Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2008-01-01
Some non-trivial effects are investigated, which can occur if strongly damped mechanical systems are subjected to strong high-frequency (HF) excitation. The main result is a theoretical prediction, supported by numerical simulation, that for such systems the (quasi-)equilibrium states can change...... that can be substantial depending on the strength of the HF excitation) for finite values of the damping. The analysis is focused on the differences between the classic results for weakly damped systems, and new effects for which the strong damping terms are responsible. The analysis is based on a slightly...... modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical optimally...
Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel
Some nontrivial effects are investigated, which can occur if strongly damped mechanical systems are subjected to strong high-frequency (HF) excitation. The main result is a theoretical prediction, supported by numerical simulation, that for such systems the (quasi-)equilibrium states can change...... that can be substantial (depending on the strength of the HF excitation) for finite values of the damping. The analysis is focused on the differences between the classic results for weakly damped systems, and new effects for which the strong damping terms are responsible. The analysis is based...... on a slightly modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical...
High energy nuclear excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.
1983-09-01
The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popov, E. N., E-mail: enpo@ruselmash.ru; Komkov, A. L.; Ivanov, S. L.; Timoshchenko, K. P. [JSC “Scientific and Industrial Enterprise “Rusélprom-Élektromash” (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
Methods of modernizing the regulation systems of electric machinery exciters with high-frequency, brush-free, and collector exciters by means of microprocessor technology are examined. The main problems of modernization are to increase the response speed of a system and to use a system stabilizer to increase the stability of the power system.
A High-Voltage SOI CMOS Exciter Chip for a Programmable Fluidic Processor System.
Current, K W; Yuk, K; McConaghy, C; Gascoyne, P R C; Schwartz, J A; Vykoukal, J V; Andrews, C
2007-06-01
A high-voltage (HV) integrated circuit has been demonstrated to transport fluidic droplet samples on programmable paths across the array of driving electrodes on its hydrophobically coated surface. This exciter chip is the engine for dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based micro-fluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, creating field excitations that inject and move fluidic droplets onto and about the manipulation surface. The architecture of this chip is expandable to arrays of N X N identical HV electrode driver circuits and electrodes. The exciter chip is programmable in several senses. The routes of multiple droplets may be set arbitrarily within the bounds of the electrode array. The electrode excitation waveform voltage amplitude, phase, and frequency may be adjusted based on the system configuration and the signal required to manipulate a particular fluid droplet composition. The voltage amplitude of the electrode excitation waveform can be set from the minimum logic level up to the maximum limit of the breakdown voltage of the fabrication technology. The frequency of the electrode excitation waveform can also be set independently of its voltage, up to a maximum depending upon the type of droplets that must be driven. The exciter chip can be coated and its oxide surface used as the droplet manipulation surface or it can be used with a top-mounted, enclosed fluidic chamber consisting of a variety of materials. The HV capability of the exciter chip allows the generated DEP forces to penetrate into the enclosed chamber region and an adjustable voltage amplitude can accommodate a variety of chamber floor thicknesses. This demonstration exciter chip has a 32 x 32 array of nominally 100 V electrode drivers that are individually programmable at each time point in the procedure to either of two phases: 0deg and 180deg with respect to the reference clock. For this demonstration chip, while operating the electrodes with a 100-V peak-to-peak periodic waveform, the maximum HV electrode
Application of Excitation from Multiple Locations on a Simplified High-Lift System
Melton, LaTunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi
2004-01-01
A series of active flow control experiments were recently conducted on a simplified high-lift system. The purpose of the experiments was to explore the prospects of eliminating all but simply hinged leading and trailing edge flaps, while controlling separation on the supercritical airfoil using multiple periodic excitation slots. Excitation was provided by three. independently controlled, self-contained, piezoelectric actuators. Low frequency excitation was generated through amplitude modulation of the high frequency carrier wave, the actuators' resonant frequencies. It was demonstrated, for the first time, that pulsed modulated signal from two neighboring slots interact favorably to increase lift. Phase sensitivity at the low frequency was measured, even though the excitation was synthesized from the high-frequency carrier wave. The measurements were performed at low Reynolds numbers and included mean and unsteady surface pressures, surface hot-films, wake pressures and particle image velocimetry. A modest (6%) increase in maximum lift (compared to the optimal baseline) was obtained due t o the activation of two of the three actuators.
Formation of excited states in high-Z helium-like systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzsche, S.; Fricke, B.; Brinzanescu, O.
1999-12-01
High-Z helium-like ions represent the simplest multi-electron systems for studying the interplay between electron-electron correlations, relativistic as well as quantum electrodynamical effects in strong fields. In contrast to the adjacent lithium-like ions, however, almost no experimental information is available about the excited states in the high-Z domain of the helium sequence. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the X-ray production and decay dynamics of the excited states in helium-like uranium. Emphasize has been paid particularly to the formation of the 3 P 0 and 3 P 2 levels by using electron capture into hydrogen-like U 91+ . Both states are of interest for precise measurements on high-Z helium-like ions in the future. (orig.)
Design and Implementation of Wideband Exciter for an Ultra-high Resolution Airborne SAR System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jia Ying-xin
2013-03-01
Full Text Available According to an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system with better than 0.1 m resolution, a wideband Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM pulse compression exciter with 14.8 GHz carrier and 3.2 GHz bandwidth is designed and implemented. The selection of signal generation scheme and some key technique points for wideband LFM waveform is presented in detail. Then, an acute test and analysis of the LFM signal is performed. The final airborne experiments demonstrate the validity of the LFM source which is one of the subsystems in an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system.
Park, Jinhyoung; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K Kirk
2011-12-01
A stand-alone front-end system for high-frequency coded excitation imaging was implemented to achieve a wider dynamic range. The system included an arbitrary waveform amplifier, an arbitrary waveform generator, an analog receiver, a motor position interpreter, a motor controller and power supplies. The digitized arbitrary waveforms at a sampling rate of 150 MHz could be programmed and converted to an analog signal. The pulse was subsequently amplified to excite an ultrasound transducer, and the maximum output voltage level achieved was 120 V(pp). The bandwidth of the arbitrary waveform amplifier was from 1 to 70 MHz. The noise figure of the preamplifier was less than 7.7 dB and the bandwidth was 95 MHz. Phantoms and biological tissues were imaged at a frame rate as high as 68 frames per second (fps) to evaluate the performance of the system. During the measurement, 40-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO(3)) single-element lightweight (<;0.28 g) transducers were utilized. The wire target measure- ment showed that the -6-dB axial resolution of a chirp-coded excitation was 50 μm and lateral resolution was 120 μm. The echo signal-to-noise ratios were found to be 54 and 65 dB for the short burst and coded excitation, respectively. The contrast resolution in a sphere phantom study was estimated to be 24 dB for the chirp-coded excitation and 15 dB for the short burst modes. In an in vivo study, zebrafish and mouse hearts were imaged. Boundaries of the zebrafish heart in the image could be differentiated because of the low-noise operation of the implemented system. In mouse heart images, valves and chambers could be readily visualized with the coded excitation.
Kasper, Axel; Van Hille, Herbert; Kuk, Sola
2018-02-01
Modern instruments for molecular diagnostics are continuously optimized for diagnostic accuracy, versatility and throughput. The latest progress in LED technology together with tailored optics solutions allows developing highly efficient photonics engines perfectly adapted to the sample under test. Super-bright chip-on-board LED light sources are a key component for such instruments providing maximum luminous intensities in a multitude of narrow spectral bands. In particular the combination of white LEDs with other narrow band LEDs allows achieving optimum efficiency outperforming traditional Xenon light sources in terms of energy consumption, heat dissipation in the system, and switching time between spectral channels. Maximum sensitivity of the diagnostic system can only be achieved with an optimized optics system for the illumination and imaging of the sample. The illumination beam path must be designed for optimum homogeneity across the field while precisely limiting the angular distribution of the excitation light. This is a necessity for avoiding spill-over to the detection beam path and guaranteeing the efficiency of the spectral filtering. The imaging optics must combine high spatial resolution, high light collection efficiency and optimized suppression of excitation light for good signal-to-noise ratio. In order to achieve minimum cross-talk between individual wells in the sample, the optics design must also consider the generation of stray light and the formation of ghost images. We discuss what parameters and limitations have to be considered in an integrated system design approach covering the full path from the light source to the detector.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppner, D.; Littman, M.G.; Zimmerman, M.L.
1981-01-01
Highly excited atoms are often called Rydberg atoms. These atoms have a wealth of exotic properties which are discussed. Of special interest, are the effects of electric and magnetic fields on Rydberg atoms. Ordinary atoms are scarcely affected by an applied electric or magnetic field; Rydberg atoms can be strongly distorted and even pulled apart by a relatively weak electric field, and they can be squeezed into unexpected shapes by a magnetic field. Studies of the structure of Rydberg atoms in electric and magnetic fields have revealed dramatic atomic phenomena that had not been observed before
High energy magnetic excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endoh, Yasuo
1988-01-01
The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutron sources. Several important subjects adopted at thermal reactors are shown. It is desired to extend the implementation of the spectroscopic experiments for investigation of higher energy magnetic excitations. For La 2 CuO 4 , which is the mother crystal of the first high Tc materials found by Bednortz and Muller, it seems to be believed that the magnetism is well characterized by the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian, and it is widely accepted that the magnetism is a most probable progenitor of high Tc superconductors. The unusual properties of spin correlations in this crystal have been studied extensively by standard neutron scattering techniques with steady neutrons at BNL. FeSi is not ordered magnetically but shows a very unique feature of temperature induced magnetism, which also has been studied extensively by using the thermal neutron scattering technique at BNL. In these experiments, polarized neutrons are indispensable to extract the clean magnetic components out of other components of non-magnetic scattering. (N.K.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
2003-01-01
theories, each providing valuable insight. One of these is capable of predicting the vertical string lift due to stiffening in terms of simple expressions, with results that agree very well with experimental measurements for a wide range of conditions. It appears that resonance effects cannot be ignored...... for demonstrating and measuring the stiffening effect in a simple setting, in the form of a horizontal piano string subjected to longitudinal high-frequency excitation at the clamped base and free at the other end. A simplest possible theoretical model is set up and analyzed using a hierarchy of three approximating......, as was done in a few related studies¿¿unless the system has very low modal density or heavy damping; thus first-order consideration to resonance effects is included. Using the specific example with experimental support to put confidence on the proposed theory, expressions for predicting the stiffening effect...
Statistical properties of highly excited quantum eigenstates of a strongly chaotic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aurich, R.; Steiner, F.
1992-06-01
Statistical properties of highly excited quantal eigenstates are studied for the free motion (geodesic flow) on a compact surface of constant negative curvature (hyperbolic octagon) which represents a strongly chaotic system (K-system). The eigenstates are expanded in a circular-wave basis, and it turns out that the expansion coefficients behave as Gaussian pseudo-random numbers. It is shown that this property leads to a Gaussian amplitude distribution P(ψ) in the semiclassical limit, i.e. the wavefunctions behave as Gaussian random functions. This behaviour, which should hold for chaotic systems in general, is nicely confirmed for eigenstates lying 10000 states above the ground state thus probing the semiclassical limit. In addition, the autocorrelation function and the path-correlation function are calculated and compared with a crude semiclassical Bessel-function approximation. Agreement with the semiclassical prediction is only found, if a local averaging is performed over roughly 1000 de Broglie wavelengths. On smaller scales, the eigenstates show much more structure than predicted by the first semiclassical approximation. (orig.)
High power laser exciter accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, T.H.
1975-01-01
Recent developments in untriggered oil and water switching now permit the construction of compact, high energy density pulsed power sources for laser excitation. These accelerators, developed principally for electron beam fusion studies, appear adaptable to laser excitation and will provide electron beams of 10 13 to 10 14 W in the next several years. The accelerators proposed for e-beam fusion essentially concentrate the available power from the outside edge of a disk into the central region where the electron beam is formed. One of the main problem areas, that of power flow at the vacuum diode insulator, is greatly alleviated by the multiplicity of electron beams that are allowable for laser excitation. A proposal is made whereby the disk-shaped pulsed power sections are stacked vertically to form a series of radially flowing electron beams to excite the laser gas volume. (auth)
Microstructure ion Nuclear Spectra at High Excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, T.E.O.
1969-01-01
The statistical microstructure of highly excited systems is illustrated by the distribution and fluctuations of levels, widths and cross-sections of nuclei both for the case of sharp resonances and the continuum case. The coexistence of simple modes of excitation with statistical effects in terms of strength functions is illustrated by isobaric analogue states. The analogy is made with similar phenomena for coherent light, is solid-state physics and high-energy physics. (author)
Nuclear excited power generation system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, R.Z.; Cox, J.D.
1989-01-01
A power generation system is described, comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing helium through the reactor, the helium being excited and forming alpha particles by high frequency radiation from the core of the gaseous core nuclear reactor; a reaction chamber; means for coupling chlorine and hydrogen to the reaction chamber, the helium and alpha particles energizing the chlorine and hydrogen to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for coupling the helium back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor; and means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, to be coupled back to the reaction chamber in a closed loop. The patent also describes a power generation system comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing hydrogen through the reactor, the hydrogen being excited by high frequency radiation from the core; means for coupling chlorine to a reaction chamber, the hydrogen energizing the chlorine in the chamber to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, and means for coupling the hydrogen back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor in a closed loop
Fission fragment excited laser system
McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.
1976-01-01
A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.
Peeters, E; Martinez-Hernandez, NL; Rodriguez-Fernandez, NJ; Tielens, [No Value
An overview is given of ISO results on regions of high excitation ISM and gas, i.e. H II regions, the Galactic Centre and Supernova Remnants. IR emission due to fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen, silicates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust are summarised, their diagnostic
Peeters, E.; Martin-Hernandez, N. L.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.
2004-01-01
An overview is given of ISO results on regions of high excitation ISM and gas, i.e. HII regions, the Galactic Centre and Supernovae Remnants. IR emission due to fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen, silicates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust are summarized, their diagnostic capabilities illustrated and their implications highlighted.
Excited states in biological systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cilento, G.; Zinner, K.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Duran, N.; Baptista, R.C. de; Shimizu, Y.; Augusto, O.; Faljoni-Alario, A.; Vidigal, C.C.C.; Oliveira, O.M.M.F.; Haun, M.
1979-01-01
Some aspects of bioluminescence related to bioenergetics are discussed: 1. chemical generation of excited species, by means of two general processes: electron transference and cyclic - and linear peroxide cleavage; 2. biological systems capable of generating excited states and 3. biological functions of these states, specially the non-emissive ones (tripletes). The production and the role of non-emissive excited states in biological systems are analysed, the main purpose of the study being the search for non-emissive states. Experiences carried out in biological systems are described; results and conclusions are given. (M.A.) [pt
Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.
Smolarek, S.; Vdovin, A.; Rijs, A.; van Walree, C. A.; Zgierski, M. Z.; Buma, W. J.
2011-01-01
The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated pi-system, 1,1'-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio
Multipole giant resonances in highly excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Keding; Cai Yanhuang
1989-01-01
The isoscalar giant surface resonance and giant dipole resonance in highly excited nuclei are discussed. Excitation energies of the giant modes in 208 Pb are calculated in a simplified model, using the concept of energy wieghted sum rule (EWSR), and the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation at the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature equilibrium state. It is shown that EWSR and the energy of the resonance depend only weakly on temperature in the system. This weak dependence is analysed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santoyo, B.M.
1989-01-01
The author studies in full detail a possible mechanism of superconductivity in slender electronic systems of finite cross section. This mechanism is based on the pairing interaction mediated by the multiple modes of acoustic plasmons in these structures. First, he shows that multiple non-Landau-damped acoustic plasmon modes exist for electrons in a quasi-one dimensional wire at finite temperatures. These plasmons are of two basic types. The first one is made up by the collective longitudinal oscillations of the electrons essentially of a given transverse energy level oscillating against the electrons in the neighboring transverse energy level. The modes are called Slender Acoustic Plasmons or SAP's. The other mode is the quasi-one dimensional acoustic plasmon mode in which all the electrons oscillate together in phase among themselves but out of phase against the positive ion background. He shows numerically and argues physically that even for a temperature comparable to the mode separation Δω the SAP's and the quasi-one dimensional plasmon persist. Then, based on a clear physical picture, he develops in terms of the dielectric function a theory of superconductivity capable of treating the simultaneous participation of multiple bosonic modes that mediate the pairing interaction. The effect of mode damping is then incorporated in a simple manner that is free of the encumbrance of the strong-coupling, Green's function formalism usually required for the retardation effect. Explicit formulae including such damping are derived for the critical temperature T c and the energy gap Δ 0 . With those modes and armed with such a formalism, he proceeds to investigate a possible superconducting mechanism for high T c in quasi-one dimensional single-wire and multi-wire systems
Scattering of highly excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raith, W.
1980-01-01
Experimental methods to excite atomic beams into Rydberg states and the first results of collision experiments with such beams are reported. For further information see hints under relevant topics. (orig.) [de
Excitation system testing in HPP 'Uvac'
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milojčić Nemanja
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The excitation system of hydro unit in HPP 'Uvac' and results of testings of excitation system performed for achieving of unit's mathematical model are presented in this paper. Description of excitation system equipment, parameters of regulators and results obtained after testings are presented. The presented results showed that the regulators are properly adjusted and that the excitation system is completely functional and reliable.
Dou, Yanxin; Jamieson, David N.; Liu, Jianli; Li, Liyi
2018-03-01
This paper describes the design of a new probe forming lens system consisting of a high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet that incorporates a single magnetic octupole lens. This system achieves both a high demagnification and a low spherical aberration compared to conventional high excitation systems and is intended for deployment for the Harbin 300 MeV proton microprobe for applications in space science and ion beam therapy. This relative simplicity of the ion optical design to include a single octupole lens minimizes the risks associated with the constructional and operational precision usually needed for the probe forming lens system and this system could also be deployed in microprobe systems that operate with less magnetically rigid ions. The design of the new system is validated with reference to two independent ion optical computer codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, Karol; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Olson, Ryan M.; Tipparaju, Vinod; Apra, Edoardo
2011-11-30
The development of reliable tools for excited-state simulations is emerging as an extremely powerful computational chemistry tool for understanding complex processes in the broad class of light harvesting systems and optoelectronic devices. Over the last years we have been developing equation of motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) methods capable of tackling these problems. In this paper we discuss the parallel performance of EOMCC codes which provide accurate description of the excited-state correlation effects. Two aspects are discuss in details: (1) a new algorithm for the iterative EOMCC methods based on the novel task scheduling algorithms, and (2) parallel algorithms for the non-iterative methods describing the effect of triply excited configurations. We demonstrate that the most computationally intensive non-iterative part can take advantage of 210,000 cores of the Cray XT5 system at OLCF. In particular, we demonstrate the importance of non-iterative many-body methods for achieving experimental level of accuracy for several porphyrin-based system.
Total cross section of highly excited strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.
1990-01-01
The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig
Smolarek, S.; Vdovin, A.; Rijs, A.; van Walree, C.A.; Zgierski, M.Z.; Buma, W.J.
2011-01-01
The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated π-system, 1,1′-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio calculations. We
High energy excitations in itinerant ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prange, R.E.
1984-01-01
Itinerant magnets, those whose electrons move throughout the crystal, are described by band theory. Single particle excitations offer confirmation of band theory, but their description requires important corrections. The energetics of magnetism in iron and nickel is also described in band theory but requires complex bands. Magnetism above the critical temperature and the location of the critical temperature offer discriminants between the two major models of magnetism at high temperature and can be addressed by high energy excitations
Recent experiments involving highly excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latimer, C.J.
1979-01-01
Very large and fragile atoms may be produced by exciting normal atoms with light or by collisions with other atomic particles. Atoms as large as 10 -6 m are now routinely produced in the laboratory and their properties studied. In this review some of the simpler experimental methods available for the production and detection of such atoms are described including tunable dye laser-excitation and field ionization. A few recent experiments which illustrate the collision properties and the effects of electric and and magnetic fields are also described. The relevance of highly excited atoms in other areas of research including radioastronomy and isotope separation are discussed. (author)
Exciting story of the high-end television projection systems and the novel compact EIDOPHOR AE-12
Schulz-Hennig, Joerg F.
1998-04-01
With the new light valve technologies and availability of international broad-band communication channels high-end large screen TV projection is a highly growing contribution to the multi-media world of today. The exciting story already started 58 years ago with the invention of the EIDOPHOR diffractive oil light modulator. The long way to turn electronic cinema into a reality triggered novel applications, e.g. teleconferencing and real time surgery transmissions at universities. Several technical approaches of spatial light modulation were tried, and finally several different solutions are feasible to provide video projectors, meeting the requirements of the different display applications of today and tomorrow. The technical history is reviewed and the limitations and feasibilities of new technologies are presented in respect to existing and new applications.
Spectroscopic and electric dipole properties of Sr+Ar and SrAr systems including high excited states
Hamdi, Rafika; Abdessalem, Kawther; Dardouri, Riadh; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier
2018-01-01
The spectroscopic properties of the fundamental and several excited states of Sr+Ar and SrAr, Van der Waals systems are investigated by employing an ab initio method in a pseudo-potential approach. The potential energy curves and the spectroscopic parameters are displayed for the 1-10 2Σ+, 1-6 2Π and 1-3 2Δ electronic states of the Sr+Ar molecule and for the 1-6 1Σ+, 1-4 3Σ+, 1-3 1,3Π and 1-3 1,3Δ states of the neutral molecule SrAr. In addition, from these curves, the vibrational levels and their energy spacing are deduced for Σ+, Π and Δ symmetries. The spectra of the permanent and transition dipole moments are studied for the 1,3Σ+ states of SrAr, which are considered to be two-electron systems and 2Σ+ states of the single electron Sr+Ar ion. The spectroscopic parameters obtained for each molecular system are compared with previous theoretical and experimental works. A significant correlation revealed the accuracy of our results.
Picosecond excitation transport in disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hart, D.E.
1987-11-01
Time-resolved fluorescence decay profiles are used to study excitation transport in 2- and 3-dimensional disordered systems. Time-correlated single photon counting detection is used to collect the fluorescence depolarization data. The high signal-to-noise ratios afforded by this technique makes it possible to critically examine current theories of excitation transport. Care has been taken to eliminate or account for the experimental artifacts common to this type of study. Solutions of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI) in glycerol serve as a radomly distributed array of energy donors in 3-dimensions. A very thin sample cell (/approximately/ 2 μm) is used to minimize the effects of fluorescence self-absorption on the decay kinetics. Evidence of a dynamic shift of the fluorescence spectrum of DODCI in glycerol due to solvent reorganization is presented. The effects of excitation trapping on the decay profiles is minimized in the data analysis procedure. The 3-body theory of Gochanour, Andersen, and Fayer (GAF) and the far less complex 2-particle analytic theory of Huber, Hamilton, and Barnett yield indistinguishable fits to the data over the wide dynamic range of concentrations and decay times studied
A portable tube exciting X-ray fluorescence analysis system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Qiang; Lai Wanchang; Ge Liangquan
2009-01-01
Article introduced a portable tube exciting X-ray fluorescence analysis system which is based on arm architecture. Also, we designed Tube control circuit and finished preliminary application. The energy and the intensity of the photon can be adjusted continuously by using the tube. Experiments show that high excitation efficiency obtained by setting the appropriate parameters of the tube for the various elements. (authors)
High-spin excitations of atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Furong; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, Lanzhou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
2004-01-01
The authors used the cranking shell model to investigate the high-spin motions and structures of atomic nuclei. The authors focus the collective rotations of the A∼50, 80 and 110 nuclei. The A∼50 calculations show complicated g spectroscopy, which can have significant vibration effects. The A≅80 N≅Z nuclei show rich shape coexistence with prolate and oblate rotational bands. The A≅110 nuclei near the r-process path can have well-deformed oblate shapes that become yrast and more stable with increasing rotational frequency. As another important investigation, the authors used the configuration-constrained adiabatic method to calculate the multi-quasiparticle high-K states in the A∼130, 180 and superheavy regions. The calculations show significant shape polarizations due to quasi-particle excitations for soft nuclei, which should be considered in the investigations of high-K states. The authors predicted some important high-K isomers, e.g., the 8 - isomers in the unstable nuclei of 140 Dy and 188 Pb, which have been confirmed in experiments. In superheavy nuclei, our calculations show systematic existence of high-K states. The high-K excitations can increase the productions of synthesis and the survival probabilities of superheavy nuclei. (authors)
Strange effects of strong high-frequency excitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
2003-01-01
Three general effects of mechanical high-frequency excitation (HFE) are described: Stiffening - an apparent change in the stiffness associated with an equilibrium; Biasing - a tendency for a system to move towards a particular state which does not exist or is unstable without HFE; and Smoothening...
Effects of noise in excitable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindner, B.; Garcia-Ojalvo, J.; Neiman, A.; Schimansky-Geier, L.
2004-01-01
We review the behavior of theoretical models of excitable systems driven by Gaussian white noise. We focus mainly on those general properties of such systems that are due to noise, and present several applications of our findings in biophysics and lasers. As prototypes of excitable stochastic dynamics we consider the FitzHugh-Nagumo and the leaky integrate-and-fire model, as well as cellular automata and phase models. In these systems, taken as individual units or as networks of globally or locally coupled elements, we study various phenomena due to noise, such as noise-induced oscillations, stochastic resonance, stochastic synchronization, noise-induced phase transitions and noise-induced pulse and spiral dynamics. Our approach is based on stochastic differential equations and their corresponding Fokker-Planck equations, treated by both analytical calculations and/or numerical simulations. We calculate and/or measure the rate and diffusion coefficient of the excitation process, as well as spectral quantities like power spectra and degree of coherence. Combined with a multiparametric bifurcation analysis of the corresponding cumulant equations, these approaches provide a comprehensive picture of the multifaceted dynamical behaviour of noisy excitable systems
Rated power factor and excitation system of large turbine generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokumitsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Takashi; Banjou, Minoru.
1979-01-01
As for the rated power factor of turbine generators for thermal power stations, 90% has been adopted since around 1960. On the other hand, power transmission system has entered 500 kV age, and 1,000 kV transmission is expected in the near future. As for the supply of reactive power from thermal and nuclear turbine generators, the necessity of supplying leading reactive power has rather increased. Now, the operating power factor of thermal and nuclear generators becomes 96 to 100% actually. As for the excess stability of turbine generators owing to the strengthening of transmission system and the adoption of super-high voltage, the demand of strict conditions can be dealt with by the adoption of super-fast response excitation system of thyristor shunt winding self exciting type. The adoption of the turbine generators with 90 to 95% power factor and the adoption of the thyristor shunt winding self exciting system were examined and evaluated. The rated power factor of generators, excitation system and economy of adopting these systems are explained. When the power factor of generators is increased from 0.9 to 0.95, about 6% of saving can be obtained in the installation cost. When the thyristor shunt winding self excitation is adopted, it is about 10% more economical than AC excitation. (Kako, I.)
Encryption in Chaotic Systems with Sinusoidal Excitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Obregón-Pulido
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this contribution an encryption method using a chaotic oscillator, excited by “n” sinusoidal signals, is presented. The chaotic oscillator is excited by a sum of “n” sinusoidal signals and a message. The objective is to encrypt such a message using the chaotic behavior and transmit it, and, as the chaotic system is perturbed by the sinusoidal signal, the transmission security could be increased due to the effect of such a perturbation. The procedure is based on the regulation theory and consider that the receiver knows the frequencies of the perturbing signal, with this considerations the algorithm estimates the excitation in such a way that the receiver can cancel out the perturbation and all the undesirable dynamics in order to produce only the message. In this way we consider that the security level is increased.
The [NeIV] Lines in High Excitation Gaseous Nebulae.
Aller, L H
1970-04-01
The "forbidden" lines of three times ionized neon are among the most precious indicators of electron temperature and excitation. They are also predicted to be among the strongest lines observed in the far ultraviolet spectra of high excitation nebulae.
High Tc Superconducting Magnet Excited by a Semiconductor Thermoelectric Element
Kuriyama, T.; Ono, M.; Tabe, S.; Oguchi, A.; Okamura, T.
2006-04-01
A high Tc superconducting (HTS) magnet excited by a thermal electromotive force of a thermoelectric element is studied. This HTS magnet has the advantages of compactness, lightweight and continuous excitation in comparison with conventional HTS magnets, because this HTS magnet does not need a large external power source. In this system, a heat input into the cryogenic environment is necessary to excite the thermoelectric element for constant operation. This heat generation, however, causes a rise in temperature of an HTS coil and reduces the system performance. In this paper, a newly designed magnet system which adopted a two-stage GM cryocooler was investigated. It enabled us to control the temperature of a thermoelectric element and that of an HTS coil independently. The temperature of the HTS coil could be kept at 10-20 K at the second stage of the GM cryocooler, while the thermoelectric element could be excited at higher temperature in the range of 50-70 K at the first stage, where the performance of the thermoelectric element was higher. The experimental results on this HTS magnet are shown and the possibility of the thermoelectric element as a main power source of the HTS magnets is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuchida, Takahiro; Kimura, Koji
2016-01-01
Equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method is proposed to obtain the response moments up to the 4th order of dynamic systems under non-Gaussian random excitation. The non-Gaussian excitation is prescribed by the probability density and the power spectrum, and is described by an Ito stochastic differential equation. Generally, moment equations for the response, which are derived from the governing equations for the excitation and the system, are not closed due to the nonlinearity of the diffusion coefficient in the equation for the excitation even though the system is linear. In the equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method, the diffusion coefficient is replaced with the equivalent diffusion coefficient approximately to obtain a closed set of the moment equations. The square of the equivalent diffusion coefficient is expressed by a quadratic polynomial. In numerical examples, a linear system subjected to nonGaussian excitations with bimodal and Rayleigh distributions is analyzed by using the present method. The results show that the method yields the variance, skewness and kurtosis of the response with high accuracy for non-Gaussian excitation with the widely different probability densities and bandwidth. The statistical moments of the equivalent non-Gaussian excitation are also investigated to describe the feature of the method. (paper)
Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS)
Lansing, Matthew D.; Bullock, Michael W.
1996-01-01
One of the most convenient and effective methods of stressing a part or structure for shearographic evaluation is thermal excitation. This technique involves heating the part, often convectively with a heat gun, and then monitoring with a shearography device the deformation during cooling. For a composite specimen, unbonds, delaminations, inclusions, or matrix cracking will deform during cooling differently than other more structurally sound regions and thus will appear as anomalies in the deformation field. However, one of the difficulties that cause this inspection to be dependent on the operator experience is the conventional heating process. Fanning the part with a heat gun by hand introduces a wide range of variability from person to person and from one inspection to the next. The goal of this research effort was to conduct research in the methods of thermal excitation for shearography inspection. A computerized heating system was developed for inspection of 0.61 m (24 in.) square panels. The Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS) provides radiant heating with continuous digital measurement of the surface temperature profile to ensure repeatability. The TESS device functions as an accessory to any electronic shearography device.
Spike Bursts from an Excitable Optical System
Rios Leite, Jose R.; Rosero, Edison J.; Barbosa, Wendson A. S.; Tredicce, Jorge R.
Diode Lasers with double optical feedback are shown to present power drop spikes with statistical distribution controllable by the ratio of the two feedback times. The average time between spikes and the variance within long time series are studied. The system is shown to be excitable and present bursting of spikes created with specific feedback time ratios and strength. A rate equation model, extending the Lang-Kobayashi single feedback for semiconductor lasers proves to match the experimental observations. Potential applications to construct network to mimic neural systems having controlled bursting properties in each unit will be discussed. Brazilian Agency CNPQ.
Highly excited strings I: Generating function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitri P. Skliros
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.
Bifurcation and chaos in neural excitable system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing Zhujun; Yang Jianping; Feng Wei
2006-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of neural excitable system without periodic external current (proposed by Chialvo [Generic excitable dynamics on a two-dimensional map. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 1995;5(3-4):461-79] and with periodic external current as system's parameters vary. The existence and stability of three fixed points, bifurcation of fixed points, the conditions of existences of fold bifurcation, flip bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are derived by using bifurcation theory and center manifold theorem. The chaotic existence in the sense of Marotto's definition of chaos is proved. We then give the numerical simulated results (using bifurcation diagrams, computations of Maximum Lyapunov exponent and phase portraits), which not only show the consistence with the analytic results but also display new and interesting dynamical behaviors, including the complete period-doubling and inverse period-doubling bifurcation, symmetry period-doubling bifurcations of period-3 orbit, simultaneous occurrence of two different routes (invariant cycle and period-doubling bifurcations) to chaos for a given bifurcation parameter, sudden disappearance of chaos at one critical point, a great abundance of period windows (period 2 to 10, 12, 19, 20 orbits, and so on) in transient chaotic regions with interior crises, strange chaotic attractors and strange non-chaotic attractor. In particular, the parameter k plays a important role in the system, which can leave the chaotic behavior or the quasi-periodic behavior to period-1 orbit as k varies, and it can be considered as an control strategy of chaos by adjusting the parameter k. Combining the existing results in [Generic excitable dynamics on a two-dimensional map. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 1995;5(3-4):461-79] with the new results reported in this paper, a more complete description of the system is now obtained
Viggiano, Davide; Vallone, Daniela; Welzl, Hans; Sadile, Adolfo G
2002-09-01
The Naples High- (NHE) and Low-Excitability (NLE) rat lines have been selected since 1976 on the basis of behavioral arousal to novelty (Làt-maze). Selective breeding has been conducted under continuous genetic pressure, with no brother-sister mating. The behavioral analyses presented here deal with (1) activity in environments of different complexity, i.e., holeboard and Làt maze; (2) maze learning in hexagonal tunnel, Olton, and Morris water mazes and; (3) two-way active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion tests. Morphometric analyses deal with central dopaminergic systems at their origin and target sites, as well as the density of dopamine transporter immunoreactivity. Molecular biology analyses are also presented, dealing with recent experiments on the prefrontal cortex (PFc), cloning and identifying differentially expressed genes using subtractive libraries and RNAase protection. The divergence between NLE and NHE rats varies as a function of the complexity level of the environment, with an impaired working and reference memory in both lines compared to random bred (NRB) controls. Moreover, data from the PFc of NHE rats show a hyperdopaminergic innervation, with overexpression of mRNA species involved in basal metabolism, and down-regulation of dopamine D1 receptors. Altogether, the evidence gathered so far supports a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system that makes NHE rats a useful tool for the study of hyperactivity and attention deficit, learning and memory disabilities, and drug abuse.
Fragment emission from modestly excited nuclear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lou, Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Souza, R.T. de [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Chen, S.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Cornell, E.W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Davin, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Fox, D. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Hamilton, T.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Mcdonald, K. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Tsang, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Glasmacher, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Dinius, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Gelbke, C.K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Handzy, D.O. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Hsi, W.C.
1996-07-08
Fragment emission patterns occurring in nuclear systems of modest excitation are studied. Exclusive measurement of fragment emission in {sup 14}N+{sup 197}Au reactions at E/A=100, 130 and 156 MeV allows selection of central collisions where a single source dominates the decay. Low threshold measurement of IMF emission for these events allows investigation of the influence of detector threshold effects. The time scale of fragment emission is deduced using fragment-fragment velocity correlations. Comparisons are made to the predictions of a statistical decay model. (orig.).
New properties of giant resonances in highly excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morsch, H.P.
1991-01-01
Studies on the giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei investigated in heavy ion-induced particle-γ coincidence experiments are reviewed. A signature is found in the γ-decay of excited nuceli which shows direct decay of the giant dipole resonance. This provides a new dimension in giant resonance studies and the possibility to study the dependence of giant resonance energy, width and sum rule strength on excitation energy and rotation of the system. Further, the fact that the giant resonance splits in deformed nuclei provides a unique way to get information on the shape of hot nuclei. First results are obtained on the following questions: (i)What is the nuclear shape at high temperature (T≥2 MeV)? (ii)Is there a phase transition in the nuclear shape at T∼1.7 MeV? (iii)Does motional narrowing exist in hot nuclei? (author). 19 refs., 11 figs
Energy dependence of the ionization of highly excited atoms by collisions with excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirai, T.; Nakai, Y.; Nakamura, H.
1979-01-01
Approximate analytical expressions are derived for the ionization cross sections in the high- and low-collision-energy limits using the improved impulse approximation based on the assumption that the electron-atom inelastic-scattering amplitude is a function only of the momentum transfer. Both cases of simultaneous excitation and de-excitation of one of the atoms are discussed. The formulas are applied to the collisions between two excited hydrogen atoms and are found very useful for estimating the cross sections in the wide range of collisions energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frascaria, N.
1987-09-01
A review of experimental results on high excitation energy structures in heavy ion inelastic scattering is presented. The contribution to the spectra of the pick-up break-up mechanism is discussed in the light of the data obtained with light heavy ion projectiles. Recent results obtained with 40 Ar beams at various energies will show that target excitations contribute strongly to the measured cross section
Neutron scattering investigation of magnetic excitations at high energy transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loong, C.K.
1984-01-01
With the advance of pulsed spallation neutron sources, neutron scattering investigation of elementary excitations in magnetic materials can now be extended to energies up to several hundreds of MeV. We have measured, using chopper spectrometers and time-of-flight techniques, the magnetic response functions of a series of d and f transition metals and compounds over a wide range of energy and momentum transfer. In PrO 2 , UO 2 , BaPrO 3 and CeB 6 we observed crystal-field transitions between the magnetic ground state and the excited levels in the energy range from 40 to 260 MeV. In materials exhibiting spin-fluctuation or mixed-valent character such as Ce 74 Th 26 , on the other hand, no sharp crystal-field lines but a broadened quasielastic magnetic peak was observed. The line width of the quasielastic component is thought to be connected to the spin-fluctuation energy of the 4f electrons. The significance of the neutron scattering results in relation to the ground state level structure of the magnetic ions and the spin-dynamics of the f electrons is discussed. Recently, in a study of the spin-wave excitations in itinerant magnetic systems, we have extended the spin-wave measurements in ferromagnetic iron up to about 160 MeV. Neutron scattering data at high energy transfers are of particular interest because they provide direct comparison with recent theories of itinerant magnetism. 26 references, 7 figures
Dynamic response of piping system subject to flow acoustic excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, T.; Sun, Y.S.
1988-01-01
Through the use of a theoretically derived and test data-calibrated forcing function, the dynamic response of a piping system subject to flow-acoustic induced vibration is analyzed. It is shown that the piping behavior can be predicted when consideration is given to both the wall flexural vibration and the piping system vibration. Piping responded as a system to the transversal excitation due to the swirling motion of the fluid flow, as well as flexurally to the high-frequency acoustic excitations. The transverse piping system response was calculated using a lumped mass piping model. The piping model has more stringent requirements than its counterpart for waterhammer and seismic modeling due to the shorter spiral wavelength and higher frequency of the forcing function. Proper modeling ensured that both the moment stress caused by system excitation and the local stress induced by the support reaction load were properly accounted for. Flexural vibration not only poses a threat to nipples and branch connections, but also contributes substantially to the resultant total stress experienced by the pipe. The forcing function approach has the advantage that the critical locations on the piping system can be identified by means of analysis, facilitating surveillance and inspection, as well as fatigue evaluation
Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.
1980-01-01
The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation
Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Tassle, Aaron Justin
2006-01-01
This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting
Ionization of highly excited atoms by atomic particle impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, B.M.
1976-01-01
The ionization of a highly excited atom by a collision with an atom or molecule is considered. The theory of these processes is presented and compared with experimental data. Cross sections and ionization potential are discussed. 23 refs
Modernization, reconstruction and development of excitation systems for synchronous generators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnautović Dušan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the previous results of work and development of excitation systems with digital automatic voltage regulators regarding their design, development, manufacturing and commissioning. A special attention was paid to the characteristics of excitation system voltage regulator.
Breakdown of highly excited oxygen in a DC electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsin, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Deryugin, A.A.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.
2000-01-01
The breakdown of oxygen in a dc electric field is studied. A high concentration of oxygen molecules in the a 1 Δ g excited state is obtained in a purely chemical reactor. A decrease in the breakdown voltage at degrees of excitation exceeding 50% is observed. The theoretical decrement in the breakdown voltage obtained by solving the Boltzmann equation is in good agreement with the experimental data
Synchronization of chaos in non-identical parametrically excited systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idowu, B.A.; Vincent, U.E.; Njah, A.N.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the synchronization of chaotic systems consisting of non-identical parametrically excited oscillators. The active control technique is employed to design control functions based on Lyapunov stability theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria so as to achieve global chaos synchronization between a parametrically excited gyroscope and each of the parametrically excited pendulum and Duffing oscillator. Numerical simulations are implemented to verify the results.
Excited species in the FBX dosimeter system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, B.L.
2003-01-01
In the FBX dosimeter solution, the excitation of xylenol orange (XO) produces maximum emission at 550-575 nm both at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures (about 85%) having a lifetime of 0.20-0.36 ns. In addition, at room temperature there is an emission at 350 nm for the excitation at 260 nm (about 15%) having a longer lifetime of 3.71-4.01 ns. Benzoic acid (BA) has excitation at 284-295 nm and emission at 320-365 nm having a lifetime of 1.38 ns. In an aqueous solution containing 5x10 -3 mol dm -3 BA, 2x10 -4 mol dm -3 XO and 0.04 mol dm -3 H 2 SO 4 there is no XO emission at 550 nm due to UV absorption at 260 nm by BA. In this solution, 2 emissions are observed near 350-360 nm, having lifetimes of 1.25 ns (89%) and 2.86 ns (11%). The wavelengths for the emission of XO and absorption of ferric-XO complex are nearly the same. Excited XO produces oxidation of ferrous ions and BA increases the chain length
Selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high-lying states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ducas, T.W.
1978-01-01
This specification relates to the selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high lying states and a method of separating different isotopes of the same element by selective excitation of the isotopes. (U.K.)
Dinamical polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delone, N.B.; Krajnov, V.P.
1982-01-01
Analytic expressions are derived for the dynamic polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like atomic states. It is shown that in the composite matrix element which determines the dynamic polarizability there is a strong compensation of the terms as a result of which the resulting magnitude of the dynamic polarizability is quasiclasically small compared to the individual terms of the composite matrix. It is concluded that the resonance behaviour of the dynamic polarizability of highly excited states differs significantly from the resonance behaviour of the polarizability for the ground and low-lying atomic states. The static limit and high-frequency limit of on electromagnetic field are considered
Isovector excitations in charge independent systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menezes, D.P.
1986-01-01
A method for building states with good isospin, from states given by the action of an isovector excitation operator on states of the parent multiplet is developed. This new method is a generalization of Toki's method and is applicable to cases involving any isovector excitation operator and a parent state, which is not a double magic nucleus. Once obtained these states with well defined isospin, it is shown how to do a Tamm-Dancoff calculation for determining the energy levels. The transition matrix elements of an isotensor operator are also calculated. An application of this formalism to the Gamow-Teller transition strength in 90 Zr is studied. In this case, besides the double magic configuration, the 2 particles - 2 holes (Π1g 9/2 ) 2 (υ 2p 1/2 -1 ) 2 configuration is also considered. (author) [pt
Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.
2017-11-01
Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.
El strength function at high spin and excitation energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrette, J.
1983-04-01
Recently giant dipole resonance-like concentration of the dipole strength function in nuclei was observed at both high excitation energies and high spins. This observation raises the possibility of obtaining new information on the shape of rapidly rotating heated nuclei. Recent experimental results on this subject are reviewed
Zhang, Xueliang; Wen, Bangchun; Zhao, Chunyu
2017-11-01
In present work vibratory synchronization transmission (VST) of a cylindrical roller with dry friction in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters, is studied. Using the average method, the criterion of implementing synchronization of two exciters and that of ensuring VST of a roller, are achieved. The criterion of stability of the synchronous states satisfies the Routh-Hurwitz principle. The influences of the structural parameters of the system to synchronization and stability, are discussed numerically, which can be served as the theoretical foundation for engineering designs. An experiment is carried out, which approximately verify the validity of the theoretical and numerical results, as well as the feasibility of the method used. Utilizing the VST theory of a roller, some types of vibrating crushing or grinding equipments, etc., can be designed.
Comparison of multiple support excitation solution techniques for piping systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sterkel, H.P.; Leimbach, K.R.
1980-01-01
Design and analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems exposed to a variety of dynamic loads often require multiple support excitation analysis by modal or direct time integration methods. Both methods have recently been implemented in the computer program KWUROHR for static and dynamic analysis of piping systems, following the previous implementation of the multiple support excitation response spectrum method (see papers K 6/15 and K 6/15a of the SMiRT-4 Conference). The results of multiple support excitation response spectrum analyses can be examined by carrying out the equivalent time history analyses which do not distort the time phase relationship between the excitations at different support points. A frequent point of discussion is multiple versus single support excitation. A single support excitation analysis is computationally straightforward and tends to be on the conservative side, as the numerical results show. A multiple support excitation analysis, however, does not incur much more additional computer cost than the expenditure for an initial static solution involving three times the number, L, of excitation levels, i.e. 3L static load cases. The results are more realistic than those from a single support excitation analysis. A number of typical nuclear plant piping systems have been analyzed using single and multiple support excitation algorithms for: (1) the response spectrum method, (2) the modal time history method via the Wilson, Newmark and Goldberg integration operators and (3) the direct time history method via the Wilson integration operator. Characteristic results are presented to compare the computational quality of all three methods. (orig.)
Dynamic performance estimation of stator voltage regulator in rotary exciter system with DC exciter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stojić Đorđe
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, procedure for AVR parameter estimation is proposed, based on step responses when synchronous generator in idle run. The exciter system includes AVR, thyristor rectifier and DC exciter. AVR is realized in the form of cascade control structure with two control loops. PID controller in the outer loop represents the primary controller. P controller in the inner loop represents secondary controller which enables the faster field current response time. The aim of procedure is to determine equivalent gain of PID controller and thyristor rectifier. The measurements used in the parameter estimation procedure are taken from fossil power plant 'Kolubara A', aggregate A5.
Complex fragment emission at low and high excitation energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, L.G.
1986-08-01
Complex fragment emission has been certified as a compound nucleus process at low energies. An extension of the measurements to heavy ion reactions up to 50 MeV/u shows that most complex fragments are emitted by highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions. 12 refs., 26 figs
On the nature of highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Understanding the nature of the highly excited molecu- lar eigenstates is equivalent to deciphering the mecha- nism of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. (IVR) occurring in the molecule.1 However, the assign- ment of eigenstates is far from simple. The existence of and interplay of several strong anharmonic ...
Multiple excitation of supports - Part 2 : Implementation in TUBO system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galeao, A.C.N.R.; Barbosa, H.J.C.
