a primary mode of flow through very small pores but that has a secondary mode of flow through undesirably large pores. This model permits separation factors to be calculated for a specified gas pair as a function of the molecular weights and molecular diameters of the gases, the membrane pore diameter, and the diameter and number of defects. This model will be described, and key results from the model will be presented. The separation factors of the authors membranes continue to be determined using a permeance test system that measures flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275{degrees}C. A primary goal of this project for FY 1996 is to develop a mixed gas separation system for measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at higher temperatures. Performance criteria have been established for the planned mixed gas separation system and design of the system has been completed. The test system is designed to measure the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600{degrees}C and pressures up to 100 psi by separating the constituents of a gas mixture containing hydrogen. The system will accommodate the authors typical experimental membrane that is tubular and has a diameter of about 9 mm and a length of about 23 cm. The design of the new test system and its expected performance will be discussed.

  16. High performance biological methanation in a thermophilic anaerobic trickle bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strübing, Dietmar; Huber, Bettina; Lebuhn, Michael; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad

    2017-12-01

    In order to enhance energy efficiency of biological methanation of CO 2 and H 2 , this study investigated the performance of a thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic trickle bed reactor (ATBR) (58.1L) at ambient pressure. With a methane production rate of up to 15.4m 3 CH4 /(m 3 trickle bed ·d) at methane concentrations above 98%, the ATBR can easily compete with the performance of other mixed culture methanation reactors. Control of pH and nutrient supply turned out to be crucial for stable operation and was affected significantly by dilution due to metabolic water production, especially during demand-orientated operation. Considering practical applications, inoculation with digested sludge, containing a diverse biocenosis, showed high adaptive capacity due to intrinsic biological diversity. However, no macroscopic biofilm formation was observed at thermophilic conditions even after 313days of operation. The applied approach illustrates the high potential of thermophilic ATBRs as a very efficient energy conversion and storage technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Supported Catalysts for CO2 Methanation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Frontera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CO2 methanation is a well-known reaction that is of interest as a capture and storage (CCS process and as a renewable energy storage system based on a power-to-gas conversion process by substitute or synthetic natural gas (SNG production. Integrating water electrolysis and CO2 methanation is a highly effective way to store energy produced by renewables sources. The conversion of electricity into methane takes place via two steps: hydrogen is produced by electrolysis and converted to methane by CO2 methanation. The effectiveness and efficiency of power-to-gas plants strongly depend on the CO2 methanation process. For this reason, research on CO2 methanation has intensified over the last 10 years. The rise of active, selective, and stable catalysts is the core of the CO2 methanation process. Novel, heterogeneous catalysts have been tested and tuned such that the CO2 methanation process increases their productivity. The present work aims to give a critical overview of CO2 methanation catalyst production and research carried out in the last 50 years. The fundamentals of reaction mechanism, catalyst deactivation, and catalyst promoters, as well as a discussion of current and future developments in CO2 methanation, are also included.

  18. Raman Spectra of Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrogen in a Methane Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, D. V.; Matrosov, I. I.; Sedinkin, D. O.; Zaripov, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in the Raman spectra of N2, H2, and CO2 are studied in the range of 200-3800 cm-1 depending on the concentration of surrounding CH4 molecules at a fixed medium pressure of 25 atm and temperature of 300 K. It has been found that changes in the spectral characteristics of purely rotational H2 lines in a CH4 medium are negligible, while the Q-branches of the v 1/2 v 2 Fermi dyad in CO2 become narrower and wavenumbers of its high-frequency component and v 1 band of N2 decrease. In addition, under these conditions, the ratio of intensities of the CO2 Fermi dyad Q-branch varies in proportion to the concentration of surrounding molecules of CH4. The obtained data will be used in diagnosing the composition of natural gas using Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Kinetic modeling study of homogeneous ignition of dimethyl ether/hydrogen and dimethyl ether/methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Hong; Ke, Xichun; Shen, Zhenxing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Kinetic effects on the homogeneous ignitions of DME/H_2 and DME/CH_4 were studied. • Ignition delays with different DME blending ratio were determined and analyzed. • Different DME ignition combustion trends are found for H_2 and CH_4 addition. • Key elementary reactions are identified at different DME ratios and temperatures. - Abstract: Homogeneous ignition combustion of different proportion DME/H_2 and DME/CH_4 blend fuels in the air is investigated through the numerical simulation with the detailed chemistry at the low and high temperatures in this paper. The emphasis is the assessment of the kinetic effects involved in the ignition combustion of DME/H_2 and DME/CH_4 dual-fuel. It is found that the homogeneous ignition process has a clear distinction at the different temperatures. At the low temperature (900 K), the ignition delay times of DME/H_2 blends and DME/CH_4 blends both show an increase with a decrease of the DME blending ratio; furthermore, it is observed that CH_4 addition is more effective than H_2 addition in terms of delaying the DME homogeneous ignition due to the stable molecular structure of CH_4. At the high temperature (1400 K), with the decrease of DME blending ratio, the ignition delay time of DME/CH_4 blends is still increased, whereas, the ignition delay time of DME/H_2 blends is shortened. Sensitivity analysis, reaction path analysis and main pollutant species calculation are carried out and key elementary reactions involved in homogeneous ignition of DME/H_2 and DME/CH_4 dual fuel are also identified in this paper.

  20. Hydrogen Pressurization of LOX: High Risk/High Reward (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Andrew E; Leichner, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    ... filled with hydrogen gas. Airship commercial service, enabled by relatively low-cost hydrogen, died along with the longest vehicle ever to fly, even though thousands of passengers had been transported without incident prior to that time...

  1. Abiotic production of methane in terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Marmolejo, Andrés; Segura, Antígona; Escobar-Briones, Elva

    2013-06-01

    On Earth, methane is produced mainly by life, and it has been proposed that, under certain conditions, methane detected in an exoplanetary spectrum may be considered a biosignature. Here, we estimate how much methane may be produced in hydrothermal vent systems by serpentinization, its main geological source, using the kinetic properties of the main reactions involved in methane production by serpentinization. Hydrogen production by serpentinization was calculated as a function of the available FeO in the crust, given the current spreading rates. Carbon dioxide is the limiting reactant for methane formation because it is highly depleted in aqueous form in hydrothermal vent systems. We estimated maximum CH4 surface fluxes of 6.8×10(8) and 1.3×10(9) molecules cm(-2) s(-1) for rocky planets with 1 and 5 M⊕, respectively. Using a 1-D photochemical model, we simulated atmospheres with volume mixing ratios of 0.03 and 0.1 CO2 to calculate atmospheric methane concentrations for the maximum production of this compound by serpentinization. The resulting abundances were 2.5 and 2.1 ppmv for 1 M⊕ planets and 4.1 and 3.7 ppmv for 5 M⊕ planets. Therefore, low atmospheric concentrations of methane may be produced by serpentinization. For habitable planets around Sun-like stars with N2-CO2 atmospheres, methane concentrations larger than 10 ppmv may indicate the presence of life.

  2. Assessing the High Temperature, High Pressure Subsurface for Anaerobic Methane Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. L.; Bartlett, D.; Byrnes, A. W.; Walsh, K. M.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Onstott, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important sink in the global methane (CH4) budget. ANMEs are known to oxidize CH4 either independently or in consortia with bacteria, coupling the reduction of electron acceptors such as, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, Mn4+, or Fe3+. To further constrain the contribution of AOM to the global CH4 budget, it is important to assess unexplored environments where AOM is thermodynamically possible such as the high pressure, high temperature deep biosphere. Provided plausible electron acceptor availability, increased temperature and pCH4 yield favorable Gibbs free energies for AOM reactions and the production of ATP (Fig. 1). To date, only sulfate-dependent AOM metabolism has been documented under high temperature conditions (50-72˚C), and AOM has not been assessed above 10.1 MPa. Given that ANMEs share close phylogenetic and metabolic heritage with methanogens and that the most heat-tolerant microorganism known is a barophilic methanogen, there possibly exist thermophilic ANMEs. Here we describe preliminary results from high pressure, high temperature stable isotope tracer incubation experiments on deep biosphere samples. Deep sub-seafloor sediments collected by IODP 370 from the Nankai Trough (257 - 865 m below seafloor) and deep fracture fluid from South Africa (1339 m below land surface) were incubated anaerobically in hydrostatic pressure vessels at 40 MPa in simulated in situ temperatures (40˚ - 80˚C). Sediments and fracture fluid were incubated in sulfate-free artificial seawater, a 2:98 13CH4:N2 headspace, and treated with one of the potential electron acceptors listed above in addition to kill and endogenous activity (i.e. no added electron acceptor) controls. Stable isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) suggests that AOM occurred within 60 days of incubation for all investigated electron acceptors and temperatures except 50˚C. Sulfate-dependent AOM rates are consistent with those previously reported in the

  3. New perspectives on potential hydrogen storage materials using high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    2013-09-21

    In addressing the global demand for clean and renewable energy, hydrogen stands out as the most suitable candidate for many fuel applications that require practical and efficient storage of hydrogen. Supplementary to the traditional hydrogen storage methods and materials, the high-pressure technique has emerged as a novel and unique approach to developing new potential hydrogen storage materials. Static compression of materials may result in significant changes in the structures, properties and performance that are important for hydrogen storage applications, and often lead to the formation of unprecedented phases or complexes that have profound implications for hydrogen storage. In this perspective article, 22 types of representative potential hydrogen storage materials that belong to four major classes--simple hydride, complex hydride, chemical hydride and hydrogen containing materials--were reviewed. In particular, their structures, stabilities, and pressure-induced transformations, which were reported in recent experimental works together with supporting theoretical studies, were provided. The important contextual aspects pertinent to hydrogen storage associated with novel structures and transitions were discussed. Finally, the summary of the recent advances reviewed and the insight into the future research in this direction were given.

  4. Hydrogen production from biomass pyrolysis gas via high temperature steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongchang, Thawatchai; Patumsawad, Suthum

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this work has been undertaken as part of the design of continuous hydrogen production using the high temperature steam reforming process. The steady-state test condition was carried out using syngas from biomass pyrolysis, whilst operating at high temperatures between 600 and 1200 degree Celsius. The main reformer operating parameters (e.g. temperature, resident time and steam to biomass ratio (S/B)) have been examined in order to optimize the performance of the reformer. The operating temperature is a key factor in determining the extent to which hydrogen production is increased at higher temperatures (900 -1200 degree Celsius) whilst maintaining the same as resident time and S/B ratio. The effects of exhaust gas composition on heating value were also investigated. The steam reforming process produced methane (CH 4 ) and ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) between 600 to 800 degree Celsius and enhanced production ethane (C 2 H 6 ) at 700 degree Celsius. However carbon monoxide (CO) emission was slightly increased for higher temperatures all conditions. The results show that the use of biomass pyrolysis gas can produce higher hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming. In addition the increasing reformer efficiency needs to be optimized for different operating conditions. (author)

  5. Utilization of heat from High Temperature Reactors (HTR) for dry reforming of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    One of the methods for utilization of waste carbon dioxide consists in reaction of methane with carbon dioxide, referred to as dry reforming of methane. It is an intensely endothermic catalytic process that takes place at the temperature above 700°C. Reaction of methane with carbon dioxide leads to formation of synthesis gas (syngas) that is a valuable chemical raw material. The energy that is necessary for the process to take place can be sourced from High Temperature Nuclear Reactors (HTR). The completed studies comprises a series of thermodynamic calculations and made it possible to establish optimum conditions for the process and demand for energy from HTR units. The dry reforming of methane needs also a catalytic agent with appropriate activity, therefore the hydrotalcite catalyser with admixture of cerium and nickel, developed at AGH University of Technology seems to be a promising solution. Thus, the researchers from the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW) in Zabrze have developed a methodology for production of the powdery hydrotalcite catalyser and investigated catalytic properties of the granulate obtained. The completed experiments confirmed that the new catalyser demonstrated high activity and is suitable for the process of methane dry reforming. In addition, optimum parameters of the were process (800°C, CO2:CH4 = 3:1) were established as well. Implementation of the technology in question into industrial practice, combined with utilization of HTR heat can be a promising method for management of waste carbon dioxide and may eventually lead to mitigation of the greenhouse effect.

  6. Effect of high pressure hydrogen on low-cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rie, K.T.; Kohler, W.

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that the fatigue life can be influenced in low-cycle range by high pressure hydrogen while the effect of high pressure hydrogen on high-cycle fatigue will not be as significant. The paper reports the details and the results of the investigations of the effect of high pressure hydrogen on the low-cycle endurance of commercially pure titanium. The results of this study indicate that: 1. The degradation of the fatigue life in low-cycle region for commercially pure titanium under high pressure hydrogen can be described by Nsub(cr)sup(α x Δepsilon)sub(pl)sup(=c) 2. The fatigue life decreases with decreasing strain rate. 3. The fatigue life decreases with increasing hydrogen pressure. It was found that the semilogarithmic plot of the fatigue life versus the hydrogen pressure gives a linear relationship. The Sievert's law does not hold in low-cycle fatigue region. 4. HAC in titanium in low-cycle fatigue region is the result of the disolution of hydrogen at the crack tip and of the strain-induced hybride formation. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  7. Premixer Design for High Hydrogen Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin P. Lacy; Keith R. McManus; Balachandar Varatharajan; Biswadip Shome

    2005-12-16

    This 21-month project translated DLN technology to the unique properties of high hydrogen content IGCC fuels, and yielded designs in preparation for a future testing and validation phase. Fundamental flame characterization, mixing, and flame property measurement experiments were conducted to tailor computational design tools and criteria to create a framework for predicting nozzle operability (e.g., flame stabilization, emissions, resistance to flashback/flame-holding and auto-ignition). This framework was then used to establish, rank, and evaluate potential solutions to the operability challenges of IGCC combustion. The leading contenders were studied and developed with the most promising concepts evaluated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and using the design rules generated by the fundamental experiments, as well as using GE's combustion design tools and practices. Finally, the project scoped the necessary steps required to carry the design through mechanical and durability review, testing, and validation, towards full demonstration of this revolutionary technology. This project was carried out in three linked tasks with the following results. (1) Develop conceptual designs of premixer and down-select the promising options. This task defined the ''gap'' between existing design capabilities and the targeted range of IGCC fuel compositions and evaluated the current capability of DLN pre-mixer designs when operated at similar conditions. Two concepts (1) swirl based and (2) multiple point lean direct injection based premixers were selected via a QFD from 13 potential design concepts. (2) Carry out CFD on chosen options (1 or 2) to evaluate operability risks. This task developed the leading options down-selected in Task 1. Both a GE15 swozzle based premixer and a lean direct injection concept were examined by performing a detailed CFD study wherein the aerodynamics of the design, together with the chemical kinetics of the

  8. Reaction of methane with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K.; Batts, B.D.; Wilson, M.A.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Maa, P.S.; Long, M.A.; He, S.J.X.; Attala, M.I. [Macquarie University, Macquarie, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    A study of the reactivities of Australian coals and one American coal with methane or methane-hydrogen mixtures, in the range 350-400{degree}C and a range of pressures (6.0-8.3 MPa, cold) is reported. The effects of aluminophosphates (AIPO) or zeolite catalysts, with and without exchanged metals, on reactivity have also been examined. Yields of dichloromethane extractable material are increased by using a methane rather than a nitrogen atmosphere and different catalysts assist dissolution to various extends. It appears that surface exchanged catalysts are effective, but incorporating metals during AIPO lattice formation is detrimental. Aluminium phosphate catalysts are unstable to water produced during coal conversion, but are still able to increase extraction yields. For the American coal, under methane-hydrogen and a copper exchanged zeolite, 51.5% conversion was obtained, with a product selectivity close to that obtained under hydrogen alone, and with only 2% hydrogen consumption. The conversion under methane-hydrogen was also to that obtained under hydrogen alone, while a linear dependence of conversion on proportion of methane would predict a 43% conversion under methane-hydrogen. This illustrates a synergistic effect of the methane-hydrogen atmosphere for coal liquefaction using this catalyst systems. 31 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements on atmospheric methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brass

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS technique for high-precision δD and δ13C measurements of atmospheric methane on 40 mL air samples. CH4 is separated from other air components by utilizing purely physical processes based on temperature, time and mechanical valve switching. Chemical agents are avoided. Trace amounts of interfering compounds can be separated by gas chromatography after pre-concentration of the CH4 sample. The purified sample is then either combusted to CO2 or pyrolyzed to H2 for stable isotope measurement. Apart from connecting samples and refilling liquid nitrogen as coolant the system is fully automated and allows an unobserved, continuous analysis of samples. The analytical system has been used for analysis of air samples with CH4 mixing ratios between ~100 and ~10 000 ppb, for higher mixing ratios samples usually have to be diluted.

  10. A non-LTE model for the Jovian methane infrared emissions at high spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Decola, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution spectra of Jupiter in the 3.3 micrometer region have so far failed to reveal either the continuum or the line emissions that can be unambiguously attributed to the nu(sub 3) band of methane (Drossart et al. 1993; Kim et al. 1991). Nu(sub 3) line intensities predicted with the help of two simple non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) models -- a two-level model and a three-level model, using experimentally determined relaxation coefficients, are shown to be one to three orders of magnitude respectively below the 3-sigma noise level of these observations. Predicted nu(sub 4) emission intensities are consistent with observed values. If the methane mixing ratio below the homopause is assumed as 2 x 10(exp -3), a value of about 300 K is derived as an upper limit to the temperature of the high stratosphere at microbar levels.

  11. Hydrogenation and high temperature oxidation of Zirconium claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, T.; Perez-Feró, E.; Horváth, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years a new series of experiments started for supporting the new LOCA criteria, considering the proposals of US NRC. The effects which can cause the embrittlement of VVER fuel claddings were reviewed and evaluated in the framework of the project. The purpose of the work was to determine how the fuel cladding’s hydrogen uptake under normal operating conditions, effect the behavior of the cladding under LOCA conditions. As a first step a gas system equipment with gas valves and pressure gauge was built, in which the zirconium alloy can absorb hydrogen under controlled conditions. In this apparatus E110 (produced by electrolytic method, currently used at Paks NPP) and E110G (produced by a new technology) alloys were hydrogenated to predetermined hydrogen contents. According the results of ring compression tests the E110G alloys lose their ductility above 3200 ppm hydrogen content. This limit can be applied to determine the ductile-brittle transition of the nuclear fuel claddings. After the hydrogenation, high temperature oxidation experiments were carried out on the E110G and E110 samples at 1000 °C and 1200 °C. 16 pieces of E110G and 8 samples of E110 with 300 ppm and 600 ppm hydrogen content were tested. The oxidation of the specimens was performed in steam, under isothermal conditions. Based on the ring compression tests load-displacement curves were recorded. The main objective of the compression tests was to determine the ductile-brittle transition. These results were compared to the results of our previous experiments where the samples did not contain hydrogen. The original claddings showed more ductile behavior than the samples with hydrogen content. The higher hydrogen content resulted in a more brittle mechanical behavior. However no significant difference was observed in the oxidation kinetics of the same cladding types with different hydrogen content. The experiments showed that the normal operating hydrogen uptake of the fuel claddings

  12. NO{sub x} formation in lean premixed combustion of methane at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, K U.M.; Griebel, P; Schaeren, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    High pressure experiments in a jet-stirred reactor have been performed to study the NO{sub x} formation in lean premixed combustion of methane/air mixtures. The experimental results are compared with numerical predictions using four well known reaction mechanisms and a model which consists of a series of two perfectly stirred reactors and a plug flow reactor. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  13. Solubility of Methane in the Mixture of Ethanol+Hexane at High Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华超; 马沛生; 夏淑倩; 白鹏

    2005-01-01

    Solubility data were first presented for methane in the mixture of ethanol-hexane at temperatures from 291.15K to 318.15K and pressures up to 12.00MPa. The experimental data were correlated by PR and PRSV equations of state with rms errors of about 0.051. The A-K and Y-W-A-K models were both used to estimate liquid molar volume under high pressure. The results were satisfactory.

  14. Atomic hydrogen effects on high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantskevich, N.V.; Ulyashin, A.G.; Alifanov, A.V.; Stepanenko, A.V.; Fedotova, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The atomic hydrogen effects on the properties of bulk high-temperature superconductors were investigated. It is shown that the insertion of the atomic hydrogen into the bulk of these materials from a DC plasma leads to the increase of the critical current density J c for YBaCuO(123) as well as for BiSrCaCuO(2223) high-temperature superconductors. It is found that the hydrogenation of the He implanted samples with following annealing leads to the optically detected blistering on the surface. It means that the textured thin subsurface layers of high-temperature superconductors can be formed by this method. The improvement of superconductivity by atomic hydrogen can be explained by the passivation of dangling bonds and defects on grain boundaries of these materials

  15. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  16. Recovery of high-purity hydrogen from COG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiyama, Y

    1982-01-01

    A general account of the latest trends in the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas (COG), the article being based on both Japanese and overseas literature: 1) Deep-freeze separation: impurities are liquefied and removed. This method make use of the fact that hydrogen is hard to liquefy. 2) The PSA method: high-purity hydrogen is recovered by the adsorption of other constituents at high pressures. This technique makes use of the fact that the adsorption capacity of an adsorbent varies with the partial pressure of the substances being adsorbed. 3) Membrane separation: a permeation separation method that uses a functional polymer separation membrane, and that depends on the fact that hydrogen has a low molecular weight in comparison with the other constituents. (19 refs.) (In Japanese)

  17. Combination volumetric and gravimetric sorption instrument for high accuracy measurements of methane adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald; Troub, Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The accurate measurement of adsorbed gas up to high pressures (˜100 bars) is critical for the development of new materials for adsorbed gas storage. The typical Sievert-type volumetric method introduces accumulating errors that can become large at maximum pressures. Alternatively, gravimetric methods employing microbalances require careful buoyancy corrections. In this paper, we present a combination gravimetric and volumetric system for methane sorption measurements on samples between ˜0.5 and 1 g. The gravimetric method described requires no buoyancy corrections. The tandem use of the gravimetric method allows for a check on the highest uncertainty volumetric measurements. The sources and proper calculation of uncertainties are discussed. Results from methane measurements on activated carbon MSC-30 and metal-organic framework HKUST-1 are compared across methods and within the literature.

  18. Ignition during hydrogen release from high pressure into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczak, P.; Wolanski, P.

    2010-12-01

    The first investigations concerned with a problem of hydrogen jet ignition, during outflow from a high-pressure vessel were carried out nearly 40 years ago by Wolanski and Wojcicki. The research resulted from a dramatic accident in the Chorzow Chemical Plant Azoty, where the explosion of a synthesis gas made up of a mixture composed of three moles of hydrogen per mole of nitrogen, at 300°C and 30 MPa killed four people. Initial investigation had excluded potential external ignition sources and the main aim of the research was to determine the cause of ignition. Hydrogen is currently considered as a potential fuel for various vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, etc. Crucial safety issues are of potential concern, associated with the storage of hydrogen at a very high pressure. Indeed, the evidence obtained nearly 40 years ago shows that sudden rupture of a high-pressure hydrogen storage tank or other component can result in ignition and potentially explosion. The aim of the present research is identification of the conditions under which hydrogen ignition occurs as a result of compression and heating of the air by the shock wave generated by discharge of high-pressure hydrogen. Experiments have been conducted using a facility constructed in the Combustion Laboratory of the Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology. Tests under various configurations have been performed to determine critical conditions for occurrence of high-pressure hydrogen ignition. The results show that a critical pressure exists, leading to ignition, which depends mainly on the geometric configuration of the outflow system, such as tube diameter, and on the presence of obstacles.