1980-12-01
From the formulation of multiple excitation support problem, discussed in the first part of this work, and with the use of numerical techniques presented there, we discuss in this second part, the implementation in TUBO system, the follow procedure: Direct integration, Modal overlap, Spectral response emphasizing the aspects related to supports excitation. Finally, we present two numerical examples of TUBO system utilization in the solution of support movement problem. The several implemented computational procedures are compared. (E.G.) [pt
Semiconductor-machine system for controlling excitation of synchronous medium power generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vrtikapa, G
1982-01-01
A system for controlling excitation (ARP-29/1) is described which was developed at the ''Nikola Tesla'' institute (Czechoslavakia) for rebuilding the Zvornik hydroelectric plant with 30 MV X A units. The system corresponds to the modern level of automation and considers positive characteristics of existing equipment, it is easily included in a technological process, has small dimensions and is easily installed during overhaul of a electric generating plant, and it allows one to obtain good economic results. Two years of use have confirmed the high reliability and quality of the excitation. The excitation control system consists of synchronous motor, excitation system, automatic control of voltage, manual control of excitation unit, unit for automatic following and switching, relay automatic device with protection and warning. The excitation system of the generator has: thyristor rectifier, thyristor converter, a bridge with thyristor control unit, machine excitation generator, switch for demagnetization. The excitation system is supplied from an electric power network or from a three phase generator with permanent magnets.
Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)] [and others
1997-04-01
Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.
Pure-Phase Selective Excitation in Fast-Relaxing Systems
Zangger, Klaus; Oberer, Monika; Sterk, Heinz
2001-09-01
Selective pulses have been used frequently for small molecules. However, their application to proteins and other macromolecules has been limited. The long duration of shaped-selective pulses and the short T2 relaxation times in proteins often prohibited the use of highly selective pulses especially on larger biomolecules. A very selective excitation can be obtained within a short time by using the selective excitation sequence presented in this paper. Instead of using a shaped low-intensity radiofrequency pulse, a cluster of hard 90° pulses, delays of free precession, and pulsed field gradients can be used to selectively excite a narrow chemical shift range within a relatively short time. Thereby, off-resonance magnetization, which is allowed to evolve freely during the free precession intervals, is destroyed by the gradient pulses. Off-resonance excitation artifacts can be removed by random variation of the interpulse delays. This leads to an excitation profile with selectivity as well as phase and relaxation behavior superior to that of commonly used shaped-selective pulses. Since the evolution of scalar coupling is inherently suppressed during the double-selective excitation of two different scalar-coupled nuclei, the presented pulse cluster is especially suited for simultaneous highly selective excitation of N-H and C-H fragments. Experimental examples are demonstrated on hen egg white lysozyme (14 kD) and the bacterial antidote ParD (19 kD).
Density-dependent phonoriton states in highly excited semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Hong Quang; Nguyen Minh Khue; Nguyen Que Huong
1995-09-01
The dynamical aspects of the phonoriton state in highly-photoexcited semiconductors is studied theoretically. The effect of the exciton-exciton interaction and nonbosonic character of high-density excitons are taken into account. Using Green's function method and within the Random Phase Approximation it is shown that the phonoriton dispersion and damping are very sensitive to the exciton density, characterizing the excitation degree of semiconductors. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs
Nonlinear phenomena in the highly excited state of C60
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrne, H.J.; Maser, W.K.; Kaiser, M.; Akselrod, L.; Anders, J.; Ruehle, W.W.; Zhou, X.Q.; Mittelbach, A.; Roth, S.
1993-01-01
Under high intensity illumination, the optical and electronic properties of fullerenes are seen to undergo dramatic, nonlinear changes. The photoluminescence emission is seen to increase with approximately the third power of the input intensity above an apparent threshold intensity. Associated with this nonlinear increase is the emergence of a long lifetime emission component and a redshifting of the emission spectrum. Above the threshold intensity the photoconductive response increases with approximately the cube of the input power. In the highly excited state, the photoconductive response becomes relatively temperature independent compared to the thermally activated behaviour observed at low intensities. The characteristics of the temperature dependence are associated with a metallic-like phase in the highly excited state and therefore an optically driven insulator to metal transition is proposed as a description of the observed phenomena. (orig.)
Excitation of high density surface plasmon polariton vortex array
Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun
2018-06-01
This study proposes a method to excite surface plasmon polariton (SPP) vortex array of high spatial density on metal/air interface. A doughnut vector beam was incident at four rectangularly arranged slits to excite SPP vortex array. The doughnut vector beam used in this study has the same field intensity distribution as the regular doughnut laser mode, TEM01* mode, but a different polarization distribution. The SPP vortex array is achieved through the matching of both polarization state and phase state of the incident doughnut vector beam with the four slits. The SPP field distribution excited in this study contains stable array-distributed time-varying optical vortices. Theoretical derivation, analytical calculation and numerical simulation were used to discuss the characteristics of the induced SPP vortex array. The period of the SPP vortex array induced by the proposed method had only half SPPs wavelength. In addition, the vortex number in an excited SPP vortex array can be increased by enlarging the structure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuchida, Takahiro; Kimura, Koji
2015-01-01
Equivalent non-Gaussian excitation method is proposed to obtain the moments up to the fourth order of the response of systems under non-Gaussian random excitation. The excitation is prescribed by the probability density and power spectrum. Moment equations for the response can be derived from the stochastic differential equations for the excitation and the system. However, the moment equations are not closed due to the nonlinearity of the diffusion coefficient in the equation for the excitation. In the proposed method, the diffusion coefficient is replaced with the equivalent diffusion coefficient approximately to obtain a closed set of the moment equations. The square of the equivalent diffusion coefficient is expressed by the second-order polynomial. In order to demonstrate the validity of the method, a linear system to non-Gaussian excitation with generalized Gaussian distribution is analyzed. The results show the method is applicable to non-Gaussian excitation with the widely different kurtosis and bandwidth. (author)
Interqubit coupling mediated by a high-excitation-energy quantum object
Ashhab, S.; Niskanen, A.O.; Harrabi, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Picot, T.; De Groot, P.C.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.; Nori, F.
2008-01-01
We consider a system composed of two qubits and a high excitation energy quantum object used to mediate coupling between the qubits. We treat the entire system quantum mechanically and analyze the properties of the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the total Hamiltonian. After reproducing well known
The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited rotating nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Civitarese, O.; Furui, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Faessler, A.
1983-01-01
The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited, fast rotating nuclei is studied as a function of both the nuclear temperature and the nuclear angular momentum. The photo-absorption cross sections for quadrupole radiation in 156 Dy, 160 Er and 164 Er are evaluated within the linear response theory. The strength functions of the γ-ray spectrum obtained from the decay of highly excited nuclear states by deexcitation of the isoscalar quadrupole mode show a fine structure, which depends on the temperature T, the angular momentum I and the deformation of the nucleus β. The splitting of the modes associated with the signature-conserving and signature-changing components of the quadrupole field is discussed. (orig.)
A Dynamic Branch-Switching Method for Parametrically Excited Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.Y.T. Leung
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The branch-switching algorithm in static is applied to steady state dynamic problems. The governing ordinary differential equations are transformed to nonlinear algebraic equations by means of harmonic balance method using multiple frequency components. The frequency components of the (irrational nonlinearity of oscillator are obtained by Fast Fourier Transform and Toeplitz Jacobian method (FFT/TJM. All singularities, folds, flips, period doubling and period bubbling, are computed accurately in an analytical manner. Coexisting solutions can be predicted without using initial condition search. The consistence of both stability criteria in time and frequency domains is discussed. A highly nonlinear parametrically excited system is given as example. All connected solution paths are predicted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorner, B.
1996-01-01
A short introduction to instrumental resolution is followed by a discussion of visibilities of phonon modes due to their eigenvectors. High precision phonon dispersion curves in GaAs are presented together with 'ab initio' calculations. Al 2 O 3 is taken as an example of selected visibility due to group theory. By careful determination of phonon intensities eigenvectors can be determined, such as in Silicon and Diamond. The investigation of magnon modes is shown for the garnet Fe 2 Ca 3 (GeO 4 ) 3 , where also a quantum gap due to zero point spin fluctuations was observed. The study of the splitting of excitons in CsFeCl 3 in an applied magnetic field demonstrates the possibilities of neutron polarisation analysis, which made it possible to observe a mode crossing. An outlook to inelastic X-ray scattering with very high energy resolution of synchrotron radiation is given with the examples of phonons in Beryllium and in water. (author) 19 figs., 36 refs
Coherence resonance in an excitable system with time delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sethia, Gautam C.; Kurths, Juergen; Sen, Abhijit
2007-01-01
We study the noise activated dynamics of a model excitable system that consists of a subcritical Hopf oscillator with a time delayed nonlinear feedback. The coherence of the noise driven pulses of the system exhibits a novel double peaked structure as a function of the noise amplitude. The two peaks correspond to separate optimal noise levels for excitation of single spikes and multiple spikes (bursts) respectively. The relative magnitudes of these peaks are found to be a sensitive function of time delay. The physical significance of our results and its practical implications in various real life systems are discussed
Aspects of data on the breakup of highly excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warwick, A.I.; Wieman, H.H.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Ritter, H.G.; Stelzer, H.; Weik, F.; Kaufman, S.B.; Steinberg, E.P.; Wilkins, B.D.
1983-05-01
There is an awakening of theoretical interest in the mechanisms by which nuclear fragments (4 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 150) are produced in violent collisions of heavy ions. With this in mind we review some aspects of the available experimental data and point out some challenging features against which to test the models. The concept of evaporation is tremendously powerful when applied to pieces of nuclei of low excitation (1 or 2 MeV/u). Current interest focuses on higher excitations, at the point where the binding energy of the system vanishes. This is the transition from liquid nuclei to a gas of nucleons, and it may be that the critical phenomena that certainly exist in infinite nuclear matter will be manifest in finite nuclei under these conditions
Distribution function of excitations in systems with fractional statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Protogenov, A.P.
1992-08-01
The distribution function of low-energy excitations in 2+1D systems has been considered. It is shown that in these systems the quantum distribution function differs from the usual one by having a finite value of the entropy of linked braids. (author). 47 refs
Programmable logic controller based synchronous motor excitation system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janda Žarko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a 3.5 MW synchronous motor excitation system reconstruction. In the proposed solution programmable logic controller is used to control motor, which drives the turbo compressor. Comparing to some other solutions that are used in similar situations, the proposed solution is superior due to its flexibility and usage of mass-production hardware. Moreover, the implementation of PLC enables easy integration of the excitation system with the other technological processes in the plant as well as in the voltage regulation of 'smart grid' system. Also, implementation of various optimization algorithms can be done comfortably and it does not require additional investment in hardware. Some experimental results that depict excitation current during motor start-up, as well as, measured static characteristics of the motor, were presented.
Calculations on the vibrational level density in highly excited formaldehyde
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rashev, Svetoslav; Moule, David C.
2003-01-01
The object of the present work is to develop a model that provides realistic estimates of the vibrational level density in polyatomic molecules in a given electronic state, at very high (chemically relevant) vibrational excitation energies. For S 0 formaldehyde (D 2 CO), acetylene, and a number of triatomics, the estimates using conventional spectroscopic formulas have yielded densities at the dissociation threshold, very much lower than the experimentally measured values. In the present work we have derived a general formula for the vibrational energy levels of a polyatomic molecule, which is a generalization of the conventional Dunham spectroscopic expansion. Calculations were performed on the vibrational level density in S 0 D 2 CO, H 2 C 2 , and NO 2 at excitation energies in the vicinity of the dissociation limit, using the newly derived formula. The results from the calculations are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured data
High power electron beam accelerators for gas laser excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelly, J.G.; Martin, T.H.; Halbleib, J.A.
1976-06-01
A preliminary parameter investigation has been used to determine a possible design of a high-power, relativistic electron beam, transversely excited laser. Based on considerations of present and developing pulsed power technology, broad area diode physics and projected laser requirements, an exciter is proposed consisting of a Marx generator, pulse shaping transmission lines, radially converging ring diodes and a laser chamber. The accelerator should be able to deliver approximately 20 kJ of electron energy at 1 MeV to the 10 4 cm 2 cylindrical surface of a laser chamber 1 m long and 0.3 m in diameter in 24 ns with very small azimuthal asymmetry and uniform radial deposition
Seismic analysis of piping systems subjected to multiple support excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundararajan, C.; Vaish, A.K.; Slagis, G.C.
1981-01-01
The paper presents the results of a comparative study between the multiple response spectrum method and the time-history method for the seismic analysis of nuclear piping systems subjected to different excitation at different supports or support groups. First, the necessary equations for the above analysis procedures are derived. Then, three actual nuclear piping systems subjected to single and multiple excitations are analyzed by the different methods, and extensive comparisons of the results (stresses) are made. Based on the results, it is concluded that the multiple response spectrum analysis gives acceptable results as compared to the ''exact'', but much more costly, time-history analysis. 6 refs
Surface boiling - an obvious but like no other decay mode of highly excited atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toke, J.
2012-01-01
Essentials of a generalized compound nucleus model are introduced based on a concept of an open microcanonical ensemble which considers explicitly the role of the diffuse surface domain and of the thermal expansion of nuclear systems in the quest for maximum entropy. This obvious generalization offers a unique and universal thermodynamic framework for understanding the changes in the gross behavior of excited nuclear systems with increasing excitation energy and, specifically, the competition between different statistical decay modes, including classical evaporation and binary fission, but also the Coulomb fragmentation of excited systems into multiple fragments - the famed multifragmentation. Importantly, the formalism offers a natural explanation, in terms of boiling or spinodal vaporization, for the experimentally observed appearance of limiting excitation energy that can be thermalized by an exited nuclear system and the associated limiting temperature. It is shown that it is the thermal expansion that leads to volume boiling in an infinite matter and surface boiling in finite nuclei. The latter constitutes an important and universal, but hitherto unappreciated decay mode of highly excited nuclei, a mode here named surface spinodal vaporization. It is also shown that in iso-asymmetric systems, thermal expansion leads to what constitutes distillation - a decay mode here named distillative spinodal vaporization
Exploring excited eigenstates of many-body systems using the functional renormalization group
Klöckner, Christian; Kennes, Dante Marvin; Karrasch, Christoph
2018-05-01
We introduce approximate, functional renormalization group based schemes to obtain correlation functions in pure excited eigenstates of large fermionic many-body systems at arbitrary energies. The algorithms are thoroughly benchmarked and their strengths and shortcomings are documented using a one-dimensional interacting tight-binding chain as a prototypical testbed. We study two "toy applications" from the world of Luttinger liquid physics: the survival of power laws in lowly excited states as well as the spectral function of high-energy "block" excitations, which feature several single-particle Fermi edges.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, Yew Kam; Lin, Chien-Hao
2015-01-01
In this work, we study the quantum entanglement for doubly excited resonance states in two-electron atomic systems such as the H - and Ps - ions and the He atom by using highly correlated Hylleraas type functions The resonance states are determined by calculation of density of resonance states with the stabilization method. The spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement entropies (linear and von Neumann) for the low-lying doubly excited states are quantified using the Schmidt-Slater decomposition method. (paper)
Excited Atoms and Molecules in High Pressure Gas Discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vuskovic, L.; Popovic, S.
2003-01-01
Various types of high-pressure non-thermal discharges are increasingly drawing attention in view of many interesting applications. These, partially ionized media in non-equilibrium state, tend to generate complex effects that are difficult to interpret without a detailed knowledge of elementary processes involved. Electronically excited molecules and atoms may play an important role as intermediate states in a wide range of atomic and molecular processes, many of which are important in high-pressure discharges. They can serve also as reservoirs of energy or as sources of high energy electrons either through the energy pooling or through superelastic collisions. By presenting the analysis of current situation on the processes involving excited atoms and molecules of interest for high-pressure gas discharges, we will attempt to draw attention on the insufficiency of available data. In the same time we will show how to circumvent this situation and still be able to develop accurate models and interpretations of the observed phenomena
Beam excitation and damping with the transverse feedback system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pellegrin, J.L.; Rees, J.R.
1979-08-01
The questions often come up, ''What is the strength if the beam excitation system? How much damping can the transverse feedback provide?'' The design is now advanced enough to answer these questions; also, laboratory tests of some components have been conducted and we know what can be expected of the hardware. This paper discusses these questions
FSI analysis of piping systems under seismic excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uras, R.A.; Ma, D.C.; Chang, Yao W.; Liu, Wing Kam
1991-01-01
A formulation which accounts for fluid-structure interaction of piping system under seismic excitation is presented. The governing equations of the fluid and the structure to model the pipe are stated. Using the finite element method the discretized equations are obtained. A transformation procedure for proper assembly of matrices is introduced. A solution algorithm is described. 9 refs., 2 figs
Excited, bound and resonant positron-atom systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bromley, M W J [Department of Physics and Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego CA 92182 (United States); Mitroy, J, E-mail: mbromley@physics.sdsu.ed [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies and Faculty of Education, Health and Science, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia)
2010-01-01
Calculations have demonstrated that eleven neutral atoms can bind positrons, while many more can bind positronium. This is a short review of recent progress made in understanding some of the underlying mechanisms. The emphasis here being on configuration interaction calculations with excited state configurations. These have demonstrated the existence of a {sup 2}P{sup o} excited state of e{sup +}Ca, which consists predominantly of a positronium cluster orbiting the Ca{sup +} ion in the L = 1 partial wave. Preliminary results are presented of excited state positron binding to a model alkali atom, where the excited {sup 1}P{sup o} states are stable over a limited region. Implications for the unnatural parity, {sup 2,4}S{sup o}, states of PsH, LiPs, NaPs and KPs are also discussed. The e{sup +}Mg, e{sup +}Cu, e{sup +}Zn and e{sup +}Cd systems show a lack of a {sup 2}P{sup o} excited state, each instead possessing a low-energy p-wave shape resonance of varying strength.
Excited, bound and resonant positron-atom systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bromley, M W J; Mitroy, J
2010-01-01
Calculations have demonstrated that eleven neutral atoms can bind positrons, while many more can bind positronium. This is a short review of recent progress made in understanding some of the underlying mechanisms. The emphasis here being on configuration interaction calculations with excited state configurations. These have demonstrated the existence of a 2 P o excited state of e + Ca, which consists predominantly of a positronium cluster orbiting the Ca + ion in the L = 1 partial wave. Preliminary results are presented of excited state positron binding to a model alkali atom, where the excited 1 P o states are stable over a limited region. Implications for the unnatural parity, 2,4 S o , states of PsH, LiPs, NaPs and KPs are also discussed. The e + Mg, e + Cu, e + Zn and e + Cd systems show a lack of a 2 P o excited state, each instead possessing a low-energy p-wave shape resonance of varying strength.
Multiphoton excitation and high-harmonics generation in topological insulator.
Avetissian, H K; Avetissian, A K; Avchyan, B R; Mkrtchian, G F
2018-05-10
Multiphoton interaction of coherent electromagnetic radiation with 2D metallic carriers confined on the surface of the 3D topological insulator is considered. A microscopic theory describing the nonlinear interaction of a strong wave and metallic carriers with many-body Coulomb interaction is developed. The set of integrodifferential equations for the interband polarization and carrier occupation distribution is solved numerically. Multiphoton excitation of Fermi-Dirac sea of 2D massless carriers is considered for a THz pump wave. It is shown that in the moderately strong pump wave field along with multiphoton interband/intraband transitions the intense radiation of high harmonics takes place.
Excited baryon form factors at high Q2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul Stoler; Gary Adams; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Chris Armstrong; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; K. Baker; Peter Bosted; Volker Burkert; Jim Dunne; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; V. Frolov; David Gaskell; P. Gueye; Wendy Hinton; Cynthia Keppel; Wooyoung Kim; Michael Klusman; Doug Koltenuk; David Mack; Richard Madey; David Meekins; Ralph Minehart; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; James Napolitano; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Mina Nozar; John Price; Paul Stoler; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Michael Witkowski; Stephen Wood
1998-01-01
The role of resonance electroproduction at high Q 2 is discussed in the context of exclusive reactions, as well as the alternative theoretical models which are proposed to treat exclusive reactions in the few GeV 2 /c 2 region of momentum transfer. Jefferson Lab experiment 94-014, which measured the excitation of the Delta (1232) and S 11 (1535) via the reactions p(e,e ' p)pi 0 and p(e,e ' p)eta respectively at Q 2 ∼ 2.8 and 4 GeV 2 /c 2 is described, and the state of analysis reported
Multiphoton excitation and high-harmonics generation in topological insulator
Avetissian, H. K.; Avetissian, A. K.; Avchyan, B. R.; Mkrtchian, G. F.
2018-05-01
Multiphoton interaction of coherent electromagnetic radiation with 2D metallic carriers confined on the surface of the 3D topological insulator is considered. A microscopic theory describing the nonlinear interaction of a strong wave and metallic carriers with many-body Coulomb interaction is developed. The set of integrodifferential equations for the interband polarization and carrier occupation distribution is solved numerically. Multiphoton excitation of Fermi–Dirac sea of 2D massless carriers is considered for a THz pump wave. It is shown that in the moderately strong pump wave field along with multiphoton interband/intraband transitions the intense radiation of high harmonics takes place.
Synchronization of Two Asymmetric Exciters in a Vibrating System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaohui Ren
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate synchronization of two asymmetric exciters in a vibrating system. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the two exciters (NDDETE. By using the condition of existence for the zero solutions of the NDDETE, the condition of implementing synchronization is deduced: the torque of frequency capture is equal to or greater than the difference in the output electromagnetic torque between the two motors. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we deduce the condition of stability of synchronization that the inertia coupling matrix of the two exciters is positive definite. A numeric result shows that the structural parameters can meet the need of synchronization stability.
Collective and single-particle states at high excitation energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van den Berg, A.M.; Van der Molen, H.K.T.; Harakeh, M.N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.
2000-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Damping of high-lying single-particle states was investigated by the study of proton decay from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated by the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction with E α = 180 MeV. In addition to decay to the ground state of 90 Zr, semi-direct decay was observed to the low-lying (2 + and 3 - ) phonon states, confirming the conclusion from other experiments that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. Furthermore, the population and decay of Isobaric Analogue States of 91 Zr, which are located at an excitation energy of about 10 - 12 MeV in 91 Nb, has been studied in the same reaction. (author)
The remarkably high excitation planetary nebula GC 6537.
Aller, L H; Hung, S; Feibelman, W A
1999-05-11
NGC 6537 is an unusually high excitation point symmetric planetary nebula with a rich spectrum. Its kinematical structures are of special interest. We are here primarily concerned with the high resolution spectrum as revealed by the Hamilton echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory (resolution approximately 0.2 A) and supplemented by UV and near-UV data. These extensive data permit a determination of interstellar extinction, plasma diagnostics, and ionic concentrations. The photoionization models that have been used successfully for many planetary nebulae are not entirely satisfactory here. The plasma electron temperature of a photoionization model cannot much exceed 20,000 K, but plasma diagnostics show that regions emitting radiation of highly ionized atoms such as [NeIV] and [NeV] are much hotter, showing that shock excitation must be important, as suggested by the remarkable kinematics of this object. Hence, instead of employing a strict photoionization model, we are guided by the nebular diagnostics, which reveal how electron temperature varies with ionization potential and accommodates density effects. The predictions of the photoionization model may be useful in estimating ionization correction factor. In effect, we have estimated the chemical composition by using both photoionization and shock considerations.
Decay modes of high-lying excitations in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gales, S.
1993-01-01
Inelastic, charge-exchange and transfer reactions induced by hadronic probes at intermediate energies have revealed a rich spectrum of new high-lying modes embedded in the nuclear continuum. The investigation of their decay properties is believed to be a severe test of their microscopic structure as predicted by nuclear models. In addition the degree of damping of these simple modes in the nuclear continuum can be obtained by means of the measured branching ratios to the various decay channels as compared to statistical model calculations. As illustrative examples the decay modes of high-spin single-particle states and isovector resonances are discussed. (author) 23 refs.; 14 figs
Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Xiu-yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.
Radiance limits of ceramic phosphors under high excitation fluxes
Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Zheng, Yi; Tchoul, Maxim
2013-09-01
Ceramic phosphors, excited by high radiance pump sources, offer considerable potential for high radiance conversion. Interestingly, thermodynamic arguments suggest that the radiance of the luminescent spot can even exceed that of the incoming light source. In practice, however, thermal quenching and (non-thermal) optical saturation limit the maximum attainable radiance of the luminescent source. We present experimental data for Ce:YAG and Ce:GdYAG ceramics in which these limits have been investigated. High excitation fluxes are achieved using laser pumping. Optical pumping intensities exceeding 100W/mm2 have been shown to produce only modest efficiency depreciation at low overall pump powers because of the short Ce3+ lifetime, although additional limitations exist. When pump powers are higher, heat-transfer bottlenecks within the ceramic and heat-sink interfaces limit maximum pump intensities. We find that surface temperatures of these laser-pumped ceramics can reach well over 150°C, causing thermal-quenching losses. We also find that in some cases, the loss of quantum efficiency with increasing temperature can cause a thermal run-away effect, resulting in a rapid loss in converted light, possibly over-heating the sample or surrounding structures. While one can still obtain radiances on the order of many W/mm2/sr, temperature quenching effects ultimately limit converted light radiance. Finally, we use the diffusion-approximation radiation transport models and rate equation models to simulate some of these nonlinear optical pumping and heating effects in high-scattering ceramics.
Electronic excited states and relaxation dynamics in polymer heterojunction systems
Ramon, John Glenn Santos
The potential for using conducting polymers as the active material in optoelectronic devices has come to fruition in the past few years. Understanding the fundamental photophysics behind their operations points to the significant role played by the polymer interface in their performance. Current device architectures involve the use of bulk heterojunctions which intimately blend the donor and acceptor polymers to significantly increase not only their interfacial surface area but also the probability of exciton formation within the vicinity of the interface. In this dissertation, we detail the role played by the interface on the behavior and performance of bulk heterojunction systems. First, we explore the relation between the exciton binding energy to the band offset in determining device characteristics. As a general rule, when the exciton binding energy is greater than the band offset, the exciton remains the lowest energy excited state leading to efficient light-emitting properties. On the other hand, if the offset is greater than the binding energy, charge separation becomes favorable leading to better photovoltaic behavior. Here, we use a Wannier function, configuration interaction based approach to examine the essential excited states and predict the vibronic absorption and emission spectra of the PPV/BBL, TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT heterojunctions. Our results underscore the role of vibrational relaxation in the formation of charge-transfer states following photoexcitation. In addition, we look at the relaxation dynamics that occur upon photoexcitation. For this, we adopt the Marcus-Hush semiclassical method to account for lattice reorganization in the calculation of the interconversion rates in TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT. We find that, while a tightly bound charge-transfer state (exciplex) remains the lowest excited state, a regeneration pathway to the optically active lowest excitonic state in TFB/F8BT is possible via thermal repopulation from the exciplex. Finally
Excitation model of pacemaker cardiomyocytes of cardiac conduction system
Grigoriev, M.; Babich, L.
2015-11-01
Myocardium includes typical and atypical cardiomyocytes - pacemakers, which form the cardiac conduction system. Excitation from the atrioventricular node in normal conditions is possible only in one direction. Retrograde direction of pulses is impossible. The most important prerequisite for the work of cardiomyocytes is the anatomical integrity of the conduction system. Changes in contractile force of the cardiomyocytes, which appear periodically, are due to two mechanisms of self-regulation - heterometric and homeometric. Graphic course of the excitation pulse propagation along the heart muscle more accurately reveals the understanding of the arrhythmia mechanism. These models have the ability to visualize the essence of excitation dynamics. However, they do not have the proper forecasting function for result estimation. Integrative mathematical model enables further investigation of general laws of the myocardium active behavior, allows for determination of the violation mechanism of electrical and contractile function of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no full understanding of the topography of pacemakers and ionic mechanisms. There is a need for the development of direction of mathematical modeling and comparative studies of the electrophysiological arrangement of cells of atrioventricular connection and ventricular conduction system.
Study of ultra-high gradient wakefield excitation by intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotaki, Hideyuki
2002-12-01
We investigate a mechanism of nonlinear phenomena in laser-plasma interaction, a laser wakefield excited by intense laser pulses, and the possibility of generating an intense bright electron source by an intense laser pulse. We need to understand and further employ some of these phenomena for our purposes. We measure self-focusing, filamentation, and the anomalous blueshift of the laser pulse. The ionization of gas with the self-focusing causes a broad continuous spectrum with blueshift. The normal blueshift depends on the laser intensity and the plasma density. We, however, have found different phenomenon. The laser spectrum shifts to fixed wavelength independent of the laser power and gas pressure above some critical power. We call the phenomenon 'anomalous blueshift'. The results are explained by the formation of filaments. An intense laser pulse can excite a laser wakefield in plasma. The coherent wakefield excited by 2 TW, 50 fs laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma around 10 18 cm -3 is measured with a time-resolved frequency domain interferometer (FDI). The density distribution of the helium gas is measured with a time-resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer to search for the optimum laser focus position and timing in the gas-jet. The results show an accelerating wakefield excitation of 20 GeV/m with good coherency, which is useful for ultrahigh gradient particle acceleration in a compact system. This is the first time-resolved measurement of laser wakefield excitation in a gas-jet plasma. The experimental results are compared with a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. The pump-probe interferometer system of FDI and the anomalous blueshift will be modified to the optical injection system as a relativistic electron beam injector. In 1D PIC simulation we obtain the results of high quality intense electron beam acceleration. These results illuminate the possibility of a high energy and a high quality electron beam acceleration. (author)
Analysis of piping system response to seismic excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, C.Y.
1987-01-01
This paper describes a numerical algorithm for analyzing piping system response to seismic excitations. The numerical model of the piping considers hoop, flexural, axial, and torsional modes of deformation. Hoop modes generated from internal hydrodynamic loading are superimposed on the bending and twisting modes by two extra degrees of freedom. A time-history analysis technique using the implicit temporal integration scheme is addressed. The time integrator uses a predictor-corrector successive iterative scheme which satisfies the equation of motion. Both geometrical and material nonlinearities are considered. Multiple support excitations, fluid effect, piping insulation, and material dampings can be included in the analysis. Two problems are presented to illustrate the method. The results are discussed in detail
Study of highly excited high spin states via the (HI, α) reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubono, S.
1982-01-01
Three subjects are discussed in this paper. 1) The mechanism of (HI, α) reactions is briefly studied. 2) Possible excitation of molecular resonance states of 12 C- 12 C in 24 Mg through the 12 C( 16 O, α) 24 Mg reaction were investigated. A precise measurement of the level widths in 24 Mg did not support the previous report that the molecular states seen in 12 C + 12 C scattering had been excited in the transfer reaction 12 C( 16 O, α) 24 Mg. 3) Highly excited states in 28 Si, which have a large parentage of 12 C- 16 O, were also studied via the 12 C( 20 Ne, α) 28 Si reaction. An angular correlation measurement revealed the lowest 8 + and 10 + states at 14.00 and 15.97 MeV, respectively, which were selectively excited in the 12 C( 20 Ne, α) reaction. These results suggest a possible new band in 28 Si. (author)
Concepts of highly excited electronic systems
Berakdar, Jamal
2006-01-01
Jamal Berakdar is an outstanding young researcher who has accomplished in less than ten years remarkable contributions to the field. He is well acknowledged by the scientific community. PhD-thesis at University of Freiburg (Prof. Klar, 1994), Humboldt- and Research fellow at Atomic & Molecular Physics Laboratories, Australian National University; since 1998 researcher at Max-Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics in Halle, Germany.
Structure of high excited nuclear states and elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhivopistsev, F.A.; Rzhevskij, E.S.
1979-01-01
An approach to a unified description of nuclear reactions and nuclear structure based on the formalism of the quantum Green functions and on the ideas of the theory of finite Fermi systems has been formulated. New structural vertices are introduced, which are responsible for nucleon collectivization in an atomic nucleus and for the excitation of many-phonon, quasideuteron, quasitriton and other configurations. The vertices define both the processes of particle scattering by atomic nuclei (T matrix and optical potentials) and the nuclear structure (secular equations and wave functions). The vertices are determined from the equations with effective many-particle forces Fsub(nm)sup(c). In their turn the Fsub(nm)sup(c) forces are either determined from a comparison of theory and experiment, or calculated from the equations with more fundamental nucleon-nucleon forces in a nucleus. The effective forces Fsub(nm)sup(c) are more universal than the constants of the theory of finite Fermi-systems, which extends the boundaries of applicability of the particle-hole formalism in the description of nuclear processes. In this approach the traditional methods of description of the nuclear structure, based on particular models of hamiltonian and wave functions, acquire a natural interpretation
Simultaneous excitation system for efficient guided wave structural health monitoring
Hua, Jiadong; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Chen, Xin; Lin, Jing
2017-10-01
Many structural health monitoring systems utilize guided wave transducer arrays for defect detection and localization. Signals are usually acquired using the ;pitch-catch; method whereby each transducer is excited in turn and the response is received by the remaining transducers. When extensive signal averaging is performed, the data acquisition process can be quite time-consuming, especially for metallic components that require a low repetition rate to allow signals to die out. Such a long data acquisition time is particularly problematic if environmental and operational conditions are changing while data are being acquired. To reduce the total data acquisition time, proposed here is a methodology whereby multiple transmitters are simultaneously triggered, and each transmitter is driven with a unique excitation. The simultaneously transmitted waves are captured by one or more receivers, and their responses are processed by dispersion-compensated filtering to extract the response from each individual transmitter. The excitation sequences are constructed by concatenating a series of chirps whose start and stop frequencies are randomly selected from a specified range. The process is optimized using a Monte-Carlo approach to select sequences with impulse-like autocorrelations and relatively flat cross-correlations. The efficacy of the proposed methodology is evaluated by several metrics and is experimentally demonstrated with sparse array imaging of simulated damage.
Properties of Highly Rotationally Excited H2 in Photodissociation Regions
Cummings, Sally Jane; Wan, Yier; Stancil, Phillip C.; Yang, Benhui H.; Zhang, Ziwei
2018-06-01
H2 is the dominant molecular species in the vast majority of interstellar environments and it plays a crucial role as a radiative coolant. In photodissociation regions, it is one of the primary emitters in the near to mid-infrared which are due to lines originating from highly excited rotational levels. However, collisional data for rotational levels j>10 are sparse, particularly for H2-H2 collisions. Utilizing new calculations for para-H2 and ortho-H2 collisional rate coefficients with H2 for j as high as 30, we investigate the effects of the new results in standard PDR models with the spectral simulation package Cloudy. We also perform Cloudy models of the Orion Bar and use Radex to explore rotational line ratio diagnostics. The resulting dataset of H2 collisional data should find wide application to other molecular environments. This work was support by Hubble Space Telescope grant HST-AR-13899.001-A and NASA grants NNX15AI61G and NNX16AF09G.
Parity dependence of the nuclear level density at high excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, B.V.; Agrawal, H.M.
1995-01-01
The basic underlying assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) in the level density function ρ(U, J, π) has been checked on the basis of high quality data available on individual resonance parameters (E 0 , Γ n , J π ) for s- and p-wave neutrons in contrast to the earlier analysis where information about p-wave resonance parameters was meagre. The missing level estimator based on the partial integration over a Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron reduced widths and the Dyson-Mehta Δ 3 statistic for the level spacing have been used to ascertain that the s- and p-wave resonance level spacings D(0) and D(1) are not in error because of spurious and missing levels. The present work does not validate the tacit assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) and confirms that the level density depends upon parity at high excitation. The possible implications of the parity dependence of the level density on the results of statistical model calculations of nuclear reaction cross sections as well as on pre-compound emission have been emphasized. (orig.)
Excitation and ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sampson, D.H.
1989-01-01
Two approaches for very rapid calculation of atomic data for high temperature plasma modeling have been developed. The first uses hydrogenic basis states and has been developed and applied in many papers discussed in previous progress reports. Hence, it is only briefly discussed here. The second is a very rapid, yet accurate, fully relativistic approach that has been developed over the past two or three years. It is described in more detail. Recently it has been applied to large scale production of atomic data. Specifically, it has been used to calculate relativistic distorted wave collision strengths and oscillator strengths for the following: all transitions from the ground level to the n=3 and 4 excited levels in the 71 Neon-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 22 ≤ Z ≤ 92; all transitions among the 2s 1/2 , 2p 1/2 and 2p 3/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=3,4 and 5 in the 85 Li-like ions with 8 ≤ Z ≤ 92; all transitions among the 3s 1/2 , 3p 3/2 , 3d 3/2 and 3d 5/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=4 and 5 in the 71 Na-like ions with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 92; and all transitions among 4s 1/2 , 4p 1/2 , 4p 3/2 , 4d 3/2 , 4d 5/2 , 4f 5/2 and 4f 7/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=5 in the 33 Cu-like ions with 60 ≤ Z ≤ 92. Also the program has been extended to give cross-sections for excitation to specific magnetic sublevels of the target ion by an electron beam and very recently it has been extended to give relativistic distorted wave cross sections for ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact
The design of a sensor with flexible circuit excitation in electromagnetic tomography system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Ze; He Min; Xiong Hanliang
2005-01-01
A novel sensor structure of electromagnetic tomography system is presented in this paper. Flexible circuit straps are used in the excitation layer of the sensor and current of each strip can be controlled independently according to the excitation protocol matrix. In the sensor three kinds of excitation protocols: parallel, quasi-parallel and coil pair can be generated. Furthermore excitation field simulation and image reconstruction experiments have been done for analyzing the performance of the different excitation protocols
Neutron emission probability at high excitation and isospin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aggarwal, Mamta
2005-01-01
One-neutron and two-neutron emission probability at different excitations and varying isospin have been studied. Several degrees of freedom like deformation, rotations, temperature, isospin fluctuations and shell structure are incorporated via statistical theory of hot rotating nuclei
Production of excited double hypernuclei via Fermi breakup of excited strange systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez Lorente, Alicia; Botvina, Alexander S.; Pochodzalla, Josef
2011-01-01
Precise spectroscopy of multi-strange hypernuclei provides a unique chance to explore the hyperon-hyperon interaction. In the present work we explore the production of excited states in double hypernuclei following the micro-canonical break-up of an initially excited double hypernucleus which is created by the absorption and conversion of a stopped Ξ - hyperon. Rather independent on the spectrum of possible excited states in the produced double hypernuclei the formation of excited states dominates in our model. For different initial target nuclei which absorb the Ξ - , different double hypernuclei nuclei dominate. Thus the ability to assign the various observable γ-transitions in a unique way to a specific double hypernuclei by exploring various light targets as proposed by the PANDA Collaboration seems possible. We also confront our predictions with the correlated pion spectra measured by the E906 Collaboration.
Collective, stochastic and nonequilibrium behavior of highly excited hadronic matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carruthers, P [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA). Theoretical Div.
1984-04-23
We discuss selected problems concerning the dynamics and stochastic behavior of highly excited matter, particularly the QCD plasma. For the latter we consider the equation of state, kinetics, quasiparticles, flow properties and possible chaos and turbulence. The promise of phase space distribution functions for covariant transport and kinetic theory is stressed. The possibility and implications of a stochastic bag are spelled out. A simplified space-time model of hadronic collisions is pursued, with applications to A-A collisions and other matters. The domain wall between hadronic and plasma phase is of potential importance: its thickness and relation to surface tension is noticed. Finally, we review the recently developed stochastic cell model of multiparticle distributions and KNO scaling. This topic leads to the notion that fractional dimensions are involved in a rather general dynamical context. We speculate that various scaling phenomena are independent of the full dynamical structure, depending only on a general stochastic framework having to do with simple maps and strange attractors. 42 refs.
Collective, stochastic and nonequilibrium behavior of highly excited hadronic matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carruthers, P.
1983-01-01
We discuss selected problems concerning the dynamic and stochasticc behavior of highly excited matter, particularly the QCD plasma. For the latter we consider the equation of state, kinetics, quasiparticles, flow properties and possible chaos and turbulence. The promise of phase space distribution functions for covariant transport and kinetic theory is stressed. The possibility and implications of a stochastic bag are spelled out. A simplified space-time model of hadronic collisions is pursued, with applications to A-A collisions and other matters. The domain wall between hadronic and plasma phase is of potential importance: its thickness and relation to surface tension are noticed. Finally we reviewed the recently developed stochastic cell model of multiparticle distributions and KNO scaling. This topic leads to the notion that fractal dimensions are involved in a rather general dynamical context. We speculate that various scaling phenomena are independent of the full dynamical structure, depending only on a general stochastic framework having to do with simple maps and strange attractors. 42 references
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kenzelmann, M.; Cowley, R.A.; Buyers, W.J.L.
2002-01-01
We have mapped from the quantum to the classical limit the spin excitation spectrum of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain system CsNiCl3 in its paramagnetic phase from T=5 to 200 K. Neutron scattering shows that the excitations are resonant and dispersive up to at least T=70 Ksimilar...... is in agreement with quantum Monte Carlo calculations for the spin-1 chain. xi is also consistent with the single mode approximation, suggesting that the excitations are short-lived single particle excitations. Below T=12 K where three-dimensional spin correlations are important, xi is shorter than predicted...... and the experiment is not consistent with the random phase approximation for coupled quantum chains. At T=200 K, the structure factor and second energy moment of the excitation spectrum are in excellent agreement with the high-temperature series expansion....
Power system stabilization by superconducting magnetic energystorage connected to rotating exciter
Mitani, Yasunori; Tsuji, K
1993-01-01
The authors describe a combination of a rotating exciter and a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for efficient power system stabilization. A SMES system connected to an exciter rotating with a turbine-rotor shaft is proposed. The exciter is installed exclusively to supply current for the SMES. Since electrical power output from the SMES is converted into a mechanical torque of the generator directly by the exciter, it is expected that power swings of the generator will be ...
Charge transfer and excitation in high-energy ion-atom collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlachter, A.S.; Berkner, K.H.; McDonald, R.J.
1986-11-01
Coincidence measurements of charge transfer and simultaneous projectile electron excitation provide insight into correlated two-electron processes in energetic ion-atom collisions. Projectile excitation and electron capture can occur simultaneously in a collision of a highly charged ion with a target atom; this process is called resonant transfer and excitation (RTE). The intermediate excited state which is thus formed can subsequently decay by photon emission or by Auger-electron emission. Results are shown for RTE in both the K shell of Ca ions and the L shell of Nb ions, for simultaneous projectile electron loss and excitation, and for the effect of RTE on electron capture
Analysis about modeling MEC7000 excitation system of nuclear power unit
Liu, Guangshi; Sun, Zhiyuan; Dou, Qian; Liu, Mosi; Zhang, Yihui; Wang, Xiaoming
2018-02-01
Aiming at the importance of accurate modeling excitation system in stability calculation of nuclear power plant inland and lack of research in modeling MEC7000 excitation system,this paper summarize a general method to modeling and simulate MEC7000 excitation system. Among this method also solve the key issues of computing method of IO interface parameter and the conversion process of excitation system measured model to BPA simulation model. At last complete the simulation modeling of MEC7000 excitation system first time in domestic. By used No-load small disturbance check, demonstrates that the proposed model and algorithm is corrective and efficient.
Design for the excitation systems of three generator sets of HL-2A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Huajun; Xu Lirong; Liu Xuemei; You Tianxue
2001-01-01
The design for the excitation systems have been made on the basis of respective features and load demands of three motor-generator sets of HL-2A. The excitation systems of No.1 and No.2 generator sets which supply for toroidal field are discussed in detail and three feasible excitation plans have been proposed according to the investment
Realistic level densities in fragment emission at high excitation energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mustafa, M.G.; Blann, M.; Ignatyuk, A.V.
1993-01-01
Heavy fragment emission from a 44 100 Ru compound nucleus at 400 and 800 MeV of excitation is analyzed to study the influence of level density models on final yields. An approach is used in which only quasibound shell-model levels are included in calculating level densities. We also test the traditional Fermi gas model for which there is no upper energy limit to the single particle levels. We compare the influence of these two level density models in evaporation calculations of primary fragment excitations, kinetic energies and yields, and on final product yields
Early warning signal for interior crises in excitable systems.
Karnatak, Rajat; Kantz, Holger; Bialonski, Stephan
2017-10-01
The ability to reliably predict critical transitions in dynamical systems is a long-standing goal of diverse scientific communities. Previous work focused on early warning signals related to local bifurcations (critical slowing down) and nonbifurcation-type transitions. We extend this toolbox and report on a characteristic scaling behavior (critical attractor growth) which is indicative of an impending global bifurcation, an interior crisis in excitable systems. We demonstrate our early warning signal in a conceptual climate model as well as in a model of coupled neurons known to exhibit extreme events. We observed critical attractor growth prior to interior crises of chaotic as well as strange-nonchaotic attractors. These observations promise to extend the classes of transitions that can be predicted via early warning signals.
Consideration on excitation mechanisms in a high-power two-jet plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaksas, Natalia P.; Gerasimov, Vladimir A.
2013-01-01
The study of excitation mechanisms in the region before the jet confluence of a high-power two-jet plasma used for analysis of different powders has been undertaken. Distribution of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions according to the Boltzmann population was found. Measuring Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures showed their considerable difference (≈ 2000–2500 K). The effect of argon on line intensities of a wide range of elements was investigated by the experiment with argon covering. A negligible effect of argon covering on line intensities of atoms with ionization energy of 8 eV was revealed. This is likely to be due to Penning ionization by metastable argon followed by ion recombination with an electron and stepwise de-excitations. A more pronounced effect of argon covering was observed for ionic lines of investigated elements with total excitation energy ranging from 11 to 21 eV. Penning ionization followed by electron impact is believed to be a probable mechanism for ion excitation. The contribution of metastable argon to excitation processes results in departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium and different atomic and ionic excitation temperatures. - Highlights: • Excitation mechanisms were investigated in a high-power TJP. • Boltzmann population of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions takes place. • The considerable difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures occurs. • Argon covering was used to study the argon effect on line intensities. • Participation of metastable argon in atom ionization was shown
Study of high-j neutron excitations outside 136Xe
Talwar, R.; Kay, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Adachi, S.; Entwisle, J. P.; Fujita, Y.; Gey, G.; Noji, S.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Tamii, A.
2017-09-01
The character of single-neutron excitations outside of N = 82 has been studied using nucleon transfer reactions in terms of the energy centroid of their strength as well as the fragmentation of this strength among the actual states of the nucleus. However, extending the systematic study of the N = 83 isotones to 137Xe has been challenging due to xenon being a gas at room temperature. Though several attempts have been made, a quantitative determination of the spectroscopic factors for the neutron 9/2- and 13/2+ excitations in 137Xe is still lacking. In the present work, we report on a study of the 136Xe(α,3He)137Xe reaction carried out at 100 MeV to probe the l = 5 , 9/2- and l = 6 , 13/2+ single-neutron excitations. The experimental technique and results will be presented discussing them in context of the evolution of these single-neutron excitations and the influence of the tensor interaction on the neutron single-particle states as the proton orbits are filling. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357, the Australian Research Council Discovery Project 120104176, and the UK Science and Technology Facilities.
Luminescence decay in condensed argon under high energy excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho, M.J.; Klein, G.
1978-01-01
α and β particles were used to study the luminescence of condensed argon. The scintillation decay has always two components independently of the phase and the kind of the exciting particles. Decay time constants are given for solid, liquid and also gaseous argon. Changes in the relative intensity values of the two components are discussed in terms of track effects
The wave buoy analogy - estimating high-frequency wave excitations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik Dam
2008-01-01
of sea state parameters — influence of filtering. Ocean Engineering 2007;34:1797–810.], where time series of ship responses were generated from a known wave spectrum for the purpose of the inverse process — the estimation of the underlying wave excitations. Similar response generations and vice versa...