  19. Hydrogen production from fusion reactors coupled with high temperature electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and complement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Processes which may be considered for this purpose include electrolysis, thermochemical decomposition or thermochemical-electrochemical hybrid cycles. Preliminary studies at Brookhaven indicate that high temperature electrolysis has the highest potential efficiency for production of hydrogen from fusion. Depending on design electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60 percent and hydrogen production efficiencies of approximately 50 to 70 percent are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets

  20. High temperature equation of state of metallic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, V. T.

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state of liquid metallic hydrogen is solved numerically. Investigations are carried out at temperatures from 3000 to 20 000 K and densities from 0.2 to 3 mol/cm 3 , which correspond both to the experimental conditions under which metallic hydrogen is produced on earth and the conditions in the cores of giant planets of the solar system such as Jupiter and Saturn. It is assumed that hydrogen is in an atomic state and all its electrons are collectivized. Perturbation theory in the electron-proton interaction is applied to determine the thermodynamic potentials of metallic hydrogen. The electron subsystem is considered in the randomphase approximation with regard to the exchange interaction and the correlation of electrons in the local-field approximation. The proton-proton interaction is taken into account in the hard-spheres approximation. The thermodynamic characteristics of metallic hydrogen are calculated with regard to the zero-, second-, and third-order perturbation theory terms. The third-order term proves to be rather essential at moderately high temperatures and densities, although it is much smaller than the second-order term. The thermodynamic potentials of metallic hydrogen are monotonically increasing functions of density and temperature. The values of pressure for the temperatures and pressures that are characteristic of the conditions under which metallic hydrogen is produced on earth coincide with the corresponding values reported by the discoverers of metallic hydrogen to a high degree of accuracy. The temperature and density ranges are found in which there exists a liquid phase of metallic hydrogen

  1. Measuring Methane from Cars, Ships, Airplanes, Helicopters and Drones Using High-Speed Open-Path Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Anderson, Tyler; Biraud, Sebastien; Caulton, Dana; von Fischer, Joe; Gioli, Beniamino; Hanson, Chad; Ham, Jay; Kohnert, Katrin; Larmanou, Eric; Levy, Peter; Polidori, Andrea; Pikelnaya, Olga; Sachs, Torsten; Serafimovich, Andrei; Zaldei, Alessandro; Zondlo, Mark; Zulueta, Rommel

    2017-04-01

    Methane plays a critical role in the radiation balance, chemistry of the atmosphere, and air quality. The major anthropogenic sources of methane include oil and gas development sites, natural gas distribution networks, landfill emissions, and agricultural production. The majority of oil and gas and urban methane emission occurs via variable-rate point sources or diffused spots in topographically challenging terrains (e.g., street tunnels, elevated locations at water treatment plants, vents, etc.). Locating and measuring such methane emissions is challenging when using traditional micrometeorological techniques, and requires development of novel approaches. Landfill methane emissions traditionally assessed at monthly or longer time intervals are subject to large uncertainties because of the snapshot nature of the measurements and the barometric pumping phenomenon. The majority of agricultural and natural methane production occurs in areas with little infrastructure or easily available grid power (e.g., rice fields, arctic and boreal wetlands, tropical mangroves, etc.). A lightweight, high-speed, high-resolution, open-path technology was recently developed for eddy covariance measurements of methane flux, with power consumption 30-150 times below other available technologies. It was designed to run on solar panels or a small generator and be placed in the middle of the methane-producing ecosystem without a need for grid power. Lately, this instrumentation has been utilized increasingly more frequently outside of the traditional use on stationary flux towers. These novel approaches include measurements from various moving platforms, such as cars, aircraft, and ships. Projects included mapping of concentrations and vertical profiles, leak detection and quantification, mobile emission detection from natural gas-powered cars, soil methane flux surveys, etc. This presentation will describe the latest state of the key projects utilizing the novel lightweight low-power high

  2. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  3. Stability analysis of high temperature superconducting coil in liquid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, it is expected that hydrogen plays an important role in energy source including electric power in near future. Liquid hydrogen has high potential for cooling down superconducting coil wound with high temperature superconductors (HTS), such as BSCCO, YBCO. In this paper, we study stabilities of the coils wound with BSCCO tapes, which are immersed in the liquid hydrogen, and compare stability results with those cooled by liquid helium. We treat a minimum propagation zone (MPZ) theory to evaluate the coil stability considering boiling heat flux of the liquid hydrogen, and specific heat, heat conduction and resistivity of HTS materials as a function of temperature. It is found that the coil cooled by the liquid hydrogen has higher stability margin than that cooled by the liquid helium. We compare the stability margins of both coils wound with Bi-2223/Ag tape and Bi-2212/Ag tape in liquid hydrogen. As a result, it is found that the stability of Bi-2212 coil is equivalent to that of Bi-2223 coil in low and high magnetic field, while the maximum current of Bi-2212 coil exceeds a little bit that of Bi-2223 coil in both magnetic fields

  4. Conceptual design of a hydrogen production system by DME steam reforming and high-efficiency nuclear reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Ogawa, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen is a potential alternative energy source and produced commercially by methane (natural gas) or LPG steam reforming, a process that requires high temperatures, which are produced by burning fossil fuels. However, since this process emits large amounts of CO 2 , replacement of the combustion heat source with a nuclear heat source for 773-1173 K processes has been proposed in order to eliminate these CO 2 emissions. This paper proposes a novel method of low-temperature nuclear hydrogen production by reforming dimethyl ether (DME) with steam produced by a low-temperature nuclear reactor at about 573 K. The authors identified conditions that provide high hydrogen production fraction at low pressure and temperatures of about 523-573 K. By setting this low-temperature hydrogen production process at about 573K upstream from a turbine, it was found theoretically that the total energy utilization efficiency is about 50% and very high. By setting a turbine upstream of the hydrogen production plant, an overall efficiency of is 75% for an FBR and 76% for a supercritical-water cooled power reactor (SCPR). (author)

  5. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  6. The hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion improves the downstream methane production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, P; Dooms, M; Hattou, S; Benbelkacem, H

    2018-07-01

    The role of the hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion was investigated with a mixture of cattle slurry and maize silage with variable ratios (100, 70 and 30% volatile solids coming from cattle slurry). It was incubated for 48 h at 37, 55, 65 and 72 °C. Soluble chemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential were measured at 0, 24 and 48 h. Higher temperatures improved the amount of solubilized COD, which confirmed previously reported results. Nevertheless, solubilization mostly took place during the first 24 h. The rate of methane production in post-hydrolysis BMPs increased after 48 h hydrolysis time, but not after 24 h. The first order kinetic constant rose by 40% on average. No correlation was observed between soluble COD and downstream methane production rate, indicating a possible modification of the physical structure of the particulate solids during the hydrolytic stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. When immiscible becomes miscible-Methane in water at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruteanu, Ciprian G; Ackland, Graeme J; Poon, Wilson C K; Loveday, John S

    2017-08-01

    At low pressures, the solubility of gases in liquids is governed by Henry's law, which states that the saturated solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas. As the pressure increases, most gases depart from this ideal behavior in a sublinear fashion, leveling off at pressures in the 1- to 5-kbar (0.1 to 0.5 GPa) range with solubilities of less than 1 mole percent (mol %). This contrasts strikingly with the well-known marked increase in solubility of simple gases in water at high temperature associated with the critical point (647 K and 212 bar). The solubility of the smallest hydrocarbon, the simple gas methane, in water under a range of pressure and temperature is of widespread importance, because it is a paradigmatic hydrophobe and occurs widely in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geology. We report measurements up to 3.5 GPa of the pressure dependence of the solubility of methane in water at 100°C-well below the latter's critical temperature. Our results reveal a marked increase in solubility between 1 and 2 GPa, leading to a state above 2 GPa where the maximum solubility of methane in water exceeds 35 mol %.

  8. Fluidised bed membrane reactor for ultrapure hydrogen production via methane steam reforming: Experimental demonstration and model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, C.S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is emerging as a future alternative for mobile and stationary energy carriers in addition to its use in chemical and petrochemical applications. A novel multifunctional reactor concept has been developed for the production of ultrapure hydrogen View the MathML source from light hydrocarbons

  9. Fluidised bed membrane reactor for ultrapure hydrogen production via methane steam reforming: Experimental demonstration and model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, C.S.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is emerging as a future alternative for mobile and stationary energy carriers in addition to its use in chemical and petrochemical applications. A novel multifunctional reactor concept has been developed for the production of ultrapure hydrogen (<10 ppm CO) from light hydrocarbons such as

  10. Fine-scale community structure analysis of ANME in Nyegga sediments with high and low methane flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eRoalkvam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain knowledge on how regional variations in methane seepage rates influence the stratification, abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME we analyzed the vertical microbial stratification in a gravity core from a methane micro-seeping area at Nyegga by using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene tagged amplicons and quantitative PCR. The results were compared with previously obtained data from the more active G11 pockmark, characterized by higher methane flux. A downcore stratification and high relative abundance of ANME was observed in both cores, with transition from an ANME-2a/b dominated community in low-sulfide and low-methane horizons to ANME-1 dominance in horizons near the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ. The stratification was over a wider spatial region and at greater depth in the core with lower methane flux, and the total 16S rRNA copy numbers were two orders of magnitude lower than in the sediments at G11 pockmark. A fine-scale view into the ANME communities at each location was achieved through OTU clustering of ANME-affiliated sequences. The majority of ANME-1 sequences from both sampling sites clustered within one OTU, while ANME-2a/b sequences were represented in unique OTUs. We suggest that free living ANME-1 is the most abundant taxon in Nyegga cold seeps, and also the main consumer of methane. The specific ANME-2a/b ecotypes could reflect adaptations to the geochemical composition at each location, with different affinities to methane. Given that the ANME-2a/b population could be sustained in less active seepage areas, this subgroup could be potential seed populations in newly developed methane-enriched environments.

  11. Chemical effects of a high CO2 concentration in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Bentzen, L.L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation of methane in an atmospheric-pres sure flow reactor has been studied experimentally under highly diluted conditions in N-2 and CO2, respectively. The stoichiometry was varied from fuel-lean to fuel-rich, and the temperatures covered the range 1200-1800 K. The results were interpreted...... CO2. The high local CO levels may have implications for near-burner corrosion and stagging, but increased problems with CO emission in oxy-fuel combustion are not anticipated....

  12. Renewable carbohydrates are a potential high-density hydrogen carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Biological Systems Engineering Department, 210-A Seitz Hall, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The possibility of using renewable biomass carbohydrates as a potential high-density hydrogen carrier is discussed here. Gravimetric density of polysaccharides is 14.8 H{sub 2} mass% where water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H{sub 2} mass% without water recycling; volumetric densities of polysaccharides are >100 kg of H{sup 2}/m{sup 3}. Renewable carbohydrates (e.g., cellulosic materials and starch) are less expensive based on GJ than are other hydrogen carriers, such as hydrocarbons, biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, and ammonia. Biotransformation of carbohydrates to hydrogen by cell-free synthetic (enzymatic) pathway biotransformation (SyPaB) has numerous advantages, such as high product yield (12 H{sub 2}/glucose unit), 100% selectivity, high energy conversion efficiency (122%, based on combustion energy), high-purity hydrogen generated, mild reaction conditions, low-cost of bioreactor, few safety concerns, and nearly no toxicity hazards. Although SyPaB may suffer from current low reaction rates, numerous approaches for accelerating hydrogen production rates are proposed and discussed. Potential applications of carbohydrate-based hydrogen/electricity generation would include hydrogen bioreactors, home-size electricity generators, sugar batteries for portable electronics, sugar-powered passenger vehicles, and so on. Developments in thermostable enzymes as standardized building blocks for cell-free SyPaB projects, use of stable and low-cost biomimetic NAD cofactors, and accelerating reaction rates are among the top research and development priorities. International collaborations are urgently needed to solve the above obstacles within a short time. (author)

  13. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olijhoek, Dana; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike

    2016-01-01

    , microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1 g of nitrate....../kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16 d before sampling. Digesta...... of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake...

  14. Hydrogen production from high temperature electrolysis and fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, J.F.; Issacs, H.S.; Lazareth, O.; Powell, J.R.; Salzano, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from high temperature electrolysis of steam coupled with a fusion reactor is studied. The process includes three major components: the fusion reactor, the high temperature electrolyzer and the power conversion cycle each of which is discussed in the paper. Detailed process design and analysis of the system is examined. A parametric study on the effect of process efficiency is presented

  15. Thermoanalytical investigation of the hydrogen absorption behaviour of Sm2Fe17-xGax at high hydrogen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handstein, A.; Kubis, M.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.; Gutfleisch, O.; Harris, I.R.; Birmingham Univ.

    1998-01-01

    The complete disproportionation of Sm 2 Fe 17-x Ga x during annealing in hydrogen is hindered due to an increased stability of the compounds with a higher Ga content (x ≥ 1). Therefore the HD process as the first step of HDDR (hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination) has to be carried out at a high hydrogen pressure for x ≥ 1. The hydrogen absorption behaviour of Sm 2 Fe 17-x Ga x (x = 0, 0.5, 1 and 2) was investigated by means of hydrogen differential thermal analysis (HDTA) and high pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HPDSC) at hydrogen pressures up to 70 bar. A dependency of hydrogenation and disproportionation temperatures on hydrogen pressure and Ga content was found. The comparison with other substituents (M = Al and Si) instead of M = Ga showed an increased stability of Sm 2 Fe 17-x M x compounds against disproportionation by hydrogen in the sequence Al, Ga and Si. The Curie temperatures of the interstitially hydrogenated Th 2 Zn 17 -type materials increase with the hydrogen pressure. In order to produce coercive and thermally stable Sm 2 Fe 15 Ga 2 C y powder by means of the HDDR process, we recombined material disproportionated at different hydrogen pressures. Preliminary results of magnetic properties of this HDDR treated and gas-carburized Sm 2 Fe 15 Ga 2 C y are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Modelling of hydrogen permeability of membranes for high-purity hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaika, Yury V.; Rodchenkova, Natalia I.

    2017-11-01

    High-purity hydrogen is required for clean energy and a variety of chemical technology processes. Different alloys, which may be well-suited for use in gas-separation plants, were investigated by measuring specific hydrogen permeability. One had to estimate the parameters of diffusion and sorption to numerically model the different scenarios and experimental conditions of the material usage (including extreme ones), and identify the limiting factors. This paper presents a nonlinear mathematical model taking into account the dynamics of sorption-desorption processes and reversible capture of diffusing hydrogen by inhomogeneity of the material’s structure, and also modification of the model when the transport rate is high. The results of numerical modelling allow to obtain information about output data sensitivity with respect to variations of the material’s hydrogen permeability parameters. Furthermore, it is possible to analyze the dynamics of concentrations and fluxes that cannot be measured directly. Experimental data for Ta77Nb23 and V85Ni15 alloys were used to test the model. This work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 15-01-00744).

  17. Hydrogen desorption from mechanically milled carbon micro coils hydrogenated at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshio Furuya; Shuichi Izumi; Seiji Motojima; Yukio Hishikawa

    2005-01-01

    Carbon micro coils (CMC) have been prepared by the catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene at 750-800 C. The as grown coils have an almost amorphous structure and contain about 1 mass% hydrogen. They have 0.1 - 10 mm coil length, 1-5 μm coil diameter, 0.1-0.5 μm coil pitch and about 100 m 2 /g specific surface area. They were graphitized, as maintaining the morphology of the coils, by heat-treating at a higher temperature than 2500 C in Ar atmosphere. The layer space (d) of graphitized CMC was determined to be 0.341 nm, forming a 'herringbone' structure with an inclination of 10-40 degree versus the coiled fiber axis, having a specific surface area of about 8 m 2 /g. The hydrogen absorption behaviors of CMC were investigated from RT to 1200 C by a thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) using a quadrupole mass analyzer. In TDS measurements, pre-existing hydrogen, which was due to the residual acetylene incorporated into CMC on its growing, desorbed from 700 C and peaked at about 900 C. The increment in the main peak of desorbed hydrogen in the as-grown CMC heat-treated at 500 C for 1 h under high pressure of hydrogen gas (1.9 or 8.9 MPa) was not remarkable as is shown in Fig.1. While, in the CMC samples milled mechanically for 1 h at RT using a planetary ball mill, the increase of desorbed hydrogen became to be great with the hydrogen pressure (up to 8.9 MPa) on heat-treating at 500 C, as is shown in Fig.2. In these CMC samples, the building up temperature of the hydrogen desorption was shifted to a lower one and the temperature range of desorption became to be wider than those in the as-grown CMC because of the appearance of another desorption peak at about 600 C in addition to the peak ranging from 850 C to 900 C. The same kind of peak was also slightly observed in as-grown CMC (Fig.1). It is clear that this desorption at about 600 C has contributed to the remarkable increase of desorbed hydrogen in the milled CMC. In this work, values of more than 2 mass% were obtained

  18. A quartz-based micro catalytic methane sensor by high resolution screen printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenshuai; Jing, Gaoshan; Bian, Xiaomeng; Yu, Hongyan; Cui, Tianhong

    2016-02-01

    A micro catalytic methane sensor was proposed and fabricated on a bulk fused quartz substrate using a high resolution screen printing technique for the first time, with reduced power consumption and optimized sensitivity. The sensor was designed by the finite element method and quartz was chosen as the substrate material and alumina support with optimized dimensions. Fabrication of the sensor consisted of two MEMS processes, lift-off and high resolution screen printing, with the advantages of high yield and uniformity. When the sensor’s regional working temperature changes from 250 °C to 470 °C, its sensitivity increases, as well as the power consumption. The highest sensitivity can reach 1.52 mV/% CH4. A temperature of 300 °C was chosen as the optimized working temperature, and the sensor’s sensitivity, power consumption, nonlinearity and response time are 0.77 mV/% CH4, 415 mW, 2.6%, and 35 s, respectively. This simple, but highly uniform fabrication process and the reliable performance of this sensor may lead to wide applications for methane detection.

  19. A quartz-based micro catalytic methane sensor by high resolution screen printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wenshuai; Jing, Gaoshan; Bian, Xiaomeng; Yu, Hongyan; Cui, Tianhong

    2016-01-01

    A micro catalytic methane sensor was proposed and fabricated on a bulk fused quartz substrate using a high resolution screen printing technique for the first time, with reduced power consumption and optimized sensitivity. The sensor was designed by the finite element method and quartz was chosen as the substrate material and alumina support with optimized dimensions. Fabrication of the sensor consisted of two MEMS processes, lift-off and high resolution screen printing, with the advantages of high yield and uniformity. When the sensor’s regional working temperature changes from 250 °C to 470 °C, its sensitivity increases, as well as the power consumption. The highest sensitivity can reach 1.52 mV/% CH 4 . A temperature of 300 °C was chosen as the optimized working temperature, and the sensor’s sensitivity, power consumption, nonlinearity and response time are 0.77 mV/% CH 4 , 415 mW, 2.6%, and 35 s, respectively. This simple, but highly uniform fabrication process and the reliable performance of this sensor may lead to wide applications for methane detection. (paper)

  20. Hydrogen-induced high damping of bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.

    2009-01-01

    There are two important topics concerned with the recent researches on the damping materials of hydrogenated metallic glasses (HMGs). One is the mechanism of the high hydrogen-induced internal friction of HMGs. The other is the materials processing of 'bulk' HMGs for engineering. This article describes the summary of our recent studies on these topics. The first one is closely related to the local structure of the metallic glasses. Therefore, our recent results on the intermediate-range local structure of the simple two Zr-based metallic glasses are described, which has been clarified by the Voronoi analysis using the experimental data of the neutron diffraction measurements. The hydrogen-induced internal friction of HMGs is also discussed on the basis of these recent results of the local structure of the metallic glasses. In terms of the second topic, the first successful preparation of heavily hydrogenated Zr-based bulk HMG rods without hydrogen-induced surface embrittlement is described. They are prepared by a powder-compact-melting and liquid-casting process using Zr-Al-Ni-Cu metallic glass and ZrH 2 powders as the starting materials. It has been found that they have high damping properties.

  1. A novel and anti-agglomerating Ni@yolk–ZrO₂ structure with sub-10 nm Ni core for high performance steam reforming of methane

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Zi-Yian; Wu, Chunzheng; Wang, Wei Guo; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Yin, Hongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming of methane is a versatile technology for hydrogen production in oil refinery and fuel cell applications. Using natural gas is a promising method to produce rich-hydrogen gas. Ni@yolk–ZrO₂ catalyst is used to study steam reforming of methane under various GHSVs, steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio, and its recyclability. The catalyst was characterized using a combination of XRD, TEM, AAS, TPR, TPH, TGA, BET, XPS, and Raman techniques. The catalyst is evaluated on time stream and identi...

  2. Short time synthesis of high quality carbon nanotubes with high rates by CVD of methane on continuously emerged iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrami, Behnam; Khodadadi, Abasali; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Esmaieli, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    We report the variation of yield and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane on iron oxide-MgO at 900-1000 deg. C for 1-60 min. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation of MgO powder with iron nitrate, dried, and calcined at 300 deg. C. As calcined and unreduced catalyst in quartz reactor was brought to the synthesis temperature in helium flow in a few minutes, and then the flow was switched to methane. The iron oxide was reduced to iron nanoparticles in methane, while the CNTs were growing. TEM micrographs, in accordance with Raman RBM peaks, indicate the formation of mostly single wall carbon nanotubes of about 1.0 nm size. High quality CNTs with I G /I D Raman peak ratio of 14.5 are formed in the first minute of CNTs synthesis with the highest rate. Both the rate and quality of CNTs degrades with increasing CNTs synthesis time. Also CNTs quality sharply declines with temperature in the range of 900-1000 deg. C, while the CNTs yield passes through a maximum at 950 deg. C. About the same CNTs lengths are formed for the whole range of the synthesis times. A model of continuous emergence of iron nanoparticle seeds for CNTs synthesis may explain the data. The data can also provide information for continuous production of CNTs in a fluidized bed reactor.

  3. Short time synthesis of high quality carbon nanotubes with high rates by CVD of methane on continuously emerged iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, Behnam, E-mail: bahrami@email.sc.edu [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Abasali [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, Yadollah, E-mail: mortazav@ut.ac.ir [Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaieli, Mohamad [Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We report the variation of yield and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane on iron oxide-MgO at 900-1000 deg. C for 1-60 min. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation of MgO powder with iron nitrate, dried, and calcined at 300 deg. C. As calcined and unreduced catalyst in quartz reactor was brought to the synthesis temperature in helium flow in a few minutes, and then the flow was switched to methane. The iron oxide was reduced to iron nanoparticles in methane, while the CNTs were growing. TEM micrographs, in accordance with Raman RBM peaks, indicate the formation of mostly single wall carbon nanotubes of about 1.0 nm size. High quality CNTs with I{sub G}/I{sub D} Raman peak ratio of 14.5 are formed in the first minute of CNTs synthesis with the highest rate. Both the rate and quality of CNTs degrades with increasing CNTs synthesis time. Also CNTs quality sharply declines with temperature in the range of 900-1000 deg. C, while the CNTs yield passes through a maximum at 950 deg. C. About the same CNTs lengths are formed for the whole range of the synthesis times. A model of continuous emergence of iron nanoparticle seeds for CNTs synthesis may explain the data. The data can also provide information for continuous production of CNTs in a fluidized bed reactor.

  4. High temperature electrolysis for hydrogen production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J. Stephen; O'brien, James E.; Stoots, Carl M.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Hartvigsen, Joseph J.

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from water splitting, which can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) or thermochemical processes. In order to achieve competitive efficiencies, both processes require high-temperature operation (∼850degC). High-temperature electrolytic water splitting supported by nuclear process heat and electricity has the potential to produce hydrogen with overall system efficiencies of 45 to 55%. At the Idaho National Laboratory, we are developing solid-oxide cells to operate in the steam electrolysis mode. The research program includes both experimental and modeling activities. Experimental results were obtained from ten-cell and 22-cell planar electrolysis stacks, fabricated by Ceramatec, Inc. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (∼200 μm thick, 64 cm 2 active area), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions, gas glow rates, and current densities. Hydrogen production rates greater than 100 normal liters per hour for 196 hours have been demonstrated. In order to evaluate the performance of large-scale HTE operations, we have developed single-cell models, based on FLUENT, and a process model, using the systems-analysis code HYSYS. (author)

  5. Non-combustible nuclear radiation shields with high hydrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, W.C.; Peterson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to compositions, methods of production, and uses of non-combustible nuclear radiation shields, with particular emphasis on those containing a high concentration of hydrogen atoms, especially effective for moderating neutron energy by elastic scatter, dispersed as a discontinuous phase in a continuous phase of a fire resistant matrix

  6. Study on hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Iwata, Tomo-o.

    1997-09-01

    In JAERI, design and R and D works on hydrogen production process have been conducted for connecting to the HTTR under construction at the Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI as a nuclear heat utilization system. As for a hydrogen production process by high-temperature electrolysis of steam, laboratory-scale experiments were carried out with a practical electrolysis tube with 12 cells connected in series. Hydrogen was produced at a maximum density of 44 Nml/cm 2 h at 950degC, and know-how of operational procedures and operational experience were also accumulated. Thereafter, a planar electrolysis cell supported by a metallic plate was fabricated in order to improve hydrogen production performance and durability against thermal cycles. In the preliminary test with the planar cell, hydrogen has been produced continuously at a maximum density of 33.6 Nml/cm 2 h at an electrolysis temperature of 950degC. This report presents typical test results mentioned above, a review of previous studies conducted in the world and R and D items required for connecting to the HTTR. (author)

  7. High temperature hydrogenation of CaC6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, G.; Howard, C.A.; Skipper, N.T.; Bennington, S.M.; Ellerby, M.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and superconducting properties of high temperature hydrogenated calcium-graphite intercalation compound, CaC 6 have been investigated using room temperature X-ray diffraction, and temperature and field dependence of magnetisation. It is found that the hydrogenation can only decompose the CaC 6 phase, and generate a mixture of CaH 2 and graphite as the final compound. The hydrogenation of CaC 6 also reveals a degradation of its superconducting properties. The experimental results are discussed in detail and it is found that the formation of stable CaH 2 and deintercalation are the main source for observed phase separation and suppression in superconductivity.

  8. Dry re-forming of methane to synthesis gas over lignite semicokes catalyst at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbo Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dry re-forming of methane has been carried out in a high temperature–pressure reactor at different pressures, using Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst. The results show that CH4 and CO2 conversions are decreased as the reaction pressure increased, but both of them kept basically stable when the reaction pressure is between 0.3 and 1 MPa. The comparison shows that the effects of the temperature and the flow of reactant gas on dry re-forming of methane are consistent with between high pressure and atmospheric pressure. The ratio of CO/H2 decreased as the ratio of CH4/CO2 increased, yet the value of CO/H2 is always more than 1 at different pressures. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst is characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and BET, and the analysis results reveled that the physical specific adsorption peak of CO2 at 2350 cm−1 is strengthened significantly at different pressures, the micropore area and volume of Hongce lignite semicokes reduced form 40.2 m2  g−1 and 0.019 cm3  g−1 to 34.9 m2  g−1 and 0.017 cm3  g−1, respectively. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst exhibited better activity and stability within 0.3–1 MPa range.

  9. Experimental Simulation of Methane Hydrate Extraction at High Pressure Conditions: Influence of the Sediment Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, J. R.; Park, J.; Luzi, G.; Williams, M.; Rauh, C.; Wierschem, A.; Delgado, A.

    2017-10-01

    Being a clean alternative to other fossil fuels, Methane Hydrate (MH) is currently considered as one of the most important potential sources for hydrocarbon fuels [1]. In addition, the high energy density of MH and its stability at higher temperatures as compared to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) makes MH a potential greener method for energy transportation. At the same time, the low thermodynamic stability of MH strongly questions the future exploitation of gas hydrate deposits, turning its extraction into a possible geohazard [2]. Fluctuations in pressure, temperature, salinity, degree of saturation or sediment bed properties may cause methane gas release from the water lattice. We experimentally study the influence of the sediment bed geometry during formation-dissociation of MH. For this purpose, MH is synthesized within regular substrates in a 93 cm3 high pressure vessel. The regular substrates are triangular and quadratic arrangements of identical glass spheres with a diameter of 2 and 5 mm, respectively. MH formation within regular substrate reduces the possibility of spontaneous nucleation to a unique geometrical configuration. This fact permits us to characterize the kinetics of MH formation-dissociation as a function of the sediment bed geometry. Preliminary experimental results reveal a strong dependence of MH formation on the geometry of the regular substrate. For instance, under the same pressure and temperature, the kinetics of MH production is found to change by a factor 3 solely depending on the substrate symmetry, i.e. triangular or quadratic.