Powerful highly efficient KrF lamps excited by surface and barrier discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, V M; Vodchits, V A; El'tsov, A V; Khristoforov, O B
1998-01-01
An investigation was made of the characteristics of KrF lamps with different types of excitation by surface and barrier discharges in which the dielectric material was sapphire. The conditions were determined for the attainment of an extremely high yield of the KrF* fluorescence with the internal efficiency η in ∼30 % and 22% for pulsed surface and barrier discharges, respectively. A homogeneous surface discharge was maintained without gas circulation when the pulse repetition rate was 5 x 10 4 Hz. Quasicontinuous excitation of a surface discharge at near-atmospheric pressure made it possible to reach a KrF* fluorescence power density of about 80 W cm -3 , which was close to the limit set by the kinetics of the gaseous medium. Under prolonged excitation conditions the intensity of the UV output radiation was limited by the permissible heating of the gas to a temperature above which the operating life of the gaseous mixture containing fluorine fell steeply. This was the reason for the advantage of surface over barrier discharges: the former were characterised by a high thermal conductivity of a thin (∼0.2 mm) plasma layer on the surface of the cooled dielectric, which made it possible to construct powerful highly efficient KrF and ArF lamps emitting UV radiation of up to 1 W cm -2 intensity. (laser system components)
vuv fluorescence from selective high-order multiphoton excitation of N2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coffee, Ryan N.; Gibson, George N.
2004-01-01
Recent fluorescence studies suggest that ultrashort pulse laser excitation may be highly selective. Selective high-intensity laser excitation holds important consequences for the physics of multiphoton processes. To establish the extent of this selectivity, we performed a detailed comparative study of the vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence resulting from the interaction of N 2 and Ar with high-intensity infrared ultrashort laser pulses. Both N 2 and Ar reveal two classes of transitions, inner-valence ns ' l ' . From their pressure dependence, we associate each transition with either plasma or direct laser excitation. Furthermore, we qualitatively confirm such associations with the time dependence of the fluorescence signal. Remarkably, only N 2 presents evidence of direct laser excitation. This direct excitation produces ionic nitrogen fragments with inner-valence (2s) holes, two unidentified transitions, and one molecular transition, the N 2 + :X 2 Σ g + 2 Σ u + . We discuss these results in the light of a recently proposed model for multiphoton excitation
Resonance Excitation of Longitudinal High Order Modes in Project X Linac
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khabiboulline, T.N.; Sukhanov, A.AUTHOR = Awida, M.; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.AUTHOR = Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab
2012-05-01
Results of simulation of power loss due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating superconducting RF system of CW linac of Project X are presented. Beam structures corresponding to the various modes of Project X operation are considered: CW regime for 3 GeV physics program; pulsed mode for neutrino experiments; and pulsed regime, when Project X linac operates as a driver for Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider. Power loss and associated heat load due to resonance excitation of longitudinal HOMs are shown to be small in all modes of operation. Conclusion is made that HOM couplers can be removed from the design of superconducting RF cavities of Project X linac.
Resonance Excitation of Longitudinal High Order Modes in Project X Linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonin, I.V.; Khabiboulline, T.N.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Sukhanov, A.I.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Awida, M.H.
2012-01-01
Results of simulation of power loss due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating superconducting RF system of CW linac of Project X are presented. Beam structures corresponding to the various modes of Project X operation are considered: CW regime for 3 GeV physics program; pulsed mode for neutrino experiments; and pulsed regime, when Project X linac operates as a driver for Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider. Power loss and associated heat load due to resonance excitation of longitudinal HOMs are shown to be small in all modes of operation. Conclusion is made that HOM couplers can be removed from the design of superconducting RF cavities of Project X linac.
Fluorescence spectra of Rhodamine 6G for high fluence excitation laser radiation
Hung, J; Olaizola, A M
2003-01-01
Fluorescence spectral changes of Rhodamine 6G in ethanol and glycerol solutions and deposited as a film on a silica surface have been studied using a wide range of pumping field fluence at 532 nm at room temperature. Blue shift of the fluorescence spectra and fluorescence quenching of the dye molecule in solution are observed at high excitation fluence values. Such effects are not reported for the film sample. The effects are interpreted as the result of population redistribution in the solute-solvent molecular system induced by the high fluence field and the fluence dependence of the radiationless decay mechanism.
Four-nucleon system with Δ-isobar excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deltuva, A.; Fonseca, A.C.; Sauer, P.U.
2008-01-01
The four-nucleon bound state and scattering below three-body breakup threshold are described based on the realistic coupled-channel potential CD Bonn+Δ which allows the excitation of a single nucleon to a Δ isobar. The Coulomb repulsion between protons is included. In the four-nucleon system the two-baryon coupled-channel potential yields effective two-, three- and four-nucleon forces, mediated by the Δ isobar and consistent with each other and with the underlying two-nucleon force. The effect of the four-nucleon force on the studied observables is much smaller than the effect of the three-nucleon force. The inclusion of the Δ isobar is unable to resolve the existing discrepancies with the experimental data
Xia, D.; Xia, Z.
2017-12-01
The ability for the excitation system to adjust quickly plays a very important role in maintaining the normal operation of superconducting machines and power systems. However, the eddy currents in the electromagnetic shield of superconducting machines hinder the exciting magnetic field change and weaken the adjustment capability of the excitation system. To analyze this problem, a finite element calculation model for the transient electromagnetic field with moving parts is established. The effects of three different electromagnetic shields on the exciting magnetic field are analyzed using finite element method. The results show that the electromagnetic shield hinders the field changes significantly, the better its conductivity, the greater the effect on the superconducting machine excitation.
Effect of high-frequency excitation on natural frequencies of spinning discs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2000-01-01
The effect of high-frequency, non-resonant parametric excitation on the low-frequency response of spinning discs is considered. The parametric excitation is obtained through a non-constant rotation speed, where the frequency of the pulsating overlay is much higher than the lowest natural frequenc......The effect of high-frequency, non-resonant parametric excitation on the low-frequency response of spinning discs is considered. The parametric excitation is obtained through a non-constant rotation speed, where the frequency of the pulsating overlay is much higher than the lowest natural...
Superconductivity and charge transfer excitations in high Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balseiro, C.A.; Alascio, B.; Gagliano, E.; Rojo, A.
1988-01-01
We present some numerical results to show that in a simple model which includes Cu 3d and O 2p orbitals together with inter and intra atomic correlations pairing between holes can occur due to charge transfer excitations. We present also a simple approximation to derive an effective Hamiltonian containing an interaction between particles which is attractive for some values of the different microscopic parameters
Excitation transfer in two two-level systems coupled to an oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagelstein, P L; Chaudhary, I U
2008-01-01
We consider a generalization of the spin-boson model in which two different two-level systems are coupled to an oscillator, under conditions where the oscillator energy is much less than the two-level system energies, and where the oscillator is highly excited. We find that the two-level system transition energy is shifted, producing a Bloch-Siegert shift in each two-level system similar to what would be obtained if the other were absent. At resonances associated with energy exchange between a two-level system and the oscillator, the level splitting is about the same as would be obtained in the spin-boson model at a Bloch-Siegert resonance. However, there occur resonances associated with the transfer of excitation between one two-level system and the other, an effect not present in the spin-boson model. We use a unitary transformation leading to a rotated system in which terms responsible for the shift and splittings can be identified. The level splittings at the anticrossings associated with both energy exchange and excitation transfer resonances are accounted for with simple two-state models and degenerate perturbation theory using operators that appear in the rotated Hamiltonian
Luminescence of CsPbBr3 films under high-power excitation
高橋, 一彰; 斎藤, 忠昭; 近藤, 新一; 浅田, 拡志
2004-01-01
Highly excited photoluminescence of CsPbBr3 has been measured for thin films prepared by crystallization from the amorphous phase into microcrystalline/ polycrystalline states. With the increase of excitation intensity, there occurs jumping of the dominant emission band from a free-exciton band to a new band originating from exciton-exciton inelastic collision. Stimulated emission is observed for the new band at very low threshold excitation intensities of the order of 10kW/cm2.
The excitation system of 727.5 MVA synchronous generator of the unit B1 in TPP 'Nikola Tesla B'
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ćirić Zoran
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a technical solution for the replacement of the excitation system of the unit B1 in TPP 'Nikola Tesla B' as a part of the maintenance service in 2012. Since the generators of TPP 'Nikola Tesla B' have the greatest power in the power system of Serbia, it was necessary to achieve high reliability of the excitation system so that the process of producing electricity is not endangered Considering this, the implemented excitation system uses modern technology with redundancy both in the power and control blocks, which resulted in an increase in the hot reserve by 100%. In addition, it was necessary to adjust the excitation system to increased generator power and performance from 618MW to 667.5MW. In this paper, the main parameters of the excitation system are given: the power, the excitation system control, the thyristor ignition system, the event recorder system, the digital relay protection, as well as the measuring and signaling functions.
Statistical and direct decay of high-lying single-particle excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gales, S.
1993-01-01
Transfer reactions induced by hadronic probes at intermediate energies have revealed a rich spectrum of high-lying excitations embedded in the nuclear continuum. The investigation of their decay properties is believed to be a severe test of their microscopic structure as predicted by microscopic nuclear models. In addition the degree of damping of these simple modes in the nuclear continuum can be obtained by means of the measured particle (n,p) decay branching ratios. The neutron and proton decay studies of high-lying single-particle states in heavy nuclei are presented. (author). 13 refs., 9 figs
Methodology to estimate parameters of an excitation system based on experimental conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saavedra-Montes, A.J. [Carrera 80 No 65-223, Bloque M8 oficina 113, Escuela de Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Calle 13 No 100-00, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Valle (Colombia); Ramirez-Scarpetta, J.M. [Calle 13 No 100-00, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Valle (Colombia); Malik, O.P. [2500 University Drive N.W., Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)
2011-01-15
A methodology to estimate the parameters of a potential-source controlled rectifier excitation system model is presented in this paper. The proposed parameter estimation methodology is based on the characteristics of the excitation system. A comparison of two pseudo random binary signals, two sampling periods for each one, and three estimation algorithms is also presented. Simulation results from an excitation control system model and experimental results from an excitation system of a power laboratory setup are obtained. To apply the proposed methodology, the excitation system parameters are identified at two different levels of the generator saturation curve. The results show that it is possible to estimate the parameters of the standard model of an excitation system, recording two signals and the system operating in closed loop with the generator. The normalized sum of squared error obtained with experimental data is below 10%, and with simulation data is below 5%. (author)
Many-body effects in the gain spectra of highly excited quantum-dot lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, H. C.; Chow, W. W.; Koch, S. W.
2001-01-01
Optical gain spectra are computed for quantum dots under high excitation conditions, where there is a non-negligible two-dimensional carrier density surrounding the dots. Using a screened Hartree-Fock theory to describe the influence of the Coulomb interaction, we find different self-energy shifts for the dot and quantum-well transitions. Furthermore, in contrast to the result for quantum-well and bulk systems, the peak gain at the quantum-dot transition computed including Coulomb effects is reduced from its free carrier value
Development of the system for excitation function automatic measurement of nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sapozhnikov, A.B.
2004-01-01
Full text: The resonance nuclear reaction method is applied at the tandem accelerator UKP-2-1 to determinate films thickness and obtain light element depth distribution. The system for automatic measurement of the nuclear reaction excitation curve has been developed. It allowed to obtain an excitation function of nuclear reaction using continuous changing potential of the target with energy step of 6 eV. Saw-tooth voltage with amplitude up to 6 kV from the block of scanning beam is fed to a target. The amplitude is determined by constant voltage from the scanning beam block control. Nal(Tl) detector detects gamma quanta - the products of a nuclear reaction and transforms they in voltage impulses. The impulses through the amplifier income in the single-channel analyzer which forms impulses to start the analog-to-digital converter. The value of saw-tooth voltage corresponding to the moment of gamma quantum detection is read by the analog-to-digital converter, where it is transformed to digital code and transmitted to the computer. The computer program has been developed to control the process of accumulation of excitation function. The dependence a detected γ-quanta yield from a target potential is automatically plotted by the program. This dependence corresponds to the nuclear reaction excitation function. If scanning amplitude is not enough in order to scan need depth of a sample, an operator increases energy of the proton beam changing high voltage potential of the terminal up 3 keV and measures the nuclear reaction excitation function with the new energy. This procedure can be repeated some times. After that 'sewing' of excitation functions is carried out by the program under the hypothesis that nuclear reaction yield in last points be identical
High-j neutron excitations outside 136Xe
Talwar, R.; Kay, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Adachi, S.; Entwisle, J. P.; Fujita, Y.; Gey, G.; Noji, S.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Tamii, A.
2017-08-01
The ν 0 h9 /2 and ν 0 i13 /2 strength at 137Xe, a single neutron outside the N =82 shell closure, has been determined using the 136Xe(α ,3He)137Xe reaction carried out at 100 MeV. We confirm the recent observation of the second 13 /2+ state and reassess previous data on the 9 /2- states, obtaining spectroscopic factors. These new data provide additional constraints on predictions of the same single-neutron excitations at 133Sn.
Hastings, Harold; Sobel, Sabrina; Field, Richard; Minchenberg, Scott; Spinelli, Nicole; Zauderer, Keith
2011-03-01
An excitable medium is a system in which small perturbations die out, but sufficiently large perturbations generate large ``excitations.'' Biological examples include neurons and the heart; the latter supports waves of excitation normally generated by the sinus node, but occasionally generated by other mechanisms. The ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is the prototype chemical excitable medium. We present experimental and theoretical evidence for that random fluctuations can generate excitations in the Belousov-Zhabothinsky reaction. Although the heart is significantly different, there are some scaling analogies. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG02-08ER64623.
Fission of highly excited nuclei investigated in complete kinematic measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez-Sanchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taieb, J.; Avarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Belier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J. F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Prochazka, A.; Ramos, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.
2013-01-01
Fission is an extremely complex mechanism that requires a dynamical approach to describe the evolution of the process in terms of intrinsic and collective excitations of the nuclear constituents. In order to determine these effects a complex experimental setup was mounted at GSI, which allowed us for the first time the full identification in charge and mass of all fission fragments thanks to a magnetic separation and the use of the inverse kinematic technique. Moreover, we also measured the neutron multiplicities and the light-charged particles emitted in coincidence with fission. These complete kinematic measurements will be used to define sensitive observables to dissipative and transient effects in fission. In this manuscript we present the first results for the total fission cross sections. (authors)
Development of tunable flashlamp excited dye laser system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhanthumnavin, V.; Apikitmata, S.; Kochareon, P.
1991-01-01
A tunable flashlamp excited dye laser (FEDL) was successfully developed for the first time in Thailand by Thai scientists at KMIT Thonburi (Bangmod). The Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethyl alcohol was utilized as a laser medium and circulated by a pump through a laser head. The dye cuvette had an inner diameter of 4.0 mm and was 90 mm long. The cavity mirrors M 1 , and M 2 were concave mirrors with reflectivities of 100% and 73% respectively. A power supply of 0-20 kV and current of 0-50 mA charged a capacitor of 0.3 μ f at 10-15 kV which was then discharged via a spark gap through the flashlamp. The output laser wavelengths was tunable from λ = 550-640 nm. It is the first FEDL system, locally developed, which has a tunable wavelength for the laser output. The laser pulse width is about 1.0 μs with energy of 20 mJ and peak power pf 20 KW. The repetition rate of the laser is 1/15 Hz. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs
Sun, Jiaojiao; Xu, Wei; Lin, Zifei
2018-01-01
In this paper, the reliability of a non-linearly damped friction oscillator under combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise excitations is investigated. The stochastic averaging method, which is usually applied to the research of smooth system, has been extended to the study of the reliability of non-smooth friction system. The results indicate that the reliability of friction system can be improved by Coulomb friction and reduced by random excitations. In particular, the effect of the external random excitation on the reliability is larger than the effect of the parametric random excitation. The validity of the analytical results is verified by the numerical results.
Aller, L H; Keyes, C D
1980-03-01
Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation.
The character of resonant charge exchange involving highly excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M.; Capitelli, M.; Laricchiuta, A.
2012-01-01
We study the process of resonant charge exchange involving excited helium atoms with the principal quantum number n = 5 colliding with the helium ion in the ground state in the collision energy range from thermal up to 10 eV. This information may be important for the analysis of planet atmospheres containing helium, in particular, for Jupiter’s atmosphere, but our basic interest is the transition from the quantum to classical description of this process, where, due to large cross sections, evaluations of the cross sections are possible. For the chosen process, quantum theory allows determining the cross section as a result of a tunnel electron transition, while classical theory accounts for over-barrier electron transitions. The classical theory additionally requires effective transitions between states with close energies. The analysis of these transitions for helium with n = 5 shows that electron momenta and their projections are mixed for a part of the states, while for other states, the mixing is absent. A simple criterion to separate such states is given. In addition, the main contribution to the cross section of resonant charge exchange follows from tunnel electron transitions. As a result, the quantum theory is better for calculating the cross sections of resonant charge exchange than the classical one and also allows finding the partial cross sections of resonant charge exchange, while the classical approach gives the cross section of resonant charge exchange in a simple manner with the accuracy of 20%.
Study of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states in Sn and Dy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stolk, A.
1988-01-01
A study is presented of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The aim is to get more detailed information on the properties of the GDR and to use it as a tool for the investigation of nuclear structure at high excitation energy. The high energy γ-rays seen from the decay of excited state GDRs in heavy ion fusion reactions reflect the average properties of the states populated by the γ-emission. The measurements at different initial excitation energies of 114 Sn provide information on the nuclear level density near the particle separation energy at an average angular momentum of 10ℎ. The study of shape changes at very high spin in 152-156 Dy nuclei is presented. A theoretical model developed to describe fusion-evaporation reactions is presented. 149 refs.; 63 figs.; 13 tabs
Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silver, R.N.
1984-12-01
This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base
Acoustic properties of perforates under high level multi-tone excitation
Bodén, Hans
2013-01-01
This paper discusses the effect of high level multi-tone acoustic excitation on the acoustic properties of perforates. It is based on a large experimental study of the nonlinear properties of these types of samples without mean grazing or bias flow. Compared to previously published results the present investigation concentrates on the effect of multiple harmonics. It is known from previous studies that high level acoustic excitation at one frequency will change the acoustic impedance of perfo...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freund, O; Seume, J R; Montgomery, M; Mittelbach, M
2014-01-01
Due to trends in aero-design, aeroelasticity becomes increasingly important in modern turbomachines. Design requirements of turbomachines lead to the development of high aspect ratio blades and blade integral disc designs (blisks), which are especially prone to complex modes of vibration. Therefore, experimental investigations yielding high quality data are required for improving the understanding of aeroelastic effects in turbomachines. One possibility to achieve high quality data is to excite and measure blade vibrations in turbomachines. The major requirement for blade excitation and blade vibration measurements is to minimize interference with the aeroelastic effects to be investigated. Thus in this paper, a non-contact—and thus low interference—experimental set-up for exciting and measuring blade vibrations is proposed and shown to work. A novel acoustic system excites rotor blade vibrations, which are measured with an optical tip-timing system. By performing measurements in an axial compressor, the potential of the acoustic excitation method for investigating aeroelastic effects is explored. The basic principle of this method is described and proven through the analysis of blade responses at different acoustic excitation frequencies and at different rotational speeds. To verify the accuracy of the tip-timing system, amplitudes measured by tip-timing are compared with strain gage measurements. They are found to agree well. Two approaches to vary the nodal diameter (ND) of the excited vibration mode by controlling the acoustic excitation are presented. By combining the different excitable acoustic modes with a phase-lag control, each ND of the investigated 30 blade rotor can be excited individually. This feature of the present acoustic excitation system is of great benefit to aeroelastic investigations and represents one of the main advantages over other excitation methods proposed in the past. In future studies, the acoustic excitation method will be used
Excitation functions of the systems 12C+14C and 13C+12C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haindl, E.
1975-01-01
The excitation functions of the systems 12 C+ 14 C and 13 C+ 12 C are investigated for different exit channels. The excitation functions measured do not show correlated structures as in the system 12 C+ 12 C. (WL/AK) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Budisan, N. [Politechnica Univ. of Timisoara (Romania); Hentea, T.; Mahil, S. [Purdue Univ. Calumet, Hammond, IN (United States); Madescu, G. [Romanian Academy, Timisoara (Romania)
1996-12-31
In this paper we present the results of our investigations concerning the utilization of induction generators at very low speed. It is shown that, by proper design, it is possible to obtain high efficiency and high power factor values. The optimized induction generators require lower reactive power resulting in lower size and price of the excitation control system. 4 refs., 2 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruzdev, I.A.; Ekimova, M.M.; Truspekova, G.A.
1982-01-01
Expressions are derived for an idealized model of a complex electric power system; these expressions define the greatest level of stability of an electric power system and the optimum combination of stabilization factors with automatic excitation control in a single power system. The possibility of increasing the level of stability of an electric power system with simultaneous strict automatic excitation control of the synychronous generators in several power systems is analyzed.
Production of autoionizing di-excited states of barium with high angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roussel, F.; Breger, P.; Gounand, F.; Spiess, G.
1988-01-01
Autoionizing di-excited states Ba(6p 1/2 27l) with 7 ≤l≤26, have been experimentally detected. They have been produced by a method combining excitation by two lasers and l-mixing collisions between barium and xenon. Results show that a long delay between the two laser excitation steps is favourable to the production of these states. The method has proved to be very efficient (measured cross-section: σ = 3.1 . 10 -13 cm 2 ) for populating high-angular-momentum autoionizing states of barium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge Zhengming; Hsu Maoyuan
2008-01-01
In this paper, chaos excited chaos synchronizations of generalized van der Pol systems with integral and fractional order are studied. Synchronizations of two identified autonomous generalized van der Pol chaotic systems are obtained by replacing their corresponding exciting terms by the same function of chaotic states of a third nonautonomous or autonomous generalized van der Pol system. Numerical simulations, such as phase portraits, Poincare maps and state error plots are given. It is found that chaos excited chaos synchronizations exist for the fractional order systems with the total fractional order both less than and more than the number of the states of the integer order generalized van der Pol system
Test and Control System for Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters Using LED as Excitation Source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zou Qiuying
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A new scheme on test and control system for chlorophyll fluorescence is presented in this work, which uses light-emitting diode (LED excitation by means of measuring the fluorescence parameter fpsII. The system takes programmable power supply as LEDs illumination drive power with high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. MINIPAM is used to measure fluorescence parameter fpsII and keeps communication with upper PC by serial port. The upper PC can control the power supply and process the data received from MINIPAM by software which is programmed in VB6. The results show that the system has a lot of advantages such as high accuracy and convenience. The effect of environmental factors on fluorescence parameters is analyzed comprehensively. It will be a practical measurement and control system for photosynthetic ability and have wide application foreground.
Indirect control of quantum systems via an accessor: pure coherent control without system excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, H C; Dong Hui; Sun, C P; Liu, X F
2009-01-01
A pure indirect control of quantum systems via a quantum accessor is investigated. In this control scheme, we do not apply any external classical excitation fields on the controlled system and we control a quantum system via a quantum accessor and classical control fields control the accessor only. Complete controllability is investigated for arbitrary finite-dimensional quantum systems and exemplified by two- and three-dimensional systems. The scheme exhibits some advantages; it uses less qubits in the accessor and does not depend on the energy-level structure of the controlled system
Fujita, Takatoshi; Mochizuki, Yuji
2018-04-19
We developed the fragment-based method for calculating nonlocal excitations in large molecular systems. This method is based on the multilayer fragment molecular orbital method and the configuration interaction single (CIS) wave function using localized molecular orbitals. The excited-state wave function for the whole system is described as a superposition of configuration state functions (CSFs) for intrafragment excitations and for interfragment charge-transfer excitations. The formulation and calculations of singlet excited-state Hamiltonian matrix elements in the fragment CSFs are presented in detail. The efficient approximation schemes for calculating the matrix elements are also presented. The computational efficiency and the accuracy were evaluated using the molecular dimers and molecular aggregates. We confirmed that absolute errors of 50 meV (relative to the conventional calculations) are achievable for the molecular systems in their equilibrium geometries. The perturbative electron correlation correction to the CIS excitation energies is also demonstrated. The present theory can compute a large number of excited states in large molecular systems; in addition, it allows for the systematic derivation of a model exciton Hamiltonian. These features are useful for studying excited-state dynamics in condensed molecular systems based on the ab initio electronic structure theory.
Non-linear vibrating systems excited by a nonideal energy source with a large slope characteristic
González-Carbajal, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime
2017-11-01
This paper revisits the problem of an unbalanced motor attached to a fixed frame by means of a nonlinear spring and a linear damper. The excitation provided by the motor is, in general, nonideal, which means it is affected by the vibratory response. Since the system behaviour is highly dependent on the order of magnitude of the motor characteristic slope, the case of large slope is considered herein. Some Perturbation Methods are applied to the system of equations, which allows transforming the original 4D system into a much simpler 2D system. The fixed points of this reduced system and their stability are carefully studied. We find the existence of a Hopf bifurcation which, to the authors' knowledge, has not been addressed before in the literature. These analytical results are supported by numerical simulations. We also compare our approach and results with those published by other authors.
Excitation of high energy levels under laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shafeev@kapella.gpi.ru; Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bozon-Verduraz, F. [ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France); Robert, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 7591, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France)
2007-12-15
Laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids leads to excitation of high energy levels in both liquid and nanoparticle material. The emission spectrum of the colloidal solution under exposure of a suspension metallic nanoparticles in water to radiation of a Nd:YAG laser of a picosecond range of pulse duration is discussed. Excitation of nuclear energy levels and neutron release is experimentally studied on the model system of transmutation of Hg into Au that occurs under exposure of Hg nanodrops suspended in D{sub 2}O. The proposed mechanism involves: (i) emission of X-ray photons by Hg nanoparticles upon laser exposure, leading to neutron release from D{sub 2}O, (ii) initiation of Hg {yields} Au transmutation by the capture of neutrons. The effect of transmutation is more pronounced using {sup 196}Hg isotope instead of Hg of natural isotope composition. The influence of laser pulse duration on the degree of transmutation (from fs through ns range) is discussed.
Wind turbine blade testing system using base excitation
Cotrell, Jason; Thresher, Robert; Lambert, Scott; Hughes, Scott; Johnson, Jay
2014-03-25
An apparatus (500) for fatigue testing elongate test articles (404) including wind turbine blades through forced or resonant excitation of the base (406) of the test articles (404). The apparatus (500) includes a testing platform or foundation (402). A blade support (410) is provided for retaining or supporting a base (406) of an elongate test article (404), and the blade support (410) is pivotally mounted on the testing platform (402) with at least two degrees of freedom of motion relative to the testing platform (402). An excitation input assembly (540) is interconnected with the blade support (410) and includes first and second actuators (444, 446, 541) that act to concurrently apply forces or loads to the blade support (410). The actuator forces are cyclically applied in first and second transverse directions. The test article (404) responds to shaking of its base (406) by oscillating in two, transverse directions (505, 507).
Clustered chimera states in systems of type-I excitability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vüllings, Andrea; Omelchenko, Iryna; Hövel, Philipp; Hizanidis, Johanne
2014-01-01
The chimera state is a fascinating phenomenon of coexisting synchronized and desynchronized behaviour that was discovered in networks of nonlocally coupled identical phase oscillators over ten years ago. Since then, chimeras have been found in numerous theoretical and experimental studies and more recently in models of neuronal dynamics as well. In this work, we consider a generic model for a saddle-node bifurcation on a limit cycle representative of neural excitability type I. We obtain chimera states with multiple coherent regions (clustered chimeras/multi-chimeras) depending on the distance from the excitability threshold, the range of nonlocal coupling and the coupling strength. A detailed stability diagram for these chimera states and other interesting coexisting patterns (like traveling waves) is presented. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, E
2005-12-15
The author presents successively the theoretical aspect, the experimental aspect and the applied aspect of excitations in nuclear structures. The quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA) tool is first described. Recent approaches on QRPA are based on the theory of the density function where the ground state and excited states are described from the same nucleon-nucleon interaction. 2 methods for measuring the collective excitations are then presented: the proton scattering that has the potentiality to investigate the evolution of magicity, the second method is in fact a new method for measuring the giant mono-polar resonance (GMP) in exotic nuclei. Nuclear reactions are considered as a compulsory step on the way from observables like cross-sections to nuclear structure. The author highlights the assets of the convolution model that can generate the optical potential from the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction and from proton and neutron densities of the nuclei involved. R-processes in nucleosynthesis and neutron stars are reviewed as applications of collective excitations in the field of nuclear astrophysics. (A.C.)
Stochastic evolutions and hadronization of highly excited hadronic matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carruthers, P.
1984-01-01
Stochastic ingredients of high energy hadronic collisions are analyzed, with emphasis on multiplicity distributions. The conceptual simplicity of the k-cell negative binomial distribution is related to the evolution of probability distributions via the Fokker-Planck and related equations. The connection to underlying field theory ideas is sketched. 17 references
Stochastic stability of mechanical systems under renewal jump process parametric excitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Larsen, Jesper Winther
2005-01-01
A dynamic system under parametric excitation in the form of a non-Erlang renewal jump process is considered. The excitation is a random train of nonoverlapping rectangular pulses with equal, deterministic heights. The time intervals between two consecutive jumps up (or down), are the sum of two...
Diaspro, A; Corosu, M; Ramoino, P; Robello, M
1999-11-01
Within the framework of a national National Institute of Physics of Matter (INFM) project, we have realised a two-photon excitation (TPE) fluorescence microscope based on a new generation commercial confocal scanning head. The core of the architecture is a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser (Tsunami 3960, Spectra Physics Inc., Mountain View, CA) pumped by a high-power (5 W, 532 nm) laser (Millennia V, Spectra Physics Inc.) and an ultracompact confocal scanning head, Nikon PCM2000 (Nikon Instruments, Florence, Italy) using a single-pinhole design. Three-dimensional point-spread function has been measured to define spatial resolution performances. The TPE microscope has been used with a wide range of excitable fluorescent molecules (DAPI, Fura-2, Indo-1, DiOC(6)(3), fluoresceine, Texas red) covering a single photon spectral range from UV to green. An example is reported on 3D imaging of the helical structure of the sperm head of the Octopus Eledone cirrhosa labelled with an UV excitable dye, i.e., DAPI. The system can be easily switched for operating both in conventional and two-photon mode. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Eckels, David E.; Hass, William J.
1989-05-30
A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses.
Density-dependent squeezing of excitons in highly excited semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Hong Quang.
1995-07-01
The time evolution from coherent states to squeezed states of high density excitons is studied theoretically based on the boson formalism and within the Random Phase Approximation. Both the mutual interaction between excitons and the anharmonic exciton-photon interaction due to phase-space filling of excitons are taken into account. It is shown that the exciton squeezing depends strongly on the exciton density in semiconductors and becomes smaller with increasing the latter. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs
Decay properties of rare earth nuclei at high excitation and low spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atac, A.
1989-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the decay pattern of highly excited rare earth nuclei for which the decay process is expected to be governed by statistical laws. The aim was to investigate how good the statistical model describes the nuclear system and to search for possible deviation from it. It is shown that the gamma decay spectra following both the ( 3 He,α) pick-up reactions and the inelastic ( 3 He, 3 He') reactions reveal similar type of bumps. This leads to the conclusion that the bump structures are not a result of a particular reaction mechanism, but that they have a more general origin. The study is mainly devoted to an examination of the nature of the bumps. 22 refs
Excitation of a plasma by high frequencies for illumination purposes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valdivia B, R.
2003-01-01
The power electronics plays a very important paper so much in the national as international industrial development. For that reason, many of the works are focused in the one analysis and amplification of this area with the purpose of finding improvements in the existent systems and always looking for oneself end: the energy saving. Moreover, in the last years has occurred great interest to other very important area given their properties of energy profit, novelty and mainly their wide range of applications. This area is the study and use of the plasma. Many institutions with international recognition already invest and they develop systems in these two big areas of the technology among those that is the National Institute of Nuclear Research (INlN) with some laboratories dedicated to the work of the plasma, one of them the Laboratory of Thermal Plasma Applications (LAPT). The conjugation of both areas was analysed and developed in the present work with the one purpose of designing a system to generate thermal plasma and to give him one or but applications like it is to produce a luminous source as like to degrade organic gases as the Methane or Acetylene. This was developed by means of a resonant inverter with the help of MOSFET IRFK2D450 transistors and a load L C in a serial-parallel configuration with the purpose to profit their condition of resonance to have the maximum transfer of energy to the plasma. For to have a best profit of the energy it was realized an analysis of design for to oblige to the transistors to commute in zero voltage (ZVS) and to avoid then lost of power of C A. (Author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YE Wei; CHEN Na
2004-01-01
Isospin effects on particle emission of fissioning isobaric sources 202Fr, 202po, 202Tl and isotopic sources 189,202,212Po, and its dependence on the excitation energy are studied via Smoluchowski equations. It is shown that with increasing the isospin of fissioning systems, charged-particle emission is not sensitive to the strength of nuclear dissipation. In addition, we have found that increasing the excitation energy not only increases the influence of nuclear dissipation on particle emission but also greatly enhances the sensitivity of the emission of pre-scission neutrons or charged particles to the isospin of the system. Therefore, in order to extract dissipation strength more accurately by taking light particle multiplicities it is important to choose both a highly excited compound nucleus and a proper kind of particles for systems with different isospins.
Statistical emission of complex fragments from highly excited compound nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuse, T.
1991-01-01
A full statistical analysis has been given in terms of the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method. The charge and kinetic energy distributions of 35 Cl+ 12 C reaction at E lab = 180, 200 MeV and 23 Na+ 24 Mg reaction at E lab = 89 MeV which form the 47 V compound nucleus are investigated as a prototype of the light mass system. The measured kinetic energy distributions of the complex fragments are shown to be well reproduced by the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method, so the observed complex fragment production is understood as the statistical binary decay from the compound nucleus induced by heavy-ion reaction. Next, this method is applied to the study of the complex production from the 111 In compound nucleus which is formed by the 84 Kr+ 27 Al reaction at E lab = 890 MeV. (K.A.) 18 refs., 10 figs
High excitation rovibrational molecular analysis in warm environments
Zhang, Ziwei; Stancil, Phillip C.; Cumbee, Renata; Ferland, Gary J.
2017-06-01
Inspired by advances in infrared observation (e.g., Spitzer, Herschel and ALMA), we investigate rovibrational emission CO and SiO in warm astrophysical environments. With recent innovation in collisional rate coefficients and rescaling methods, we are able to construct more comprehensive collisional data with high rovibrational states (vibration up to v=5 and rotation up to J=40) and multiple colliders (H2, H and He). These comprehensive data sets are used in spectral simulations with the radiative transfer codes RADEX and Cloudy. We obtained line ratio diagnostic plots and line spectra for both near- and far-infrared emission lines over a broad range of density and temperature for the case of a uniform medium. Considering the importance of both molecules in probing conditions and activities of UV-irradiated interstellar gas, we model rovibrational emission in photodissociation region (PDR) and AGB star envelopes (such as VY Canis Majoris, IK Tau and IRC +10216) with Cloudy. Rotational diagrams, energy distribution diagrams, and spectra are produced to examine relative state abundances, line emission intensity, and other properties. With these diverse models, we expect to have a better understanding of PDRs and expand our scope in the chemical architecture and evolution of AGB stars and other UV-irradiated regions. The soon to be launched James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide high resolution observations at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths, which opens a new window to study molecular vibrational emission calling for more detailed chemical modeling and comprehensive laboratory astrophysics data on more molecules. This work was partially supported by NASA grants NNX12AF42G and NNX15AI61G. We thank Benhui Yang, Kyle Walker, Robert Forrey, and N. Balakrishnan for collaborating on the collisional data adopted in the current work.
Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.
Piezoelectric self sensing actuators for high voltage excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grasso, E; Totaro, N; Janocha, H; Naso, D
2013-01-01
Self sensing techniques allow the use of a piezoelectric transducer simultaneously as an actuator and as a sensor. Such techniques are based on knowledge of the transducer behaviour and on measurements of electrical quantities, in particular voltage and charge. Past research work has mainly considered the linear behaviour of piezoelectric transducers, consequently restricting the operating driving voltages to low values. In this work a new self sensing technique is proposed which is able to perform self sensing reconstruction both at low and at high driving voltages. This technique, in fact, makes use of a hysteretic model to describe the nonlinear piezoelectric capacitance necessary for self sensing reconstruction. The capacitance can be measured and identified at the antiresonances of a vibrating structure with a good approximation. After providing a mathematical background to deal with the main aspects of self sensing, this technique is compared theoretically and experimentally to a typical linear one by using an aluminum plate with one bonded self sensing transducer and a positive position feedback (PPF) controller to verify the performance in self sensing based vibration control. (paper)
The structure of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1976-01-01
It is shown that within the model based on the quasiparticle-phonon interaction one can obtain the description of few-quasiparticle components of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. For the low-lying states the energy of each level is calculated. The few-quasiparticle components at intermediate and high excitation energies are represented to be averaged in certain energy intervals and their characteri stics are given as the corresponding strength functions. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied. It is shown that in the distribution of the single-particle strength alongside with a large maximum there appear local maxima and the distribution itself has a long tail. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reaction of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s,- p,- and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bn. A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and Elambda-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in deformed nuclei are calculated. The energies of giant quadrupole and octupole resonances are calculated. Their widths and fine structure are being studied. It is stated that to study the structure of highly excited states it is necessary to find the values of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The ways of experimental determination of these components based on the study of γ-transitions between highly excited states are discussed
Excitation of graphene plasmons as an analogy with the two-level system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Jiahui [Microwave and Electromagnetic Laboratory, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, Xidazhi Street, Nangang District, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province (China); Lv, Bo, E-mail: lb19840313@126.com [Microwave and Electromagnetic Laboratory, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, Xidazhi Street, Nangang District, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Rujiang [College of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ma, Ruyu; Chen, Wan; Meng, Fanyi [Microwave and Electromagnetic Laboratory, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, Xidazhi Street, Nangang District, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province (China)
2016-02-15
The excitation of graphene plasmons (GPs) is presented as an interaction between the GPs and the incident electromagnetic field. In this Letter, the excitation of GPs in a plasmonic system is interpreted as an analogy with the two-level system by taking the two-coupled graphene-covered gratings as an example. Based on the equivalent circuit theory, the excitation of GPs in the graphene-covered grating is equivalent to the resonance of an oscillator. Thus, according to the governing equation, the electric currents at the resonant frequencies for two-coupled graphene-covered gratings correspond to the energy states in a two-level system. In addition, the excitation of GPs in different two-coupled graphene-covered gratings is numerically studied to validate our theoretical model. Our work provides an intuitive understanding of the excitation of GPs using an analogy with the two-level system. - Highlights: • The excitation of graphene plasmons (GPs) in graphene-covered grating is equivalent to the resonance of an oscillator. • We establish the equivalent circuit of two-level system to analyze the resonant character. • The excitation of GPs in different two-coupled graphene-covered gratings are numerically studied to validate our theoretical model.
Excitation of graphene plasmons as an analogy with the two-level system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Jiahui; Lv, Bo; Li, Rujiang; Ma, Ruyu; Chen, Wan; Meng, Fanyi
2016-01-01
The excitation of graphene plasmons (GPs) is presented as an interaction between the GPs and the incident electromagnetic field. In this Letter, the excitation of GPs in a plasmonic system is interpreted as an analogy with the two-level system by taking the two-coupled graphene-covered gratings as an example. Based on the equivalent circuit theory, the excitation of GPs in the graphene-covered grating is equivalent to the resonance of an oscillator. Thus, according to the governing equation, the electric currents at the resonant frequencies for two-coupled graphene-covered gratings correspond to the energy states in a two-level system. In addition, the excitation of GPs in different two-coupled graphene-covered gratings is numerically studied to validate our theoretical model. Our work provides an intuitive understanding of the excitation of GPs using an analogy with the two-level system. - Highlights: • The excitation of graphene plasmons (GPs) in graphene-covered grating is equivalent to the resonance of an oscillator. • We establish the equivalent circuit of two-level system to analyze the resonant character. • The excitation of GPs in different two-coupled graphene-covered gratings are numerically studied to validate our theoretical model.
Control of base-excited dynamical systems through piezoelectric energy harvesting absorber
Abdelmoula, H.; Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Wang, L.
2017-09-01
The spring-mass absorber usually offers a good control to dynamical systems under direct base excitations for a specific value of the excitation frequency. As the vibrational energy of a primary dynamical system is transferred to the absorber, it gets dissipated. In this study, this energy is no longer dissipated but converted to available electrical power by designing efficient energy harvesters. A novel design of a piezoelectric beam installed inside an elastically-mounted dynamical system undergoing base excitations is considered. A design is carried out in order to determine the properties and dimensions of the energy harvester with the constraint of simultaneously decreasing the oscillating amplitudes of the primary dynamical system and increasing the harvested power of the energy harvesting absorber. An analytical model for the coupled system is constructed using Euler-Lagrange principle and Galerkin discretization. Different strategies for controlling the primary structure displacement and enhancing the harvested power as functions of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the beam substrate are performed. The linear polynomial approximation of the system’s key parameters as a function of the beam’s substrate thickness is first carried out. Then, the gradient method is applied to determine the adequate values of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the substrate under the constraints of minimizing the amplitudes of the primary structure or maximizing the levels of the harvested power. After that, an iterative strategy is considered in order to simultaneously minimize the amplitudes of the primary structure and maximize the levels of the harvested power as functions of the thickness of the substrate and electrical load resistance. In addition to harmonic excitations, the coupled system subjected to a white noise is explored. Through this analysis, the load resistance and thickness of the substrate of the piezoelectric energy harvester
Ultra-high resolution spectroscopy of the He doubly excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S.; Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.
1995-11-01
Photoionization spectra of the doubly-excited states of He were measured using beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source. The beamline utilizes a 4.5 m long 8 cm period undulator as its source together with a spherical grating monochromator to provide an extremely bright source of photons in the range of 20 - 300 eV. A resolving power (E/ΔE) of 64,000 was obtained from the 1 MeV FWEM (2p,3d) doubly excited state resonance of He at 64.12 eV. The high brightness of the source and the very high quality optical elements of the beamline were all essential for achieving such a high resolution. The beamline components and operation are described and spectra of the double excitation resonances of He presented
Systematic observation of tunneling field-ionization in highly excited Rb Rydberg atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishimoto, Y.; Tada, M.; Kominato, K.; Shibata, M.; Yamada, S.; Haseyama, T.; Ogawa, I.; Funahashi, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsuki, S.
2002-01-01
Pulsed field ionization of high-n (90≤n≤150) manifold states in Rb Rydberg atoms has been investigated in high slew-rate regime. Two peaks in the field ionization spectra were systematically observed for the investigated n region, where the field values at the lower peak do not almost depend on the excitation energy in the manifold, while those at the higher peak increase with increasing excitation energy. The fraction of the higher peak component to the total ionization signals increases with increasing n, exceeding 80% at n=147. Characteristic behavior of the peak component and the comparison with theoretical predictions indicate that the higher peak component is due to the tunneling process. The obtained results show that the tunneling process plays increasingly the dominant role at such highly excited nonhydrogenic Rydberg atoms
Kinetics of highly vibrationally excited O2(X) molecules in inductively-coupled oxygen plasmas
Annušová, Adriana; Marinov, Daniil; Booth, Jean-Paul; Sirse, Nishant; Lino da Silva, Mário; Lopez, Bruno; Guerra, Vasco
2018-04-01
The high degree of vibrational excitation of O2 ground state molecules recently observed in inductively coupled plasma discharges is investigated experimentally in more detail and interpreted using a detailed self-consistent 0D global kinetic model for oxygen plasmas. Additional experimental results are presented and used to validate the model. The vibrational kinetics considers vibrational levels up to v = 41 and accounts for electron impact excitation and de-excitation (e-V), vibration-to-translation relaxation (V-T) in collisions with O2 molecules and O atoms, vibration-to-vibration energy exchanges (V-V), excitation of electronically excited states, dissociative electron attachment, and electron impact dissociation. Measurements were performed at pressures of 10–80 mTorr (1.33 and 10.67 Pa) and radio frequency (13.56 MHz) powers up to 500 W. The simulation results are compared with the absolute densities in each O2 vibrational level obtained by high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy measurements of the Schumann–Runge bands for O2(X, v = 4–18), O(3 P) atom density measurements by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) calibrated against Xe, and laser photodetachment measurements of the O‑ negative ions. The highly excited O2(X, v) distribution exhibits a shape similar to a Treanor-Gordiets distribution, but its origin lies in electron impact e-V collisions and not in V-V up-pumping, in contrast to what happens in all other molecular gases known to date. The relaxation of vibrational quanta is mainly due to V-T energy-transfer collisions with O atoms and to electron impact dissociation of vibrationally excited molecules, e+O2(X, v)→O(3P)+O(3P).
Identification of the low-energy excitations in a quantum critical system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tom Heitmann
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We have identified low-energy magnetic excitations in a doped quantum critical system by means of polarized neutron scattering experiments. The presence of these excitations could explain why Ce(Fe0.76Ru0.242Ge2 displays dynamical scaling in the absence of local critical behavior or long-range spin-density wave criticality. The low-energy excitations are associated with the reorientations of the superspins of fully ordered, isolated magnetic clusters that form spontaneously upon lowering the temperature. The system houses both frozen clusters and dynamic clusters, as predicted by Hoyos and Vojta [Phys. Rev. B 74, 140401(R (2006].
MOSFET-based high voltage short pulse generator for ultrasonic transducer excitation
Hidayat, Darmawan; Setianto, Syafei, Nendi Suhendi; Wibawa, Bambang Mukti
2018-02-01
This paper presents the generation of a high-voltage short pulse for the excitation of high frequency ultrasonic transducers. This is highly required in the purpose of various ultrasonic-based evaluations, particularly when high resolution measurement is necessary. A high voltage (+760 V) DC voltage source was pulsated by an ultrafast switching MOSFET which was driven by a pulse generator circuit consisting of an astable multivibrator, a one-shot multivibrator with Schmitt trigger input and a high current MOSFET driver. The generated pulses excited a 200-kHz and a 1-MHz ultrasonic transducers and tested in the transmission mode propagation to evaluate the performances of the generated pulse. The test results showed the generator were able to produce negative spike pulses up to -760 V voltage with the shortest time-width of 107.1 nanosecond. The transmission-received ultrasonic waves show frequency oscillation at 200 and 961 kHz and their amplitudes varied with the voltage of excitation pulse. These results conclude that the developed pulse generator is applicable to excite transducer for the generation of high frequency ultrasonic waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayfield, J.E.; Luie, S.Y.; Perotti, L.C.; Skrzypkowski, M.P.