  10. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitzman, Jerry [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lieuwen, Timothy [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These

  11. Soil, plant, and transport influences on methane in a subalpine forest under high ultraviolet irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated direct methane emission from plant foliage under aerobic conditions, particularly under high ultraviolet (UV irradiance. We examined the potential importance of this phenomenon in a high-elevation conifer forest using micrometeorological techniques. Vertical profiles of methane and carbon dioxide in forest air were monitored every 2 h for 6 weeks in summer 2007. Day to day variability in above-canopy CH4 was high, with observed values in the range 1790 to 1910 nmol mol−1. High CH4 was correlated with high carbon monoxide and related to wind direction, consistent with pollutant transport from an urban area by a well-studied mountain-plain wind system. Soils were moderately dry during the study. Vertical gradients of CH4 were small but detectable day and night, both near the ground and within the vegetation canopy. Gradients near the ground were consistent with the forest soil being a net CH4 sink. Using scalar similarity with CO2, the magnitude of the summer soil CH4 sink was estimated at ~1.7 mg CH4 m−2 h−1, which is similar to other temperate forest upland soils. The high-elevation forest was naturally exposed to high UV irradiance under clear sky conditions, with observed peak UVB irradiance >2 W m−2. Gradients and means of CO2 within the canopy under daytime conditions showed net uptake of CO2 due to photosynthetic drawdown as expected. No evidence was found for a significant foliar CH4 source in the vegetation canopy, even under high UV conditions. While the possibility of a weak foliar source cannot be excluded given the observed soil sink, overall this subalpine forest was a net sink for atmospheric methane during the growing season.

  12. An experimental study of high-hydrogen welding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fydrych, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigation results of determination of the diffusible hydrogen content in deposited metal obtained by means of two most often used methods-the glycerin method and the mercury method. Relation has been defined between results of those methods in the area characteristic of low-hydrogen as well as high-hydrogen welding processes. Relations available in the literature do not include the diffusible hydrogen content in deposited metal greater than 35 ml/100 g. Extending the scope of analysis of the diffusible hydrogen quantity to an 80 ml/100 g level considerably simplifies carrying out the steel weldability assessment with the use of high-hydrogen processes and with welding in water environment.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación sobre la determinación del contenido de hidrógeno difusible en el material aportado mediante dos métodos: el de la glicerina (el más utilizado y el del mercurio. El contenido de dicho hidrógeno se ha definido a partir de los resultados de esos métodos en una zona con bajo contenido en hidrógeno, así como procesos de soldadura con alto contenido en hidrógeno. No hay datos disponibles en la literatura para contenidos de hidrógeno difusible en metal depositado mayores de 35 ml/100 g. Ampliando el análisis de la cantidad de dicho hidrógeno hasta los 80 ml/100 g, se simplifica considerablemente la realización de ensayos de soldabilidad del acero en procesos de alto contenido en hidrógeno así como en la soldadura en medio acuoso.

  13. Study of hydrogenated silicene: The initialization model of hydrogenation on planar, low buckled and high buckled structures of silicene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaputra, Marhamni; Wella, Sasfan Arman; Wungu, Triati Dewi Kencana; Purqon, Acep; Suprijadi

    2015-01-01

    We study the hydrogenation structures possessed by silicene i.e. planar (PL), low buckled (LB) and high buckled (HB). On those structures we found the hydrogenation process occurs with some particular notes. Hydrogen stable position on the silicene surface is determined by its initial configuration. We only considered the fully hydrogenated case with the formula unit (SiH) n for all of these structures. Physical and electronic structure shift after the process are compared with hydrogenated graphene. Moreover, we observed a chemical process in the presence of hydrogen on the PL structure by nudged elastic band (NEB) which illustrates how hydrogen has a significant impact to the force barrier of the PL that changing it from its original structure

  14. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao; Jiao, Yan; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Lu Hua; Han, Yu; Chen, Ying; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  15. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Jiao, Yan; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Lu Hua; Han, Yu; Chen, Ying; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-12-14

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  16. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao

    2016-11-28

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  17. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Thorpe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  18. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew K.; Frankenberg, Christian; Thompson, David R.; Duren, Riley M.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Bue, Brian D.; Green, Robert O.; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Borchardt, Jakob; Kort, Eric A.; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Roberts, Dar A.; Dennison, Philip E.

    2017-10-01

    At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  19. Improvement of performance and reduction of pollutant emissions of a four-stroke spark ignition engine fuelled with a mixture of hydrogen and methane as a supplementary fuel to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bagdhadi, M.A.-R.S. [University of Babylon (Iraq). College of Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Owing to the energy crisis and pollution problems of today, investigations have concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products by using non-petroleum, renewable, sustainable and non-polluting fuels. While conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal are non-renewable, hydrogen and alcohol can be coupled to renewable and sustainable energy sources. The usage of a mixture of hydrogen and methane as a supplementary fuel to an alcohol-air mixture for spark ignition engines results in a considerable improvement in engine performance and in the reduction of the toxic components in exhaust gases in comparison with the conventional spark ignition gasoline engine. In tests, the gas comprising 40 per cent H, and 60 per cent CH{sub 4} by volume was added to alcohol as 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 per cent by mass. Operating test results for a range of compression ratio (CR) and equivalent ratio are presented. Gasoline fuel was used as a basis for comparison. The important improvement in methane addition reduced the specific fuel consumption (s.f.c.) and CO emission of alcohol engines. The performance of the engine is enhanced when relatively small amounts of hydrogen are present with methane. This improvement in performance, which is especially pronounced at operational equivalence ratios that are much leaner than the stoichiometric value, can be attributed largely to the faster and cleaner burning characteristics of hydrogen in comparison with methane or alcohol. Moreover, the addition of hydrogen decreases the s.f.c. of the engine. The possibility of an engine power quality adjustment has also been studied. (author)

  20. Evaluation of microbial community composition in thermophilic methane-producing incubation of production water from a high-temperature oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of petroleum microbes is fundamental for the development and utilization of oil reservoirs' microbial resources, and also provides great opportunities for research and development of bio-energy. Production water from a high-temperature oil reservoir was incubated anaerobically at 55 degrees C for more than 400 days without amendment of any nutrients. Over the time of incubation, about 1.6 mmol of methane and up to 107 micromol of hydrogen (H2) were detected in the headspace. Methane formation indicated that methanogenesis was likely the predominant process in spite of the presence of 23.4 mM SO4(2-) in the production water. Microbial community composition of the incubation was characterized by means of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries construction. Bacterial composition changed from Pseudomonales as the dominant population initially to Hydrogenophilales-related microorganisms affiliated to Petrobacter spp. closely. After 400 days of incubation, other bacterial members detected were related to Anareolineales, beta-, gamma-, and delta-Proteobacteria. The archaeal composition of the original production water was essentially composed of obligate acetoclastic methanogens of the genus Methanosaeta, but the incubation was predominantly composed of CO2-reducing methanogens of the genus Methanothermobacter and Crenarchaeotes-related microorganisms. Our results suggest that methanogenesis could be more active than expected in oil reservoir environments and methane formation from CO2-reduction played a significant role in the methanogenic community. This conclusion is consistent with the predominant role played by H2-oxidizing methanogens in the methanogenic conversion of organic matter in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

  1. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  2. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  3. High methane natural gas/air explosion characteristics in confined vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuang; Si, Zhanbo; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Kongming; Jin, Zebing

    2014-08-15

    The explosion characteristics of high methane fraction natural gas were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of initial pressure, the peak explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise increase due to a higher amount (mass) of flammable mixture, which delivers an increased amount of heat. The increased total flame duration and flame development time result as a consequence of the higher amount of flammable mixture. With the increase of the initial temperature, the peak explosion pressures decrease, but the pressure increase during combustion is accelerated, which indicates a faster flame speed and heat release rate. The maximum value of the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the minimum total combustion duration and the minimum flame development time is observed when the equivalence ratio of the mixture is 1.1. Additionally, for higher methane fraction natural gas, the explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are slightly decreased, while the combustion duration is postponed. The combustion phasing is empirically correlated with the experimental parameters with good fitting performance. Furthermore, the addition of dilute gas significantly reduces the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and postpones the flame development and this flame retarding effect of carbon dioxide is stronger than that of nitrogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  5. Characterization of high-pressure, underexpanded hydrogen-jet flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; Williams, T.C. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements were performed to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of large-scale, vertical hydrogen-jet flames. This data is relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel and will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended hydrogen releases at storage and distribution centers. Jet flames originating from high-pressure sources up to 413 bar (6000 psi) were studied to verify the application of correlations and scaling laws based on lower-pressure subsonic and choked-flow jet flames. These higher pressures are expected to be typical of the pressure ranges in future hydrogen storage vessels. At these pressures the flows exiting the jet nozzle are categorized as underexpanded jets in which the flow is choked at the jet exit. Additionally, the gas behavior departs from that of an ideal-gas and alternate formulations for non-ideal gas must be introduced. Visible flame emission was recorded on video to evaluate flame length and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux characteristics. The flame length results show that lower-pressure engineering correlations, based on the Froude number and a non-dimensional flame length, also apply to releases up to 413 bar (6000 psi). Similarly, radiative heat flux characteristics of these high-pressure jet flames obey scaling laws developed for low-pressure, smaller-scale flames and a wide variety of fuels. The results verify that such correlations can be used to a priori predict dimensional characteristics and radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen-jet flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  6. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  7. Energy production from agricultural residues: High methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parawira, W.; Read, J.S.; Mattiasson, B.; Bjoernsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    There is a large, unutilised energy potential in agricultural waste fractions. In this pilot-scale study, the efficiency of a simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process was investigated for stabilisation and biomethanation of solid potato waste and sugar beet leaves, both separately and in co-digestion. A good phase separation between hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis was achieved, as indicated by the high carbon dioxide production, high volatile fatty acid concentration and low pH in the acidogenic reactors. Digestion of the individual substrates gave gross energy yields of 2.1-3.4 kWh/kg VS in the form of methane. Co-digestion, however, gave up to 60% higher methane yield, indicating that co-digestion resulted in improved methane production due to the positive synergism established in the digestion liquor. The integrity of the methane filters (MFs) was maintained throughout the period of operation, producing biogas with 60-78% methane content. A stable effluent pH showed that the methanogenic reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that occurred in the two-stage process. The results of this pilot-scale study show that the two-stage anaerobic digestion system is suitable for effective conversion of semi-solid agricultural residues as potato waste and sugar beet leaves

  8. Development of a high strength, hydrogen-resistant austenitic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.M.; Klahn, D.H.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Research toward high-strength, high toughness nonmagnetic steels for use in the retaining rings of large electrical generators led to the development of a Ta-modified iron-based superalloy (Fe-36 Ni-3 Ti-3 Ta-0.5 Al-1.3 Mo-0.3 V-0.01 B) which combines high strength with good toughness after suitable aging. The alloy did, however, show some degradation in fatigue resistance in gaseous hydrogen. This sensitivity was associated with a deformation-induced martensitic transformation near the fracture surface. The addition of a small amount of chromium to the alloy suppressed the martensite transformation and led to a marked improvement in hydrogen resistance

  9. Synthesis and stability of hydrogen selenide compounds at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Edward J.; Binns, Jack; Alvarez, Miriam Pena; Dalladay-Simpson, Philip; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Howie, Ross T. (Edinburgh); (CHPSTAR- China)

    2017-11-14

    The observation of high-temperature superconductivity in hydride sulfide (H2S) at high pressures has generated considerable interest in compressed hydrogen-rich compounds. High-pressure hydrogen selenide (H2Se) has also been predicted to be superconducting at high temperatures; however, its behaviour and stability upon compression remains unknown. In this study, we synthesize H2Se in situ from elemental Se and molecular H2 at pressures of 0.4 GPa and temperatures of 473 K. On compression at 300 K, we observe the high-pressure solid phase sequence (I-I'-IV) of H2Se through Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements, before dissociation into its constituent elements. Through the compression of H2Se in H2 media, we also observe the formation of a host-guest structure, (H2Se)2H2, which is stable at the same conditions as H2Se, with respect to decomposition. These measurements show that the behaviour of H2Se is remarkably similar to that of H2S and provides further understanding of the hydrogen chalcogenides under pressure.

  10. Rapid Sediment Accumulation Results in High Methane Effluxes from Coastal Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available Globally, the methane (CH4 efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings, however, pore water CH4 is found throughout the sulfate-bearing zone, indicating an apparently inefficient oxidation barrier for CH4. Here we demonstrate that rapid sediment accumulation can explain this limited capacity for CH4 removal in coastal sediments. In a saline coastal reservoir (Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands, we observed high diffusive CH4 effluxes from the sediment into the overlying water column (0.2-0.8 mol m-2 yr-1 during multiple years. Linear pore water CH4 profiles and the absence of an isotopic enrichment commonly associated with CH4 oxidation in a zone with high rates of sulfate reduction (50-170 nmol cm-3 d-1 both suggest that CH4 is bypassing the zone of sulfate reduction. We propose that the rapid sediment accumulation at this site (~ 13 cm yr-1 reduces the residence time of the CH4 oxidizing microorganisms in the sulfate/methane transition zone (< 5 years, thus making it difficult for these slow growing methanotrophic communities to build-up sufficient biomass to efficiently remove pore water CH4. In addition, our results indicate that the high input of organic matter (~ 91 mol C m-2 yr-1 allows for the co-occurrence of different dissimilatory respiration processes, such as (acetotrophic methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments by providing abundant substrate. We conclude that anthropogenic eutrophication and rapid sediment accumulation likely increase the release of CH4 from coastal sediments.

  11. An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Robers [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Dryer, Frederick [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ju, Yiguang [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2013-09-30

    An integrated and collaborative effort involving experiments and complementary chemical kinetic modeling investigated the effects of significant concentrations of water and CO2 and minor contaminant species (methane [CH4], ethane [C2H6], NOX, etc.) on the ignition and combustion of HHC fuels. The research effort specifically addressed broadening the experimental data base for ignition delay, burning rate, and oxidation kinetics at high pressures, and further refinement of chemical kinetic models so as to develop compositional specifications related to the above major and minor species. The foundation for the chemical kinetic modeling was the well validated mechanism for hydrogen and carbon monoxide developed over the last 25 years by Professor Frederick Dryer and his co-workers at Princeton University. This research furthered advance the understanding needed to develop practical guidelines for realistic composition limits and operating characteristics for HHC fuels. A suite of experiments was utilized that that involved a high-pressure laminar flow reactor, a pressure-release type high-pressure combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor.

  12. Abiotic Production of Methane in Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Marmolejo, Andrés; Escobar-Briones, Elva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract On Earth, methane is produced mainly by life, and it has been proposed that, under certain conditions, methane detected in an exoplanetary spectrum may be considered a biosignature. Here, we estimate how much methane may be produced in hydrothermal vent systems by serpentinization, its main geological source, using the kinetic properties of the main reactions involved in methane production by serpentinization. Hydrogen production by serpentinization was calculated as a function of the available FeO in the crust, given the current spreading rates. Carbon dioxide is the limiting reactant for methane formation because it is highly depleted in aqueous form in hydrothermal vent systems. We estimated maximum CH4 surface fluxes of 6.8×108 and 1.3×109 molecules cm−2 s−1 for rocky planets with 1 and 5 M⊕, respectively. Using a 1-D photochemical model, we simulated atmospheres with volume mixing ratios of 0.03 and 0.1 CO2 to calculate atmospheric methane concentrations for the maximum production of this compound by serpentinization. The resulting abundances were 2.5 and 2.1 ppmv for 1 M⊕ planets and 4.1 and 3.7 ppmv for 5 M⊕ planets. Therefore, low atmospheric concentrations of methane may be produced by serpentinization. For habitable planets around Sun-like stars with N2-CO2 atmospheres, methane concentrations larger than 10 ppmv may indicate the presence of life. Key Words: Serpentinization—Exoplanets—Biosignatures—Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 13, 550–559. PMID:23742231

  13. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  14. Mobile Measurements of Methane Using High-Speed Open-Path Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, T.; Ediger, K.; von Fischer, J.; Gioli, B.; Ham, J. M.; Hupp, J. R.; Kohnert, K.; Levy, P. E.; Polidori, A.; Pikelnaya, O.; Price, E.; Sachs, T.; Serafimovich, A.; Zondlo, M. A.; Zulueta, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Methane plays a critical role in the radiation balance, chemistry of the atmosphere, and air quality. The major anthropogenic sources of CH4 include oil and gas development sites, natural gas distribution networks, landfill emissions, and agricultural production. The majority of oil and gas and urban CH4 emission occurs via variable-rate point sources or diffused spots in topographically challenging terrains (e.g., street tunnels, elevated locations at water treatment plants, vents, etc.). Locating and measuring such CH4 emissions is challenging when using traditional micrometeorological techniques, and requires development of novel approaches. Landfill CH4 emissions traditionally assessed at monthly or longer time intervals are subject to large uncertainties because of the snapshot nature of the measurements and the barometric pumping phenomenon. The majority of agricultural and natural CH4 production occurs in areas with little infrastructure or easily available grid power (e.g., rice fields, arctic and boreal wetlands, tropical mangroves, etc.). A lightweight, high-speed, high-resolution, open-path technology was recently developed for eddy covariance measurements of CH4 flux, with power consumption 30-150 times below other available technologies. It was designed to run on solar panels or a small generator and be placed in the middle of the methane-producing ecosystem without a need for grid power. Lately, this instrumentation has been utilized increasingly more frequently outside of the traditional use on stationary flux towers. These novel approaches include measurements from various moving platforms, such as cars, aircraft, and ships. Projects included mapping of concentrations and vertical profiles, leak detection and quantification, mobile emission detection from natural gas-powered cars, soil CH4 flux surveys, etc. This presentation will describe key projects utilizing the novel lightweight low-power high-resolution open-path technology, and will highlight

  15. Plasma Temperature Determination of Hydrogen Containing High-Frequency Electrodeless Lamps by Intensity Distribution Measurements of Hydrogen Molecular Band

    OpenAIRE

    Gavare, Zanda; Revalde, Gita; Skudra, Atis

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present work was the investigation of the possibility to use intensity distribution of the Q-branch lines of the hydrogen Fulcher-α diagonal band (d3Πu−→a3∑g+ electronic transition; Q-branch with v=v′=2) to determine the temperature of hydrogen containing high-frequency electrodeless lamps (HFEDLs). The values of the rotational temperatures have been obtained from the relative intensity distributions for hydrogen-helium and hydrogen-argon HFEDLs depending on the applied curren...

  16. Superconductivity in hydrogen-rich materials at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    A room temperature superconductor is probably one of the most desired systems in solid state physics. The highest critical temperature (T{sub c}) that has been achieved so far is in the copper oxide system: 133 kelvin (K) at ambient pressure ([82]Schilling et al. 1993) and 160 K under pressure ([42]Gao et al. 1994). The nature of superconductivity in the cuprates and in the recently discovered iron-based superconductor family (T{sub c}=57 K) is still not fully understood. In contrast, there is a class of superconductors which is well-described by the Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer (BCS) theory - conventional superconductors. Great efforts were spent in searching for high-temperature (T{sub c} > 77 K) conventional superconductor but only T{sub c} = 39 K has been reached in MgB2 ([68]Nagamatsu et al. 2001). BCS theory puts no bounds for T{sub c} as follows from Eliashberg's formulation of BCS theory. T{sub c} can be high, if there is a favorable combination of high-frequency phonons, strong electron-phonon coupling, and a high density of states. It does not predict however in which materials all three parameters are large. At least it gives a clear indication that materials with light elements are favorable as light elements provide high frequencies in the phonon spectrum. The lightest element is hydrogen, and Ashcroft made a first prediction that metallic hydrogen will be a high-temperature superconductor ([6]Ashcroft 1968). As pressure of hydrogen metallization was too high (about 400-500 GPa) for experimental techniques then he proposed that compounds dominated by hydrogen (hydrides) also might be good high temperature superconductors ([6]Ashcroft 1968; [7]Ashcroft 2004). A lot of the followed calculations supported this idea. T{sub c} in the range of 50-235 kelvin was predicted for many hydrides. Unfortunately, only a moderate T{sub c} of 17 kelvin has been observed experimentally ([27]Eremets et al. 2008) so far. A goal of the present work is to find a

  17. Spark ignition engine performance and emissions in a high compression engine using biogas and methane mixtures without knock occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Montoya Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to use biogas in an internal combustion engine with high compression ratio and in order to get a high output thermal efficiency, this investigation used a diesel engine with a maximum output power 8.5 kW, which was converted to spark ignition mode to use it with gaseous fuels. Three fuels were used: Simulated biogas, biogas enriched with 25% and 50% methane by volume. After conversion, the output power of the engine decreased by 17.64% when using only biogas, where 7 kW was the new maximum output power of the engine. The compression ratio was kept at 15.5:1, and knocking did not occur during engine operation. Output thermal efficiency operating the engine in SI mode with biogas enriched with 50% methane was almost the same compared with the engine running in diesel-biogas dual mode at full load and was greater at part loads. The dependence of the diesel pilot was eliminated when biogas was used in the engine converted in SI mode. The optimum condition of experiment for the engine without knocking was using biogas enriched with 50% methane, with 12 degrees of spark timing advance and equivalence ratio of 0.95, larger output powers and higher values of methane concentration lead the engine to knock operation. The presence of CO2 allows operating engines at high compression ratios with normal combustion conditions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt methane all in g/kWh decreased when the biogas was enriched with 50% methane.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Study of Mixing Processes Associated with Hydrogen and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, Vincent; Hill, Scott; Akbari, Amin; McDonell, Vincent

    2011-09-30

    As simulation capability improves exponentially with increasingly more cost effective CPUs and hardware, it can be used ?routinely? for engineering applications. Many commercial products are available and they are marketed as increasingly powerful and easy to use. The question remains as to the overall accuracy of results obtained. To support the validation of the CFD, a hierarchical experiment was established in which the type of fuel injection (radial, axial) as well as level of swirl (non-swirling, swirling) could be systematically varied. The effort was limited to time efficient approaches (i.e., generally RANS approaches) although limited assessment of time resolved methods (i.e., unsteady RANS and LES) were considered. Careful measurements of the flowfield velocity and fuel concentration were made using both intrusive and non-intrusive methods. This database was then used as the basis for the assessment of the CFD approach. The numerical studies were carried out with a statistically based matrix. As a result, the effect of turbulence model, fuel type, axial plane, turbulent Schmidt number, and injection type could be studied using analysis of variance. The results for the non-swirling cases could be analyzed as planned, and demonstrate that turbulence model selection, turbulence Schmidt number, and the type of injection will strongly influence the agreement with measured values. Interestingly, the type of fuel used (either hydrogen or methane) has no influence on the accuracy of the simulations. For axial injection, the selection of proper turbulence Schmidt number is important, whereas for radial injection, the results are relatively insensitive to this parameter. In general, it was found that the nature of the flowfield influences the performance of the predictions. This result implies that it is difficult to establish a priori the ?best? simulation approach to use. However, the insights from the relative orientation of the jet and flow do offer some

  19. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  20. High-rate fermentative hydrogen production from beverage wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry

  1. CH spectroscopy for carbon chemical erosion analysis in high density low temperature hydrogen plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    The CH A-X molecular band is measured upon seeding the hydrogen plasma in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI [electron temperature T-e=0.1-2.5 eV and electron density n(e)=(0.5-5) X 10(20) m(-3)] with methane. Calculated inverse photon efficiencies for these conditions range from 3 up to

  2. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of systems containing ethylene glycol, water and methane - Experimental measurements and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Berg, Ole J.; Solbraa, Even

    2007-01-01

    This work presents new experimental phase equilibrium measurements of the binary MEG-methane and the ternary MEG-water-methane system at low temperatures and high pressures which are of interest to applications related to natural gas processing. Emphasis is given to MEG and water solubility...... measurements in the gas phase. The CPA and SRK EoS, the latter using either conventional or EoS/G(E) mixing rules are used to predict the solubility of the heavy components in the gas phase. It is concluded that CPA and SRK using the Huron-Vidal mixing rule perform equally satisfactory, while CPA requires...

  3. Dinamical polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delone, N.B.; Krajnov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Analytic expressions are derived for the dynamic polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like atomic states. It is shown that in the composite matrix element which determines the dynamic polarizability there is a strong compensation of the terms as a result of which the resulting magnitude of the dynamic polarizability is quasiclasically small compared to the individual terms of the composite matrix. It is concluded that the resonance behaviour of the dynamic polarizability of highly excited states differs significantly from the resonance behaviour of the polarizability for the ground and low-lying atomic states. The static limit and high-frequency limit of on electromagnetic field are considered

  4. Structural changes and intermolecular interactions of filled ice Ic structure for hydrogen hydrate under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, S; Hirai, H; Kawamura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yagi, T

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure experiments of hydrogen hydrate were performed using a diamond anvil cell under conditions of 0.1-44.2 GPa and at room temperature. Also, high pressure Raman studies of solid hydrogen were performed in the pressure range of 0.1-43.7 GPa. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for hydrogen hydrate revealed that a known high-pressure structure, filled ice Ic structure, of hydrogen hydrate transformed to a new high-pressure structure at approximately 35-40 GPa. A comparison of the Raman spectroscopy of a vibron for hydrogen molecules between hydrogen hydrate and solid hydrogen revealed that the extraction of hydrogen molecules from hydrogen hydrate occurred above 20 GPa. Also, the Raman spectra of a roton revealed that the rotation of hydrogen molecules in hydrogen hydrate was suppressed at around 20 GPa and that the rotation recovered under higher pressure. These results indicated that remarkable intermolecular interactions in hydrogen hydrate between neighboring hydrogen molecules and between guest hydrogen molecules and host water molecules might occur. These intermolecular interactions could produce the stability of hydrogen hydrate.

  5. Process, including membrane separation, for separating hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; He, Zhenjie; Pinnau, Ingo

    2001-01-01

    Processes for providing improved methane removal and hydrogen reuse in reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved methane removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the reactor recycle loop across membranes selective in favor of methane over hydrogen, and capable of exhibiting a methane/hydrogen selectivity of at least about 2.5 under the process conditions.

  6. Selective gettering of hydrogen in high pressure metal iodide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuus, G.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main problems in the manufacture of high pressure gas discharge lamps is the elimination of gaseous impurities from their arc tubes. Long degassing processes of all the lamp components are necessary in order to produce lamps with a low ignition voltage and good maintenance of the radiation properties. The investigation described deals with a selective getter place in the arc tube which can replace the long degassing process. The getter consists of a piece of yttrium encapsulated in thin tantalum foil. By this way it is possible to use the gettering action of tantalum and yttrium without having reaction between the metal iodide of the arc tube and yttrium. Yttrium is used because this metal can adsorb a large quantity of hydrogen even at a temperature of 1000 0 C. Hydrogen forms the main gaseous impurity in the high pressure metal iodide lamp. For this reason the adsorption properties like adsorption rate and capacity of the tantalum--yttrium getter for hydrogen are examined, and the results obtained from lamp experiments are given

  7. HIGH-n HYDROGEN RECOMBINATION LINES FROM THE FIRST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, E.; Loeb, A.; Strelnitski, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the prospects of blind and targeted searches in the radio domain (10 MHz to 1 THz) for high-n hydrogen recombination lines from the first generation of galaxies, at z ∼ 4 km s –1 , allow us to assess the blind search time necessary for detection by a given facility. We show that the chances for detection are the highest in the millimeter and submillimeter domains, but finding spontaneous emission in a blind search, especially from redshifts z >> 1, is a challenge even with powerful facilities, such as the Actama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array and Square Kilometre Array. The probability of success is higher for a targeted search of lines with principal quantum number n ∼ 10 in Lyman-break galaxies amplified by gravitational lensing. Detection of more than one hydrogen line in such a galaxy will allow for line identification and a precise determination of the galaxy's redshift

  8. Tri-reforming and combined reforming of methane for producing syngas with desired hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei

    This dissertation is an exploratory study of a new process concept for direct production of synthesis gas (CO + H2) with desired H 2/CO ratios (1.5--2.0) for methanol synthesis and F-T synthesis, using CO2 together with steam and unconverted O2 in flue gas from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants to react with methane or natural gas. This new process is called tri-reforming, referring to simultaneous CO2-steam-O2 reforming of methane or natural gas. This study included (1) The investigation of carbon formation in the tri-reforming process. For comparison, carbon formation in the combined reforming and CO2 reforming reaction was studied as well. (2) The effect of reaction conditions and feed compositions on equilibrium composition (e.g. H2/CO ratio) and equilibrium conversions in the tri-reforming process. (3) The role of catalysts in the tri-reforming process, especially the effect of catalysts on CO2 conversion in the presence of H 2O and O2. It was clearly evidenced from this study that CO in the product stream is probably the major source of carbon over Ni/Al2O3 in the equimolar CO2-CH4 reforming at 650°C and 1 atm. Addition of either O2 or H2O into the CO 2 reforming reaction system can suppress carbon formation. It was demonstrated that carbon-free operation can be achieved in the tri-reforming process. A thermodynamic comparison of tri-reforming with feed compositions of (H2O+CO2+0.5O2)/CH4 (mol ratio) = 1 showed that O2 improves equilibrium CH4 conversion, yet greatly decreases equilibrium CO2 conversion. H2O in tri-reforming has a significant effect on the H2/CO ratio in the products, while O2 has a minor effect. A kinetic study and catalytic performance tests indicated that the support in a supported catalyst has a significant role in enhancing CO2 conversion to CO in the presence of H2O and O2 in tri-reforming. The Ni/MgO catalyst showed superior performance with close to equilibrium CH4 and CO2 conversions at 850°C, 1 atm, and 32,000 ml

  9. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  10. BIG hydrogen: hydrogen technology in the oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The BIG Hydrogen workshop was held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on February 13, 2006. About 60 representatives of industry, academia and government attended this one-day technical meeting on hydrogen production for the oil and gas industry. The following themes were identified from the presentations and discussion: the need to find a BIG hydrogen replacement for Steam Methane Reformer (SMR) because of uncertainty regarding cost and availability of natural gas, although given the maturity of SMR process (reliability, known capital cost) how high will H2 prices have to rise?; need for a national strategy to link the near-term and the longer-term hydrogen production requirements, which can take hydrogen from chemical feedstock to energy carrier; and in the near-term Canada should get involved in demonstrations and build expertise in large hydrogen systems including production and carbon capture and sequestration

  11. High resolution and comprehensive techniques to analyze aerobic methane oxidation in mesocosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, E. W.; Kessler, J. D.; Redmond, M. C.; Shiller, A. M.; Arrington, E. C.; Valentine, D. L.; Colombo, F.

    2015-12-01

    Many studies of microbially mediated aerobic methane oxidation in oceanic environments have examined the many different factors that control the rates of oxidation. However, there is debate on how quickly methane is oxidized once a microbial population is established and what factor(s) are limiting in these types of environments. These factors include the availability of CH4, O2, trace metals, nutrients, and the density of cell population. Limits to these factors can also control the temporal aspects of a methane oxidation event. In order to look at this process in its entirety and with higher temporal resolution, a mesocosm incubation system was developed with a Dissolved Gas Analyzer System (DGAS) coupled with a set of analytical tools to monitor aerobic methane oxidation in real time. With the addition of newer laser spectroscopy techniques (cavity ringdown spectroscopy), stable isotope fractionation caused by microbial processes can also be examined on a real time and automated basis. Cell counting, trace metal, nutrient, and DNA community analyses have also been carried out in conjunction with these mesocosm samples to provide a clear understanding of the biology in methane oxidation dynamics. This poster will detail the techniques involved to provide insights into the chemical and isotopic kinetics controlling aerobic methane oxidation. Proof of concept applications will be presented from seep sites in the Hudson Canyon and the Sleeping Dragon seep field, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC 118). This system was used to conduct mesocosm experiments to examine methane consumption, O2 consumption, nutrient consumption, and biomass production.

  12. Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Neil F; He, Rongrui; Day, Todd D; Sparks, Justin R; Keshavarzi, Banafsheh; Krishnamurthi, Mahesh; Borhan, Ali; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Peacock, Anna C; Healy, Noel; Sazio, Pier J A; Badding, John V

    2012-01-11

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is one of the most technologically important semiconductors. The challenge in producing it from SiH(4) precursor is to overcome a significant kinetic barrier to decomposition at a low enough temperature to allow for hydrogen incorporation into a deposited film. The use of high precursor concentrations is one possible means to increase reaction rates at low enough temperatures, but in conventional reactors such an approach produces large numbers of homogeneously nucleated particles in the gas phase, rather than the desired heterogeneous deposition on a surface. We report that deposition in confined micro-/nanoreactors overcomes this difficulty, allowing for the use of silane concentrations many orders of magnitude higher than conventionally employed while still realizing well-developed films. a-Si:H micro-/nanowires can be deposited in this way in extreme aspect ratio, small-diameter optical fiber capillary templates. The semiconductor materials deposited have ~0.5 atom% hydrogen with passivated dangling bonds and good electronic properties. They should be suitable for a wide range of photonic and electronic applications such as nonlinear optical fibers and solar cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Hydrogen incorporation in high hole density GaN:Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvanut, M. E.; Uprety, Y.; Dashdorj, J.; Moseley, M.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2011-03-01

    We investigate hydrogen passivation in heavily doped p-type GaN using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Samples include both conventionally grown GaN (1019 cm-3 Mg, 1017 cm-3 holes) and films grown by metal modulation epitaxy (MME), which yielded higher Mg (1- 4 x 1020 cm-3) and hole (1- 40 x 1018 cm-3) densities than found in conventionally grown GaN. The Mg acceptor signal is monitored throughout 30 minute annealing steps in N2 :H2 (92%:7%)) and subsequently pure N2 . N2 :H2 heat treatments of the lower hole density films begin to reduce the Mg EPR intensity at 750 o C, but quench the signal in high hole density films at 600 o C. Revival of the signal by subsequent N2 annealing occurs at 800 o C for the low hole density material and 600 o C in MME GaN. The present work highlights chemical differences between heavily Mg doped and lower doped films; however, it is unclear whether the difference is due to changes in hydrogen-Mg complex formation or hydrogen diffusion. The work at UAB is supported by the NSF.

  14. High-temperature study of superconducting hydrogen and deuterium sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durajski, A.P. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Ave. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Szczesniak, R. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Ave. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Ave. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Pietronero, L. [Sapienza, Universita di Roma, Dip. Fisica, P. le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Institute of Complex Systems, CNR, Via dei Taurini 19 Roma (Italy); London Institute for Mathematical Sciences, South Street 22, Mayfair London (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Hydrogen-rich compounds are extensively explored as candidates for a high-temperature superconductors. Currently, the measured critical temperature of 203 K in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 3}S) is among the highest over all-known superconductors. In present paper, using the strong-coupling Eliashberg theory of superconductivity, we compared in detail the thermodynamic properties of two samples containing different hydrogen isotopes H{sub 3}S and D{sub 3}S at 150 GPa. Our research indicates that it is possible to reproduce the measured values of critical temperature 203 K and 147 K for H{sub 3}S and D{sub 3}S by using a Coulomb pseudopotential of 0.123 and 0.131, respectively. However, we also discuss a scenario in which the isotope effect is independent of pressure and the Coulomb pseudopotential for D{sub 3}S is smaller than for H{sub 3}S. For both scenarios, the energy gap, specific heat, thermodynamic critical field and related dimensionless ratios are calculated and compared with other conventional superconductors. We shown that the existence of the strong-coupling and retardation effects in the systems analysed result in significant differences between values obtained within the framework of the Eliashberg formalism and the prediction of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  16. Thermophilic Alkaline Fermentation Followed by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion for Efficient Hydrogen and Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge: Dynamics of Bacterial Pathogens as Revealed by the Combination of Metagenomic and Quantitative PCR Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Rao, Yue; Zhang, Shicheng; Luo, Gang

    2018-03-15

    Thermophilic alkaline fermentation followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (TM) for hydrogen and methane production from waste-activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The TM process was also compared to a process with mesophilic alkaline fermentation followed by a mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MM) and one-stage mesophilic anaerobic digestion (M) process. The results showed that both hydrogen yield (74.5 ml H 2 /g volatile solids [VS]) and methane yield (150.7 ml CH 4 /g VS) in the TM process were higher than those (6.7 ml H 2 /g VS and 127.8 ml CH 4 /g VS, respectively) in the MM process. The lowest methane yield (101.2 ml CH 4 /g VS) was obtained with the M process. Taxonomic results obtained from metagenomic analysis showed that different microbial community compositions were established in the hydrogen reactors of the TM and MM processes, which also significantly changed the microbial community compositions in the following methane reactors compared to that with the M process. The dynamics of bacterial pathogens were also evaluated. For the TM process, the reduced diversity and total abundance of bacterial pathogens in WAS were observed in the hydrogen reactor and were further reduced in the methane reactor, as revealed by metagenomic analysis. The results also showed not all bacterial pathogens were reduced in the reactors. For example, Collinsella aerofaciens was enriched in the hydrogen reactor, which was also confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. The study further showed that qPCR was more sensitive for detecting bacterial pathogens than metagenomic analysis. Although there were some differences in the relative abundances of bacterial pathogens calculated by metagenomic and qPCR approaches, both approaches demonstrated that the TM process was more efficient for the removal of bacterial pathogens than the MM and M processes. IMPORTANCE This study developed an efficient process for bioenergy (H 2 and CH 4 ) production from WAS and elucidates the

  17. Hydrogen gettering the overpressure gas from highly radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.L.; Schicker, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    Remediation of current inventories of high-activity radioactive liquid waste (HALW) requires transportation of Type-B quantities of radioactive material, possibly up to several hundred liters. However, the only currently certified packaging is limited to quantities of 50 ml (0.01 gal) quantities of Type-B radioactive liquid. Efforts are under way to recertify the existing packaging to allow the shipment of up to 4 L (1.1 gal) of Type-B quantities of HALW, but significantly larger packaging could be needed in the future. Scoping studies and preliminary designs have identified the feasibility of retrofitting an insert into existing casks, allowing the transport of up to 380 L (100 gal) of HALW. However, the insert design and ultimate certification strategy depend heavily on the gas-generating attributes of the HALW. A non-vented containment vessel filled with HALW, in the absence of any gas-mitigation technologies, poses a deflagration threat and, therefore, gas generation, specifically hydrogen generation, must be reliably controlled during all phases of transportation. Two techniques are available to mitigate hydrogen accumulation: recombiners and getters. Getters have an advantage over recombiners in that oxides are not required to react with the hydrogen. A test plan was developed to evaluate three forms of getter material in the presence of both simulated HALW and the gases that are produced by the HALW. These tests demonstrated that getters can react with hydrogen in the presence of simulated waste and in the presence of several other gases generated by the HALW, such as nitrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Although the use of such a gettering system has been shown to be technically feasible, only a preliminary design for its use has been completed. No further development is planned until the requirement for bulk transport of Type-B quantities of HALW is more thoroughly defined

  18. Flow Field Measurements of Methane-Oxygen Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Kimio; Kikkawa, Hoshitaka; Akamatsu, Fumiteru; Katsuki, Masashi

    We carried out the flow field measurement of methane-oxygen turbulent nonpremixed flame in non-combusting and combusting situations at high pressures using LDV. The main objectives are to study the influences of combustion on the turbulence structure at high pressures and to provide detailed data on which numerical predictions on such flows can rely. Direct observation and CH* chemiluminescence detection are conducted at high pressures up to 1.0MPa. It was found that the flame length at elevated pressures became constant. From flow field measurements, the following features of flames at elevated pressure were found: (1) the existence of flame suppressed turbulence in the upstream region of the jet and enhanced it in the downstream region with increasing pressure; (2) Turbulence in the flame was more anisotropic than in the corresponding cold jet in all regions of the flow with increasing pressure; (3) Reynolds shear stresses did not change at elevated pressure; (4) Combustion processes had a marked influence on the turbulence macroscale under high pressures, however, the turbulence macroscale was not changed even with the increase in pressure.

  19. Is methane a new therapeutic gas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenwu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane is an attractive fuel. Biologically, methanogens in the colon can use carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce methane as a by-product. It was previously considered that methane is not utilized by humans. However, in a recent study, results demonstrated that methane could exert anti-inflammatory effects in a dog small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion model. Point of view Actually, the bioactivity of methane has been investigated in gastrointestinal diseases, but the exact mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects is required to be further elucidated. Methane can cross the membrane and is easy to collect due to its abundance in natural gas. Although methane is flammable, saline rich in methane can be prepared for clinical use. These seem to be good news in application of methane as a therapeutic gas. Conclusion Several problems should be resolved before its wide application in clinical practice.

  20. Hydrogen content, interfacial exchange and hydrogen diffusion in high-temperature protonic conductors based on strontium and barium cerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, G.K.; Kurumchin, Eh.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrogen content and kinetics of the hydrogen exchange in the barium and strontium doped cerates are studied in the reduction atmosphere through the methods of isotope counterbalancing and isotope exchange. The measurements are carried out at 500-840 Deg C and hydrogen pressure of 2.7-16 gPa. It is established, that the hydrogen interfacial exchange proceeds at high velocities through the dissociative-type mechanisms. The effective activation energy of the hydrogen heteroexchange is determined. The coefficient of the hydrogen diffusion in BaCe 0.95 Nd 0.5 O 3-δ is calculated. The hydrogen content per formula unit constituted (0.48±0.05) in the SrCe 0.95 Y 0.05 O 3-δ and (0.60±0.05) in the BaCe 0.95 Nd 0.5 O 3-δ at 550 and 720 Deg C correspondingly and hydrogen pressure of 6.7 gPa [ru

  1. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  2. Production of radiohalogens and [11C]-methane at high specific activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Jonathon Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The halogens, occupying Group VII of the periodic table, play an important role in the biochemical processes underlying health and disease. A variety of positron emitters covering a broad range of half-lives permit the imaging of the body's physiochemical behavior using PET. Neutron deficient isotopes of the halogen group can be produced by (p,n) reactions from enriched targets with low energy (production process insures their role in the clinical/research environment, labeling H215 O, 13NH3, CH3-compounds and 18F-FDG. Halogens with half-lives longer than 18F have been avoided due to a combination of several factors, such as complexity of the target systems, expense of the enriched substrate, low reaction yields, and extensive post-processing to reclaim the target material. PET research over the last decade has forced a match between drug development and emerging small animal instrumentation, shifting focus to agents labeled with high specific activity 11CH3I and the long-lived radiohalogens, 76Br and 124I. A steady local supply of 18F-fluoride, 11C-methane, 76B-bromide, and 124I-iodide is essential to seize today's research opportunities or for limited distribution outside of our local area. To keep pace, new targetry developments are implemented to reliably produce these isotopes on a batch basis. The research presented details improvements on existing production methods for 18F-fluoride intended for nucleophilic substitution and high specific activity 11C-methane (→CH3I) for the N-methylation of a half-dozen neuroligands. A significant effort is placed on the novel use of low energy cyclotrons for the production of 76Br and 124I involved in labeling antibody and protein agents. Performance of these new designs and the success of the solid targetry development will be described. The ten-fold scale-up in yields at end-of-bombardment promises new hope for the synthesis of PET tracers, previously limited by access to the radio-halogen precursors.

  3. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  4. High temperature fast reactor for hydrogen production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Jamil A. do; Ono, Shizuca; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.

    2008-01-01

    The main nuclear reactors technology for the Generation IV, on development phase for utilization after 2030, is the fast reactor type with high temperature output to improve the efficiency of the thermo-electric conversion process and to enable applications of the generated heat in industrial process. Currently, water electrolysis and thermo chemical cycles using very high temperature are studied for large scale and long-term hydrogen production, in the future. With the possible oil scarcity and price rise, and the global warming, this application can play an important role in the changes of the world energy matrix. In this context, it is proposed a fast reactor with very high output temperature, ∼ 1000 deg C. This reactor will have a closed fuel cycle; it will be cooled by lead and loaded with nitride fuel. This reactor may be used for hydrogen, heat and electricity production in Brazil. It is discussed a development strategy of the necessary technologies and some important problems are commented. The proposed concept presents characteristics that meet the requirements of the Generation IV reactor class. (author)

  5. Methane Seep in Shallow-Water Permeable Sediment Harbors High Diversity of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Communities, Elba, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S Emil; Kuhfuss, Hanna; Wegener, Gunter; Lott, Christian; Ramette, Alban; Wiedling, Johanna; Knittel, Katrin; Weber, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a key biogeochemical process regulating methane emission from marine sediments into the hydrosphere. AOM is largely mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and has mainly been investigated in deep-sea sediments. Here we studied methane seepage at four spots located at 12 m water depth in coastal, organic carbon depleted permeable sands off the Island of Elba (Italy). We combined biogeochemical measurements, sequencing-based community analyses and in situ hybridization to investigate the microbial communities of this environment. Increased alkalinity, formation of free sulfide and nearly stoichiometric methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates up to 200 nmol g(-1) day(-1) indicated the predominance of sulfate-coupled AOM. With up to 40 cm thickness the zones of AOM activity were unusually large and occurred in deeper sediment horizons (20-50 cm below seafloor) as compared to diffusion-dominated deep-sea seeps, which is likely caused by advective flow of pore water due to the shallow water depth and permeability of the sands. Hydrodynamic forces also may be responsible for the substantial phylogenetic and unprecedented morphological diversity of AOM consortia inhabiting these sands, including the clades ANME-1a/b, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3, and their partner bacteria SEEP-SRB1a and SEEP-SRB2. High microbial dispersal, the availability of diverse energy sources and high habitat heterogeneity might explain that the emission spots shared few microbial taxa, despite their physical proximity. Although the biogeochemistry of this shallow methane seep was very different to that of deep-sea seeps, their key functional taxa were very closely related, which supports the global dispersal of key taxa and underlines strong selection by methane as the predominant energy source. Mesophilic, methane-fueled ecosystems in shallow-water permeable sediments may comprise distinct

  6. Methane seep in shallow-water permeable sediment harbors high diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic communities, Elba, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Emil Ruff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is a key biogeochemical process regulating methane emission from marine sediments into the hydrosphere. AOM is largely mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, and has mainly been investigated in deep-sea sediments. Here we studied methane seepage at four spots located at 12 m water depth in coastal, organic-carbon depleted permeable sands off the Island of Elba (Italy. We combined biogeochemical measurements, sequencing-based community analyses and in situ hybridization to investigate the microbial communities of this environment. Increased alkalinity, formation of free sulfide and nearly stoichiometric methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates up to 200 nmol g-1 day-1 indicated the predominance of sulfate-coupled AOM. With up to 40 cm thickness the zones of AOM activity were unusually large and occurred in deeper sediment horizons (20–50 cm below seafloor as compared to diffusion-dominated deep-sea seeps, which is likely caused by advective flow of pore water due to the shallow water depth and permeability of the sands. Hydrodynamic forces also may be responsible for the substantial phylogenetic and unprecedented morphological diversity of AOM consortia inhabiting these sands, including the clades ANME-1a/b, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3 and their partner bacteria SEEP-SRB1a and SEEP-SRB2. High microbial dispersal, the availability of diverse energy sources and high habitat heterogeneity might explain that the emission spots shared few microbial taxa, despite their physical proximity. Although the biogeochemistry of this shallow methane seep was very different to that of deep-sea seeps, their key functional taxa were very closely related, which supports the global dispersal of key taxa and underlines strong selection by methane as the predominant energy source. Mesophilic, methane-fueled ecosystems in shallow-water permeable sediments may comprise

  7. Methane Seep in Shallow-Water Permeable Sediment Harbors High Diversity of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Communities, Elba, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S. Emil; Kuhfuss, Hanna; Wegener, Gunter; Lott, Christian; Ramette, Alban; Wiedling, Johanna; Knittel, Katrin; Weber, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a key biogeochemical process regulating methane emission from marine sediments into the hydrosphere. AOM is largely mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and has mainly been investigated in deep-sea sediments. Here we studied methane seepage at four spots located at 12 m water depth in coastal, organic carbon depleted permeable sands off the Island of Elba (Italy). We combined biogeochemical measurements, sequencing-based community analyses and in situ hybridization to investigate the microbial communities of this environment. Increased alkalinity, formation of free sulfide and nearly stoichiometric methane oxidation and sulfate reduction rates up to 200 nmol g-1 day-1 indicated the predominance of sulfate-coupled AOM. With up to 40 cm thickness the zones of AOM activity were unusually large and occurred in deeper sediment horizons (20–50 cm below seafloor) as compared to diffusion-dominated deep-sea seeps, which is likely caused by advective flow of pore water due to the shallow water depth and permeability of the sands. Hydrodynamic forces also may be responsible for the substantial phylogenetic and unprecedented morphological diversity of AOM consortia inhabiting these sands, including the clades ANME-1a/b, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3, and their partner bacteria SEEP-SRB1a and SEEP-SRB2. High microbial dispersal, the availability of diverse energy sources and high habitat heterogeneity might explain that the emission spots shared few microbial taxa, despite their physical proximity. Although the biogeochemistry of this shallow methane seep was very different to that of deep-sea seeps, their key functional taxa were very closely related, which supports the global dispersal of key taxa and underlines strong selection by methane as the predominant energy source. Mesophilic, methane-fueled ecosystems in shallow-water permeable sediments may comprise distinct

  8. Auto-ignitions of a methane/air mixture at high and intermediate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschevich, V. V.; Martynenko, V. V.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Sevrouk, K. L.; Shabunya, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    A rapid compression machine (RCM) and a shock tube (ST) have been employed to study ignition delay times of homogeneous methane/air mixtures at intermediate-to-high temperatures. Both facilities allow measurements to be made at temperatures of 900-2000 K, at pressures of 0.38-2.23 MPa, and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. In ST experiments, nitrogen served as a diluent gas, whereas in RCM runs the diluent gas composition ranged from pure nitrogen to pure argon. Recording pressure, UV, and visible emissions identified the evolution of chemical reactions. Correlations of ignition delay time were generated from the data for each facility. At temperatures below 1300 K, a significant reduction of average activation energy from 53 to 15.3 kcal/mol was obtained. Moreover, the RCM data showed significant scatter that dramatically increased with decreasing temperature. An explanation for the abnormal scatter in the data was proposed based on the high-speed visualization of auto-ignition phenomena and experiments performed with oxygen-free and fuel-free mixtures. It is proposed that the main reason for such a significant reduction of average activation energy is attributable to the premature ignition of ultrafine particles in the reactive mixture.

  9. Analytical investigation of high temperature 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell system feasibility in methane hydrate recovery and deep ocean power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizi, Mohammad Ali; Brouwer, Jacob; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) model was developed. • Hydrate bed methane dissociation model was integrated with the SOFC model. • SOFC operated steadily for 120 days at high pressure deep ocean environment. • Burning some of the dissociated gas for SMR heat leads to more net methane produced. • Higher SOFC fuel utilization produces higher integrated system efficiency. - Abstract: Methane hydrates are potential valuable energy resources. However, finding an efficient method for methane gas recovery from hydrate sediments is still a challenge. New challenges arise from increasing environmental protection. This is due in part to the technical difficulties involved in the efficient dissociation of methane hydrates at high pressures. In this study, a new approach is proposed to produce valuable products of: 1. Net methane gas recovery from the methane hydrate sediment, and 2. Deep ocean power generation. We have taken the first steps toward utilization of a fuel cell system in methane gas recovery from deep ocean hydrate sediments. An integrated high pressure and high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) system is analyzed for this application and the recoverable amount of methane from deep ocean sediments is measured. System analysis is accomplished for two major cases regarding system performance: 1. Energy for SMR is provided by the burning part of the methane gas dissociated from the hydrate sediment. 2. Energy for SMR is provided through heat exchange with fuel cell effluent gases. We found that the total production of methane gas is higher in the first case compared to the second case. The net power generated by the fuel cell system is estimated for all cases. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of integrated electrochemical devices to accomplish energy efficient dissociation of methane hydrate gases in deep ocean sediments. Concepts for use of electrochemical devices

  10. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The

  11. Combined Solid State and High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube, Elisabeth; Jensen, Torben René

    Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia.......Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia....