1996-01-01
As the peak electric field of the microwave pulse is increased, steps in the classical microwave ionization probability of the highly excited hydrogen atom are produced by phase-space metamorphosis. They arise from new layers of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) islands being exposed as KAM surfaces are destroyed. Both quantum numerical calculations and laboratory experiments exhibit the ionization steps, showing that such metamorphoses influence pulsed semiclassical systems. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Active Control of High-Speed Free Jets Using High-Frequency Excitation
Upadhyay, Puja
Control of aerodynamic noise generated by high-performance jet engines continues to remain a serious problem for the aviation community. Intense low frequency noise produced by large-scale coherent structures is known to dominate acoustic radiation in the aft angles. A tremendous amount of research effort has been dedicated towards the investigation of many passive and active flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise, while keeping performance penalties to a minimum. Unsteady excitation, an active control technique, seeks to modify acoustic sources in the jet by leveraging the naturally-occurring flow instabilities in the shear layer. While excitation at a lower range of frequencies that scale with the dynamics of large-scale structures, has been attempted by a number of studies, effects at higher excitation frequencies remain severely unexplored. One of the major limitations stems from the lack of appropriate flow control devices that have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in turbulent flows, especially at higher speeds. To this end, the current study seeks to fulfill two main objectives. First, the design and characterization of two high-frequency fluidic actuators (25 and 60 kHz) are undertaken, where the target frequencies are guided by the dynamics of high-speed free jets. Second, the influence of high-frequency forcing on the aeroacoustics of high-speed jets is explored in some detail by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 (Re D = 5 x 105) free jet flow field. Subsequently, these findings are directly compared to the results of steady microjet injection experiments performed in the same rig and to prior jet noise control studies, where available. Finally, limited acoustic measurements were also performed by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuators on jets at higher Mach numbers, including shock containing jets, and elevated temperatures. Using lumped element modeling as an initial guide, the current
New formalism for determining excitation spectra of many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, S.; Zhang, S.B.; Louie, S.G.; Cohen, M.L.
1990-01-01
We present a new general formalism for determining the excitation spectrum of interacting many-body systems. The basic assumption is that the number of the excitations is equal to the number of sites. Within this approximation, it is shown that the density-density response functions with two different pure-imaginary energies determine the excitation spectrum. The method is applied to the valence electrons of sodium clusters of differing sizes in the time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA). A jellium-sphere background model is used for the ion cores. The excitation spectra obtained in this way represent well the excitation spectra given by the full TDLDA calculation along the real energy axis. Important collective modes are reproduced very well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isola, L; Lopez, M; Gomez, B J
2011-01-01
In an Ar-N 2 discharge, the high excitation transfer from Ar( 3 P 2,0 ) to N 2 produces an overpopulation of the high rotational levels of the bands of the second positive system (SPS), and so the spectra interpretation is not straightforward. This paper presents a fit function for the SPS bands measured in Ar-N 2 , which allows us to study the excitation process contributions to the N 2 (C) level. The procedure was tested in the negative glow of a pulsed Ar-N 2 discharge at a pressure of 2.5 Torr, for different mixture concentrations. In this discharge, through the fitting, it was possible to calculate the variation of the N 2 (C) densities produced by different excitation processes as well as the variation of Ar metastable density.
Localized excitations in nonlinear complex systems current state of the art and future perspectives
Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Frantzeskakis, Dimitri; Karachalios, Nikos; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Palmero-Acebedo, Faustino
2014-01-01
The study of nonlinear localized excitations is a long-standing challenge for research in basic and applied science, as well as engineering, due to their importance in understanding and predicting phenomena arising in nonlinear and complex systems, but also due to their potential for the development and design of novel applications. This volume is a compilation of chapters representing the current state-of-the-art on the field of localized excitations and their role in the dynamics of complex physical systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, Karol; Olson, Ryan M.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Tipparaju, Vinod; Apra, Edoardo
2011-07-12
The unusual photophysical properties of the pi-conjugated chrompohores makes them potential building blocks of various molecular devices. In particular, significant narrowing of the HOMO-LUMO gaps can be observed as an effect of functionalization chromophores with polycyclic aromatic hydrocabrons (PAHs). In this paper we present equation-of-motion coupled cluster calculations for vertical excitation energies of several functionalized forms of porphyrins. The results of free-base porphyrin (FBP) clearly demonstrate significant differences between functionalization of FBP with one- (anthracene) and two-dimensional (coronene) structures. We also compare the EOMCC results with the experimentally available results for the anthracene fused zinc porphyrin. The impact of various-type correlation effects is illustrated on several benchmark models where the comparison with the experiment is possible. In particular, we demonstrate that for all excited states considered in this paper, all of them being dominated by single excitations, the inclusion of triply excited configurations is crucial for attaining qualitative agreement with the experiment. We also demonstrate the parallel performance of the most computationally intensive part of the completely renormalized EOMCCSD(T) approach (CR-EOMCCSD(T)) across 120,000 cores.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, Karol [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Olson, Ryan M [Cray, Inc.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tipparaju, Vinod [ORNL; Apra, Edoardo [ORNL
2011-01-01
The unusual photophysical properties of the {pi}-conjugated chromophores make them potential building blocks of various molecular devices. In particular, significant narrowing of the HOMO-LUMO gaps can be observed as an effect of functionalization chromophores with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this paper we present equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) calculations for vertical excitation energies of several functionalized forms of porphyrins. The results for free-base porphyrin (FBP) clearly demonstrate significant differences between functionalization of FBP with one- (anthracene) and two-dimensional (coronene) structures. We also compare the EOMCC results with the experimentally available results for anthracene fused zinc-porphyrin. The impact of various types of correlation effects is illustrated on several benchmark models, where the comparison with the experiment is possible. In particular, we demonstrate that for all excited states considered in this paper, all of them being dominated by single excitations, the inclusion of triply excited configurations is crucial for attaining qualitative agreement with experiment. We also demonstrate the parallel performance of the most computationally intensive part of the completely renormalized EOMCCSD(T) approach (CR-EOMCCSD(T)) across 120000 cores.
Collisionally excited few-electron systems: theoretical introduction and survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ford, A.L.; Reading, J.F.; Becker, R.L.
1982-01-01
We consider excitation, ionization, and charge transfer in collisions of protons (and antiprotons) with the single-electron targets H, He + , and Li 2+ . These collisions are first compared to other types of ion-atom collisions. A brief review of our own theoretical method is given; in particular we describe how we allow for both large charge transfer and ionization probabilities while retaining the computational efficiency that allows us to consider a variety of collision partners and collision energies. We comment on the comparison of our results to other theoretical work and to experiment. The qualitative features of the various inelastic cross sections are discussed, in particular how they scale with collision energy, target nuclear charge, and the sign of the projectile charge. 15 references, 6 figures
Excitation processes in organic systems under irradiation with vacuum ultraviolet radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shefer, Y.
1983-08-01
The subject of this work is the fluorescence of organic systems in the excitation range where phenomena of photon multiplication begin. It was hoped to reach the excitation energy above which the distribution of the various phenomena was constant and as a result, a linear function between the variation of the fluorescence intensity with variations of the excitation, would be obtained. The experimental set-up consisted mainly of suitable light sources, monochromators and detectors. The gated measuring system consisted of an oscilloscope, integrator and recorder. The material predominantly used in the experiments was anthracene whose absorption spectrum was investigated and calculated. The absorption spectra of various polycrystalline layers were also calculated. The absorption spectrum of a randomly ordered polycrystalline layer was compared with that of a hexane solution and a good correlation between the two spectra was obtained. For the study of the relationship between the excitation spectrum of anthracene and the order of crystal, the excitation spectrum of single crystals of anthracene was measured from 4 eV to 107 eV. For the excitation region from 10 eV to 23 eV the efficiency of exciting a singlet level by a photoelectron was calculated as a function of the kinetic energy of the photoelectron, assuming the efficiency of the recombination to be constant. The excitation spectra of single crystals of p-terphenyl, pyrene and phenanthrene were also examined. In all four crystals the excitation spectrum rises monotonically with an increase in the energy of the exciting photon. (author)
RESONANT POST-NEWTONIAN ECCENTRICITY EXCITATION IN HIERARCHICAL THREE-BODY SYSTEMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naoz, Smadar; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Yunes, Nicolas, E-mail: snaoz@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States)
2013-08-20
We study the secular, hierarchical three-body problem to first-order in a post-Newtonian expansion of general relativity (GR). We expand the first-order post-Newtonian Hamiltonian to leading-order in the ratio of the semi-major axis of the two orbits. In addition to the well-known terms that correspond to the GR precession of the inner and outer orbits, we find a new secular post-Newtonian interaction term that can affect the long-term evolution of the triple. We explore the parameter space for highly inclined and eccentric systems, where the Kozai-Lidov mechanism can produce large-amplitude oscillations in the eccentricities. The standard lore, i.e., that GR effects suppress eccentricity, is only consistent with the parts of phase space where the GR timescales are several orders of magnitude shorter than the secular Newtonian one. In other parts of phase space, however, post-Newtonian corrections combined with the three-body ones can excite eccentricities. In particular, for systems where the GR timescale is comparable to the secular Newtonian timescales, the three-body interactions give rise to a resonant-like eccentricity excitation. Furthermore, for triples with a comparable-mass inner binary, where the eccentric Kozai-Lidov mechanism is suppressed, post-Newtonian corrections can further increase the eccentricity and lead to orbital flips even when the timescale of the former is much longer than the timescale of the secular Kozai-Lidov quadrupole perturbations.
Charge and energy dynamics in photo-excited poly(para-phenylenevinylene) systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gisslen, L.; Johansson, A.; Stafstroem, S.
2004-01-01
We report results from simulations of charge and energy dynamics in poly(para-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and PPV interacting with C 60 . The simulations were performed by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and the lattice equation of motion simultaneously and nonadiabatically. The electronic system and the coupling of the electrons to the lattice were described by an extended three-dimensional version of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, which also included an external electric field. Electron and lattice dynamics following electronic excitations at different energies have been simulated. The effect of additional lattice energy was also included in the simulations. Our results show that both exciton diffusion and transitions from high to lower lying excitations are stimulated by increasing the lattice energy. Also field induced charge separation occurs faster if the lattice energy is increased. This separation process is highly nonadiabatic and involves a significant rearrangement of the electron distribution. In the case of PPV coupled to C 60 , we observe a spontaneous charge separation. The separation time is in this case limited by the local concentration of C 60 molecules close to the PPV chain
Direct excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Takayasu
1993-01-01
A new mechanism is presented of an excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma. This mechanism works when the low frequency wave varies in time in a manner deviated from a usual periodic motion with a constant amplitude. The conversion rate is usually not large but the conversion is done without time delay after the variation of the low frequency wave. The Manley Rowe relation in the usual sense does not hold in this mechanism. This mechanism can excite also waves with same or lower frequencies. (author)
Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E*=76 MeV)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Levitovich, M.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.
1990-01-01
The differential cross sections for neutron production in the fission of highly excited californium nuclei formed in the 238 U+ 12 C (105 MeV) reaction have been measured. From the analysis of the experimental data is follows that the number of pre-fission neutrons substantially exceeds the value obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. The saddle-to-scission time of the excited nucleus is estimated on the basis of the neutron multiplicity. The dependences of the neutron number and neutron average energies upon the fragment mass are determined
Is neutron evaporation from highly excited nuclei a poisson random process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simbel, M.H.
1982-01-01
It is suggested that neutron emission from highly excited nuclei follows a Poisson random process. The continuous variable of the process is the excitation energy excess over the binding energy of the emitted neutrons and the discrete variable is the number of emitted neutrons. Cross sections for (HI,xn) reactions are analyzed using a formula containing a Poisson distribution function. The post- and pre-equilibrium components of the cross section are treated separately. The agreement between the predictions of this formula and the experimental results is very good. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, P.M.Y.
1991-10-01
The vibrational to translational (V→T) energy transfer in collisions between large highly vibrationally excited polyatomics and rare gases was investigated by time-of-flight techniques. Two different methods, UV excitation followed by intemal conversion and infrared multiphoton excitation (IRMPE), were used to form vibrationally excited molecular beams of hexafluorobenzene and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively. The product translational energy was found to be independent of the vibrational excitation. These results indicate that the probability distribution function for V→T energy transfer is peaked at zero. The collisional relaxation of large polyatomic molecules with rare gases most likely occurs through a rotationally mediated process. Photodissociation of nitrobenzene in a molecular beam was studied at 266 nm. Two primary dissociation channels were identified including simple bond rupture to produce nitrogen dioxide and phenyl radical and isomerization to form nitric oxide and phenoxy radical. The time-of-flight spectra indicate that simple bond rupture and isomerization occurs via two different mechanisms. Secondary dissociation of the phenoxy radicals to carbon monoxide and cyclopentadienyl radicals was observed as well as secondary photodissociation of phenyl radical to give H atom and benzyne. A supersonic methyl radical beam source is developed. The beam source configuration and conditions were optimized for CH 3 production from the thermal decomposition of azomethane. Elastic scattering of methyl radical and neon was used to differentiate between the methyl radicals and the residual azomethane in the molecular beam
Dispersive excitations in the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, N.B.; McMorrow, D.F.; Rønnow, H.M.
2004-01-01
High-resolution neutron scattering experiments on optimally doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) (x=0.16) reveal that the magnetic excitations are dispersive. The dispersion is the same as in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.85), and is quantitatively related to that observed with charge sensitive probes. The associated veloc...
On the Zeeman Effect in highly excited atoms: 2. Three-dimensional case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baseia, B.; Medeiros e Silva Filho, J.
1984-01-01
A previous result, found in two-dimensional hydrogen-atoms, is extended to the three-dimensional case. A mapping of a four-dimensional space R 4 onto R 3 , that establishes an equivalence between Coulomb and harmonic potentials, is used to show that the exact solution of the Zeeman effect in highly excited atoms, cannot be reached. (Author) [pt
The temperature dependence of giant resonances in high-excited nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ming; Song Hongqiu
1991-01-01
The Hartree-Fock equation and the linear response theory in finite temperature are used to calculate the positions and transition strenghths of the giant resonances of high-excited nucleus Pb 208 . The result shows a downward shift and a broadening of the giant resonance energies as temperatrue increases
Enhanced Electron Attachment to Highly-Excited Molecules and Its Applications in Pulsed Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding, W.X.; Ma, C.Y.; McCorkle, D.L.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.
1999-01-01
Studies conducted over the past several years have shown that electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules have extremely large cross sections. We will discuss the implications of this for pulsed discharges used for H - generation, material processing, and plasma remediation
Implications of electron attachment to highly-excited states in pulsed-power discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
1997-01-01
The author points out the possible implications of electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules in two pulsed power technologies. One involves the pulsed H 2 discharges used for the generation of H ion beams for magnetic fusion energy and particle accelerators. The other is the power modulated plasma discharges used for material processing
Carbon K-shell excitation in small molecules by high-resolution electron impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tronc, M.; King, G.C.; Read, F.H.
1979-01-01
The excitation of 1s carbon electrons has been observed in C0, CH 4 , CF4, C0 2 , COS, C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 4 by means of the electron energy-loss technique with high resolution (70 meV in the 300 eV excitation energy range) and at an incident electron energy of 1.5 keV. The energies, widths and vibrational structures of excited states corresponding to the promotion of 1s carbon electrons to unoccupied valence and Rydberg orbitals have been obtained. The validity of the equivalent-core model, and the role of resonances caused by potential barriers, are discussed. (author)
Chatterji, Tapan; Jalarvo, Niina
2013-04-17
We have investigated the low energy excitations in metallic Ho by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. We found at T = 3 K clear inelastic peaks in the energy loss and energy gain sides, along with the central elastic peak. The energy of this low energy excitation, which is 26.59 ± 0.02 μeV at T = 3 K, decreased continuously and became zero at TN ≈ 130 K. By fitting the data in the temperature range 100-127.5 K with a power law we obtained the power-law exponent β = 0.37 ± 0.02, which agrees with the expected value β = 0.367 for a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Thus the energy of the low energy excitations can be associated with the order parameter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenig, Daniel R; Metzger, Constanze; Camerer, Stephan; Kotthaus, Joerg P
2006-01-01
We present a non-linear operation of a nanomechanical beam resonator by photothermal excitation at 4 K. The resonators dimensions are 10 μm in length, 200 nm in width, and 200 nm in height. The actuation mechanism is based on a pulsed diode laser focused onto the centre of the beam resonator. Thermally induced stress caused by the different thermal expansion coefficients of the bi-layer system periodically deflects the resonator. Magnetomotively detected amplitudes up to 150 nm are reached at the fundamental resonance mode at a frequency of 8.9 MHz. Furthermore, the third eigenmode of the resonator at a frequency 36 MHz is also excited. We conclude that the photothermal excitation at 4 K should be applicable up to the GHz regime, the operation in the non-linear regime can be used for performance enhancement of nanomechanical systems, and the combination of photothermal excitation and magneto-motive detection avoids undesired cross talk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holthaus, M.
1990-04-01
The study of short-time phenomena in strongly interacting quantum systems requires on the theoretical side the development of methods, which are both non-perturbative and 'dynamical', which thus regard the change of outer parameters in the slope of time. For systems with a periodic, fast and a further slow, parametric time dependence both requirements are fulfilled by the Floquet picture of quantum mechanics. This picture, which starts from the adiabatic evolution on effective quasi-energy surfaces, is presented in the first chapter of the present thesis, whereby especially the term of the adiabaticity for periodically time dependent systems is explained. In the second chapter the Floquet theory is applied to the description of microwave experiments with highly excited hydrogen atoms. Here it is shown that the Floquet picture permits to understand a manifold of experimental observations under a unified point of view. Really these microwave experiments offer an ideal possibility for the test of the Floquet picture: On the one hand there is the strength of the outer field of the same order of magnitude as that of the nuclear field, by which the highly excited electron is bound, on the other hand in the experiment an extremely precise control of amplitude, frequency, and pulse shape is possible, so that the conditions for a detailed comparison of theory and experiment are given. The insights, which model calculations yield in the dynamics of highly excited hydrogen atoms in strong alternating fields, allow a prediction of further effects, for which it is to be looked for in new experiments. In the following third chapter some further aspects of these model calculations are discussed, whereby also common properties of the dynamics of excited atoms in microwave fields and that of atoms under the influence of strong laser pulses are discussed. (orig./HSI) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoine Dupré
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for soft field tomographic scan of all the projections of electromagnetic waves emanating from an array of electrodes. Instead of the sequential excitation of all pairs of electrodes in the list of all projections, the new method present here consists of a single and continuous excitation. This excitation signal is the linear combination of the excitation signals in the projection set at different AC frequencies. The response to a given projection is discriminated by selecting the corresponding AC frequency component in the signal spectra of the digitally demodulated signals. The main advantage of this method is the suppression of transients after each projection, which is particularly problematic in electrical impedance tomography due to contact impedance phenomena and skin effect. The second benefit over the sequential scan method is the increased number of samples for each measurement for reduced noise sensitivity with digital demodulation. The third benefit is the increased temporal resolution in high-speed applications. The main drawback is the increased number of signal sources required (one per electrode. This paper focuses on electrical impedance tomography, based on earlier work by the authors. An experimental proof-of-concept using a simple 4-electrodes electrical impedance tomographic system is presented using simulations and laboratory data. The method presented here may be extended to other modalities (ultrasonic, microwave, optical, etc..
Using axicons for depth discrimination in excitation-emission laser scanning imaging systems
Iglesias, Ignacio
2017-10-01
Besides generating good approximations to zero-order Bessel beams, an axicon lens coupled to a spatial filter can be used to collect light while preserving information on the depth coordinate of the source location. To demonstrate the principle, we describe an experimental excitation-emission fluorescence imaging system that uses an axicon twice: to generate an excitation Bessel beam and to collect the emitted light.
Resonance Analysis of High-Frequency Electrohydraulic Exciter Controlled by 2D Valve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guojun Pan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The resonant characteristic of hydraulic system has not been described yet because it is necessarily restricted by linear assumptions in classical fluid theory. A way of the resonance analysis is presented for an electrohydraulic exciter controlled by 2D valve. The block diagram of this excitation system is established by extracting nonlinear parts from the traditional linearization analysis; as a result the resonant frequency is obtained. According to input energy from oil source which is equal to the reverse energy to oil source, load pressure and load flow are solved analytically as the working frequency reaches the natural frequency. The analytical expression of resonant peak is also derived without damping. Finally, the experimental system is built to verify the theoretical analysis. The initial research on resonant characteristic will lay theoretical foundation and make useful complement for resonance phenomena of classical fluid theory in hydraulic system.
Utilization of excitation signal harmonics for control of nonlinear systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vinther, Kasper; Rasmussen, Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
2012-01-01
signal together with Fourier analysis to generate a feedback signal and simulations have shown that different system gains and time constants does not change the global equilibrium/operating point. An evaporator in a refrigeration system was used as example in the simulations, however, it is anticipated...... that the method is applicable in a wide variety of systems satisfying the sigmoid function properties....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heitmann, U.; Hese, A.; Schoknecht, G.; Gries, W.
1995-01-01
The high sensitivity detection of the trace element selenium is reported. The analytical method applied is Laser Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry using Electrothermal Atomization within a graphite furnace atomizer. For the production of tunable laser radiation in the VUV spectral region a laser system was developed which consists of two dye lasers pumped by a Nd:YAG laser. The laser radiations are subsequently frequency doubled and sum frequency mixed by nonlinear optical KDP or BBO crystals, respectively. The system works with a repetition rate of 20 Hz and provides output energies of up to 100 μJ in the VUV at a pulse duration of 5 ns. The analytical investigations were focused on the detection of selenium in aqueous solutions and samples of human whole blood. From measurements on aqueous standards detection limits of 1.5 ng/l for selenium were obtained, with corresponding absolute detected masses of only 15 fg. The linear dynamic range spanned six orders of magnitude and good precision was achieved. In case of human whole blood samples the recovery was found to be within the range of 96% to 104%. The determination of the selenium content yielded medians of [119.5 ± 17.3] μg/l for 200 frozen blood samples taken in 1988 and [109.1 ± 15.6] μg/l for 103 fresh blood samples. (author)
Bound state and localization of excitation in many-body open systems
Cui, H. T.; Shen, H. Z.; Hou, S. C.; Yi, X. X.
2018-04-01
We study the exact bound state and time evolution for single excitations in one-dimensional X X Z spin chains within a non-Markovian reservoir. For the bound state, a common feature is the localization of single excitations, which means the spontaneous emission of excitations into the reservoir is prohibited. Exceptionally, the pseudo-bound state can be found, for which the single excitation has a finite probability of emission into the reservoir. In addition, a critical energy scale for bound states is also identified, below which only one bound state exists, and it is also the pseudo-bound state. The effect of quasirandom disorder in the spin chain is also discussed; such disorder induces the single excitation to locate at some spin sites. Furthermore, to display the effect of bound state and disorder on the preservation of quantum information, the time evolution of single excitations in spin chains is studied exactly. An interesting observation is that the excitation can stay at its initial location with high probability only when the bound state and disorder coexist. In contrast, when either one of them is absent, the information of the initial state can be erased completely or becomes mixed. This finding shows that the combination of bound state and disorder can provide an ideal mechanism for quantum memory.
Mcpeak, W. L.
1975-01-01
A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Buha Danilo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relay protection settings performed in the largest thermal powerplant (TE "Nikola Tesla B" are reffered and explained in this paper. The first calculation step is related to the coordination of the maximum stator current limiter settings, the overcurrent protection with inverse characteristics settings and the permitted overload of the generator stator B1. In the second calculation step the settings of impedance generator protection are determined, and the methods and criteria according to which the calculations are done are described. Criteria used to provide the protection to fulfill the backup protection role in the event of malfunction of the main protection of the transmission system. are clarified. The calculation of all protection functions (32 functions of generator B1 were performed in the project "Coordination of relay protection blocks B1 and B2 with the system of excitation and power system protections -TENT B".
The millimeter-wave spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mollaaghababa, R.; Gottlieb, C.A.; Vrtilek, J.M.; Thaddeus, P.
1991-01-01
The millimeter-wave rotational spectra of SiO in high vibrational states (v = 0-40) in its electronic ground state were measured between 228 and 347 GHz in a laboratory discharge through SiH4 and CO. On ascending the vibrational ladder, populations decline precipitously for the first few levels, with a vibrational temperature of about 1000 K; at v of roughly 3, however, they markedly flatten out, and from there to v of roughly 40 the temperature is of the order of 10,000 K. With the Dunham coefficients determined here, the rotational spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO can now be calculated into the far-infrared to accuracies required for radioastronomy. Possible astronomical sources of highly vibrationally excited SiO are certain stellar atmospheres, ultracompact H II regions, very young supernova ejecta, and dense interstellar shocks. 16 refs
Equipment acquisition plans for the SSCL magnet excitation power system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winje, R.
1993-05-01
This report gives a brief description of the major electrical technical equipment used in the Superconducting Super Collider accelerators systems and the present laboratory plans for the acquisition of the equipment
Metastable states in parametrically excited multimode Hamiltonian systems
Kirr, E
2003-01-01
Consider a linear autonomous Hamiltonian system with time periodic bound state solutions. In this paper we study their dynamics under time almost periodic perturbations which are small, localized and Hamiltonian. The analysis proceeds through a reduction of the original infinite dimensional dynamical system to the dynamics of two coupled subsystems: a dominant m-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations (normal form), governing the projections onto the bound states and an infinite dimensional dispersive wave equation. The present work generalizes previous work of the authors, where the case of a single bound state is considered. Here, the interaction picture is considerably more complicated and requires deeper analysis, due to a multiplicity of bound states and the very general nature of the perturbation's time dependence. Parametric forcing induces coupling of bound states to continuum radiation modes, bound states directly to bound states, as well as coupling among bound states, which is mediate...
Investigation of dye laser excitation of atomic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abate, J.A.
1977-01-01
A stabilized cw dye laser system and an optical pumping scheme for a sodium atomic beam were developed, and the improvements over previously existing systems are discussed. A method to stabilize both the output intensity and the frequency of the cw dye laser for periods of several hours is described. The fluctuation properties of this laser are investigated by photon counting and two-time correlation measurements. The results show significant departures from the usual single-mode laser theory in the region of threshold and below. The implications of the deviation from accepted theory are discussed. The atomic beam system that was constructed and tested is described. A method of preparing atomic sodium so that it behaves as a simple two-level atom is outlined, and the results of some experiments to study the resonant interaction between the atoms and the dye laser beam are presented
Electronic excitations in metallic systems: from defect annihilation to track formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunlop, A.; Lesueur, D.
1991-01-01
This paper presents an overview of the effects of high electronic energy deposition in metallic targets irradiated with GeV heavy ions. The main result of these investigations is that high electronic excitations lead to various and sometimes conflicting effects according to the nature of the target: - partial annealing of the defects induced by elastic collisions, - creation of additional disorder, - phase transformation (tracks formation and amorphization), - anisotropic growth. These different effects of high electronic energy deposition in metallic targets are probably manifestations at various degrees of the same basic energy transfer process between the excited electrons and the target atoms. Up to now no theoretical model explains these effects. 24 refs
Selective excitation, relaxation, and energy channeling in molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, W.C.
1993-08-01
Research involves theoretical studies of response, relaxation, and correlated motion in time-dependent behavior of large molecular systems ranging from polyatomic molecules to protein molecules in their natural environment. Underlying theme is subsystem modulation dynamics. Main idea is that quantum mechanical correlations between components of a system develop with time, playing a major role in determining the balance between coherent and dissipative forces. Central theme is interplay of coherence and dissipation in determining the nature of dynamic structuring and energy flow in molecular transformation mechanisms. Subsystem equations of motion are being developed to show how nonlinear, dissipative dynamics of a particular subsystem arise from correlated interactions with the rest of the system (substituent groups, solvent, lattice modes, etc.); one consequence is resonance structures and networks. Quantum dynamics and thermodynamics are being applied to understand control and energy transfer mechanisms in biological functions of protein molecules; these mechanisms are both global and local. Besides the above theory, the research deals with phenomenological aspects of molecular systems
Chaotic Excitation and Tidal Damping in the GJ 876 System
Puranam, Abhijit; Batygin, Konstantin
2018-04-01
The M-dwarf GJ 876 is the closest known star to harbor a multi-planetary system. With three outer planets locked in a chaotic Laplace-type resonance and an appreciably eccentric short-period super-Earth, this system represents a unique exposition of extrasolar planetary dynamics. A key question that concerns the long-term evolution of this system, and the fate of close-in planets in general, is how the significant eccentricity of the inner-most planet is maintained against tidal circularization on timescales comparable to the age of the universe. Here, we employ stochastic secular perturbation theory and N-body simulations to show that the orbit of the inner-most planet is shaped by a delicate balance between extrinsic chaotic forcing and tidal dissipation. As such, the planet’s orbital eccentricity represents an indirect measure of its tidal quality factor. Based on the system’s present-day architecture, we estimate that the extrasolar super-Earth GJ 876 d has a tidal Q ∼ 104–105, a value characteristic of solar system gas giants.
Excitation migration in fluctuating light-harvesting antenna systems
Chmeliov, J.; Trinkunas, G.; Amerongen, van H.; Valkunas, L.
2016-01-01
Complex multi-exponential fluorescence decay kinetics observed in various photosynthetic systems like photosystem II (PSII) have often been explained by the reversible quenching mechanism of the charge separation taking place in the reaction center (RC) of PSII. However, this description does not
Design, fabrication and testing of a 5-Hz acoustic exciter system
Lundy, D. H.; Robinson, G. D.
1973-01-01
A 5-Hz acoustic excitation system was designed, fabricated and checked out for use in the modulation of a stagnant gas volume contained in an absorption cell. A detailed system description of the test equipment, both mechanical and electronic, and an operating procedure are included. Conclusions are also presented.
Seismic response analysis of structural system subjected to multiple support excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, R.W.; Hussain, F.A.; Liu, L.K.
1978-01-01
In the seismic analysis of a multiply supported structural system subjected to nonuniform excitations at each support point, the single response spectrum, the time history, and the multiple response spectrum are the three commonly employed methods. In the present paper the three methods are developed, evaluated, and the limitations and advantages of each method assessed. A numerical example has been carried out for a typical piping system. Considerably smaller responses have been predicted by the time history method than that by the single response spectrum method. This is mainly due to the fact that the phase and amplitude relations between the support excitations are faithfully retained in the time history method. The multiple response spectrum prediction has been observed to compare favourably with the time history method prediction. Based on the present evaluation, the multiple response spectrum method is the most efficient method for seismic response analysis of structural systems subjected to multiple support excitation. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benlliure, J.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.
2001-09-01
197 Au(800 A MeV)-on-proton collisions are used to investigate the fission dynamics at high excitation energy. The kinematic properties together with the isotopic identification of the fission fragments allow to determine the mass, charge and excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus at saddle. The comparison of these observables and the measured total fission cross section with model calculations evidences a clear hindrance of fission at high excitation energy that can be explained in terms of nuclear dissipation. Assuming a statistical evaporation for other de-excitation channels than fission, an estimated value of the transient time of fission of (3 ± 1) . 10 -21 s is obtained. (orig.)
Excitation of electrostatic ion cyclotron wave in electron beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukumura, Takashi; Takamoto, Teruo
1984-01-01
The electrostatic ion cyclotron waves excited in an electron beam plasma system was investigated. The excitation condition of the waves was calculated by using Harris type dispersion relation under some assumption, and its comparison with the experimental result was made. Beam plasma discharge is a kind of RF discharge, and it is caused by the waves generated by the interaction of electron beam with plasma. It was shown that electrostatic ion cyclotron waves seemed to be the most probable as excited waves. But the excitation mechanism of these waves has not been concretely investigated. In this study, the excitation condition of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves was calculated as described above. The experimental apparatus and the results of potential, electric field and ion saturation current in beam plasma, electron drift motion in azimuthal direction and the waves excited in beam plasma are reported. The frequency of oscillation observed in beam plasma corresponds to the harmonics or subharmonics of ion cyclotron frequency. The calculation of Harris type dispersion relation, the numerical calculation and the comparison of the experimental result with the calculated result are described. (Kako, I.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.A. Chaplygin
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Developments in the field of magnetic-pulse treatment of metals (MPTM are increasingly used in the modern technologies of production and repair of the aviation, automotive and other machinery, as they are environmentally friendly and energy-efficient in comparison with classical approaches. One of the main components of the device MPTM is a tool – inductor or the inductor system with an attractive screen (ISAS. The calculated dependences to calculate the inductor system with an attractive screen were taken from previous works. The ratios were obtained for the low-frequency mode of the excited fields, when is place their significant penetration through a thin-walled metal screen and a deformed workpiece. As it was shown earlier this mode is the most efficient from point of view of a force action on the object of a processing. Purpose. The theoretical analysis of the spatial-temporal distributions of the induced currents and forces of an attraction in the inductor system with an attractive screen excited by a flat circular solenoid located on the outside of the auxiliary screen. Methodology. The calculations are shown that the induced currents both in the screen and the workpiece are unidirectional and their interaction, in accordance with the law of Ampere determines the amplitudes of excited forces of attraction. Let’s note the effective validity of the considered inductor system excited by an external circular solenoid. With sufficient simplicity of the design take place rather high values of the developed forces of attraction and their averages. Results. Physically, a higher power efficiency of the system with an «external» coil in comparison with a system where coil is located in the internal cavity, can be accounted for lade of «failure» in the radial distribution of the excited forces. This «failure» in the design with a coil between the sheet metal is caused by its screening action against the forces of attraction
Electron energy distributions and excitation rates in high-frequency argon discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, C.M.; Loureiro, J.
1983-06-01
The electron energy distribution functions and rate coefficients for excitation and ionisation in argon under the action of an uniform high-frequency electric field were calculated by numerically solving the homogeneous Boltzmann equation. Analytic calculations in the limiting cases ω>>νsub(c) and ω<<νsub(c), where ω is the wave angular frequency and νsub(c) is the electron-neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer, are also presented and shown to be in very good agreement with the numerical computations. The results reported here are relevant for the modelling of high-frequency discharges in argon and, in particular, for improving recent theoretical descriptions of a plasma column sustained by surface microwaves. The properties of surface wave produced plasmas make them interesting as possible substitutes for other more conventional plasma sources for such important applications as plasma chemistry laser excitation, plasma etching spectroscopic sources etc...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Ding
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Both the structural parameter and external excitation have coupling influence on structural response. A new system identification method in time domain is proposed to simultaneously evaluate structural parameter and external excitation. The method can be used for linear and hysteresis nonlinear structural condition assessment based on incomplete structural responses. In this method, the structural excitation is decomposed by orthogonal approximation. With this approximation, the strongly time-variant excitation identification is transformed to gentle time-variant, even constant parameters identification. Then the extended Kalman filter is applied to simultaneously identify state vector including the structural parameters and excitation orthogonal parameters in state space based on incomplete measurements. The proposed method is validated numerically with the simulation of three-story linear and nonlinear structures subject to external force. The external force on the top floor and the structural parameters are simultaneously identified with the proposed system identification method. Results from both simulations indicate that the proposed method is capable of identifing the dynamic load and structural parameters fairly accurately with contaminated incomplete measurement for both of the linear and nonlinear structural systems.
The population transfer of high excited states of Rydberg lithium atoms in a microwave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Lijuan; Zhang Xianzhou; Ma Huanqiang; Jia Guangrui; Zhang Yonghui; Xia Lihua
2012-01-01
Using the time-dependent multilevel approach (TDMA), the properties of high excited Rydberg lithium atom have been obtained in the microwave field. The population transfer of lithium atom are studied on numerical calculation, quantum states are controlled and manipulated by microwave field. It shows that the population can be completely transferred to the target state by changing the chirped rate and field amplitude. (authors)
Simulation of statistical γ-spectra of highly excited rare earth nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiller, A.; Munos, G.; Guttormsen, M.; Bergholt, L.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Tveter, T.S.
1997-05-01
The statistical γ-spectra of highly excited even-even rare earth nuclei are simulated applying appropriate level density and strength function to a given nucleus. Hindrance effects due to K-conservation are taken into account. Simulations are compared to experimental data from the 163 Dy( 3 He,α) 162 Dy and 173 Yb( 3 He,α) 172 Yb reactions. The influence of the K quantum number at higher energies is discussed. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Study of resonant magnet exciting system for the 3 GeV proton synchrotron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koseki, Shoichiro; Zhang, Fengqing; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Tani, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Adachi, Toshikazu; Someya, Hirohiko [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
2001-07-01
Exciting system for magnets of the 3 GeV Proton synchrotron is under consideration. A resonant exciting system is studied, and two type of power supply are compared. One is a parallel supply that is used generally. Another is a modified series supply. Either of them uses IGBT sinusoidal converters. Capacity of the power converter of the series supply for bending magnets becomes 28.8 MVAp. This is lager more than twice compared with the parallel supply. In the other hand, the series supply has good control performance and flexibility. More study is necessary to decide finally. (author)
Stochastic Resonance and First Arrival Time for Excitable Systems
Duki, Solomon Fekade; Taye, Mesfin Asfaw
2018-06-01
We study the noise induced thermally activated barrier crossing of Brownian particles that hop in a piecewise linear potential. Using the exact analytic solutions and via numerical simulations not only we explore the dependence for the first passage time of a single particle but also we calculate the first arrival time for one particle out of N particles. The first arrival time decreases as the number of particles increases as expected. We then explore the thermally activated barrier crossing rate of the system in the presence of time varying signal. The dependence of signal to noise ratio SNR as well as the power amplification (η ) on model parameters is explored. η and SNR depict a pronounced peak at particular noise strength. In the presence of N particles, η is considerably amplified as N steps up showing the weak periodic signal plays a vital role in controlling the noise induced dynamics of the system. Moreover, for the sake of generality, the viscous friction γ is considered to decrease exponentially when the temperature T of the medium increases (γ =Be^{-A T}) as proposed originally by Reynolds (Philos Trans R Soc Lond 177:157, 1886).
Pattern formation in diffusive excitable systems under magnetic flow effects
Mvogo, Alain; Takembo, Clovis N.; Ekobena Fouda, H. P.; Kofané, Timoléon C.
2017-07-01
We study the spatiotemporal formation of patterns in a diffusive FitzHugh-Nagumo network where the effect of electromagnetic induction has been introduced in the standard mathematical model by using magnetic flux, and the modulation of magnetic flux on membrane potential is realized by using memristor coupling. We use the multi-scale expansion to show that the system equations can be reduced to a single differential-difference nonlinear equation. The linear stability analysis is performed and discussed with emphasis on the impact of magnetic flux. It is observed that the effect of memristor coupling importantly modifies the features of modulational instability. Our analytical results are supported by the numerical experiments, which reveal that the improved model can lead to nonlinear quasi-periodic spatiotemporal patterns with some features of synchronization. It is observed also the generation of pulses and rhythmics behaviors like breathing or swimming which are important in brain researches.
Excitation of high numbers harmonics by flows of oscillators in a periodic potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buts, V.A.; Marekha, V.I.; Tolstoluzhsky, A.P.
2005-01-01
It is shown that the maximum of radiation spectrum of nonrelativistic oscillators, which move into a periodically inhomogeneous potential, can be in the region of high numbers harmonics. Spectrum of such oscillators radiation becomes similar to the radiation spectrum of relativistic oscillators. The equations, describing the non-linear self-consistent theory of excitations, of high numbers harmonics by ensemble of oscillators are formulated and its numerical analysis is conducted. The numerical analysis has confirmed the capability of radiation of high numbers of harmonics. Such peculiarity of radiation allows t expect of creation of nonrelativistic FEL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.
1982-01-01
Direct PPP-type calculations of self-consistent (SC) density matrices for excited states are described and the corresponding 'thawn' molecular orbitals (MO) are discussed. Special attention is addressed to particular solutions arising in conjugated systems of a certain symmetry, and to their chemical implications. The U(2) and U(3) algebras are applied respectively to the 4-electron and 6-electron cases: a natural separation of excited states in different cases follows. A simple approach to the convergence problem for excited states is given. The complementarity relations, an alternative formulation of the pairing theorem valid for heteromolecules and non-alternant systems, allow some fruitful experimental applications. Together with the extended pairing relations shown here, they may help to rationalize general trends. (Author) [pt
Stochastic resonance and vibrational resonance in an excitable system: The golden mean barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stan, Cristina; Cristescu, C.P.; Alexandroaei, D.; Agop, M.
2009-01-01
We report on stochastic resonance and vibrational resonance in an electric charge double layer configuration as usually found in electrical discharges, biological cell membranes, chemical systems and nanostructures. The experiment and numerical computation show the existence of a barrier expressible in terms of the golden mean above which the two phenomena do not take place. We consider this as new evidence for the importance of the golden mean criticality in the oscillatory dynamics, in agreement with El Naschie's E-infinity theory. In our experiment, the dynamics of a charge double layer generated in the inter-anode space of a twin electrical discharge is investigated under noise-harmonic and harmonic-harmonic perturbations. In the first case, a Gaussian noise can enhance the response of the system to a weak injected periodic signal, a clear mark of stochastic resonance. In the second case, similar enhancement can appear if the noise is replaced by a harmonic perturbation with a frequency much higher than the frequency of the weak oscillation. The amplitude of the low frequency oscillation shows a maximum versus the amplitude of the high frequency perturbation demonstrating vibrational resonance. In order to model these dynamics, we derived an excitable system by modifying a biased van der Pol oscillator. The computational study considers the behaviour of this system under the same types of perturbation as in the experimental investigations and is found to give consistent results in both situations.
High spin spectroscopy near the N=Z line: Channel selection and excitation energy systematics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svensson, C.E.; Cameron, J.A.; Flibotte, S. [McMaster Univ., Ontario (Canada)] [and others
1996-12-31
The total {gamma}-ray and charged-particle energies emitted in fusion-evaporation reactions leading to N=Z compound systems in the A = 50-70 mass region have been measured with the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer and the miniball charged-particle detector array. A new method of channel selection has been developed which combines particle identification with these total energy measurements and greatly improves upon the selectivity possible with particle detection alone. In addition, the event by event measurement of total {gamma}-ray energies using the BGO ball of the 8{pi} spectrometer has allowed a determination of excitation energies following particle evaporation for a large number of channels in several different reactions. The new channel selection procedure and excitation energy systematics are illustrated with data from the reaction of {sup 24}Mg on {sup 40}Ca at E{sub lab} = 80MeV.
Spirals in a reaction-diffusion system: Dependence of wave dynamics on excitability
Mahanta, Dhriti; Das, Nirmali Prabha; Dutta, Sumana
2018-02-01
A detailed study of the effects of excitability of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction on spiral wave properties has been carried out. Using the Oregonator model, we explore the various regimes of wave activity, from sustained oscillations to wave damping, as the system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation, that is achieved by varying the excitability parameter, ɛ . We also discover a short range of parameter values where random oscillations are observed. With an increase in the value of ɛ , the frequency of the wave decreases exponentially, as the dimension of the spiral core expands. These numerical results are confirmed by carrying out experiments in thin layers of the BZ system, where the excitability is changed by varying the concentrations of the reactant species. Effect of reactant concentrations on wave properties like time period and wavelength are also explored in detail. Drifting and meandering spirals are found in the parameter space under investigation, with the excitability affecting the tip trajectory in a way predicted by the numerical studies. This study acts as a quantitative evidence of the relationship between the excitability parameter, ɛ , and the substrate concentrations.
Spirals in a reaction-diffusion system: Dependence of wave dynamics on excitability.
Mahanta, Dhriti; Das, Nirmali Prabha; Dutta, Sumana
2018-02-01
A detailed study of the effects of excitability of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction on spiral wave properties has been carried out. Using the Oregonator model, we explore the various regimes of wave activity, from sustained oscillations to wave damping, as the system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation, that is achieved by varying the excitability parameter, ε. We also discover a short range of parameter values where random oscillations are observed. With an increase in the value of ε, the frequency of the wave decreases exponentially, as the dimension of the spiral core expands. These numerical results are confirmed by carrying out experiments in thin layers of the BZ system, where the excitability is changed by varying the concentrations of the reactant species. Effect of reactant concentrations on wave properties like time period and wavelength are also explored in detail. Drifting and meandering spirals are found in the parameter space under investigation, with the excitability affecting the tip trajectory in a way predicted by the numerical studies. This study acts as a quantitative evidence of the relationship between the excitability parameter, ε, and the substrate concentrations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun-Yu, Zhao; Yi-Min, Zhang; Bang-Chun, Wen
2010-01-01
We derive the non-dimensional coupling equation of two exciters, including inertia coupling, stiffness coupling and load coupling. The concept of general dynamic symmetry is proposed to physically explain the synchronisation of the two exciters, which stems from the load coupling that produces the torque of general dynamic symmetry to force the phase difference between the two exciters close to the angle of general dynamic symmetry. The condition of implementing synchronisation is that the torque of general dynamic symmetry is greater than the asymmetric torque of the two motors. A general Lyapunov function is constructed to derive the stability condition of synchronisation that the non-dimensional inertia coupling matrix is positive definite and all its elements are positive. Numeric results show that the structure of the vibrating system can guarantee the stability of synchronisation of the two exciters, and that the greater the distances between the installation positions of the two exciters and the mass centre of the vibrating system are, the stronger the ability of general dynamic symmetry is
2013-01-01
Nuclear physics is an exciting, broadly faceted field. It spans a wide range of topics, reaching from nuclear structure physics to high-energy physics, astrophysics and medical physics (heavy ion tumor therapy). New developments are presented in this volume and the status of research is reviewed. A major focus is put on nuclear structure physics, dealing with superheavy elements and with various forms of exotic nuclei: strange nuclei, very neutron rich nuclei, nuclei of antimatter. Also quantum electrodynamics of strong fields is addressed, which is linked to the occurrence of giant nuclear systems in, e.g., U+U collisions. At high energies nuclear physics joins with elementary particle physics. Various chapters address the theory of elementary matter at high densities and temperature, in particular the quark gluon plasma which is predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to occur in high-energy heavy ion collisions. In the field of nuclear astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars and quark stars are d...
Wobbling excitations in odd-A nuclei with high-j aligned particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamamoto, Ikuko
2002-01-01
Using the particle-rotor model in which one high-j quasiparticle is coupled to the core of triaxial shape, wobbling excitations are studied. The family of wobbling phonon excitations can be characterized by: (a) very similar intrinsic structure while collective rotation shows the wobbling feature; (b) strong B(E2;I→I-1) values for Δn w =1 transitions where n w expresses the number of wobbling phonons. For the Fermi level lying below the high-j shell with the most favorable triaxiality γ≅+20 deg., the wobbling phonon excitations may be more easily identified close to the yrast line, compared with the Fermi level lying around the middle of the shell with γ≅-30 deg. The spectroscopic study of the yrast states for the triaxial shape with -60 deg. <γ<0 are illustrated by taking a representative example with γ=-30 deg., in which a quantum number related with the special symmetry is introduced to help the physics understanding
Highly selective population of two excited states in nonresonant two-photon absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hui; Zhang Shi-An; Sun Zhen-Rong
2011-01-01
A nonresonant two-photon absorption process can be manipulated by tailoring the ultra-short laser pulse. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate a highly selective population of two excited states in the nonresonant two-photon absorption process by rationally designing a spectral phase distribution. Our results show that one excited state is maximally populated while the other state population is widely tunable from zero to the maximum value. We believe that the theoretical results may play an important role in the selective population of a more complex nonlinear process comprising nonresonant two-photon absorption, such as resonance-mediated (2+1)-three-photon absorption and (2+1)-resonant multiphoton ionization. (atomic and molecular physics)
High mass-resolution electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core-excited organic molecules
Tokushima, T; Senba, Y; Yoshida, H; Hiraya, A
2001-01-01
Total electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core excited organic molecules have been carried out with high mass resolution by using multimode (reflectron/linear) time-of-flight mass analyzer. From the ion correlation spectra of core excited CH sub 3 OH and CD sub 3 OH, the reaction pathway to form H sub 3 sup + (D sub 3 sup +) is identified as the elimination of three H (D) atoms from the methyl group, not as the inter-group (-CH sub 3 and -OH) interactions. In a PEPIPICO spectrum of acetylacetone (CH sub 3 COCH sub 2 COCH sub 3) measured by using a reflectron TOF, correlations between ions up to mass number 70 with one-mass resolution was recorded.