  12. Vanadium Hydrogen Sulfate Catalyzed Solvent-Free Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones and Bis-(indolyl) methanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirini, F.; Yahyazadeh, A.; Abedini, M.; Langroodi, D. Imani [Univ. of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    We have developed a mild, simple and efficient method for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones/thiones and bis-(indolyl) methanes catalyzed by V(HSO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Based on our studies, this method offers several adavantages including mild reaction conditions, good to high yields of the products, short reaction times, solvent-free reaction conditions and simple experimental procedure. 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones and their derivatives have attracted increasing interest due to their wide range of therapeutical and pharmacological properties, such as antiviral, antitumor, antibacterial, and antiinflammatory properties. Some of them have been successfully used as calcium channel blockers, antihypertensive agents, and α1a-antagonists. Moreover, several marine alkaloids whose molecular structures contain the dihydropyrimidinone core also exhibit interesting biological activities. Therefore, synthesis of these type of compounds is still of great importance.

  13. Vanadium Hydrogen Sulfate Catalyzed Solvent-Free Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones and Bis-(indolyl) methanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirini, F.; Yahyazadeh, A.; Abedini, M.; Langroodi, D. Imani

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a mild, simple and efficient method for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones/thiones and bis-(indolyl) methanes catalyzed by V(HSO 4 ) 3 . Based on our studies, this method offers several adavantages including mild reaction conditions, good to high yields of the products, short reaction times, solvent-free reaction conditions and simple experimental procedure. 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones and their derivatives have attracted increasing interest due to their wide range of therapeutical and pharmacological properties, such as antiviral, antitumor, antibacterial, and antiinflammatory properties. Some of them have been successfully used as calcium channel blockers, antihypertensive agents, and α1a-antagonists. Moreover, several marine alkaloids whose molecular structures contain the dihydropyrimidinone core also exhibit interesting biological activities. Therefore, synthesis of these type of compounds is still of great importance

  14. High rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane, ethane and propane coupled to thiosulphate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Zuluaga, Diego A; Weijma, Jan; Timmers, Peer H A; Buisman, Cees J N

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to sulphate reduction and the use of ethane and propane as electron donors by sulphate-reducing bacteria represent new opportunities for the treatment of streams contaminated with sulphur oxyanions. However, growth of microbial sulphate-reducing populations with methane, propane or butane is extremely slow, which hampers research and development of bioprocesses based on these conversions. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that the growth rate with possible alternative terminal electron acceptors such as thiosulphate and elemental sulphur may be higher, which would facilitate future research. Here, we investigate the use of these electron acceptors for oxidation of methane, ethane and propane, with marine sediment as inoculum. Mixed marine sediments originating from Aarhus Bay (Denmark) and Eckernförde Bay (Germany) were cultivated anaerobically at a pH between 7.2 and 7.8 and a temperature of 15 °C in the presence of methane, ethane and propane and various sulphur electron acceptors. The sulphide production rates in the conditions with methane, ethane and propane with sulphate were respectively 2.3, 2.2 and 1.8 μmol S L(-1) day(-1). For sulphur, no reduction was demonstrated. For thiosulphate, the sulphide production rates were up to 50 times higher compared to those of sulphate, with 86.2, 90.7 and 108.1 μmol S L(-1) day(-1) for methane, ethane and propane respectively. This sulphide production was partly due to disproportionation, 50 % for ethane but only 7 and 14 % for methane and propane respectively. The oxidation of the alkanes in the presence of thiosulphate was confirmed by carbon dioxide production. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of thiosulphate use as electron acceptor with ethane and propane as electron donors. Additionally, these results indicate that thiosulphate is a promising electron acceptor to increase start-up rates for sulphate-reducing bioprocesses coupled to short-chain alkane oxidation.

  15. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  16. Plasma Temperature Determination of Hydrogen Containing High-Frequency Electrode less Lamps by Intensity Distribution Measurements of Hydrogen Molecular Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavare, Z.; Revalde, G.; Skudra, A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present work was the investigation of the possibility to use intensity distribution of the Q-branch lines of the hydrogen Fulcher-a diagonal band (d3η u- a3Σg + electronic transition; Q-branch with ν=ν=2) to determine the temperature of hydrogen containing high-frequency electrode less lamps (HFEDLs). The values of the rotational temperatures have been obtained from the relative intensity distributions for hydrogen-helium and hydrogen-argon HFEDLs depending on the applied current. The results have been compared with the method of temperature derivation from Doppler profiles of He 667.8 nm and Ar 772.4 nm lines. The results of both methods are in good agreement, showing that the method of gas temperature determination from the intensity distribution in the hydrogen Fulcher-a (2-2)Q band can be used for the hydrogen containing HFEDLs. It was observed that the admixture of 10% hydrogen in the argon HFEDLs significantly reduces the gas temperature

  17. Investigation of hydrogen bubbles behavior in tungsten by high-flux hydrogen implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangtao; Meng, Xuan; Guan, Xingcai; Wang, Qiang; Fang, Kaihong; Xu, Xiaohui; Lu, Yongkai; Gao, Jun; Liu, Zhenlin; Wang, Tieshan

    2018-05-01

    Hydrogen isotopes retention and bubbles formation are critical issues for tungsten as plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors. In this work, the formation and growing up behavior of hydrogen bubbles in tungsten were investigated experimentally. The planar TEM samples were implanted by 6.0keV hydrogens to a fluence of 3.38 ×1018 H ṡ cm-2 at room temperature, and well-defined hydrogen bubbles were observed by TEM. It was demonstrated that hydrogen bubbles formed when exposed to a fluence of 1.5 ×1018 H ṡ cm-2 , and the hydrogen bubbles grew up with the implantation fluence. In addition, the bubbles' size appeared larger with higher beam flux until saturated at a certain flux, even though the total fluence was kept the same. Finally, in order to understand the thermal annealing effect on the bubbles behavior, hydrogen-implanted samples were annealed at 400, 600, 800, and 1000 °C for 3 h. It was obvious that hydrogen bubbles' morphology changed at temperatures higher than 800 °C.

  18. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  19. High Conversion of Styrene, Ethylene, and Hydrogen to Linear Monoalkylbenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hermann Lamparelli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available 1-Alkylbenzenes as a precursor of surfactants, can be produced from ethylene, styrene, and hydrogen. These intermediates, lacking tertiary carbons, are environmentally more benign than commercial ones that bear the aromatic ring linked to an internal carbon of the aliphatic chain. The one-pot synthesis of highly linear 1-alkylbenzenes (LABs through the homogeneous catalysis of olefin poly-insertion from cheap and largely available reagents can be carried out with a high turnover and selectivity. A purposely designed reactor that allows for the fine control of the three components feed, along with temperature, plays a key role in this achievement. A turnover of 194 g of LABs per mmol of catalyst per hour can be obtained with the simultaneous removal of polyethylene as a by-product.

  20. Activity of type i methanotrophs dominates under high methane concentration: Methanotrophic activity in slurry surface crusts as influenced by methane, oxygen, and inorganic nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Yun Feng; Reinsch, Sabine; Ambus, Per

    2017-01-01

    Livestock slurry is a major source of atmospheric methane (CH4), but surface crusts harboring methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could mediate against CH4 emissions. This study examined conditions for CH4 oxidation by in situ measurements of oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a proxy for inorg......Livestock slurry is a major source of atmospheric methane (CH4), but surface crusts harboring methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could mediate against CH4 emissions. This study examined conditions for CH4 oxidation by in situ measurements of oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a proxy...... for inorganic N transformations, in intact crusts using microsensors. This was combined with laboratory incubations of crust material to investigate the effects of O2, CH4, and inorganic N on CH4 oxidation, using 13CH4 to trace C incorporation into lipids of MOB. Oxygen penetration into the crust was 2 to 14 mm...

  1. Catalytic Ammonia Decomposition over High-Performance Ru/Graphene Nanocomposites for Efficient COx-Free Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly-dispersed Ru nanoparticles were grown on graphene nanosheets by simultaneously reducing graphene oxide and Ru ions using ethylene glycol (EG, and the resultant Ru/graphene nanocomposites were applied as a catalyst to ammonia decomposition for COx-free hydrogen production. Tuning the microstructures of Ru/graphene nanocomposites was easily accomplished in terms of Ru particle size, morphology, and loading by adjusting the preparation conditions. This was the key to excellent catalytic activity, because ammonia decomposition over Ru catalysts is structure-sensitive. Our results demonstrated that Ru/graphene prepared using water as a co-solvent greatly enhanced the catalytic performance for ammonia decomposition, due to the significantly improved nano architectures of the composites. The long-term stability of Ru/graphene catalysts was evaluated for COx-free hydrogen production from ammonia at high temperatures, and the structural evolution of the catalysts was investigated during the catalytic reactions. Although there were no obvious changes in the catalytic activities at 450 °C over a duration of 80 h, an aggregation of the Ru nanoparticles was still observed in the nanocomposites, which was ascribed mainly to a sintering effect. However, the performance of the Ru/graphene catalyst was decreased gradually at 500 °C within 20 h, which was ascribed mainly to both the effect of the methanation of the graphene nanosheet under a H2 atmosphere and to enhanced sintering under high temperatures.

  2. Rapid solar-thermal decarbonization of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jaimee Kristen

    Due to the ever-increasing demand for energy and the concern over the environmental impact of continuing to produce energy using current methods, there is interest in developing a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen is a desirable energy source because it is abundant in nature and burns cleanly. One method for producing hydrogen is to utilize a renewable energy source to obtain high enough temperatures to decompose a fossil fuel into its elements. This thesis work is directed at developing a solar-thermal aerosol flow reactor to dissociate methane to carbon black and hydrogen. The technology is intended as a "bridge" between current hydrogen production methods, such as conventional steam-methane reformers, and future "zero emission" technology for producing hydrogen, such as dissociating water using a renewable heating source. A solar furnace is used to heat a reactor to temperatures in excess of 2000 K. The final reactor design studied consists of three concentric vertical tubes---an outer quartz protection tube, a middle solid graphite heating tube, and an inner porous graphite reaction tube. A "fluid-wall" is created on the inside wall of the porous reaction tube in order to prevent deposition of the carbon black co-product on the reactor tube wall. The amorphous carbon black produced aids in heating the gas stream by absorbing radiation from the reactor wall. Conversions of 90% are obtained at a reactor wall temperature of 2100 K and an average residence time of 0.01 s. Computer modeling is also performed to study the gas flow and temperature profiles in the reactor as well as the kinetics of the methane dissociation reaction. The simulations indicate that there is little flow of the fluid-wall gas through the porous wall in the hot zone region, but this can be remedied by increasing the inlet temperature of the fluid-wall gas and/or increasing the tube permeability only in the hot zone region of the wall. The following expression describes the kinetics of methane

  3. High-solid anaerobic digestion of corn straw for methane production and pretreatment of bio-briquette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Yan, Fang; Li, Tao; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Qian, Mingyu; Xu, Quan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an integrated process was developed to produce methane and high-quality bio-briquette (BB) using corn straw (CS) through high-solid anaerobic digestion (HS-AD). CS was anaerobic digested by using a leach bed reactor at four leachate recirculation strategies. After digesting for 28 days, highest methane yield of 179.6 mL/g-VS, which was corresponded to energy production of 5.55 MJ/kg-CS, was obtained at a higher initial recirculation rate of 32 L-leachate per day. Compared with bio-briquette manufactured from raw CS and lignite, the compressive, immersion and falling strength properties of bio-briquette made from AD-treated CS (solid digestate) and lignite were significantly improved. A preferred BB can be obtained with side compressive strength of 863.8 ± 10.8 N and calorific value of 20.21 MJ/kg-BB. The finding of this study indicated that the integrated process could be an alternative way to produce methane and high-quality BB with CS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phase changes induced by guest orientational ordering of filled ice Ih methane hydrate under high pressure and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, H; Tanaka, T; Yagi, T; Matsuoka, T; Ohishi, Y; Ohtake, M; Yamamoto, Y

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature and high-pressure experiments were performed with filled ice Ih structure of methane hydrate under pressure and temperature conditions of 2.0 to 77.0 GPa and 30 to 300 K, respectively, using diamond anvil cells and a helium-refrigeration cryostat. Distinct changes in the axial ratios of the host framework were revealed by In-situ X-ray diffractometry. Splitting in the CH vibration modes of the guest methane molecules, which was previously explained by the orientational ordering of the guest molecules, was observed by Raman spectroscopy. The pressure and temperature conditions at the split of the vibration modes agreed well with those of the axial ratio changes. The results indicated that orientational ordering of the guest methane molecules from orientational disordered-state occurred at high pressures and low temperatures, and that this guest ordering led to the axial ratio changes in the host framework. Existing regions of the guest disordered-phase and the guest ordered-phase were roughly estimated by the X-ray data. In addition, above the pressure of the guest-ordered phase, another high pressure phase was developed at a low-temperature region. The deuterated-water host samples were also examined and isotopic effects on the guest ordering and phase changes were observed.

  5. Hydrogen in trapping states innocuous to environmental degradation of high-strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen in trapping states innocuous to environmental degradation of the mechanical properties of high-strength steels has been separated and extracted using thermal desorption analysis (TDA) and slow strain rate test (SSRT). The high-strength steel occluding only hydrogen desorbed at low temperature (peak 1), as determined by TDA, decreases in maximum stress and plastic elongation with increasing occlusion time of peak 1 hydrogen. Thus the trapping state of peak 1 hydrogen is directly associated with environmental degradation. The trap activation energy for peak 1 hydrogen is 23.4 kJ/mol, so the peak 1 hydrogen corresponds to weaker binding states and diffusible states at room temperature. In contrast, the high-strength steel occluding only hydrogen desorbed at high temperature (peak 2), by TDA, maintains the maximum stress and plastic elongation in spite of an increasing content of peak 2 hydrogen. This result indicates that the peak 2 hydrogen trapping state is innocuous to environmental degradation, even though the steel occludes a large amount of peak 2 hydrogen. The trap activation energy for peak 2 hydrogen is 65.0 kJ/mol, which indicates a stronger binding state and nondiffusibility at room temperature. The trap activation energy for peak 2 hydrogen suggests that the driving force energy required for stress-induced, diffusion during elastic and plastic deformation, and the energy required for hydrogen dragging by dislocation mobility during plastic deformation are lower than the binding energy between hydrogen and trapping sites. The peak 2 hydrogen, therefore, is believed to not accumulate in front of the crack tip and to not cause environmental degradation in spite of being present in amounts as high as 2.9 mass ppm. (author)

  6. Methanogen community composition and rates of methane consumption in Canadian High Arctic permafrost soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, J; Ronholm, J; Mykytczuk, N C S; Greer, C W; Onstott, T C; Whyte, L G

    2014-04-01

    Increasing permafrost thaw, driven by climate change, has the potential to result in organic carbon stores being mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) through microbial activity. This study examines the effect of increasing temperature on community structure and metabolic activity of methanogens from the Canadian High Arctic, in an attempt to predict how warming will affect microbially controlled CH4 soil flux. In situ CO2 and CH4 flux, measured in 2010 and 2011 from ice-wedge polygons, indicate that these soil formations are a net source of CO2 emissions, but a CH4 sink. Permafrost and active layer soil samples were collected at the same sites and incubated under anaerobic conditions at warmer temperatures, with and without substrate amendment. Gas flux was measured regularly and indicated an increase in CH4 flux after extended incubation. Pyrosequencing was used to examine the effects of an extended thaw cycle on methanogen diversity and the results indicate that in situ methanogen diversity, based on the relative abundance of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene associated with known methanogens, is higher in the permafrost than in the active layer. Methanogen diversity was also shown to increase in both the active layer and permafrost soil after an extended thaw. This study provides evidence that although High Arctic ice-wedge polygons are currently a sink for CH4, higher arctic temperatures and anaerobic conditions, a possible result of climate change, could result in this soil becoming a source for CH4 gas flux. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. ESR studies of Bunsen-type methane-air flames. II. The effects of the addition of halogenated compounds to the secondary air on the hydrogen atoms in the flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, S; Fujimoto, S; Claesson, O; Yoshida, H

    1983-09-01

    Hydrogen atoms in a methane-air Bunsen-type flame were detected by the flame-in-cavity ESR method. The addition of a halogenated compound to the secondary air reduced the H-atom concentration linearly with an increase in additive concentration. These 8 halogenated compounds examined showed increased effectiveness in scavenging H atoms in this order: hydrochloric acid < dichlorodifluoromethane < chloroform < methyl chloride < methylene chloride < trichlorofluoromethane < carbon tetrachlorie < methyl bromide. The chemical effects of these additives on the combustion reactions agree well with the inhibitor indices for these compounds. 14 references, 3 figures.

  8. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  9. Development of a high-efficiency hydrogen generator for fuel cells for distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraiswamy, K.; Chellappa, Anand [Intelligent Energy, 2955 Redondo Ave., Long Beach, CA 90806 (United States); Smith, Gregory; Liu, Yi; Li, Mingheng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A collaborative effort between Intelligent Energy and Cal Poly Pomona has developed an adsorption enhanced reformer (AER) for hydrogen generation for use in conjunction with fuel cells in small sizes. The AER operates at a lower temperature (about 500 C) and has a higher hydrogen yield and purity than those in the conventional steam reforming. It employs ceria supported rhodium as the catalyst and potassium-promoted hydrotalcites to remove carbon dioxide from the products. A novel pulsing feed concept is developed for the AER operation to allow a deeper conversion of the feedstock to hydrogen. Continuous production of near fuel-cell grade hydrogen is demonstrated in the AER with four packed beds running alternately. In the best case of methane reforming, the overall conversion to hydrogen is 92% while the carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations in the production stream are on the ppm level. The ratio of carbon dioxide in the regeneration exhaust to the one in the product stream is on the order of 10{sup 3}. (author)

  10. Coal Matrix Deformation and Pore Structure Change in High-Pressure Nitrogen Replacement of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal matrix deformation is one of the main controlling factors for coal reservoir permeability changes in nitrogen foam fracturing. The characteristics and mechanism of coal matrix deformation during the process of adsorption/desorption were studied by isothermal adsorption/desorption experiments with methane and nitrogen. Based on the free-energy theories, the Langmuir equation, and elastic mechanics, mathematical models of coal matrix deformation were developed and the deformation characteristics in adsorption/desorption processes were examined. From the study, we deduced that the coal matrix swelling, caused by methane adsorption, was a Langmuir-type relationship with the gas pressure, and exponentially increased as the adsorption quantity increased. Then, the deformation rate and amplitude of the coal matrix decreased gradually with the increase of the pressure. At the following stage, where nitrogen replaces methane, the coal matrix swelling continued but the deformation amplitude decreased, which was only 19.60% of the methane adsorption stage. At the mixed gas desorption stage, the coal matrix shrank with the reduction of pressure and the shrinkage amount changed logarithmically with the pressure, which had the hysteresis effect when compared with the swelling in adsorption. The mechanism of coal matrix deformation was discussed through a comparison of the change of micropores, mesopores, and also part macropores in the adsorption process.

  11. Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Mid-IR absorption cross-sections are measured for methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol over 2800-3400 cm-1 (2.9-3.6 μm) spectral region. Measurements are carried out using a Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with temperatures ranging

  12. High-temperature nuclear reactor power plant cycle for hydrogen and electricity production – numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (called HTR or HTGR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analysed. The HTR reactor because of the relatively high temperature of coolant could be combined with a steam or gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for high-temperature hydrogen production. However, the current development of HTR’s allows us to consider achievable working temperature up to 750°C. Due to this fact, industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high-temperature electrolysis. Presented calculations show and confirm the potential of HTR’s as a future solution for hydrogen production without CO2 emission. Furthermore, integration of a hightemperature nuclear reactor with a combined cycle for electricity and hydrogen production may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  13. Can EC and UK national methane emission inventories be verified using high precision stable isotope data?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.; Holmes, C.W.; Nisbet, E.G.; Rata, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The main anthropogenic sources of methane in industrialised countries (landfill/waste treatment, gas storage and distribution, coal) are far easier to reduce than CO 2 sources and the implementation of reduction strategies is potentially profitable. Statistical databases of methane emissions need independent external verification and carbon isotope data provide one way of estimating the expected source mix for each country if the main source types have been characterised isotopically. Using this method each country participating in the CORINAIR 94 database has been assigned an expected isotopic value for its emissions. The averaged δ 13 C of methane emitted from the CORINAIR region of Europe, based on total emissions of each country is -55.4 per mille for 1994. This European source mix can be verified using trajectory analysis for air samples collected at background stations. Methane emissions from the UK, and particularly the London region, have undergone more detailed analysis using data collected at the Royal Holloway site on the western fringe of London. If the latest emissions inventory figures are correct then the modelled isotopic change in the UK source mix is from -48.4 per mille in 1990 to -50.7 per mille in 1997. This represents a reduction in emissions of 25% over a 7-year period, important in meeting proposed UK greenhouse gas reduction targets. These changes can be tested by the isotopic analysis of air samples at carefully selected coastal background and interior sites. Regular sampling and isotopic analysis coupled with back trajectory analysis from a range of sites could provide an important tool for monitoring and verification of EC and UK methane emissions in the run-up to 2010. (author)

  14. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcin Martins, Paula; Hoyt, David W; Bansal, Sheel; Mills, Christopher T; Tfaily, Malak; Tangen, Brian A; Finocchiaro, Raymond G; Johnston, Michael D; McAdams, Brandon C; Solensky, Matthew J; Smith, Garrett J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Wilkins, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses, we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield noncompetitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcin Martins, Paula [Microbiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Hoyt, David W. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland WA 99350 USA; Bansal, Sheel [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Mills, Christopher T. [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Building 20, Denver Federal Center Denver CO 80225 USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland WA 99350 USA; Tangen, Brian A. [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Finocchiaro, Raymond G. [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Johnston, Michael D. [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; McAdams, Brandon C. [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Solensky, Matthew J. [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Smith, Garrett J. [Microbiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Chin, Yu-Ping [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Wilkins, Michael J. [Microbiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA

    2017-02-23

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR, and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations, or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield non-competitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Investigations of Methane Production in Hypersaline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reports of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, as well as the findings of hypersaline paleo-environments on that planet, have underscored the need to evaluate the importance of biological (as opposed to geological) trace gas production and consumption. Methane in the atmosphere of Mars may be an indication of life but might also be a consequence of geologic activity and/or the thermal alteration of ancient organic matter. Hypersaline environments have now been reported to be extremely likely in several locations in our solar system, including: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Modern hypersaline microbial mat communities, (thought to be analogous to those present on the early Earth at a period of time when Mars was experiencing very similar environmental conditions), have been shown to produce methane. However, very little is known about the physical and/or biological controls imposed upon the rates at which methane, and other important trace gases, are produced and consumed in these environments. We describe here the results of our investigations of methane production in hypersaline environments, including field sites in Chile, Baja California Mexico, California, USA and the United Arab Emirates. We have measured high concentrations of methane in bubbles of gas produced both in the sediments underlying microbial mats, as well as in areas not colonized by microbial mats in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline ecosystem, Baja California Mexico, in Chile, and in salt ponds on the San Francisco Bay. The carbon isotopic (d13C) composition of the methane in the bubbles exhibited an extremely wide range of values, (ca. -75 per mille ca. -25 per mille). The hydrogen isotopic composition of the methane (d2H) ranged from -60 to -30per mille and -450 to -350per mille. These isotopic values are outside of the range of values normally considered to be biogenic, however incubations of the sediments in contact with these gas bubbles reveals that the methane is indeed being

  17. Damage process of high purity tungsten coatings by hydrogen beam heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Taniguchi, M.; Ezato, K.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Tsunekawa, Y.; Okumiya, M.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the synergistic effects of heat load and hydrogen irradiation, cyclic heat load tests with a hydrogen beam and a comparable electron beam were performed for high purity CVD-tungsten coatings. Surface modification was examined as a function of the peak temperature by changing the heat flux. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis showed that the surface damage caused by the hydrogen beam was more severe than that by the electron beam. In the hydrogen beam case, cracking at the surface occurred at all peak temperatures examined from 300 deg. C to 1600 deg. C. These results indicate that the injected hydrogen induces embrittlement for the CVD-tungsten coating

  18. What product might a renewal of Heavy Ion Fusion development offer that competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Grant; Lee, Ed; Yu, Simon; Briggs, Dick; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Qin, Hong; Waldron, Will; Leitner, Mattaheus; Kwan, Joe; Henestroza, Enrique; Caporaso, George; Meier, Wayne; Tabak, Max; Callahan, Debbie; Moir, Ralph; Peterson, Per

    2006-01-01

    In 1994 a Fusion Technology journal publication by Logan, Moir and Hoffman described how exploiting unusually-strong economy-of-scale for large (8 GWe-scale) multi-unit HIF plants sharing a driver and target factory among several low cost molten salt fusion chambers (at) 100MWe net power DEMO. This scoping study, at a very preliminary conceptual level, attempts to identify how we might meet the last two great challenges taking advantage of several recent ideas and advances which motivate reconsideration of modular HIF drivers: >60X longitudinal compression of neutralized ion beams using a variable waveform induction module in NDCX down to 2 nanosecond bunches, the proof-of-principle demonstration of fast optical-gated solid state SiC switches by George Caporaso's group at LLNL (see George's RPIA06 paper), and recent work by Ed Lee, John Barnard and Hong Qin on methods for time-dependent correction of chromatic focusing errors in neutralized beams with up to 10 % Δv/v velocity tilt, allowing 5 or more bunches, and shorter bunches, and possibly 40 that would need higher peak beam intensities in order to reduce total driver energy below 1 MJ. In principle, both PLIA and induction accelerators might benefit from multiple short bunches (see June 24, 2005 talk by Logan on multi-pulsing in PLIA accelerators for IFE), although the PLIA approach, because of fixed circuit wave velocities at any z, requires imaginative work-arounds to handle the different bunch velocities required. George's RPIA06 paper also describes a different type of radial line induction linac that might be considered, but its unclear how the required pulse-to-pulse variable waveforms can be obtained with such pulselines. This initial MathCad analysis explores multi-pulsing in modular solenoid induction linacs (concept shown in Figure 1) considering high-q ECR sources, basic induction acceleration limits assuming affordable agile waveforms, transverse and longitudinal bunch confinement constraints