Dynamic modification of the fragmentation of COq+ excited states generated with high-order harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, W.; De, S.; Singh, K. P.; Chen, S.; Laurent, G.; Ray, D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C. L.; Schoeffler, M. S.; Belkacem, A.; Osipov, T.; Rescigno, T.; Alnaser, A. S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.
2010-01-01
The dynamic process of fragmentation of CO q+ excited states is investigated using a pump-probe approach. EUV radiation (32-48 eV) generated by high-order harmonics was used to ionize and excite CO molecules and a time-delayed infrared (IR) pulse (800 nm) was used to influence the evolution of the dissociating multichannel wave packet. Two groups of states, separable experimentally by their kinetic-energy release (KER), are populated by the EUV and lead to C + -O + fragmentation: direct double ionization of the neutral molecule and fragmentation of the cation leading to C + -O*, followed by autoionization of O*. The IR pulse was found to modify the KER of the latter group in a delay-dependent way which is explained with a model calculation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaczmarczyk, S [School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, St. George' s Avenue, Northampton NN2 6JD (United Kingdom); Iwankiewicz, R [Institute of Mechanics and Ocean Engineering, Hamburg University of Technology, Eissendorfer Strasse 42 D-21073, Hamburg (Germany); Terumichi, Y, E-mail: stefan.kaczmarczyk@northampton.ac.u [Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 KIOI-CHO, CHIYODAKU, Tokyo, 102-8554 Japan (Japan)
2009-08-01
Moving slender elastic elements such as ropes, cables and belts are pivotal components of vertical transportation systems such as traction elevators. Their lengths vary within the host building structure during the elevator operation which results in the change of the mass and stiffness characteristics of the system. The structure of modern high-rise buildings is flexible and when subjected to loads due to strong winds and earthquakes it vibrates at low frequencies. The inertial load induced by the building motion excites the flexible components of the elevator system. The compensating ropes due to their lower tension are particularly affected and undergo large dynamic deformations. The paper focuses on the presentation of the non-stationary model of a building-compensating rope system and on the analysis to predict its dynamic response. The excitation mechanism is represented by a harmonic process and the results of computer simulations to predict transient resonance response are presented. The analysis of the simulation results leads to recommendations concerning the selection of the weight of the compensation assembly to minimize the effects of an adverse dynamic response of the system. The scenario when the excitation is represented as a narrow-band stochastic process with the state vector governed by stochastic equations is then discussed and the stochastic differential equations governing the second-order statistical moments of the state vector are developed.
Excitable dynamics in high-Lewis number premixed gas combustion at normal and microgravity
Pearlman, Howard
1995-01-01
g and 1g, buoyant flicker is not the mechanism which drives the pulsations. Moreover, all of the instabilities at 1g and mu g have characteristic frequencies on the O(100Hz). This value is lower than the fundamental, longitudinal acoustic frequencies of the tubes which suggests that the instabilities are not acoustically driven. The patterns formed by this reaction bear remarkable similarities with the patterns formed in most excitable media when the behavior of the system is driven by couplings between chemical reaction and diffusion (e.g., Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, Patterns in slime molds, spiral waves in the retina of a bird's eye). While it is recognized that the chemical mechanism associated with this premixed gas reaction is exponentially sensitive to temperature and undoubtedly different from those which govern previously observed excitable media (most are isothermal, or weakly exothermic, liquid phase reactions), similar spatial and temporal patterns should not come as a complete surprise considering heat and mass diffusion are self similar. It is concluded that this premixed gas system is a definitive example of a diffusive-thermal, gas-phase oscillator based on these experimental results and their favorable comparison with theory.
Experimental results of high power dual frequency resonant magnet excitation at TRIUMF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiniger, K.W.; Heritier, G.
1988-06-01
We present some results of duel frequency resonant magnet excitation at full power using the old NINA synchrotron dipoles. These tests will simulate a typical resonant cell as proposed for the accelerating rings of the TRIUMF KAON Factory. These test have two main purposes: to verify circuit parameters and component ratings for the dual frequency resonant power supply system; and to measure directly electrical losses in a transverse magnet field, such as eddy current losses in magnet conductors, vacuum tubes and core losses in laminations. These data will be required for the detailed design of the accelerator system components. (Author) (Ref., 9 figs., tab.)
A study on an object transport system using ultrasonic wave excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Sang Hwa; Kim, Gwang Ho; Choi, Suk Bong; Park, Jun Ho; Cha, Kyoung Rae
2007-01-01
The development of information and telecommunication industries leads to the development of semiconductor and optical industries. In recent years, the demand of optical components is growing due to the demand of faster network. On the other hand, conventional transport systems are not adequate for transporting precision optical components and semiconductors. Because the conveyor belt can damage precision optical components with contact force and a magnetic system would destroy the inner structure of semiconductor with magnetic field, a new system for transporting optical components and semiconductors is required. One of the alternatives to the existing systems is a transport system using ultrasonic wave excitation since it can transport precision components such as semiconductors and optical components without damage. In this paper, a transport system using 2-mode ultrasonic wave excitation was developed for transporting optical components and semiconductor, and its performance was evaluated. The relationship between transporting characteristics and flexural beam shapes were evaluated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuhong Min
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent for a single-machine-infinite bus system with excitation model are carried out by varying the mechanical power, generator damping factor and the exciter gain, from which periodic motions, chaos and the divergence of system are observed respectively. From given parameters and different initial conditions, the coexisting motions are developed in power system. The dynamic behaviors in power system may switch freely between the coexisting motions, which will bring huge security menace to protection operation. Especially, the angle divergences due to the break of stable chaotic oscillation are found which causes the instability of power system. Finally, a new adaptive backstepping sliding mode controller is designed which aims to eliminate the angle divergences and make the power system run in stable orbits. Numerical simulations are illustrated to verify the effectivity of the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Min, Fuhong, E-mail: minfuhong@njnu.edu.cn; Wang, Yaoda; Peng, Guangya; Wang, Enrong [School of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu, 210042 (China)
2016-08-15
The bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent for a single-machine-infinite bus system with excitation model are carried out by varying the mechanical power, generator damping factor and the exciter gain, from which periodic motions, chaos and the divergence of system are observed respectively. From given parameters and different initial conditions, the coexisting motions are developed in power system. The dynamic behaviors in power system may switch freely between the coexisting motions, which will bring huge security menace to protection operation. Especially, the angle divergences due to the break of stable chaotic oscillation are found which causes the instability of power system. Finally, a new adaptive backstepping sliding mode controller is designed which aims to eliminate the angle divergences and make the power system run in stable orbits. Numerical simulations are illustrated to verify the effectivity of the proposed method.
X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system BaXY (X ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 2. X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system Ba (, =F, Cl, Br, I) ... India; Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Republic of China ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational ...
Line shape of magnetic excitations in singlet-ground-state systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, P.
1976-08-01
The excitation spectrum in a paramagnetic singlet doublet system is calculated using a diagrammatic expansion technique, and the theoretical predictions are compared with experiments on praseodymium. The theory gives an accurate description of the dramatic temperature dependence of the energies and lineshapes for the exciton modes
Controllability of multi-partite quantum systems and selective excitation of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirmer, S G; Pullen, I C H; Solomon, A I
2005-01-01
We consider the degrees of controllability of multi-partite quantum systems, as well as necessary and sufficient criteria for each case. The results are applied to the problem of simultaneous control of an ensemble of quantum dots with a single laser pulse. Finally, we apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate selective excitation of individual dots for a simultaneously controllable ensemble of quantum dots
Oxygen auroral transition laser system excited by collisional and photolytic energy transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murray, J.R.; Powell, H.T.; Rhodes, C.K.
1975-06-01
The properties of laser media involving the auroral transition of atomic oxygen and analogous systems are examined. A discussion of the atomic properties, collisional mechanisms, excitation processes, and collisionally induced radiative phenomena is given. Crossing phenomena play a particularly important role in governing the dynamics of the medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Ran-Ran; Xu Wei; Yang Gui-Dong; Han Qun
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider the response analysis of a Duffing–Rayleigh system with fractional derivative under Gaussian white noise excitation. A stochastic averaging procedure for this system is developed by using the generalized harmonic functions. First, the system state is approximated by a diffusive Markov process. Then, the stationary probability densities are derived from the averaged Itô stochastic differential equation of the system. The accuracy of the analytical results is validated by the results from the Monte Carlo simulation of the original system. Moreover, the effects of different system parameters and noise intensity on the response of the system are also discussed. (paper)
Studies of isotopic effects in the excited electronic states of molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-01-01
Rare gas halogen (RGH) lasers serve as convenient tools for a range of photophysical processes which exhibit isotope effects. This document summarizes progress in the production of molecular systems in their electronic excited states with the aid of RGH lasers, and the various isotopic effects one can study under these conditions. We conclude that the basic physical mechanisms involved in the isotopically sensitive characteristics of excited molecular electronic states are sufficiently selective to be useful in both the detection and separation of many atomic materials
Impulses and pressure waves cause excitement and conduction in the nervous system.
Barz, Helmut; Schreiber, Almut; Barz, Ulrich
2013-11-01
It is general accepted, that nerval excitement and conduction is caused by voltage changes. However, the influx of fluid into an elastical tube releases impulses or pressure waves. Therefore an influx of ion currents, respectively fluid motions into the elastic neuronal cells and fibres also induce impulses. This motion of charge carriers are measured by voltage devices as oscillations or action potentials, but the voltage changes may be an epiphenomenon of the (mechanical) impulses. Impulse waves can have a high speed. As stiffer or inelastic a tube wall, the greater is the speed of the impulse. Myelin sheaths cause a significant stiffening of the nerve fibre wall and myelinated fibres have a conduction velocity up to 120 m/s. The influx of fluid at the nodes of Ranvier intensifies periodically the impulse wave in the nerve fibres. The authors suggest that also the muscle end-plate acts as a conductor of axonal impulses to the inner of the muscle fibres and that the exocytosis of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft may be an amplifier of the axonal impulse. It is discussed that intracellular actin filaments may also influence motions at the neuronal membrane. Many sensory nerve cells are excited due to exogenous or endogenous mechanical impulses. It may plausible that such impulses are conducted directly to the sensory nerve cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia without the transformation in electric energy. Excitation conduction happens without noteworthy energy consumption because the flow of ion currents through the membranes takes place equivalent to the concentration gradient. Impulse waves cause short extensions of the lipid membranes of the cell- and fibres walls and therefore they can induce opening and closing of the included ion channels. This mechanism acts to "voltage gated" and "ligand-gated" channels likewise. The concept of neuronal impulses can be helpful to the understanding of other points of neurophysiology or neuronal diseases. This includes
Role of vortex structures in excitation of self-oscillating combustion of condensed systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samsonov, V.P.; Murunov, E.Yu.; Alekseev, M.V.
2008-01-01
One studied experimentally the effect of the free convection and the eddy structures occurring near the gasoline burner singing flame on the excitation conditions of thermal self-oscillations in a tube-resonator. One introduces a procedure to measure the gas column oscillation amplitude. The singing flame height and the flame mass speed at the excitation of the acoustic oscillations are revealed to reduce, while the gasoline burning efficiency is found to increase. By means of the digital photometry one studied the mechanisms of the singing flame temperature field changes within one oscillation period. One derived the hysteresis dependences of the amplitude of the acoustic oscillations on the gasoline diffusion flame thermal power. One brings to the notice a mechanism of the effect of the eddy structures of the excitation of the burning self-oscillation mode of the condensed systems [ru
Rotational bands on few-particle excitations of very high spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, C.G.; Krumlinde, J.; Leander, G.; Szymanski, Z.
1980-01-01
An RPA formalism is developed to investigate the existence and properties of slow collective rotation around a non-symmetry axis, when there already exists a large angular momentum K along the symmetry axis built up by aligned single-particle spins. It is found necessary to distinguish between the collectivity and the repeatability of the rotational excitations. First the formalism is applied to bands on hihg-K isomers in the well-deformed nucleus 176 Hf, where the rotational-model picture is reproduced for intermediate K-values in agreement with experiment. At high K there is a suppression of the collectivity corresponding to the diminishing vector-coupling coefficient of the rotational model, but the repeatability actually improves. The moment of inertia is predicted to remain substantially smaller than the rigid-body value so the bands slope up steeply from the yrast line at spins where pairing effects are gone. A second application is to the initially spherical nucleus 212 Rn, which is believed to acquire an oblate deformation that increases steadily with K due to the oblate shape of the aligned orbitals. In this case the repeatable excitations come higher above the yrast line than in 176 Hf, even at comparable deformations. Some collective states may occur very close to yrast, but these are more like dressed singleparticle excitations. The main differences between the two nuclei studied is interpreted as a general consequence of their different shell structure. (author)
Concluding remarks of international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernstein, A. M.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.
1980-01-01
This is the concluding remarks in the international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions. The remarks concentrate on the giant quadrupole states. In the framework of the distorted wave Born approximation (DWB), the differential cross section can be deduced. The relevant transition matrix elements are defined, and the quantities which are measured in inelastic hadron (h, h') reactions are shown. These are used to obtain both neutron and proton transition multipole matrix elements. This is equivalent to make the isospin decomposition of the electromagnetic transition matrix elements. The ratios of the transition matrix elements of neutrons and protons of the lowest 2/sup +/ states in even-even single closed shell nuclei are evaluated and compared with experimental results. For each nucleus, the consistency between various measurements is generally good. The effect of the virtual excitation of giant 2/sup +/ states into the ground and first excited states of even-even nuclei is discussed. The accuracy of (h, h') results can be tested.
Fraser, James A; Huang, Christopher L-H; Pedersen, Thomas H
2011-07-01
Activation of skeletal muscle fibers requires rapid sarcolemmal action potential (AP) conduction to ensure uniform excitation along the fiber length, as well as successful tubular excitation to initiate excitation-contraction coupling. In our companion paper in this issue, Pedersen et al. (2011. J. Gen. Physiol. doi:10.1085/jgp.201010510) quantify, for subthreshold stimuli, the influence upon both surface conduction velocity and tubular (t)-system excitation of the large changes in resting membrane conductance (G(M)) that occur during repetitive AP firing. The present work extends the analysis by developing a multi-compartment modification of the charge-difference model of Fraser and Huang to provide a quantitative description of the conduction velocity of actively propagated APs; the influence of voltage-gated ion channels within the t-system; the influence of t-system APs on ionic homeostasis within the t-system; the influence of t-system ion concentration changes on membrane potentials; and the influence of Phase I and Phase II G(M) changes on these relationships. Passive conduction properties of the novel model agreed with established linear circuit analysis and previous experimental results, while key simulations of AP firing were tested against focused experimental microelectrode measurements of membrane potential. This study thereby first quantified the effects of the t-system luminal resistance and voltage-gated Na(+) channel density on surface AP propagation and the resultant electrical response of the t-system. Second, it demonstrated the influence of G(M) changes during repetitive AP firing upon surface and t-system excitability. Third, it showed that significant K(+) accumulation occurs within the t-system during repetitive AP firing and produces a baseline depolarization of the surface membrane potential. Finally, it indicated that G(M) changes during repetitive AP firing significantly influence both t-system K(+) accumulation and its influence on the
The excitation of plasma convection in the high-latitude ionosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lockwood, M.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Freeman, M.P.
1990-01-01
Recent observations of ionospheric flows by ground-based radars, in particular by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) facility using the Polar experiment, together with previous analyses of the response of geomagnetic disturbance to variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), suggest that convection in the high-latitude ionosphere should be considered to be the sum of two intrinsically time-dependent patterns, one driven by solar wind-magnetosphere coupling at the dayside magnetopause, the other by the release of energy in the geomagnetic tail (mainly by dayside and nightside reconnection, respectively). The flows driven by dayside coupling are largest on the dayside, where they usually dominate, are associated with an expanding polar cap area, and are excited and decay on ∼ 10-min time scales following southward and northward turnings of the IMF, respectively. The latter finding indicates that the production of new open flux at the dayside magnetopause excites magnetospheric and ionospheric flow only for a short interval, ∼ 10 min, such that the flow driven by this source subsequently decays on this time scale unless maintained by the production of more open flux tubes. Correspondingly, the flows excited by the release of energy in the tail, mainly during substorms, are largest on the nightside, are associated with a contracting polar cap boundary, and are excited on ∼ 1-hour time scales following a southward turn of the IMF. In general, the total ionospheric flow will be the sum of the flows produced by these two sources, such that due to their different response times to changes in the IMF, considerable variations in the flow pattern can occur for a given direction and strength ofthe IMF. Consequently, the ionospheric electric field cannot generally be regarded as arising from a simple mapping of the solar wind electric field along open flux tubes
Gravitational Waves from F-modes Excited by the Inspiral of Highly Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chirenti, Cecilia; Gold, Roman; Miller, M. Coleman
2017-01-01
As gravitational wave instrumentation becomes more sensitive, it is interesting to speculate about subtle effects that could be analyzed using upcoming generations of detectors. One such effect that has great potential for revealing the properties of very dense matter is fluid oscillations of neutron stars. These have been found in numerical simulations of the hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers and of highly eccentric neutron star orbits. Here we focus on the latter and sketch out some ideas for the production, gravitational-wave detection, and analysis of neutron star oscillations. These events will be rare (perhaps up to several tens per year could be detected using third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer), but they would have unique diagnostic power for the analysis of cold, catalyzed, dense matter. Furthermore, these systems are unusual in that analysis of the tidally excited f-modes of the stars could yield simultaneous measurements of their masses, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers, using the frequency, damping time, and amplitude of the modes. They would thus present a nearly unique opportunity to test the I-Love-Q relation observationally. The analysis of such events will require significant further work in nuclear physics and general relativistic nonlinear mode coupling, and thus we discuss further directions that will need to be pursued. For example, we note that for nearly grazing encounters, numerical simulations show that the energy delivered to the f-modes may be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory.
Gravitational Waves from F-modes Excited by the Inspiral of Highly Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chirenti, Cecilia [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, UFABC, 09210-170 Santo André-SP (Brazil); Gold, Roman [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Miller, M. Coleman [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)
2017-03-01
As gravitational wave instrumentation becomes more sensitive, it is interesting to speculate about subtle effects that could be analyzed using upcoming generations of detectors. One such effect that has great potential for revealing the properties of very dense matter is fluid oscillations of neutron stars. These have been found in numerical simulations of the hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers and of highly eccentric neutron star orbits. Here we focus on the latter and sketch out some ideas for the production, gravitational-wave detection, and analysis of neutron star oscillations. These events will be rare (perhaps up to several tens per year could be detected using third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer), but they would have unique diagnostic power for the analysis of cold, catalyzed, dense matter. Furthermore, these systems are unusual in that analysis of the tidally excited f-modes of the stars could yield simultaneous measurements of their masses, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers, using the frequency, damping time, and amplitude of the modes. They would thus present a nearly unique opportunity to test the I-Love-Q relation observationally. The analysis of such events will require significant further work in nuclear physics and general relativistic nonlinear mode coupling, and thus we discuss further directions that will need to be pursued. For example, we note that for nearly grazing encounters, numerical simulations show that the energy delivered to the f-modes may be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory.
Cerebellum tunes the excitability of the motor system: evidence from peripheral motor axons.
Nodera, Hiroyuki; Manto, Mario
2014-12-01
Cerebellum is highly connected with the contralateral cerebral cortex. So far, the motor deficits observed in acute focal cerebellar lesions in human have been mainly explained on the basis of a disruption of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical projections. Cerebellar circuits have also numerous anatomical and functional interactions with brainstem nuclei and projects also directly to the spinal cord. Cerebellar lesions alter the excitability of peripheral motor axons as demonstrated by peripheral motor threshold-tracking techniques in cerebellar stroke. The biophysical changes are correlated with the functional scores. Nerve excitability measurements represent an attractive tool to extract the rules underlying the tuning of excitability of the motor pathways by the cerebellum and to discover the contributions of each cerebellar nucleus in this key function, contributing to early plasticity and sensorimotor learning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sangeetha Madhavan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.
Vibrational-rotational excitation: chemical reactions of vibrationally excited molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, C.B.; Smith, I.W.M.
1979-03-01
This review considers a limited number of systems, particularly gas-phase processes. Excited states and their preparation, direct bimolecular reactions, reactions of highly excited molecules, and reactions in condensed phases are discussed. Laser-induced isotope separation applications are mentioned briefly. 109 references
Base excitation testing system using spring elements to pivotally mount wind turbine blades
Cotrell, Jason; Hughes, Scott; Butterfield, Sandy; Lambert, Scott
2013-12-10
A system (1100) for fatigue testing wind turbine blades (1102) through forced or resonant excitation of the base (1104) of a blade (1102). The system (1100) includes a test stand (1112) and a restoring spring assembly (1120) mounted on the test stand (1112). The restoring spring assembly (1120) includes a primary spring element (1124) that extends outward from the test stand (1112) to a blade mounting plate (1130) configured to receive a base (1104) of blade (1102). During fatigue testing, a supported base (1104) of a blad (1102) may be pivotally mounted to the test stand (1112) via the restoring spring assembly (1120). The system (1100) may include an excitation input assembly (1140) that is interconnected with the blade mouting plate (1130) to selectively apply flapwise, edgewise, and/or pitch excitation forces. The restoring spring assemply (1120) may include at least one tuning spring member (1127) positioned adjacent to the primary spring element (1124) used to tune the spring constant or stiffness of the primary spring element (1124) in one of the excitation directions.
Probing highly obscured, self-absorbed galaxy nuclei with vibrationally excited HCN
Aalto, S.; Martín, S.; Costagliola, F.; González-Alfonso, E.; Muller, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Fuller, G. A.; García-Burillo, S.; van der Werf, P.; Neri, R.; Spaans, M.; Combes, F.; Viti, S.; Mühle, S.; Armus, L.; Evans, A.; Sturm, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Henkel, C.; Greve, T. R.
2015-12-01
We present high resolution (0.̋4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS 17208-0014, Arp220, IC 860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (ν2 = 1) J = 3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r 5 × 1013 L⊙ kpc-2. These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, ν2 = 1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 μm mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses, and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H2 column densities exceed 1024 cm-2. It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, we show strong evidence that the ground vibrational state (ν = 0), J = 3-2and 4-3 rotational lines of HCN and HCO+ fail to probe the highly enshrouded, compact nuclear regions owing to strong self- and continuum absorption. The HCN and HCO+ line profiles are double-peaked because of the absorption and show evidence of non-circular motions - possibly in the form of in- or outflows. Detections of vibrationally excited HCN in external galaxies are so far limited to ULIRGs and early-type spiral LIRGs, and we discuss possible causes for this. We tentatively suggest that the peak of vibrationally excited HCN emission is connected to a rapid stage of nuclear growth, before the phase of strong feedback. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure and ALMA Interferometers. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA
Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Troldborg, Carl Peder; Fodgaard, Henrik; van Os, Sylvana; Pedersen, Christian
2017-08-01
High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay development enables determination of biological variation in healthy populations, more accurate interpretation of clinical results and points towards earlier diagnosis and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we report on preliminary tests of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by factor of 5 for standard troponin I and by factor of 3 for a research high-sensitivity troponin I assay, compared to the flash lamp excitation. The obtained limit of detection was 0.22 ng/L measured on plasma with the research high-sensitivity troponin I assay and 1.9 ng/L measured on tris-saline-azide buffer containing bovine serum albumin with the standard troponin I assay. We discuss the optimization of time-resolved detection of lanthanide fluorescence based on the time constants of the system and analyze the background and noise sources in a heterogeneous fluoroimmunoassay. We determine the limiting factors and their impact on the measurement performance. The suggested model can be generally applied to fluoroimmunoassays employing the dry-cup concept.
Highly excited bound-state resonances of short-range inverse power-law potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-11-15
We study analytically the radial Schroedinger equation with long-range attractive potentials whose asymptotic behaviors are dominated by inverse power-law tails of the form V(r) = -β{sub n}r{sup -n} with n > 2. In particular, assuming that the effective radial potential is characterized by a short-range infinitely repulsive core of radius R, we derive a compact analytical formula for the threshold energy E{sub l}{sup max} = E{sub l}{sup max}(n, β{sub n}, R), which characterizes the most weakly bound-state resonance (the most excited energy level) of the quantum system. (orig.)
Zhang, Bei; Sodickson, Daniel K; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Duan, Qi; Stoeckel, Bernd; Wiggins, Graham C
2012-04-01
In 7 T traveling wave imaging, waveguide modes supported by the scanner radiofrequency shield are used to excite an MR signal in samples or tissue which may be several meters away from the antenna used to drive radiofrequency power into the system. To explore the potential merits of traveling wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 7 T, we compare numerical simulations of traveling wave and TEM systems, and juxtapose full-wave electrodynamic simulations using a human body model with in vivo human traveling wave imaging at multiple stations covering the entire body. The simulated and in vivo traveling wave results correspond well, with strong signal at the periphery of the body and weak signal deep in the torso. These numerical results also illustrate the complicated wave behavior that emerges when a body is present. The TEM resonator simulation allowed comparison of traveling wave excitation with standard quadrature excitation, showing that while the traveling wave B +1 per unit drive voltage is much less than that of the TEM system, the square of the average B +1 compared to peak specific absorption rate (SAR) values can be comparable in certain imaging planes. Both systems produce highly inhomogeneous excitation of MR signal in the torso, suggesting that B(1) shimming or other parallel transmission methods are necessary for 7 T whole body imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Very high rotational excitation of CO in a cooled electric discharge through carbon monoxide
Cossart-Magos, Claudina; Cossart, Daniel
2000-02-01
Infrared emission from 12CO and 13CO, excited in the cathode region of a discharge tube immersed in liquid nitrogen, was recorded by Fourier-transform spectrometry at a resolution of 0.005 cm-1. The Δv=1 sequence bands recorded in the 2500-1800 cm-1 spectral interval, indicate the existence of three different rotational populations; (i) molecules in the zero-ground level with Trot≈100 K (responsible for reabsorption of part of the 1-0 emission band); (ii) molecules with Trot≈275 K (maximum intensity for Jmax'≈6 in each band, Tvib≈3000 K for v'=2-4, Tvib≈8600 K for v'=5-13); (iii) molecules with v' limited to 6, for which R-rotational lines are observed for J' values between 50 and 120 (Jmax'≈90, non-Boltzmannian population distribution). The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of all the observed lines is less than 0.007 cm-1. A Doppler width of 0.005 cm-1 and translational temperature Ttr≈280 K can be deduced. Such high-J levels of the CO molecule had never been observed in the laboratory. In the absorption spectrum of the Sun photosphere, the same lines present FWHM values 5-8 times larger. The best available Dunham coefficients are checked to reproduce the high-J lines wave numbers to at least 0.001 cm-1. Dissociative recombination of the dimer (CO)2+ cation, which is likely to be formed in our experimental conditions, is discussed as a possible mechanism to produce CO fragments with very high rotational excitation, while keeping vibrational excitation limited to v'=6.
Influence of Voltage Dips on the Operation of Brushless Exciter System of Synchronous Machines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedotov A.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model with continuous variables for brushless exciter system of synchronous machines, containing the thyristor elements. Discrete Laplace transform is used for transition from a mathematical model of a system with variable structure in continuous variables to equation finite difference with permanent structure. Then inverse transition is made to a mathematical model in continuous variables with permanent structure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Chunlong; Ye Jianfeng; Xu Yuan
2006-01-01
Using a special Painleve-Baecklund transformation as well as the extended mapping approach and the linear superposition theorem, we obtain new families of variable separation solutions to the (2+1)-dimensional generalized Broer-Kaup (GBK) system. Based on the derived exact solution, we reveal some novel evolutional behaviors of localized excitations, i.e. fission and fusion phenomena in the (2+1)-dimensional GBK system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scha''fer, W.; Lo''venich, R.; Fromer, N. A.; Chemla, D. S.
2001-01-01
Recent theories of highly excited semiconductors are based on two formalisms, referring to complementary experimental conditions, the real-time nonequilibrium Green's function techniques and the coherently controlled truncation of the many-particle problem. We present a novel many-particle theory containing both of these methods as limiting cases. As a first example of its application, we investigate four-particle correlations in a strong magnetic field including dephasing resulting from the growth of incoherent one-particle distribution functions. Our results are the first rigorous solution concerning formation and decay of four-particle correlations in semiconductors. They are in excellent agreement with experimental data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duong The-Hung
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This report describes a new proposed design for autogenous mobile systems which can move without any external mechanisms such as legs or wheels. A Duffing oscillator with a cubic spring, which is excited by an impulse periodic force, is utilized to drive the whole system. The rectilinear motion of the system is performed employing the periodically oscillation of the internal mass interacting without collisions with the main body. Utilizing the nonlinear restoring force of the cubic spring, the system can move in desired directions. When the ratio between the excitation force and the friction force is smaller than 2.5, backward or forward motion can be easily achieved by applying an excitation force in the same desired direction. Different from other vibro-impact drifting devices, no impact needed to drive the new proposed system. This novel structure allows to miniaturize the device as well as to simplify the control algorithm thus can significantly expand applicability of the proposed system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weiwei Sun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents H∞ excitation control design problem for power systems with input time delay and disturbances by using nonlinear Hamiltonian system theory. The impact of time delays introduced by remote signal transmission and processing in wide-area measurement system (WAMS is well considered. Meanwhile, the systems under investigation are disturbed by random fluctuation. First, under prefeedback technique, the power systems are described as a nonlinear Hamiltonian system. Then the H∞ excitation controller of generators connected to distant power systems with time delay and stochasticity is designed. Based on Lyapunov functional method, some sufficient conditions are proposed to guarantee the rationality and validity of the proposed control law. The closed-loop systems under the control law are asymptotically stable in mean square independent of the time delay. And we through a simulation of a two-machine power system prove the effectiveness of the results proposed in this paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Casajeros, E.; Alvarez Pol, H.; Paradela, C.; Perez-Loureido, D.; Tarrio, D.; Bacquias, A.; Boudard, A.; Kezzar, K.; Leray, S.; Enqvist, T.; Foehr, V.; Kelic, A.; Pleskac, R.
2010-01-01
In this work we have investigated the total fission cross section of 181 Ta + 1 H at FRS (Fragment Separator - GSI) at 1, 0.8, 0.5 and 0.3 GeV with a specific setup, providing high accuracy measurements of the cross section values. the comparison of our data with previous results reveals a good agreement at high energies. However the situation remains unclear at lower energies. In general, our results covering a wide range of energy, are smoother. We have also compared the results obtained in this experiment, with several calculations performed with the intra-nuclear cascade model (INCL v4.1) coupled to de-excitation code (ABLAv3p), according to two different models describing fission process at high-excitation energies: statistical model of Bohr and Wheeler and the dynamical description of the fission process. We have showed that a simple statistical description largely over-predict the measured cross-section. Only a dynamical description of the fission, involving the role of the viscosity of the nuclear matter, provides a realistic result.
Heat capacity for systems with excited-state quantum phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cejnar, Pavel; Stránský, Pavel, E-mail: stransky@ipnp.troja.mff.cuni.cz
2017-03-18
Heat capacities of model systems with finite numbers of effective degrees of freedom are evaluated using canonical and microcanonical thermodynamics. Discrepancies between both approaches, which are observed even in the infinite-size limit, are particularly large in systems that exhibit an excited-state quantum phase transition. The corresponding irregularity of the spectrum generates a singularity in the microcanonical heat capacity and affects smoothly the canonical heat capacity. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of systems with excited-state quantum phase transitions • ESQPT-generated singularities of the microcanonical heat capacity • Non-monotonous dependences of the canonical heat capacity • Discord between canonical and microcanonical pictures in the infinite-size limit.
Kosek, W.; Popinski, W.; Niedzielski, T.
2011-10-01
It has been already shown that short period oscillations in polar motion, with periods less than 100 days, are very chaotic and are responsible for increase in short-term prediction errors of pole coordinates data. The wavelet technique enables to compare the geodetic and fluid excitation functions in the high frequency band in many different ways, e.g. by looking at the semblance function. The waveletbased semblance filtering enables determination the common signal in both geodetic and fluid excitation time series. In this paper the considered fluid excitation functions consist of the atmospheric, oceanic and land hydrology excitation functions from ECMWF atmospheric data produced by IERS Associated Product Centre Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam. The geodetic excitation functions have been computed from the combined IERS pole coordinates data.
Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Singh, Y P; Tribedi, Lokesh C
2003-03-07
Projectile deexcitation Lyman x-ray emission following electron capture and K excitation has been studied in collisions of bare and Li-like sulphur ions (of energy 110 MeV) with fullerenes (C(60)/C(70)) and different gaseous targets. The intensity ratios of different Lyman x-ray lines in collisions with fullerenes are found to be substantially lower than those for the gas targets, both for capture and excitation. This has been explained in terms of a model based on "solidlike" effect, namely, wakefield induced stark mixing of the excited states populated via electron capture or K excitation: a collective phenomenon of plasmon excitation in the fullerenes under the influence of heavy, highly charged ions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, C.N.
1992-01-01
The author has narrated his experience in carrying out research in three exciting areas of physical sciences. These areas are : high temperature superconductors, metal clusters and super molecules of carbon. (M.G.B.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hailong; Zhang Ning; Wang Enrong; Min Fuhong
2016-01-01
The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc–Wen force–velocity (F–v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. (paper)
On the slow dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects under High excitation frequencies
Ilssar, Dotan; Bucher, Izhak
2015-10-01
This paper introduces a simplified analytical model describing the governing dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects. The simplification converts the equation of motion coupled with the partial differential equation of a compressible fluid, into a compact, second order ordinary differential equation, where the local stiffness and damping are transparent. The simplified model allows one to more easily analyse and design near-field acoustic levitation based systems, and it also helps to devise closed-loop controller algorithms for such systems. Near-field acoustic levitation employs fast ultrasonic vibrations of a driving surface and exploits the viscosity and the compressibility of a gaseous medium to achieve average, load carrying pressure. It is demonstrated that the slow dynamics dominates the transient behaviour, while the time-scale associated with the fast, ultrasonic excitation has a small presence in the oscillations of the levitated object. Indeed, the present paper formulates the slow dynamics under an ultrasonic excitation without the need to explicitly consider the latter. The simplified model is compared with a numerical scheme based on Reynolds equation and with experiments, both showing reasonably good results.
Gong, Zhen-bin; Liang, Feng; Yang, Peng-yuan; Jin, Qin-han; Huang, Ben-li
2002-02-01
A system of atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry in microwave plasma torch (MPT) discharge excited by high current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp (HCMP HCL) has been developed. The operation conditions for Ca atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry have been optimized. Compared with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in argon microwave induced plasma (MIP) and MPT with the excitation of direct current and conventional pulsed HCL, the system with HCMP HCL excitation can improve AFS and ionic fluorescence spectrometry (IFS) detection limits in MPT atomizer and ionizer. Detection limits (3 sigma) with HCMP HCL-MPT-AFS/IFS are 10.1 ng.mL-1 for Ca I 422.7 nm, 14.6 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 393.4 nm, and 37.4 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 396.8 nm, respectively.
Measurement of fusion excitation functions in the system {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H. [and others
1995-08-01
Earlier measurements of fusion reactions involving {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo projectiles and Ni-targets showed surprisingly large fusion yields at low energies which could not be explained by coupled-channels calculations. The main difference to similar measurements involving the neighboring {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo isotopes was the different slope of the excitation functions at sub-barrier energies. An analysis of a variety of experiments showed a correlation between the nuclear structure and the slope of the excitation functions, with the {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} transitional nuclei ({sup 78}Kr, {sup 100}Mo) exhibiting shallower slopes than the {open_quotes}stiff{close_quotes} nuclei ({sup 86}Kr, {sup 92}Mo) measured at the same energies with respect to the barrier. In this experiment we studied the fusion excitation function involving two transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo. The measurements were performed with {sup 78}Kr beams from the ECR source at energies between 285-370 MeV. Separation of the evaporation nucleus from the elastically scattered particles was achieved by measuring time-of-flight and magnetic rigidity in the gas-filled spectrograph. The data were completely analyzed. A comparison of the cross sections with measurements for the system {sup 86}Kr + {sup 92}Mo populating the same compound nucleus {sup 178}Pt. It shows good agreement at the highest energies, but quite different falloffs of the excitation functions toward lower energies. Coupled-channels calculations, including multi-phonon excitation for the two systems, are being performed.
Bodén, Hans
2012-01-01
This paper discusses the effect of high level multi-tone acoustic excitation on the acoustic properties of perforates and liner samples. It is based on a large experimental study of the nonlinear properties of these types of samples without mean grazing or bias flow. It is known from previous studies that high level acoustic excitation at one frequency will change the acoustic impedance of perforates at other frequencies, thereby changing the boundary condition seen by the acoustic waves. Thi...
Trajectory study of supercollision relaxation in highly vibrationally excited pyrazine and CO2.
Li, Ziman; Sansom, Rebecca; Bonella, Sara; Coker, David F; Mullin, Amy S
2005-09-01
Classical trajectory calculations were performed to simulate state-resolved energy transfer experiments of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (E(vib) = 37,900 cm(-1)) and CO(2), which were conducted using a high-resolution transient infrared absorption spectrometer. The goal here is to use classical trajectories to simulate the supercollision energy transfer pathway wherein large amounts of energy are transferred in single collisions in order to compare with experimental results. In the trajectory calculations, Newton's laws of motion are used for the molecular motion, isolated molecules are treated as collections of harmonic oscillators, and intermolecular potentials are formed by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The calculations qualitatively reproduce the observed energy partitioning in the scattered CO(2) molecules and show that the relative partitioning between bath rotation and translation is dependent on the moment of inertia of the bath molecule. The simulations show that the low-frequency modes of the vibrationally excited pyrazine contribute most to the strong collisions. The majority of collisions lead to small DeltaE values and primarily involve single encounters between the energy donor and acceptor. The large DeltaE exchanges result from both single impulsive encounters and chattering collisions that involve multiple encounters.
Radiative-lifetime measurements and calculations of odd-parity highly excited levels in Ba i
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Wei; Du Shan; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile; Dai Zhenwen
2010-01-01
Natural radiative lifetime measurements have been performed for 70 odd-parity highly excited levels of neutral barium in the energy range from 308 15.512 to 417 59.93 cm -1 by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in a laser-produced plasma. The lifetime values measured in this paper are in the range from 11.3 to 901 ns. They are compared with the published lifetimes of four levels. Two of them are in good agreement, whereas for the other two our measurements are slightly longer than the published data. The reasons for the discrepancies are discussed. Comparisons with theoretical results of the Hartree-Fock method with relativistic corrections illustrate the difficulties associated with the use of Cowan's codes for obtaining accurate branching fractions for transitions depopulating highly excited levels along the Rydberg series of heavy neutral elements. This work will be useful to extend the set of oscillator strengths available in Ba i.
Electron Impact Excitation and Dielectronic Recombination of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongwen Wu
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Electron impact excitation (EIE and dielectronic recombination (DR of tungsten ions are basic atomic processes in nuclear fusion plasmas of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER tokamak. Detailed investigation of such processes is essential for modeling and diagnosing future fusion experiments performed on the ITER. In the present work, we studied total and partial electron-impact excitation (EIE and DR cross-sections of highly charged tungsten ions by using the multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method. The degrees of linear polarization of the subsequent X-ray emissions from unequally-populated magnetic sub-levels of these ions were estimated. It is found that the degrees of linear polarization of the same transition lines, but populated respectively by the EIE and DR processes, are very different, which makes diagnosis of the formation mechanism of X-ray emissions possible. In addition, with the help of the flexible atomic code on the basis of the relativistic configuration interaction method, DR rate coefficients of highly charged W37+ to W46+ ions are also studied, because of the importance in the ionization equilibrium of tungsten plasmas under running conditions of the ITER.
An optical authentication system based on imaging of excitation-selected lanthanide luminescence.
Carro-Temboury, Miguel R; Arppe, Riikka; Vosch, Tom; Sørensen, Thomas Just
2018-01-01
Secure data encryption relies heavily on one-way functions, and copy protection relies on features that are difficult to reproduce. We present an optical authentication system based on lanthanide luminescence from physical one-way functions or physical unclonable functions (PUFs). They cannot be reproduced and thus enable unbreakable encryption. Further, PUFs will prevent counterfeiting if tags with unique PUFs are grafted onto products. We have developed an authentication system that comprises a hardware reader, image analysis, and authentication software and physical keys that we demonstrate as an anticounterfeiting system. The physical keys are PUFs made from random patterns of taggants in polymer films on glass that can be imaged following selected excitation of particular lanthanide(III) ions doped into the individual taggants. This form of excitation-selected imaging ensures that by using at least two lanthanide(III) ion dopants, the random patterns cannot be copied, because the excitation selection will fail when using any other emitter. With the developed reader and software, the random patterns are read and digitized, which allows a digital pattern to be stored. This digital pattern or digital key can be used to authenticate the physical key in anticounterfeiting or to encrypt any message. The PUF key was produced with a staggering nominal encoding capacity of 7 3600 . Although the encoding capacity of the realized authentication system reduces to 6 × 10 104 , it is more than sufficient to completely preclude counterfeiting of products.
Statistical fission parameters for nuclei at high excitation and angular momenta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blann, M.; Komoto, T.A.
1982-01-01
Experimental fusion/fission excitation functions are analyzed by the statistical model with modified rotating liquid drop model barriers and with single particle level densities modeled for deformation for ground state (a/sub ν/) and saddle point nuclei (a/sub f/). Values are estimated for the errors in rotating liquid drop model barriers for the different systems analyzed. These results are found to correlate well with the trends predicted by the finite range model of Krappe, Nix, and Sierk, although the discrepancies seem to be approximately 1 MeV greater than the finite range model predictions over the limited range tested. The a priori values calculated for a/sub f/ and a/sub ν/ are within +- 2% of optimum free parameter values. Analyses for barrier decrements explore the importance of collective enhancement on level densities and of nuclear deformation in calculating transmission coefficients. A calculation is performed for the 97 Rh nucleus for which a first order angular momentum scaling is used for the J = 0 finite range corrections. An excellent fit is found for the fission excitation function in this approach. Results are compared in which rotating liquid drop model barriers are decremented by a constant energy, or alternatively multiplied by a constant factor. Either parametrization is shown to be capable of satisfactorily reproducing the data although their J = 0 extrapolated values differ markedly from one another. This underscores the dangers inherent in arbitrary barrier extrapolations
Novel spin excitation in the high field phase of an S=1 antiferromagnetic chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagiwara, M.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kimura, S.; Honda, Z.; Kindo, K.
2007-01-01
We report the results of high-field multi-frequency ESR experiment on the S=1 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain Ni(C 5 H 14 N 2 ) 2 N 3 (PF 6 ) for the fields up to about 55T and the frequencies up to about 2THz. We have found that excitation branches above the critical field (H c ) where the energy gap closes change into one branch around 15T which becomes close to the paramagnetic line at high fields. The branch above 15T fits well the conventional antiferromagnetic resonance mode with easy planar anisotropy. We compare the results with those in a weakly coupled antiferromagnetic dimer compound KCuCl 3 and discuss the origin of the branches observed above H c
Microscopic unitary description of tidal excitations in high-energy string-brane collisions
D'Appollonio, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Veneziano, Gabriele
2013-01-01
The eikonal operator was originally introduced to describe the effect of tidal excitations on higher-genus elastic string amplitudes at high energy. In this paper we provide a precise interpretation for this operator through the explicit tree-level calculation of generic inelastic transitions between closed strings as they scatter off a stack of parallel Dp-branes. We perform this analysis both in the light-cone gauge, using the Green-Schwarz vertex, and in the covariant formalism, using the Reggeon vertex operator. We also present a detailed discussion of the high energy behaviour of the covariant string amplitudes, showing how to take into account the energy factors that enhance the contribution of the longitudinally polarized massive states in a simple way.
Shell structure effects at high excitations and many-quasiparticle configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1980-01-01
Experimental and theoretical data available on few- and many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of complex nuclei at low, intermediate and high energies are shortly analyzed. The components are treated in the nuclear quasiparticle-phonon model. Specific features of the lowest and high-spin states, giant resonances, neutron resonances and the effects of the energy-level structure in the few-and many-particle transfer reactions are discussed. It is concluded that the most reliable nuclear properties are determined by the components, their behaviour reflecting the shell structure effects. Wich increasing excitation energy the density of levels increases exponentially and the contribution of few-quasiparticle components to the normalization of the wave functions decreases exponentially
High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Hardin, Brian E.
2010-08-11
The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Excited baryon form-factors at high momentum transfer at CEBAF at higher energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoler, P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
1994-04-01
The possibilities of measuring the properties of excited nucleons at high Q{sup 2} by means of exclusive single meson production at CEBAF with an electron energy of 8 GeV is considered. The motivation is to access short range phenomena in baryon structure, and to investigate the transition from the low Q{sup 2} non-perturbative QCD regime, where constituent quark models are valid, to higher Q{sup 2} where it is believed perturbative QCD plays an increasingly important role. It is found that high quality baryon decay angular distributions can be obtained for the most prominent states up to Q{sup 2} {approximately} 12 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} using a set of moderate resolution, large solid angle magnetic spectrometers.
Applicability of annular-source excited systems in quantitative XRF analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmoud, A.; Bernasconi, G.; Bamford, S.A.; Dosan, B.; Haselberger, N.; Markowicz, A.
1996-01-01
Radioisotope-excited XRF systems, using annular sources, are widely used in view of their simplicity, wide availability, relatively low price for the complete system and good overall performance with respect to accuracy and detection limits. However some problems arise when the use of fundamental parameter techniques for quantitative analysis is attempted. These problems are due to the fact that the systems operate with large solid angles for incoming and emerging radiation and both the incident and take-off angles are not trivial. In this paper an improved way to calculate effective values for the incident and take-off angles, using monte Carlo (M C) integration techniques is shown. In addition, a study of the applicability of the effective angles for analysing different samples, or standards was carried out. The M C method allows also calculation of the excitation-detection efficiency for different parts of the sample and estimation of the overall efficiency of a source-excited XRF setup. The former information is useful in the design of optimized XRF set-ups and prediction of the response of inhomogeneous samples. A study of the sensitivity of the results due to sample characteristics and a comparison of the results with experimentally determined values for incident and take-off angles is also presented. A flexible and user-friendly computer program was developed in order to perform efficiently the lengthy calculation involved. (author). 14 refs. 5 figs
V. S. Lebedev and I. L. Beigman, Physics of Highly Excited Atoms and Ions
Mewe, R.