  19. Pathways of 3-biofules (hydrogen, ethanol and methane) production from petrochemical industry wastewater via anaerobic packed bed baffled reactor inoculated with mixed culture bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elreedy, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed; Enitan, Abimbola; Kumari, Sheena; Bux, Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-energy production from MEG contaminated wastewater via AnPBBR, was assessed. • Maximum concurrent H_2 and CH_4 production of 6.57 and 3.57 L/d were obtained. • Maximum ethanol generation of 237.13 mg/L was observed at a HRT of 9 h. • At OLRs up to 4 gCOD/L/d, MEG biodegradability of 71–98% was achieved. • AnPBBR economically achieved shorter payback period (6.25 y), compared to ABR. - Abstract: Simultaneous production of 3-biofuels (hydrogen, ethanol and methane) as by-products of the biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater containing MEG via anaerobic packed bed baffled reactor (AnPBBR), was extensively investigated. A four-chambered reactor supported by polyurethane sheets, was operated at a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 36 h and different organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.67, 1, 2 and 4 gCOD/L/d. The maximum specific H_2 and CH_4 production rates of 438.07 ± 43.02 and 237.80 ± 21.67 ml/L/d were respectively achieved at OLR of 4 gCOD/L/d. The residual bio-ethanol significantly increased from 57.15 ± 2.31 to 240.19 ± 34.69 mg/L at increasing the OLR from 0.67 to 4 gCOD/L/d, respectively. The maximum MEG biodegradability of 98% was attained at the lowest OLR. Compartment-wise profiles revealed that the maximum H_2 and ethanol production were achieved at HRT of 9 h (1st compartment), while the CH_4 production was peaked at HRTs of 27 and 36 h (last two compartments). Kinetic studies using Stover–Kincannon and completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in series models were successfully applied to the AnPBBR overall and compartment-to-compartment performance, respectively. The economic evaluation strongly revealed the potentials of using AnPBBR for simultaneous treatment and bio-energy production from petrochemical wastewater as compared to the classical anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR). Microbial analysis using Illumina MiSeq sequencing showed a diversity of bacterial community in AnPBBR. Proteobacteria (36

  20. Key Challenges to the introduction of hydrogen - European stakeholder views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, E. Hugo; Murray, Luke; Fernandes, Rei

    2008-01-01

    Recent hydrogen policy initiatives focus on fostering the market introduction of hydrogen technologies. These initiatives include hydrogen roadmapping projects. Stakeholder involvement in strategic planning is of key importance to the successful implementation of the strategy. Thus, the views of the stakeholder group involved in the European roadmapping project HyWays are pertinent to the introduction of hydrogen in Europe. A qualitative assessment using the Key Changes and Actor Mapping (KCAM) methodology showed that on average stakeholders expect hydrogen systems to begin to be introduced over the next 15 years. Hydrogen production is expected to be based initially on steam methane reforming of natural gas and onsite electrolysis using wind power, and any hydrogen transport is likely to be by truck. The major challenges envisaged are to do with carbon capture and storage, high-temperature hydrogen production technologies and hydrogen pipeline development. (author)

  1. A five year record of high-frequency in situ measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons at Mace Head, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grant

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous high-frequency in situ measurements of a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made at Mace Head since January 2005. Mace Head is a background Northern Hemispheric site situated on the eastern edge of the Atlantic. Five year measurements (2005–2009 of six C2–C5 non-methane hydrocarbons have been separated into baseline Northern Hemispheric and European polluted air masses, among other sectors. Seasonal cycles in baseline Northern Hemispheric air masses and European polluted air masses arriving at Mace Head have been studied. Baseline air masses show a broad summer minima between June and September for shorter lived species, longer lived species show summer minima in July/August. All species displayed a winter maxima in February. European air masses showed baseline elevated mole fractions for all non-methane hydrocarbons. Largest elevations (of up to 360 ppt for ethane maxima from baseline data were observed in winter maxima, with smaller elevations observed during the summer. Analysis of temporal trends using the Mann-Kendall test showed small (<6 % yr−1 but statistically significant decreases in the butanes and i-pentane between 2005 and 2009 in European air. No significant trends were found for any species in baseline air.

  2. Atmospheric methane at Cape Meares - Analysis of a high-resolution data base and its environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Moraes, F.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1992 we took some 120,000 measurements of atmospheric methane at Cape Meares on the Oregon coast. The site is representative of methane concentrations in the northern latitudes (from 30 deg N to 90 deg N). The average concentration during the experiment was 1698 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). Methane concentration increased by 190 ppbv (or 11.9 percent) during the 13-year span of the experiment. The rate of increase was about 20 +/- 4 ppbv/yr in the first 2 yr and 10 +/- 2 ppbv/yr in the last 2 yr of the experiment, suggesting a substantial decline in the trend at northern middle and high latitudes. Prominent seasonal cycles were observed. During the year, the concentration stays more or less constant until May and then starts falling, reaching lowest levels in July and August, then rises rapidly to nearly maximum concentrations in October. Interannual variations with small amplitudes of 2-3 ppbv occur with periods of 1.4 and 6.5 yr.

  3. First experience with the new solid methane moderator at the IBR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beliakov, A.A.; Shabalin, E.P.; Tretyakov, I.T.

    2001-01-01

    In the 1999 Fall the solid methane moderator (CM) has been installed and tested at full power at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor. Its main features are a beryllium reflector and a light water premoderator. Radiation load on the methane was three times as much as that of IPNS facility, namely, 0.1 W/g. Effects of temperature, operation time, concentration of a hydrogen scavenger, and annealing procedure on both neutron and service performances were studied. Maximum operation time of a newly loaded portion of methane was 4 days. In this time around 30% of methane is transformed into hydrogen, ethane, and high molecular hydrocarbons, and yet no deterioration in cold neutron intensity was detected. Among new knowledge, the most important are two facts observed: two-fold decrease in hydrogen formation rate when methane is poisoned with 2.5% to 5% of ethylene, and low formation rate of solid, inremovable products of radiolysis - (1.5/3)10 -7 g/J, which means that after 10 years of operation the methane chamber will be filled with only 100 g of residue. Gain of factor 20 in cold neutron flux was obtained as compared to the routine grooved light water moderator. Presently, it is the highest among the intense pulsed neutron sources. (author)

  4. Anaerobic digestion of the vinasses from the fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber to tequila: The effect of pH, temperature and hydraulic retention time on the production of hydrogen and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Escalante, Froylan M.; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Navarro-Corona, Jose; Gonzalez-Garcia, Yolanda [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Guadalajara, Blvd. M. Garcia Barragan No. 1421, Guadalajara CP 44430 (Mexico); Bories, Andre [INRA-Unite Experimentale de Pech-Rouge, 11430 Gruissan (France); Gutierrez-Pulido, Humberto [Department of Mathematics, University of Guadalajara, Blvd. M. Garcia Barragan No. 1421, Guadalajara CP 44430 (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of three operational parameters (pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and growing temperature) on a semi-continuous bioreactor treating Tequila's vinasses by anaerobic digestion (AD). The response was measured through four response variables: total reducing sugars (TRS) consumption, VFA's, hydrogen and methane production. Trials were done according to a factorial design. The experimental results were studied through a multiple response optimization (MRO) analysis to find single and multiple optimums for the above-mentioned variables. Mathematical models that can describe the effect of the operational parameters on each response variable were found. In this study it is shown that hydrogen production is favored at thermophilic growth (55 C), operating the reactor at a slight acidic pH range and at the higher HRT in the boundaries of the experimental region. (author)

  5. Anaerobic digestion of the vinasses from the fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber to tequila: The effect of pH, temperature and hydraulic retention time on the production of hydrogen and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza-Escalante, Froylan M.; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Navarro-Corona, Jose; Gonzalez-Garcia, Yolanda; Bories, Andre; Gutierrez-Pulido, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of three operational parameters (pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and growing temperature) on a semi-continuous bioreactor treating Tequila's vinasses by anaerobic digestion (AD). The response was measured through four response variables: total reducing sugars (TRS) consumption, VFA's, hydrogen and methane production. Trials were done according to a factorial design. The experimental results were studied through a multiple response optimization (MRO) analysis to find single and multiple optimums for the above-mentioned variables. Mathematical models that can describe the effect of the operational parameters on each response variable were found. In this study it is shown that hydrogen production is favored at thermophilic growth (55 deg. C), operating the reactor at a slight acidic pH range and at the higher HRT in the boundaries of the experimental region

  6. Development and demonstration of use of methane/hydrogen blends as fuel in existing methane-driven buses; Utveckling och demonstration av anvaendning av metan/vaetgasblandningar som braensle i befintliga metangasdrivna bussar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Owe

    2006-10-15

    Two natural gas buses in Malmoe have in a project been converted to run on mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas. The buses have been in operation from September 2003 to December 2005 and have during the whole extent of the project been in commercial operation with passengers. One bus has been refuelled with a mixture containing 8% hydrogen and another with 25% hydrogen. One of the buses has during limited periods been refuelled with natural gas in order to establish differences in fuel consumption between the different fuels. A number of different supporting activities have been performed in conjunction to the project: Tests at the Lund Univ. with hydrogen addition to natural gas in a one cylinder test engine and in a 6 cylinder natural gas engine. Safety analysis for handling of hydrogen/natural gas blends. Hydrogen compatibility study of material and components in bus fuel system. Test of leak detection systems for hydrogen and hydrogen/natural gas blends. Development of safety routines for operation and maintenance staff. Emission measurement during road operation with mobile equipment. Follow up of filling station for hydrogen/natural gas blends. The results from the projects are: The buses did not need to be modified in any way in order to run on mixtures with up to 8 vol-% hydrogen. The buses could, in less than 4 h, be modified to run on mixtures with 25 vol-% hydrogen. The conversion was accomplished by changing one computer chip in the engine control system, thus altering the air/fuel ratio and adjusting the ignition angle. The fuel consumption of the buses was reduced by 20-30% by hydrogen addition. The largest relative influence was achieved with 8% hydrogen addition. The reduced fuel consumption in combination with reduced carbon content in the fuel resulted in a total reduction in CO{sub 2}-emission by approximately 35% using 8% hydrogen (by volume). Addition of hydrogen to natural gas has thus proved to be a more efficient way of reducing CO{sub 2

  7. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...density storage of gases remains a major technological hurdle for many fields. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), for example, reduced their hydrogen

  8. Seasonal and diurnal variations of methane and carbon dioxide in the highly polluted Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Khadak; Panday, Arnico; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and methane - key greenhouse gases (GHGs) - are primary causes of global warming and resultant impacts. The atmospheric warming is more pronounced and likely to cause more serious damage in vulnerable areas such as the Hindukush-Karakorum-Himalayan region (HKH). The HKH region is a data gap region according to the 5th Assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC). In order to understand the mixing ratios and variability of the key GHGs in the foothills of the Central Himalaya, we carried out continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, and water vapor at Bode (an urban site in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal) for a year (March 2013 - Feb 2014), and again at Bode and at Chanban (a background outside the Valley) for 3 months (July 15 - Oct 3, 2015), with two state-of-the-art cavity ring-down instruments (Picarro G2401). The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign: SusKat- ABC (Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). The annual average CO2 and CH4 concentrations at Bode were 419 ± 24 and 2.192 ± 0.224 ppm, respectively, which are notably higher than those observed at the background site at Mauna Loa Observatory in the same period. The CO2concentration at Bode was high during the pre-monsoon period and low during the monsoon, while CH4 was high in winter and lower during the pre-monsoon period. The monthly CO2concentration was highest in April. Forest fires and agro-waste burning in the region, and the local emissions in the Kathmandu valley were the main sources of the high CO2 in the pre-monsoon period. CH4 showed a maximum in September due to additional emissions from paddy fields. Seasonally, winter has the highest CH4 concentration which is due to brick production, which is a seasonal activity, and other local sources combined with the shallow mixing layer height in winter. The diurnal pattern of CO2 and CH4

  9. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  10. High temperature infrared absorption cross sections of methane near 3.4 μm in Ar and CO2 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Neupane, Sneha; Pryor, Owen; Peale, Robert E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2018-02-01

    The absorption cross-sections of CH4 at two wavelengths in the mid-IR region: λpeak = 3403.4 nm and λvalley = 3403.7 nm were measured. Data were taken using three different compositions of non-reactive gas mixtures comprising CH4/Ar/CO2 between 700 laser. Also, broadband room temperature methane cross section measurements were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and the cascade laser to gain a better insight into the changes of the line shapes in various bath gasses (Ar, CO2, and N2). An application of the high-temperature cross-section data was demonstrated to determine the concentration of methane during oxy-methane combustion in a mixture of CO2, O2, and Ar. Current measurements will be valuable addition to the spectroscopy database for methane- an important fuel used for power generation and heating around the world.

  11. In-Situ Resource Utilization: Methane Fuel Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sabatier reactors are being matured to produce methane from CO2 and hydrogen.  The hydrogen is derived from the electrolysis of soil-derived water, and the CO2 is...

  12. Hydrogen Assisted Cracking of High Strength Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    differs in general from the previous models in that hydrogen is assumed , to enhance local plasticity rather than truly embrittle the lattice. 5) Formation...measured. - The salient caracteristics of the IIW test include: - A 10mm X 15mm X 30mm specimen machined from mild steel with a sur- . .. face ground...hydrogen so %4. -. ,*. that a crack can grow under a lower applied stress. This theory has been criticized on the basis that the small but finite plastic

  13. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  14. Basic study on high temperature gas cooled reactor technology for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, W. J.; Lee, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The annual production of hydrogen in the world is about 500 billion m 3 . Currently hydrogen is consumed mainly in chemical industries. However hydrogen has huge potential to be consumed in transportation sector in coming decades. Assuming that 10% of fossil energy in transportation sector is substituted by hydrogen in 2020, the hydrogen in the sector will exceed current hydrogen consumption by more than 2.5 times. Currently hydrogen is mainly produced by steam reforming of natural gas. Steam reforming process is chiefest way to produce hydrogen for mass production. In the future, hydrogen has to be produced in a way to minimize CO2 emission during its production process as well as to satisfy economic competition. One of the alternatives to produce hydrogen under such criteria is using heat source of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor represents one type of the next generation of nuclear reactors for safe and reliable operation as well as for efficient and economic generation of energy

  15. Hydrogen Production via a High-Efficiency Low-Temperature Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul KT Liu; Theo T. Tsotsis

    2006-05-31

    Fuel cells are promoted by the US government as a viable alternative for clean and efficient energy generation. It is anticipated that the fuel cell market will rise if the key technical barriers can be overcome. One of them is certainly fuel processing and purification. Existing fuel reforming processes are energy intensive, extremely complicated and capital intensive; these disadvantages handicap the scale-down of existing reforming process, targeting distributed or on-board/stationary hydrogen production applications. Our project involves the bench-scale demonstration of a high-efficiency low-temperature steam reforming process. Hydrogen production can be operated at 350 to 400ºC with our invention, as opposed to >800ºC of existing reforming. In addition, our proposed process improves the start-up deficiency of conventional reforming due to its low temperature operation. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the invented process concept via a bench scale unit and verify mathematical simulation for future process optimization study. Under this project, we have performed the experimental work to determine the adsorption isotherm, reaction kinetics, and membrane permeances required to perform the process simulation based upon the mathematical model developed by us. A ceramic membrane coated with palladium thin film fabricated by us was employed in this study. The adsorption isotherm for a selected hydrotalcite adsorbent was determined experimentally. Further, the capacity loss under cyclic adsorption/desorption was confirmed to be negligible. Finally a commercial steam reforming catalyst was used to produce the reaction kinetic parameters required for the proposed operating condition. With these input parameters, a mathematical simulation was performed to predict the performance of the invented process. According to our simulation, our invented hybrid process can deliver 35 to 55% methane conversion, in comparison with the 12 and 18-21% conversion of

  16. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  17. Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchoel Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5 layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures.

  18. Precursors-Derived Ceramic Membranes for High-Temperature Separation of Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji, Iwamoto

    2007-01-01

    This review describes recent progress in the development of hydrogen-permselective ceramic membranes derived from organometallic precursors. Microstructure and gas transport property of microporous amorphous silica-based membranes are briefly described. Then, high-temperature hydrogen permselectivity, hydrothermal stability as well as hydrogen/steam selectivity of the amorphous silica-based membranes are discussed from a viewpoint of application to membrane reactors for conversion enhancement...

  19. High Density Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Composites with Air Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Dieterich, Mila; Bürger, Inga; Linder, Marc

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In order to combine fluctuating renewable energy sources with the actual demand of electrical energy, storages are essential. The surplus energy can be stored as hydrogen to be used either for mobile use, chemical synthesis or reconversion when needed. One possibility to store the hydrogen gas at high volumetric densities, moderate temperatures and low pressures is based on a chemical reaction with metal hydrides. Such storages must be able to absorb and desorb the hydrogen qu...

  20. Catalytic aromatization of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, James J; Hutchings, Graham

    2014-02-07

    Recent developments in natural gas production technology have led to lower prices for methane and renewed interest in converting methane to higher value products. Processes such as those based on syngas from methane reforming are being investigated. Another option is methane aromatization, which produces benzene and hydrogen: 6CH4(g) → C6H6(g) + 9H2(g) ΔG°(r) = +433 kJ mol(-1) ΔH°(r) = +531 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic calculations for this reaction show that benzene formation is insignificant below ∼600 °C, and that the formation of solid carbon [C(s)] is thermodynamically favored at temperatures above ∼300 °C. Benzene formation is insignificant at all temperatures up to 1000 °C when C(s) is included in the calculation of equilibrium composition. Interestingly, the thermodynamic limitation on benzene formation can be minimized by the addition of alkanes/alkenes to the methane feed. By far the most widely studied catalysts for this reaction are Mo/HZSM-5 and Mo/MCM-22. Benzene selectivities are generally between 60 and 80% at methane conversions of ∼10%, corresponding to net benzene yields of less than 10%. Major byproducts include lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight substituted aromatics. However, carbon formation is inevitable, but the experimental findings show this can be kinetically limited by the use of H2 or oxidants in the feed, including CO2 or steam. A number of reactor configurations involving regeneration of the carbon-containing catalyst have been developed with the goal of minimizing the cost of regeneration of the catalyst once deactivated by carbon deposition. In this tutorial review we discuss the thermodynamics of this process, the catalysts used and the potential reactor configurations that can be applied.

  1. Modelling high density phenomena in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittenden, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    The application of hydrogen fibre Z-pinches to the study of the radiative collapse phenomenon is studied computationally. Two areas of difficulty, the formation of a fully ionized pinch from a cryogenic fibre and the processes leading to collapse termination, are addressed in detail. A zero-D model based on the energy equation highlights the importance of particle end losses and changes in the Coulomb logarithm upon collapse initiation and termination. A 1-D Lagrangian resistive MHD code shows the importance of the changing radial profile shapes, particularly in delaying collapse termination. A 1-D, three fluid MHD code is developed to model the ionization of the fibre by thermal conduction from a high temperature surface corona to the cold core. Rate equations for collisional ionization, 3-body recombination and equilibration are solved in tandem with fluid equations for the electrons, ions and neutrals. Continuum lowering is found to assist ionization at the corona-core interface. The high density plasma phenomena responsible for radiative collapse termination are identified as the self-trapping of radiation and free electron degeneracy. A radiation transport model and computational analogues for the effects of degeneracy upon the equation of state, transport coefficients and opacity are implemented in the 1-D, single fluid model. As opacity increases the emergent spectrum is observed to become increasingly Planckian and a fall off in radiative cooling at small radii and low frequencies occurs giving rise to collapse termination. Electron degeneracy terminates radiative collapse by supplementing the radial pressure gradient until the electromagnetic pinch force is balanced. Collapse termination is found to be a hybrid process of opacity and degeneracy effects across a wide range of line densities with opacity dominant at large line densities but with electron degeneracy becoming increasingly important at lower line densities. (author)

  2. Effects of high heat flux hydrogen and helium mixture beam irradiation on surface modification and hydrogen retention in tungsten materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Kurishita, H.; Nagata, S.; Tsuchiya, B.; Tonegawa, A.; Yoshida, N.

    2009-01-01

    High heat flux experiments using a hydrogen-helium mixture beam have been carried out on powder metallurgy tungsten (PM-W) and ultra fine grain W-TiC alloy (W-0.5 wt%TiC-H 2 ). The energy of is 18 keV. Beam flux and heat flux at the beam center is 2.0 x 10 21 atoms/m 2 s and 7.0 MW/m 2 , respectively. Typical ratio of He/D ion is 0.25. Beam duration is 1.5-3 s and interval of beam shot start is 30 s. The samples are irradiated up to a fluence of 10 22 -10 24 He/m 2 by the repeated irradiation pulses. After the irradiation, surface modification by the irradiation and hydrogen retention, surface composition have been investigated. Surface modification by hydrogen-helium mixture beams is completely different from results of single beam irradiation. In particular, mixture beam irradiation causes remarkably high hydrogen retention.

  3. High abundance and diversity of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria in a paddy field profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Yu; Long, Xi-En; Guo, Jianhua; Zhu, Guibing

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) mediated by 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' with nitrite and methane as substrates has connected biogeochemical carbon and nitrogen cycles in a new way. The paddy fields often carry substantial methane and nitrate, thus may be a favorable habitat for n-damo bacteria. In this paper, the vertical-temporal molecular fingerprints of M. oxyfera-like bacteria, including abundance and community composition, were investigated in a paddy soil core in Jiangyin, near the Yangtze River. Through qPCR investigation, high abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria up to 1.0 × 10(8) copies (g d.w.s.)(-1) in summer and 8.5 × 10(7) copies (g d.w.s.)(-1) in winter was observed in the ecotone of soil and groundwater in the paddy soil core, which was the highest in natural environments to our knowledge. In the ecotone, the ratio of M. oxyfera-like bacteria to total bacteria reached peak values of 2.80% in summer and 4.41% in winter. Phylogenetic analysis showed n-damo bacteria in the paddy soil were closely related to M. oxyfera and had high diversity in the soil/groundwater ecotone. All of the results indicated the soil/groundwater ecotone of the Jiangyin paddy field was a favorable environment for the growth of n-damo bacteria. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient preparation of highly hydrogenated graphene and its application as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wufeng; Zhu, Zhiye; Li, Sirong; Chen, Chunhua; Yan, Lifeng

    2012-03-01

    A novel method has been developed to prepare hydrogenated graphene (HG) via a direct synchronized reduction and hydrogenation of graphene oxide (GO) in an aqueous suspension under 60Co gamma ray irradiation at room temperature. GO can be reduced by the aqueous electrons (eaq-) while the hydrogenation takes place due to the hydrogen radicals formed in situ under irradiation. The maximum hydrogen content of the as-prepared highly hydrogenated graphene (HHG) is found to be 5.27 wt% with H/C = 0.76. The yield of the target product is on the gram scale. The as-prepared HHG also shows high performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  5. Measurements of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Other Related Tracers at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Scott; Forgeron, Jeff; Rella, Chris; Franz, Patrick; Jacobson, Gloria; Chiao, Sen; Saad, Nabil

    2013-04-01

    The ability to quantify sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and methane on the urban scale is essential for understanding the atmospheric drivers to global climate change. In the 'top-down' approach, overall carbon fluxes are determined by combining remote measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with complex atmospheric transport models, and these emissions measurements are compared to 'bottom-up' predictions based on detailed inventories of the sources and sinks of carbon, both anthropogenic and biogenic in nature. This approach, which has proven to be effective at continental scales, becomes challenging to implement at urban scales, due to poorly understood atmospheric transport models and high variability of the emissions sources in space (e.g., factories, highways, green spaces) and time (rush hours, factory shifts and shutdowns, and diurnal and seasonal variation in residential energy use). New measurement and analysis techniques are required to make sense of the carbon dioxide signal in cities. Here we present detailed, high spatial- and temporal- resolution greenhouse gas measurements made by multiple Picarro-CRDS analyzers in Silicon Valley in California. Real-time carbon dioxide data from a 20-month period are combined with real-time carbon monoxide, methane, and acetylene to partition the observed carbon dioxide concentrations between different anthropogenic sectors (e.g., transport, residential) and biogenic sources. Real-time wind rose data are also combined with real-time methane data to help identify the direction of local emissions of methane. High resolution WRF models are also included to better understand the dynamics of the boundary layer. The ratio between carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is shown to vary over more than a factor of two from season to season or even from day to night, indicating rapid but frequent shifts in the balance between different carbon dioxide sources. Additional information is given by acetylene, a fossil fuel

  6. Hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking of high alloyed austenitic materials; Wasserstoffversproedung und wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion hochlegierter austenitischer Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, K; Uhlemann, M; Engelmann, H J [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The susceptiblity of high alloyed austenitic steels and nickel base alloys to hydrogen-induced cracking is particularly determined by 1. the distribution of hydrogen in the material, and 2. the microstructural deformation behaviour, which last process is determined by the effects of hydrogen with respect to the formation of dislocations and the stacking fault energy. The hydrogen has an influence on the process of slip localization in slip bands, which in turn affects the microstructural deformation behaviour. Slip localization increases with growing Ni contents of the alloys and clearly reduces the ductility of the Ni-base alloy. Although there is a local hydrogen source involved in stress corrosion cracking, emanating from the corrosion process at the cathode, crack growth is observed only in those cases when the hydrogen concentration in a small zone ahead of the crack tip reaches a critical value with respect to the stress conditions. Probability of onset of this process gets lower with growing Ni content of the alloy, due to increasing diffusion velocity of the hydrogen in the austenitic lattice. This is why particularly austenitic steels with low Ni contents are susceptible to transcrystalline stress corrosion cracking. In this case, the microstructural deformation process at the crack tip is also influenced by analogous processes, as could be observed in hydrogen-loaded specimens. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Empfindlichkeit von hochlegierten austentischen Staehlen und Nickelbasislegierungen gegen wasserstoffinduziertes Risswachstum wird im wesentlichen bestimmt durch 1. die Verteilung von Wasserstoff im Werkstoff und 2. das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten. Das mikrostrukturelle Deformationsverhalten ist wiederum durch den Einfluss von Wasserstoff auf die Versetzungsbildung und die Stapelfehlerenergie charakterisiert. Das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten wird durch wasserstoffbeeinflusste Gleitlokalisierung in Gleitbaendern bestimmt. Diese nimmt mit

  7. Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, S.; Katayama, K.; Shimozori, M.; Fukada, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Ushida, H. [Energy Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Nishikawa, M. [Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, UTM, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-03-15

    F82H is a primary candidate of structural material and coolant pipe material in a blanket of a fusion reactor. Understanding tritium permeation behavior through F82H is important. In a normal operation of a fusion reactor, the temperature of F82H will be controlled below 550 C. degrees because it is considered that F82H can be used up to 30,000 hours at 550 C. degrees. However, it is necessary to assume the situation where F82H is heated over 550 C. degrees in a severe accident. In this study, hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H was investigated in the temperature range from 500 to 800 C. degrees. In some cases, water vapor was added in a sample gas to investigate an effect of water vapor on hydrogen permeation. The permeability of hydrogen in the temperature range from 500 to 700 C. degrees agreed well with the permeability reported by E. Serra et al. The degradation of the permeability by water vapor was not observed. After the hydrogen permeation reached in a steady state at 700 C. degrees, the F82H sample was heated to 800 C. degrees. The permeability of hydrogen through F82H sample which was once heated up to 800 C. degrees was lower than that of the original one. (authors)

  8. Effects of hydrogen bonds on solid state TATB, RDX, and DATB under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Feng; Hu Hai-Quan; Zhang Hong; Cheng Xin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    To probe the behavior of hydrogen bonds in solid energetic materials, we conduct ReaxFF and SCC–DFTB molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline TATB, RDX, and DATB. By comparing the intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding rates, we find that the crystal structures are stabilized by inter-molecular hydrogen bond networks. Under high-pressure, the inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds in solid TATB and DATB are nearly equivalent. The hydrogen bonds in solid TATB and DATB are much shorter than in solid RDX, which suggests strong hydrogen bond interactions existing in these energetic materials. Stretching of the C–H bond is observed in solid RDX, which may lead to further decomposition and even detonation. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  9. Hydrogen production using plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.; Whidden, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma processing is a promising method of extracting hydrogen from natural gas while avoiding the greenhouse gas (GHG) production typical of other methods such as steam methane reforming. This presentation describes a plasma discharge process based that, in a single reactor pass, can yield hydrogen concentrations of up to 50 % by volume in the product gas mixture. The process is free of GHG's, does not require catalysts and is easily scalable. Chemical and morphological analyses of the gaseous and solid products of the process by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry, microscopic Raman analyses and electron microscopy respectively are reviewed. The direct production of hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HENG) as a fuel for low pollution internal combustion engines and its purification to high-purity hydrogen (99.99%) from the product gas by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purifier beds are reviewed. The presentation reviews potential commercial applications for the technology

  10. Optimization of biohydrogen and methane recovery within a cassava ethanol wastewater/waste integrated management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic co-fermentation of cassava stillage (CS) and cassava excess sludge (CES) were investigated for hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen yield (37.1 ml/g-total-VS added) was obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1, 17% higher than that with CS digestion alone. The CES recycle......, and the acetobacteria percentage increased to 12.4% at VSCS/VSCES of 6:2. Relatively high efficient and stable hydrogen production was observed at VSCS/VSCES of 5:3 without pH adjusted and any pretreatment. The highest total energy yield, the highest COD and VS degradation were obtained at VSCS/VSCES of 7:1. GFC...... analysis indicated that the hydrolysis behavior was significantly improved by CES recycle at both hydrogen and methane production phase....

  11. Device for manufacturing methane or synthetic gas from materials containing carbon using a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, W.

    1984-01-01

    This invention concerns a device for manufacturing methane or synthetic gas from materials containing carbon using a nuclear reactor, where part of the carbon is gasified with hydration and the remaining carbon is converted to synthetic gas by adding steam. This synthetic gas consists mainly of H 2 , CO, CO 2 and CH 4 and can be converted to methane in so-called methanising using a nickel catalyst. The hydrogen gasifier is situated in the first of two helium circuits of a high temperature reactor, and the splitting furnace is situated in the second helium circuit, where part of the methane produced is split into hydrogen at high temperature, which is used for the hydrating splitting of another part of the material containing carbon. (orig./RB) [de

  12. Hydrogen - A new green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnu, Franck

    2013-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of the role hydrogen might have as energy in the energy transition policy, a review of different areas of research related to the hydrogen sector, and presentations of some remarkable innovations in different specific fields. Hydrogen might be an asset in energy transition because production modes (like electrolysis) result in an almost carbon-free or at least low-carbon hydrogen production. Challenges and perspectives are evoked: energy storage for intermittent energies (the MYRTE platform), the use of a hydrogen-natural mix (GRHYD program), the development of fuel cells for transport applications, and co-generation (Japan is the leader). Different French research organisations are working on different aspects and areas: the H2E program by Air Liquide, fuel cell technologies by GDF Suez, power electrolyzers and cells by Areva. Some aspects and research areas are more specifically detailed: high temperature electrolysis (higher efficiencies, synthesis of methane from hydrogen), fuel cells (using less platinum, and using ceramics for high temperatures), the perspective of solid storage solutions (hydrogen bottles in composite materials, development of 'hydrogen sponges', search for new hydrides). Innovations concern a project car, storage and production (Greenergy Box), the McPhy Energy storage system, an electric bicycle with fuel cell, easy to transport storage means by Air Liquide and Composites Aquitaine, development of energy autonomy, fuel cells for cars, electrolyzers using the Proton Exchange Membrane or PEM technology

  13. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of methane production from highly concentrated food waste in a combined anaerobic digester and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungyu; Lee, Beom; Tian, Donjie; Jun, Hangbae

    2018-01-01

    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology for enhancing biogas production from an anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor. In this study, the effects of the MEC on the rate of methane production from food waste were examined by comparing an AD reactor with an AD reactor combined with a MEC (AD+MEC). The use of the MEC accelerated methane production and stabilization via rapid organic oxidation and rapid methanogenesis. Over the total experimental period, the methane production rate and stabilization time of the AD+MEC reactor were approximately 1.7 and 4.0 times faster than those of the AD reactor. Interestingly however, at the final steady state, the methane yields of both the reactors were similar to the theoretical maximum methane yield. Based on these results, the MEC did not increase the methane yield over the theoretical value, but accelerated methane production and stabilization by bioelectrochemical reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    This research and development project is focused on the advancement of a technology that produces hydrogen at a cost that is competitive with fossil-based fuels for transportation. A twostep, solar-driven WS thermochemical cycle is theoretically capable of achieving an STH conversion ratio that exceeds the DOE target of 26% at a scale large enough to support an industrialized economy [1]. The challenge is to transition this technology from the laboratory to the marketplace and produce hydrogen at a cost that meets or exceeds DOE targets.

  15. Methane as a biomarker in the search for extraterrestrial life: Lessons learned from Mars analog hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, B.; Tazaz, A.; Kelley, C. A.; Poole, J. A.; Davila, A.; Chanton, J.

    2010-12-01

    Methane released from discrete regions on Mars, together with previous reports of methane determined with ground-based telescopes, has revived the possibility of past or even extant life near the surface on Mars, since 90% of the methane on Earth has a biological origin. This intriguing possibility is supported by the abundant evidence of large bodies of liquid water, and therefore of conditions conducive to the origin of life, early in the planet's history. The detection and analysis of methane is at the core of NASA’s strategies to search for life in the solar system, and on extrasolar planets. Because methane is also produced abiotically, it is important to generate criteria to unambiguously assess biogenicity. The stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signature of methane, as well as its ratio to other low molecular weight hydrocarbons (the methane/(ethane + propane) ratio: C1/(C2 + C3)), has been suggested to be diagnostic for biogenic methane. We report measurements of the concentrations and stable isotopic signature of methane from hypersaline environments. We focus on hypersaline environments because spectrometers orbiting Mars have detected widespread chloride bearing deposits resembling salt flats. Other evaporitic minerals, e.g., sulfates, are also abundant in several regions, including those studied by the Mars Exploration Rovers. The presence of evaporitic minerals, together with the known evolution of the Martian climate, from warmer and wetter to cold and hyper-arid, suggest that evaporitic and hypersaline environments were common in the past. Hypersaline environments examined to date include salt ponds located in Baja California, the San Francisco Bay, and the Atacama Desert. Methane was found in gas produced both in the sediments, and in gypsum- and halite-hosted (endolithic) microbial communities. Maximum methane concentrations were as high as 40% by volume. The methane carbon isotopic (δ13C) composition showed a wide range of values, from about

  16. High Coke-Resistance Pt/Mg1-xNixO Catalyst for Dry Reforming of Methane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A J Al-Doghachi

    Full Text Available A highly active and stable nano structured Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalysts was developed by a simple co-precipitation method. The obtained Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst exhibited cubic structure nanocatalyst with a size of 50-80 nm and realized CH4 and CO2 conversions as high as 98% at 900°C with excellent stability in the dry reforming of methane. The characterization of catalyst was performed using various kinds of analytical techniques including XRD, BET, XRF, TPR-H2, TGA, TEM, FESEM, FT-IR, and XPS analyses. Characterization of spent catalyst further confirms that Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst has high coke-resistance for dry reforming. Thus, the catalyst demonstrated in this study, offers a promising catalyst for resolving the dilemma between dispersion and reducibility of supported metal, as well as activity and stability during high temperature reactions.

  17. Effect of high pressure hydrogen on the mechanical characteristics of single carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Koo; Kwon, Oh Heon; Jang, Hoon-Sik; Ryu, Kwon Sang; Nahm, Seung Hoon

    2018-02-01

    In this study, carbon fiber was exposed to a pressure of 7 MPa for 24 h in high pressure chamber. The tensile test for carbon fiber was conducted to estimate the effect on the high pressure hydrogen in the atmosphere. To determine the tensile strength and Weibull modulus, approximately thirty carbon fiber samples were measured in all cases, and carbon fiber exposed to high pressure argon was evaluated to verify only the effect of hydrogen. Additionally, carbon fiber samples were annealed at 1950 °C for 1 h for a comparison with normal carbon fiber and then tested under identical conditions. The results showed that the tensile strength scatter of normal carbon fiber exposed to hydrogen was relatively wider and the Weibull modulus was decreased. Moreover, the tensile strength of the annealed carbon fiber exposed to hydrogen was increased, and these samples indicated a complex Weibull modulus because the hydrogen stored in the carbon fiber influenced the mechanical characteristic.

  18. Air-adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans shows high methane production and develops resistance against oxygen stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jasso-Chávez

    Full Text Available Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4-1% O2 (atmospheric for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells. In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens.

  19. Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed

    2014-09-01

    Mid-IR absorption cross-sections are measured for methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol over 2800-3400 cm-1 (2.9-3.6 μm) spectral region. Measurements are carried out using a Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with temperatures ranging 296-1100 K and pressures near atmospheric. As temperature increases, the peak cross-sections decrease but the wings of the bands increase as higher rotational lines appear. Integrated band intensity is also calculated over the measured spectral region and is found to be a very weak function of temperature. The absorption cross-sections of the relatively small fuels studied here show dependence on the bath gas. This effect is investigated by studying the variation of absorption cross-sections at 3.392 μm using a HeNe laser in mixtures of fuel and nitrogen, argon, or helium. Mixtures of fuel with He have the highest value of absorption cross-sections followed by Ar and N2. Molecules with narrow absorption lines, such as methane and methanol, show strong dependence on bath gas than molecules with relatively broader absorption features i.e. ethane and ethylene. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Titer Methane from Organosolv-Pretreated Spruce and Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of fossil fuels and the increased demand for renewable energy sources has led to the use of novel raw material sources. Lignocellulosic biomass could serve as a possible raw material for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. This work is aimed at using forest biomass, both softwood (spruce and hardwood (birch, as a raw material for anaerobic digestion. We examined the effect of different operational conditions for the organosolv pretreatment (ethanol content, duration of treatment, and addition of acid catalyst on the methane yield. In addition, we investigated the effect of addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion. We found that inclusion of an acid catalyst during organosolv pretreatment improved the yields from spruce, but it did not affect the yields from birch. Shorter duration of treatment was advantageous with both materials. Methane yields from spruce were higher with lower ethanol content whereas higher ethanol content was more beneficial for birch. The highest yields obtained were 185 mL CH4/g VS from spruce and 259.9 mL CH4/g VS from birch. Addition of cellulolytic enzymes improved these yields to 266.6 mL CH4/g VS and 284.2 mL CH4/g VS, respectively.

  1. Residual gas entering high density hydrogen plasma: rarefaction due to rapid heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. den Harder,; D.C. Schram,; W. J. Goedheer,; de Blank, H. J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; van Rooij, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of background molecular hydrogen with magnetized (0.4 T) high density (1–5 × 10 20  m −3 ) low temperature (∼3 eV) hydrogen plasma was inferred from the Fulcher band emission in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI. In the plasma center,

  2. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection

  3. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D.H.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Ahmad, H.A.; Nunney, T.S.; Janssens, S.D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ?50 ml/min (STP) at

  4. Methane cycling. Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David T; Gruen, Danielle S; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Stewart, Lucy C; Holden, James F; Hristov, Alexander N; Pohlman, John W; Morrill, Penny L; Könneke, Martin; Delwiche, Kyle B; Reeves, Eoghan P; Sutcliffe, Chelsea N; Ritter, Daniel J; Seewald, Jeffrey S; McIntosh, Jennifer C; Hemond, Harold F; Kubo, Michael D; Cardace, Dawn; Hoehler, Tori M; Ono, Shuhei

    2015-04-24

    Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle, with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its multiply substituted "clumped" isotopologues (for example, (13)CH3D) has recently emerged as a proxy for determining methane-formation temperatures. However, the effect of biological processes on methane's clumped isotopologue signature is poorly constrained. We show that methanogenesis proceeding at relatively high rates in cattle, surface environments, and laboratory cultures exerts kinetic control on (13)CH3D abundances and results in anomalously elevated formation-temperature estimates. We demonstrate quantitatively that H2 availability accounts for this effect. Clumped methane thermometry can therefore provide constraints on the generation of methane in diverse settings, including continental serpentinization sites and ancient, deep groundwaters. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. High-brightness negative-hydrogen linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.; Farrell, J.A.; Dogliani, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed a linear accelerator to accelerate negative hydrogen ions to 50 MeV with an instantaneous output current of 100 mA and a normalized rms emittance in both transverse planes of 0.02 π cm mrad. The design and results obtained to date with a 2-MeV prototype are presented

  6. Electrical conductivity of highly ionized dense hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.; Guenther, K.

    1976-01-01

    A diagnostic technique for the determination of pressure, temperature and its radial distribution, the strength of the electric field and the current of a wall-stabilized pulse hydrogen arc at a pressure of 10 atm and a maximum power of 120 kW/cm arc length is developed. (author)

  7. High purity hydrogen production system by the PSA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    In a process developed by Nippon Steel, coke oven gas is compressed and purified of tarry matter, sulphur compounds and gum-formers by adsorption. It is then passed through a three-tower pressure-swing adsorption system to recover hydrogen whose purity can be selected in the range 99 to 99.999%. A composite adsorption agent is used.

  8. Influence of hydrogen on high cycle fatigue of polycrystalline vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.W.; Lee, K.S.; Stoloff, N.S.

    1977-02-01

    The room temperature fatigue behavior of several polycrystalline V-H 2 alloys is described. Hydrogen extends the life of unnotched vanadium but has a deleterious effect in notched materials. Crack propagation data are correlated with tensile yield stress and cyclic strain hardening data

  9. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, Michael G.; Harvego, Edwin A.; Gandrik, Anastasia A.

    2010-01-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322 C and 750 C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  10. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%

  11. Photocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.; D`Este, J.R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A long-term goal of our research group is the exploration of novel pathways for the direct oxidation of methane to liquid fuels, chemicals, and intermediates. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol is attractive. The products of reaction, methanol and hydrogen, are both commercially desirable, methanol being used as is or converted to a variety of other chemicals, and the hydrogen could be utilized in petroleum and/or chemical manufacturing. Methane is produced as a by-product of coal gasification. Depending upon reactor design and operating conditions, up to 18% of total gasifier product may be methane. In addition, there are vast proven reserves of geologic methane in the world. Unfortunately, a large fraction of these reserves are in regions where there is little local demand for methane and it is not economically feasible to transport it to a market. There is a global research effort under way in academia, industry, and government to find methods to convert methane to useful, more readily transportable and storable materials. Methanol, the initial product of methane oxidation, is a desirable product of conversion because it retains much of the original energy of the methane while satisfying transportation and storage requirements. Investigation of direct conversion of methane to transportation fuels has been an ongoing effort at PETC for over 10 years. One of the current areas of research is the conversion of methane to methanol, under mild conditions, using light, water, and a semiconductor photocatalyst. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol, is attractive. Research in the laboratory is directed toward applying the techniques developed for the photocatalytic splitting of the water and the photochemical conversion of methane.

  12. High temperature cathodic charging of hydrogen in zirconium alloys and iron and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    These investigations lead to the development of a new technique for charging hydrogen into metals and alloys. In this technique a mixture of sulfates and bisulfates of sodium and potassium is kept saturated with water at 250-300degC in an open pyrex glass beaker and electrolysed using platinum anode and the material to be charged as the cathode. Most of the studies were carried out on Zr alloys. It is shown that because of the high hydrogen flux available at the surface and the high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals at these temperatures the materials pick up hydrogen faster and more uniformly than the conventional electrolytic charging at room temperature and high temperature autoclaving in LiOH solutions. Chemical analysis, metallographic examination and XRD studies confirm this. This technique has been used to charge hydrogen into many iron and nickel base austentic alloys, which are very resistant to hydrogen pick up and to H-embrittlement. Since this involved a novel method of electrolysing water, the hydrogen/deuterium isotopic ratio has been studied. At this temperatures the D/H ratio in the evolved hydrogen gas was found to be closer to the value in the liquid water, which means a smaller separation factor. This confirm the earlier observation that separation factor decreases with increase of temperature. (author). 16 refs., 21 fi gs., 6 tabs

  13. Quantification of methane emissions from danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Mønster, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Whole-landfill methane emission was quantified using a tracer technique that combines controlled tracer gas release from the landfill with time-resolved concentration measurements downwind of the landfill using a mobile high-resolution analytical instrument. Methane emissions from 13 Danish...... landfills varied between 2.6 and 60.8 kg CH4 h–1. The highest methane emission was measured at the largest (in terms of disposed waste amounts) of the 13 landfills, whereas the lowest methane emissions (2.6-6.1 kgCH4 h–1) were measured at the older and smaller landfills. At two of the sites, which had gas...... collection, emission measurements showed that the gas collection systems only collected between 30-50% of the methane produced (assuming that the produced methane equalled the sum of the emitted methane and the collected methane). Significant methane emissions were observed from disposed shredder waste...

  14. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. AO13. High energy, low methane syngas from low-rank coals for coal-to-liquids production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, Andrew [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States); Goyal, Amit [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States); Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-30

    An experimental program was undertaken to develop and demonstrate novel steam reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, and methane under high temperature and sulfur environments at lab scale. Several catalysts were developed and synthesized along with some catalysts based on recipes found in the literature. Of these, two had good resistance at 90 ppm H2S with one almost not affected at all. Higher concentrations of H2S did affect methane conversion across the catalyst, but performance was fairly stable for up to 200 hours. Based on the results of the experimental program, a techno-economic analysis was developed for IGCC and CTL applications and compared to DOE reference cases to examine the effects of the new technology. In the IGCC cases, the reformer/POX system produces nearly the same amount of electricity for nearly the same cost, however, the reformers/POX case sequesters a higher percentage of the carbon when compared to IGCC alone. For the CTL case the economics of the new process were nearly identical to the CTL case, but due to improved yields, the greenhouse gas emissions for a given production of fuels was approximately 50% less than the baseline case.

  16. AuRu/meso-Mn2O3: A Highly Active and Stable Catalyst for Methane Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z.; Fang, J. Y.; Xie, S. H.; Deng, J. G.; Liu, Y. X.; Dai, H. X.

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous Mn2O3 (meso-Mn2O3) and its supported Au, Ru, and AuRu alloy (0.49 wt% Au/meso-Mn2O3, 0.48 wt% Ru/meso-Mn2O3, and 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 (Au/Ru molar ratio = 0.98)) nanocatalysts were prepared using the KIT-6-templating and polyvinyl alcohol-protected reduction methods, respectively. Physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by means of numerous techniques, and their catalytic activities were evaluated for the combustion of methane. It is found that among all of the samples, 0.48 wt% Ru/meso-Mn 2O3 and 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 performed the best (the reaction temperature (T90% ) at 90% methane conversion was 530-540°C), but the latter showed a better thermal stability than the former. The partial deactivation of 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 due to H2O or CO2 introduction was reversible. It is concluded that the good catalytic activity and thermal stability of 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 was associated with the high dispersion of AuRu alloy NPs (2-5 nm) on the surface of meso-Mn2O3 and good low-temperature reducibility.

  17. Subsurface methane formation in graphite due to exposure to H+ and D+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.; Haasz, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The extent of H-D mixing in the form of mixed-isotope methane formation during simultaneous H + /D + bombardment of graphite was measured and found to be a sensitive function of H + -D + ion range separation. The result strongly supports the model that methane molecules are formed at the end of ion range in the bulk of graphite. A long steadily decreasing transient was observed in the methane emission when bombarding a virgin graphite sample with 10 keV D + at 800 K. The effect was less pronounced for low density fine grain isographites (EK98) than for high density pyrolytic graphite (HPG99) and monocrystal carbons. We propose a model which attributes this transient to the creation of new internal ''surfaces'', formed during ion irradiation along with ion-created micropaths. The increase in internal surface area effectively ''dilutes'' the inner surface hydrogen concentration in the region where incident hydrogen ions thermalize. We propose that, initially, methane molecules are formed mainly on inherent internal surfaces (pore and grain/crystallite boundary surfaces) in the region where hydrogen ions thermalize; then as damage builds up, newly produced internal ''surfaces'' also contribute to methane formation. (orig.)

  18. High-Frequency Measurements of Methane Ebullition Over a Growing Season at a Temperate Peatland Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jordan P.; Varner, Ruth K.; Frolking, Steve; Duncan, Bryan N.; Crill, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Bubbles can contribute a significant fraction of methane emissions fr om wetlands; however the range of reported fractions is very large an d accurate characterization of this pathway has proven difficult. Her e we show that continuous automated flux chambers combined with an in tegrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) instrument allow us to qua ntify both CH4 ebullition rate and magnitude. For a temperate poor f en in 2009, ebullition rate varied on hourly to seasonal time scales. A diel pattern in ebullition was identified with peak release occurr ing between 20:00 and 06:00 local time, though steady fluxes (i.e., t hose with a linear increase in chamber headspace CH4 concentration) d id not exhibit diel variability. Seasonal mean ebullition rates peake d at 843.5 +/- 384.2 events m(exp -2)/d during the summer, with a me an magnitude of 0.19 mg CH4 released in each event.

  19. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... conclusion is that GERG-water must be used with caution outside its specified working range. For some selected natural gas mixtures the two models also perform very much alike. The water content of the mixtures decreases with increasing amount of heavier components, and it seems that both models slightly...

  20. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  1. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C. W.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A. E.; Filges, A.; Gerbig, C.; Hatakka, J.; Karion, A.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S. J.; Steinbacher, M.; Sweeney, C.; Wastine, B.; Zellweger, C.

    2013-03-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring the mole fractions of greenhouse gases in the well-mixed atmosphere have required dry sample gas streams (dew point < -25 °C) to achieve the inter-laboratory compatibility goals set forth by the Global Atmosphere Watch programme of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO/GAW) for carbon dioxide (±0.1 ppm in the Northern Hemisphere and ±0.05 ppm in the Southern Hemisphere) and methane (±2 ppb). Drying the sample gas to low levels of water vapour can be expensive, time-consuming, and/or problematic, especially at remote sites where access is difficult. Recent advances in optical measurement techniques, in particular cavity ring down spectroscopy, have led to the development of greenhouse gas analysers capable of simultaneous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour. Unlike many older technologies, which can suffer from significant uncorrected interference from water vapour, these instruments permit accurate and precise greenhouse gas measurements that can meet the WMO/GAW inter-laboratory compatibility goals (WMO, 2011a) without drying the sample gas. In this paper, we present laboratory methodology for empirically deriving the water vapour correction factors, and we summarise a series of in-situ validation experiments comparing the measurements in humid gas streams to well-characterised dry-gas measurements. By using the manufacturer-supplied correction factors, the dry-mole fraction measurements have been demonstrated to be well within the GAW compatibility goals up to a water vapour concentration of at least 1%. By determining the correction factors for individual instruments once at the start of life, this water vapour concentration range can be extended to at least 2% over the life of the instrument, and if the correction factors are determined periodically over time, the evidence suggests that this range can be extended up to and even above 4% water vapour concentrations.

  2. Adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falconer, J.L.; Zagli, A.E.

    1980-04-01

    Temperature-programed desorption and reaction studies showed that increasing amounts of CO/sub 2/ adsorbed on silica-supported 6.9% nickel with increasing temperature to a maximum adsorption at approx. 443/sup 0/K, i.e., that the adsorption was activated; that CO/sub 2/ desorbed partly as CO/sub 2/ with the peak at 543/sup 0/K, and partly as CO with several peaks; that in the presence of hydrogen, nearly all adsorbed CO/sub 2/ desorbed as methane, and a small amount as CO; and that the methane desorption peaks from adsorbed CO and CO/sub 2/ both occurred at 473/sup 0/K. These results suggested that carbon dioxide adsorbed dissociatively as a carbon monoxide and an oxygen species. An observed absence of higher hydrocarbons in the methanation products of carbon dioxide was attributed to a high hydrogen/carbon monoxide surface ratio caused by the activated carbon dioxide adsorption.