1999-07-01
This book contains a comprehensive description of the basic principles of the theoretical spectroscopy and experimental spectroscopic diagnostics of Rydberg atoms and ions, i.e., atoms in highly excited states with a very large principal quantum number (n≫1). Rydberg atoms are characterized by a number of peculiar physical properties as compared to atoms in the ground or a low excited state. They have a very small ionization potential (∝1/n2), the highly excited electron has a small orbital velocity (∝1/n), the radius (∝n2) is very large, the excited electron has a long orbital period (∝n3), and the radiation lifetime is very long (∝n3-5). At the same time the R. atom is very sensitive to perturbations from external fields in collisions with charged and neutral targets. In recent years, R. atoms have been observed in laboratory and cosmic conditions for n up to ˜1000, which means that the size amounts to about 0.1 mm, ˜106 times that of an atom in the ground state. The scope of this monograph is to familiarize the reader with today's approaches and methods for describing isolated R. atoms and ions, radiative transitions between highly excited states, and photoionization and photorecombination processes. The authors present a number of efficient methods for describing the structure and properties of R. atoms and calculating processes of collisions with neutral and charged particles as well as spectral-line broadening and shift of Rydberg atomic series in gases, cool and hot plasmas in laboratories and in astrophysical sources. Particular attention is paid to a comparison of theoretical results with available experimental data. The book contains 9 chapters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the basic properties of R. atoms (ions), Chapter 2 is devoted to an account of general methods describing an isolated Rydberg atom. Chapter 3 is focussed on the recent achievements in calculations of form factors and dipole matrix elements of different types of
Transport coefficients in high-temperature ionized air flows with electronic excitation
Istomin, V. A.; Oblapenko, G. P.
2018-01-01
Transport coefficients are studied in high-temperature ionized air mixtures using the modified Chapman-Enskog method. The 11-component mixture N2/N2+/N /N+/O2/O2+/O /O+/N O /N O+/e- , taking into account the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules and electronic degrees of freedom of both atomic and molecular species, is considered. Using the PAINeT software package, developed by the authors of the paper, in wide temperature range calculations of the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion, diffusion, and shear viscosity coefficients for an equilibrium ionized air mixture and non-equilibrium flow conditions for mixture compositions, characteristic of those in shock tube experiments and re-entry conditions, are performed. For the equilibrium air case, the computed transport coefficients are compared to those obtained using simplified kinetic theory algorithms. It is shown that neglecting electronic excitation leads to a significant underestimation of the thermal conductivity coefficient at temperatures higher than 25 000 K. For non-equilibrium test cases, it is shown that the thermal diffusion coefficients of neutral species and the self-diffusion coefficients of all species are strongly affected by the mixture composition, while the thermal conductivity coefficient is most strongly influenced by the degree of ionization of the flow. Neglecting electronic excitation causes noticeable underestimation of the thermal conductivity coefficient at temperatures higher than 20 000 K.
Xu, Wei-Qing; Xu, Long-Quan; Qi, De-Guang; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ya-Wei; Zhu, Lin-Fan
2018-04-01
The differential cross sections and generalized oscillator strengths for the low-lying excitations of the valence-shell 1eg orbital electron in ethane have been measured for the first time at a high incident electron energy of 1500 eV and a scattering angular range of 1.5°-10°. A weak feature, termed X here, with a band center of about 7.5 eV has been observed, which was also announced by the previous experimental and theoretical studies. The dynamic behaviors of the generalized oscillator strengths for the 3s (8.7 eV), 3s+3p (9.31 eV, 9.41 eV), and X (˜7.5 eV) transitions on the momentum transfer squared have been obtained. The integral cross sections of these transitions from their thresholds to 5000 eV have been obtained with the aid of the BE-scaling (B is the binding energy and E is the excitation energy) method. The optical oscillator strengths of the above transitions determined by extrapolating their generalized oscillator strengths to the limit of the squared momentum transfer K2 → 0 are in good agreement with the ones from the photoabsorption spectrum [J. W. Au et al., Chem. Phys. 173, 209 (1993)], which indicates that the present differential cross sections, generalized oscillator strengths, and integral cross sections can serve as benchmark data.
Effects of classical resonances on the chaotic microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, R V
1987-05-01
Experimental measurements of the microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms with principal quantum numbers ranging from n = 32 to 90 are well described by a classical treatment of the nonlinear electron dynamics. In particular, the measurements of the threshold field for the onset of significant ionization exhibits a curious dependence on the microwave frequency with distinct peaks at rational values of the scaled frequency, n/sup 3/..cap omega.. = 1, 2/3, 1/2, 2/5, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, which is in excellent agreement with the predictions for the onset of classical chaos in a one-dimensional model of the experiment. In the classical theory this frequency dependence of the threshold fields is due to the stabilizing effect of nonlinear resonances (''islands'') in the classical phase space which is greatly enhanced when the microwave perturbation is turned on slowly (adiabatically) as in the experiments. Quantum calculations for this one-dimensional model also exhibit this stabilizing effect due to the preferential excitation of localized quasi-energy states.
Fluorescence fluctuation of Rhodamine 6G dye for high repetition rate laser excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Nageshwar; Patel, Hemant K.; Dixit, S.K.; Vora, H.S.
2013-01-01
In this paper, fluorescence from Rhodamine 6G dye for stationary and flowing liquid medium, excited by copper vapor laser, operating at 6 kHz pulse repetition frequency, was investigated. Large fluctuations in spectral width (about 5 nm) and spectral intensity in the fluorescence from stationary dye solution were observed, while fluctuations in the spectral width diminish in a flowing dye medium. However, this increases spectral intensity and slightly red shifts the fluorescence peak emission wavelength. Theoretical analysis was carried out to explain the observed results by incorporating the temperature induced refractive index, beam deflection and spectral variation in stationary dye solution. Numerical analysis of thermal load and contour of temperature in the optical pumped region inside the dye cell in stationary, 0.2 and 1.5 m/s flow velocity was also investigated to support our analysis. - Highlights: ► High repetition rate excitation generates inhomogeneity in the gain medium. ► Fluorescence of Rhodamine 6G in stationary and flowing medium was carried out. ► Fluorescence fluctuations lessen in flowing medium in contrast to stationary medium. ► Our theoretical and numerical analysis enlightens the experimented outcome trend.
Synchronization of uncoupled excitable systems induced by white and coloured noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zambrano, Samuel; Marino, Ines P; Seoane, Jesus M; Sanjuan, Miguel A F; Euzzor, Stefano; Geltrude, Andrea; Meucci, Riccardo; Arecchi, Fortunato T
2010-01-01
We study, both numerically and experimentally, the synchronization of uncoupled excitable systems due to a common noise. We consider two identical FitzHugh-Nagumo systems, which display both spiking and non-spiking behaviours in chaotic or periodic regimes. An electronic circuit provides a laboratory implementation of these dynamics. Synchronization is tested with both white and coloured noise, showing that coloured noise is more effective in inducing synchronization of the systems. We also study the effects on the synchronization of parameter mismatch and of the presence of intrinsic (not common) noise, and we conclude that the best performance of coloured noise is robust under these distortions.
Gritsev, Vladimir; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail; Polkovnikov, Anatoli
2007-11-16
We study the problem of rapid change of the interaction parameter (quench) in a many-body low-dimensional system. It is shown that, measuring the correlation functions after the quench, the information about a spectrum of collective excitations in a system can be obtained. This observation is supported by analysis of several integrable models and we argue that it is valid for nonintegrable models as well. Our conclusions are supplemented by performing exact numerical simulations on finite systems. We propose that measuring the power spectrum in a dynamically split 1D Bose-Einsten condensate into two coupled condensates can be used as an experimental test of our predictions.
On One Means of Hard Excitation of Oscillations in Nonlinear Flutter Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. D. Glyzin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Considered are so-called finite-dimensional flutter systems, i.e. systems of ordinary differential equations, arising from Galerkin approximations of certain boundary value problems of aeroelasticity theory as well as from a number of radiophysics applications. We study small oscillations of these equations in case of 1 : 3 resonance. By combining analytical and numerical methods, it is concluded that the mentioned resonance can cause a hard excitation of oscillations. Namely, for flutter systems shown is the possibility of coexistence, along with the stable zero state, of stable invariant tori of arbitrary finite dimension as well as chaotic attractors.
Nonlinear response to the multiple sine wave excitation of a softening--hardening system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koplik, B.; Subudhi, M.; Curreri, J.
1979-01-01
In studying the earthquake response of the HTGR core, it was observed that the system can display softening--hardening characteristics. This is of great consequence in evaluating the structural safety aspects of the core. In order to obtain a better understanding of the governing parameters, an investigation was undertaken with a single-degree-of-freedom system having a softening--hardening spring characteristic and excited by multiple sine waves. A parametric study varying the input amplitudes and the spring characteristic was performed. Transients were introduced into the system, and the jump phenomena between the lower softening characteristics to the higher hardening curve was studied
Wang, Deli; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Xiangrong
2016-03-01
This paper aims to deal with the stationary responses of a Rayleigh viscoelastic system with zero barrier impacts under external random excitation. First, the original stochastic viscoelastic system is converted to an equivalent stochastic system without viscoelastic terms by approximately adding the equivalent stiffness and damping. Relying on the means of non-smooth transformation of state variables, the above system is replaced by a new system without an impact term. Then, the stationary probability density functions of the system are observed analytically through stochastic averaging method. By considering the effects of the biquadratic nonlinear damping coefficient and the noise intensity on the system responses, the effectiveness of the theoretical method is tested by comparing the analytical results with those generated from Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, it does deserve attention that some system parameters can induce the occurrence of stochastic P-bifurcation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.
1996-01-01
Fusion excitation functions spanning the entire barrier region in 1 MeV energy steps for the two systems 40 Ca + 192 Os, 194 Pt are presented. The results of fission fragment angular distribution measurements for fusion-fission of 40 Ca + 197 Au at several projectile energies within the barrier region are also presented. The fusion data is of high enough precision to allow for extraction of the distribution of fusion barriers from the second differential of the product of E and σ. Basic coupled channels calculations which are in quite good agreement with the data are shown and discussed
[Study on relationship between emotional stability in flight and nerve system excitability].
Liu, Fang; Huang, Wei-fen; Jing, Xiao-lu; Zhang, Ping
2003-06-01
To study the related factors of emotional stability in flight. Based on the operable definition of emotional stability in flight and the related literature review, 63 experienced pilots and flight coaches were investigated and the other-rating questionnaire of emotional stability in flight was established. To test the senior nerve system, Uchida Kraeplin (UK) test was administrated on 153 19-21 years old male student pilots of the second grade in the department of flight technique in China Civil Aviation College, who were selected through 13 h flight, 35 h solo flight, and acted as the standardization group. In the end, the correlation was explored between the testing results and their emotional behavioral characteristics in flight. Significant positive correlation was found between emotional feature indexes of emotional stability in flight and excitability in UK test. The excitability in UK test are good predictors for emotional stability in flight.
Magnetic excitations in low-dimensional spin systems: neutron scattering study on AV2O5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, Kenji
1997-01-01
Recent experiments on vanadium oxide bronzes AV 2 O 5 (A=Na, Mg, Li) are reviewed. Experiments are carried out combining two triple-axis spectrometers installed at a thermal beam port and a cold neutron guide at JRR-3M. Spin-wave excitations in single crystals NaV 2 O 5 in the spin-Peierls state shows a steep intra-chain dispersion, which is consistent with estimated exchange interaction from magnetization measurement, and a weak inter-chain dispersion. In the low energy excitation measurement on powder sample of MgV 2 O 5 , we have observed energy gap of 2 meV, which indicates that this material is a ladder system with strong 1D character. Preliminary result on LiV 2 O 5 , which is expected to be a simple 1D antiferromagnet or a zig-zag chain, is also mentioned
Amplitude control of the track-induced self-excited vibration for a maglev system.
Zhou, Danfeng; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun
2014-09-01
The Electromagnet Suspension (EMS) maglev train uses controlled electromagnetic forces to achieve suspension, and self-excited vibration may occur due to the flexibility of the track. In this article, the harmonic balance method is applied to investigate the amplitude of the self-excited vibration, and it is found that the amplitude of the vibration depends on the voltage of the power supplier. Based on this observation, a vibration amplitude control method, which controls the amplitude of the vibration by adjusting the voltage of the power supplier, is proposed to attenuate the vibration. A PI controller is designed to control the amplitude of the vibration at a given level. The effectiveness of this method shows a good prospect for its application to commercial maglev systems. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piezoelectric Shunt Vibration Damping of F-15 Panel under High Acoustic Excitation
Wu, Shu-Yau; Turner, Travis L.; Rizzi, Stephen A.
2000-01-01
At last year's SPIE symposium, we reported results of an experiment on structural vibration damping of an F-15 underbelly panel using piezoelectric shunting with five bonded PZT transducers. The panel vibration was induced with an acoustic speaker at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of about 90 dB. Amplitude reductions of 13.45 and 10.72 dB were achieved for the first and second modes, respectively, using single- and multiple-mode shunting. It is the purpose of this investigation to extend the passive piezoelectric shunt-damping technique to control structural vibration induced at higher acoustic excitation levels, and to examine the controllability and survivability of the bonded PZT transducers at these high levels. The shunting experiment was performed with the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) at the NASA Langley Research Center using the same F-15 underbelly panel. The TAFA is a progressive wave tube facility. The panel was mounted in one wall of the TAFA test section using a specially designed mounting fixture such that the panel was subjected to grazing-incidence acoustic excitation. Five PZT transducers were used with two shunt circuits designed to control the first and second modes of the structure between 200 and 400 Hz. We first determined the values of the shunt inductance and resistance at an OASPL of 130 dB. These values were maintained while we gradually increased the OASPL from 130 to 154 dB in 6-dB steps. During each increment, the frequency response function between accelerometers on the panel and the acoustic excitation measured by microphones, before and after shunting, were recorded. Good response reduction was observed up to the 148dB level. The experiment was stopped at 154 dB due to wire breakage from vibration at a transducer wire joint. The PZT transducers, however, were still bonded well on the panel and survived at this high dB level. We also observed shifting of the frequency peaks toward lower frequency when the OASPL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordon, R.J.
1990-01-01
An explanation is proposed for the qualitatively different types of behavior that have been reported for the vibrational relaxation of highly excited diatomic and polyatomic molecules. It is argued that all of the diatomic molecules that have been studied in bulk relax adiabatically at room temperature. In contrast, large polyatomic molecules have low frequency modes which act at ''doorway'' modes for the rest of the molecules, producing an impulsive relaxation mechanism. The theoretical work of Nesbitt and Hynes showed that impulsive collisions result in an exponential decay of the average vibrational energy of a Morse oscillator, whereas adiabatic collisions produce nonexponential power law behavior. We propose that this result explains a large body of data for the vibrational relaxation of small and large molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hackbarth, S; Schlothauer, J; Preuss, A; Röder, B
2013-01-01
For the first time singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics in living cells were detected at high precision using LED light for excitation. As LED technology evolves, the light intensity emitted by standard LEDs allows photosensitized singlet oxygen luminescence detection in solution and cell suspensions. We present measurements superior to those of most actual laser powered setups regarding precision of singlet oxygen kinetics in solutions and cell suspensions. Data presented here show that LED based setups allow the determination of the photosensitizer triplet and singlet oxygen decay times in vitro with an accuracy of 0.1 μs. This enables monitoring of the photosensitizer efficiency and interaction with the cellular components using illumination doses small enough not to cause cell death. (letter)
Comparison of excitation mechanisms in the analytical regions of a high-power two-jet plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaksas, Natalia P.
2015-01-01
Excitation mechanisms in the analytical regions of a high-power two-jet plasma were investigated. A new plasmatron recently developed was applied in this work. The Boltzmann population of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions was observed in both analytical regions, before and after the jet confluence, as well as in the jet confluence, which proves excitation of atoms and ions by electron impact. The disturbance of local thermodynamic equilibrium in all regions of the plasma flow was deduced on the basis of considerable difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures. Such a difference is most likely to be caused by contribution of metastable argon to atom ionization. The region before the jet confluence has the greatest difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures and is more non-equilibrium than the region after the confluence due to comparatively low electron and high metastable argon concentrations. Low electron concentration in this region provides lower background emission than in the region after the jet confluence, which leads to better detection limits for the majority of elements. - Highlights: • Excitation mechanisms were investigated in the analytical regions of a high-power TJP. • Boltzmann population of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions takes place in all regions of the plasma flow. • The considerable difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures occurs. • Penning ionization by metastable argon results in disturbance of LTE in the plasma. • The region before the jet confluence is more non-equilibrium than after that
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vigil, M.B. [comp.
1995-03-01
This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.
Hailong, Zhang; Enrong, Wang; Fuhong, Min; Ning, Zhang
2016-03-01
The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51475246, 51277098, and 51075215), the Research Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province China (Grant No. KYLX15 0725), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK20131402).
Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson, R.L.
1992-01-01
This report discusses research of multicharged nitrogen, oxygen and carbon monoxide molecular ions produced with collision with multicharged argon ions. Properties like ionization, dissociation, and excitation are investigated
Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao
2017-09-21
To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The vibration control and performance evaluation on a transmission-tower line system by using friction dampers subjected to wind excitations are carried out in this study. The three-dimensional finite element (FE model of a transmission tower is firstly constructed. A two-dimensional lumped mass model of a transmission tower is developed for dynamic analysis. The analytical model of transmission tower-line system is proposed by taking the dynamic interaction between the tower and the transmission lines into consideration. The mechanical model of passive friction damper is presented by involving the effects of damper axial stiffness. The equation of motion of the transmission tower-line system incorporated with the friction dampers disturbed by wind excitations is established. A real transmission tower-line system is taken as an example to examine the feasibility and reliability of the proposed control approach. An extensive parameter study is carried out to find the optimal parameters of friction damper and to assess the effects of slipping force axial stiffness and hysteresis loop on control performance. The work on an example structure indicates that the application of friction dampers with optimal parameters could significantly reduce wind-induced responses of the transmission tower-line system.
Application of an antenna excited high pressure microwave discharge to compact discharge lamps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kando, M; Fukaya, T; Ohishi, Y; Mizojiri, T; Morimoto, Y; Shido, M; Serita, T
2008-01-01
A novel type of high pressure microwave discharge has been investigated to feed the microwave power at the centre of the compact high pressure discharge lamps using the antenna effect. This method of microwave discharge is named as the antenna excited microwave discharge (AEMD). The 2.45 GHz microwave of around 50 W from the solid state microwave generator can sustain a stable plasma column in the small gap between a couple of antennas fitted on the compact lamp filled with discharge gases at a pressure higher than atmosphere. The AEMD has been applied to a compact metal halide lamp and an extremely high pressure mercury discharge lamp. As a result, the metal halide lamp showed high luminous efficacy of around 130 lm W -1 . The excellent lamp properties obtained here can be explained by the low heating loss at the antennas and the lamp wall. The profiles of the microwave electric field in the lamp and the microwave launcher have been numerically calculated to consider the microwave power supply into the lamp
HIGHLY EXCITED H2 IN HERBIG–HARO 7: FORMATION PUMPING IN SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pike, R. E.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.
2016-01-01
We have obtained K -band spectra at R ∼ 5000 and an angular resolution of 0.″3 of a section of the Herbig–Haro 7 (HH7) bow shock, using the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph at Gemini North. Present in the portion of the data cube corresponding to the brightest part of the bow shock are emission lines of H 2 with upper state energies ranging from ∼6000 K to the dissociation energy of H 2 , ∼50,000 K. Because of low signal-to-noise ratios, the highest excitation lines cannot be easily seen elsewhere in the observed region. However, excitation temperatures, measured throughout much of the observed region using lines from levels as high as 25,000 K, are a strong function of upper level energy, indicating that the very highest levels are populated throughout. The level populations in the brightest region are well fit by a two-temperature model, with 98.5% of the emitting gas at T = 1800 K and 1.5% at T = 5200 K. The bulk of the H 2 line emission in HH7, from the 1800 K gas, has previously been well-modeled by a continuous shock, but the 5200 K cozmponent is inconsistent with standalone standard continuous shock models. We discuss various possible origins for the hot component and suggest that this component is H 2 newly reformed on dust grains and then ejected from them, presumably following dissociation of some of the H 2 by the shock.
Investigations of the isospin in the highly excited compound nuclei 52Cr and 58Co
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roth, K.
1978-01-01
The influence of T states excited by p bombardment on the quantities in the correlation function is investigated by means of a fluctuation analysis of the excitation function in the p and α decay channels of the compound nuclei 52 Cr and 58 Co. (AH) [de
Excitation of short wavelength Alfven oscillations by high energy ions in tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beasley, C.O. Jr.; Lominadze, J.G.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.
1975-08-01
The excitation of Alfven waves by fast untrapped ions in axisymmetric tokamaks is described by the dispersion relation epsilon 11 - c 2 k/sub parallel bars/ 2 /ω 2 = 0. Using this relation a new class of instability connected with the excitation of Alfven oscillations is described. (U.S.)
Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system for microscopic and endoscopic applications
Mayes, Sam A.; Leavesley, Silas J.; Rich, Thomas C.
2016-04-01
Current microscopic and endoscopic technologies for cancer screening utilize white-light illumination sources. Hyper-spectral imaging has been shown to improve sensitivity while retaining specificity when compared to white-light imaging in both microscopy and in vivo imaging. However, hyperspectral imaging methods have historically suffered from slow acquisition times due to the narrow bandwidth of spectral filters. Often minutes are required to gather a full image stack. We have developed a novel approach called excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging that provides 2-3 orders of magnitude increased signal strength. This reduces acquisition times significantly, allowing for live video acquisition. Here, we describe a preliminary prototype excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system that can be coupled with endoscopes or microscopes for hyperspectral imaging of tissues and cells. Our system is comprised of three subsystems: illumination, transmission, and imaging. The illumination subsystem employs light-emitting diode arrays to illuminate at different wavelengths. The transmission subsystem utilizes a unique geometry of optics and a liquid light guide. Software controls allow us to interface with and control the subsystems and components. Digital and analog signals are used to coordinate wavelength intensity, cycling and camera triggering. Testing of the system shows it can cycle 16 wavelengths at as fast as 1 ms per cycle. Additionally, more than 18% of the light transmits through the system. Our setup should allow for hyperspectral imaging of tissue and cells in real time.
Watanabe, Sadayuki; Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi
2006-08-31
We studied the generation and decay dynamics of triplet excitons in tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) thin films by using transient absorption spectroscopy. Absorption spectra of both singlet and triplet excitons in the film were identified by comparison with transient absorption spectra of the ligand molecule (8-hydroxyquinoline) itself and the excited triplet state in solution previously reported. By measuring the excitation light intensity dependence of the absorption, we found that exciton annihilation dominated under high-density excitation conditions. Annihilation rate constants were estimated to be gammaSS = (6 +/- 3) x 10(-11) cm3 s(-1) for single excitons and gammaTT = (4 +/- 2) x 10(-13) cm3 s(-1) for triplet excitons. From detailed analysis of the light intensity dependence of the quantum yield of triplet excitons under high-density conditions, triplet excitons were mainly generated through fission from highly excited singlet states populated by singlet-singlet exciton annihilation. We estimated that 30% of the highly excited states underwent fission.
Electronic excitation effects on secondary ion emission in highly charged ion-solid interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekioka, T.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Lehnert, U.; Fehrenbach, C.
2001-01-01
In order to investigate the secondary ion emission from the surface of conductive materials bombarded by highly charged heavy ions, we have done two types of experiments. First, we have measured the yield of the sputtered ions from the surface of solid targets of conductive materials (Al, Si, Ni, Cu) bombarded by Xe q+ (q=15-44) at 300 keV (v p =0.30 a.u) and at 1.0 MeV (v p =0.54 a.u). In view of the secondary ion yields as a function of the potential energy of the projectile, the increase rates below q=35, where the potential energy amounts to 25.5 keV, were rather moderate and showed a prominent increase above q=35. These phenomena were rather strong in the case of the metal targets. Second, we have measured the energy dependence of the yield of the sputtered ions from the surface of solid targets of conductive materials (C, Al) bombarded by Xe q+ (q=30,36,44) between 76 keV (v p =0.15 a.u) and 6.0 MeV (v p =1.3 a.u). A broad enhancement of the secondary ion yield has been found for Al target bombarded by Xe 44+ . From these experimental results, the electronic excitation effects in conductive materials for impact of slow highly charged heavy ions bearing high potential energy is discussed
Emmanouilidou, Agapi
2012-06-01
We present a theoretical quasiclassical treatment of the formation, during Coulomb explosion, of highly excited neutral H atoms for strongly-driven hydrogen molecule. This process, where after the laser field is turned off, one electron escapes to the continuum while the other occupies a Rydberg state, was recently reported in an experimental study in Phys. Rev. Lett 102, 113002 (2009). We find that two-electron effects are important in order to correctly account for all pathways leading to highly excited neutral hydrogen formation [1]. We identify two pathways where the electron that escapes to the continuum does so either very quickly or after remaining bound for a few periods of the laser field. These two pathways of highly excited neutral H formation have distinct traces in the probability distribution of the escaping electron momentum components. [4pt] [1] A. Emmanouilidou, C. Lazarou, A. Staudte and U. Eichmann, Phys. Rev. A (Rapid) 85 011402 (2012).
Lattice Boltzmann simulation for the energy and entropy of excitable systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Deng Min-Yi; Tang Guo-Ning; Kong Ling-Jiang; Liu Mu-Ren
2011-01-01
The internal energy and the spatiotemporal entropy of excitable systems are investigated with the lattice Boltzmann method. The numerical results show that the breakup of spiral wave is attributed to the inadequate supply of energy, i.e., the internal energy of system is smaller than the energy of self-sustained spiral wave. It is observed that the average internal energy of a regular wave state reduces with its spatiotemporal entropy decreasing. Interestingly, although the energy difference between two regular wave states is very small, the different states can be distinguished obviously due to the large difference between their spatiotemporal entropies. In addition, when the unstable spiral wave converts into the spatiotemporal chaos, the internal energy of system decreases, while the spatiotemporal entropy increases, which behaves as the thermodynamic entropy in an isolated system.
Effects of Energy Dissipation on the Parametric Excitation of a Coupled Qubit-Cavity System
Remizov, S. V.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapiro, D. S.; Pogosov, W. V.; Lozovik, Yu. E.
2018-02-01
We consider a parametrically driven system of a qubit coupled to a cavity taking into account different channels of energy dissipation. We focus on the periodic modulation of a single parameter of this hybrid system, which is the coupling constant between the two subsystems. Such a modulation is possible within the superconducting realization of qubit-cavity coupled systems, characterized by an outstanding degree of tunability and flexibility. Our major result is that energy dissipation in the cavity can enhance population of the excited state of the qubit in the steady state, while energy dissipation in the qubit subsystem can enhance the number of photons generated from vacuum. We find optimal parameters for the realization of such dissipation-induced amplification of quantum effects. Our results might be of importance for the full control of quantum states of coupled systems as well as for the storage and engineering of quantum states.
Immersion and Invariance-Based Coordinated Generator Excitation and SVC Control for Power Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adirak Kanchanaharuthai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear coordinated control of excitation and SVC of an electrical power system is proposed for transient stability, and voltage regulation enhancement after the occurrence of a large disturbance and a small perturbation. Using the concept of Immersion and Invariance (I&I design methodology, the proposed nonlinear controller is used to not only achieve power angle stability, frequency and voltage regulation but also ensure that the closed-loop system is transiently and asymptotically stable. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller design, the simulation results illustrate that, in spite of the case where a large perturbation occurs on the transmission line or there is a small perturbation to mechanical power inputs, the proposed controller can not only keep the system transiently stable but also simultaneously accomplish better dynamic properties of the system as compared to operation with the existing controllers designed through a coordinated passivation technique controller and a feedback linearization scheme, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhentao Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Fault detection and isolation (FDI in rotor systems often faces the problem that the system dynamics is dependent on the rotor rotary frequency because of the gyroscopic effect. In unbalance excited rotor systems, the continuously distributed unbalances are hard to be determined or estimated accurately. The unbalance forces as disturbances make fault detection more complicated. The aim of this paper is to develop linear time invariant (LTI FDI methods (i.e., with constant parameters for rotor systems under consideration of gyroscopic effect and disturbances. Two approaches to describe the gyroscopic effect, that is, as unknown inputs and as model uncertainties, are investigated. Based on these two approaches, FDI methods are developed and the results are compared regarding the resulting FDI performances. Results are obtained by the application in a rotor test rig. Restrictions for the application of these methods are discussed.
Multireference excitation energies for bacteriochlorophylls A within light harvesting system 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anda, Andre; Hansen, Thorsten; De Vico, Luca
2016-01-01
Light-harvesting system 2 (LH2) of purple bacteria is one of the most popular antenna complexes used to study Nature's way of collecting and channeling solar energy. The dynamics of the absorbed energy is probed by ultrafast spectroscopy. Simulation of these experiments relies on fitting a range...... bacteriochlorophylls in LH2. We find that the excitation energies vary among the bacteriochlorophyll monomers and that they are regulated by the curvature of the macrocycle ring and the dihedral angle of an acetyl moiety. Increasing the curvature lifts the ground state energy, which causes a red shift...
Optimal placement of excitations and sensors for verification of large dynamical systems
Salama, M.; Rose, T.; Garba, J.
1987-01-01
The computationally difficult problem of the optimal placement of excitations and sensors to maximize the observed measurements is studied within the framework of combinatorial optimization, and is solved numerically using a variation of the simulated annealing heuristic algorithm. Results of numerical experiments including a square plate and a 960 degrees-of-freedom Control of Flexible Structure (COFS) truss structure, are presented. Though the algorithm produces suboptimal solutions, its generality and simplicity allow the treatment of complex dynamical systems which would otherwise be difficult to handle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isola, L; Lopez, M; Gomez, B J, E-mail: isola@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) 27 Febrero 210 Bis. (S2000EZP) Rosario (Argentina)
2011-09-21
In an Ar-N{sub 2} discharge, the high excitation transfer from Ar({sup 3}P{sub 2,0}) to N{sub 2} produces an overpopulation of the high rotational levels of the bands of the second positive system (SPS), and so the spectra interpretation is not straightforward. This paper presents a fit function for the SPS bands measured in Ar-N{sub 2}, which allows us to study the excitation process contributions to the N{sub 2}(C) level. The procedure was tested in the negative glow of a pulsed Ar-N{sub 2} discharge at a pressure of 2.5 Torr, for different mixture concentrations. In this discharge, through the fitting, it was possible to calculate the variation of the N{sub 2}(C) densities produced by different excitation processes as well as the variation of Ar metastable density.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wundt, Benedikt J.; Jentschura, Ulrich D.
2008-01-01
Canonically, the quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in bound systems have been evaluated in photon energy regularization, i.e., using a noncovariant overlapping parameter that separates the high-energy relativistic scales of the virtual quanta from the nonrelativistic domain. Here, we calculate the higher-order corrections to the one-photon self-energy calculation with three different overlapping parameters (photon energy, photon mass and dimensional regularization) and demonstrate the reparameterization invariance of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED) using this particular example. We also present new techniques for the calculation of the low-energy part of this correction, which lead to results for the Lamb shift of highly excited states that are important for high-precision spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wundt, Benedikt J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Jentschura, Ulrich D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.jentschura@mpi-hd.mpg.de
2008-01-24
Canonically, the quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in bound systems have been evaluated in photon energy regularization, i.e., using a noncovariant overlapping parameter that separates the high-energy relativistic scales of the virtual quanta from the nonrelativistic domain. Here, we calculate the higher-order corrections to the one-photon self-energy calculation with three different overlapping parameters (photon energy, photon mass and dimensional regularization) and demonstrate the reparameterization invariance of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED) using this particular example. We also present new techniques for the calculation of the low-energy part of this correction, which lead to results for the Lamb shift of highly excited states that are important for high-precision spectroscopy.
Effect of power frequency excitation character on ferroresonance in neutral-grounded system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hui Meng; Liu Chong-Xin
2010-01-01
In most earlier ferroresonance studies the traditional excitation characteristic of iron core, in which the traditional excitation characteristic contains harmonic voltages or currents, has been used as if it were made up of pure fundamental voltage or current. However, this is not always true. In comparison with traditional excitation characteristics, this paper introduces the power frequency excitation characteristic of the iron core, which contains no harmonics. The power frequency excitation characteristic of iron core has been obtained by Elector Magnetic Transient Program, resulting in discrete voltage and current pairs. Extensive simulations are carried out to analyse the effect of power frequency excitation characteristic on potential transformer ferroresonance. A detailed analysis of simulation results demonstrates that with power frequency excitation characteristic of iron core inclusion at certain excitation voltage the ferroresonance may happen, conversely it may not happen with traditional excitation characteristic inclusion. (general)
Goto, Yuki; Kubo, Shin; Tsujimura, Tohru; Takubo, Hidenori
2017-10-01
Recently, it has been shown that the radiation from a single electron in cyclotron motion has vortex property. Although the cyclotron emission exists universally in nature, the vortex property has not been featured because this property is normally cancelled out due to the randomness in gyro-phase of electrons and the development of detection of the vortex property has not been well motivated. In this research, we are developing a method to generate the vortex radiation from electrons in cyclotron motion with controlled gyro-phase. Electron that rotates around the uniform static magnetic field is accelerated by right-hand circular polarized (RHCP) radiation resonantly when the cyclotron frequency coincides with the applied RHCP radiation frequency. A large number of electrons can be coherently accelerated in gyro-phase by a RHCP high power radiation so that these electrons can radiate coherent emission with vortex feature. We will show that vortex radiation created by purely rotating electrons for the first time.
Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju
2017-08-01
In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.
Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; George, Michael W.; Besley, Nicholas A.
2018-06-01
The restricted excitation subspace approximation is explored as a basis to reduce the memory storage required in linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that excluding the core orbitals and up to 70% of the virtual orbitals in the construction of the excitation subspace does not result in significant changes in computed UV/vis spectra for large molecules. The reduced size of the excitation subspace greatly reduces the size of the subspace vectors that need to be stored when using the Davidson procedure to determine the eigenvalues of the TDDFT equations. Furthermore, additional screening of the two-electron integrals in combination with a reduction in the size of the numerical integration grid used in the TDDFT calculation leads to significant computational savings. The use of these approximations represents a simple approach to extend TDDFT to the study of large systems and make the calculations increasingly tractable using modest computing resources.
In which metals are high electronic excitations able to create damage?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Legrand, P.; Dunlop, A.; Lesueur, D.; Lorenzelli, N.; Morillo, J.; Bouffard, S.
1992-01-01
Since a few years a certain number of results have shown that high energy deposition through electronic excitation can lead to damage creation in metallic targets. In order to test which is the right parameter favouring damage creation (high d-electrons density favouring electron-phonon coupling, various electrical conductivities, existence of different displacive phase transformations . . .) chosen metallic targets (Zr, Co, Ti, Ag, Pd, Pt, W, Ni) were irradiated on the french accelerator GANIL in Caen, at cryogenic temperatures with GeV-ions (Pb, O). In situ electrical resistance variation measurements at low temperature were achieved, followed by isochronal annealing of defects and post-X-ray observations at room temperature. This study shows that a very strong enhancement of the damage production occurs only in Zr, Ti and Co which present different allotropic phases and in particular a displacive transformation associated with soft modes in the phonon spectrum. The structure of stage I recovery of all the samples depends on the electronic stopping power
Optical emission from a high-refractive-index waveguide excited by a traveling electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuwamura, Yuji; Yamada, Minoru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Kanai, Takeshi; Fares, Hesham
2008-01-01
An optical emission scheme was demonstrated, in which a high-refractive-index waveguide is excited by a traveling electron beam in a vacuum environment. The waveguide was made of Si-SiO 2 layers. The velocity of light propagating in the waveguide was slowed down to 1/3 of that in free space due to the high refractive index of Si. The light penetrated partly into the vacuum in the form of a surface wave. The electron beam was emitted from an electron gun and propagated along the surface of the waveguide. When the velocity of the electron coincided with that of the light, optical emission was observed. This emission is a type of Cherenkov radiation and is not conventional cathode luminescence from the waveguide materials because Si and SiO 2 are transparent to light at the emitted wavelength. This type of emission was observed in an optical wavelength range from 1.2 to 1.6 μm with an electron acceleration voltage of 32-42 kV. The characteristics of the emitted light, such as the polarization direction and the relation between the acceleration voltage of the electron beam and the optical wavelength, coincided well with the theoretical results. The coherent length of an electron wave in the vacuum was confirmed to be equal to the electron spacing, as found by measuring the spectral profile of the emitted light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter
2017-01-01
of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by factor of 5 for standard troponin I and by factor of 3 for a research high-sensitivity troponin I assay, compared...... to the flash lamp excitation. The obtained limit of detection was 0.22 ng/L measured on plasma with the research highsensitivity troponin I assay and 1.9 ng/L measured on tris-saline-azide buffer containing bovine serum albumin with the standard troponin I assay. We discuss the optimization of time...
Zalay, Osbert C.; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L.; Bardakjian, Berj L.
2010-06-01
Most forms of epilepsy are marked by seizure episodes that arise spontaneously. The low-magnesium/high-potassium (low-Mg2+/high-K+) experimental model of epilepsy is an acute model that produces spontaneous, recurring seizure-like events (SLEs). To elucidate the nature of spontaneous seizure transitions and their relationship to neuronal excitability, whole-cell recordings from the intact hippocampus were undertaken in vitro, and the response of hippocampal CA3 neurons to Gaussian white noise injection was obtained before and after treatment with various concentrations of low-Mg2+/high-K+ solution. A second-order Volterra kernel model was estimated for each of the input-output response pairs. The spectral energy of the responses was also computed, providing a quantitative measure of neuronal excitability. Changes in duration and amplitude of the first-order kernel correlated positively with the spectral energy increase following treatment with low-Mg2+/high-K+ solution, suggesting that variations in neuronal excitability are coded by the system kernels, in part by differences to the profile of the first-order kernel. In particular, kernel duration was more sensitive than amplitude to changes in spectral energy, and correlated more strongly with kernel area. An oscillator network model of the hippocampal CA3 was constructed to investigate the relationship of kernel duration to network excitability, and the model was able to generate spontaneous, recurrent SLEs by increasing the duration of a mode function analogous to the first-order kernel. Results from the model indicated that disruption to the dynamic balance of feedback was responsible for seizure-like transitions and the observed intermittency of SLEs. A physiological candidate for feedback imbalance consistent with the network model is the destabilizing interaction of extracellular potassium and paroxysmal neuronal activation. Altogether, these results (1) validate a mathematical model for epileptiform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sperber, D.
1976-08-01
Both classical and quantum models for the collision between heavy ions were studied. Classical models were used to account for the possibility of strong damping. Two models which account for side peaking and considerable energy loss were proposed. According to the first, the ions clutch at the distance of closest approach and the radial energy is dissipated fast in the entrance channel. This is followed by a slow motion in the exit channel up to the snapping point. According to the second model, there is an asymmetry in the conservative potential between the entrance and exit channels. The exit channel potential includes deformations. A dynamical model including transfer was developed. The trajectories are determined dynamically whereas the transfer is considered as a random process. Semi-classical calculations (first order quantum calculation) were performed to test the validity of the classical model or the sharp cut-off approximation. The main conclusion is that for energies high above the Coulomb barrier, the classical approximation is adequate but close to the barrier, it is insufficient, and quantum effects are important. It was shown that a quantum mechanical model using time dependent perturbation accounts very well for the angular distribution in strongly damped collisions. A list of publications is included
Comparison among nonlinear excitation control strategies used for damping power system oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leon, A.E.; Solsona, J.A.; Valla, M.I.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A description and comparison of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generators are presented. ► Advantages of using nonlinear controllers are emphasized against the use of classical PSSs. ► We find that a particular selection of IDA gains achieve the same performance that FL controllers. - Abstract: This work is focused on the problem of power system stability. A thorough description of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generator excitation, which are designed for damping oscillations and improving transient stability on power systems, is presented along with a detailed comparison among these modern strategies and current solutions based on power system stabilizers. The performance related to damping injection in each controller, critical time enhancement, robustness against parametric uncertainties, and control signal energy consumption is analyzed. Several tests are presented to validate discussions on various advantages and disadvantages of each control strategy.
Lattice relaxation theory of localized excitations in quasi-one-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chuilin; Su Zhaobin; Yu Lu.
1993-04-01
The lattice relaxation theory developed earlier by Su and Yu for solitons and polarons in conducting polymers is applied to systems with both electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions, described by a single band Peierls-Hubbard model. The localized excitations in the competing bond-order-wave (BOW), charge-density-wave (CDW) and spin-density-wave (SDW) systems show interesting new features in their dynamics. In particular, a non-monotonic dependence of the relaxation rate on the coupling strength is predicted from the theory. The possible connection of this effect with photo-luminescence experiments is discussed. Similar phenomena may occur in other quasi-one-dimensional systems as well. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wibowo,; Zakaria,; Lambang, Lullus; Triyono,; Muhayat, Nurul
2016-01-01
The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wibowo,, E-mail: wibowo-uns@yahoo.com; Zakaria,, E-mail: zakaaria27@gmail.com; Lambang, Lullus, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Triyono,, E-mail: tyon-bila@yahoo.co.id; Muhayat, Nurul, E-mail: nurulmuhayat@ymail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57128 (Indonesia)
2016-03-29
The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.
Excitation function of elastic scattering on 12C + 4He system, at low energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Torres, R.; Aguilera, E. F.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Murillo, G.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Maldonado-Velazquez, M.
2011-01-01
Interactions in the 12 C + 4 He system are of great interest in astrophysics and to help determine the relative abundances of elements in stars, at the end of helium burning [1, 2]. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in Mexico, have made measurements of elastic scattering for this system, using the inverse kinematics method with thick white gas [3, 4], for E CM (0.5 - 4 MeV) θ CM = 180 o . In this work we obtain excitation functions of elastic scattering of 12 C + 4 He system with angular and energy dependence; E CM = 0.5 - 4 MeV and θ CM 100 o -170 o .Using inverse kinematics method with thick white gas and energy loss tables. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, M.
1991-01-01
Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance
Zhang, Henggui; Garratt, Clifford J.; Kharche, Sanjay; Holden, Arun V.
2009-06-01
Human atrial tissue is an excitable system, in which myocytes are excitable elements, and cell-to-cell electrotonic interactions are via diffusive interactions of cell membrane potentials. We developed a family of excitable system models for human atrium at cellular, tissue and anatomical levels for both normal and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) conditions. The effects of AF-induced remodelling of cell membrane ionic channels (reaction kinetics) and intercellular gap junctional coupling (diffusion) on atrial excitability, conduction of excitation waves and dynamics of re-entrant excitation waves are quantified. Both ionic channel and gap junctional coupling remodelling have rate dependent effects on atrial propagation. Membrane channel conductance remodelling allows the propagation of activity at higher rates than those sustained in normal tissue or in tissue with gap junctional remodelling alone. Membrane channel conductance remodelling is essential for the propagation of activity at rates higher than 300/min as seen in AF. Spatially heterogeneous gap junction coupling remodelling increased the risk of conduction block, an essential factor for the genesis of re-entry. In 2D and 3D anatomical models, the dynamical behaviours of re-entrant excitation waves are also altered by membrane channel modelling. This study provides insights to understand the pro-arrhythmic effects of AF-induced reaction and diffusion remodelling in atrial tissue.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Islam, A.; Biswas, S.K.
1995-12-01
A study of the optimization of excitation parameters in a tube excited X-ray fluorescence system (TEXRF) having Mo as the primary target has been carried out for biological matrix. Fe, Zn and Mo were used as the secondary fluorecers. For the present investigation a cellulose based synthetic standard containing K, Cr, Ni, Zn, Se and Y was excited with the TEXRF system. All experiments were carried out under the same experimental conditions except the tube potential. For each fluorescer the minimum detection limits (MDL) of excited elements were calculated for the corresponding tube voltage. The MDLs were found to be increasing with decreasing atomic number and it was also observed that the maximum sensitivity with Fe and Zn secondary fluorescers for elements analyzed occurred around 35 kV of the excitation potential. For Mo secondary fluorescer maximum sensitivity was found at higher excitation potential. In most cases MDLs were minimum at 40-45 kV of the excitation potential. 5 refs., 12 figs
High-spin isomers in 212Rn in the region of triple neutron core-excitations
Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Davidson, P. M.; Kibédi, T.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Wilson, A. N.
2008-04-01
The level scheme of 212Rn has been extended to spins of ∼ 38 ℏ and excitation energies of about 13 MeV using the 204Hg(13C, 5n)212Rn reaction and γ-ray spectroscopy. Time correlated techniques have been used to obtain sensitivity to weak transitions and channel selectivity. The excitation energy of the 22+ core-excited isomer has been established at 6174 keV. Two isomers with τ = 25 (2) ns and τ = 12 (2) ns are identified at 12211 and 12548 keV, respectively. These are the highest-spin nuclear isomers now known, and are attributed to configurations involving triple neutron core-excitations coupled to the aligned valence protons. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations can account for most states observed, but with significant energy discrepancies for some configurations.
High-spin isomers in 212Rn in the region of triple neutron core-excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Byrne, A.P.; Davidson, P.M.; Kibedi, T.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Wilson, A.N.
2008-01-01
The level scheme of 212 Rn has been extended to spins of ∼38h and excitation energies of about 13 MeV using the 204 Hg( 13 C, 5n) 212 Rn reaction and γ-ray spectroscopy. Time correlated techniques have been used to obtain sensitivity to weak transitions and channel selectivity. The excitation energy of the 22 + core-excited isomer has been established at 6174 keV. Two isomers with τ=25(2) ns and τ=12(2) ns are identified at 12211 and 12548 keV, respectively. These are the highest-spin nuclear isomers now known, and are attributed to configurations involving triple neutron core-excitations coupled to the aligned valence protons. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations can account for most states observed, but with significant energy discrepancies for some configurations
Radio-frequency wave excitation and damping on a high β plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meuth, H.
1984-01-01
Azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) radio-frequency (RF) waves for zero and for finite axial wave number k/sub z/ are investigated on the High BETA Q Machine, a two-meter, 20 cm-diameter, low-compression linear theta pinch (T greater than or equal to 200 eV, n approx. = 10 15 cm -3 ) fast rising (0.4 μs) compression field. The (k/sub z/ = 0) modes occur spontaneously following the implosion phase of the discharge. A novel 100-MW 1 to 1.3 MHz, short wavelength current drive excites the plasma column in the vicinity of the lowest fast magnetoacoustic mode at various filling pressures. This current drive is designed as an integral part of the compression coil, which is segmented with a 20-cm axial wavelength (k/sub z/ = 0.314 cm -1 ). The electron density oscillations along major and minor chords at various positions are measured by interferometry perpendicular to the pinch axis. The oscillatory radial magnetic field component between pinch wall and hot plasma edge is measured by probes. Phases, amplitudes and radial mode structure are studied for the free (k = 0) modes and the externally driven (k does not equal 0) modes for various filling pressures of deuterium. The energy deposition from the externally driven RF wave leads to a radial expansion of the plasma column, as observed by axial interferometry and by excluded flux measurements
Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson, R.L.
1993-01-01
A study of the double ionization of He by high-energy N 7+ ions was extended up in energy to 40 MeV/amu. Coincidence time-of-flight studies of multicharged N 2 , O 2 , and CO molecular ions produced in collisions with 97-MeV Ar 14+ ions were completed. Analysis of the total kinetic energy distributions and comparison with the available data for CO 2+ and CO 3+ from synchrotron radiation experiments led to the conclusion that ionization by Ar-ion impact populates states having considerably higher excitation energies than those accessed by photoionization. The dissociation fractions for CO 1+ and CO 2+ molecular ions, and the branching ratios for the most prominent charge division channels of CO 2+ through CO 7+ were determined from time-of-flight singles and coincidence data. An experiment designed to investigate the orientation dependence of dissociative multielectron ionization of molecules by heavy ion impact was completed. Measurements of the cross sections for K-shell ionization of intermediate-Z elements by 30-MeV/amu H, N, Ne, and Ar ions were completed. The cross sections were determined for solid targets of Z = 13, 22, 26, 29, 32, 40, 42, 46, and 50 by recording the spectra of K x rays with a Si(Li) spectrometer
Bigelow, Timothy A
2009-01-01
High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is quickly becoming one of the best methods to thermally ablate tissue noninvasively. Unlike RF or Laser ablation, the tissue can be destroyed without inserting any probes into the body minimizing the risk of secondary complications such as infections. In this study, the heating efficiency of HIFU sources is improved by altering the excitation of the ultrasound source to take advantage of nonlinear propagation. For ultrasound, the phase velocity of the ultrasound wave depends on the amplitude of the wave resulting in the generation of higher harmonics. These higher harmonics are more efficiently converted into heat in the body due to the frequency dependence of the ultrasound absorption in tissue. In our study, the generation of the higher harmonics by nonlinear propagation is enhanced by transmitting an ultrasound wave with both the fundamental and a higher harmonic component included. Computer simulations demonstrated up to a 300% increase in temperature increase compared to transmitting at only the fundamental for the same acoustic power transmitted by the source.
High-sensitivity measurements of the excitation function for Bhabha scattering at MeV energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsertos, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Armbruster, P.; Kienle, P.; Krusche, B.; Schreckenbach, K.
1989-02-01
Using a monochromatic e + beam scattered on a Be foil and a high-resolution detector device, the excitation function for elastic e + e - scattering was measured with a statistical accuracy of 0.25% in 1.4 keV steps in the c.m.-energy range between 770 keV and 840 keV (1.79 - 1.86 MeV/c 2 ) at c.m. scattering angles between 80 0 and 100 0 (FWHM). Within the experimental sensitivity of 0.5 b.eV/sr (c.m.) for the energy-integrated differential cross section no resonances were observed (97% CL). From this limit we infer that a hypothetical spinless resonant state should have a width of less than 1.9 meV corresponding to a lifetime limit of 3.5x10 -13 s. This limit establishes the most stringent bound for new particles in this mass range derived from Bhabha scattering and is independent of assumptions about the internal structure of the hypothetical particles. Less sensitivite limits were, in addition, derived around 520 keV c.m. energy (≅ 1.54 MeV/c 2 ) from an investigation with a thorium and a mylar foil as scatterers. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Devendra P.; Unnati; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B.P.; Prasad, R.; Gupta, Sunita; Rakesh Kumar; Bhardwaj, H.D.
2006-01-01
In the present work, excitation functions for seven evaporation residues (ERs) produced via complete fusion and incomplete fusion processes in 16 O + 103 Rh system have been measured in the energy range ≅ 47-85 MeV, using recoil catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the experimental data with statistical model based computer code PACE 2 revealed dominance of incomplete fusion in reactions involving alpha-emission channels. To the best of our knowledge these reactions are being reported for the first time
Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.
1970-01-01
Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Illiano, Enzo [ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigung; Brusa Elektronik AG, Sennfeld (Switzerland)
2013-08-15
The separately excited synchronous motor has several advantages which make this topology a very promising traction drive for electric vehicles. The comparison of the separately excited motor with other common topologies also shows the proper regulation of the current in the rotor will rise the complexity of the entire system. In addition the presence of a rotor current has a negative effect on the continuous power of the motor, as the investigations of ETH Zuerich and Brusa show. An optimised motor regulation and an accurate rotor shape design are indispensible to reduce the power deficit. (orig.)
Dynamic response of tertiary systems in structures subjected to base excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernried, A.G.; Kai-sing Lau
1988-01-01
The dynamic response of very lightweight equipment (tertiary subsystem) attached to light equipment (secondary subsystem) which in turn is attached to a heavier structure (primary subsystem) that is subjected to ground shock or earthquake excitation is investigated. Both the single-degree-of-freedom and multi-degree-of-freedom subsystem models are considered. The systems are damped as well as undamped, completely detuned (all natural frequencies of the subsystems well spaced), singly tuned (one natural frequency of each subsystem equal or close to one another), or multiply tuned (more than one natural frequency of the subsystems close to each other). Efficient techniques for the determination of the tertiary subsystem response that avoid a computationally intensive numerical integration of the combined system equations are presented. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.
1994-01-01
perturbation method using stochastic differential equations. The joint statistical moments entering the perturbation solution are determined by considering an augmented dynamic system with state variables made up of the displacement and velocity vector and their first and second derivatives with respect......The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order...... to the random parameters of the problem. Equations for partial derivatives are obtained from the partial differentiation of the equations of motion. The zero time-lag joint statistical moment equations for the augmented state vector are derived from the Itô differential formula. General formulation is given...
Development of a model for the description of highly excited states in odd-A deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malov, L.A.; Soloviev, V.G.
1975-01-01
An approximate method is suggested for solution of the set of equations, obtained earlier for describing the structure of intermediate-and high-excitation states within the framework of the model taking into account quasiparticle-phonon interaction. The analysis is conducted for the case of an odd deformed nucleus, when several one-quasiparticle components are simultaneously taken into account
ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN LASER-EXCITED ATOMS AND HIGHLY-CHARGED IONS
Recent collision experiments are reviewed in which one-electron transfer between laser excited target atoms and (highly charged) keV-ions has been studied. Especially results showing a dependence of the charge exchange on the initial target orbital alignment are discussed. The question to what
Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.
2010-01-01
Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…
Favreau, Peter F.; Deal, Joshua A.; Weber, David S.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.
2016-04-01
The natural fluorescence (autofluorescence) of tissues has been noted as a biomarker for cancer for several decades. Autofluorescence contrast between tumors and healthy tissues has been of significant interest in endoscopy, leading to development of autofluorescence endoscopes capable of visualizing 2-3 fluorescence emission wavelengths to achieve maximal contrast. However, tumor detection with autofluorescence endoscopes is hindered by low fluorescence signal and limited quantitative information, resulting in prolonged endoscopic procedures, prohibitive acquisition times, and reduced specificity of detection. Our lab has designed a novel excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system with high fluorescence signal detection, low acquisition time, and enhanced spectral discrimination. In this study, we surveyed a comprehensive set of excised tissues to assess the feasibility of detecting tissue-specific pathologies using excitation-scanning. Fresh, untreated tissue specimens were imaged from 360 to 550 nm on an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a set of thin-film tunable filters (Semrock, A Unit of IDEX). Images were subdivided into training and test sets. Automated endmember extraction (ENVI 5.1, Exelis) with PCA identified endmembers within training images of autofluorescence. A spectral library was created from 9 endmembers. The library was used for identification of endmembers in test images. Our results suggest (1) spectral differentiation of multiple tissue types is possible using excitation scanning; (2) shared spectra between tissue types; and (3) the ability to identify unique morphological features in disparate tissues from shared autofluorescent components. Future work will focus on isolating specific molecular signatures present in tissue spectra, and elucidating the contribution of these signatures in pathologies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wei; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Jiaxin; Dai, Zhenwen; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile
2010-01-01
Natural radiative lifetimes of 38 odd-parity highly excited levels in neutral tin in the energy range from 43 682.737 to 56 838.68 cm -1 have been measured by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in an atomic beam produced by laser ablation on a solid tin sample. All the levels were excited from the metastable 3 P 1, 2 and 1 D 2 levels in the ground configuration. The second and third harmonics of a dye laser were adopted as the tunable exciting source (207-250 nm). The lifetime results obtained in this paper are in the range from 4.6 to 292 ns and will be useful in extending the set of oscillator strengths available in Sn I.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Jiaxin; Dai, Zhenwen [College of Physics, Jilin University and Key Lab of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, Changchun 130021 (China); Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile, E-mail: dai@jlu.edu.c [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons-UMONS, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)
2010-10-28
Natural radiative lifetimes of 38 odd-parity highly excited levels in neutral tin in the energy range from 43 682.737 to 56 838.68 cm{sup -1} have been measured by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in an atomic beam produced by laser ablation on a solid tin sample. All the levels were excited from the metastable {sup 3}P{sub 1,} {sub 2} and {sup 1}D{sub 2} levels in the ground configuration. The second and third harmonics of a dye laser were adopted as the tunable exciting source (207-250 nm). The lifetime results obtained in this paper are in the range from 4.6 to 292 ns and will be useful in extending the set of oscillator strengths available in Sn I.
Kato, Daiki; Sakai, Hayato; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Hasobe, Taku
2016-04-18
One of the major drawbacks of organic-dye-modified self-assembled monolayers on metal nanoparticles when employed for efficient use of light energy is the fact that singlet excited states on dye molecules can be easily deactivated by means of energy transfer to the metal surface. In this study, a series of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene-alkanethiolate monolayer protected gold nanoparticles with different particle sizes and alkane chain lengths were successfully synthesized and were employed for the efficient generation of excited triplet states of the pentacene derivatives by singlet fission. Time-resolved transient absorption measurements revealed the formation of excited triplet states in high yield (172±26 %) by suppressing energy transfer to the gold surface. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Process and system for isotope separation using the selective vibrational excitation of molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodroffe, J.A.; Keck, J.C.
1976-01-01
This invention concerns the separation of isotopes by using the isotopically selective vibrational excitation and the vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. UF 6 molecular mixed with a carrier gas, such as argon, are directed through a refrigerated chamber lighted by a laser radiation tuned to excite vibrationally the uranium hexafluoride molecules of a particular uranium isotope. The density of the carrier gas is preferably maintained above the density of the uranium hexafluoride to allow a greater collision probability of the vibrationally excited molecules with a carried molecule. In such a case, the vibrationally excited uranium hexafluoride will collide with a carrier gas molecule provoking the conversion of the excitation energy into a translation of the excited molecule, resulting in thermal energy or greater diffusibility than that of the other uranium hexafluoride molecules [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganic, D.; Day, D.; Gu, M.
1999-01-01
Full text: Two-photon excitation has been employed in three-dimensional optical data storage by many researchers in an attempt to increase the storage density of a given material. The probability of two-photon excitation is proportional to the squared intensity of the incident light; this effect produces excitation only within a small region of the focus spot. Another advantage of two-photon excitation is the use of infrared illumination, which results in the reduction of scattering and enables the recording of layers at a deep depth in a thick material. The storage density thus obtained using multi-layered bit optical recording can be as high as Tbit/cm 3 . To increase this storage density even further, grey level recording can be employed. This method utilises variable exposure times of a laser beam focused into a photobleaching sample. As a result, the bleached area possesses a certain pixel value which depends upon the exposure time; this can increase the storage density many times depending upon the number of grey levels used. Our experiment shows that it is possible to attain grey level recording using both ultrashort pulsed and continuous-wave illumination. Although continuous wave illumination requires an average power of approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that for ultrashort pulsed illumination, it is a preferred method of recording due to its relatively low system cost and compactness. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society
Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao
2016-08-01
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao
2016-01-01
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei, E-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2016-08-15
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
The Cascaded Arc: High Flows of Rovibrationally Excited H2 and its Impact on H- Ion Formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabriel, O.; Harskamp, W. E. N. van; Schram, D. C.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Engeln, R.
2009-01-01
The cascaded arc is a plasma source providing high fluxes of excited and reactive species such as ions, radicals and rovibrationally excited molecules. The plasma is produced under pressures of some kPa in a direct current arc with electrical powers up to 10 kW. The plasma leaves the arc channel through a nozzle and expands with supersonic velocity into a vacuum-chamber kept by pumps at low pressures. We investigated the case of a pure hydrogen plasma jet with and without an applied axial magnetic field that confines ions and electrons in the jet. Highly excited molecules and atoms were detected by means of laser-induced fluorescence and optical emission spectroscopy. In case of an applied magnetic field the atomic state distribution of hydrogen atoms shows an overpopulation between the electronic states p = 5, 4 and 3. The influence of the highly excited hydrogen molecules on H - ion formation and a possible mechanism involving this negative ion and producing atomic hydrogen in state p = 3 will be discussed.
Search for aligned structure of 12C-α-12C type at high excitation energy in 28Si
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnereau, Nicole.
1975-01-01
The 16 O+ 12 C→ 12 C+α+ 12 C reaction is studied mainly at 46MeV (at this energy a state of 28 Si is presumably formed with a spin value of 14 + ; resonance of 19.7MeV c.m.). The motivation is to detect an α particle with a negligible energy in the c.m. system. This is the signature of the preformation of three aligned clusters in which the average location of the α particle is in between the two 12 C's at the center of symmetry of the system. Such a detection is performed by detecting two 12 C's in coincidence at specific angles. The data are understood by three-body calculations with a coupling of relative angular momenta governed by an unique J value. Experimentally, an α energy of 200keV is measured with good statistics, supporting the idea of aligned clusters as 28 Si intrinsic shape, related to some highly excited states [fr
Raman active high energy excitations in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buhot, Jonathan [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR 7162 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, Bât. Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML - EMFL), Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR 7162 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, Bât. Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Piekarz, Przemysław [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakòw (Poland); Lapertot, Gérard [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Aoki, Dai [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Méasson, Marie-Aude, E-mail: marie-aude.measson@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR 7162 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, Bât. Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)
2017-02-01
We have performed Raman scattering measurements on URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} single crystals on a large energy range up to ∼1300 cm{sup −1} and in all the Raman active symmetries as a function of temperature down to 15 K. A large excitation, active only in the E{sub g} symmetry, is reported. It has been assigned to a crystal electric field excitation on the Uranium site. We discuss how this constrains the crystal electric field scheme of the Uranium ions. Furthermore, three excitations in the A{sub 1g} symmetry are observed. They have been associated to double Raman phonon processes consistently with ab initio calculations of the phonons dispersion.
Olivera, J Fernando; Pizarro, Gonzalo
2016-10-01
Raising the intracellular [Ca 2+ ] ([Ca 2+ ] i ) was previously found to produce uncoupling between the electrical depolarization of the transverse tubules and contraction in skinned muscle fibers. Here we study the effect of elevated [Ca 2+ ] i in voltage clamped cut fibers of frog skeletal muscle to establish how the charge movement, a measure of the activation of the dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR)-voltage sensors, and Ca 2+ release, a consequence of the opening of the ryanodine receptor (RyR)-release channels, were affected. [Ca 2+ ] i was raised by various procedures (pharmacological release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, application of high [Ca 2+ ] i intracellular solution, permeabilization of the plasma membrane by a Ca 2+ ionophore) all of which produced impairment of excitation-contraction coupling. The charge movement was reduced from 20.2 ± 1.24 to 9.9 ± 0.94 nC/μF meanwhile the Ca 2+ release flux was reduced from 13.5 + 0.7 to 2.2 ± 0.3 μM/ms (n = 33). This suggests that a significant fraction of the DHPRs that remained functional, could not activate RyRs, and were therefore presumably disconnected. These results are broadly consistent with the original reports in skinned fibers. Uncoupling was prevented by the addition to the intracellular solution of the protease inhibitor leupeptin. In approximately 40 % of the uncoupled cells we observed that the [Ca 2+ ] i transient continued to rise after the voltage clamp pulse was turned off. This loss of control by membrane voltage suggests that the uncoupled release channels might have another mechanism of activation, likely by Ca 2+ .
Mechanism and models for collisional energy transfer in highly excited large polyatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbert, R. G.
1995-01-01
Collisional energy transfer in highly excited molecules (say, 200-500 kJ mol -1 above the zero-point energy of reactant, or of product, for a recombination reaction) is reviewed. An understanding of this energy transfer is important in predicting and interpreting the pressure dependence of gas-phase rate coefficients for unimolecular and recombination reactions. For many years it was thought that this pressure dependence could be calculated from a single energy-transfer quantity, such as the average energy transferred per collision. However, the discovery of 'super collisions' (a small but significant fraction of collisions which transfer abnormally large amounts of energy) means that this simplistic approach needs some revision. The 'ordinary' (non-super) component of the distribution function for collisional energy transfer can be quantified either by empirical models (e.g., an exponential-down functional form) or by models with a physical basis, such as biased random walk (applicable to monatomic or diatomic collision partners) or ergodic (for polyatomic collision partners) treatments. The latter two models enable approximate expressions for the average energy transfer to be estimated from readily available molecular parameters. Rotational energy transfer, important for finding the pressure dependence for recombination reactions, can for these purposes usually be taken as transferring sufficient energy so that the explicit functional form is not required to predict the pressure dependence. The mechanism of 'ordinary' energy transfer seems to be dominated by low-frequency modes of the substrate, whereby there is sufficient time during a vibrational period for significant energy flow between the collision partners. Super collisions may involve sudden energy flow as an outer atom of the substrate is squashed between the substrate and the bath gas, and then is moved away from the interaction by large-amplitude motion such as a ring vibration or a rotation; improved
Magnetic excitations and exchange interactions in the spin-gap system TlCuCl sub 3
Oosawa, A; Kato, T; Kakurai, K; Müller, M; Mikeska, H J
2002-01-01
The magnetic excitations from the gapped ground state in TlCuCl sub 3 have been investigated by means of inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The excitation data were collected along four different directions in the a sup * -c sup * plane. A well-defined single magnetic excitation mode was observed. The lowest excitation occurs at Q=(h,0,l) with integer h and odd l, as observed in KCuCl sub 3. The dispersion relations were analyzed by the cluster-series expansion up to the sixth order, so that the individual exchange interactions were evaluated. It was demonstrated that TlCuCl sub 3 is a strongly coupled spin-dimer system. (orig.)
Alpha particle emission as a probe of the level density in highly excited A∼200 nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabris, D.; Fioretto, E.; Viesti, G.; Cinausero, M.; Gelli, N.; Hagel, K.; Lucarelli, F.; Natowitz, J.B.; Nebbia, G.; Prete, G.; Wada, R.
1994-01-01
The alpha particle emission from 90 to 140 MeV 19 F+ 181 Ta fusion-evaporation reactions has been studied. The comparisons of the experimental spectral shapes and multiplicities with statistical model predictions indicate a need to use an excitation energy dependent level-density parameter a=A/K in which K increases with excitation energy. This increase is more rapid than that in lower mass nuclei. The effect of this change in level density on the prescission multiplicities in fission is significant
Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E* = 76 MeV)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, E.M.; Levitovich, M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.
1990-01-01
Differential cross sections for neutron production have been measured in fission of excited californium nuclei produced in the reaction 238 U + 12 C (105 MeV). It follows from analysis of the experimental results that the number of neutrons emitted before fission considerably exceeds the number obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. On the basis of the multiplicity of neutrons they authors have estimated the time of fission of the excited nucleus. The dependence of the number of neutrons and their average energies on the mass of the fragments is determined
Electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope with ultra-high resolution.
Inami, Wataru; Nakajima, Kentaro; Miyakawa, Atsuo; Kawata, Yoshimasa
2010-06-07
We propose electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope, and demonstrated its resolution higher than 50 nm. In the microscope, a light source in a few nanometers size is excited by focused electron beam in a luminescent film. The microscope makes it possible to observe dynamic behavior of living biological specimens in various surroundings, such as air or liquids. Scan speed of the nanometric light source is faster than that in conventional near-field scanning optical microscopes. The microscope enables to observe optical constants such as absorption, refractive index, polarization, and their dynamic behavior on a nanometric scale. The microscope opens new microscopy applications in nano-technology and nano-science.
Dynamics of excited instantons in the system of forced Gursey nonlinear differential equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aydogmus, F., E-mail: fatma.aydogmus@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Turkey)
2015-02-15
The Gursey model is a 4D conformally invariant pure fermionic model with a nonlinear spinor self-coupled term. Gursey proposed his model as a possible basis for a unitary description of elementary particles following the “Heisenberg dream.” In this paper, we consider the system of Gursey nonlinear differential equations (GNDEs) formed by using the Heisenberg ansatz. We use it to understand how the behavior of spinor-type Gursey instantons can be affected by excitations. For this, the regular and chaotic numerical solutions of forced GNDEs are investigated by constructing their Poincaré sections in phase space. A hierarchical cluster analysis method for investigating the forced GNDEs is also presented.
Zheng, Xu; Hao, Zhiyong; Wang, Xu; Mao, Jie
2016-06-01
High-speed-railway-train interior noise at low, medium, and high frequencies could be simulated by finite element analysis (FEA) or boundary element analysis (BEA), hybrid finite element analysis-statistical energy analysis (FEA-SEA) and statistical energy analysis (SEA), respectively. First, a new method named statistical acoustic energy flow (SAEF) is proposed, which can be applied to the full-spectrum HST interior noise simulation (including low, medium, and high frequencies) with only one model. In an SAEF model, the corresponding multi-physical-field coupling excitations are firstly fully considered and coupled to excite the interior noise. The interior noise attenuated by sound insulation panels of carriage is simulated through modeling the inflow acoustic energy from the exterior excitations into the interior acoustic cavities. Rigid multi-body dynamics, fast multi-pole BEA, and large-eddy simulation with indirect boundary element analysis are first employed to extract the multi-physical-field excitations, which include the wheel-rail interaction forces/secondary suspension forces, the wheel-rail rolling noise, and aerodynamic noise, respectively. All the peak values and their frequency bands of the simulated acoustic excitations are validated with those from the noise source identification test. Besides, the measured equipment noise inside equipment compartment is used as one of the excitation sources which contribute to the interior noise. Second, a full-trimmed FE carriage model is firstly constructed, and the simulated modal shapes and frequencies agree well with the measured ones, which has validated the global FE carriage model as well as the local FE models of the aluminum alloy-trim composite panel. Thus, the sound transmission loss model of any composite panel has indirectly been validated. Finally, the SAEF model of the carriage is constructed based on the accurate FE model and stimulated by the multi-physical-field excitations. The results show
Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Troldborg, Carl Peder; Fodgaard, Henrik; van Os, Sylvana; Pedersen, Christian
2017-01-01
High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay development enables determination of biological variation in healthy populations, more accurate interpretation of clinical results and points towards earlier diagnosis and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we report on preliminary tests of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by fac...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Huijun, E-mail: huijun024@gmail.com [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University (China); Zhang, Mingju [Shanghai Aerospace Control Technology Institute, Shanghai (China)
2017-08-15
Highlights: • One novel permanent magnet generator structure has been proposed to reduce voltage regulation ratio. • Finite element method and equivalent circuit methods are both employed to realize rapid generator design. • Design of experiment (DOE) method is used to optimize permanent magnet shape for reduce voltage waveform distortion. • The obtained analysis and experiment results verify the proposed design methods. - Abstract: In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju
2017-01-01
Highlights: • One novel permanent magnet generator structure has been proposed to reduce voltage regulation ratio. • Finite element method and equivalent circuit methods are both employed to realize rapid generator design. • Design of experiment (DOE) method is used to optimize permanent magnet shape for reduce voltage waveform distortion. • The obtained analysis and experiment results verify the proposed design methods. - Abstract: In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue-Liang Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we give some theoretical analyses and experimental results on synchronization of the two non-identical exciters. Using the average method of modified small parameters, the dimensionless coupling equation of the two exciters is deduced. The synchronization criterion for the two exciters is derived as the torque of frequency capture being equal to or greater than the absolute value of difference between the residual electromagnetic torques of the two motors. The stability criterion of synchronous state is verified to satisfy the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The regions of implementing synchronization and that of stability of phase difference for the two exciters are manifested by numeric method. Synchronization of the two exciters stems from the coupling dynamic characteristic of the vibrating system having selecting motion, especially, under the condition that the parameters of system are complete symmetry, the torque of frequency capture stemming from the circular motion of the rigid frame drives the phase difference to approach PI and carry out the swing of the rigid frame; that from the swing of the rigid frame forces the phase difference to near zero and achieve the circular motion of the rigid frame. In the steady state, the motion of rigid frame will be one of three types: pure swing, pure circular motion, swing and circular motion coexistence. The numeric and experiment results derived thereof show that the two exciters can operate synchronously as long as the structural parameters of system satisfy the criterion of stability in the regions of frequency capture. In engineering, the distance between the centroid of the rigid frame and the rotational centre of exciter should be as far as possible. Only in this way, can the elliptical motion of system required in engineering be realized.
Proton emission from high spin states of proton rich excited 94Ag
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aggarwal, Mamta
2008-01-01
Recent observation of direct 1P and 2P decay of 21 + isomer in proton rich 94 Ag has led to the present theoretical investigation of proton radioactivity from 94 Ag in ground state and excited state and it's dependence on the structural transitions
Inner shell excitation in atoms and molecules by high resolution electron impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, G.C.
1986-01-01
In this work an inner-shell spin-forbidden transition in N 2 and a parity-forbidden transition in Ar were studied. These transitions were observed by using incident electron energies as low as 1.15 times the excitation energy of the inner-shell states. (Auth.)
Single photon excimer laser photodissociation of highly vibrationally excited polyatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiee, J.J.; Wampler, F.B.; Rice, W.W.
1980-01-01
The ir + uv photodissociation of SF 6 has been performed using CO 2 and ArF lasers. The two-color photolysis significantly enhances the photodissociation process over ArF irradiation alone and is found to preserve the initial isotopic specificity of the ir excitation process
Hewitt, Kevin Cecil
2000-10-01
In this thesis, the effects of atomic substitution on the vibrational and electronic excitations found in the Raman spectra of selected high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are studied. In particular, atomic and isotopic substitution methods have been used to determine the character of features observed in the Raman spectra of Bi2Sr2Ca n-1CunO2 n+4+delta (n = 1 - Bi2201, n = 2 - Bi2212) and YBa2Cu3O7-delta (Y123). In Bi2201, Pb substitution for Bi (and Sr) has led to the reduction and eventual removal of the structural modulation, characteristic of all members of the Bi-family of HTS. The high quality single crystals and our sensitive triple spectrometer enabled identification of a pair of low frequency modes. The modes are determined to arise from shear and compressional rigid-layer vibrations. The normal state of underdoped cuprates is characterized by a pseudogap of unknown origin. In crystals of underdoped Bi2212 a spectral peak found at 590 cm-1, previously attributed to the pairing of quasiparticles (above Tc) and hence to the formation of a normal state pseudogap, has been found to soften by 3.8% with oxygen isotope exchange. In addition, the feature is absent in fully oxygenated and yttrium underdoped crystals. In this study, the first of its kind on underdoped and isotope substituted Bi2212, the feature has been assigned to stretching vibrations of oxygen in the a-b plane. Bi2212 crystals with varying hole concentrations (0.07 Raman scattering experiments that sample the diagonal (B 2g) and principal axes (B1 g) of the BZ have led us to conclude that the superconducting gap possesses dx2-y2 symmetry, in the underdoped and overdoped regimes. It is found that the magnitude of the superconducting gap (Delta(k)) is sensitive to changes in p. Studies of the pair-breaking peak found in the B1g spectra allow us to conclude that the magnitude of the maximum gap (Deltamax) decreases monotonically with increasing hole doping, for p > 0.13. The pair
Excitation of contained modes by high energy nuclei and correlated cyclotron emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppi, B.; Penn, G.; Riconda, C.
1997-01-01
In experiments with fusing plasmas, enhanced radiation emission at the harmonics of the cyclotron frequency of fusion reaction products has been observed. A theory is presented that explains key features of these observations and indicates the possibility of extracting significant information about the fusion product population distribution, both in velocity space and over the plasma cross section. The considered model is consistent in particular with the fact that, in DT plasmas, the radiation peaks occur at frequencies corresponding to harmonics of the α particles cyclotron frequency Ω a evaluated at the outer edge of the plasma column, and that a transition to a open-quotes continuumclose quotes spectrum at high frequencies (ω approx-gt 7Ω α ) can be identified. In this model, the radiation is the result of the excitation of radially open-quotes containedclose quotes modes which are driven unstable by the fusion products. The modes considered to be responsible for the discrete part of the spectrum are spatially localized near the plasma edge. The radial containment, which is associated mainly with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density, is in fact a fundamental characteristic since only contained modes can grow out of a relatively weak mode-particle interaction and justify the detected emission power levels. The contained mode is a solution to a set of macroscopic equations, in which the electron motion is tied to that of the magnetic field (Hall effect). The growth rate has been evaluated considering the particle orbits in a toroidal confinement configuration and modelling the distribution function of the interacting particles with the energy at birth before slowing down occurs. The growth rate depends linearly on the α-particle density and can be larger than, or of the order of, the bounce frequency of the magnetically trapped α-particles, which can have a resonant interaction with the mode. According to the theoretical model presented, the discrete
Generation of spiral waves pinned to obstacles in a simulated excitable system
Phantu, Metinee; Kumchaiseemak, Nakorn; Porjai, Porramain; Sutthiopad, Malee; Müller, Stefan C.; Luengviriya, Chaiya; Luengviriya, Jiraporn
2017-09-01
Pinning phenomena emerge in many dynamical systems. They are found to stabilize extreme conditions such as superconductivity and super fluidity. The dynamics of pinned spiral waves, whose tips trace the boundary of obstacles, also play an important role in the human health. In heart, such pinned waves cause longer tachycardia. In this article, we present two methods for generating pinned spiral waves in a simulated excitable system. In method A, an obstacle is set in the system prior to an ignition of a spiral wave. This method may be suitable only for the case of large obstacles since it often fails when used for small obstacles. In method B, a spiral wave is generated before an obstacle is placed at the spiral tip. With this method, a pinned spiral wave is always obtained, regardless the obstacle size. We demonstrate that after a transient interval the dynamics of the pinned spiral waves generated by the methods A and B are identical. The initiation of pinned spiral waves in both two- and three-dimensional systems is illustrated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, G. A.; Belov, A. S.; Frolov, V. L.; Rapoport, V. O.; Parrot, M.
2010-01-01
A method for controlled excitation of a magnetospheric maser through the production of artificial density ducts by high-power HF radio emission from the Earth’s surface has been proposed and implemented in an in-situ experiment. Artificial density ducts allow one to affect the maser resonator system and the excitation and propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in a disturbed magnetic flux tube. The experimental data presented here were obtained at the mid-latitude Sura heating facility. The characteristics of electromagnetic and plasma disturbances at outer-ionosphere altitudes were measured using the onboard equipment of the DEMETER satellite as it passed through the magnetic flux tube rested on the region of intense generation of artificial ionospheric turbulence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, S.; Palit, R.; Sethi, J.
2012-01-01
The excited states of nuclei near N=50 closed shell provide suitable laboratory for testing the interactions of shell model states, possible presence of high spin isomers and help in understanding the shape transition as the higher orbitals are occupied. In particular, the structure of N = 49 isotones (and Z =32 to 46) with one hole in N=50 shell gap have been investigated using different reactions. Interestingly, the high spin states in these isotones have contribution from particle excitations across the respective proton and neutron shell gaps and provide suitable testing ground for the prediction of shell model interactions describing theses excitations across the shell gap. In the literature, extensive study of the high spin states of heavier N = 49 isotones starting with 91 Mo up to 95 Pd are available. Limited information existed on the high spin states of lighter isotones. Therefore, the motivation of the present work is to extend the high spin structure of 89 Zr and to characterize the structure of these levels through comparison with the large scale shell model calculations based on two new residual interactions in f 5/2 pg 9/2 model space
Elementary excitations in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemmer, R.H.
1987-01-01
The role of elementary quasi-particle and quasi-hole excitations is reviewed in connection with the analysis of data involving high-lying nuclear states. This article includes discussions on: (i) single quasi-hole excitations in pick-up reactions, (ii) the formation of single quasi-hole and quasi-particle excitations (in different nuclei) during transfer reactions, followed by (iii) quasi-particle quasi-hole excitations in the same nucleus that are produced by photon absorption. Finally, the question of photon absorption in the vicinity of the elementary Δ resonance is discussed, where nucleonic as well as nuclear degrees of freedom can be excited
Excitation of Ion Cyclotron Waves by Ion and Electron Beams in Compensated-current System
Xiang, L.; Wu, D. J.; Chen, L.
2018-04-01
Ion cyclotron waves (ICWs) can play important roles in the energization of plasma particles. Charged particle beams are ubiquitous in space, and astrophysical plasmas and can effectively lead to the generation of ICWs. Based on linear kinetic theory, we consider the excitation of ICWs by ion and electron beams in a compensated-current system. We also investigate the competition between reactive and kinetic instabilities. The results show that ion and electron beams both are capable of generating ICWs. For ICWs driven by ion beams, there is a critical beam velocity, v bi c , and critical wavenumber, k z c , for a fixed beam density; the reactive instability dominates the growth of ICWs when the ion-beam velocity {v}{bi}> {v}{bi}c and the wavenumber {k}zz≃ 2{k}zc/3 for a given {v}{bi}> {v}{bi}c. For the slow ion beams with {v}{bi}< {v}{bi}c, the kinetic instability can provide important growth rates of ICWs. On the other hand, ICWs driven by electron beams are excited only by the reactive instability, but require a critical velocity, {v}{be}c\\gg {v}{{A}} (the Alfvén velocity). In addition, the comparison between the approximate analytical results based on the kinetic theory and the exact numerical calculation based on the fluid model demonstrates that the reactive instabilities can well agree quantitatively with the numerical results by the fluid model. Finally, some possible applications of the present results to ICWs observed in the solar wind are briefly discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyan Yang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal (MC-MIM waveguide which can achieve a highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs excitation. The MC-MIM waveguide is formed by inserting a thin metal film in the insulator of an MIM. The introduction of the metal film, functioning as an SPPs coupler, provides a space for the interaction between SPPs and a confined electromagnetic field of the intermediate metal surface, which makes energy change and phase transfer in the metal-dielectric interface, due to the joint action of incomplete electrostatic shielding effect and SPPs coupling. Impacts of the metal film with different materials and various thickness on SPPs excitation are investigated. It is shown that the highest efficient SPPs excitation is obtained when the gold film thickness is 60 nm. The effect of refractive index of upper and lower symmetric dielectric layer on SPPs excitation is also discussed. The result shows that the decay value of refractive index is 0.3. Our results indicate that this proposed MC-MIM waveguide may offer great potential in designing a new SPPs source.
Power Management of Islanded Self-Excited Induction Generator Reinforced by Energy Storage Systems
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Nachat N. Nasser
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Self-Excited Induction Generators (SEIGs, e.g., Small-Scale Embedded wind generation, are increasingly used in electricity distribution networks. The operational stability of stand-alone SEIG is constrained by the local load conditions: stability can be achieved by maintaining the load’s active and reactive power at optimal values. Changes in power demand are dependent on customers’ requirements, and any deviation from the pre-calculated optimum setting will affect a machine’s operating voltage and frequency. This paper presents an investigation of the operation of the SEIG in islanding mode of operation under different load conditions, with the aid of batteries as an energy storage source. In this research a current-controlled voltage-source converter is proposed to regulate the power exchange between a direct current (DC energy storage source and an alternating current (AC grid, the converter’s controller is driven by any variation between machine capability and load demand. In order to prolong the system stability when the battery reaches its operation constraints, it is recommended that an ancillary generator and a dummy local load be embedded in the system. The results show the robustness and operability of the proposed system in the islanding mode of the SEIG under different load conditions.
Luminescence of the SrCl2:Pr crystals under high-energy excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonyak, O.T.; Voloshinovskii, A.S.; Vistovskyy, V.V.; Stryganyuk, G.B.; Kregel, O.P.
2014-01-01
The present research was carried out in order to elucidate the mechanisms of energy transfer from the crystal lattice to Pr 3+ ions in SrCl 2 . The luminescence excitation and emission spectra as well as luminescence kinetics of the SrCl 2 :Pr single crystals containing 0.2 mol% Pr were investigated at 300 and 10 K using the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. The X-ray excited luminescence spectra of the SrCl 2 :Pr (C Pr =0.2 and 0.5 mol%) and SrCl 2 :Pr, K (C Pr =1.5 mol%; C K =1.5 mol%) crystals were studied at 294 and 80 K. Under optical excitation of the samples in the Pr 3+ absorption bands, there were observed five fast ultraviolet emissions assigned to the 4f 1 5d→4f 2 transitions, and two long-wave bands corresponding to the f–f transitions. Furthermore, the intrinsic emission bands of SrCl 2 were observed at 10 K. The X-ray excited luminescence spectrum of the SrCl 2 :Pr crystal containing 0.2 mol% Pr, besides intrinsic emission band near 400 nm, has got a long-wave band at about 490 nm of the Pr 3+ centers. There were not observed any emission bands of the Pr 3+ centers corresponding to the 4f 1 5d–4f 2 transitions in the X-ray excited luminescence spectrum of the SrCl 2 :Pr crystal. The possible mechanisms of energy transfer from the SrCl 2 matrix to the Pr 3+ centers are discussed. -- Highlights: • Spectral-luminescent properties of SrCl 2 :Pr have been investigated. • The identification of emission 4f–4f and 5d–4f bands of Pr 3+ ions was performed. • Adding of potassium prevents clustering of the Pr 3+ centers in the SrCl 2 :Pr, K crystals. • Under X-ray excitation at 80–300 K only Pr 3+ 4f–4f and intrinsic emission is observed
Application of Time-Delay Absorber to Suppress Vibration of a Dynamical System to Tuned Excitation.
El-Ganaini, W A A; El-Gohary, H A
2014-08-01
In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of the time delay absorber effects on the control of a dynamical system represented by a cantilever beam subjected to tuned excitation forces. Cantilever beam is one of the most widely used system in too many engineering applications, such as mechanical and civil engineering. The main aim of this work is to control the vibration of the beam at simultaneous internal and combined resonance condition, as it is the worst resonance case. Control is conducted via time delay absorber to suppress chaotic vibrations. Time delays often appear in many control systems in the state, in the control input, or in the measurements. Time delay commonly exists in various engineering, biological, and economical systems because of the finite speed of the information processing. It is a source of performance degradation and instability. Multiple time scale perturbation method is applied to obtain a first order approximation for the nonlinear differential equations describing the system behavior. The different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the steady-state solution at the selected worst resonance case is investigated applying Runge-Kutta fourth order method and frequency response equations via Matlab 7.0 and Maple11. Time delay absorber is effective, but within a specified range of time delay. It is the critical factor in selecting such absorber. Time delay absorber is better than the ordinary one as from the effectiveness point of view. The effects of the different absorber parameters on the system behavior and stability are studied numerically. A comparison with the available published work showed a close agreement with some previously published work.
Excitability of the T-tubular system in rat skeletal muscle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, O B; Ørtenblad, Niels; Lamb, G D
2004-01-01
Strenuous exercise causes an increase in extracellular [K(+)] and intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) of working muscles, which may reduce sarcolemma excitability. The excitability of the sarcolemma is, however, to some extent protected by a concomitant increase in the activity of muscle Na(+)-K(+) ...
Terahertz Solitons in Biomolecular Systems and their Excitation by External Electromagnetic Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bugay А.N.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of charge and acoustic excitations in cellular microtubules is considered. Different types of nonlinear solitary waves were studied taking account for dissipation. The mechanism of electro-acoustic pulse excitation by external electromagnetic field of terahertz frequency is recognized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jardim, J L; Macedo, N J; Santo, S E; Praca, A S [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1994-12-31
The effect of over excitation limiters on power system voltage stability is presented in this paper. A linear analysis based on system eigenvalues for various operating conditions shows that voltage collapse is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. Time simulations using digital tools and real-time simulator were performed to verify lin ear results and study large disturbances. A control system designed to keep system in secure region is proposed. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Gnatov
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Recently, repair and recovery of vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Results. The calculation of excited loads attractions in a symmetrical inductor system in the universal tool of magnetic-pulse straightening is provided. According to the obtained analytical dependence of the numerical evaluation of volumetric construction diagrams, phase and amplitude of the radial dependence of the spatial distribution of the excited efforts of attraction is obtained. The influence of the magnetic properties of the blank screen and manifested in the appearance of powerful magnetic attraction forces is determined. Originality. A new trend of research of magnetic-pulse working of thin-walled metals has been formulated and received further development, which allows to create not only new equipment, but principally new technological processes of external non-contact repair and recovery of vehicle body panels. Scientific basis of electrodynamic and magnetic attraction of thin-walled sheet metals with using the energy of high-power pulsed fields was created for the first time and proved theoretically and experimentally. Scientific and technical solutions in design of effective tools based on single-turn inductor systems of cylindrical geometry for straightening and recovery of car body panels were formulated and proved theoretically, as well as experimentally. Practical value. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic
Development of the model describing highly excited states of odd deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malov, L.A.; Solov'ev, V.G.
1975-01-01
An approximate method is given for solving the system of equations obtained earlier for describing the structure of states with intermediate and high energies in the framework of the model taking into account the interaction of quasiparticles with phonons. The new method possesses a number of advantages over the approximate methods of solving the system of equations mentioned. The study is performed for the example of an odd deformed nucleus when several one-quasiparticle components are taken into account at the same time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasahara, H.; Seki, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Saito, K.; Mutoh, T.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Yamada, I.; Tokuzawa, T.; Ohdachi, S.; Morita, S.; Nomura, G.; Shimpo, F.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.; Oosako, T.; Takase, Y.
2008-01-01
A wave detector, a newly designed magnetic probe, is installed in the large helical device (LHD). This wave detector is a 100-turn loop coil with electrostatic shield. Comparing a one-loop coil to this detector, this detector has roughly constant power coupling in the lower frequency range of 40 MHz, and it can easily detect magnetic wave in the frequency of a few megahertz. During high-harmonic fast wave heating, lower frequency waves (<10 MHz) were observed in the LHD for the first time, and for the power density threshold of lower frequency wave excitation (7.5 MHz) the power density of excited pumped wave (38.47 MHz) was approximately -46 dBm/Hz. These lower frequencies are kept constant for electron density and high energy particle distribution, and these lower frequency waves seem to be ion cyclotron waves caused by nonlinear wave-particle interaction, for example, parametric decay instability.
Portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer of high sensitivity using X-ray tube excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vatai, E.; Ando, L.
1982-01-01
A review of the three main methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis and their problems is given. The attainable accuracy and effectiveness of each method are discussed. The main properties of portable X-ray analyzers required by the industry are described. The results and experiences of R and D activities in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) for developing portable X-ray analyzers are presented. The only way for increasing the accuracy and decreasing the measuring time is the application of X-ray tube excitation instead of radioactive sources. The new ATOMKI equipment presently under construction and patenting uses X-ray tube excitation; it will increase the accuracy of concentration determination by one order of magnitude. (D.Gy.)
Wave Packet Simulation of Nonadiabatic Dynamics in Highly Excited 1,3-Dibromopropane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brogaard, Rasmus Y.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Sølling, Theis Ivan
2008-01-01
]. In the experiment. DBP is excited to a Rydberg state 8 eV above the ground state. The interpretation of the results is that a torsional motion of the bromomethylene groups with a vibrational period of 680 is is activated upon excitation. The Rydberg state decays to a valence state, causing a dissociation of one...... of the carbon bromine bonds oil a time scale of 2.5 ps. Building the theoretical framework for the wave packet propagation around this model of the reaction dynamics, the Simulations reproduce, to a good extent, the time scales observed in the experiment. Furthermore. the Simulations provide insight into how...... the torsion motion influences the bond breakage, and C we can conclude that the mechanism that delays the dissociation is solely the electronic transition from the Rydberg state to the valence state and does not involve, for example, intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR)....
Intramolecular Dynamics: A Study of Molecules at High Levels of Vibrational Excitation.
1988-05-27
aareemlent stith the photoa.couxueC rexults.,I4 % obintied t r iii pfii ioaCOI it tic tveaxu retntsx." Si ne thle xhoxs xthat Iii the I ott fi nence...t 0 200 400 ns 6000 between pump and probe pulse for CH3 CHF2 at 660 Pa. Infrared excitation: 10.6 pim P(20) line, 0.5 ns pulse with average fluence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuai Sun
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In order to analyze the characteristics of propeller exciting force, the hybrid grid is adopted and the numerical prediction of KCS ship model is performed for hull–propeller–rudder system by Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS method and volume of fluid (VOF model. Firstly, the numerical simulation of hydrodynamics for bare hull at oblique state is carried out. The results show that with the increasing of the drift angle, the coefficients of resistance, side force and yaw moment are constantly increasing, and the bigger the drift angle, the worse the overall uniformity of propeller disk. Then, propeller bearing force for hull–propeller–rudder system in oblique flow is calculated. It is found that the propeller thrust and torque fluctuation coefficient peak in drift angle are greater than that in straight line navigation, and the negative drift angle is greater than the positive. The fluctuation peak variation law of coefficient of side force and bending moment are different due to various causes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catalan, G.; Roberts, M.J.
1979-01-01
A form of the off-shell Coulomb T matrix, which has a well defined on-shell limit, is used in the Faddeev-Watson multiple-scattering expansion for a direct three-body collision process. Using the excitation of atomic hydrogen by electron impact as an example, approximations to the second-order terms, which are valid for high momentum transfers of the incident electron, are derived. It is shown how the resulting asymptotic behaviour of the second-order Faddeev-Watson approximation is related to the high momentum transfer limit of the second Born approximation. The results are generalised to the excitation of more complex atoms. The asymptotic forms of the Faddeev-Watson and Born approximations are compared with other theories and with measurements of differential cross sections and angular correlation parameters for the excitation of H(2p) and He(2 1 P). The results indicate that the Faddeev-Watson approximation converges more rapidly at high momentum transfers than does the Born approximation. (author)
Stabilization of nonlinear excitations by disorder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.
1998-01-01
Using analytical and numerical techniques we analyze the static and dynamical properties of solitonlike excitations in the presence of parametric disorder in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a homogeneous power nonlinearity. Both the continuum and the discrete problem...... are investigated. We find that otherwise unstable excitations can be stabilized by the presence of disorder in the continuum problem. For the very narrow excitations of the discrete problem we find that the disorder has no effect on the averaged behavior. Finally, we show that the disorder can be applied to induce...... a high degree of controllability of the spatial extent of the stable excitations in the continuum system....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinhui Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the self-excited vibration problems of maglev vehicle-bridge interaction system which greatly degrades the stability of the levitation control, decreases the ride comfort, and restricts the cost of the whole system. Firstly, two levitation models with different complexity are developed, and the comparison of the energy curves associated with the two models is carried out. We conclude that the interaction model with a single levitation control unit is sufficient for the study of the self-excited vibration. Then, the principle underlying the self-excited vibration is explored from the standpoint of work acting on the bridge done by the levitation system. Furthermore, the influences of the parameters, including the modal frequency and modal damping of bridge, the gain of the controller, the sprung mass, and the unsprung mass, on the stability of the interaction system are carried out. The study provides a theoretical guidance for solving the self-excited vibration problems of the vehicle-bridge interaction systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonis, A., E-mail: gonis@comcast.net
2017-01-05
Through the entanglement of a collection of K non-interacting replicas of a system of N interacting Fermions, and making use of the properties of reduced density matrices the variational principle and the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn are generalized to excited states. The generalization of the variational principle makes use of the natural orbitals of an N-particle density matrix describing the state of lowest energy of the entangled state. The extension of the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn is based on the ground-state formulation of density functional theory but with a new interpretation of the concept of a ground state: It is the state of lowest energy of a system of KN Fermions that is described in terms of the excited states of the N-particle interacting system. This straightforward implementation of the line of reasoning of ground-state density functional theory to a new domain leads to a unique and logically valid extension of the theory to excited states that allows the systematic treatment of all states in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of an interacting system. - Highlights: • Use of entanglement in connection with the properties of density matrices. • An anti-symmetric entangled state of order KN expressed in terms of excited states of an interacting N-particle system.
Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian
2016-01-12
A benchmark set of 11 small radicals is set up to assess the performance of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for the excited states of open-shell systems. Both the unrestricted (U-TD-DFT) and spin-adapted (X-TD-DFT) formulations of TD-DFT are considered. For comparison, the well-established EOM-CCSD (equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) is also used. In total, 111 low-lying singly excited doublet states are accessed by all the three approaches. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as the benchmark, it is found that both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD perform well for those states dominated by singlet-coupled single excitations (SCSE) from closed-shell to open-shell, open-shell to vacant-shell, or closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals. However, for those states dominated by triplet-coupled single excitations (TCSE) from closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals, both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD fail miserably due to severe spin contaminations. In contrast, X-TD-DFT provides balanced descriptions of both SCSE and TCSE. As far as the functional dependence is concerned, it is found that, when the Hartree-Fock ground state does not suffer from the instability problem, both global hybrid (GH) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals perform grossly better than pure density functionals, especially for Rydberg and charge-transfer excitations. However, if the Hartree-Fock ground state is instable or nearly instable, GH and RSH tend to underestimate severely the excitation energies. The SAOP (statistically averaging of model orbital potentials) performs more uniformly than any other density functionals, although it generally overestimates the excitation energies of valence excitations. Not surprisingly, both EOM-CCSD and adiabatic TD-DFT are incapable of describing excited states with substantial double excitation characters.
Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY
2012-03-13
The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.
Obtaining highly excited eigenstates of the localized XX chain via DMRG-X
Devakul, Trithep; Khemani, Vedika; Pollmann, Frank; Huse, David A.; Sondhi, S. L.
2017-10-01
We benchmark a variant of the recently introduced density matrix renormalization group (DMRG)-X algorithm against exact results for the localized random field XX chain. We find that the eigenstates obtained via DMRG-X exhibit a highly accurate l-bit description for system sizes much bigger than the direct, many-body, exact diagonalization in the spin variables is able to access. We take advantage of the underlying free fermion description of the XX model to accurately test the strengths and limitations of this algorithm for large system sizes. We discuss the theoretical constraints on the performance of the algorithm from the entanglement properties of the eigenstates, and its actual performance at different values of disorder. A small but significant improvement to the algorithm is also presented, which helps significantly with convergence. We find that, at high entanglement, DMRG-X shows a bias towards eigenstates with low entanglement, but can be improved with increased bond dimension. This result suggests that one must be careful when applying the algorithm for interacting many-body localized spin models near a transition. This article is part of the themed issue 'Breakdown of ergodicity in quantum systems: from solids to synthetic matter'.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Guang-Qing; Liao Wei-Hsin
2015-01-01
This work focuses on how to maintain a high-energy orbit motion of a bistable oscillator when subjected to a low level excitation. An elastic magnifier (EM) positioned between the base and the bistable oscillator is used to magnify the base vibration displacement to significantly enhance the output characteristics of the bistable oscillator. The dimensionless electromechanical equations of the bistable oscillator with an EM are derived, and the effects of the mass and stiffness ratios between the EM and the bistable oscillator on the output displacement are studied. It is shown that the jump phenomenon occurs at a lower excitation level with increasing the mass and stiffness ratios. With the comparison of the displacement trajectories and the phase portraits obtained from experiments, it is validated that the bistable oscillator with an EM can effectively oscillate in a high-energy orbit and can generate a superior output vibration at a low excitation level as compared with the bistable oscillator without an EM. (paper)
Jia, Heping; Yang, Rongcao; Tian, Jinping; Zhang, Wenmei
2018-05-01
The nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with both varying linear and harmonic external potentials is investigated and the semirational rogue wave (RW) solution is presented by similarity transformation. Based on the solution, the interactions between Peregrine soliton and breathers, and the controllability of the semirational RWs in periodic distribution and exponential decreasing nonautonomous systems with both linear and harmonic potentials are studied. It is found that the harmonic potential only influences the constraint condition of the semirational solution, the linear potential is related to the trajectory of the semirational RWs, while dispersion and nonlinearity determine the excitation position of the higher-order RWs. The higher-order RWs can be partly, completely and biperiodically excited in periodic distribution system and the diverse excited patterns can be generated for different parameter relations in exponential decreasing system. The results reveal that the excitation of the higher-order RWs can be controlled in the nonautonomous system by choosing dispersion, nonlinearity and external potentials.
Bapat, V. A.; Prabhu, P.
1980-11-01
The problem of designing an optimum Lanchester damper for a viscously damped single degree of freedom system subjected to inertial harmonic excitation is investigated. Two criteria are used for optimizing the performance of the damper: (i) minimum motion transmissibility; (ii) minimum force transmissibility. Explicit expressions are developed for determining the absorber parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yukihira, Nao [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan; Sugai, Yuko [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan; Fujiwara, Masazumi [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan; Kosumi, Daisuke [Institute of Pulsed Power Science; Kumamoto University; Kumamoto; Japan; Iha, Masahiko [South Product Co. Ltd.; Uruma-shi; Japan; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry; Graduate School of Science; Osaka City University; Osaka 558-8585; Japan; Katsumura, Shigeo [Department of Chemistry; Graduate School of Science; Osaka City University; Osaka 558-8585; Japan; Gardiner, Alastair T. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre; University of Glasgow; 126 University Place; Glasgow, G12 8QQ; UK; Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre; University of Glasgow; 126 University Place; Glasgow, G12 8QQ; UK; Hashimoto, Hideki [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan
2017-01-01
Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid that is mainly found in light-harvesting complexes from brown algae and diatoms. Due to the presence of a carbonyl group attached to polyene chains in polar environments, excitation produces an excited intra-molecular charge transfer. This intra-molecular charge transfer state plays a key role in the highly efficient (~95%) energy-transfer from fucoxanthin to chlorophyll
Radiative capture studies of the electromagnetic decays of highly excited states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snover, K. A. [Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics
1980-01-01
Selected examples of interesting E1, M1 and E2 resonance studies in (p, ..gamma..) and (..cap alpha.., ..gamma..) reactions are discussed. These include a unique determination of E1 amplitudes in the /sup 12/C(p,..gamma..sub(o))/sup 13/N reaction, E2 strength in light nuclei, M1 decays to the ground states and to the excited O/sup +/ states of the doubly magic /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ca nuclei, ''second harmonic'' E1 resonances in (p, ..gamma..), and M1 ..gamma..-decay of stretched particle-hole states in /sup 16/O and /sup 28/Si.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawakami, Kazuki; Fujimoto, Takasi
2001-01-01
We treat classically the n-, l- and m r -changing transitions and ionization. Excitation cross sections against the final state energy continue smoothly to the 'ionization cross sections'. The steady state populations determined by elastic collisions among the degenerate states in the same n level show higher populations in the m 1 =0 states, suggesting positive polarizations of Lyman lines emitted from plasmas having directional electrons. For ionization, the two outgoing electrons have large relative angles, suggesting reduced three body recombination rates for these plasmas. (author)
Recent Progress in GW-based Methods for Excited-State Calculations of Reduced Dimensional Systems
da Jornada, Felipe H.
2015-03-01
Ab initio calculations of excited-state phenomena within the GW and GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) approaches allow one to accurately study the electronic and optical properties of various materials, including systems with reduced dimensionality. However, several challenges arise when dealing with complicated nanostructures where the electronic screening is strongly spatially and directionally dependent. In this talk, we discuss some recent developments to address these issues. First, we turn to the slow convergence of quasiparticle energies and exciton binding energies with respect to k-point sampling. This is very effectively dealt with using a new hybrid sampling scheme, which results in savings of several orders of magnitude in computation time. A new ab initio method is also developed to incorporate substrate screening into GW and GW-BSE calculations. These two methods have been applied to mono- and few-layer MoSe2, and yielded strong environmental dependent behaviors in good agreement with experiment. Other issues that arise in confined systems and materials with reduced dimensionality, such as the effect of the Tamm-Dancoff approximation to GW-BSE, and the calculation of non-radiative exciton lifetime, are also addressed. These developments have been efficiently implemented and successfully applied to real systems in an ab initio framework using the BerkeleyGW package. I would like to acknowledge collaborations with Diana Y. Qiu, Steven G. Louie, Meiyue Shao, Chao Yang, and the experimental groups of M. Crommie and F. Wang. This work was supported by Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR10-1006184.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thenint, Th.
2011-01-01
The steam generator is a heat exchanger and participates to the nuclear safety. Energy is transferred from the primary to the secondary fluid through many U-tubes maintained vertically by support plates. A sludge deposit tends to modify the boundary conditions and the secondary fluid flow. A fluid-elastic instability can then occur and lead to quick tube ruin. This thesis seeks a better understanding of the effect of contact nonlinearity on the dynamics of a tube in-air intermittently impacting the support plates and its consequences in regards with instability. The use of discretized contact conditions with circular obstacles distributed over the thickness of the plates and the use of enriched reduction bases allow quick and relevant nonlinear numerical simulations. These simulations are well correlated with experimental measurements and valid even with strong nonlinearity or negative modal damping. The evolution of power spectral densities (PSD) with growing excitation amplitude is analyzed: padding of the anti-resonances, peak shift and spread. It is then shown that an apparent stiffness associated with a permanent bilateral contact is pertinent to describe these transitions. In the case of an unstable linear system, one demonstrates that the nonlinearity keeps the responses bounded or stabilised, thus paving the way for future work with real or simulated fluid flows. (author)
Beam self-excited rf cavity driver for a deflector or focusing system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadlinger, E.A.
1996-01-01
A bunched beam from and accelerator can excite and power an rf cavity which then drives either a deflecting or focusing (including nonlinear focusing) rf cavity with and amplitude related to beam current. Rf power, generated when a bunched beam loses energy to an rf field when traversing an electric field that opposes the particle's motion, is used to drive a separate (or the same) cavity to either focus or deflect the beam. The deflected beam can be stopped by an apertures or directed to a different area of a target depending on beam current. The beam-generated rf power can drive a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) that can change the focusing properties of a beam channel as a function of beam current (space- charge force compensation or modifying the beam distribution on a target). An rf deflector can offset a beam to a downstream sextupole, effectively producing a position-dependent quadrupole field. The combination of rf deflector plus sextupole will produce a beam current dependent quadropole-focusing force. A static quadrupole magnet plus another rf deflector can place the beam back on the optic axis. This paper describes the concept, derives the appropriate equations for system analysis, and fives examples. A variation on this theme is to use the wake field generated in an rf cavity to cause growth in the beam emittance. The beam current would then be apertured by emittance defining slits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue-wen Chen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A fuzzy increment controller is designed aimed at the vibration system of automobile active suspension with seven degrees of freedom (DOF. For decreasing vibration, an active control force is acquired by created Proportion-Integration-Differentiation (PID controller. The controller’s parameters are adjusted by a fuzzy increment controller with self-modifying parameters functions, which adopts the deviation and its rate of change of the body’s vertical vibration velocity and the desired value in the position of the front and rear suspension as the input variables based on 49 fuzzy control rules. Adopting Simulink, the fuzzy increment controller is validated under different road excitation, such as the white noise input with four-wheel correlation in time-domain, the sinusoidal input, and the pulse input of C-grade road surface. The simulation results show that the proposed controller can reduce obviously the vehicle vibration compared to other independent control types in performance indexes, such as, the root mean square value of the body’s vertical vibration acceleration, pitching, and rolling angular acceleration.
General theory of excitation energy transfer in donor-mediator-acceptor systems.
Kimura, Akihiro
2009-04-21
General theory of the excitation energy transfer (EET) in the case of donor-mediator-acceptor system was constructed by using generalized master equation (GME). In this theory, we consider the direct and indirect transitions in the EET consistently. Hence, our theory includes the quantum mechanical interference between the direct and indirect transitions automatically. Memory functions in the GME were expressed by the overlap integrals among the time-dependent emission spectrum of the donor, the absorption spectrum of the mediator, the time-dependent emission spectrum of the mediator, and the absorption spectrum of the acceptor. In the Markov limit of the memory functions, we obtained the rate of EET which consists of three terms due to the direct transition, the indirect transition, and the interference between them. We found that the interference works effectively in the limit of slow thermalization at the intermediate state. The formula of EET rate in this limit was expressed by the convolution of the EET interaction and optical spectra. The interference effect strongly depends on the width of the absorption spectrum of mediator molecule and the energy gap between the donor and the mediator molecules.
Soil-structure interaction effects for laterally excited liquid-tank system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Yu; Veletsos, A.S.
1992-01-01
Following a brief review of the mechanical model for liquid-storage tanks which permits consideration of the effects of tank and ground flexibility, and lateral and rocking base excitations, the effects of both kinematic and inertia interaction effects on the response of the tank-liquid system are examined and elucidated. The free-field motion is defined by a power spectral density function and an incoherence function, which characterizes the spatial variability of the ground motion due to the vertically incident incoherence waves. The quantities examined are the ensemble means of the peak values of the response. The results are compared with those obtained for no soil-structure interaction and for kinematic interaction to elucidate the nature and relative importance of the two interactions. Only the impulsive actions are examined, the convective actions are for all practical purposes unaffected by both kinematic and inertia interactions. It is shown that the major reduction of the response is attributed to inertia interaction. 20 refs
Beam self-excited rf cavity driver for a deflector or focusing system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadlinger, E.A.
1996-01-01
A bunched beam from an accelerator can excite and power an rf cavity which then drives either a deflecting or focusing (including nonlinear focusing) rf cavity with an amplitude related to beam current. Rf power, generated when a bunched beam loses energy to an rf field when traversing an electric field that opposes the particle's motion, is used to drive a separate (or the same) cavity to either focus or deflect the beam. The deflected beam can be stopped by an aperture or directed to a different area of a target depending on beam current. The beam-generated rf power can drive a radiofrequency quadrupole that can change the focusing properties of a beam channel as a function of beam current (space-charge-force compensation or modifying the beam distribution on a target). An rf deflector can offset a beam to a downstream sextupole, effectively producing a position-dependent quadrupole field. The combination of rf deflector plus sextupole will produce a beam current dependent quadrupole-focusing force. A static quadrupole magnet plus another rf deflector can place the beam back on the optic axis. This paper describes the concept, derives the appropriate equations for system analysis, and gives examples. A variation on this theme is to use the wake field generated in an rf cavity to cause growth in the beam emittance. The beam current would then be apertured by emittance defining slits. (author)
Orientation of nuclei excited by polarized neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lifshits, E.P.
1986-01-01
Polarization and radiation angular distribution of oriented nuclei in inelastic scattering of polarized neutrons were investigated. Nucleus orientation in the final state was described by polarization density matrix (PDM). If PDM is known, angular distributions, linear and circular polarization of γ-quanta emitted by a nucleus can be determined. Analytical expression for PDM, conditions of its diagonalization in the case of direct nucleus excitation and excitation by the stage of compound nucleus were obtained. Orientation of 12 C nuclei in the excited state 4.439 MeV, 2 + at energy of incident neutrons in the laboratory system from 4.8 MeV (excitation threshold) upt to 9 MeV was calculated as an example. Neutrons in initial state are completely polarized along Z axis. Calculations showed that excitation proceeds mainly by the stage of compound nucleus formation and 12 C nucleus is highly polarized in excited state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadaczek, Immanuel Patrick
2013-01-01
Theoretical background, parameterization and performance of the newly developed semiempirical configuration interaction singles (CIS) method MSINDO-sCIS (scaled configuration interaction singles) are presented. The CIS Hamiltonian is modified by scaling of the Coulomb and exchange integrals and a semiempirical correction of the diagonal elements. For a recently proposed benchmark set of 28 medium-sized organic molecules, vertical excitation energies for singlet and triplet states have been calculated and statistically evaluated. A full reparameterization of the MSINDO method for both ground and excited state properties was performed. The results of the reparameterized MSINDO-sCIS method are compared to the currently best semiempirical method for excited states, OM3-CISDTQ by Thiel et al., and to other standard methods, such as time-dependent density- functional theory. The mean absolute deviation with respect to the theoretical best estimates (TBEs) for MSINDO-sCIS is 0.44 eV, comparable to the OM3 method but significantly smaller than for Zerner's INDO/S. The computational effort is strongly reduced compared to OM3-CISDTQ and OM3-MRCISD, since only single excitations are taken into account. Higher excitations are implicitly included by parameterization and the empirical correction term. By application of the Davidson-Liu block diagonalization method high computational efficiency is achieved. Furthermore it is demonstrated, that the MSINDO-sCIS method correctly describes charge-transfer (CT) states, that represent a crucial problem for time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. Additionally this method is extended to open-shell systems by the UCIS (unrestricted CIS) approach. MSINDO allows the calculation of periodic systems via the cyclic cluster model (CCM) which is a direct-space approach and therefore can be in principle combined with all molecular quantum-chemical techniques. The sCIS/UCIS equations are solved for a cluster with periodic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-jie Zhang
2013-11-01
Full Text Available As comprehensive protectors for coal mining (referred to comprehensive protectors in use are prone to fail, it can timely screen out the invalid comprehensive protector by periodic functional test when it is used (it is called test in use to ensure the production safety. The test in use needs the specialized test equipment, which is not used in delivery inspection by the manufacturers of comprehensive protectors. Thus, testing excitation power becomes a constraint for the improvement of the accuracy of test in use and the degree of automation. To solve the problem, this paper developed a power frequency programmed input-output testing excitation power supply, and on that basis it also realized the mining comprehensive protector test system in use with the excitation circuit and voltage program-controlled output.
Production of a Beam of Highly Vibrationally Excited CO Using Perturbations
Bartels, N.; Schäfer, T.; Hühnert, J.; Wodtke, A. M.; Field, R. W.
2012-06-01
For many experimentalists (especially those, who are not spectroscopists), molecular pertubations are a curse, as they make assignments and analysis of spectral data more difficult. Nevertheless, they can also be a boon! In this talk we will show how a molecular beam of CO in high vibrational states (v=17,18) can be prepared by an optical pumping scheme that we call PUMP-PUMP-PERTURB and DUMP (P^3D). P^3D exploits the loaning, via spin-orbit perturbations, of the large oscillator strength of the 4th positive system, A ^1 π ← X ^1 Σ ^+, to the triplet manifold. This allows some nominally spin-forbidden transitions to be exploited in multistep optical pumping schemes. The ability to {state-selectively} prepare CO in high vibrational states opens up new opportunities for molecular beam scattering experiments.
Exciting middle and high school students about immunology: an easy, inquiry-based lesson.
Lukin, Kara
2013-03-01
High school students in the United States are apathetic about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and the workforce pipeline in these areas is collapsing. The lack of understanding of basic principles of biology means that students are unable to make educated decisions concerning their personal health. To address these issues, we have developed a simple, inquiry-based outreach lesson centered on a mouse dissection. Students learn key concepts in immunology and enhance their understanding of human organ systems. The experiment highlights aspects of the scientific method and authentic data collection and analysis. This hands-on activity stimulates interest in biology, personal health and careers in STEM fields. Here, we present all the information necessary to execute the lesson effectively with middle and high school students.
Design of excitation signals for active system monitoring in a performance assessment setup
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, Hans Henrik
2011-01-01
This paper investigates how the excitation signal should be chosen for a active performance setup. The signal is used in a setup where the main purpose is to detect whether a parameter change of the controller has changed the global performance significantly. The signal has to be able to excite...... the dynamics of the subsystem under investigation both before and after the parameter change. The controller is well know, but there exists no detailed knowledge about the dynamics of the subsystem....
Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-03-10
Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.
Increasing Mud Pump Motor Reliability against Malfunctions of DC Motor Excitation System
Nikulin, O. V.; Shabanov, V. A.
2017-10-01
The most widely used drilling machinery, such as mud pumps, draw-works, and rotors, use direct-current (DC) motors with independent excitation as the electric drive. Drilling machinery drives operate in harsh ambient conditions, including those with the presence of moisture, dust and vibration, which increases the malfunction rate of both drilling equipment and their electric drives. One of the frequently encountered malfunctions are DC motor excitation coil faults, which disrupt the normal functioning of electric drives, often leading to shutdown of the drilling process. In a four-pole DC motor, the malfunction of one coil leads to lack of excitation current in just one coil pair, while the other pair remains functional. In this case, DC motors and drilling equipment can remain operational, which would allow for continuing the drilling process. This paper considers the possibility of operation of a DC motor on a drilling rig in those cases when one pair of excitation coils is non-functional, and describes the device for switching between the excitation coils and the auxiliary winding in a DC motor with independent excitation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prima, Eka Cahya [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (Indonesia); Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman, E-mail: yatman@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno [Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
The aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes were previously reported to form carbinol pseudobase, cis-chalcone, and trans-chalcone due to the basic levels. The further investigations of ground and excited state properties of the dyes were characterized using density functional theory with PCM(UFF)/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level in the basic solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, the theoretical investigation of their potential photosensitizers has never been reported before. In this paper, the theoretical photovoltaic properties sensitized by dyes have been successfully investigated including the electron injections, the ground and excited state oxidation potentials, the estimated open circuit voltages, and the light harvesting efficiencies. The results prove that the electronic properties represented by dyes’ LUMO-HOMO levels will affect to the photovoltaic performances. Cis-chalcone dye is the best anthocyanidin aglycone dye with the electron injection spontaneity of −1.208 eV, the theoretical open circuit voltage of 1.781 V, and light harvesting efficiency of 56.55% due to the best HOMO-LUMO levels. Moreover, the ethanol solvent slightly contributes to the better cell performance than the water solvent dye because of the better oxidation potential stabilization in the ground state as well as in the excited state. These results are in good agreement with the known experimental report that the aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes in basic solvent are the high potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell.
Decay out of the yrast and excited highly-deformed bands in the even-even nucleus {sup 134}Nd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petrache, C.M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S. [Sezione di Padova (Italy)] [and others
1996-12-31
The resolving power achieved by the new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays allows now to observe transitions with intensities of the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}3} of the population of the final residual nucleus, making therefore feasible the study of the very weakly populated excited bands built on the superdeformed (SD) minimum or of the decay out of the SD bands. As a matter of fact, numerous excited SD bands have been observed in the different regions of superdeformation, which led to a deeper understanding of the single-particle excitation in the second minimum. The first experimental breakthrough in the study of the decay out process has been achieved in the odd-even {sup 133,135}Nd nuclei of the A=130 mass region. There, the observation of the discrete linking transitions has been favored by the relatively higher intensity of the highly-deformed (HD) bands ({approximately}10%), as well as by the small excitation energy with respect to the yrast line in the decay-out region ({approximately}1 MeV). No discrete linking transitions have been so far observed in the A=80, 150 mass regions. The present results suggest that the decay out of the HD bands in {sup 134}Nd is triggered by the crossing with the N=4 [402]5/2{sup +} Nilsson orbital, that has a smaller deformation than the corresponding N=6 intruder configuration. The crossing favours the mixing with the ND rotational bands strongly enhancing the decay-out process and weakening the in-band transition strength. The HD band becomes fragmented and looses part of its character. The intensity of the decay-out transitions increases when the spin of the HD state decreases, indicating enhanced ND amplitude in the wavefunction when going down the band. Lifetime measurements of the HD bands are crucial to further elucidate the decay-out process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGowan, F.K.; Stelson, P.H.
1974-01-01
The theory of Coulomb excitation and a brief review of pertinent treatments of the Coulomb excitation process that are useful for the analysis of experiments are given. Examples demonstrating the scope of nuclear structure information obtainable from gamma spectroscopy are presented. Direct Elambda excitation of 232 Th is discussed in terms of the one phonon octupole vibrational spectrum. B(MI) reduced transition probabilities resulting from Coulomb excitation of odd-A deformed nuclei with heavy ions are presented as a test of the rotational model. The use of gamma ray coincidence and particle-gamma coincidence as tools for investigating Coulomb excitation is discussed. (U.S.)
Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian
2017-01-01
In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on ...
Bhagat, Ruchi; Fortna, Samuel R; Browning, Kirsteen N
2015-01-01
Obesity is recognized as being multifactorial in origin, involving both genetic and environmental factors. The perinatal period is known to be critically important in the development of neural circuits responsible for energy homeostasis and the integration of autonomic reflexes. Diet-induced obesity alters the biophysical, pharmacological and morphological properties of vagal neurocircuits regulating upper gastrointestinal tract functions, including satiety. Less information is available, however, regarding the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) itself on the properties of vagal neurocircuits. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that exposure to a HFD during the perinatal period alters the electrophysiological, pharmacological and morphological properties of vagal efferent motoneurones innervating the stomach. Our data indicate that perinatal HFD decreases the excitability of gastric-projecting dorsal motor nucleus neurones and dysregulates neurotransmitter release from synaptic inputs and that these alterations occur prior to the development of obesity. These findings represent the first direct evidence that exposure to a HFD modulates the processing of central vagal neurocircuits even in the absence of obesity. The perinatal period is critically important to the development of autonomic neural circuits responsible for energy homeostasis. Vagal neurocircuits are vital to the regulation of upper gastrointestinal functions, including satiety. Diet-induced obesity modulates the excitability and responsiveness of both peripheral vagal afferents and central vagal efferents but less information is available regarding the effects of diet per se on vagal neurocircuit functions. The aims of this study were to investigate whether perinatal exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) dysregulated dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones, prior to the development of obesity. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from gastric-projecting DMV neurones in thin
Lifetime measurements of highly excited Rydberg states of strontium. Pt. 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunze, S.; Hohmann, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Monz, L.; Stenner, J.; Stratmann, K.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik)
1993-06-01
Lifetimes of Rydberg states of triplet-series 5s ns[sup 3]S[sub 1] with n=19-23, 35 and 5s nd[sup 3]D[sub 3] with n=18-20, 23-28 in the spectrum of neutral strontium have been determined. Observation of the exponential decay after excitation by a pulsed laser in a fast atomic beam and subsequent state-selective field ionization was employed. The lifetimes of the states of the [sup 3]S[sub 1]-series show the expected n*[sup 3] dependence on the effective principal quantum number, while the [sup 3]D[sub 3]-series is disturbed by configuration mixing. Furthermore, state re-populations induced by black-body radiation have been observed. (orig.).
Lifetime measurements of highly excited Rydberg states of strontium. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunze, S.; Hohmann, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Monz, L.; Stenner, J.; Stratmann, K.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K.
1993-01-01
Lifetimes of Rydberg states of triplet-series 5s ns 3 S 1 with n=19-23, 35 and 5s nd 3 D 3 with n=18-20, 23-28 in the spectrum of neutral strontium have been determined. Observation of the exponential decay after excitation by a pulsed laser in a fast atomic beam and subsequent state-selective field ionization was employed. The lifetimes of the states of the 3 S 1 -series show the expected n* 3 dependence on the effective principal quantum number, while the 3 D 3 -series is disturbed by configuration mixing. Furthermore, state re-populations induced by black-body radiation have been observed. (orig.)
60-GHz integrated-circuit high data rate quadriphase shift keying exciter and modulator
Grote, A.; Chang, K.
1984-01-01
An integrated-circuit quadriphase shift keying (QPSK) exciter and modulator have demonstrated excellent performance directly modulating a carrier frequency of 60 GHz with an output phase error of less than 3 degrees and maximum amplitude error of 0.5 dB. The circuit consists of a 60-GHz Gunn VCO phase-locked to a low-frequency reference source, a 4th subharmonic mixer, and a QPSK modlator packaged into a small volume of 1.8 x 2.5 x 0.35 in. The use of microstrip has the advantages of small size, light-weight, and low-cost fabrication. The unit has the potential for multigigabit data rate applications.
Resonant states in 13C and 16,17O at high excitation energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, M R D; Borello-Lewin, T; Miyake, H; Duarte, J L M; Rodrigues, C L; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L B; Ukita, G M; Cappuzzello, F; Foti, A; Cavallaro, M; Agodi, C; Cunsolo, A; Carbone, D; Bondi, M; Napoli, M De; Roeder, B T; Linares, R; Lombardo, I
2014-01-01
The 9 Be( 6 Li,d) 13 C and 12,13 C( 6 Li,d) 16,17 O reactions were measured at the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at 25.5 MeV incident energy. The nuclear emulsion detection technique was applied. Several narrow resonances were populated up to approximately 17 MeV of excitation energy. An excellent energy resolution was obtained: 40 keV for 13 C and 15-30 keV for 16 O. The upper limit for the resonance widths were determined. Recently, d-a angular correlations were measured at θ d = 0° with incident energy of 25 MeV using the LNS Tandem-MAGNEX Spectrometer facility
High-frequency domain wall excitations in magnetic garnet films with in-plane magnetization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Synogach, V.T.; Doetsch, H.
1996-01-01
Magnetic garnet films of compositions (YBi) 3 Fe 5 O 12 and (LuBi) 3 Fe 5 O 12 are grown by liquid-phase epitaxy on [110]- and [100]-oriented substrates of gadolinium gallium garnet, respectively. All films have in-plane magnetization. 180 degree and 90 degree domain walls in these films are studied by microwave technique. In addition to the known low-frequency mode of wall translation new multiple resonant modes of both 90 degree and 180 degree domain walls with very small linewidth (4.2 MHz) are observed at frequencies near 1 GHz. Resonances are effectively excited by an rf magnetic field which is parallel or perpendicular to the wall plane. Resonance frequencies are shown to have nonlinear dispersion dependence on the mode number: they decrease with increasing in-plane magnetic field normal to the wall plane. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Resonant states in 13C and 16,17O at high excitation energy
Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Ukita, G. M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Bondi, M.; De Napoli, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Linares, R.; Lombardo, I.
2014-12-01
The 9Be(6Li,d)13C and 12,13C(6Li,d)16,17O reactions were measured at the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at 25.5 MeV incident energy. The nuclear emulsion detection technique was applied. Several narrow resonances were populated up to approximately 17 MeV of excitation energy. An excellent energy resolution was obtained: 40 keV for 13C and 15-30 keV for 16O. The upper limit for the resonance widths were determined. Recently, d-a angular correlations were measured at θd = 0° with incident energy of 25 MeV using the LNS Tandem-MAGNEX Spectrometer facility.
Photo-redox activated drug delivery systems operating under two photon excitation in the near-IR.
Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Vabre, Jean-Marie; Pecorelli, Travis A; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Zink, Jeffrey I
2014-05-07
We report the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by "snap-top" caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes inter-molecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. We describe the operation of the "snap-top" release mechanism by both one- and two-photon activation. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy.
Stochastic stability of mechanical systems under renewal jump process parametric excitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Larsen, Jesper Winther
2005-01-01
independent, negative exponential distributed variables; hence, the arrival process may be termed as a generalized Erlang renewal process. The excitation process is governed by the stochastic equation driven by two independent Poisson processes, with different parameters. If the response in a single mode...... is investigated, the problem is governed in the state space by two stochastic equations, because the stochastic equation for the excitation process is autonomic. However due to the parametric nature of the excitation, the nonlinear term appears at the right-hand sides of the equations. The equations become linear...... of the stochastic equation governing the natural logarithm of the hyperspherical amplitude process and using the modification of the method wherein the time averaging of the pertinent expressions is replaced by ensemble averaging. It is found that the direct simulation is more suitable and that the asymptotic mean...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prosmiti, Rita; Valdés, Álvaro; Kalemost, Apostolos
2014-01-01
The study of electronically excited van der Waals (vdW) systems presents a challenge for the theory of intermolecular interactions, and here we show how far ab initio computations can go. We found that the interaction energies for such electronically excited systems can indeed be determined, providing a reliable and accurate description for the E state potential of the HeI 2 , that in combination with the ground X and electronic excited B state of the complex, is useful to model experimental data related with potential minima and also predict higher vibrational vdW states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montero-Alejo, Ana L.; Gonzalez-Santana, Susana; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Erix Wiliam; Fuentes-Montero, Maria Elena; Bunge-Molina, Carlos F.; Gonzalez, Augusto
2008-01-01
Theoretical prediction of vertical excitation energies and an estimation of charge distributions of polyatomic systems can be calculated, through the configuration interaction of single (CIS) excited determinants procedure, with the CNDOL (Complete Neglect of Differential Overlap considering the l azimuthal quantum number) Hamiltonians. This method does not use adjusted parameters to fit experimental data and only employ a priori data on atomic orbitals and simple formulas to substitute large computations of electronic integrals. In this sense, different functions for bi-electron integrals have been evaluated in order to improve the approximate Hamiltonian. The reliability of predictions and theoretical consistence has been tested with a benchmark set of organic molecules that covers important classes of chromophores including polyenes and other unsaturated aliphatic compounds, aromatic, hydrocarbons, heterocycles, carbonyl compounds, and nucleobases. The calculations are done at identical geometries (MP2) with the same basis set (6-31G) for these medium-sized molecules and the obtained results were statistically compared with other analogous methods and experimental data. The accuracy of prediction of each CNDOL vertical transitions energy increases while the active space is more complete allowing the best variational optimization of CIS matrices i.e. molecular excited states. Moreover and due to the feasible computation procedure for large polyatomic systems, the studies have been extended, as a preliminary work, in the field of optoelectronic materials for photovoltaic applications. Hence, the excitation energies of different conjugated Phenyl-cored Thiophene Dendrimers optimized by DFT (Density Functional Theory) were calculated and show good agreement with the experiment data. The predicted charge distribution during the excitation contributes to understand the photophysics process on these kind materials. (Full text)
Gulyaev, P.; Kotvanova, M.; Omelchenko, A.
2017-05-01
The mechanism of abnormal photo-thermal effect of laser radiation on nanoparticles of oxide bronzes has been proposed in this paper. The basic features of the observed effect are: a) sub-threshold absorption of laser radiation by the excitation of donor-like levels formed in the energy gap due to superficial defects of the oxide bronze nano-crystals; b) an interband radiationless transition of energy of excitation on deep triplet levels and c) consequent recombination occurring at the plasmon absorption. K or Na atoms thermally intercalated to the octahedral crystal structure of TiO2 in the wave SHS combustion generate acceptor levels in the gap. The prepared oxide bronzes of the non-stoichiometric composition NaxTiO2 and KxTiO2 were examined by high resolution TEM, and then grinded in a planetary mill with powerful dispersion energy density up to 4000 J/g. This made it possible to obtain nanoparticles about 50 nm with high surface defect density (1017-1019 cm-2 at a depth of 10 nm). High photo-thermal effect of laser radiation on the defect nanocrystals observed after its impregnation into cartilaginous tissue exceeds 7 times in comparison with the intact ones.
Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High)
2015-12-01
elements (five SMGTs) for the S2E2 Mobile Ground System. SBIRS Block Buy (GEO 5-6) The GEO 5-6 Tech Refresh (TR) Engineering Change Proposal was...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-210 Space Based Infrared System High ( SBIRS High) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 11:24:26 UNCLASSIFIED SBIRS High December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 11:24:26
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brehm, Sascha
2009-01-01
Two-particle excitations, such as spin and charge excitations, play a key role in high-T c cuprate superconductors (HTSC). Due to the antiferromagnetism of the parent compound the magnetic excitations are supposed to be directly related to the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, the so-called resonance mode is a promising candidate for the pairing glue, a bosonic excitation mediating the electronic pairing. In addition, its interactions with itinerant electrons may be responsible for some of the observed properties of HTSC. Hence, getting to the bottom of the resonance mode is crucial for a deeper understanding of the cuprate materials. To analyze the corresponding two-particle correlation functions we develop in the present thesis a new, non-perturbative and parameter-free technique for T=0 which is based on the Variational Cluster Approach (VCA, an embedded cluster method for one-particle Green's functions). Guided by the spirit of the VCA we extract an effective electron-hole vertex from an isolated cluster and use a fully renormalized bubble susceptibility χ 0 including the VCA one-particle propagators. Within our new approach, the magnetic excitations of HTSC are shown to be reproduced for the Hubbard model within the relevant strong-coupling regime. Exceptionally, the famous resonance mode occurring in the underdoped regime within the superconductivity-induced gap of spin-flip electron-hole excitations is obtained. Its intensity and hourglass dispersion are in good overall agreement with experiments. Furthermore, characteristic features such as the position in energy of the resonance mode and the difference of the imaginary part of the susceptibility in the superconducting and the normal states are in accord with Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) experiments. For the first time, a strongly-correlated parameter-free calculation revealed these salient magnetic properties supporting the S=1 magnetic exciton scenario for the resonance mode. Besides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobsen, T.; Breivik, F.O.; Soerensen, S.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Inst. for Teoretisk Fysikk)
1980-01-01
The angular distribution of the tracks of the particles emitted from highly excited Ag and Br nuclei after the cascade are consistent with isotropy, in disfavour of the hypothesis of fission preceding some subsequent disintegration by isotropic single particle emission. If it is assumed that the highly excited nucleus behaves as a gas of quarks which are confined within the Ag(Br) nucleus, the confinement may possibly cause delays between the subsequent emissions of particles in favour of thermodynamical equilibrium. Some comments are given on the mass of a quark in the nucleus and on the energy distribution of the particles emitted from these excited nuclei.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobsen, T.; Breivik, F.O.; Soerensen, S.O.
1980-01-01
The angular distribution of the tracs of the particles emitted from highly excited Ag and Br nuclei after the cascade are consistent with isotropy, in disfavour of the hypothesis of fission preceding some subsequent disintegration by isotropic single particle emission. If it is assumed that the highly excited nucleus behaves as a gas of quarks which are confined within the Ag(Br) nucleus, the confinement may possibly cause delays between the subsequent emissions of particles in favour of thermodynamical equilibrium. Some comments are given on the mass of a quark in the nucleus and on the energy distribution of the particles emitted from these excited nuclei. (author)
Ang, Kar M; Yeo, Leslie Y; Hung, Yew M; Tan, Ming K
2016-09-21
The deposition of a thin graphene film atop a chip scale piezoelectric substrate on which surface acoustic waves are excited is observed to enhance its performance for fluid transport and manipulation considerably, which can be exploited to achieve further efficiency gains in these devices. Such gains can then enable complete integration and miniaturization for true portability for a variety of microfluidic applications across drug delivery, biosensing and point-of-care diagnostics, among others, where field-use, point-of-collection or point-of-care functionality is desired. In addition to a first demonstration of vibration-induced molecular transport in graphene films, we show that the coupling of the surface acoustic wave gives rise to antisymmetric Lamb waves in the film which enhance molecular diffusion and hence the flow through the interstitial layers that make up the film. Above a critical input power, the strong substrate vibration displacement can also force the molecules out of the graphene film to form a thin fluid layer, which subsequently destabilizes and breaks up to form a mist of micron dimension aerosol droplets. We provide physical insight into this coupling through a simple numerical model, verified through experiments, and show several-fold improvement in the rate of fluid transport through the film, and up to 55% enhancement in the rate of fluid atomization from the film using this simple method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedotov A.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The article proposes a method of mathematical simulation of electrical machines with thyristor exciters on the basis of the local Fourier transform. The present research demonstrates that this method allows switching from a variable structure model to a constant structure model. Transition from the continuous variables to the discrete variables is used. The numerical example is given in the paper.
Stochastic stability of mechanical systems under renewal jump process parametric excitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Larsen, Jesper Winther
2005-01-01
independent, negative exponential distributed variables; hence, the arrival process may be termed as a generalized Erlang renewal process. The excitation process is governed by the stochastic equation driven by two independent Poisson processes, with different parameters. If the response in a single mode...
Nordine, Paul C.; Fujimoto, Gordon T.; Greene, Frank T.
1987-01-01
The detection of excited oxygen and ozone molecules formed by surface catalyzed oxygen atom recombination and reaction was investigated by laser induced fluorescence (LIF), molecular beam mass spectrometric (MBMS), and field ionization (FI) techniques. The experiment used partially dissociated oxygen flows from a microwave discharge at pressures in the range from 60 to 400 Pa or from an inductively coupled RF discharge at atmospheric pressure. The catalyst materials investigated were nickel and the reaction cured glass coating used for Space Shuttle reusable surface insulation tiles. Nonradiative loss processes for the laser excited states makes LIF detection of O2 difficult such that formation of excited oxygen molecules could not be detected in the flow from the microwave discharge or in the gaseous products of atom loss on nickel. MBMS experiments showed that ozone was a product of heterogeneous O atom loss on nickel and tile surfaces at low temperatures and that ozone is lost on these materials at elevated temperatures. FI was separately investigated as a method by which excited oxygen molecules may be conveniently detected. Partial O2 dissociation decreases the current produced by FI of the gas.
Test of the neoclassical theory of radiation in a weakly excited atomic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brink, G.O.
1975-01-01
The neoclassical theory of radiation predicts that the decay rate of an excited atomic state depends on the population density of the lower state. Experimental evidence is presented here which shows that in the case of 39 K the decay rate is in agreement with the predictions of quantum electrodynamics and definitely in disagreement with the neoclassical theory
Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and ChargeTransfer Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Tassle, Aaron Justin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2006-01-01
This dissertation describes the development andimplementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probeapparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation ofinvestigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specificattention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highlysymmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes thedevelopment and construction of the experimental apparatus usedthroughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss theinvestigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resultingfrom a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of itsmethyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we areable to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provideevidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT)type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of thecarotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidencefor the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systemsand found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigationof the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsiblefor the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allowsfor a more detailed understanding of the importance of structuraldynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting.
Measurement and analysis of excitation functions in 20Ne + 27Al system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pachouri, Dipti; Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.
2008-01-01
In the present work, the excitation functions (EFs) for radioactive residues produced in the interaction of 20 Ne ion with 27 Al have been measured in order to study the reaction dynamics, particularly in the low mass region using the off-line γ-ray measurement activation technique for bombarding energies below 150 MeV
Electro-mechanical impact system excited by a source of limited power
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Půst, Ladislav
2008-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 6 (2008), s. 1-10 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/06/0063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : mechanical oscillations * impacts * limited power of exciter * electro-mechanical interaction Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
High-Performance Operating Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sharp, Robin
1999-01-01
Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....
Response of a thermal barrier system to acoustic excitation in a gas turbine nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betts, W.S. Jr.; Blevins, R.D.
1980-11-01
A gas turbine located within a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) induces high acoustic sound pressure levels into the primary coolant (helium). This acoustic loading induces high cycle fatigue stresses which may control the design of the thermal barrier system. This study examines the dynamic response of a thermal barrier configuration consisting of a fibrous insulation compressed against the reactor vessel by a coverplate which is held in position by a central attachment fixture. The results of dynamic vibration analyses indicate the effect of the plate size and curvature and the attachment size on the response of the thermal barrier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamimura, M. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Kernfysisch Versneller Inst.; Nakano, M.; Yahiro, M.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.
1980-01-01
A mechanism of the strong inelastic excitation of colliding nuclei (e.g. deep inelastic heavy-ion collision) was studied in a schematic way based on a coupled channel (CC) framework. The purpose of this work is to see the gross behavior of the inelastic excitation strength versus epsilon (i.e. energy spectrum) for the assumed specific types of CC potentials between a large number of inelastic channels. Schematic large dimension CC calculation was considered rather than small-dimension CC calculation. The coupled N + 1 equations can be reduced to uncoupled N + 1 equations through the wellknown unitary transformation. An interesting case is that there exists strong channel independent coupling between any pair of the channels, all of which are almost degenerate in internal energy as compared with incoming c.m. energy. It was found that inelastic scattering hardly occurred while the collision was almost confined to the elastic component. The numerical calculation of S-matrix was carried out. Other cases, such as zero CC potential, the coupling between inelastic channel and entrance channel, and the case that the thickness of the coupling was changed, were investigated. As the results of the present study, it can be said that this CC coupling model may be useful for discussing continuum-continuum interactions in a breakup reaction by simulating the continuum states with many channels made discrete.
Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip
2015-01-01
Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions
Quinary excitation method for pulse compression ultrasound measurements.
Cowell, D M J; Freear, S
2008-04-01
A novel switched excitation method for linear frequency modulated excitation of ultrasonic transducers in pulse compression systems is presented that is simple to realise, yet provides reduced signal sidelobes at the output of the matched filter compared to bipolar pseudo-chirp excitation. Pulse compression signal sidelobes are reduced through the use of simple amplitude tapering at the beginning and end of the excitation duration. Amplitude tapering using switched excitation is realised through the use of intermediate voltage switching levels, half that of the main excitation voltages. In total five excitation voltages are used creating a quinary excitation system. The absence of analogue signal generation and power amplifiers renders the excitation method attractive for applications with requirements such as a high channel count or low cost per channel. A systematic study of switched linear frequency modulated excitation methods with simulated and laboratory based experimental verification is presented for 2.25 MHz non-destructive testing immersion transducers. The signal to sidelobe noise level of compressed waveforms generated using quinary and bipolar pseudo-chirp excitation are investigated for transmission through a 0.5m water and kaolin slurry channel. Quinary linear frequency modulated excitation consistently reduces signal sidelobe power compared to bipolar excitation methods. Experimental results for transmission between two 2.25 MHz transducers separated by a 0.5m channel of water and 5% kaolin suspension shows improvements in signal to sidelobe noise power in the order of 7-8 dB. The reported quinary switched method for linear frequency modulated excitation provides improved performance compared to pseudo-chirp excitation without the need for high performance excitation amplifiers.
Lim, Edward C
1982-01-01
Excited States, Volume 6 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper discusses the linear polyene electronic structure and potential surfaces, considering both the theoretical and experimental approaches in such electronic states. This paper also reviews the theory of electronic structure and cites some experimental techniques on polyene excitations, polyene spectroscopic phenomenology, and those involving higher states of polyenes and their triplet states. Examples of these experimental studies of excited states involve the high-resolution one-pho
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petra eStuder
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Neurofeedback (NF is being successfully applied, among others, in children with ADHD and as a peak performance training in healthy subjects. However, the neuronal mechanisms mediating a successful NF training have not yet been sufficiently uncovered for both theta/beta (T/B, and slow cortical potential (SCP training, two protocols established in NF in ADHD. In the present randomized controlled investigation in adults without a clinical diagnosis (n = 59, the specificity of the effects of these two NF protocols on attentional processes, and motor system excitability were to be examined, focusing on the underlying neuronal mechanisms. NF training consisted of 10 double sessions, and self-regulation skills were analyzed. Pre- and post-training assessments encompassed performance and event-related potential measures during an attention task, and motor system excitability assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some NF protocol specific effects have been obtained. However, due to the limited sample size medium effects didn’t reach the level of significance. Self-regulation abilities during negativity trials of the SCP training were associated with increased contingent negative variation amplitudes, indicating improved resource allocation during cognitive preparation. Theta/beta training was associated with increased response speed and decreased target-P3 amplitudes after successful theta/beta regulation suggested reduced attentional resources necessary for stimulus evaluation. Motor system excitability effects after theta/beta training paralleled the effects of methylphenidate. Overall, our results are limited by the non-sufficiently acquired self-regulation skills, but some specific effects between good and poor learners could be described. Future studies with larger sample sizes and sufficient acquisition of self-regulation skills are needed to further evaluate the protocol specific effects on attention and motor system excitability
de Paor, A. M.
Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998) has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ɛ has the value 1 is proved via the Popov theorem from feedback system stability theory.
Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas
Andresen, Gorm B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Butler, Eoin; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori
2011-01-01
We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.