  3. Heat pump cycle by hydrogen-absorbing alloys to assist high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in producing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoshi, Fukada; Nobutaka, Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system using two hydrogen-absorbing alloys is proposed to utilise heat exhausted from a high-temperature source such as a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), more efficiently. The heat pump system is designed to produce H 2 based on the S-I cycle more efficiently. The overall system proposed here consists of HTGR, He gas turbines, chemical heat pumps and reaction vessels corresponding to the three-step decomposition reactions comprised in the S-I process. A fundamental research is experimentally performed on heat generation in a single bed packed with a hydrogen-absorbing alloy that may work at the H 2 production temperature. The hydrogen-absorbing alloy of Zr(V 1-x Fe x ) 2 is selected as a material that has a proper plateau pressure for the heat pump system operated between the input and output temperatures of HTGR and reaction vessels of the S-I cycle. Temperature jump due to heat generated when the alloy absorbs H 2 proves that the alloy-H 2 system can heat up the exhaust gas even at 600 deg. C without any external mechanical force. (authors)

  4. Experimental study on cryogenic adsorption of methane by activated carbon for helium coolant purification of High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hua; Wu, Zong-Xin; Jia, Hai-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cryogenic CH 4 adsorption on activated carbon was studied for design of HTGR. • The breakthrough curves at different conditions were analyzed by the MTZ model. • The CH 4 adsorption isotherm was fitted well by the Toth model and the D-R model. • The work provides valuable reference data for helium coolant purification of HTGR. - Abstract: The cryogenic adsorption behavior of methane on activated carbon was investigated for helium coolant purification of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor by using dynamic column breakthrough method. With helium as carrier gas, experiments were performed at −196 °C and low methane partial pressure range of 0–120 Pa. The breakthrough curves at different superficial velocities and different feed concentrations were measured and analyzed by the mass-transfer zone model. The methane single-component adsorption isotherm was obtained and fitted well by the Toth model and the Dubinin-Radushkevich model. The adsorption heat of methane on activated carbon was estimated. The cryogenic adsorption process of methane on activated carbon has been verified to be effective for helium coolant purification of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.

  5. Nanoenergetics and High Hydrogen Content Materials for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-28

    past twenty years. Ammonia borane has already been used with success to produce hydrogen for chemical lasers and fuel cells. The alternatives being...adduct solution in the presence of a titanium catalyst under an inert atmosphere. The resulting material was used to reduce complexes of gold, nickel...A. Varma, B. Legrand, C. Chauveau, and I. Gokalp, “Ignition and Combustion of Al Particles Clad by Ni”, Combust. Sci. Tech., Vol. 174, 2002, pp

  6. High sensitivity hydrogen sensors based on GaN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Grym, Jan; Žďánský, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), s. 1661-1663 ISSN 1610-1642. [16th International Semiconducting and Insulating Materials Conference (SIMC-XVI). Stockholm, 19.06.2011-23.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10021 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Pt nanoparticles * Graphite based Schottky diodes * Hydrogen sensor * GaN Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  7. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. O& #39; Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2005-10-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

  8. Properties of thermal neutron scattering on the nucleus of hydrogen atom of methane molecule; Osobine rasejanja termalnih neutrona na jezgru vodonikovog atoma molekula metana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miloradovic, M M [Tehnicki fakultet, Cacak (Yugoslavia); Markovic, M I [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1987-07-01

    On the basis of derived quantum-mechanical expression for the microscopic nucleus scattering the single and collective influences of translational, rotational and intravibrational motions of the methane molecule on the thermal neutron scattering are established. When incident neutron energy is E{sub 0} {<=} 0.1 eV, it is found that only translational and rotational motion of the methane molecule influences the thermal neutron scattering. The influence of these motions for E{sub 0} . 0.1 eV decreases rapidly with the increase of the incident neutron energy and then the significant influence on the thermal neutron scattering exerts inelastic scattering on the combined rotational with single intravibrational phonons of the methane molecule, while the inelastic scattering on single intravibrational phonons is significantly less. In the combination with rotational phonons the biggest influence has threefold degenerated deformed intravibrational phonons, somehow less influence has twofold degenerated deformed intravibrational phonons, and the least influence has valent intravibrational phonons. All the effects of quasielastic and quantum inelastic scattering are clearly expressed with the thermal neutron scattering at small angles, so that for E{sub 0} =1 eV practically there is no scattering backward. (author)

  9. Evidence for methane in Martian meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Nigel J F; Parnell, John; McMahon, Sean; Mark, Darren F; Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin; Shivak, Jared; Izawa, Matthew R M; Banerjee, Neil R; Flemming, Roberta L

    2015-06-16

    The putative occurrence of methane in the Martian atmosphere has had a major influence on the exploration of Mars, especially by the implication of active biology. The occurrence has not been borne out by measurements of atmosphere by the MSL rover Curiosity but, as on Earth, methane on Mars is most likely in the subsurface of the crust. Serpentinization of olivine-bearing rocks, to yield hydrogen that may further react with carbon-bearing species, has been widely invoked as a source of methane on Mars, but this possibility has not hitherto been tested. Here we show that some Martian meteorites, representing basic igneous rocks, liberate a methane-rich volatile component on crushing. The occurrence of methane in Martian rock samples adds strong weight to models whereby any life on Mars is/was likely to be resident in a subsurface habitat, where methane could be a source of energy and carbon for microbial activity.

  10. Methane generated from graphite--tritium interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.; Walthers, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    When hydrogen isotopes are separated by cryogenic distillation, as little as 1 ppM of methane will eventually plug the still as frost accumulates on the column packings. Elemental carbon exposed to tritium generates methane spontaneously, and yet some dry transfer pumps, otherwise compatible with tritium, convey the gas with graphite rotors. This study was to determine the methane production rate for graphite in tritium. A pump manufacturer supplied graphite samples that we exposed to tritium gas at 0.8 atm. After 137 days we measured a methane synthesis rate of 6 ng/h per cm 2 of graphite exposed. At this rate methane might grow to a concentration of 0.01 ppM when pure tritium is transferred once through a typical graphite--rotor transfer pump. Such a low methane level will not cause column blockage, even if the cryogenic still is operated continuously for many years

  11. The risk of hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength prestressing steels under cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isecke, B.; Mietz, J. (Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    High strength prestressing steels in prestressed concrete structures are protected against corrosion due to passivation resulting from the high alkalinity of the concrete. If depassivation of the prestressing steel occurs due to the ingress of chlorides the corrosion risk can be minimized by application of cathodic protection with impressed current. The risk of hydrogen embrittlement of the prestressing steel is especially pronounced if overprotection is applied due to hydrogen evolution in the cathodic reaction. The present work considers this risk by hydrogen activity measurements under practical conditions and application of different levels of cathodic protection potentials. Information on threshold potentials in prestressed concrete structures is provided, too. (orig.).

  12. High Hydrogen Thoraeus Rubber Gossamer Radiation Shielding for Human Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has recently developed ultra-lightweight, durable, high hydrogen containing Thoraeus Rubber™ nanocomposites that may serve as radiation protection for...

  13. High-temperature effect of hydrogen on sintered alpha-silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallum, G. W.; Herbell, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered alpha-silicon carbide was exposed to pure, dry hydrogen at high temperatures for times up to 500 hr. Weight loss and corrosion were seen after 50 hr at temperatures as low as 1000 C. Corrosion of SiC by hydrogen produced grain boundary deterioration at 1100 C and a mixture of grain and grain boundary deterioration at 1300 C. Statistically significant strength reductions were seen in samples exposed to hydrogen for times greater than 50 hr and temperatures above 1100 C. Critical fracture origins were identified by fractography as either general grain boundary corrision at 1100 C or as corrosion pits at 1300 C. A maximum strength decrease of approximately 33 percent was seen at 1100 and 1300 C after 500 hr exposure to hydrogen. A computer assisted thermodynamic program was also used to predict possible reaction species of SiC and hydrogen.

  14. Ultrasound assisted dispersion of different amount of Ni over ZSM-5 used as nanostructured catalyst for hydrogen production via CO2 reforming of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafaeian, Yaser; Haghighi, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Sogand

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A series of Ni/ZSM-5 nanocatalysts with different amount of Ni were prepared via ultrasound assisted method and characterized with XRD, FESEM, TEM, BET and FTIR techniques. The research deals with catalyst development for dry reforming of methane with the aim of reaching the most stable catalyst specifically over nano-sized catalysts. About more than 99% of Ni particles size is less than 100 nm for the sample prepared with 8% Ni, which is essential to the relative suppression of the carbon formation on catalysts. Catalyst prepared with 8% Ni content showed superior activity in process expected due to its better catalytic properties. - Highlights: • Using ZSM-5 zeolite in dry reforming of methane. • Employing ultrasound energy in synthesis of Ni/ZSM-5 nanocatalyst. • Enhancement of Ni particles size to meet desired catalyst at lower amount of Ni loading. • Dry reforming of methane over Ni/ZSM-5 nanocatalyst with different Ni-loading. • Superior activity of Ni/ZSM-5 nanocatalyst synthesized with 8% Ni content. - Abstract: Carbon dioxide reforming of methane is an interesting route for synthesis gas production especially over nanostructured catalysts. The present research deals with nanocatalyst development by sonochemical method for dry reforming of methane with the aim of reaching the most efficient nanocatalyst. Effect of Ni metal content, one of the most significant variables, on the properties of the ZSM-5 supported nanocatalysts was taken into account. The Ni/ZSM-5 nanocatalysts were prepared via assisted traditional impregnation method via ultrasound irradiation and characterized with XRD, FESEM, TEM, BET and FTIR techniques. Comparison of XRD patterns implies that the peaks related to NiO become sharper by increasing metal content over the support. In the case of nanocatalysts with lower metal content (3% and 8%), the beneficial influence of ultrasound assisted procedure become more pronounced and the observed reduction in

  15. A continuum damage analysis of hydrogen attack in 2.25 Cr-1Mo vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Burg, M.W.D.; van der Giessen, E.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    A micromechanically based continuum damage model is presented to analyze the stress, temperature and hydrogen pressure dependent material degradation process termed hydrogen attack, inside a pressure vessel. Hydrogen attack (HA) is the damage process of grain boundary facets due to a chemical...... reaction of carbides with hydrogen, thus forming cavities with high pressure methane gas. Driven by the methane gas pressure, the cavities grow, while remote tensile stresses can significantly enhance the cavitation rate. The damage model gives the strain-rate and damage rate as a function...... of the temperature, hydrogen pressure and applied stresses. The model is applied to study HA in a vessel wall, where nonuniform distributions of hydrogen pressure, temperature and stresses result in a nonuniform damage distribution over the vessel wall. Stresses inside the vessel wall first tend to accelerate...

  16. Methanogenesis and methane genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, J.N.; Shref, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the pathways leading to methane biosynthesis is presented. The steps investigated to date by gene cloning and DNA sequencing procedures are identified and discussed. The primary structures of component C of methyl coenzyme M reductase encoded by mcr operons in different methanogens are compared. Experiments to detect the primary structure of the genes encoding F420 reducing hydrogenase (frhABG) and methyl hydrogen reducing hydrogenase (mvhDGA) in methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain H are compared with each other and with eubacterial hydrogenase encoding genes. A biotechnological use for hydrogenases from hypermorphillic archaebacteria is suggested. (author)

  17. Chemical Looping Combustion of Hematite Ore with Methane and Steam in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bayham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical looping combustion is considered an indirect method of oxidizing a carbonaceous fuel, utilizing a metal oxide oxygen carrier to provide oxygen to the fuel. The advantage is the significantly reduced energy penalty for separating out the CO2 for reuse or sequestration in a carbon-constrained world. One of the major issues with chemical looping combustion is the cost of the oxygen carrier. Hematite ore is a proposed oxygen carrier due to its high strength and resistance to mechanical attrition, but its reactivity is rather poor compared to tailored oxygen carriers. This problem is further exacerbated by methane cracking, the subsequent deposition of carbon and the inability to transfer oxygen at a sufficient rate from the core of the particle to the surface for fuel conversion to CO2. Oxygen needs to be readily available at the surface to prevent methane cracking. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the use of steam to overcome this issue and improve the conversion of the natural gas to CO2, as well as to provide data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD validation. The steam will gasify the deposited carbon to promote the methane conversion. This work studies the performance of hematite ore with methane and steam mixtures in a 5 cm fluidized bed up to approximately 140 kPa. Results show an increased conversion of methane in the presence of steam (from 20–45% without steam to 60–95% up to a certain point, where performance decreases. Adding steam allows the methane conversion to carbon dioxide to be similar to the overall methane conversion; it also helped to prevent carbon accumulation from occurring on the particle. In general, the addition of steam to the feed gas increased the methane conversion. Furthermore, the addition of steam caused the steam methane reforming reaction to form more hydrogen and carbon monoxide at higher steam and methane concentrations, which was not completely converted at higher concentrations and

  18. Effect of Nb on hydrogen-induced delayed fracture in high strength hot stamping steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shiqi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China); Huang, Yunhua, E-mail: huangyh@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Bintang, E-mail: bingtangsun@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liao, Qingliang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Lu, Hongzhou [CITIC Metal Co. Ltd., Room 1901, Capital Mansion 6, Xin Yuan Nanlu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100004 (China); The School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong road 130, Xujiahui District, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jian, Bian [Niobium Tech Asia, 068898 Singapore (Singapore); Mohrbacher, Hardy [NiobelCon bvba, 2970 Schilde (Belgium); Zhang, Wei; Guo, Aimin [CITIC Metal Co. Ltd., Room 1901, Capital Mansion 6, Xin Yuan Nanlu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100004 (China); Zhang, Yue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); The State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-02-25

    The effect of Nb addition (0.022, 0.053, 0.078 wt%) on the hydrogen-induced delayed fracture resistance of 22MnB5 was studied by constant load test and electrochemical hydrogen permeation method. It is shown that the appropriate addition of Nb is beneficial to the improvement of the delayed fracture resistance of tested steel, especially when the steel contains high concentration of hydrogen, and the maximum delayed fracture resistance is obtained at a Nb content of 0.053%.The result of hydrogen permeation test shows that the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the steel containing niobium is lower than that in steel without niobium, which indicates that it is harder for hydrogen in the steels containing niobium to diffuse and aggregate. In addition, the reason for Nb improving the delayed fracture resistance of steels is discussed from two aspects: hydrogen trap effect and grain refinement effect. The analysis shows that the main reason leading to the improvement of the delayed fracture resistance is the hydrogen trapping effect of NbC while the grain refinement effect of Nb(C,N) secondary.

  19. Effect of Nb on hydrogen-induced delayed fracture in high strength hot stamping steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shiqi; Huang, Yunhua; Sun, Bintang; Liao, Qingliang; Lu, Hongzhou; Jian, Bian; Mohrbacher, Hardy; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Aimin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Nb addition (0.022, 0.053, 0.078 wt%) on the hydrogen-induced delayed fracture resistance of 22MnB5 was studied by constant load test and electrochemical hydrogen permeation method. It is shown that the appropriate addition of Nb is beneficial to the improvement of the delayed fracture resistance of tested steel, especially when the steel contains high concentration of hydrogen, and the maximum delayed fracture resistance is obtained at a Nb content of 0.053%.The result of hydrogen permeation test shows that the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the steel containing niobium is lower than that in steel without niobium, which indicates that it is harder for hydrogen in the steels containing niobium to diffuse and aggregate. In addition, the reason for Nb improving the delayed fracture resistance of steels is discussed from two aspects: hydrogen trap effect and grain refinement effect. The analysis shows that the main reason leading to the improvement of the delayed fracture resistance is the hydrogen trapping effect of NbC while the grain refinement effect of Nb(C,N) secondary

  20. A cohesive zone model to simulate the hydrogen embrittlement effect on a high-strength steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gobbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to model the fracture mechanical behavior of a high-strength low carbon steel, AISI 4130 operating in hydrogen contaminated environment. The study deals with the development of 2D finite element cohesive zone model (CZM reproducing a toughness test. Along the symmetry plane over the crack path of a C(T specimen a zero thickness layer of cohesive elements are implemented in order to simulate the crack propagation. The main feature of this kind of model is the definition of a traction-separation law (TSL that reproduces the constitutive response of the material inside to the cohesive elements. Starting from a TSL calibrated on hydrogen non-contaminated material, the embrittlement effect is simulated by reducing the cohesive energy according to the total hydrogen content including the lattice sites (NILS and the trapped amount. In this perspective, the proposed model consists of three steps of simulations. First step evaluates the hydrostatic pressure. It drives the initial hydrogen concentration assigned in the second step, a mass diffusion analysis, defining in this way the contribution of hydrogen moving across the interstitial lattice sites. The final stress analysis, allows getting the total hydrogen content, including the trapped amount, and evaluating the new crack initiation and propagation due to the hydrogen presence. The model is implemented in both plane strain and plane stress configurations; results are compared in the discussion. From the analyses, it resulted that hydrogen is located only into lattice sites and not in traps, and that the considered steel experiences a high hydrogen susceptibility. By the proposed procedure, the developed numerical model seems a reliable and quick tool able to estimate the mechanical behavior of steels in presence of hydrogen.

  1. Hydrogen production methods efficiency coupled to an advanced high temperature accelerator driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Daniel González; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is one of the most promising concepts for the energy future. In this scenario, oil is replaced by hydrogen as an energy carrier. This hydrogen, rather than oil, must be produced in volumes not provided by the currently employed methods. In this work two high temperature hydrogen production methods coupled to an advanced nuclear system are presented. A new design of a pebbled-bed accelerator nuclear driven system called TADSEA is chosen because of the advantages it has in matters of transmutation and safety. For the conceptual design of the high temperature electrolysis process a detailed computational fluid dynamics model was developed to analyze the solid oxide electrolytic cell that has a huge influence on the process efficiency. A detailed flowsheet of the high temperature electrolysis process coupled to TADSEA through a Brayton gas cycle was developed using chemical process simulation software: Aspen HYSYS®. The model with optimized operating conditions produces 0.1627 kg/s of hydrogen, resulting in an overall process efficiency of 34.51%, a value in the range of results reported by other authors. A conceptual design of the iodine-sulfur thermochemical water splitting cycle was also developed. The overall efficiency of the process was calculated performing an energy balance resulting in 22.56%. The values of efficiency, hydrogen production rate and energy consumption of the proposed models are in the values considered acceptable in the hydrogen economy concept, being also compatible with the TADSEA design parameters. (author)

  2. Hydrogen production methods efficiency coupled to an advanced high temperature accelerator driven system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Daniel González; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Fernández, Carlos García, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-07-01

    The hydrogen economy is one of the most promising concepts for the energy future. In this scenario, oil is replaced by hydrogen as an energy carrier. This hydrogen, rather than oil, must be produced in volumes not provided by the currently employed methods. In this work two high temperature hydrogen production methods coupled to an advanced nuclear system are presented. A new design of a pebbled-bed accelerator nuclear driven system called TADSEA is chosen because of the advantages it has in matters of transmutation and safety. For the conceptual design of the high temperature electrolysis process a detailed computational fluid dynamics model was developed to analyze the solid oxide electrolytic cell that has a huge influence on the process efficiency. A detailed flowsheet of the high temperature electrolysis process coupled to TADSEA through a Brayton gas cycle was developed using chemical process simulation software: Aspen HYSYS®. The model with optimized operating conditions produces 0.1627 kg/s of hydrogen, resulting in an overall process efficiency of 34.51%, a value in the range of results reported by other authors. A conceptual design of the iodine-sulfur thermochemical water splitting cycle was also developed. The overall efficiency of the process was calculated performing an energy balance resulting in 22.56%. The values of efficiency, hydrogen production rate and energy consumption of the proposed models are in the values considered acceptable in the hydrogen economy concept, being also compatible with the TADSEA design parameters. (author)

  3. The high pressure equation of state of the isotopes of solid hydrogen and helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, A.

    1982-01-01

    The initial aim of this thesis was to provide the high pressure equipment and the knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) necessary for a research program in a laboratory dealing with spectroscopy of solid hydrogen under high pressure. Once this first goal was reached, a logical step was to extend the work on the EOS to all three hydrogen isotopes and later also to the helium isotpes. During the experiments on the EOS of hydrogen, the effects of the concentration C 1 of the rotationally excited molecules provoked interest, resulting in an extensive experimental and theoretical study. Chapter I describes the results and experience with high pressure equipment for hydrogen up to 7 kbar and chapter II gives a short general introduction to the calculation of the EOS by introducing the Mie-Grueneisen picture and the Silvera-Goldman (SG) potential for hydrogen. Chapter III gives the results of the first EOS of H 2 and D 2 and chapter IV gives a prediction of the EOS of solid T 2 with aid of the SG potential and the experimental results of H 2 and D 2 . Chapter V presents calculations on the thermal expansion of the hydrogen isotopes, which are compared with direct experiments and chapter VI deals in detail with the influence of C 1 on the EOS of H 2 . Ortho-para conversion in hydrogen is considered in chapter VII, and chapter VIII describes experiments on 4 He. (Auth.)

  4. Sustainable fuel production by thermocatalytic decomposition of methane – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srilatha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermocatalytic Decomposition of Methane (TCD is a completely green single step technology for producing hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. This paper review about the research in laboratory-scale on TCD, specifically the recent advances like co-feeding effect and regeneration of catalyst for enhancing the productivity of the entire process. Although a remarkable success on the laboratory-scale has been fulfilled, TCD for free greenhouse gas (GHG hydrogen production is still in its infancy. The necessity for commercialization of TCD is more than ever in the present-day condition of massive GHG emission. TCD generally studied over several types of catalysts, for example mono, bi, trimetallic, combination of metal–metal oxide, carbon and metal doped carbon catalysts. Catalyst Deactivation is the main problem found in TCD process. Regeneration of catalyst and co-feeding of methane with other hydrocarbon are the two main solutions placed helped in accordance to overcome deactivation problem. Higher amount of co-feed hydrocarbon in situ produce more amount of highly active carbon deposits which support further methane decomposition to produce extra hydrogen. The conversion rate of methane increases with increasing temperature and decreases with the flow rate in the co-feeding process in a comparable manner as observed in normal TCD. The presence of co-components in the post-reaction stream is an important challenge attempted in the co-feeding and regeneration. Keywords: Hydrogen, Catalysts, Thermocatalytic decomposition

  5. SOFC direct fuelling with high-methane gases: Optimal strategies for fuel dilution and upgrade to avoid quick degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldinelli, A.; Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Di Michele, A.; Vivani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SOFCs are operated on natural gas and biogas direct feeding. • Methane partial oxidation and dry reforming are compared. • The optimal oxygen-to-carbon stoichiometry to avoid degradation is determined for both natural gas and biogas. • NiYSZ anodes degradation mechanisms are investigated though SEM-EDX and XRD. - Abstract: In the outlook of the transition to the carbon-free society, low-carbon gases, such as natural gas or biogas, are very promising. The first is commonly used for stationary applications based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) equipped with external reformers. Similar installations are required when the SOFC is run on biogas. Yet, high SOFC operative temperature enables internal decomposition of light hydrocarbons, therefore allowing the suppression of external reforming. Evidently, this brings about benefits in terms of system complexity and cost reduction. Nonetheless, unlike reformate fuels, direct exposure to large amount of methane favours SOFC anodes degradation. Implementing a systematic experimental approach, this paper aims at determining a simple operative strategy to carry out direct feeding without meeting with quick degradation issues, producing interesting outcomes with regards to the management of SOFC-based systems. Particularly, the regulation of the oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) relative fraction of the fuel through air addition to natural gas and partial CO_2 separation from biogas is helpful in the prevention of those mechanisms. In this study, NiYSZ anode SOFCs are exposed to air-diluted natural gas and upgraded biogas, featuring O/C between 0.2 and 1.2. Tracing these cases, at 800 °C and 500 mA/cm"2 constant load, cell performances are measured over a time interval of 100 h. Finally, post-mortem analysis is performed on the specimens to investigate material morphological changes after the exposure to high-methane fuels. Results showed that O/C = 0.8 (+63% air) is the best case to employ air-diluted natural gas

  6. Production of hydrogen with methane decomposition using Ni-Mn/Ce-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts; Produccion de hidrogeno via descomposicion de metano mediante catalizadores de Ni-Mn/Ce-ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C; Hernandez-Pichardo, M L; Valenzuela, M A [Instituto Politecnico Nacional-ESIQIE, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Del Angel, P; Montoya de la Fuente, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The catalytic decomposition of methane makes it possible to obtain CO and CO{sub 2} free hydrogen, which is a desirable characteristic for fuel cell applications. In addition, this method simultaneously obtains diverse carbon nanostructures with a large variety of applications. This work prepared catalysts with different Ni contents supported by Ce-Zr mixed oxides and doped with manganese to promote activity. The supports were synthesized with surfactant-assisted coprecipitation. The Ni and Mn deposits were performed using conventional impregnation for evaluation in the methane decomposition catalyst at 500 degrees Celsius. It was observed that with the incorporation of 1% of Mn into the Ni0 active phase, the conversion of methane into hydrogen and carbon nanostructures increased. The results of reduction at the programmed temperature indicate that the addition of Mn enables the formation of different NiO{sub x} species, increasing dispersion and the degree of reduction to Ni0. Analyses with electron and transmission microscopy show the formation of distinct species of carbon, including nanotubes, nanofibers and concentric onion-like structures, as well as a significant formation of encapsulated Ni0 particles. [Spanish] La descomposicion catalitica de metano permite la obtencion de hidrogeno libre de CO y CO{sub 2}, lo cual es una caracteristica deseable para su aplicacion en celdas de combustible. Ademas, por esta ruta, simultaneamente se obtienen diversas nanoestructuras de carbono con una gran variedad de aplicaciones. En este trabajo se prepararon catalizadores con diferentes contenidos de Ni soportados en oxidos mixtos Ce-Zr y se doparon con manganeso como promotor de actividad. Los soportes se sintetizaron por coprecipitacion asistida por surfactante y el deposito del Ni y del Mn se efectuo por impregnacion convencional para su evaluacion en la descomposicion catalitica de metano a 500 grados centigrados. Se observo que mediante la incorporacion de 1% de Mn a

  7. Methane adsorption on activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherla