WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly excited open

  1. High energy magnetic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutron sources. Several important subjects adopted at thermal reactors are shown. It is desired to extend the implementation of the spectroscopic experiments for investigation of higher energy magnetic excitations. For La 2 CuO 4 , which is the mother crystal of the first high Tc materials found by Bednortz and Muller, it seems to be believed that the magnetism is well characterized by the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian, and it is widely accepted that the magnetism is a most probable progenitor of high Tc superconductors. The unusual properties of spin correlations in this crystal have been studied extensively by standard neutron scattering techniques with steady neutrons at BNL. FeSi is not ordered magnetically but shows a very unique feature of temperature induced magnetism, which also has been studied extensively by using the thermal neutron scattering technique at BNL. In these experiments, polarized neutrons are indispensable to extract the clean magnetic components out of other components of non-magnetic scattering. (N.K.)

  2. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  3. Highly excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Littman, M.G.; Zimmerman, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Highly excited atoms are often called Rydberg atoms. These atoms have a wealth of exotic properties which are discussed. Of special interest, are the effects of electric and magnetic fields on Rydberg atoms. Ordinary atoms are scarcely affected by an applied electric or magnetic field; Rydberg atoms can be strongly distorted and even pulled apart by a relatively weak electric field, and they can be squeezed into unexpected shapes by a magnetic field. Studies of the structure of Rydberg atoms in electric and magnetic fields have revealed dramatic atomic phenomena that had not been observed before

  4. High power laser exciter accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in untriggered oil and water switching now permit the construction of compact, high energy density pulsed power sources for laser excitation. These accelerators, developed principally for electron beam fusion studies, appear adaptable to laser excitation and will provide electron beams of 10 13 to 10 14 W in the next several years. The accelerators proposed for e-beam fusion essentially concentrate the available power from the outside edge of a disk into the central region where the electron beam is formed. One of the main problem areas, that of power flow at the vacuum diode insulator, is greatly alleviated by the multiplicity of electron beams that are allowable for laser excitation. A proposal is made whereby the disk-shaped pulsed power sections are stacked vertically to form a series of radially flowing electron beams to excite the laser gas volume. (auth)

  5. High excitation ISM and gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E; Martinez-Hernandez, NL; Rodriguez-Fernandez, NJ; Tielens, [No Value

    An overview is given of ISO results on regions of high excitation ISM and gas, i.e. H II regions, the Galactic Centre and Supernova Remnants. IR emission due to fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen, silicates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust are summarised, their diagnostic

  6. High Excitation Gas and ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, E.; Martin-Hernandez, N. L.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of ISO results on regions of high excitation ISM and gas, i.e. HII regions, the Galactic Centre and Supernovae Remnants. IR emission due to fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen, silicates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust are summarized, their diagnostic capabilities illustrated and their implications highlighted.

  7. Excited states of open strings from N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzienkowski, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We continue the analysis of building open strings stretched between giant gravitons from N=4 SYM by going to second order in perturbation theory using the three-loop dilatation generator from the field theory. In the process we build a Fock-like space of states using Cuntz oscillators which can be used to access the excited open string states. We find a remarkable cancellation among the excited states that shows the ground state energy is consistent with a fully relativistic dispersion relation.

  8. Scattering of highly excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raith, W.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental methods to excite atomic beams into Rydberg states and the first results of collision experiments with such beams are reported. For further information see hints under relevant topics. (orig.) [de

  9. “Some like it hot”: spectators who score high on the personality trait openness enjoy the excitement of hearing dancers breathing without music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jola, Corinne; Pollick, Frank E.; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of dance. Over the last 10 years, however, dance stimuli (without music) have been repeatedly used to study action observation processes, increasing our understanding of the influence of observer’s physical abilities on action perception. Moreover, beyond trained skills and empathy traits, very little has been investigated on how other observer or spectators’ properties modulate action observation and action preference. Since strong correlations have been shown between music and personality traits, here we aim to investigate how personality traits shape the appreciation of dance when this is presented with three different music/sounds. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between personality traits and the subjective esthetic experience of 52 spectators watching a 24 min lasting contemporary dance performance projected on a big screen containing three movement phrases performed to three different sound scores: classical music (i.e., Bach), an electronic sound-score, and a section without music but where the breathing of the performers was audible. We found that first, spectators rated the experience of watching dance without music significantly different from with music. Second, we found that the higher spectators scored on the Big Five personality factor openness, the more they liked the no-music section. Third, spectators’ physical experience with dance was not linked to their appreciation but was significantly related to high average extravert scores. For the first time, we showed that spectators’ reported entrainment to watching dance movements without music is strongly related to their personality and thus may need to be considered when using dance as a means to investigate action observation processes and esthetic preferences. PMID:25309393

  10. "Some like it hot": spectators who score high on the personality trait openness enjoy the excitement of hearing dancers breathing without music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jola, Corinne; Pollick, Frank E; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of dance. Over the last 10 years, however, dance stimuli (without music) have been repeatedly used to study action observation processes, increasing our understanding of the influence of observer's physical abilities on action perception. Moreover, beyond trained skills and empathy traits, very little has been investigated on how other observer or spectators' properties modulate action observation and action preference. Since strong correlations have been shown between music and personality traits, here we aim to investigate how personality traits shape the appreciation of dance when this is presented with three different music/sounds. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between personality traits and the subjective esthetic experience of 52 spectators watching a 24 min lasting contemporary dance performance projected on a big screen containing three movement phrases performed to three different sound scores: classical music (i.e., Bach), an electronic sound-score, and a section without music but where the breathing of the performers was audible. We found that first, spectators rated the experience of watching dance without music significantly different from with music. Second, we found that the higher spectators scored on the Big Five personality factor openness, the more they liked the no-music section. Third, spectators' physical experience with dance was not linked to their appreciation but was significantly related to high average extravert scores. For the first time, we showed that spectators' reported entrainment to watching dance movements without music is strongly related to their personality and thus may need to be considered when using dance as a means to investigate action observation processes and esthetic preferences.

  11. Some like it hot: Spectators who score high on the personality trait openness enjoy the excitement of hearing dancers breathing without music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne eJola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An integral part of dance is music. Over the last ten years, however, dance stimuli have been repeatedly used to study action observation processes without music, increasing our understanding of the influence of observer’s physical abilities on action perception. Moreover, beyond trained skills and empathy traits, very little has been investigated on how other observer or spectators’ properties modulate action observation and action preference. Since strong correlations have been shown between music and personality traits, here we aim to investigate how personality traits shape the appreciation of dance when this is presented with 3 different music/sounds. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between personality traits and the subjective aesthetic experience of 52 spectators watching a 24 min lasting contemporary dance performance projected on a big screen containing three movement phrases performed to three different sound scores: classical music (i.e. Bach, an electronic sound-score, and a section without music but where the breathing of the performers was audible. We found that first, spectators rated the experience of watching dance without music significantly different from with music. Second, we found that the higher spectators scored on the Big Five personality factor openness, the more they liked the no-music section. Third, spectators’ physical experience with dance was not linked to their appreciation but was significantly related to high average extravert scores. For the first time, we showed that spectators’ reported entrainment to watching dance movements without music is strongly related to their personality and thus may need to be considered when using dance as a means to investigate action observation processes and aesthetic preferences.

  12. Total cross section of highly excited strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.

    1990-01-01

    The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  13. Microstructure ion Nuclear Spectra at High Excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.

    1969-01-01

    The statistical microstructure of highly excited systems is illustrated by the distribution and fluctuations of levels, widths and cross-sections of nuclei both for the case of sharp resonances and the continuum case. The coexistence of simple modes of excitation with statistical effects in terms of strength functions is illustrated by isobaric analogue states. The analogy is made with similar phenomena for coherent light, is solid-state physics and high-energy physics. (author)

  14. High energy excitations in itinerant ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Itinerant magnets, those whose electrons move throughout the crystal, are described by band theory. Single particle excitations offer confirmation of band theory, but their description requires important corrections. The energetics of magnetism in iron and nickel is also described in band theory but requires complex bands. Magnetism above the critical temperature and the location of the critical temperature offer discriminants between the two major models of magnetism at high temperature and can be addressed by high energy excitations

  15. Recent experiments involving highly excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    Very large and fragile atoms may be produced by exciting normal atoms with light or by collisions with other atomic particles. Atoms as large as 10 -6 m are now routinely produced in the laboratory and their properties studied. In this review some of the simpler experimental methods available for the production and detection of such atoms are described including tunable dye laser-excitation and field ionization. A few recent experiments which illustrate the collision properties and the effects of electric and and magnetic fields are also described. The relevance of highly excited atoms in other areas of research including radioastronomy and isotope separation are discussed. (author)

  16. Multipole giant resonances in highly excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Keding; Cai Yanhuang

    1989-01-01

    The isoscalar giant surface resonance and giant dipole resonance in highly excited nuclei are discussed. Excitation energies of the giant modes in 208 Pb are calculated in a simplified model, using the concept of energy wieghted sum rule (EWSR), and the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation at the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature equilibrium state. It is shown that EWSR and the energy of the resonance depend only weakly on temperature in the system. This weak dependence is analysed

  17. Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.

  18. High-spin excitations of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Furong; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, Lanzhou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2004-01-01

    The authors used the cranking shell model to investigate the high-spin motions and structures of atomic nuclei. The authors focus the collective rotations of the A∼50, 80 and 110 nuclei. The A∼50 calculations show complicated g spectroscopy, which can have significant vibration effects. The A≅80 N≅Z nuclei show rich shape coexistence with prolate and oblate rotational bands. The A≅110 nuclei near the r-process path can have well-deformed oblate shapes that become yrast and more stable with increasing rotational frequency. As another important investigation, the authors used the configuration-constrained adiabatic method to calculate the multi-quasiparticle high-K states in the A∼130, 180 and superheavy regions. The calculations show significant shape polarizations due to quasi-particle excitations for soft nuclei, which should be considered in the investigations of high-K states. The authors predicted some important high-K isomers, e.g., the 8 - isomers in the unstable nuclei of 140 Dy and 188 Pb, which have been confirmed in experiments. In superheavy nuclei, our calculations show systematic existence of high-K states. The high-K excitations can increase the productions of synthesis and the survival probabilities of superheavy nuclei. (authors)

  19. The [NeIV] Lines in High Excitation Gaseous Nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H

    1970-04-01

    The "forbidden" lines of three times ionized neon are among the most precious indicators of electron temperature and excitation. They are also predicted to be among the strongest lines observed in the far ultraviolet spectra of high excitation nebulae.

  20. Orthodontic treatment-induced temporal alteration of jaw-opening reflex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Au; Hasegawa, Naoya; Adachi, Kazunori; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Suda, Naoto

    2017-10-01

    The impairment of orofacial motor function during orthodontic treatment needs to be addressed, because most orthodontic patients experience pain and motor excitability would be affected by pain. In the present study, the temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was investigated to determine if orthodontic treatment affects orofacial motor function. The excitability of jaw-opening reflex evoked by electrical stimulation on the gingiva and recorded bilaterally in the anterior digastric muscles was evaluated at 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 7 days (D7) after orthodontic force application to the teeth of right side; morphological features (e.g., osteoclast genesis and tooth movement) were also evaluated. To clarify the underlying mechanism of orthodontic treatment-induced alteration of orofacial motor excitability, analgesics were administrated for 1 day. At D1 and D3, orthodontic treatment significantly decreased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex but significantly increased the threshold at D7. Other parameters of the jaw-opening reflex were also evaluated (e.g., latency, duration and area under the curve of anterior digastric muscles activity), and only the latency of the D1 group was significantly different from that of the other groups. Temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was significantly correlated with changes in morphological features. Aspirin (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) significantly increased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex, whereas a lower dose (75-150 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) of aspirin or acetaminophen (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) failed to alter the jaw-opening reflex excitability. These results suggest that an increase of the jaw-opening reflex excitability can be induced acutely by orthodontic treatment, possibly through the cyclooxygenase activation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It is well known that motor function is affected by pain, but the effect of orthodontic treatment-related pain on the trigeminal

  1. Highly excited strings I: Generating function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri P. Skliros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.

  2. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C–Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J., E-mail: a.orr-ewing@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock’s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); King, Simon J.; Vallance, Claire [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-28

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br{sup ∗}), and C{sub 3}H{sub 5} hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br{sup ∗} atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br{sup ∗} images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C{sub 3}H{sub 5} fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br{sup ∗}, indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C{sub 3}H{sub 5} signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C–Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C{sub 3}H{sub 5} radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C{sub 3}H{sub 5}{sup +} from the photodissociation of the C{sub 3}H{sub 5}Br{sup +} molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  3. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J; King, Simon J; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2016-06-28

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br(∗)), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br(∗) atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br(∗) images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br(∗), indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5 (+) from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br(+) molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  4. Energy dependence of the ionization of highly excited atoms by collisions with excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Nakai, Y.; Nakamura, H.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate analytical expressions are derived for the ionization cross sections in the high- and low-collision-energy limits using the improved impulse approximation based on the assumption that the electron-atom inelastic-scattering amplitude is a function only of the momentum transfer. Both cases of simultaneous excitation and de-excitation of one of the atoms are discussed. The formulas are applied to the collisions between two excited hydrogen atoms and are found very useful for estimating the cross sections in the wide range of collisions energies

  5. Review of high excitation energy structures in heavy ion collisions: target excitations and three body processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frascaria, N.

    1987-09-01

    A review of experimental results on high excitation energy structures in heavy ion inelastic scattering is presented. The contribution to the spectra of the pick-up break-up mechanism is discussed in the light of the data obtained with light heavy ion projectiles. Recent results obtained with 40 Ar beams at various energies will show that target excitations contribute strongly to the measured cross section

  6. Ionization of highly excited atoms by atomic particle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    The ionization of a highly excited atom by a collision with an atom or molecule is considered. The theory of these processes is presented and compared with experimental data. Cross sections and ionization potential are discussed. 23 refs

  7. Bound state and localization of excitation in many-body open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H. T.; Shen, H. Z.; Hou, S. C.; Yi, X. X.

    2018-04-01

    We study the exact bound state and time evolution for single excitations in one-dimensional X X Z spin chains within a non-Markovian reservoir. For the bound state, a common feature is the localization of single excitations, which means the spontaneous emission of excitations into the reservoir is prohibited. Exceptionally, the pseudo-bound state can be found, for which the single excitation has a finite probability of emission into the reservoir. In addition, a critical energy scale for bound states is also identified, below which only one bound state exists, and it is also the pseudo-bound state. The effect of quasirandom disorder in the spin chain is also discussed; such disorder induces the single excitation to locate at some spin sites. Furthermore, to display the effect of bound state and disorder on the preservation of quantum information, the time evolution of single excitations in spin chains is studied exactly. An interesting observation is that the excitation can stay at its initial location with high probability only when the bound state and disorder coexist. In contrast, when either one of them is absent, the information of the initial state can be erased completely or becomes mixed. This finding shows that the combination of bound state and disorder can provide an ideal mechanism for quantum memory.

  8. Breakdown of highly excited oxygen in a DC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsin, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Deryugin, A.A.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The breakdown of oxygen in a dc electric field is studied. A high concentration of oxygen molecules in the a 1 Δ g excited state is obtained in a purely chemical reactor. A decrease in the breakdown voltage at degrees of excitation exceeding 50% is observed. The theoretical decrement in the breakdown voltage obtained by solving the Boltzmann equation is in good agreement with the experimental data

  9. Assessment of guide vane self-excitation stability at small openings in pump flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nennemann, B; Sallaberger, M; Henggeler, U; Gentner, C; Parkinson, E

    2012-01-01

    A parameter study of self-excited pump turbine guide vane instability at small openings using a combined CFD-1DOF approach shows that clear tendencies are difficult to obtain. Two types of boundary conditions can be used in the simulations: prescribed mass flow and prescribed pressure. Simulations with both show results that - for one specific operating condition - are consistent with a self-excited guide vane incident at a prototype pump turbine. However, over a larger range of reduced velocities, the tendencies obtained with the two boundary condition types are not always consistent. Pressure boundary conditions may be the more realistic option. Results then show that with increasing reduced velocity, guide vanes will eventually reach static instability or divergence. This may not be problematic. In contrast, passing through a zone of dynamic instability during operation should and can be avoided.

  10. Selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducas, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    This specification relates to the selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high lying states and a method of separating different isotopes of the same element by selective excitation of the isotopes. (U.K.)

  11. Dinamical polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delone, N.B.; Krajnov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Analytic expressions are derived for the dynamic polarizability of highly excited hydrogen-like atomic states. It is shown that in the composite matrix element which determines the dynamic polarizability there is a strong compensation of the terms as a result of which the resulting magnitude of the dynamic polarizability is quasiclasically small compared to the individual terms of the composite matrix. It is concluded that the resonance behaviour of the dynamic polarizability of highly excited states differs significantly from the resonance behaviour of the polarizability for the ground and low-lying atomic states. The static limit and high-frequency limit of on electromagnetic field are considered

  12. El strength function at high spin and excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.

    1983-04-01

    Recently giant dipole resonance-like concentration of the dipole strength function in nuclei was observed at both high excitation energies and high spins. This observation raises the possibility of obtaining new information on the shape of rapidly rotating heated nuclei. Recent experimental results on this subject are reviewed

  13. Complex fragment emission at low and high excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-08-01

    Complex fragment emission has been certified as a compound nucleus process at low energies. An extension of the measurements to heavy ion reactions up to 50 MeV/u shows that most complex fragments are emitted by highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions. 12 refs., 26 figs

  14. Strange effects of strong high-frequency excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2003-01-01

    Three general effects of mechanical high-frequency excitation (HFE) are described: Stiffening - an apparent change in the stiffness associated with an equilibrium; Biasing - a tendency for a system to move towards a particular state which does not exist or is unstable without HFE; and Smoothening...

  15. On the nature of highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the nature of the highly excited molecu- lar eigenstates is equivalent to deciphering the mecha- nism of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. (IVR) occurring in the molecule.1 However, the assign- ment of eigenstates is far from simple. The existence of and interplay of several strong anharmonic ...

  16. Density-dependent phonoriton states in highly excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Quang; Nguyen Minh Khue; Nguyen Que Huong

    1995-09-01

    The dynamical aspects of the phonoriton state in highly-photoexcited semiconductors is studied theoretically. The effect of the exciton-exciton interaction and nonbosonic character of high-density excitons are taken into account. Using Green's function method and within the Random Phase Approximation it is shown that the phonoriton dispersion and damping are very sensitive to the exciton density, characterizing the excitation degree of semiconductors. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs

  17. Nonlinear phenomena in the highly excited state of C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, H.J.; Maser, W.K.; Kaiser, M.; Akselrod, L.; Anders, J.; Ruehle, W.W.; Zhou, X.Q.; Mittelbach, A.; Roth, S.

    1993-01-01

    Under high intensity illumination, the optical and electronic properties of fullerenes are seen to undergo dramatic, nonlinear changes. The photoluminescence emission is seen to increase with approximately the third power of the input intensity above an apparent threshold intensity. Associated with this nonlinear increase is the emergence of a long lifetime emission component and a redshifting of the emission spectrum. Above the threshold intensity the photoconductive response increases with approximately the cube of the input power. In the highly excited state, the photoconductive response becomes relatively temperature independent compared to the thermally activated behaviour observed at low intensities. The characteristics of the temperature dependence are associated with a metallic-like phase in the highly excited state and therefore an optically driven insulator to metal transition is proposed as a description of the observed phenomena. (orig.)

  18. A High Five for ChemistryOpen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, David; Ortúzar, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    Fabulous at five! When ChemistryOpen was launched in 2011, it was the first society-owned general chemistry journal to publish open-access articles exclusively. Five years down the line, it has featured excellent work in all fields of chemistry, leading to an impressive first full impact factor of 3.25. In this Editorial, read about how ChemistryOpen has grown over the past five years and made its mark as a high-quality open-access journal with impact.

  19. High Tc Superconducting Magnet Excited by a Semiconductor Thermoelectric Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, T.; Ono, M.; Tabe, S.; Oguchi, A.; Okamura, T.

    2006-04-01

    A high Tc superconducting (HTS) magnet excited by a thermal electromotive force of a thermoelectric element is studied. This HTS magnet has the advantages of compactness, lightweight and continuous excitation in comparison with conventional HTS magnets, because this HTS magnet does not need a large external power source. In this system, a heat input into the cryogenic environment is necessary to excite the thermoelectric element for constant operation. This heat generation, however, causes a rise in temperature of an HTS coil and reduces the system performance. In this paper, a newly designed magnet system which adopted a two-stage GM cryocooler was investigated. It enabled us to control the temperature of a thermoelectric element and that of an HTS coil independently. The temperature of the HTS coil could be kept at 10-20 K at the second stage of the GM cryocooler, while the thermoelectric element could be excited at higher temperature in the range of 50-70 K at the first stage, where the performance of the thermoelectric element was higher. The experimental results on this HTS magnet are shown and the possibility of the thermoelectric element as a main power source of the HTS magnets is discussed.

  20. Excitation of high density surface plasmon polariton vortex array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2018-06-01

    This study proposes a method to excite surface plasmon polariton (SPP) vortex array of high spatial density on metal/air interface. A doughnut vector beam was incident at four rectangularly arranged slits to excite SPP vortex array. The doughnut vector beam used in this study has the same field intensity distribution as the regular doughnut laser mode, TEM01* mode, but a different polarization distribution. The SPP vortex array is achieved through the matching of both polarization state and phase state of the incident doughnut vector beam with the four slits. The SPP field distribution excited in this study contains stable array-distributed time-varying optical vortices. Theoretical derivation, analytical calculation and numerical simulation were used to discuss the characteristics of the induced SPP vortex array. The period of the SPP vortex array induced by the proposed method had only half SPPs wavelength. In addition, the vortex number in an excited SPP vortex array can be increased by enlarging the structure.

  1. The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civitarese, O.; Furui, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Faessler, A.

    1983-01-01

    The giant quadrupole resonance in highly excited, fast rotating nuclei is studied as a function of both the nuclear temperature and the nuclear angular momentum. The photo-absorption cross sections for quadrupole radiation in 156 Dy, 160 Er and 164 Er are evaluated within the linear response theory. The strength functions of the γ-ray spectrum obtained from the decay of highly excited nuclear states by deexcitation of the isoscalar quadrupole mode show a fine structure, which depends on the temperature T, the angular momentum I and the deformation of the nucleus β. The splitting of the modes associated with the signature-conserving and signature-changing components of the quadrupole field is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1996-01-01

    A short introduction to instrumental resolution is followed by a discussion of visibilities of phonon modes due to their eigenvectors. High precision phonon dispersion curves in GaAs are presented together with 'ab initio' calculations. Al 2 O 3 is taken as an example of selected visibility due to group theory. By careful determination of phonon intensities eigenvectors can be determined, such as in Silicon and Diamond. The investigation of magnon modes is shown for the garnet Fe 2 Ca 3 (GeO 4 ) 3 , where also a quantum gap due to zero point spin fluctuations was observed. The study of the splitting of excitons in CsFeCl 3 in an applied magnetic field demonstrates the possibilities of neutron polarisation analysis, which made it possible to observe a mode crossing. An outlook to inelastic X-ray scattering with very high energy resolution of synchrotron radiation is given with the examples of phonons in Beryllium and in water. (author) 19 figs., 36 refs

  3. Surface boiling - an obvious but like no other decay mode of highly excited atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toke, J.

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of a generalized compound nucleus model are introduced based on a concept of an open microcanonical ensemble which considers explicitly the role of the diffuse surface domain and of the thermal expansion of nuclear systems in the quest for maximum entropy. This obvious generalization offers a unique and universal thermodynamic framework for understanding the changes in the gross behavior of excited nuclear systems with increasing excitation energy and, specifically, the competition between different statistical decay modes, including classical evaporation and binary fission, but also the Coulomb fragmentation of excited systems into multiple fragments - the famed multifragmentation. Importantly, the formalism offers a natural explanation, in terms of boiling or spinodal vaporization, for the experimentally observed appearance of limiting excitation energy that can be thermalized by an exited nuclear system and the associated limiting temperature. It is shown that it is the thermal expansion that leads to volume boiling in an infinite matter and surface boiling in finite nuclei. The latter constitutes an important and universal, but hitherto unappreciated decay mode of highly excited nuclei, a mode here named surface spinodal vaporization. It is also shown that in iso-asymmetric systems, thermal expansion leads to what constitutes distillation - a decay mode here named distillative spinodal vaporization

  4. New properties of giant resonances in highly excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsch, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Studies on the giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei investigated in heavy ion-induced particle-γ coincidence experiments are reviewed. A signature is found in the γ-decay of excited nuceli which shows direct decay of the giant dipole resonance. This provides a new dimension in giant resonance studies and the possibility to study the dependence of giant resonance energy, width and sum rule strength on excitation energy and rotation of the system. Further, the fact that the giant resonance splits in deformed nuclei provides a unique way to get information on the shape of hot nuclei. First results are obtained on the following questions: (i)What is the nuclear shape at high temperature (T≥2 MeV)? (ii)Is there a phase transition in the nuclear shape at T∼1.7 MeV? (iii)Does motional narrowing exist in hot nuclei? (author). 19 refs., 11 figs

  5. Calculations on the vibrational level density in highly excited formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashev, Svetoslav; Moule, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The object of the present work is to develop a model that provides realistic estimates of the vibrational level density in polyatomic molecules in a given electronic state, at very high (chemically relevant) vibrational excitation energies. For S 0 formaldehyde (D 2 CO), acetylene, and a number of triatomics, the estimates using conventional spectroscopic formulas have yielded densities at the dissociation threshold, very much lower than the experimentally measured values. In the present work we have derived a general formula for the vibrational energy levels of a polyatomic molecule, which is a generalization of the conventional Dunham spectroscopic expansion. Calculations were performed on the vibrational level density in S 0 D 2 CO, H 2 C 2 , and NO 2 at excitation energies in the vicinity of the dissociation limit, using the newly derived formula. The results from the calculations are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured data

  6. High power electron beam accelerators for gas laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.G.; Martin, T.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    A preliminary parameter investigation has been used to determine a possible design of a high-power, relativistic electron beam, transversely excited laser. Based on considerations of present and developing pulsed power technology, broad area diode physics and projected laser requirements, an exciter is proposed consisting of a Marx generator, pulse shaping transmission lines, radially converging ring diodes and a laser chamber. The accelerator should be able to deliver approximately 20 kJ of electron energy at 1 MeV to the 10 4 cm 2 cylindrical surface of a laser chamber 1 m long and 0.3 m in diameter in 24 ns with very small azimuthal asymmetry and uniform radial deposition

  7. Neutron scattering investigation of magnetic excitations at high energy transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loong, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    With the advance of pulsed spallation neutron sources, neutron scattering investigation of elementary excitations in magnetic materials can now be extended to energies up to several hundreds of MeV. We have measured, using chopper spectrometers and time-of-flight techniques, the magnetic response functions of a series of d and f transition metals and compounds over a wide range of energy and momentum transfer. In PrO 2 , UO 2 , BaPrO 3 and CeB 6 we observed crystal-field transitions between the magnetic ground state and the excited levels in the energy range from 40 to 260 MeV. In materials exhibiting spin-fluctuation or mixed-valent character such as Ce 74 Th 26 , on the other hand, no sharp crystal-field lines but a broadened quasielastic magnetic peak was observed. The line width of the quasielastic component is thought to be connected to the spin-fluctuation energy of the 4f electrons. The significance of the neutron scattering results in relation to the ground state level structure of the magnetic ions and the spin-dynamics of the f electrons is discussed. Recently, in a study of the spin-wave excitations in itinerant magnetic systems, we have extended the spin-wave measurements in ferromagnetic iron up to about 160 MeV. Neutron scattering data at high energy transfers are of particular interest because they provide direct comparison with recent theories of itinerant magnetism. 26 references, 7 figures

  8. Opening of pannexin and connexin based-channels increases the excitability of nodose ganglion sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Antonio Retamal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite glial cells (SGCs are the main glia in sensory ganglia. They surround neuronal bodies and form a cap that prevents the formation of chemical or electrical synapses between neighboring neurons. SGCs have been suggested to establish bidirectional paracrine communication with sensory neurons. However, the molecular mechanism involved in this cellular communication is unknown. In the central nervous system, astrocytes present connexin43 (Cx43 hemichannels and pannexin1 (Panx1 channels, and their opening allows the release of signal molecules, such as ATP and glutamate. We propose that these channels could play a role in the glia-neuron communication in sensory ganglia. Therefore, we studied the expression and function of Cx43 and Panx1 in rat and mouse nodose-petrosal-jugular complex (NPJc by confocal immunofluorescence, molecular and electrophysiological techniques. Cx43 and Panx1 were detected in SGCs and sensory neurons, respectively. In the rat and mouse, the electrical activity of vagal nerve increased significantly after nodose neurons were exposed to Ca2+/ Mg2+-free solution, a condition that increases the open probability of Cx hemichannels. This response was partially mimicked by a cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the last 10 amino acids of Cx43 (TAT-Cx43CT. Enhanced neuronal activity was reduced by Cx hemichannel, Panx1 channel and P2X7 receptor blockers. Moreover, the role of Panx1 was confirmed in NPJc, because Panx1 knockout mouse showed a reduced increase of neuronal activity induced by Ca2+/Mg2+-free extracellular conditions. Data suggest that Cx hemichannels and Panx channels serve as paracrine communication pathways between SGCs and neurons by modulating the excitability of sensory neurons.

  9. Excited Atoms and Molecules in High Pressure Gas Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Popovic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Various types of high-pressure non-thermal discharges are increasingly drawing attention in view of many interesting applications. These, partially ionized media in non-equilibrium state, tend to generate complex effects that are difficult to interpret without a detailed knowledge of elementary processes involved. Electronically excited molecules and atoms may play an important role as intermediate states in a wide range of atomic and molecular processes, many of which are important in high-pressure discharges. They can serve also as reservoirs of energy or as sources of high energy electrons either through the energy pooling or through superelastic collisions. By presenting the analysis of current situation on the processes involving excited atoms and molecules of interest for high-pressure gas discharges, we will attempt to draw attention on the insufficiency of available data. In the same time we will show how to circumvent this situation and still be able to develop accurate models and interpretations of the observed phenomena

  10. Multiphoton excitation and high-harmonics generation in topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H K; Avetissian, A K; Avchyan, B R; Mkrtchian, G F

    2018-05-10

    Multiphoton interaction of coherent electromagnetic radiation with 2D metallic carriers confined on the surface of the 3D topological insulator is considered. A microscopic theory describing the nonlinear interaction of a strong wave and metallic carriers with many-body Coulomb interaction is developed. The set of integrodifferential equations for the interband polarization and carrier occupation distribution is solved numerically. Multiphoton excitation of Fermi-Dirac sea of 2D massless carriers is considered for a THz pump wave. It is shown that in the moderately strong pump wave field along with multiphoton interband/intraband transitions the intense radiation of high harmonics takes place.

  11. Excited baryon form factors at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Stoler; Gary Adams; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Chris Armstrong; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; K. Baker; Peter Bosted; Volker Burkert; Jim Dunne; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; V. Frolov; David Gaskell; P. Gueye; Wendy Hinton; Cynthia Keppel; Wooyoung Kim; Michael Klusman; Doug Koltenuk; David Mack; Richard Madey; David Meekins; Ralph Minehart; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; James Napolitano; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Mina Nozar; John Price; Paul Stoler; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Michael Witkowski; Stephen Wood

    1998-01-01

    The role of resonance electroproduction at high Q 2 is discussed in the context of exclusive reactions, as well as the alternative theoretical models which are proposed to treat exclusive reactions in the few GeV 2 /c 2 region of momentum transfer. Jefferson Lab experiment 94-014, which measured the excitation of the Delta (1232) and S 11 (1535) via the reactions p(e,e ' p)pi 0 and p(e,e ' p)eta respectively at Q 2 ∼ 2.8 and 4 GeV 2 /c 2 is described, and the state of analysis reported

  12. Multiphoton excitation and high-harmonics generation in topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H. K.; Avetissian, A. K.; Avchyan, B. R.; Mkrtchian, G. F.

    2018-05-01

    Multiphoton interaction of coherent electromagnetic radiation with 2D metallic carriers confined on the surface of the 3D topological insulator is considered. A microscopic theory describing the nonlinear interaction of a strong wave and metallic carriers with many-body Coulomb interaction is developed. The set of integrodifferential equations for the interband polarization and carrier occupation distribution is solved numerically. Multiphoton excitation of Fermi–Dirac sea of 2D massless carriers is considered for a THz pump wave. It is shown that in the moderately strong pump wave field along with multiphoton interband/intraband transitions the intense radiation of high harmonics takes place.

  13. The excitation of plasma convection in the high-latitude ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, M.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Freeman, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent observations of ionospheric flows by ground-based radars, in particular by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) facility using the Polar experiment, together with previous analyses of the response of geomagnetic disturbance to variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), suggest that convection in the high-latitude ionosphere should be considered to be the sum of two intrinsically time-dependent patterns, one driven by solar wind-magnetosphere coupling at the dayside magnetopause, the other by the release of energy in the geomagnetic tail (mainly by dayside and nightside reconnection, respectively). The flows driven by dayside coupling are largest on the dayside, where they usually dominate, are associated with an expanding polar cap area, and are excited and decay on ∼ 10-min time scales following southward and northward turnings of the IMF, respectively. The latter finding indicates that the production of new open flux at the dayside magnetopause excites magnetospheric and ionospheric flow only for a short interval, ∼ 10 min, such that the flow driven by this source subsequently decays on this time scale unless maintained by the production of more open flux tubes. Correspondingly, the flows excited by the release of energy in the tail, mainly during substorms, are largest on the nightside, are associated with a contracting polar cap boundary, and are excited on ∼ 1-hour time scales following a southward turn of the IMF. In general, the total ionospheric flow will be the sum of the flows produced by these two sources, such that due to their different response times to changes in the IMF, considerable variations in the flow pattern can occur for a given direction and strength ofthe IMF. Consequently, the ionospheric electric field cannot generally be regarded as arising from a simple mapping of the solar wind electric field along open flux tubes

  14. Collective and single-particle states at high excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.M.; Van der Molen, H.K.T.; Harakeh, M.N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Damping of high-lying single-particle states was investigated by the study of proton decay from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated by the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction with E α = 180 MeV. In addition to decay to the ground state of 90 Zr, semi-direct decay was observed to the low-lying (2 + and 3 - ) phonon states, confirming the conclusion from other experiments that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. Furthermore, the population and decay of Isobaric Analogue States of 91 Zr, which are located at an excitation energy of about 10 - 12 MeV in 91 Nb, has been studied in the same reaction. (author)

  15. The remarkably high excitation planetary nebula GC 6537.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Hung, S; Feibelman, W A

    1999-05-11

    NGC 6537 is an unusually high excitation point symmetric planetary nebula with a rich spectrum. Its kinematical structures are of special interest. We are here primarily concerned with the high resolution spectrum as revealed by the Hamilton echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory (resolution approximately 0.2 A) and supplemented by UV and near-UV data. These extensive data permit a determination of interstellar extinction, plasma diagnostics, and ionic concentrations. The photoionization models that have been used successfully for many planetary nebulae are not entirely satisfactory here. The plasma electron temperature of a photoionization model cannot much exceed 20,000 K, but plasma diagnostics show that regions emitting radiation of highly ionized atoms such as [NeIV] and [NeV] are much hotter, showing that shock excitation must be important, as suggested by the remarkable kinematics of this object. Hence, instead of employing a strict photoionization model, we are guided by the nebular diagnostics, which reveal how electron temperature varies with ionization potential and accommodates density effects. The predictions of the photoionization model may be useful in estimating ionization correction factor. In effect, we have estimated the chemical composition by using both photoionization and shock considerations.

  16. Decay modes of high-lying excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1993-01-01

    Inelastic, charge-exchange and transfer reactions induced by hadronic probes at intermediate energies have revealed a rich spectrum of new high-lying modes embedded in the nuclear continuum. The investigation of their decay properties is believed to be a severe test of their microscopic structure as predicted by nuclear models. In addition the degree of damping of these simple modes in the nuclear continuum can be obtained by means of the measured branching ratios to the various decay channels as compared to statistical model calculations. As illustrative examples the decay modes of high-spin single-particle states and isovector resonances are discussed. (author) 23 refs.; 14 figs

  17. Critical Assessment of TD-DFT for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: I. Doublet-Doublet Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-01-12

    A benchmark set of 11 small radicals is set up to assess the performance of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for the excited states of open-shell systems. Both the unrestricted (U-TD-DFT) and spin-adapted (X-TD-DFT) formulations of TD-DFT are considered. For comparison, the well-established EOM-CCSD (equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) is also used. In total, 111 low-lying singly excited doublet states are accessed by all the three approaches. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as the benchmark, it is found that both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD perform well for those states dominated by singlet-coupled single excitations (SCSE) from closed-shell to open-shell, open-shell to vacant-shell, or closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals. However, for those states dominated by triplet-coupled single excitations (TCSE) from closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals, both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD fail miserably due to severe spin contaminations. In contrast, X-TD-DFT provides balanced descriptions of both SCSE and TCSE. As far as the functional dependence is concerned, it is found that, when the Hartree-Fock ground state does not suffer from the instability problem, both global hybrid (GH) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals perform grossly better than pure density functionals, especially for Rydberg and charge-transfer excitations. However, if the Hartree-Fock ground state is instable or nearly instable, GH and RSH tend to underestimate severely the excitation energies. The SAOP (statistically averaging of model orbital potentials) performs more uniformly than any other density functionals, although it generally overestimates the excitation energies of valence excitations. Not surprisingly, both EOM-CCSD and adiabatic TD-DFT are incapable of describing excited states with substantial double excitation characters.

  18. Varicocoelectomy in adolescents: Laparoscopic versus open high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Treatment of varicocoele is aimed at eliminating the retrograde reflux of venous blood through the internal spermatic veins. The purpose of this investigation was to compare laparoscopic varicocoelectomy (LV) with open high ligation technique in the adolescent population. Materials and Methods: We ...

  19. Radiance limits of ceramic phosphors under high excitation fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Zheng, Yi; Tchoul, Maxim

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic phosphors, excited by high radiance pump sources, offer considerable potential for high radiance conversion. Interestingly, thermodynamic arguments suggest that the radiance of the luminescent spot can even exceed that of the incoming light source. In practice, however, thermal quenching and (non-thermal) optical saturation limit the maximum attainable radiance of the luminescent source. We present experimental data for Ce:YAG and Ce:GdYAG ceramics in which these limits have been investigated. High excitation fluxes are achieved using laser pumping. Optical pumping intensities exceeding 100W/mm2 have been shown to produce only modest efficiency depreciation at low overall pump powers because of the short Ce3+ lifetime, although additional limitations exist. When pump powers are higher, heat-transfer bottlenecks within the ceramic and heat-sink interfaces limit maximum pump intensities. We find that surface temperatures of these laser-pumped ceramics can reach well over 150°C, causing thermal-quenching losses. We also find that in some cases, the loss of quantum efficiency with increasing temperature can cause a thermal run-away effect, resulting in a rapid loss in converted light, possibly over-heating the sample or surrounding structures. While one can still obtain radiances on the order of many W/mm2/sr, temperature quenching effects ultimately limit converted light radiance. Finally, we use the diffusion-approximation radiation transport models and rate equation models to simulate some of these nonlinear optical pumping and heating effects in high-scattering ceramics.

  20. High pressure photoinduced ring opening of benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciabini, Lucia; Santoro, Mario; Bini, Roberto; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    The chemical transformation of crystalline benzene into an amorphous solid (a-C:H) was induced at high pressure by employing laser light of suitable wavelengths. The reaction was forced to occur at 16 GPa, well below the pressure value (23 GPa) where the reaction normally occurs. Different laser sources were used to tune the pumping wavelength into the red wing of the first excited singlet state S 1 ( 1 B 2u ) absorption edge. Here the benzene ring is distorted, presenting a greater flexibility which makes the molecule unstable at high pressure. The selective pumping of the S 1 level, in addition to structural considerations, was of paramount importance to clarify the mechanism of the reaction

  1. Study of highly excited high spin states via the (HI, α) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubono, S.

    1982-01-01

    Three subjects are discussed in this paper. 1) The mechanism of (HI, α) reactions is briefly studied. 2) Possible excitation of molecular resonance states of 12 C- 12 C in 24 Mg through the 12 C( 16 O, α) 24 Mg reaction were investigated. A precise measurement of the level widths in 24 Mg did not support the previous report that the molecular states seen in 12 C + 12 C scattering had been excited in the transfer reaction 12 C( 16 O, α) 24 Mg. 3) Highly excited states in 28 Si, which have a large parentage of 12 C- 16 O, were also studied via the 12 C( 20 Ne, α) 28 Si reaction. An angular correlation measurement revealed the lowest 8 + and 10 + states at 14.00 and 15.97 MeV, respectively, which were selectively excited in the 12 C( 20 Ne, α) reaction. These results suggest a possible new band in 28 Si. (author)

  2. Properties of Highly Rotationally Excited H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Sally Jane; Wan, Yier; Stancil, Phillip C.; Yang, Benhui H.; Zhang, Ziwei

    2018-06-01

    H2 is the dominant molecular species in the vast majority of interstellar environments and it plays a crucial role as a radiative coolant. In photodissociation regions, it is one of the primary emitters in the near to mid-infrared which are due to lines originating from highly excited rotational levels. However, collisional data for rotational levels j>10 are sparse, particularly for H2-H2 collisions. Utilizing new calculations for para-H2 and ortho-H2 collisional rate coefficients with H2 for j as high as 30, we investigate the effects of the new results in standard PDR models with the spectral simulation package Cloudy. We also perform Cloudy models of the Orion Bar and use Radex to explore rotational line ratio diagnostics. The resulting dataset of H2 collisional data should find wide application to other molecular environments. This work was support by Hubble Space Telescope grant HST-AR-13899.001-A and NASA grants NNX15AI61G and NNX16AF09G.

  3. Parity dependence of the nuclear level density at high excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.V.; Agrawal, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The basic underlying assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) in the level density function ρ(U, J, π) has been checked on the basis of high quality data available on individual resonance parameters (E 0 , Γ n , J π ) for s- and p-wave neutrons in contrast to the earlier analysis where information about p-wave resonance parameters was meagre. The missing level estimator based on the partial integration over a Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron reduced widths and the Dyson-Mehta Δ 3 statistic for the level spacing have been used to ascertain that the s- and p-wave resonance level spacings D(0) and D(1) are not in error because of spurious and missing levels. The present work does not validate the tacit assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) and confirms that the level density depends upon parity at high excitation. The possible implications of the parity dependence of the level density on the results of statistical model calculations of nuclear reaction cross sections as well as on pre-compound emission have been emphasized. (orig.)

  4. Excitation and ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Two approaches for very rapid calculation of atomic data for high temperature plasma modeling have been developed. The first uses hydrogenic basis states and has been developed and applied in many papers discussed in previous progress reports. Hence, it is only briefly discussed here. The second is a very rapid, yet accurate, fully relativistic approach that has been developed over the past two or three years. It is described in more detail. Recently it has been applied to large scale production of atomic data. Specifically, it has been used to calculate relativistic distorted wave collision strengths and oscillator strengths for the following: all transitions from the ground level to the n=3 and 4 excited levels in the 71 Neon-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 22 ≤ Z ≤ 92; all transitions among the 2s 1/2 , 2p 1/2 and 2p 3/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=3,4 and 5 in the 85 Li-like ions with 8 ≤ Z ≤ 92; all transitions among the 3s 1/2 , 3p 3/2 , 3d 3/2 and 3d 5/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=4 and 5 in the 71 Na-like ions with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 92; and all transitions among 4s 1/2 , 4p 1/2 , 4p 3/2 , 4d 3/2 , 4d 5/2 , 4f 5/2 and 4f 7/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=5 in the 33 Cu-like ions with 60 ≤ Z ≤ 92. Also the program has been extended to give cross-sections for excitation to specific magnetic sublevels of the target ion by an electron beam and very recently it has been extended to give relativistic distorted wave cross sections for ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact

  5. Opening the high-energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-12-01

    I review the scientific motivation for an experimental assault on the 1-TeV scale, elaborating the idea of technicolor as one interesting possibility for what may be found there. I then summarize some of the discovery possibilities opened by a high-luminosity, multi-TeV proton-proton collider. After a brief resume of the experimental environment anticipated at the SSC, I report on the status of the SSC R ampersand D effort and discuss the work to be carried out over the course of the next year. 37 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  6. Neutron emission probability at high excitation and isospin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2005-01-01

    One-neutron and two-neutron emission probability at different excitations and varying isospin have been studied. Several degrees of freedom like deformation, rotations, temperature, isospin fluctuations and shell structure are incorporated via statistical theory of hot rotating nuclei

  7. Collective, stochastic and nonequilibrium behavior of highly excited hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, P [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA). Theoretical Div.

    1984-04-23

    We discuss selected problems concerning the dynamics and stochastic behavior of highly excited matter, particularly the QCD plasma. For the latter we consider the equation of state, kinetics, quasiparticles, flow properties and possible chaos and turbulence. The promise of phase space distribution functions for covariant transport and kinetic theory is stressed. The possibility and implications of a stochastic bag are spelled out. A simplified space-time model of hadronic collisions is pursued, with applications to A-A collisions and other matters. The domain wall between hadronic and plasma phase is of potential importance: its thickness and relation to surface tension is noticed. Finally, we review the recently developed stochastic cell model of multiparticle distributions and KNO scaling. This topic leads to the notion that fractional dimensions are involved in a rather general dynamical context. We speculate that various scaling phenomena are independent of the full dynamical structure, depending only on a general stochastic framework having to do with simple maps and strange attractors. 42 refs.

  8. Collective, stochastic and nonequilibrium behavior of highly excited hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.

    1983-01-01

    We discuss selected problems concerning the dynamic and stochasticc behavior of highly excited matter, particularly the QCD plasma. For the latter we consider the equation of state, kinetics, quasiparticles, flow properties and possible chaos and turbulence. The promise of phase space distribution functions for covariant transport and kinetic theory is stressed. The possibility and implications of a stochastic bag are spelled out. A simplified space-time model of hadronic collisions is pursued, with applications to A-A collisions and other matters. The domain wall between hadronic and plasma phase is of potential importance: its thickness and relation to surface tension are noticed. Finally we reviewed the recently developed stochastic cell model of multiparticle distributions and KNO scaling. This topic leads to the notion that fractal dimensions are involved in a rather general dynamical context. We speculate that various scaling phenomena are independent of the full dynamical structure, depending only on a general stochastic framework having to do with simple maps and strange attractors. 42 references

  9. Manipulating objects by discrete excitable media coupled with contact-less actuator array: Open-loop case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachek, Sergey; Adamatzky, Andrew; Melhuish, Chris

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model of an excitable medium is coupled with an array of micro-actuators in the form of abstract air-jets. Each cell of the CA is linked to a unique air-jet. A cell state determines the orientation and intensity of the airflow generated by the air-jet corresponding to the cell. We explore the phenomenology of an open-loop configuration in which CA cells do not sense the presence of the object being moved. Excitation waves generated in the initial stimulation of the medium, travel on the lattice and cause waves of actuation in the air-jets, resulting in changing airflow patterns. Thus, the waves of actuation move and rotate the manipulated object. We study the manipulation of three convex shapes by excitable CA, and provide the classification of various types of object motion from straight to sinuous and oscillatory trajectories. The relation between the excitation dynamic and resulting trajectories of the object will be used in future designs of hardware prototypes of massive-parallel manipulators controlled by non-linear media

  10. Fast-opening vacuum switches for high-power inductive energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of fast-opening vacuum switches for high-power inductive energy storage is emerging as an exciting new area of plasma science research. This opening switch technology, which generally involves the use of plasmas as the switching medium, is key to the development of inductive energy storage techniques for pulsed power which have a number of advantages over conventional capacitive techniques with regard to cost and size. This paper reviews the state of the art in this area with emphasis on applications to inductive storage pulsed power generators. Discussion focuses on fast-opening vacuum switches capable of operating at high power (≥10 12 W). These include plasma erosion opening switches, ion beam opening switches, plasma filled diodes, reflex diodes, plasma flow switches, and other novel vacuum opening switches

  11. Charge transfer and excitation in high-energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Berkner, K.H.; McDonald, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    Coincidence measurements of charge transfer and simultaneous projectile electron excitation provide insight into correlated two-electron processes in energetic ion-atom collisions. Projectile excitation and electron capture can occur simultaneously in a collision of a highly charged ion with a target atom; this process is called resonant transfer and excitation (RTE). The intermediate excited state which is thus formed can subsequently decay by photon emission or by Auger-electron emission. Results are shown for RTE in both the K shell of Ca ions and the L shell of Nb ions, for simultaneous projectile electron loss and excitation, and for the effect of RTE on electron capture

  12. Realistic level densities in fragment emission at high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.G.; Blann, M.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy fragment emission from a 44 100 Ru compound nucleus at 400 and 800 MeV of excitation is analyzed to study the influence of level density models on final yields. An approach is used in which only quasibound shell-model levels are included in calculating level densities. We also test the traditional Fermi gas model for which there is no upper energy limit to the single particle levels. We compare the influence of these two level density models in evaporation calculations of primary fragment excitations, kinetic energies and yields, and on final product yields

  13. Consideration on excitation mechanisms in a high-power two-jet plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaksas, Natalia P.; Gerasimov, Vladimir A.

    2013-01-01

    The study of excitation mechanisms in the region before the jet confluence of a high-power two-jet plasma used for analysis of different powders has been undertaken. Distribution of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions according to the Boltzmann population was found. Measuring Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures showed their considerable difference (≈ 2000–2500 K). The effect of argon on line intensities of a wide range of elements was investigated by the experiment with argon covering. A negligible effect of argon covering on line intensities of atoms with ionization energy of 8 eV was revealed. This is likely to be due to Penning ionization by metastable argon followed by ion recombination with an electron and stepwise de-excitations. A more pronounced effect of argon covering was observed for ionic lines of investigated elements with total excitation energy ranging from 11 to 21 eV. Penning ionization followed by electron impact is believed to be a probable mechanism for ion excitation. The contribution of metastable argon to excitation processes results in departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium and different atomic and ionic excitation temperatures. - Highlights: • Excitation mechanisms were investigated in a high-power TJP. • Boltzmann population of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions takes place. • The considerable difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures occurs. • Argon covering was used to study the argon effect on line intensities. • Participation of metastable argon in atom ionization was shown

  14. Probing highly obscured, self-absorbed galaxy nuclei with vibrationally excited HCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, S.; Martín, S.; Costagliola, F.; González-Alfonso, E.; Muller, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Fuller, G. A.; García-Burillo, S.; van der Werf, P.; Neri, R.; Spaans, M.; Combes, F.; Viti, S.; Mühle, S.; Armus, L.; Evans, A.; Sturm, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Henkel, C.; Greve, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present high resolution (0.̋4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS 17208-0014, Arp220, IC 860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (ν2 = 1) J = 3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r 5 × 1013 L⊙ kpc-2. These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, ν2 = 1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 μm mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses, and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H2 column densities exceed 1024 cm-2. It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, we show strong evidence that the ground vibrational state (ν = 0), J = 3-2and 4-3 rotational lines of HCN and HCO+ fail to probe the highly enshrouded, compact nuclear regions owing to strong self- and continuum absorption. The HCN and HCO+ line profiles are double-peaked because of the absorption and show evidence of non-circular motions - possibly in the form of in- or outflows. Detections of vibrationally excited HCN in external galaxies are so far limited to ULIRGs and early-type spiral LIRGs, and we discuss possible causes for this. We tentatively suggest that the peak of vibrationally excited HCN emission is connected to a rapid stage of nuclear growth, before the phase of strong feedback. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure and ALMA Interferometers. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA

  15. Study of high-j neutron excitations outside 136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, R.; Kay, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Adachi, S.; Entwisle, J. P.; Fujita, Y.; Gey, G.; Noji, S.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Tamii, A.

    2017-09-01

    The character of single-neutron excitations outside of N = 82 has been studied using nucleon transfer reactions in terms of the energy centroid of their strength as well as the fragmentation of this strength among the actual states of the nucleus. However, extending the systematic study of the N = 83 isotones to 137Xe has been challenging due to xenon being a gas at room temperature. Though several attempts have been made, a quantitative determination of the spectroscopic factors for the neutron 9/2- and 13/2+ excitations in 137Xe is still lacking. In the present work, we report on a study of the 136Xe(α,3He)137Xe reaction carried out at 100 MeV to probe the l = 5 , 9/2- and l = 6 , 13/2+ single-neutron excitations. The experimental technique and results will be presented discussing them in context of the evolution of these single-neutron excitations and the influence of the tensor interaction on the neutron single-particle states as the proton orbits are filling. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357, the Australian Research Council Discovery Project 120104176, and the UK Science and Technology Facilities.

  16. Luminescence decay in condensed argon under high energy excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.J.; Klein, G.

    1978-01-01

    α and β particles were used to study the luminescence of condensed argon. The scintillation decay has always two components independently of the phase and the kind of the exciting particles. Decay time constants are given for solid, liquid and also gaseous argon. Changes in the relative intensity values of the two components are discussed in terms of track effects

  17. The wave buoy analogy - estimating high-frequency wave excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2008-01-01

    of sea state parameters — influence of filtering. Ocean Engineering 2007;34:1797–810.], where time series of ship responses were generated from a known wave spectrum for the purpose of the inverse process — the estimation of the underlying wave excitations. Similar response generations and vice versa...

  18. vuv fluorescence from selective high-order multiphoton excitation of N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffee, Ryan N.; Gibson, George N.

    2004-01-01

    Recent fluorescence studies suggest that ultrashort pulse laser excitation may be highly selective. Selective high-intensity laser excitation holds important consequences for the physics of multiphoton processes. To establish the extent of this selectivity, we performed a detailed comparative study of the vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence resulting from the interaction of N 2 and Ar with high-intensity infrared ultrashort laser pulses. Both N 2 and Ar reveal two classes of transitions, inner-valence ns ' l ' . From their pressure dependence, we associate each transition with either plasma or direct laser excitation. Furthermore, we qualitatively confirm such associations with the time dependence of the fluorescence signal. Remarkably, only N 2 presents evidence of direct laser excitation. This direct excitation produces ionic nitrogen fragments with inner-valence (2s) holes, two unidentified transitions, and one molecular transition, the N 2 + :X 2 Σ g + 2 Σ u + . We discuss these results in the light of a recently proposed model for multiphoton excitation

  19. Interpretation of highly visual 'open' advertisements in Dutch magazines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Gisbergen, M.S.; Beentjes, J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades magazine advertisers have used an increasing number of highly visual open ads. Open ads do not guide consumers toward a specific interpretation as traditional ads do. An experiment was carried out to establish the effects of openness on interpretation. As expected, openness was

  20. Effect of high-frequency excitation on natural frequencies of spinning discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of high-frequency, non-resonant parametric excitation on the low-frequency response of spinning discs is considered. The parametric excitation is obtained through a non-constant rotation speed, where the frequency of the pulsating overlay is much higher than the lowest natural frequenc......The effect of high-frequency, non-resonant parametric excitation on the low-frequency response of spinning discs is considered. The parametric excitation is obtained through a non-constant rotation speed, where the frequency of the pulsating overlay is much higher than the lowest natural...

  1. Aspects of data on the breakup of highly excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, A.I.; Wieman, H.H.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Ritter, H.G.; Stelzer, H.; Weik, F.; Kaufman, S.B.; Steinberg, E.P.; Wilkins, B.D.

    1983-05-01

    There is an awakening of theoretical interest in the mechanisms by which nuclear fragments (4 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 150) are produced in violent collisions of heavy ions. With this in mind we review some aspects of the available experimental data and point out some challenging features against which to test the models. The concept of evaporation is tremendously powerful when applied to pieces of nuclei of low excitation (1 or 2 MeV/u). Current interest focuses on higher excitations, at the point where the binding energy of the system vanishes. This is the transition from liquid nuclei to a gas of nucleons, and it may be that the critical phenomena that certainly exist in infinite nuclear matter will be manifest in finite nuclei under these conditions

  2. Superconductivity and charge transfer excitations in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balseiro, C.A.; Alascio, B.; Gagliano, E.; Rojo, A.

    1988-01-01

    We present some numerical results to show that in a simple model which includes Cu 3d and O 2p orbitals together with inter and intra atomic correlations pairing between holes can occur due to charge transfer excitations. We present also a simple approximation to derive an effective Hamiltonian containing an interaction between particles which is attractive for some values of the different microscopic parameters

  3. High excitation rovibrational molecular analysis in warm environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziwei; Stancil, Phillip C.; Cumbee, Renata; Ferland, Gary J.

    2017-06-01

    Inspired by advances in infrared observation (e.g., Spitzer, Herschel and ALMA), we investigate rovibrational emission CO and SiO in warm astrophysical environments. With recent innovation in collisional rate coefficients and rescaling methods, we are able to construct more comprehensive collisional data with high rovibrational states (vibration up to v=5 and rotation up to J=40) and multiple colliders (H2, H and He). These comprehensive data sets are used in spectral simulations with the radiative transfer codes RADEX and Cloudy. We obtained line ratio diagnostic plots and line spectra for both near- and far-infrared emission lines over a broad range of density and temperature for the case of a uniform medium. Considering the importance of both molecules in probing conditions and activities of UV-irradiated interstellar gas, we model rovibrational emission in photodissociation region (PDR) and AGB star envelopes (such as VY Canis Majoris, IK Tau and IRC +10216) with Cloudy. Rotational diagrams, energy distribution diagrams, and spectra are produced to examine relative state abundances, line emission intensity, and other properties. With these diverse models, we expect to have a better understanding of PDRs and expand our scope in the chemical architecture and evolution of AGB stars and other UV-irradiated regions. The soon to be launched James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide high resolution observations at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths, which opens a new window to study molecular vibrational emission calling for more detailed chemical modeling and comprehensive laboratory astrophysics data on more molecules. This work was partially supported by NASA grants NNX12AF42G and NNX15AI61G. We thank Benhui Yang, Kyle Walker, Robert Forrey, and N. Balakrishnan for collaborating on the collisional data adopted in the current work.

  4. Luminescence of CsPbBr3 films under high-power excitation

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 一彰; 斎藤, 忠昭; 近藤, 新一; 浅田, 拡志

    2004-01-01

    Highly excited photoluminescence of CsPbBr3 has been measured for thin films prepared by crystallization from the amorphous phase into microcrystalline/ polycrystalline states. With the increase of excitation intensity, there occurs jumping of the dominant emission band from a free-exciton band to a new band originating from exciton-exciton inelastic collision. Stimulated emission is observed for the new band at very low threshold excitation intensities of the order of 10kW/cm2.

  5. Statistical and direct decay of high-lying single-particle excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1993-01-01

    Transfer reactions induced by hadronic probes at intermediate energies have revealed a rich spectrum of high-lying excitations embedded in the nuclear continuum. The investigation of their decay properties is believed to be a severe test of their microscopic structure as predicted by microscopic nuclear models. In addition the degree of damping of these simple modes in the nuclear continuum can be obtained by means of the measured particle (n,p) decay branching ratios. The neutron and proton decay studies of high-lying single-particle states in heavy nuclei are presented. (author). 13 refs., 9 figs

  6. Photoionization of excited states, ions and open-shell atoms: innovative synchrotron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    The development of synchrotron light sources with increased photon flux in the region 10 eV less than or equal to hν less than or equal to 1000 eV opens the door to many atomic physics investigations which have not been possible up to now. In this paper, three general types of experiments are discussed, each of which offers attractive possibilities for significant advances in our understanding

  7. High-j neutron excitations outside 136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, R.; Kay, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Adachi, S.; Entwisle, J. P.; Fujita, Y.; Gey, G.; Noji, S.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Tamii, A.

    2017-08-01

    The ν 0 h9 /2 and ν 0 i13 /2 strength at 137Xe, a single neutron outside the N =82 shell closure, has been determined using the 136Xe(α ,3He)137Xe reaction carried out at 100 MeV. We confirm the recent observation of the second 13 /2+ state and reassess previous data on the 9 /2- states, obtaining spectroscopic factors. These new data provide additional constraints on predictions of the same single-neutron excitations at 133Sn.

  8. High explosive driven plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, A.E.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Goforth, J.H.; Oliphant, T.A.; Weiss, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental effort is underway to understand and improve upon the performance of high explosive driven plasma opening switches such as those first described by Pavlovskii et al. We have modeled these switches in both planar and cylindrical geometry using a one dimensional Lagrangian MHD code. This one-dimensional analysis is now essentially complete. It has shown that simple, one-dimensional, compression of the current-carrying channel can explain the observed resistance increases during the time of flight of the HE detonation products. Our calculations imply that ionization plays an important role as an energy sink and the performance of these switches might be improved by a judicious choice of gases. We also predict improved performance by lowering the pressure in the plasma channel. The bulk of our experimental effort to date has been with planar switches. We have worked with current densities of 0.25 to 0.4 MA/cm and have observed resistance increases of 40 to 60 mΩ. Significant resistance increases are observed later than the time of flight of the HE detonation products. We suggest that these resistance increases are due to mixing between the hot plasma and the relatively cooler detonation products. Such mixing is not included in the 1-D, Lagrangian code. We are presently beginning a computational effort with a 2-D Eulerian code. The status of this effort is discussed. Experimentally we have designed an apparatus that will permit us to test the role of different gases and pressures. This system is also in a planar geometry, but the plasma channel is doughnut shaped, permitting us to avoid edge effects associated with the planar rectangular geometry. The first experiments with this design are quite encouraging and the status of this effort is also discussed

  9. Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER

    OpenAIRE

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Online presentation and webinar by Stracke, C. M. (2017, 18 December) on "Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER" for the Belt and Road Open Education Learning Week by the Beijing Normal University, China.

  10. Fission of highly excited nuclei investigated in complete kinematic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taieb, J.; Avarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Belier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J. F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Prochazka, A.; Ramos, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2013-01-01

    Fission is an extremely complex mechanism that requires a dynamical approach to describe the evolution of the process in terms of intrinsic and collective excitations of the nuclear constituents. In order to determine these effects a complex experimental setup was mounted at GSI, which allowed us for the first time the full identification in charge and mass of all fission fragments thanks to a magnetic separation and the use of the inverse kinematic technique. Moreover, we also measured the neutron multiplicities and the light-charged particles emitted in coincidence with fission. These complete kinematic measurements will be used to define sensitive observables to dissipative and transient effects in fission. In this manuscript we present the first results for the total fission cross sections. (authors)

  11. Electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope with ultra-high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Wataru; Nakajima, Kentaro; Miyakawa, Atsuo; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2010-06-07

    We propose electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope, and demonstrated its resolution higher than 50 nm. In the microscope, a light source in a few nanometers size is excited by focused electron beam in a luminescent film. The microscope makes it possible to observe dynamic behavior of living biological specimens in various surroundings, such as air or liquids. Scan speed of the nanometric light source is faster than that in conventional near-field scanning optical microscopes. The microscope enables to observe optical constants such as absorption, refractive index, polarization, and their dynamic behavior on a nanometric scale. The microscope opens new microscopy applications in nano-technology and nano-science.

  12. International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D

    1980-03-01

    Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation.

  13. Structure of high excited nuclear states and elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhivopistsev, F.A.; Rzhevskij, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    An approach to a unified description of nuclear reactions and nuclear structure based on the formalism of the quantum Green functions and on the ideas of the theory of finite Fermi systems has been formulated. New structural vertices are introduced, which are responsible for nucleon collectivization in an atomic nucleus and for the excitation of many-phonon, quasideuteron, quasitriton and other configurations. The vertices define both the processes of particle scattering by atomic nuclei (T matrix and optical potentials) and the nuclear structure (secular equations and wave functions). The vertices are determined from the equations with effective many-particle forces Fsub(nm)sup(c). In their turn the Fsub(nm)sup(c) forces are either determined from a comparison of theory and experiment, or calculated from the equations with more fundamental nucleon-nucleon forces in a nucleus. The effective forces Fsub(nm)sup(c) are more universal than the constants of the theory of finite Fermi-systems, which extends the boundaries of applicability of the particle-hole formalism in the description of nuclear processes. In this approach the traditional methods of description of the nuclear structure, based on particular models of hamiltonian and wave functions, acquire a natural interpretation

  14. The character of resonant charge exchange involving highly excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M.; Capitelli, M.; Laricchiuta, A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the process of resonant charge exchange involving excited helium atoms with the principal quantum number n = 5 colliding with the helium ion in the ground state in the collision energy range from thermal up to 10 eV. This information may be important for the analysis of planet atmospheres containing helium, in particular, for Jupiter’s atmosphere, but our basic interest is the transition from the quantum to classical description of this process, where, due to large cross sections, evaluations of the cross sections are possible. For the chosen process, quantum theory allows determining the cross section as a result of a tunnel electron transition, while classical theory accounts for over-barrier electron transitions. The classical theory additionally requires effective transitions between states with close energies. The analysis of these transitions for helium with n = 5 shows that electron momenta and their projections are mixed for a part of the states, while for other states, the mixing is absent. A simple criterion to separate such states is given. In addition, the main contribution to the cross section of resonant charge exchange follows from tunnel electron transitions. As a result, the quantum theory is better for calculating the cross sections of resonant charge exchange than the classical one and also allows finding the partial cross sections of resonant charge exchange, while the classical approach gives the cross section of resonant charge exchange in a simple manner with the accuracy of 20%.

  15. Study of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states in Sn and Dy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolk, A.

    1988-01-01

    A study is presented of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The aim is to get more detailed information on the properties of the GDR and to use it as a tool for the investigation of nuclear structure at high excitation energy. The high energy γ-rays seen from the decay of excited state GDRs in heavy ion fusion reactions reflect the average properties of the states populated by the γ-emission. The measurements at different initial excitation energies of 114 Sn provide information on the nuclear level density near the particle separation energy at an average angular momentum of 10ℎ. The study of shape changes at very high spin in 152-156 Dy nuclei is presented. A theoretical model developed to describe fusion-evaporation reactions is presented. 149 refs.; 63 figs.; 13 tabs

  16. Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.

    1984-12-01

    This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  17. Ground and excited state properties of high performance anthocyanidin dyes-sensitized solar cells in the basic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prima, Eka Cahya [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); International Program on Science Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (Indonesia); Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman, E-mail: yatman@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno [Computational Material Design and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    The aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes were previously reported to form carbinol pseudobase, cis-chalcone, and trans-chalcone due to the basic levels. The further investigations of ground and excited state properties of the dyes were characterized using density functional theory with PCM(UFF)/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level in the basic solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, the theoretical investigation of their potential photosensitizers has never been reported before. In this paper, the theoretical photovoltaic properties sensitized by dyes have been successfully investigated including the electron injections, the ground and excited state oxidation potentials, the estimated open circuit voltages, and the light harvesting efficiencies. The results prove that the electronic properties represented by dyes’ LUMO-HOMO levels will affect to the photovoltaic performances. Cis-chalcone dye is the best anthocyanidin aglycone dye with the electron injection spontaneity of −1.208 eV, the theoretical open circuit voltage of 1.781 V, and light harvesting efficiency of 56.55% due to the best HOMO-LUMO levels. Moreover, the ethanol solvent slightly contributes to the better cell performance than the water solvent dye because of the better oxidation potential stabilization in the ground state as well as in the excited state. These results are in good agreement with the known experimental report that the aglycones of anthocyanidin dyes in basic solvent are the high potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell.

  18. Acoustic properties of perforates under high level multi-tone excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Bodén, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of high level multi-tone acoustic excitation on the acoustic properties of perforates. It is based on a large experimental study of the nonlinear properties of these types of samples without mean grazing or bias flow. Compared to previously published results the present investigation concentrates on the effect of multiple harmonics. It is known from previous studies that high level acoustic excitation at one frequency will change the acoustic impedance of perfo...

  19. Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.

  20. Production of autoionizing di-excited states of barium with high angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, F.; Breger, P.; Gounand, F.; Spiess, G.

    1988-01-01

    Autoionizing di-excited states Ba(6p 1/2 27l) with 7 ≤l≤26, have been experimentally detected. They have been produced by a method combining excitation by two lasers and l-mixing collisions between barium and xenon. Results show that a long delay between the two laser excitation steps is favourable to the production of these states. The method has proved to be very efficient (measured cross-section: σ = 3.1 . 10 -13 cm 2 ) for populating high-angular-momentum autoionizing states of barium

  1. High frequency response of open quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, R.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F.; Ferry, D.; Elhassan, M.; Ishibashi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We investigate the response of the transport through open quantum dots to millimeterwave radiation (up to 55 GHz). In the low-field region ( 11 cm -2 and a mobility of 1.2 10 6 cm 2 /Vs. By applying a sufficiently negative voltage to the gates the 2DES is split into two regions connected only by a dot-like region (about 350 nm diameter) between them. The DC data exhibit backscattering peaks at fields of a few tenth of a Tesla. Shubnikovde- Haas (SdH) oscillations appear above 0.5 T. While the SdH oscillations show the usual temperature dependence, the backscattering peaks are temperature independent up to 2.5 K. The backscattering peak shows a reduction of 10 percent due to the millimeterwave irradiation. However, due to the temperature independence of this peak, this reduction cannot simply be attributed to electron heating. This conclusion is supported by the observation of a strong frequency dependence of the reduction of the peak height. (author)

  2. Stochastic evolutions and hadronization of highly excited hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.

    1984-01-01

    Stochastic ingredients of high energy hadronic collisions are analyzed, with emphasis on multiplicity distributions. The conceptual simplicity of the k-cell negative binomial distribution is related to the evolution of probability distributions via the Fokker-Planck and related equations. The connection to underlying field theory ideas is sketched. 17 references

  3. Density-dependent squeezing of excitons in highly excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Quang.

    1995-07-01

    The time evolution from coherent states to squeezed states of high density excitons is studied theoretically based on the boson formalism and within the Random Phase Approximation. Both the mutual interaction between excitons and the anharmonic exciton-photon interaction due to phase-space filling of excitons are taken into account. It is shown that the exciton squeezing depends strongly on the exciton density in semiconductors and becomes smaller with increasing the latter. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  4. Excitation of twin-vortex flow in the nightside high-latitude ionosphere during an isolated substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grocott

    Full Text Available We present SuperDARN radar observations of the ionospheric flow during a well-observed high-latitude substorm which occurred during steady northward IMF conditions on 2 December 1999. These data clearly demonstrate the excitation of large-scale flow associated with the substorm expansion phase, with enhanced equatorward flows being observed in the pre-midnight local time sector of the expansion phase auroral bulge and westward electrojet, and enhanced return sunward flows being present at local times on either side, extending into the dayside sector. The flow pattern excited was thus of twin-vortex form, with foci located at either end of the substorm auroral bulge, as imaged by the Polar VIS UV imager. Estimated total transpolar voltages were ~40 kV prior to expansion phase onset, grew to ~80 kV over a ~15 min interval during the expansion phase, and then decayed to ~35 kV over ~10 min during recovery. The excitation of the large-scale flow pattern resulted in the development of magnetic disturbances which extended well outside of the region directly disturbed by the substorm, depending upon the change in the flow and the local ionospheric conductivity. It is estimated that the nightside reconnection rate averaged over the 24-min interval of the substorm was ~65– 75 kV, compared with continuing dayside reconnection rates of ~30–45 kV. The net closure of open flux during the sub-storm was thus ~0.4–0.6 × 108 Wb, representing ~15–20% of the open flux present at onset, and corresponding to an overall contraction of the open-closed field line boundary by ~1° latitude.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma convection

  5. Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    Some non-trivial effects are investigated, which can occur if strongly damped mechanical systems are subjected to strong high-frequency (HF) excitation. The main result is a theoretical prediction, supported by numerical simulation, that for such systems the (quasi-)equilibrium states can change...... that can be substantial depending on the strength of the HF excitation) for finite values of the damping. The analysis is focused on the differences between the classic results for weakly damped systems, and new effects for which the strong damping terms are responsible. The analysis is based on a slightly...... modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical optimally...

  6. Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Some nontrivial effects are investigated, which can occur if strongly damped mechanical systems are subjected to strong high-frequency (HF) excitation. The main result is a theoretical prediction, supported by numerical simulation, that for such systems the (quasi-)equilibrium states can change...... that can be substantial (depending on the strength of the HF excitation) for finite values of the damping. The analysis is focused on the differences between the classic results for weakly damped systems, and new effects for which the strong damping terms are responsible. The analysis is based...... on a slightly modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical...

  7. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  8. Dynamic Open Inquiry Performances of High-School Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit

    2010-01-01

    In examining open inquiry projects among high-school biology students, we found dynamic inquiry performances expressed in two criteria: "changes occurring during inquiry" and "procedural understanding". Characterizing performances in a dynamic open inquiry project can shed light on both the procedural and epistemological…

  9. Piezoelectric self sensing actuators for high voltage excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, E; Totaro, N; Janocha, H; Naso, D

    2013-01-01

    Self sensing techniques allow the use of a piezoelectric transducer simultaneously as an actuator and as a sensor. Such techniques are based on knowledge of the transducer behaviour and on measurements of electrical quantities, in particular voltage and charge. Past research work has mainly considered the linear behaviour of piezoelectric transducers, consequently restricting the operating driving voltages to low values. In this work a new self sensing technique is proposed which is able to perform self sensing reconstruction both at low and at high driving voltages. This technique, in fact, makes use of a hysteretic model to describe the nonlinear piezoelectric capacitance necessary for self sensing reconstruction. The capacitance can be measured and identified at the antiresonances of a vibrating structure with a good approximation. After providing a mathematical background to deal with the main aspects of self sensing, this technique is compared theoretically and experimentally to a typical linear one by using an aluminum plate with one bonded self sensing transducer and a positive position feedback (PPF) controller to verify the performance in self sensing based vibration control. (paper)

  10. The structure of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that within the model based on the quasiparticle-phonon interaction one can obtain the description of few-quasiparticle components of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. For the low-lying states the energy of each level is calculated. The few-quasiparticle components at intermediate and high excitation energies are represented to be averaged in certain energy intervals and their characteri stics are given as the corresponding strength functions. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied. It is shown that in the distribution of the single-particle strength alongside with a large maximum there appear local maxima and the distribution itself has a long tail. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reaction of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s,- p,- and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bn. A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and Elambda-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in deformed nuclei are calculated. The energies of giant quadrupole and octupole resonances are calculated. Their widths and fine structure are being studied. It is stated that to study the structure of highly excited states it is necessary to find the values of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The ways of experimental determination of these components based on the study of γ-transitions between highly excited states are discussed

  11. Ultra-high resolution spectroscopy of the He doubly excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S.; Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.

    1995-11-01

    Photoionization spectra of the doubly-excited states of He were measured using beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source. The beamline utilizes a 4.5 m long 8 cm period undulator as its source together with a spherical grating monochromator to provide an extremely bright source of photons in the range of 20 - 300 eV. A resolving power (E/ΔE) of 64,000 was obtained from the 1 MeV FWEM (2p,3d) doubly excited state resonance of He at 64.12 eV. The high brightness of the source and the very high quality optical elements of the beamline were all essential for achieving such a high resolution. The beamline components and operation are described and spectra of the double excitation resonances of He presented

  12. Systematic observation of tunneling field-ionization in highly excited Rb Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Tada, M.; Kominato, K.; Shibata, M.; Yamada, S.; Haseyama, T.; Ogawa, I.; Funahashi, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed field ionization of high-n (90≤n≤150) manifold states in Rb Rydberg atoms has been investigated in high slew-rate regime. Two peaks in the field ionization spectra were systematically observed for the investigated n region, where the field values at the lower peak do not almost depend on the excitation energy in the manifold, while those at the higher peak increase with increasing excitation energy. The fraction of the higher peak component to the total ionization signals increases with increasing n, exceeding 80% at n=147. Characteristic behavior of the peak component and the comparison with theoretical predictions indicate that the higher peak component is due to the tunneling process. The obtained results show that the tunneling process plays increasingly the dominant role at such highly excited nonhydrogenic Rydberg atoms

  13. Kinetics of highly vibrationally excited O2(X) molecules in inductively-coupled oxygen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annušová, Adriana; Marinov, Daniil; Booth, Jean-Paul; Sirse, Nishant; Lino da Silva, Mário; Lopez, Bruno; Guerra, Vasco

    2018-04-01

    The high degree of vibrational excitation of O2 ground state molecules recently observed in inductively coupled plasma discharges is investigated experimentally in more detail and interpreted using a detailed self-consistent 0D global kinetic model for oxygen plasmas. Additional experimental results are presented and used to validate the model. The vibrational kinetics considers vibrational levels up to v = 41 and accounts for electron impact excitation and de-excitation (e-V), vibration-to-translation relaxation (V-T) in collisions with O2 molecules and O atoms, vibration-to-vibration energy exchanges (V-V), excitation of electronically excited states, dissociative electron attachment, and electron impact dissociation. Measurements were performed at pressures of 10–80 mTorr (1.33 and 10.67 Pa) and radio frequency (13.56 MHz) powers up to 500 W. The simulation results are compared with the absolute densities in each O2 vibrational level obtained by high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy measurements of the Schumann–Runge bands for O2(X, v = 4–18), O(3 P) atom density measurements by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) calibrated against Xe, and laser photodetachment measurements of the O‑ negative ions. The highly excited O2(X, v) distribution exhibits a shape similar to a Treanor-Gordiets distribution, but its origin lies in electron impact e-V collisions and not in V-V up-pumping, in contrast to what happens in all other molecular gases known to date. The relaxation of vibrational quanta is mainly due to V-T energy-transfer collisions with O atoms and to electron impact dissociation of vibrationally excited molecules, e+O2(X, v)→O(3P)+O(3P).

  14. MOSFET-based high voltage short pulse generator for ultrasonic transducer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Darmawan; Setianto, Syafei, Nendi Suhendi; Wibawa, Bambang Mukti

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the generation of a high-voltage short pulse for the excitation of high frequency ultrasonic transducers. This is highly required in the purpose of various ultrasonic-based evaluations, particularly when high resolution measurement is necessary. A high voltage (+760 V) DC voltage source was pulsated by an ultrafast switching MOSFET which was driven by a pulse generator circuit consisting of an astable multivibrator, a one-shot multivibrator with Schmitt trigger input and a high current MOSFET driver. The generated pulses excited a 200-kHz and a 1-MHz ultrasonic transducers and tested in the transmission mode propagation to evaluate the performances of the generated pulse. The test results showed the generator were able to produce negative spike pulses up to -760 V voltage with the shortest time-width of 107.1 nanosecond. The transmission-received ultrasonic waves show frequency oscillation at 200 and 961 kHz and their amplitudes varied with the voltage of excitation pulse. These results conclude that the developed pulse generator is applicable to excite transducer for the generation of high frequency ultrasonic waves.

  15. Open cell conducting foams for high synchrotron radiation accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petracca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible use of open cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerators is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  16. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  17. Active Control of High-Speed Free Jets Using High-Frequency Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Puja

    Control of aerodynamic noise generated by high-performance jet engines continues to remain a serious problem for the aviation community. Intense low frequency noise produced by large-scale coherent structures is known to dominate acoustic radiation in the aft angles. A tremendous amount of research effort has been dedicated towards the investigation of many passive and active flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise, while keeping performance penalties to a minimum. Unsteady excitation, an active control technique, seeks to modify acoustic sources in the jet by leveraging the naturally-occurring flow instabilities in the shear layer. While excitation at a lower range of frequencies that scale with the dynamics of large-scale structures, has been attempted by a number of studies, effects at higher excitation frequencies remain severely unexplored. One of the major limitations stems from the lack of appropriate flow control devices that have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in turbulent flows, especially at higher speeds. To this end, the current study seeks to fulfill two main objectives. First, the design and characterization of two high-frequency fluidic actuators (25 and 60 kHz) are undertaken, where the target frequencies are guided by the dynamics of high-speed free jets. Second, the influence of high-frequency forcing on the aeroacoustics of high-speed jets is explored in some detail by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 (Re D = 5 x 105) free jet flow field. Subsequently, these findings are directly compared to the results of steady microjet injection experiments performed in the same rig and to prior jet noise control studies, where available. Finally, limited acoustic measurements were also performed by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuators on jets at higher Mach numbers, including shock containing jets, and elevated temperatures. Using lumped element modeling as an initial guide, the current

  18. Excitation of contained modes by high energy nuclei and correlated cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Penn, G.; Riconda, C.

    1997-01-01

    In experiments with fusing plasmas, enhanced radiation emission at the harmonics of the cyclotron frequency of fusion reaction products has been observed. A theory is presented that explains key features of these observations and indicates the possibility of extracting significant information about the fusion product population distribution, both in velocity space and over the plasma cross section. The considered model is consistent in particular with the fact that, in DT plasmas, the radiation peaks occur at frequencies corresponding to harmonics of the α particles cyclotron frequency Ω a evaluated at the outer edge of the plasma column, and that a transition to a open-quotes continuumclose quotes spectrum at high frequencies (ω approx-gt 7Ω α ) can be identified. In this model, the radiation is the result of the excitation of radially open-quotes containedclose quotes modes which are driven unstable by the fusion products. The modes considered to be responsible for the discrete part of the spectrum are spatially localized near the plasma edge. The radial containment, which is associated mainly with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density, is in fact a fundamental characteristic since only contained modes can grow out of a relatively weak mode-particle interaction and justify the detected emission power levels. The contained mode is a solution to a set of macroscopic equations, in which the electron motion is tied to that of the magnetic field (Hall effect). The growth rate has been evaluated considering the particle orbits in a toroidal confinement configuration and modelling the distribution function of the interacting particles with the energy at birth before slowing down occurs. The growth rate depends linearly on the α-particle density and can be larger than, or of the order of, the bounce frequency of the magnetically trapped α-particles, which can have a resonant interaction with the mode. According to the theoretical model presented, the discrete

  19. Excitation contraction uncoupling by high intracellular [Ca2+] in frog skeletal muscle: a voltage clamp study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, J Fernando; Pizarro, Gonzalo

    2016-10-01

    Raising the intracellular [Ca 2+ ] ([Ca 2+ ] i ) was previously found to produce uncoupling between the electrical depolarization of the transverse tubules and contraction in skinned muscle fibers. Here we study the effect of elevated [Ca 2+ ] i in voltage clamped cut fibers of frog skeletal muscle to establish how the charge movement, a measure of the activation of the dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR)-voltage sensors, and Ca 2+ release, a consequence of the opening of the ryanodine receptor (RyR)-release channels, were affected. [Ca 2+ ] i was raised by various procedures (pharmacological release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, application of high [Ca 2+ ] i intracellular solution, permeabilization of the plasma membrane by a Ca 2+ ionophore) all of which produced impairment of excitation-contraction coupling. The charge movement was reduced from 20.2 ± 1.24 to 9.9 ± 0.94 nC/μF meanwhile the Ca 2+ release flux was reduced from 13.5 + 0.7 to 2.2 ± 0.3 μM/ms (n = 33). This suggests that a significant fraction of the DHPRs that remained functional, could not activate RyRs, and were therefore presumably disconnected. These results are broadly consistent with the original reports in skinned fibers. Uncoupling was prevented by the addition to the intracellular solution of the protease inhibitor leupeptin. In approximately 40 % of the uncoupled cells we observed that the [Ca 2+ ] i transient continued to rise after the voltage clamp pulse was turned off. This loss of control by membrane voltage suggests that the uncoupled release channels might have another mechanism of activation, likely by Ca 2+ .

  20. Direct excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takayasu

    1993-01-01

    A new mechanism is presented of an excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma. This mechanism works when the low frequency wave varies in time in a manner deviated from a usual periodic motion with a constant amplitude. The conversion rate is usually not large but the conversion is done without time delay after the variation of the low frequency wave. The Manley Rowe relation in the usual sense does not hold in this mechanism. This mechanism can excite also waves with same or lower frequencies. (author)

  1. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E*=76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Levitovich, M.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    The differential cross sections for neutron production in the fission of highly excited californium nuclei formed in the 238 U+ 12 C (105 MeV) reaction have been measured. From the analysis of the experimental data is follows that the number of pre-fission neutrons substantially exceeds the value obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. The saddle-to-scission time of the excited nucleus is estimated on the basis of the neutron multiplicity. The dependences of the neutron number and neutron average energies upon the fragment mass are determined

  2. Is neutron evaporation from highly excited nuclei a poisson random process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbel, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that neutron emission from highly excited nuclei follows a Poisson random process. The continuous variable of the process is the excitation energy excess over the binding energy of the emitted neutrons and the discrete variable is the number of emitted neutrons. Cross sections for (HI,xn) reactions are analyzed using a formula containing a Poisson distribution function. The post- and pre-equilibrium components of the cross section are treated separately. The agreement between the predictions of this formula and the experimental results is very good. (orig.)

  3. Collision dynamics of methyl radicals and highly vibrationally excited molecules using crossed molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.M.Y.

    1991-10-01

    The vibrational to translational (V→T) energy transfer in collisions between large highly vibrationally excited polyatomics and rare gases was investigated by time-of-flight techniques. Two different methods, UV excitation followed by intemal conversion and infrared multiphoton excitation (IRMPE), were used to form vibrationally excited molecular beams of hexafluorobenzene and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively. The product translational energy was found to be independent of the vibrational excitation. These results indicate that the probability distribution function for V→T energy transfer is peaked at zero. The collisional relaxation of large polyatomic molecules with rare gases most likely occurs through a rotationally mediated process. Photodissociation of nitrobenzene in a molecular beam was studied at 266 nm. Two primary dissociation channels were identified including simple bond rupture to produce nitrogen dioxide and phenyl radical and isomerization to form nitric oxide and phenoxy radical. The time-of-flight spectra indicate that simple bond rupture and isomerization occurs via two different mechanisms. Secondary dissociation of the phenoxy radicals to carbon monoxide and cyclopentadienyl radicals was observed as well as secondary photodissociation of phenyl radical to give H atom and benzyne. A supersonic methyl radical beam source is developed. The beam source configuration and conditions were optimized for CH 3 production from the thermal decomposition of azomethane. Elastic scattering of methyl radical and neon was used to differentiate between the methyl radicals and the residual azomethane in the molecular beam

  4. Dispersive excitations in the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; McMorrow, D.F.; Rønnow, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution neutron scattering experiments on optimally doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) (x=0.16) reveal that the magnetic excitations are dispersive. The dispersion is the same as in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.85), and is quantitatively related to that observed with charge sensitive probes. The associated veloc...

  5. Interqubit coupling mediated by a high-excitation-energy quantum object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashhab, S.; Niskanen, A.O.; Harrabi, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Picot, T.; De Groot, P.C.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.; Nori, F.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a system composed of two qubits and a high excitation energy quantum object used to mediate coupling between the qubits. We treat the entire system quantum mechanically and analyze the properties of the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the total Hamiltonian. After reproducing well known

  6. On the Zeeman Effect in highly excited atoms: 2. Three-dimensional case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseia, B.; Medeiros e Silva Filho, J.

    1984-01-01

    A previous result, found in two-dimensional hydrogen-atoms, is extended to the three-dimensional case. A mapping of a four-dimensional space R 4 onto R 3 , that establishes an equivalence between Coulomb and harmonic potentials, is used to show that the exact solution of the Zeeman effect in highly excited atoms, cannot be reached. (Author) [pt

  7. The temperature dependence of giant resonances in high-excited nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Song Hongqiu

    1991-01-01

    The Hartree-Fock equation and the linear response theory in finite temperature are used to calculate the positions and transition strenghths of the giant resonances of high-excited nucleus Pb 208 . The result shows a downward shift and a broadening of the giant resonance energies as temperatrue increases

  8. Enhanced Electron Attachment to Highly-Excited Molecules and Its Applications in Pulsed Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, W.X.; Ma, C.Y.; McCorkle, D.L.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies conducted over the past several years have shown that electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules have extremely large cross sections. We will discuss the implications of this for pulsed discharges used for H - generation, material processing, and plasma remediation

  9. Implications of electron attachment to highly-excited states in pulsed-power discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    1997-01-01

    The author points out the possible implications of electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules in two pulsed power technologies. One involves the pulsed H 2 discharges used for the generation of H ion beams for magnetic fusion energy and particle accelerators. The other is the power modulated plasma discharges used for material processing

  10. Carbon K-shell excitation in small molecules by high-resolution electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, M.; King, G.C.; Read, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    The excitation of 1s carbon electrons has been observed in C0, CH 4 , CF4, C0 2 , COS, C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 4 by means of the electron energy-loss technique with high resolution (70 meV in the 300 eV excitation energy range) and at an incident electron energy of 1.5 keV. The energies, widths and vibrational structures of excited states corresponding to the promotion of 1s carbon electrons to unoccupied valence and Rydberg orbitals have been obtained. The validity of the equivalent-core model, and the role of resonances caused by potential barriers, are discussed. (author)

  11. Low energy nuclear spin excitations in Ho metal investigated by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Tapan; Jalarvo, Niina

    2013-04-17

    We have investigated the low energy excitations in metallic Ho by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. We found at T = 3 K clear inelastic peaks in the energy loss and energy gain sides, along with the central elastic peak. The energy of this low energy excitation, which is 26.59 ± 0.02 μeV at T = 3 K, decreased continuously and became zero at TN ≈ 130 K. By fitting the data in the temperature range 100-127.5 K with a power law we obtained the power-law exponent β = 0.37 ± 0.02, which agrees with the expected value β = 0.367 for a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Thus the energy of the low energy excitations can be associated with the order parameter.

  12. A High-Voltage SOI CMOS Exciter Chip for a Programmable Fluidic Processor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current, K W; Yuk, K; McConaghy, C; Gascoyne, P R C; Schwartz, J A; Vykoukal, J V; Andrews, C

    2007-06-01

    A high-voltage (HV) integrated circuit has been demonstrated to transport fluidic droplet samples on programmable paths across the array of driving electrodes on its hydrophobically coated surface. This exciter chip is the engine for dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based micro-fluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, creating field excitations that inject and move fluidic droplets onto and about the manipulation surface. The architecture of this chip is expandable to arrays of N X N identical HV electrode driver circuits and electrodes. The exciter chip is programmable in several senses. The routes of multiple droplets may be set arbitrarily within the bounds of the electrode array. The electrode excitation waveform voltage amplitude, phase, and frequency may be adjusted based on the system configuration and the signal required to manipulate a particular fluid droplet composition. The voltage amplitude of the electrode excitation waveform can be set from the minimum logic level up to the maximum limit of the breakdown voltage of the fabrication technology. The frequency of the electrode excitation waveform can also be set independently of its voltage, up to a maximum depending upon the type of droplets that must be driven. The exciter chip can be coated and its oxide surface used as the droplet manipulation surface or it can be used with a top-mounted, enclosed fluidic chamber consisting of a variety of materials. The HV capability of the exciter chip allows the generated DEP forces to penetrate into the enclosed chamber region and an adjustable voltage amplitude can accommodate a variety of chamber floor thicknesses. This demonstration exciter chip has a 32 x 32 array of nominally 100 V electrode drivers that are individually programmable at each time point in the procedure to either of two phases: 0deg and 180deg with respect to the reference clock. For this demonstration chip, while operating the electrodes with a 100-V peak-to-peak periodic waveform, the maximum HV electrode

  13. Application of Excitation from Multiple Locations on a Simplified High-Lift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

    2004-01-01

    A series of active flow control experiments were recently conducted on a simplified high-lift system. The purpose of the experiments was to explore the prospects of eliminating all but simply hinged leading and trailing edge flaps, while controlling separation on the supercritical airfoil using multiple periodic excitation slots. Excitation was provided by three. independently controlled, self-contained, piezoelectric actuators. Low frequency excitation was generated through amplitude modulation of the high frequency carrier wave, the actuators' resonant frequencies. It was demonstrated, for the first time, that pulsed modulated signal from two neighboring slots interact favorably to increase lift. Phase sensitivity at the low frequency was measured, even though the excitation was synthesized from the high-frequency carrier wave. The measurements were performed at low Reynolds numbers and included mean and unsteady surface pressures, surface hot-films, wake pressures and particle image velocimetry. A modest (6%) increase in maximum lift (compared to the optimal baseline) was obtained due t o the activation of two of the three actuators.

  14. Jaw-opening reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability changes during quiet sleep in non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Dongyuan; Lavigne, Gilles J.; Lee, Jye-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that the reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles is reduced during sleep. Design: Polysomnographic recordings in the electrophysiological study. Setting: University sleep research laboratories. Participants and Interventions: The reflex a...

  15. Critical Assessment of Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: II. Doublet-Quartet Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-06-14

    Compared with closed-shell systems, open-shell systems place three additional challenges to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for electronically excited states: (a) the spin-contamination problem is a serious issue; (b) the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel may be numerically instable; and (c) the single-determinant description of open-shell ground states readily becomes energetically instable. Confined to flip-up single excitations, the spin-contamination problem can largely be avoided by using the spin-flip TD-DFT (SF-TD-DFT) formalism, provided that a noncollinear XC kernel is employed. As for the numerical instabilities associated with such a kernel, only an ad hoc scheme has been proposed so far, viz., the ALDA0 kernel, which amounts to setting the divergent components (arising from density gradients and kinetic energy density) simply to zero. The ground-state instability problem can effectively be avoided by introducing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TD-DFT. Therefore, on a general basis, the SF-TDA/ALDA0 Ansatz is so far the only promising means within the TD-DFT framework for flip-up single excitations of open-shell systems. To assess systematically the performance of SF-TDA/ALDA0, in total 61 low-lying quartet excited states of the benchmark set of 11 small radicals [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2016, 12, 238] are investigated with various XC functionals. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as benchmark, it is found that the mean absolute errors of SF-TDA/ALDA0 with the SAOP (statistical averaging of model orbital potentials), global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals are in the range of 0.2-0.4 eV. This is in line not only with the typical accuracy of TD-DFT for singlet and triplet excited states of closed-shell systems but also with the gross accuracy of spin-adapted TD-DFT for spin-conserving excited states of open-shell systems.

  16. Exciter switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  17. Study of ultra-high gradient wakefield excitation by intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki

    2002-12-01

    We investigate a mechanism of nonlinear phenomena in laser-plasma interaction, a laser wakefield excited by intense laser pulses, and the possibility of generating an intense bright electron source by an intense laser pulse. We need to understand and further employ some of these phenomena for our purposes. We measure self-focusing, filamentation, and the anomalous blueshift of the laser pulse. The ionization of gas with the self-focusing causes a broad continuous spectrum with blueshift. The normal blueshift depends on the laser intensity and the plasma density. We, however, have found different phenomenon. The laser spectrum shifts to fixed wavelength independent of the laser power and gas pressure above some critical power. We call the phenomenon 'anomalous blueshift'. The results are explained by the formation of filaments. An intense laser pulse can excite a laser wakefield in plasma. The coherent wakefield excited by 2 TW, 50 fs laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma around 10 18 cm -3 is measured with a time-resolved frequency domain interferometer (FDI). The density distribution of the helium gas is measured with a time-resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer to search for the optimum laser focus position and timing in the gas-jet. The results show an accelerating wakefield excitation of 20 GeV/m with good coherency, which is useful for ultrahigh gradient particle acceleration in a compact system. This is the first time-resolved measurement of laser wakefield excitation in a gas-jet plasma. The experimental results are compared with a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. The pump-probe interferometer system of FDI and the anomalous blueshift will be modified to the optical injection system as a relativistic electron beam injector. In 1D PIC simulation we obtain the results of high quality intense electron beam acceleration. These results illuminate the possibility of a high energy and a high quality electron beam acceleration. (author)

  18. Formation of excited states in high-Z helium-like systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Fricke, B.; Brinzanescu, O.

    1999-12-01

    High-Z helium-like ions represent the simplest multi-electron systems for studying the interplay between electron-electron correlations, relativistic as well as quantum electrodynamical effects in strong fields. In contrast to the adjacent lithium-like ions, however, almost no experimental information is available about the excited states in the high-Z domain of the helium sequence. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the X-ray production and decay dynamics of the excited states in helium-like uranium. Emphasize has been paid particularly to the formation of the 3 P 0 and 3 P 2 levels by using electron capture into hydrogen-like U 91+ . Both states are of interest for precise measurements on high-Z helium-like ions in the future. (orig.)

  19. The millimeter-wave spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaaghababa, R.; Gottlieb, C.A.; Vrtilek, J.M.; Thaddeus, P.

    1991-01-01

    The millimeter-wave rotational spectra of SiO in high vibrational states (v = 0-40) in its electronic ground state were measured between 228 and 347 GHz in a laboratory discharge through SiH4 and CO. On ascending the vibrational ladder, populations decline precipitously for the first few levels, with a vibrational temperature of about 1000 K; at v of roughly 3, however, they markedly flatten out, and from there to v of roughly 40 the temperature is of the order of 10,000 K. With the Dunham coefficients determined here, the rotational spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO can now be calculated into the far-infrared to accuracies required for radioastronomy. Possible astronomical sources of highly vibrationally excited SiO are certain stellar atmospheres, ultracompact H II regions, very young supernova ejecta, and dense interstellar shocks. 16 refs

  20. Signatures of fission dynamics in highly excited nuclei produced in 197AU(800 A MeV) on proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlliure, J.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.

    2001-09-01

    197 Au(800 A MeV)-on-proton collisions are used to investigate the fission dynamics at high excitation energy. The kinematic properties together with the isotopic identification of the fission fragments allow to determine the mass, charge and excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus at saddle. The comparison of these observables and the measured total fission cross section with model calculations evidences a clear hindrance of fission at high excitation energy that can be explained in terms of nuclear dissipation. Assuming a statistical evaporation for other de-excitation channels than fission, an estimated value of the transient time of fission of (3 ± 1) . 10 -21 s is obtained. (orig.)

  1. Stand-alone front-end system for high- frequency, high-frame-rate coded excitation ultrasonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhyoung; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-12-01

    A stand-alone front-end system for high-frequency coded excitation imaging was implemented to achieve a wider dynamic range. The system included an arbitrary waveform amplifier, an arbitrary waveform generator, an analog receiver, a motor position interpreter, a motor controller and power supplies. The digitized arbitrary waveforms at a sampling rate of 150 MHz could be programmed and converted to an analog signal. The pulse was subsequently amplified to excite an ultrasound transducer, and the maximum output voltage level achieved was 120 V(pp). The bandwidth of the arbitrary waveform amplifier was from 1 to 70 MHz. The noise figure of the preamplifier was less than 7.7 dB and the bandwidth was 95 MHz. Phantoms and biological tissues were imaged at a frame rate as high as 68 frames per second (fps) to evaluate the performance of the system. During the measurement, 40-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO(3)) single-element lightweight (<;0.28 g) transducers were utilized. The wire target measure- ment showed that the -6-dB axial resolution of a chirp-coded excitation was 50 μm and lateral resolution was 120 μm. The echo signal-to-noise ratios were found to be 54 and 65 dB for the short burst and coded excitation, respectively. The contrast resolution in a sphere phantom study was estimated to be 24 dB for the chirp-coded excitation and 15 dB for the short burst modes. In an in vivo study, zebrafish and mouse hearts were imaged. Boundaries of the zebrafish heart in the image could be differentiated because of the low-noise operation of the implemented system. In mouse heart images, valves and chambers could be readily visualized with the coded excitation.

  2. Electron energy distributions and excitation rates in high-frequency argon discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C.M.; Loureiro, J.

    1983-06-01

    The electron energy distribution functions and rate coefficients for excitation and ionisation in argon under the action of an uniform high-frequency electric field were calculated by numerically solving the homogeneous Boltzmann equation. Analytic calculations in the limiting cases ω>>νsub(c) and ω<<νsub(c), where ω is the wave angular frequency and νsub(c) is the electron-neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer, are also presented and shown to be in very good agreement with the numerical computations. The results reported here are relevant for the modelling of high-frequency discharges in argon and, in particular, for improving recent theoretical descriptions of a plasma column sustained by surface microwaves. The properties of surface wave produced plasmas make them interesting as possible substitutes for other more conventional plasma sources for such important applications as plasma chemistry laser excitation, plasma etching spectroscopic sources etc...

  3. The population transfer of high excited states of Rydberg lithium atoms in a microwave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lijuan; Zhang Xianzhou; Ma Huanqiang; Jia Guangrui; Zhang Yonghui; Xia Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Using the time-dependent multilevel approach (TDMA), the properties of high excited Rydberg lithium atom have been obtained in the microwave field. The population transfer of lithium atom are studied on numerical calculation, quantum states are controlled and manipulated by microwave field. It shows that the population can be completely transferred to the target state by changing the chirped rate and field amplitude. (authors)

  4. Simulation of statistical γ-spectra of highly excited rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Munos, G.; Guttormsen, M.; Bergholt, L.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Tveter, T.S.

    1997-05-01

    The statistical γ-spectra of highly excited even-even rare earth nuclei are simulated applying appropriate level density and strength function to a given nucleus. Hindrance effects due to K-conservation are taken into account. Simulations are compared to experimental data from the 163 Dy( 3 He,α) 162 Dy and 173 Yb( 3 He,α) 172 Yb reactions. The influence of the K quantum number at higher energies is discussed. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Powerful highly efficient KrF lamps excited by surface and barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V M; Vodchits, V A; El'tsov, A V; Khristoforov, O B

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was made of the characteristics of KrF lamps with different types of excitation by surface and barrier discharges in which the dielectric material was sapphire. The conditions were determined for the attainment of an extremely high yield of the KrF* fluorescence with the internal efficiency η in ∼30 % and 22% for pulsed surface and barrier discharges, respectively. A homogeneous surface discharge was maintained without gas circulation when the pulse repetition rate was 5 x 10 4 Hz. Quasicontinuous excitation of a surface discharge at near-atmospheric pressure made it possible to reach a KrF* fluorescence power density of about 80 W cm -3 , which was close to the limit set by the kinetics of the gaseous medium. Under prolonged excitation conditions the intensity of the UV output radiation was limited by the permissible heating of the gas to a temperature above which the operating life of the gaseous mixture containing fluorine fell steeply. This was the reason for the advantage of surface over barrier discharges: the former were characterised by a high thermal conductivity of a thin (∼0.2 mm) plasma layer on the surface of the cooled dielectric, which made it possible to construct powerful highly efficient KrF and ArF lamps emitting UV radiation of up to 1 W cm -2 intensity. (laser system components)

  6. Excitation of high numbers harmonics by flows of oscillators in a periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.; Marekha, V.I.; Tolstoluzhsky, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the maximum of radiation spectrum of nonrelativistic oscillators, which move into a periodically inhomogeneous potential, can be in the region of high numbers harmonics. Spectrum of such oscillators radiation becomes similar to the radiation spectrum of relativistic oscillators. The equations, describing the non-linear self-consistent theory of excitations, of high numbers harmonics by ensemble of oscillators are formulated and its numerical analysis is conducted. The numerical analysis has confirmed the capability of radiation of high numbers of harmonics. Such peculiarity of radiation allows t expect of creation of nonrelativistic FEL

  7. Maladaptively high and low openness: the case for experiential permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmont, Ralph L; Sherman, Martin F; Sherman, Nancy C

    2012-12-01

    The domain of Openness within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) has received inconsistent support as a source for maladaptive personality functioning, at least when the latter is confined to the disorders of personality included within the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, ). However, an advantage of the FFM relative to the DSM-IV-TR is that the former was developed to provide a reasonably comprehensive description of general personality structure. Rather than suggest that the FFM is inadequate because the DSM-IV-TR lacks much representation of Openness, it might be just as reasonable to suggest that the DSM-IV-TR is inadequate because it lacks an adequate representation of maladaptive variants of both high and low Openness. This article discusses the development and validation of a measure of these maladaptive variants, the Experiential Permeability Inventory. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Wobbling excitations in odd-A nuclei with high-j aligned particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Ikuko

    2002-01-01

    Using the particle-rotor model in which one high-j quasiparticle is coupled to the core of triaxial shape, wobbling excitations are studied. The family of wobbling phonon excitations can be characterized by: (a) very similar intrinsic structure while collective rotation shows the wobbling feature; (b) strong B(E2;I→I-1) values for Δn w =1 transitions where n w expresses the number of wobbling phonons. For the Fermi level lying below the high-j shell with the most favorable triaxiality γ≅+20 deg., the wobbling phonon excitations may be more easily identified close to the yrast line, compared with the Fermi level lying around the middle of the shell with γ≅-30 deg. The spectroscopic study of the yrast states for the triaxial shape with -60 deg. <γ<0 are illustrated by taking a representative example with γ=-30 deg., in which a quantum number related with the special symmetry is introduced to help the physics understanding

  9. Highly selective population of two excited states in nonresonant two-photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Zhang Shi-An; Sun Zhen-Rong

    2011-01-01

    A nonresonant two-photon absorption process can be manipulated by tailoring the ultra-short laser pulse. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate a highly selective population of two excited states in the nonresonant two-photon absorption process by rationally designing a spectral phase distribution. Our results show that one excited state is maximally populated while the other state population is widely tunable from zero to the maximum value. We believe that the theoretical results may play an important role in the selective population of a more complex nonlinear process comprising nonresonant two-photon absorption, such as resonance-mediated (2+1)-three-photon absorption and (2+1)-resonant multiphoton ionization. (atomic and molecular physics)

  10. High mass-resolution electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core-excited organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tokushima, T; Senba, Y; Yoshida, H; Hiraya, A

    2001-01-01

    Total electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core excited organic molecules have been carried out with high mass resolution by using multimode (reflectron/linear) time-of-flight mass analyzer. From the ion correlation spectra of core excited CH sub 3 OH and CD sub 3 OH, the reaction pathway to form H sub 3 sup + (D sub 3 sup +) is identified as the elimination of three H (D) atoms from the methyl group, not as the inter-group (-CH sub 3 and -OH) interactions. In a PEPIPICO spectrum of acetylacetone (CH sub 3 COCH sub 2 COCH sub 3) measured by using a reflectron TOF, correlations between ions up to mass number 70 with one-mass resolution was recorded.

  11. Resonance Excitation of Longitudinal High Order Modes in Project X Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabiboulline, T.N.; Sukhanov, A.AUTHOR = Awida, M.; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.AUTHOR = Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Results of simulation of power loss due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating superconducting RF system of CW linac of Project X are presented. Beam structures corresponding to the various modes of Project X operation are considered: CW regime for 3 GeV physics program; pulsed mode for neutrino experiments; and pulsed regime, when Project X linac operates as a driver for Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider. Power loss and associated heat load due to resonance excitation of longitudinal HOMs are shown to be small in all modes of operation. Conclusion is made that HOM couplers can be removed from the design of superconducting RF cavities of Project X linac.

  12. Dynamic modification of the fragmentation of COq+ excited states generated with high-order harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, W.; De, S.; Singh, K. P.; Chen, S.; Laurent, G.; Ray, D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C. L.; Schoeffler, M. S.; Belkacem, A.; Osipov, T.; Rescigno, T.; Alnaser, A. S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic process of fragmentation of CO q+ excited states is investigated using a pump-probe approach. EUV radiation (32-48 eV) generated by high-order harmonics was used to ionize and excite CO molecules and a time-delayed infrared (IR) pulse (800 nm) was used to influence the evolution of the dissociating multichannel wave packet. Two groups of states, separable experimentally by their kinetic-energy release (KER), are populated by the EUV and lead to C + -O + fragmentation: direct double ionization of the neutral molecule and fragmentation of the cation leading to C + -O*, followed by autoionization of O*. The IR pulse was found to modify the KER of the latter group in a delay-dependent way which is explained with a model calculation.

  13. Resonance Excitation of Longitudinal High Order Modes in Project X Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonin, I.V.; Khabiboulline, T.N.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Sukhanov, A.I.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Awida, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Results of simulation of power loss due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating superconducting RF system of CW linac of Project X are presented. Beam structures corresponding to the various modes of Project X operation are considered: CW regime for 3 GeV physics program; pulsed mode for neutrino experiments; and pulsed regime, when Project X linac operates as a driver for Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider. Power loss and associated heat load due to resonance excitation of longitudinal HOMs are shown to be small in all modes of operation. Conclusion is made that HOM couplers can be removed from the design of superconducting RF cavities of Project X linac.

  14. Modernization of the Control Systems of High-Frequency, Brush-Free, and Collector Exciters of Turbogenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, E. N., E-mail: enpo@ruselmash.ru; Komkov, A. L.; Ivanov, S. L.; Timoshchenko, K. P. [JSC “Scientific and Industrial Enterprise “Rusélprom-Élektromash” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Methods of modernizing the regulation systems of electric machinery exciters with high-frequency, brush-free, and collector exciters by means of microprocessor technology are examined. The main problems of modernization are to increase the response speed of a system and to use a system stabilizer to increase the stability of the power system.

  15. The pan-Kv7 (KCNQ) Channel Opener Retigabine Inhibits Striatal Excitability by Direct Action on Striatal Neurons In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Weikop, Pia; Mikkelsen, Maria D

    2017-01-01

    Central Kv7 (KCNQ) channels are voltage-dependent potassium channels composed of different combinations of four Kv7 subunits, being differently expressed in the brain. Notably, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission is strongly suppressed by systemic administration of the pan-Kv7 channel opener ...... by acute systemic haloperidol administration in the rat. The relative mRNA levels of Kv7 subunits in the rat striatum were found to be Kv7.2 = Kv7.3 = Kv7.5 > >Kv7.4. These data suggest that intrastriatal Kv7 channels play a direct role in regulating striatal excitability in vivo....

  16. Excitation energies and properties of open-shell singlet molecules applications to a new class of molecules for nonlinear optics and singlet fission

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    This brief investigates the diradical character, which is one of the ground-state chemical indices for 'bond weakness' or 'electron correlation' and which allows researchers to explore the origins of the electron-correlation-driven physico-chemical phenomena concerned with electronic, optical and magnetic properties as well as to control them in the broad fields of physics and chemistry. It then provides the theoretical fundamentals of ground and excited electronic structures of symmetric and asymmetric open-shell molecular systems by using model molecular systems. Moreover, it presents the th

  17. Fluorescence spectra of Rhodamine 6G for high fluence excitation laser radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hung, J; Olaizola, A M

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence spectral changes of Rhodamine 6G in ethanol and glycerol solutions and deposited as a film on a silica surface have been studied using a wide range of pumping field fluence at 532 nm at room temperature. Blue shift of the fluorescence spectra and fluorescence quenching of the dye molecule in solution are observed at high excitation fluence values. Such effects are not reported for the film sample. The effects are interpreted as the result of population redistribution in the solute-solvent molecular system induced by the high fluence field and the fluence dependence of the radiationless decay mechanism.

  18. Design and Implementation of Wideband Exciter for an Ultra-high Resolution Airborne SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying-xin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system with better than 0.1 m resolution, a wideband Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM pulse compression exciter with 14.8 GHz carrier and 3.2 GHz bandwidth is designed and implemented. The selection of signal generation scheme and some key technique points for wideband LFM waveform is presented in detail. Then, an acute test and analysis of the LFM signal is performed. The final airborne experiments demonstrate the validity of the LFM source which is one of the subsystems in an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system.

  19. Frequency response of rectangular plates with free-edge openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced displacement at boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Seung Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical procedure for the natural vibration analysis of plates with openings and carlings based on the assumed mode method is extended to assess their forced response. Firstly, natural response of plates with openings and carlings is calculated from the eigenvalue equation derived by using Lagrange's equation of motion. Secondly, the mode superposition method is applied to determine frequency response. Mindlin theory is adopted for plate modelling and the effect of openings is taken into account by subtracting their potential and kinetic energies from the corresponding plate energies. Natural and frequency response of plates with openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced acceleration at boundaries, respectively, is analysed by using developed in-house code. For the validation of the developed method and the code, extensive numerical results, related to plates with different opening shape, carlings and boundary conditions, are compared with numerical data from the relevant literature and with finite element solutions obtained by general finite element tool.

  20. Rotational bands on few-particle excitations of very high spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, C.G.; Krumlinde, J.; Leander, G.; Szymanski, Z.

    1980-01-01

    An RPA formalism is developed to investigate the existence and properties of slow collective rotation around a non-symmetry axis, when there already exists a large angular momentum K along the symmetry axis built up by aligned single-particle spins. It is found necessary to distinguish between the collectivity and the repeatability of the rotational excitations. First the formalism is applied to bands on hihg-K isomers in the well-deformed nucleus 176 Hf, where the rotational-model picture is reproduced for intermediate K-values in agreement with experiment. At high K there is a suppression of the collectivity corresponding to the diminishing vector-coupling coefficient of the rotational model, but the repeatability actually improves. The moment of inertia is predicted to remain substantially smaller than the rigid-body value so the bands slope up steeply from the yrast line at spins where pairing effects are gone. A second application is to the initially spherical nucleus 212 Rn, which is believed to acquire an oblate deformation that increases steadily with K due to the oblate shape of the aligned orbitals. In this case the repeatable excitations come higher above the yrast line than in 176 Hf, even at comparable deformations. Some collective states may occur very close to yrast, but these are more like dressed singleparticle excitations. The main differences between the two nuclei studied is interpreted as a general consequence of their different shell structure. (author)

  1. Concluding remarks of international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A. M.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    This is the concluding remarks in the international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions. The remarks concentrate on the giant quadrupole states. In the framework of the distorted wave Born approximation (DWB), the differential cross section can be deduced. The relevant transition matrix elements are defined, and the quantities which are measured in inelastic hadron (h, h') reactions are shown. These are used to obtain both neutron and proton transition multipole matrix elements. This is equivalent to make the isospin decomposition of the electromagnetic transition matrix elements. The ratios of the transition matrix elements of neutrons and protons of the lowest 2/sup +/ states in even-even single closed shell nuclei are evaluated and compared with experimental results. For each nucleus, the consistency between various measurements is generally good. The effect of the virtual excitation of giant 2/sup +/ states into the ground and first excited states of even-even nuclei is discussed. The accuracy of (h, h') results can be tested.

  2. A high open-circuit voltage gallium nitride betavoltaic microbattery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zaijun; Chen, Xuyuan; San, Haisheng; Feng, Zhihong; Liu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    A high open-circuit voltage betavoltaic microbattery based on a gallium nitride (GaN) p–i–n homojunction is demonstrated. As a beta-absorbing layer, the low electron concentration of the n-type GaN layer is achieved by the process of Fe compensation doping. Under the irradiation of a planar solid 63 Ni source with activity of 0.5 mCi, the open-circuit voltage of the fabricated microbattery with 2 × 2 mm 2 area reaches as much as 1.64 V, which is the record value reported for betavoltaic batteries with 63 Ni source, the short-circuit current was measured as 568 pA and the conversion effective of 0.98% was obtained. The experimental results suggest that GaN is a high-potential candidate for developing the betavoltaic microbattery. (paper)

  3. Open tube guideway for high speed air cushioned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, R. S. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    This invention is a tubular shaped guideway for high-speed air-cushioned supported vehicles. The tubular guideway is split and separated such that the sides of the guideway are open. The upper portion of the tubular guideway is supported above the lower portion by truss-like structural members. The lower portion of the tubular guideway may be supported by the terrain over which the vehicle travels, on pedestals or some similar structure.

  4. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  5. Very high rotational excitation of CO in a cooled electric discharge through carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossart-Magos, Claudina; Cossart, Daniel

    2000-02-01

    Infrared emission from 12CO and 13CO, excited in the cathode region of a discharge tube immersed in liquid nitrogen, was recorded by Fourier-transform spectrometry at a resolution of 0.005 cm-1. The Δv=1 sequence bands recorded in the 2500-1800 cm-1 spectral interval, indicate the existence of three different rotational populations; (i) molecules in the zero-ground level with Trot≈100 K (responsible for reabsorption of part of the 1-0 emission band); (ii) molecules with Trot≈275 K (maximum intensity for Jmax'≈6 in each band, Tvib≈3000 K for v'=2-4, Tvib≈8600 K for v'=5-13); (iii) molecules with v' limited to 6, for which R-rotational lines are observed for J' values between 50 and 120 (Jmax'≈90, non-Boltzmannian population distribution). The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of all the observed lines is less than 0.007 cm-1. A Doppler width of 0.005 cm-1 and translational temperature Ttr≈280 K can be deduced. Such high-J levels of the CO molecule had never been observed in the laboratory. In the absorption spectrum of the Sun photosphere, the same lines present FWHM values 5-8 times larger. The best available Dunham coefficients are checked to reproduce the high-J lines wave numbers to at least 0.001 cm-1. Dissociative recombination of the dimer (CO)2+ cation, which is likely to be formed in our experimental conditions, is discussed as a possible mechanism to produce CO fragments with very high rotational excitation, while keeping vibrational excitation limited to v'=6.

  6. From Coherently Excited Highly Correlated States to Incoherent Relaxation Processes in Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scha''fer, W.; Lo''venich, R.; Fromer, N. A.; Chemla, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories of highly excited semiconductors are based on two formalisms, referring to complementary experimental conditions, the real-time nonequilibrium Green's function techniques and the coherently controlled truncation of the many-particle problem. We present a novel many-particle theory containing both of these methods as limiting cases. As a first example of its application, we investigate four-particle correlations in a strong magnetic field including dephasing resulting from the growth of incoherent one-particle distribution functions. Our results are the first rigorous solution concerning formation and decay of four-particle correlations in semiconductors. They are in excellent agreement with experimental data

  7. Many-body effects in the gain spectra of highly excited quantum-dot lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H. C.; Chow, W. W.; Koch, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Optical gain spectra are computed for quantum dots under high excitation conditions, where there is a non-negligible two-dimensional carrier density surrounding the dots. Using a screened Hartree-Fock theory to describe the influence of the Coulomb interaction, we find different self-energy shifts for the dot and quantum-well transitions. Furthermore, in contrast to the result for quantum-well and bulk systems, the peak gain at the quantum-dot transition computed including Coulomb effects is reduced from its free carrier value

  8. The opening of a high care hostel for problem drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, H

    1992-12-01

    This paper gives a personal and practice based account by one of the Team Leaders of the opening of a high-care hostel for problem drinkers in North London. The hostel, Rugby House, was set up to provide detoxification and assessment facilities for thirteen residents. It was part of the Rugby House Project, an alcohol agency in the voluntary sector. The paper explores the processes involved in setting up a new project; how the new paid employees turn a committee's vision into practice; how a group of individuals become a team; the importance of clarity about boundaries and underlying values and assumptions; the need for openness about negative as well as positive feelings; and the recognition that some of the experiences of staff will resonate with those of the residents for whom giving up drinking is a major life change.

  9. Design considerations for highly effective fluorescence excitation and detection optical systems for molecular diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Axel; Van Hille, Herbert; Kuk, Sola

    2018-02-01

    Modern instruments for molecular diagnostics are continuously optimized for diagnostic accuracy, versatility and throughput. The latest progress in LED technology together with tailored optics solutions allows developing highly efficient photonics engines perfectly adapted to the sample under test. Super-bright chip-on-board LED light sources are a key component for such instruments providing maximum luminous intensities in a multitude of narrow spectral bands. In particular the combination of white LEDs with other narrow band LEDs allows achieving optimum efficiency outperforming traditional Xenon light sources in terms of energy consumption, heat dissipation in the system, and switching time between spectral channels. Maximum sensitivity of the diagnostic system can only be achieved with an optimized optics system for the illumination and imaging of the sample. The illumination beam path must be designed for optimum homogeneity across the field while precisely limiting the angular distribution of the excitation light. This is a necessity for avoiding spill-over to the detection beam path and guaranteeing the efficiency of the spectral filtering. The imaging optics must combine high spatial resolution, high light collection efficiency and optimized suppression of excitation light for good signal-to-noise ratio. In order to achieve minimum cross-talk between individual wells in the sample, the optics design must also consider the generation of stray light and the formation of ghost images. We discuss what parameters and limitations have to be considered in an integrated system design approach covering the full path from the light source to the detector.

  10. Investigating the fission process at high excitation energies through proton induced reactions on 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Casajeros, E.; Alvarez Pol, H.; Paradela, C.; Perez-Loureido, D.; Tarrio, D.; Bacquias, A.; Boudard, A.; Kezzar, K.; Leray, S.; Enqvist, T.; Foehr, V.; Kelic, A.; Pleskac, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we have investigated the total fission cross section of 181 Ta + 1 H at FRS (Fragment Separator - GSI) at 1, 0.8, 0.5 and 0.3 GeV with a specific setup, providing high accuracy measurements of the cross section values. the comparison of our data with previous results reveals a good agreement at high energies. However the situation remains unclear at lower energies. In general, our results covering a wide range of energy, are smoother. We have also compared the results obtained in this experiment, with several calculations performed with the intra-nuclear cascade model (INCL v4.1) coupled to de-excitation code (ABLAv3p), according to two different models describing fission process at high-excitation energies: statistical model of Bohr and Wheeler and the dynamical description of the fission process. We have showed that a simple statistical description largely over-predict the measured cross-section. Only a dynamical description of the fission, involving the role of the viscosity of the nuclear matter, provides a realistic result.

  11. Wavelet based comparison of high frequency oscillations in the geodetic and fluid excitation functions of polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, W.; Popinski, W.; Niedzielski, T.

    2011-10-01

    It has been already shown that short period oscillations in polar motion, with periods less than 100 days, are very chaotic and are responsible for increase in short-term prediction errors of pole coordinates data. The wavelet technique enables to compare the geodetic and fluid excitation functions in the high frequency band in many different ways, e.g. by looking at the semblance function. The waveletbased semblance filtering enables determination the common signal in both geodetic and fluid excitation time series. In this paper the considered fluid excitation functions consist of the atmospheric, oceanic and land hydrology excitation functions from ECMWF atmospheric data produced by IERS Associated Product Centre Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam. The geodetic excitation functions have been computed from the combined IERS pole coordinates data.

  12. Effect of collective response on electron capture and excitation in collisions of highly charged ions with fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Singh, Y P; Tribedi, Lokesh C

    2003-03-07

    Projectile deexcitation Lyman x-ray emission following electron capture and K excitation has been studied in collisions of bare and Li-like sulphur ions (of energy 110 MeV) with fullerenes (C(60)/C(70)) and different gaseous targets. The intensity ratios of different Lyman x-ray lines in collisions with fullerenes are found to be substantially lower than those for the gas targets, both for capture and excitation. This has been explained in terms of a model based on "solidlike" effect, namely, wakefield induced stark mixing of the excited states populated via electron capture or K excitation: a collective phenomenon of plasmon excitation in the fullerenes under the influence of heavy, highly charged ions.

  13. Evolution of spin excitations in a gapped antiferromagnet from the quantum to the high-temperature limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenzelmann, M.; Cowley, R.A.; Buyers, W.J.L.

    2002-01-01

    We have mapped from the quantum to the classical limit the spin excitation spectrum of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain system CsNiCl3 in its paramagnetic phase from T=5 to 200 K. Neutron scattering shows that the excitations are resonant and dispersive up to at least T=70 Ksimilar...... is in agreement with quantum Monte Carlo calculations for the spin-1 chain. xi is also consistent with the single mode approximation, suggesting that the excitations are short-lived single particle excitations. Below T=12 K where three-dimensional spin correlations are important, xi is shorter than predicted...... and the experiment is not consistent with the random phase approximation for coupled quantum chains. At T=200 K, the structure factor and second energy moment of the excitation spectrum are in excellent agreement with the high-temperature series expansion....

  14. Three exciting areas of experimental physical sciences : high temperature superconductors, metal clusters and super molecules of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    The author has narrated his experience in carrying out research in three exciting areas of physical sciences. These areas are : high temperature superconductors, metal clusters and super molecules of carbon. (M.G.B.)

  15. Systematic investigation of electron impact excitation-autoionization from the ground state of highly charged GaI-like ions through ΔN=1 transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Mandlebaum, P.; Mittnik, D.; Meroz, E.; Schwob, J.L.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic variation in the line intensity ratios of GaI-like and ZnI-like ions of rare earth elements has been recently observed in spectra emitted in a low density, high temperature tokamak plasma. This variation is shown to be correlated with the gradual opening of autoionizing channels through inner-shell excited configurations of the GaI-like charge-state. These channels enhance the indirect ionization rate of GaI-like ions through excitation-autoionization (EA), effecting the ionization balance and temperatures of greatest abundance. We present a systematic investigation of EA and direct impact ionization (DI) in the GaI-like isoelectronic sequence from Mo (Z = 42) to Dy (Z = 66). As Z decreases from Dy to Pr (Z = 59) the levels of the configuration 3d 9 4p4f, which are excited from the ground state by strong dipole collisional transitions, gradually cross the first ionization limit of the ion and are responsible for this ionization enhancement. When Z decreases further an additional channel is opened through the configuration 3d 9 4p4d. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Systematic investigation of electron impact excitation-autoionization from the ground state of highly charged GaI-like ions through ΔN = 1 transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Goldstein, W.H.; Mandlebaum, P.; Mittnik, D.; Meroz, E.; Schwob, J.L.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic variation in the line intensity ratios of GaI-like and ZnI-like ions of rare earth elements has been recently observed in spectra emitted in a low density, high temperature Tokamak plasma. This variation is shown to be correlated with the gradual opening of autoionizing channels through inner-shell excited configurations of the GaI-like charge-state. These channels enhance the indirect ionization rate of GaI-like ions through excitation-autoionization (EA), effecting the ionization balance and temperatures of greatest abundance. The authors a systematic investigations of EA and direct impact ionizations (DI) in the GaI-like isoelectronic sequence from Mo (Z = 42) to Dy (Z = 66). As Z decreases from Dy to Pr (Z = 59) the levels of the configuration 3d 9 4p4f, which are excited from the ground state by strong dipole collisional transitions, gradually cross the first ionization limit of the ion and are responsible for this ionization enhancement. When Z decreases further an additional channel is opened through the configuration 3d 9 4p4d

  17. The effect of high level multi-tone excitation on the acoustic properties of perforates and liner samples

    OpenAIRE

    Bodén, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of high level multi-tone acoustic excitation on the acoustic properties of perforates and liner samples. It is based on a large experimental study of the nonlinear properties of these types of samples without mean grazing or bias flow. It is known from previous studies that high level acoustic excitation at one frequency will change the acoustic impedance of perforates at other frequencies, thereby changing the boundary condition seen by the acoustic waves. Thi...

  18. Trajectory study of supercollision relaxation in highly vibrationally excited pyrazine and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziman; Sansom, Rebecca; Bonella, Sara; Coker, David F; Mullin, Amy S

    2005-09-01

    Classical trajectory calculations were performed to simulate state-resolved energy transfer experiments of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (E(vib) = 37,900 cm(-1)) and CO(2), which were conducted using a high-resolution transient infrared absorption spectrometer. The goal here is to use classical trajectories to simulate the supercollision energy transfer pathway wherein large amounts of energy are transferred in single collisions in order to compare with experimental results. In the trajectory calculations, Newton's laws of motion are used for the molecular motion, isolated molecules are treated as collections of harmonic oscillators, and intermolecular potentials are formed by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The calculations qualitatively reproduce the observed energy partitioning in the scattered CO(2) molecules and show that the relative partitioning between bath rotation and translation is dependent on the moment of inertia of the bath molecule. The simulations show that the low-frequency modes of the vibrationally excited pyrazine contribute most to the strong collisions. The majority of collisions lead to small DeltaE values and primarily involve single encounters between the energy donor and acceptor. The large DeltaE exchanges result from both single impulsive encounters and chattering collisions that involve multiple encounters.

  19. Radiative-lifetime measurements and calculations of odd-parity highly excited levels in Ba i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Du Shan; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile; Dai Zhenwen

    2010-01-01

    Natural radiative lifetime measurements have been performed for 70 odd-parity highly excited levels of neutral barium in the energy range from 308 15.512 to 417 59.93 cm -1 by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in a laser-produced plasma. The lifetime values measured in this paper are in the range from 11.3 to 901 ns. They are compared with the published lifetimes of four levels. Two of them are in good agreement, whereas for the other two our measurements are slightly longer than the published data. The reasons for the discrepancies are discussed. Comparisons with theoretical results of the Hartree-Fock method with relativistic corrections illustrate the difficulties associated with the use of Cowan's codes for obtaining accurate branching fractions for transitions depopulating highly excited levels along the Rydberg series of heavy neutral elements. This work will be useful to extend the set of oscillator strengths available in Ba i.

  20. Electron Impact Excitation and Dielectronic Recombination of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwen Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electron impact excitation (EIE and dielectronic recombination (DR of tungsten ions are basic atomic processes in nuclear fusion plasmas of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER tokamak. Detailed investigation of such processes is essential for modeling and diagnosing future fusion experiments performed on the ITER. In the present work, we studied total and partial electron-impact excitation (EIE and DR cross-sections of highly charged tungsten ions by using the multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method. The degrees of linear polarization of the subsequent X-ray emissions from unequally-populated magnetic sub-levels of these ions were estimated. It is found that the degrees of linear polarization of the same transition lines, but populated respectively by the EIE and DR processes, are very different, which makes diagnosis of the formation mechanism of X-ray emissions possible. In addition, with the help of the flexible atomic code on the basis of the relativistic configuration interaction method, DR rate coefficients of highly charged W37+ to W46+ ions are also studied, because of the importance in the ionization equilibrium of tungsten plasmas under running conditions of the ITER.

  1. High Excitation Intensity Opens a New Trapping Channel in Organic - Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zheng, K.; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, M.; Chen, J.S.; Chábera, P.; Zhang, W.; Al-Marri, M.J.; Pullerits, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 6 (2016), s. 1154-1161 ISSN 2380-8195 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : LEAD HALIDE PEROVSKITES * QUANTUM DOTS * NANOCRYSTALS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  2. Novel spin excitation in the high field phase of an S=1 antiferromagnetic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, M.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kimura, S.; Honda, Z.; Kindo, K.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of high-field multi-frequency ESR experiment on the S=1 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain Ni(C 5 H 14 N 2 ) 2 N 3 (PF 6 ) for the fields up to about 55T and the frequencies up to about 2THz. We have found that excitation branches above the critical field (H c ) where the energy gap closes change into one branch around 15T which becomes close to the paramagnetic line at high fields. The branch above 15T fits well the conventional antiferromagnetic resonance mode with easy planar anisotropy. We compare the results with those in a weakly coupled antiferromagnetic dimer compound KCuCl 3 and discuss the origin of the branches observed above H c

  3. Microscopic unitary description of tidal excitations in high-energy string-brane collisions

    CERN Document Server

    D'Appollonio, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The eikonal operator was originally introduced to describe the effect of tidal excitations on higher-genus elastic string amplitudes at high energy. In this paper we provide a precise interpretation for this operator through the explicit tree-level calculation of generic inelastic transitions between closed strings as they scatter off a stack of parallel Dp-branes. We perform this analysis both in the light-cone gauge, using the Green-Schwarz vertex, and in the covariant formalism, using the Reggeon vertex operator. We also present a detailed discussion of the high energy behaviour of the covariant string amplitudes, showing how to take into account the energy factors that enhance the contribution of the longitudinally polarized massive states in a simple way.

  4. Shell structure effects at high excitations and many-quasiparticle configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical data available on few- and many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of complex nuclei at low, intermediate and high energies are shortly analyzed. The components are treated in the nuclear quasiparticle-phonon model. Specific features of the lowest and high-spin states, giant resonances, neutron resonances and the effects of the energy-level structure in the few-and many-particle transfer reactions are discussed. It is concluded that the most reliable nuclear properties are determined by the components, their behaviour reflecting the shell structure effects. Wich increasing excitation energy the density of levels increases exponentially and the contribution of few-quasiparticle components to the normalization of the wave functions decreases exponentially

  5. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Excited baryon form-factors at high momentum transfer at CEBAF at higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoler, P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The possibilities of measuring the properties of excited nucleons at high Q{sup 2} by means of exclusive single meson production at CEBAF with an electron energy of 8 GeV is considered. The motivation is to access short range phenomena in baryon structure, and to investigate the transition from the low Q{sup 2} non-perturbative QCD regime, where constituent quark models are valid, to higher Q{sup 2} where it is believed perturbative QCD plays an increasingly important role. It is found that high quality baryon decay angular distributions can be obtained for the most prominent states up to Q{sup 2} {approximately} 12 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} using a set of moderate resolution, large solid angle magnetic spectrometers.

  7. V. S. Lebedev and I. L. Beigman, Physics of Highly Excited Atoms and Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewe, R.

    1999-07-01

    This book contains a comprehensive description of the basic principles of the theoretical spectroscopy and experimental spectroscopic diagnostics of Rydberg atoms and ions, i.e., atoms in highly excited states with a very large principal quantum number (n≫1). Rydberg atoms are characterized by a number of peculiar physical properties as compared to atoms in the ground or a low excited state. They have a very small ionization potential (∝1/n2), the highly excited electron has a small orbital velocity (∝1/n), the radius (∝n2) is very large, the excited electron has a long orbital period (∝n3), and the radiation lifetime is very long (∝n3-5). At the same time the R. atom is very sensitive to perturbations from external fields in collisions with charged and neutral targets. In recent years, R. atoms have been observed in laboratory and cosmic conditions for n up to ˜1000, which means that the size amounts to about 0.1 mm, ˜106 times that of an atom in the ground state. The scope of this monograph is to familiarize the reader with today's approaches and methods for describing isolated R. atoms and ions, radiative transitions between highly excited states, and photoionization and photorecombination processes. The authors present a number of efficient methods for describing the structure and properties of R. atoms and calculating processes of collisions with neutral and charged particles as well as spectral-line broadening and shift of Rydberg atomic series in gases, cool and hot plasmas in laboratories and in astrophysical sources. Particular attention is paid to a comparison of theoretical results with available experimental data. The book contains 9 chapters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the basic properties of R. atoms (ions), Chapter 2 is devoted to an account of general methods describing an isolated Rydberg atom. Chapter 3 is focussed on the recent achievements in calculations of form factors and dipole matrix elements of different types of

  8. Transport coefficients in high-temperature ionized air flows with electronic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, V. A.; Oblapenko, G. P.

    2018-01-01

    Transport coefficients are studied in high-temperature ionized air mixtures using the modified Chapman-Enskog method. The 11-component mixture N2/N2+/N /N+/O2/O2+/O /O+/N O /N O+/e- , taking into account the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules and electronic degrees of freedom of both atomic and molecular species, is considered. Using the PAINeT software package, developed by the authors of the paper, in wide temperature range calculations of the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion, diffusion, and shear viscosity coefficients for an equilibrium ionized air mixture and non-equilibrium flow conditions for mixture compositions, characteristic of those in shock tube experiments and re-entry conditions, are performed. For the equilibrium air case, the computed transport coefficients are compared to those obtained using simplified kinetic theory algorithms. It is shown that neglecting electronic excitation leads to a significant underestimation of the thermal conductivity coefficient at temperatures higher than 25 000 K. For non-equilibrium test cases, it is shown that the thermal diffusion coefficients of neutral species and the self-diffusion coefficients of all species are strongly affected by the mixture composition, while the thermal conductivity coefficient is most strongly influenced by the degree of ionization of the flow. Neglecting electronic excitation causes noticeable underestimation of the thermal conductivity coefficient at temperatures higher than 20 000 K.

  9. Excitation of high energy levels under laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shafeev@kapella.gpi.ru; Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bozon-Verduraz, F. [ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France); Robert, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 7591, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2007-12-15

    Laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids leads to excitation of high energy levels in both liquid and nanoparticle material. The emission spectrum of the colloidal solution under exposure of a suspension metallic nanoparticles in water to radiation of a Nd:YAG laser of a picosecond range of pulse duration is discussed. Excitation of nuclear energy levels and neutron release is experimentally studied on the model system of transmutation of Hg into Au that occurs under exposure of Hg nanodrops suspended in D{sub 2}O. The proposed mechanism involves: (i) emission of X-ray photons by Hg nanoparticles upon laser exposure, leading to neutron release from D{sub 2}O, (ii) initiation of Hg {yields} Au transmutation by the capture of neutrons. The effect of transmutation is more pronounced using {sup 196}Hg isotope instead of Hg of natural isotope composition. The influence of laser pulse duration on the degree of transmutation (from fs through ns range) is discussed.

  10. Investigations of the valence-shell excitations of molecular ethane by high-energy electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Qing; Xu, Long-Quan; Qi, De-Guang; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ya-Wei; Zhu, Lin-Fan

    2018-04-01

    The differential cross sections and generalized oscillator strengths for the low-lying excitations of the valence-shell 1eg orbital electron in ethane have been measured for the first time at a high incident electron energy of 1500 eV and a scattering angular range of 1.5°-10°. A weak feature, termed X here, with a band center of about 7.5 eV has been observed, which was also announced by the previous experimental and theoretical studies. The dynamic behaviors of the generalized oscillator strengths for the 3s (8.7 eV), 3s+3p (9.31 eV, 9.41 eV), and X (˜7.5 eV) transitions on the momentum transfer squared have been obtained. The integral cross sections of these transitions from their thresholds to 5000 eV have been obtained with the aid of the BE-scaling (B is the binding energy and E is the excitation energy) method. The optical oscillator strengths of the above transitions determined by extrapolating their generalized oscillator strengths to the limit of the squared momentum transfer K2 → 0 are in good agreement with the ones from the photoabsorption spectrum [J. W. Au et al., Chem. Phys. 173, 209 (1993)], which indicates that the present differential cross sections, generalized oscillator strengths, and integral cross sections can serve as benchmark data.

  11. Effects of classical resonances on the chaotic microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R V

    1987-05-01

    Experimental measurements of the microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms with principal quantum numbers ranging from n = 32 to 90 are well described by a classical treatment of the nonlinear electron dynamics. In particular, the measurements of the threshold field for the onset of significant ionization exhibits a curious dependence on the microwave frequency with distinct peaks at rational values of the scaled frequency, n/sup 3/..cap omega.. = 1, 2/3, 1/2, 2/5, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, which is in excellent agreement with the predictions for the onset of classical chaos in a one-dimensional model of the experiment. In the classical theory this frequency dependence of the threshold fields is due to the stabilizing effect of nonlinear resonances (''islands'') in the classical phase space which is greatly enhanced when the microwave perturbation is turned on slowly (adiabatically) as in the experiments. Quantum calculations for this one-dimensional model also exhibit this stabilizing effect due to the preferential excitation of localized quasi-energy states.

  12. Fluorescence fluctuation of Rhodamine 6G dye for high repetition rate laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nageshwar; Patel, Hemant K.; Dixit, S.K.; Vora, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, fluorescence from Rhodamine 6G dye for stationary and flowing liquid medium, excited by copper vapor laser, operating at 6 kHz pulse repetition frequency, was investigated. Large fluctuations in spectral width (about 5 nm) and spectral intensity in the fluorescence from stationary dye solution were observed, while fluctuations in the spectral width diminish in a flowing dye medium. However, this increases spectral intensity and slightly red shifts the fluorescence peak emission wavelength. Theoretical analysis was carried out to explain the observed results by incorporating the temperature induced refractive index, beam deflection and spectral variation in stationary dye solution. Numerical analysis of thermal load and contour of temperature in the optical pumped region inside the dye cell in stationary, 0.2 and 1.5 m/s flow velocity was also investigated to support our analysis. - Highlights: ► High repetition rate excitation generates inhomogeneity in the gain medium. ► Fluorescence of Rhodamine 6G in stationary and flowing medium was carried out. ► Fluorescence fluctuations lessen in flowing medium in contrast to stationary medium. ► Our theoretical and numerical analysis enlightens the experimented outcome trend.

  13. Highly reversible open framework nanoscale electrodes for divalent ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard Y; Wessells, Colin D; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The reversible insertion of monovalent ions such as lithium into electrode materials has enabled the development of rechargeable batteries with high energy density. Reversible insertion of divalent ions such as magnesium would allow the creation of new battery chemistries that are potentially safer and cheaper than lithium-based batteries. Here we report that nanomaterials in the Prussian Blue family of open framework materials, such as nickel hexacyanoferrate, allow for the reversible insertion of aqueous alkaline earth divalent ions, including Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+). We show unprecedented long cycle life and high rate performance for divalent ion insertion. Our results represent a step forward and pave the way for future development in divalent batteries.

  14. Ethoscopes: An open platform for high-throughput ethomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Geissmann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the use of ethoscopes, which are machines for high-throughput analysis of behavior in Drosophila and other animals. Ethoscopes provide a software and hardware solution that is reproducible and easily scalable. They perform, in real-time, tracking and profiling of behavior by using a supervised machine learning algorithm, are able to deliver behaviorally triggered stimuli to flies in a feedback-loop mode, and are highly customizable and open source. Ethoscopes can be built easily by using 3D printing technology and rely on Raspberry Pi microcomputers and Arduino boards to provide affordable and flexible hardware. All software and construction specifications are available at http://lab.gilest.ro/ethoscope.

  15. A multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock method for excited electronic states. I. General formalism and application to open-shell states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R P; Fisher, A J; Stella, L; Horsfield, A P

    2011-06-28

    The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for systems of interacting electrons is generally a prohibitive task, for which approximate methods are necessary. Popular approaches, such as the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) approximation and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), are essentially single-configurational schemes. TDHF is by construction incapable of fully accounting for the excited character of the electronic states involved in many physical processes of interest; TDDFT, although exact in principle, is limited by the currently available exchange-correlation functionals. On the other hand, multiconfigurational methods, such as the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) approach, provide an accurate description of the excited states and can be systematically improved. However, the computational cost becomes prohibitive as the number of degrees of freedom increases, and thus, at present, the MCTDHF method is only practical for few-electron systems. In this work, we propose an alternative approach which effectively establishes a compromise between efficiency and accuracy, by retaining the smallest possible number of configurations that catches the essential features of the electronic wavefunction. Based on a time-dependent variational principle, we derive the MCTDHF working equation for a multiconfigurational expansion with fixed coefficients and specialise to the case of general open-shell states, which are relevant for many physical processes of interest.

  16. OPEN AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than ''hands on'' techniques

  17. Piezoelectric Shunt Vibration Damping of F-15 Panel under High Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Yau; Turner, Travis L.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    At last year's SPIE symposium, we reported results of an experiment on structural vibration damping of an F-15 underbelly panel using piezoelectric shunting with five bonded PZT transducers. The panel vibration was induced with an acoustic speaker at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of about 90 dB. Amplitude reductions of 13.45 and 10.72 dB were achieved for the first and second modes, respectively, using single- and multiple-mode shunting. It is the purpose of this investigation to extend the passive piezoelectric shunt-damping technique to control structural vibration induced at higher acoustic excitation levels, and to examine the controllability and survivability of the bonded PZT transducers at these high levels. The shunting experiment was performed with the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) at the NASA Langley Research Center using the same F-15 underbelly panel. The TAFA is a progressive wave tube facility. The panel was mounted in one wall of the TAFA test section using a specially designed mounting fixture such that the panel was subjected to grazing-incidence acoustic excitation. Five PZT transducers were used with two shunt circuits designed to control the first and second modes of the structure between 200 and 400 Hz. We first determined the values of the shunt inductance and resistance at an OASPL of 130 dB. These values were maintained while we gradually increased the OASPL from 130 to 154 dB in 6-dB steps. During each increment, the frequency response function between accelerometers on the panel and the acoustic excitation measured by microphones, before and after shunting, were recorded. Good response reduction was observed up to the 148dB level. The experiment was stopped at 154 dB due to wire breakage from vibration at a transducer wire joint. The PZT transducers, however, were still bonded well on the panel and survived at this high dB level. We also observed shifting of the frequency peaks toward lower frequency when the OASPL

  18. Open Access Publishing in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, S

    2007-01-01

    The goal of Open Access (OA) is to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. The High- Energy Physics (HEP) community has pioneered OA with its "pre-print culture": the mass mailing, first, and the online posting, later, of preliminary versions of its articles. After almost half a century of widespread dissemination of pre-prints, the time is ripe for the HEP community to explore OA publishing. Among other possible models, a sponsoring consortium appears as the most viable option for a transition of HEP peer-reviewed literature to OA. A Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) is proposed as a central body which would remunerate publishers for the peer-review service, effectively replacing the "reader-pays" model of traditional subscriptions with an "author-side" funding. Funding to SCOAP3 would come from HEP funding agencies and library consortia through a re-direction of subscriptions. This model is discussed in details togethe...

  19. Theories and experiments on the stiffening effect of high-frequency excitation for continuous elastic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2003-01-01

    theories, each providing valuable insight. One of these is capable of predicting the vertical string lift due to stiffening in terms of simple expressions, with results that agree very well with experimental measurements for a wide range of conditions. It appears that resonance effects cannot be ignored...... for demonstrating and measuring the stiffening effect in a simple setting, in the form of a horizontal piano string subjected to longitudinal high-frequency excitation at the clamped base and free at the other end. A simplest possible theoretical model is set up and analyzed using a hierarchy of three approximating......, as was done in a few related studies¿¿unless the system has very low modal density or heavy damping; thus first-order consideration to resonance effects is included. Using the specific example with experimental support to put confidence on the proposed theory, expressions for predicting the stiffening effect...

  20. The origin of small and large molecule behavior in the vibrational relaxation of highly excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    An explanation is proposed for the qualitatively different types of behavior that have been reported for the vibrational relaxation of highly excited diatomic and polyatomic molecules. It is argued that all of the diatomic molecules that have been studied in bulk relax adiabatically at room temperature. In contrast, large polyatomic molecules have low frequency modes which act at ''doorway'' modes for the rest of the molecules, producing an impulsive relaxation mechanism. The theoretical work of Nesbitt and Hynes showed that impulsive collisions result in an exponential decay of the average vibrational energy of a Morse oscillator, whereas adiabatic collisions produce nonexponential power law behavior. We propose that this result explains a large body of data for the vibrational relaxation of small and large molecules

  1. Highly sensitive time resolved singlet oxygen luminescence detection using LEDs as the excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackbarth, S; Schlothauer, J; Preuss, A; Röder, B

    2013-01-01

    For the first time singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics in living cells were detected at high precision using LED light for excitation. As LED technology evolves, the light intensity emitted by standard LEDs allows photosensitized singlet oxygen luminescence detection in solution and cell suspensions. We present measurements superior to those of most actual laser powered setups regarding precision of singlet oxygen kinetics in solutions and cell suspensions. Data presented here show that LED based setups allow the determination of the photosensitizer triplet and singlet oxygen decay times in vitro with an accuracy of 0.1 μs. This enables monitoring of the photosensitizer efficiency and interaction with the cellular components using illumination doses small enough not to cause cell death. (letter)

  2. Decay properties of rare earth nuclei at high excitation and low spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, A.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the decay pattern of highly excited rare earth nuclei for which the decay process is expected to be governed by statistical laws. The aim was to investigate how good the statistical model describes the nuclear system and to search for possible deviation from it. It is shown that the gamma decay spectra following both the ( 3 He,α) pick-up reactions and the inelastic ( 3 He, 3 He') reactions reveal similar type of bumps. This leads to the conclusion that the bump structures are not a result of a particular reaction mechanism, but that they have a more general origin. The study is mainly devoted to an examination of the nature of the bumps. 22 refs

  3. Comparison of excitation mechanisms in the analytical regions of a high-power two-jet plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaksas, Natalia P.

    2015-01-01

    Excitation mechanisms in the analytical regions of a high-power two-jet plasma were investigated. A new plasmatron recently developed was applied in this work. The Boltzmann population of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions was observed in both analytical regions, before and after the jet confluence, as well as in the jet confluence, which proves excitation of atoms and ions by electron impact. The disturbance of local thermodynamic equilibrium in all regions of the plasma flow was deduced on the basis of considerable difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures. Such a difference is most likely to be caused by contribution of metastable argon to atom ionization. The region before the jet confluence has the greatest difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures and is more non-equilibrium than the region after the confluence due to comparatively low electron and high metastable argon concentrations. Low electron concentration in this region provides lower background emission than in the region after the jet confluence, which leads to better detection limits for the majority of elements. - Highlights: • Excitation mechanisms were investigated in the analytical regions of a high-power TJP. • Boltzmann population of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions takes place in all regions of the plasma flow. • The considerable difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures occurs. • Penning ionization by metastable argon results in disturbance of LTE in the plasma. • The region before the jet confluence is more non-equilibrium than after that

  4. Neutron and gamma emission from highly excited states and states with high spin. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperber, D.

    1975-08-01

    During the last year attention was focused on the theoretical study of heavy ion induced reactions at low and intermediate energy with particular attention on very heavy projectiles. Most of the studies described have been finished, others are under current investigation. In most of the calculations, a classical dynamical approach was adopted, others concern themselves with assessing the validity of this classical approximation. In all calculations, one addressed oneself to the evaluation of quantities which are measured experimentally. Examples of such quantities are the critical angular momentum for complete fusion, the angular distribution for deep inelastic processes, and mass and energy transfer. The following topics have been investigated during the recent phase of this program: (1) The development of a classical dynamical model for the study of heavy ion reactions. (2) The calculation of the critical angular momentum using the proximity potential. (3) The role of potential and friction in heavy ion reactions. (4) Angular distribution for Kr induced reactions. (5) The validity of the sharp cut-off approximation. (6) The difference between Argon and Krypton induced reactions leading to the same compound nucleus. (7) Statistical studies of mass transfer. (8) The inclusion of the necking degree of freedom. (9) Semiclassical calculation. The results of the studies of the first seven topics are already available in the open literature. The last two topics are under current investigation

  5. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research of multicharged nitrogen, oxygen and carbon monoxide molecular ions produced with collision with multicharged argon ions. Properties like ionization, dissociation, and excitation are investigated

  6. Theoretical analysis of open aperture reflection Z-scan on materials with high-order optical nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petris, Adrian I.; Vlad, Valentin I.

    2010-03-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of open aperture reflection Z-scan in nonlinear media with third-, fifth-, and higher-order nonlinearities. A general analytical expression for the normalized reflectance when third-, fifth- and higher-order optical nonlinearities are excited is derived and its consequences on RZ-scan in media with high-order nonlinearities are discussed. We show that by performing RZ-scan experiments at different incident intensities it is possible to put in evidence the excitation of different order nonlinearities in the medium. Their contributions to the overall nonlinear response can be discriminated by using formulas derived by us. A RZ-scan numerical simulation using these formulas and data taken from literature, measured by another method for the third-, fifth-, and seventh-order nonlinear refractive indices of As 2 S 3 chalcogenide glass, is performed. (author)

  7. Application of an antenna excited high pressure microwave discharge to compact discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kando, M; Fukaya, T; Ohishi, Y; Mizojiri, T; Morimoto, Y; Shido, M; Serita, T

    2008-01-01

    A novel type of high pressure microwave discharge has been investigated to feed the microwave power at the centre of the compact high pressure discharge lamps using the antenna effect. This method of microwave discharge is named as the antenna excited microwave discharge (AEMD). The 2.45 GHz microwave of around 50 W from the solid state microwave generator can sustain a stable plasma column in the small gap between a couple of antennas fitted on the compact lamp filled with discharge gases at a pressure higher than atmosphere. The AEMD has been applied to a compact metal halide lamp and an extremely high pressure mercury discharge lamp. As a result, the metal halide lamp showed high luminous efficacy of around 130 lm W -1 . The excellent lamp properties obtained here can be explained by the low heating loss at the antennas and the lamp wall. The profiles of the microwave electric field in the lamp and the microwave launcher have been numerically calculated to consider the microwave power supply into the lamp

  8. HIGHLY EXCITED H2 IN HERBIG–HARO 7: FORMATION PUMPING IN SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, R. E.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained K -band spectra at R ∼ 5000 and an angular resolution of 0.″3 of a section of the Herbig–Haro 7 (HH7) bow shock, using the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph at Gemini North. Present in the portion of the data cube corresponding to the brightest part of the bow shock are emission lines of H 2 with upper state energies ranging from ∼6000 K to the dissociation energy of H 2 , ∼50,000 K. Because of low signal-to-noise ratios, the highest excitation lines cannot be easily seen elsewhere in the observed region. However, excitation temperatures, measured throughout much of the observed region using lines from levels as high as 25,000 K, are a strong function of upper level energy, indicating that the very highest levels are populated throughout. The level populations in the brightest region are well fit by a two-temperature model, with 98.5% of the emitting gas at T = 1800 K and 1.5% at T = 5200 K. The bulk of the H 2 line emission in HH7, from the 1800 K gas, has previously been well-modeled by a continuous shock, but the 5200 K cozmponent is inconsistent with standalone standard continuous shock models. We discuss various possible origins for the hot component and suggest that this component is H 2 newly reformed on dust grains and then ejected from them, presumably following dissociation of some of the H 2 by the shock.

  9. Investigations of the isospin in the highly excited compound nuclei 52Cr and 58Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, K.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of T states excited by p bombardment on the quantities in the correlation function is investigated by means of a fluctuation analysis of the excitation function in the p and α decay channels of the compound nuclei 52 Cr and 58 Co. (AH) [de

  10. Excitation of short wavelength Alfven oscillations by high energy ions in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, C.O. Jr.; Lominadze, J.G.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1975-08-01

    The excitation of Alfven waves by fast untrapped ions in axisymmetric tokamaks is described by the dispersion relation epsilon 11 - c 2 k/sub parallel bars/ 2 /ω 2 = 0. Using this relation a new class of instability connected with the excitation of Alfven oscillations is described. (U.S.)

  11. Generation and decay dynamics of triplet excitons in Alq3 thin films under high-density excitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sadayuki; Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2006-08-31

    We studied the generation and decay dynamics of triplet excitons in tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) thin films by using transient absorption spectroscopy. Absorption spectra of both singlet and triplet excitons in the film were identified by comparison with transient absorption spectra of the ligand molecule (8-hydroxyquinoline) itself and the excited triplet state in solution previously reported. By measuring the excitation light intensity dependence of the absorption, we found that exciton annihilation dominated under high-density excitation conditions. Annihilation rate constants were estimated to be gammaSS = (6 +/- 3) x 10(-11) cm3 s(-1) for single excitons and gammaTT = (4 +/- 2) x 10(-13) cm3 s(-1) for triplet excitons. From detailed analysis of the light intensity dependence of the quantum yield of triplet excitons under high-density conditions, triplet excitons were mainly generated through fission from highly excited singlet states populated by singlet-singlet exciton annihilation. We estimated that 30% of the highly excited states underwent fission.

  12. Electronic excitation effects on secondary ion emission in highly charged ion-solid interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekioka, T.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Lehnert, U.; Fehrenbach, C.

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the secondary ion emission from the surface of conductive materials bombarded by highly charged heavy ions, we have done two types of experiments. First, we have measured the yield of the sputtered ions from the surface of solid targets of conductive materials (Al, Si, Ni, Cu) bombarded by Xe q+ (q=15-44) at 300 keV (v p =0.30 a.u) and at 1.0 MeV (v p =0.54 a.u). In view of the secondary ion yields as a function of the potential energy of the projectile, the increase rates below q=35, where the potential energy amounts to 25.5 keV, were rather moderate and showed a prominent increase above q=35. These phenomena were rather strong in the case of the metal targets. Second, we have measured the energy dependence of the yield of the sputtered ions from the surface of solid targets of conductive materials (C, Al) bombarded by Xe q+ (q=30,36,44) between 76 keV (v p =0.15 a.u) and 6.0 MeV (v p =1.3 a.u). A broad enhancement of the secondary ion yield has been found for Al target bombarded by Xe 44+ . From these experimental results, the electronic excitation effects in conductive materials for impact of slow highly charged heavy ions bearing high potential energy is discussed

  13. Routes to formation of highly excited neutral atoms in the break-up of strongly driven hydrogen molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouilidou, Agapi

    2012-06-01

    We present a theoretical quasiclassical treatment of the formation, during Coulomb explosion, of highly excited neutral H atoms for strongly-driven hydrogen molecule. This process, where after the laser field is turned off, one electron escapes to the continuum while the other occupies a Rydberg state, was recently reported in an experimental study in Phys. Rev. Lett 102, 113002 (2009). We find that two-electron effects are important in order to correctly account for all pathways leading to highly excited neutral hydrogen formation [1]. We identify two pathways where the electron that escapes to the continuum does so either very quickly or after remaining bound for a few periods of the laser field. These two pathways of highly excited neutral H formation have distinct traces in the probability distribution of the escaping electron momentum components. [4pt] [1] A. Emmanouilidou, C. Lazarou, A. Staudte and U. Eichmann, Phys. Rev. A (Rapid) 85 011402 (2012).

  14. Research of the Electron Cyclotron Emission with Vortex Property excited by high power high frequency Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuki; Kubo, Shin; Tsujimura, Tohru; Takubo, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the radiation from a single electron in cyclotron motion has vortex property. Although the cyclotron emission exists universally in nature, the vortex property has not been featured because this property is normally cancelled out due to the randomness in gyro-phase of electrons and the development of detection of the vortex property has not been well motivated. In this research, we are developing a method to generate the vortex radiation from electrons in cyclotron motion with controlled gyro-phase. Electron that rotates around the uniform static magnetic field is accelerated by right-hand circular polarized (RHCP) radiation resonantly when the cyclotron frequency coincides with the applied RHCP radiation frequency. A large number of electrons can be coherently accelerated in gyro-phase by a RHCP high power radiation so that these electrons can radiate coherent emission with vortex feature. We will show that vortex radiation created by purely rotating electrons for the first time.

  15. In which metals are high electronic excitations able to create damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, P.; Dunlop, A.; Lesueur, D.; Lorenzelli, N.; Morillo, J.; Bouffard, S.

    1992-01-01

    Since a few years a certain number of results have shown that high energy deposition through electronic excitation can lead to damage creation in metallic targets. In order to test which is the right parameter favouring damage creation (high d-electrons density favouring electron-phonon coupling, various electrical conductivities, existence of different displacive phase transformations . . .) chosen metallic targets (Zr, Co, Ti, Ag, Pd, Pt, W, Ni) were irradiated on the french accelerator GANIL in Caen, at cryogenic temperatures with GeV-ions (Pb, O). In situ electrical resistance variation measurements at low temperature were achieved, followed by isochronal annealing of defects and post-X-ray observations at room temperature. This study shows that a very strong enhancement of the damage production occurs only in Zr, Ti and Co which present different allotropic phases and in particular a displacive transformation associated with soft modes in the phonon spectrum. The structure of stage I recovery of all the samples depends on the electronic stopping power

  16. Optical emission from a high-refractive-index waveguide excited by a traveling electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwamura, Yuji; Yamada, Minoru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Kanai, Takeshi; Fares, Hesham

    2008-01-01

    An optical emission scheme was demonstrated, in which a high-refractive-index waveguide is excited by a traveling electron beam in a vacuum environment. The waveguide was made of Si-SiO 2 layers. The velocity of light propagating in the waveguide was slowed down to 1/3 of that in free space due to the high refractive index of Si. The light penetrated partly into the vacuum in the form of a surface wave. The electron beam was emitted from an electron gun and propagated along the surface of the waveguide. When the velocity of the electron coincided with that of the light, optical emission was observed. This emission is a type of Cherenkov radiation and is not conventional cathode luminescence from the waveguide materials because Si and SiO 2 are transparent to light at the emitted wavelength. This type of emission was observed in an optical wavelength range from 1.2 to 1.6 μm with an electron acceleration voltage of 32-42 kV. The characteristics of the emitted light, such as the polarization direction and the relation between the acceleration voltage of the electron beam and the optical wavelength, coincided well with the theoretical results. The coherent length of an electron wave in the vacuum was confirmed to be equal to the electron spacing, as found by measuring the spectral profile of the emitted light

  17. High-sensitivity detection of cardiac troponin I with UV LED excitation for use in point-of-care immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by factor of 5 for standard troponin I and by factor of 3 for a research high-sensitivity troponin I assay, compared...... to the flash lamp excitation. The obtained limit of detection was 0.22 ng/L measured on plasma with the research highsensitivity troponin I assay and 1.9 ng/L measured on tris-saline-azide buffer containing bovine serum albumin with the standard troponin I assay. We discuss the optimization of time...

  18. Neutron and gamma emission from highly excited states and states with high spin. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperber, D.

    1976-08-01

    Both classical and quantum models for the collision between heavy ions were studied. Classical models were used to account for the possibility of strong damping. Two models which account for side peaking and considerable energy loss were proposed. According to the first, the ions clutch at the distance of closest approach and the radial energy is dissipated fast in the entrance channel. This is followed by a slow motion in the exit channel up to the snapping point. According to the second model, there is an asymmetry in the conservative potential between the entrance and exit channels. The exit channel potential includes deformations. A dynamical model including transfer was developed. The trajectories are determined dynamically whereas the transfer is considered as a random process. Semi-classical calculations (first order quantum calculation) were performed to test the validity of the classical model or the sharp cut-off approximation. The main conclusion is that for energies high above the Coulomb barrier, the classical approximation is adequate but close to the barrier, it is insufficient, and quantum effects are important. It was shown that a quantum mechanical model using time dependent perturbation accounts very well for the angular distribution in strongly damped collisions. A list of publications is included

  19. High-spin isomers in 212Rn in the region of triple neutron core-excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Davidson, P. M.; Kibédi, T.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Wilson, A. N.

    2008-04-01

    The level scheme of 212Rn has been extended to spins of ∼ 38 ℏ and excitation energies of about 13 MeV using the 204Hg(13C, 5n)212Rn reaction and γ-ray spectroscopy. Time correlated techniques have been used to obtain sensitivity to weak transitions and channel selectivity. The excitation energy of the 22+ core-excited isomer has been established at 6174 keV. Two isomers with τ = 25 (2) ns and τ = 12 (2) ns are identified at 12211 and 12548 keV, respectively. These are the highest-spin nuclear isomers now known, and are attributed to configurations involving triple neutron core-excitations coupled to the aligned valence protons. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations can account for most states observed, but with significant energy discrepancies for some configurations.

  20. High-spin isomers in 212Rn in the region of triple neutron core-excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Byrne, A.P.; Davidson, P.M.; Kibedi, T.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Wilson, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    The level scheme of 212 Rn has been extended to spins of ∼38h and excitation energies of about 13 MeV using the 204 Hg( 13 C, 5n) 212 Rn reaction and γ-ray spectroscopy. Time correlated techniques have been used to obtain sensitivity to weak transitions and channel selectivity. The excitation energy of the 22 + core-excited isomer has been established at 6174 keV. Two isomers with τ=25(2) ns and τ=12(2) ns are identified at 12211 and 12548 keV, respectively. These are the highest-spin nuclear isomers now known, and are attributed to configurations involving triple neutron core-excitations coupled to the aligned valence protons. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations can account for most states observed, but with significant energy discrepancies for some configurations

  1. Production of a Beam of Highly Vibrationally Excited CO Using Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, N.; Schäfer, T.; Hühnert, J.; Wodtke, A. M.; Field, R. W.

    2012-06-01

    For many experimentalists (especially those, who are not spectroscopists), molecular pertubations are a curse, as they make assignments and analysis of spectral data more difficult. Nevertheless, they can also be a boon! In this talk we will show how a molecular beam of CO in high vibrational states (v=17,18) can be prepared by an optical pumping scheme that we call PUMP-PUMP-PERTURB and DUMP (P^3D). P^3D exploits the loaning, via spin-orbit perturbations, of the large oscillator strength of the 4th positive system, A ^1 π ← X ^1 Σ ^+, to the triplet manifold. This allows some nominally spin-forbidden transitions to be exploited in multistep optical pumping schemes. The ability to {state-selectively} prepare CO in high vibrational states opens up new opportunities for molecular beam scattering experiments.

  2. Radio-frequency wave excitation and damping on a high β plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuth, H.

    1984-01-01

    Azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) radio-frequency (RF) waves for zero and for finite axial wave number k/sub z/ are investigated on the High BETA Q Machine, a two-meter, 20 cm-diameter, low-compression linear theta pinch (T greater than or equal to 200 eV, n approx. = 10 15 cm -3 ) fast rising (0.4 μs) compression field. The (k/sub z/ = 0) modes occur spontaneously following the implosion phase of the discharge. A novel 100-MW 1 to 1.3 MHz, short wavelength current drive excites the plasma column in the vicinity of the lowest fast magnetoacoustic mode at various filling pressures. This current drive is designed as an integral part of the compression coil, which is segmented with a 20-cm axial wavelength (k/sub z/ = 0.314 cm -1 ). The electron density oscillations along major and minor chords at various positions are measured by interferometry perpendicular to the pinch axis. The oscillatory radial magnetic field component between pinch wall and hot plasma edge is measured by probes. Phases, amplitudes and radial mode structure are studied for the free (k = 0) modes and the externally driven (k does not equal 0) modes for various filling pressures of deuterium. The energy deposition from the externally driven RF wave leads to a radial expansion of the plasma column, as observed by axial interferometry and by excluded flux measurements

  3. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the double ionization of He by high-energy N 7+ ions was extended up in energy to 40 MeV/amu. Coincidence time-of-flight studies of multicharged N 2 , O 2 , and CO molecular ions produced in collisions with 97-MeV Ar 14+ ions were completed. Analysis of the total kinetic energy distributions and comparison with the available data for CO 2+ and CO 3+ from synchrotron radiation experiments led to the conclusion that ionization by Ar-ion impact populates states having considerably higher excitation energies than those accessed by photoionization. The dissociation fractions for CO 1+ and CO 2+ molecular ions, and the branching ratios for the most prominent charge division channels of CO 2+ through CO 7+ were determined from time-of-flight singles and coincidence data. An experiment designed to investigate the orientation dependence of dissociative multielectron ionization of molecules by heavy ion impact was completed. Measurements of the cross sections for K-shell ionization of intermediate-Z elements by 30-MeV/amu H, N, Ne, and Ar ions were completed. The cross sections were determined for solid targets of Z = 13, 22, 26, 29, 32, 40, 42, 46, and 50 by recording the spectra of K x rays with a Si(Li) spectrometer

  4. Statistical properties of highly excited quantum eigenstates of a strongly chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, R.; Steiner, F.

    1992-06-01

    Statistical properties of highly excited quantal eigenstates are studied for the free motion (geodesic flow) on a compact surface of constant negative curvature (hyperbolic octagon) which represents a strongly chaotic system (K-system). The eigenstates are expanded in a circular-wave basis, and it turns out that the expansion coefficients behave as Gaussian pseudo-random numbers. It is shown that this property leads to a Gaussian amplitude distribution P(ψ) in the semiclassical limit, i.e. the wavefunctions behave as Gaussian random functions. This behaviour, which should hold for chaotic systems in general, is nicely confirmed for eigenstates lying 10000 states above the ground state thus probing the semiclassical limit. In addition, the autocorrelation function and the path-correlation function are calculated and compared with a crude semiclassical Bessel-function approximation. Agreement with the semiclassical prediction is only found, if a local averaging is performed over roughly 1000 de Broglie wavelengths. On smaller scales, the eigenstates show much more structure than predicted by the first semiclassical approximation. (orig.)

  5. Improved heating efficiency with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound using a new ultrasound source excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is quickly becoming one of the best methods to thermally ablate tissue noninvasively. Unlike RF or Laser ablation, the tissue can be destroyed without inserting any probes into the body minimizing the risk of secondary complications such as infections. In this study, the heating efficiency of HIFU sources is improved by altering the excitation of the ultrasound source to take advantage of nonlinear propagation. For ultrasound, the phase velocity of the ultrasound wave depends on the amplitude of the wave resulting in the generation of higher harmonics. These higher harmonics are more efficiently converted into heat in the body due to the frequency dependence of the ultrasound absorption in tissue. In our study, the generation of the higher harmonics by nonlinear propagation is enhanced by transmitting an ultrasound wave with both the fundamental and a higher harmonic component included. Computer simulations demonstrated up to a 300% increase in temperature increase compared to transmitting at only the fundamental for the same acoustic power transmitted by the source.

  6. High sensitivity detection of selenium by laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry using electrothermal atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitmann, U.; Hese, A.; Schoknecht, G.; Gries, W.

    1995-01-01

    The high sensitivity detection of the trace element selenium is reported. The analytical method applied is Laser Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry using Electrothermal Atomization within a graphite furnace atomizer. For the production of tunable laser radiation in the VUV spectral region a laser system was developed which consists of two dye lasers pumped by a Nd:YAG laser. The laser radiations are subsequently frequency doubled and sum frequency mixed by nonlinear optical KDP or BBO crystals, respectively. The system works with a repetition rate of 20 Hz and provides output energies of up to 100 μJ in the VUV at a pulse duration of 5 ns. The analytical investigations were focused on the detection of selenium in aqueous solutions and samples of human whole blood. From measurements on aqueous standards detection limits of 1.5 ng/l for selenium were obtained, with corresponding absolute detected masses of only 15 fg. The linear dynamic range spanned six orders of magnitude and good precision was achieved. In case of human whole blood samples the recovery was found to be within the range of 96% to 104%. The determination of the selenium content yielded medians of [119.5 ± 17.3] μg/l for 200 frozen blood samples taken in 1988 and [109.1 ± 15.6] μg/l for 103 fresh blood samples. (author)

  7. High-sensitivity measurements of the excitation function for Bhabha scattering at MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsertos, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Armbruster, P.; Kienle, P.; Krusche, B.; Schreckenbach, K.

    1989-02-01

    Using a monochromatic e + beam scattered on a Be foil and a high-resolution detector device, the excitation function for elastic e + e - scattering was measured with a statistical accuracy of 0.25% in 1.4 keV steps in the c.m.-energy range between 770 keV and 840 keV (1.79 - 1.86 MeV/c 2 ) at c.m. scattering angles between 80 0 and 100 0 (FWHM). Within the experimental sensitivity of 0.5 b.eV/sr (c.m.) for the energy-integrated differential cross section no resonances were observed (97% CL). From this limit we infer that a hypothetical spinless resonant state should have a width of less than 1.9 meV corresponding to a lifetime limit of 3.5x10 -13 s. This limit establishes the most stringent bound for new particles in this mass range derived from Bhabha scattering and is independent of assumptions about the internal structure of the hypothetical particles. Less sensitivite limits were, in addition, derived around 520 keV c.m. energy (≅ 1.54 MeV/c 2 ) from an investigation with a thorium and a mylar foil as scatterers. (orig.)

  8. Portable vibration exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.

  9. Development of a model for the description of highly excited states in odd-A deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, L.A.; Soloviev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    An approximate method is suggested for solution of the set of equations, obtained earlier for describing the structure of intermediate-and high-excitation states within the framework of the model taking into account quasiparticle-phonon interaction. The analysis is conducted for the case of an odd deformed nucleus, when several one-quasiparticle components are simultaneously taken into account

  10. ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN LASER-EXCITED ATOMS AND HIGHLY-CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recent collision experiments are reviewed in which one-electron transfer between laser excited target atoms and (highly charged) keV-ions has been studied. Especially results showing a dependence of the charge exchange on the initial target orbital alignment are discussed. The question to what

  11. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  12. Open ISEmeter: An open hardware high-impedance interface for potentiometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, C.; Carbajo, J.; Mozo, J. D., E-mail: jdaniel.mozo@diq.uhu.es [Applied Electrochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Av. 3 de Marzo s/n., 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mesa, M. S.; Durán, E. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Computers and Automatic, ETSI, University of Huelva, Campus de La Rabida, 21810 Huelva (Spain); Alvarez, J. L. [Department of Information Technologies, ETSI, University of Huelva, Campus de La Rabida, 21810 Huelva (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, a new open hardware interface based on Arduino to read electromotive force (emf) from potentiometric detectors is presented. The interface has been fully designed with the open code philosophy and all documentation will be accessible on web. The paper describes a comprehensive project including the electronic design, the firmware loaded on Arduino, and the Java-coded graphical user interface to load data in a computer (PC or Mac) for processing. The prototype was tested by measuring the calibration curve of a detector. As detection element, an active poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane was used, doped with cetyltrimethylammonium dodecylsulphate (CTA{sup +}-DS{sup −}). The experimental measures of emf indicate Nernstian behaviour with the CTA{sup +} content of test solutions, as it was described in the literature, proving the validity of the developed prototype. A comparative analysis of performance was made by using the same chemical detector but changing the measurement instrumentation.

  13. Open ISEmeter: An open hardware high-impedance interface for potentiometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, C.; Carbajo, J.; Mozo, J. D.; Mesa, M. S.; Durán, E.; Alvarez, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new open hardware interface based on Arduino to read electromotive force (emf) from potentiometric detectors is presented. The interface has been fully designed with the open code philosophy and all documentation will be accessible on web. The paper describes a comprehensive project including the electronic design, the firmware loaded on Arduino, and the Java-coded graphical user interface to load data in a computer (PC or Mac) for processing. The prototype was tested by measuring the calibration curve of a detector. As detection element, an active poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane was used, doped with cetyltrimethylammonium dodecylsulphate (CTA"+-DS"−). The experimental measures of emf indicate Nernstian behaviour with the CTA"+ content of test solutions, as it was described in the literature, proving the validity of the developed prototype. A comparative analysis of performance was made by using the same chemical detector but changing the measurement instrumentation.

  14. ATLAS OpenData and OpenKey: using low tech computational tools for students training in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez Pineda, Arturos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    One of the big challenges in High Energy Physics development is the fact that many potential -and very valuable- students and young researchers live in countries where internet access and computational infrastructure are poor compared to institutions already participating. In order to accelerate the process, the ATLAS Open Data project releases useful and meaningful data and tools using standard and easy-to-deploy computational means, such as custom and light Linux Virtual Machines, open source technologies, web and desktop applications. The ATLAS Open Key, a simple USB pen, allows transporting all those resources around the globe. As simple as it sounds, this approach is helping to train students that are now PhD candidates and to integrate HEP educational programs at Master level in universities where did not exist before. The software tools and resources used will be presented, as well as results and stories, ideas and next steps of the ATLAS Open Data project.

  15. Lifetime measurements of odd-parity high-excitation levels of Sn I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Jiaxin; Dai, Zhenwen; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile

    2010-01-01

    Natural radiative lifetimes of 38 odd-parity highly excited levels in neutral tin in the energy range from 43 682.737 to 56 838.68 cm -1 have been measured by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in an atomic beam produced by laser ablation on a solid tin sample. All the levels were excited from the metastable 3 P 1, 2 and 1 D 2 levels in the ground configuration. The second and third harmonics of a dye laser were adopted as the tunable exciting source (207-250 nm). The lifetime results obtained in this paper are in the range from 4.6 to 292 ns and will be useful in extending the set of oscillator strengths available in Sn I.

  16. Lifetime measurements of odd-parity high-excitation levels of Sn I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Jiaxin; Dai, Zhenwen [College of Physics, Jilin University and Key Lab of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, Changchun 130021 (China); Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile, E-mail: dai@jlu.edu.c [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons-UMONS, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2010-10-28

    Natural radiative lifetimes of 38 odd-parity highly excited levels in neutral tin in the energy range from 43 682.737 to 56 838.68 cm{sup -1} have been measured by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in an atomic beam produced by laser ablation on a solid tin sample. All the levels were excited from the metastable {sup 3}P{sub 1,} {sub 2} and {sup 1}D{sub 2} levels in the ground configuration. The second and third harmonics of a dye laser were adopted as the tunable exciting source (207-250 nm). The lifetime results obtained in this paper are in the range from 4.6 to 292 ns and will be useful in extending the set of oscillator strengths available in Sn I.

  17. High-Yield Excited Triplet States in Pentacene Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold Nanoparticles through Singlet Exciton Fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daiki; Sakai, Hayato; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Hasobe, Taku

    2016-04-18

    One of the major drawbacks of organic-dye-modified self-assembled monolayers on metal nanoparticles when employed for efficient use of light energy is the fact that singlet excited states on dye molecules can be easily deactivated by means of energy transfer to the metal surface. In this study, a series of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene-alkanethiolate monolayer protected gold nanoparticles with different particle sizes and alkane chain lengths were successfully synthesized and were employed for the efficient generation of excited triplet states of the pentacene derivatives by singlet fission. Time-resolved transient absorption measurements revealed the formation of excited triplet states in high yield (172±26 %) by suppressing energy transfer to the gold surface. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Excitable dynamics in high-Lewis number premixed gas combustion at normal and microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Howard

    1995-01-01

    Freely-propagating, premixed gas flames in high-Lewis (Le) number, quiescent mixtures are studied experimentally in tubes of various diameter at normal (lg) and microgravity (mu g). A premixture of lean butane and oxygen diluted with helium, argon, neon, nitrogen or a mixture of multiple diluents is examined such that the thermal diffusivity of the mixture (and to a lesser extent, the mass diffusivity of the rate-limiting component) is systematically varied. In effect, different diluents allow variation of the Le without changing the chemistry. The flames are recorded with high speed cinematography and their stability is visually assessed. Different modes of propagation were observed depending on the diameter of the tubes (different conductive heat loss), the composition of the mixture and the g-level. At 1g, four modes of propagation were observed in small and intermediate diameter tubes (large conductive heat loss): (1) steadily propagating flames, (2) radial and longitudinal pulsating flames, (3) 'wavering' flames, and (4) rotating spiral flames. As the diameter of the tube increases, the radial modes become more pronounced while the longitudinal modes systematically disappear. Also, multiple, simultaneous, spatially-separated 'pacemaker' sites are observed in intermediate and large diameter tubes. Each site starts as a small region of high luminosity and develops into a flamelet which assumes the form of one of the fore mentioned modes. These flamelets eventually interact, annihilate each other in their regions of intersection and merge at their newly created free-ends. For very large tubes, radially-propagating wave-trains (believed to be 'trigger waves') are observed. These are analogous to the radial pulsations observed in the smaller diameter tubes. At mu g, three modes of propagation have been observed: (1) steadily propagating flames, (2) radial and longitudinal pulsating flames, and (3) multi-armed, rotating flames. Since the pulsating mode exists at mu

  19. The Cascaded Arc: High Flows of Rovibrationally Excited H2 and its Impact on H- Ion Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, O.; Harskamp, W. E. N. van; Schram, D. C.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Engeln, R.

    2009-01-01

    The cascaded arc is a plasma source providing high fluxes of excited and reactive species such as ions, radicals and rovibrationally excited molecules. The plasma is produced under pressures of some kPa in a direct current arc with electrical powers up to 10 kW. The plasma leaves the arc channel through a nozzle and expands with supersonic velocity into a vacuum-chamber kept by pumps at low pressures. We investigated the case of a pure hydrogen plasma jet with and without an applied axial magnetic field that confines ions and electrons in the jet. Highly excited molecules and atoms were detected by means of laser-induced fluorescence and optical emission spectroscopy. In case of an applied magnetic field the atomic state distribution of hydrogen atoms shows an overpopulation between the electronic states p = 5, 4 and 3. The influence of the highly excited hydrogen molecules on H - ion formation and a possible mechanism involving this negative ion and producing atomic hydrogen in state p = 3 will be discussed.

  20. Similarity transformed equation of motion coupled-cluster theory based on an unrestricted Hartree-Fock reference for applications to high-spin open-shell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lee M J; Krupička, Martin; Neese, Frank; Izsák, Róbert

    2017-11-07

    The similarity transformed equation of motion coupled-cluster approach is extended for applications to high-spin open-shell systems, within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) formalism. An automatic active space selection scheme has also been implemented such that calculations can be performed in a black-box fashion. It is observed that both the canonical and automatic active space selecting similarity transformed equation of motion (STEOM) approaches perform about as well as the more expensive equation of motion coupled-cluster singles doubles (EOM-CCSD) method for the calculation of the excitation energies of doublet radicals. The automatic active space selecting UHF STEOM approach can therefore be employed as a viable, lower scaling alternative to UHF EOM-CCSD for the calculation of excited states in high-spin open-shell systems.

  1. Similarity transformed equation of motion coupled-cluster theory based on an unrestricted Hartree-Fock reference for applications to high-spin open-shell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lee M. J.; Krupička, Martin; Neese, Frank; Izsák, Róbert

    2017-11-01

    The similarity transformed equation of motion coupled-cluster approach is extended for applications to high-spin open-shell systems, within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) formalism. An automatic active space selection scheme has also been implemented such that calculations can be performed in a black-box fashion. It is observed that both the canonical and automatic active space selecting similarity transformed equation of motion (STEOM) approaches perform about as well as the more expensive equation of motion coupled-cluster singles doubles (EOM-CCSD) method for the calculation of the excitation energies of doublet radicals. The automatic active space selecting UHF STEOM approach can therefore be employed as a viable, lower scaling alternative to UHF EOM-CCSD for the calculation of excited states in high-spin open-shell systems.

  2. Raman active high energy excitations in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhot, Jonathan [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR 7162 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, Bât. Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML - EMFL), Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR 7162 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, Bât. Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Piekarz, Przemysław [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakòw (Poland); Lapertot, Gérard [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Aoki, Dai [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Méasson, Marie-Aude, E-mail: marie-aude.measson@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR 7162 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, Bât. Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2017-02-01

    We have performed Raman scattering measurements on URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} single crystals on a large energy range up to ∼1300 cm{sup −1} and in all the Raman active symmetries as a function of temperature down to 15 K. A large excitation, active only in the E{sub g} symmetry, is reported. It has been assigned to a crystal electric field excitation on the Uranium site. We discuss how this constrains the crystal electric field scheme of the Uranium ions. Furthermore, three excitations in the A{sub 1g} symmetry are observed. They have been associated to double Raman phonon processes consistently with ab initio calculations of the phonons dispersion.

  3. Gravitational Waves from F-modes Excited by the Inspiral of Highly Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirenti, Cecilia; Gold, Roman; Miller, M. Coleman

    2017-01-01

    As gravitational wave instrumentation becomes more sensitive, it is interesting to speculate about subtle effects that could be analyzed using upcoming generations of detectors. One such effect that has great potential for revealing the properties of very dense matter is fluid oscillations of neutron stars. These have been found in numerical simulations of the hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers and of highly eccentric neutron star orbits. Here we focus on the latter and sketch out some ideas for the production, gravitational-wave detection, and analysis of neutron star oscillations. These events will be rare (perhaps up to several tens per year could be detected using third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer), but they would have unique diagnostic power for the analysis of cold, catalyzed, dense matter. Furthermore, these systems are unusual in that analysis of the tidally excited f-modes of the stars could yield simultaneous measurements of their masses, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers, using the frequency, damping time, and amplitude of the modes. They would thus present a nearly unique opportunity to test the I-Love-Q relation observationally. The analysis of such events will require significant further work in nuclear physics and general relativistic nonlinear mode coupling, and thus we discuss further directions that will need to be pursued. For example, we note that for nearly grazing encounters, numerical simulations show that the energy delivered to the f-modes may be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory.

  4. Gravitational Waves from F-modes Excited by the Inspiral of Highly Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirenti, Cecilia [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, UFABC, 09210-170 Santo André-SP (Brazil); Gold, Roman [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Miller, M. Coleman [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    As gravitational wave instrumentation becomes more sensitive, it is interesting to speculate about subtle effects that could be analyzed using upcoming generations of detectors. One such effect that has great potential for revealing the properties of very dense matter is fluid oscillations of neutron stars. These have been found in numerical simulations of the hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers and of highly eccentric neutron star orbits. Here we focus on the latter and sketch out some ideas for the production, gravitational-wave detection, and analysis of neutron star oscillations. These events will be rare (perhaps up to several tens per year could be detected using third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer), but they would have unique diagnostic power for the analysis of cold, catalyzed, dense matter. Furthermore, these systems are unusual in that analysis of the tidally excited f-modes of the stars could yield simultaneous measurements of their masses, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers, using the frequency, damping time, and amplitude of the modes. They would thus present a nearly unique opportunity to test the I-Love-Q relation observationally. The analysis of such events will require significant further work in nuclear physics and general relativistic nonlinear mode coupling, and thus we discuss further directions that will need to be pursued. For example, we note that for nearly grazing encounters, numerical simulations show that the energy delivered to the f-modes may be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory.

  5. Mechanism and models for collisional energy transfer in highly excited large polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    Collisional energy transfer in highly excited molecules (say, 200-500 kJ mol -1 above the zero-point energy of reactant, or of product, for a recombination reaction) is reviewed. An understanding of this energy transfer is important in predicting and interpreting the pressure dependence of gas-phase rate coefficients for unimolecular and recombination reactions. For many years it was thought that this pressure dependence could be calculated from a single energy-transfer quantity, such as the average energy transferred per collision. However, the discovery of 'super collisions' (a small but significant fraction of collisions which transfer abnormally large amounts of energy) means that this simplistic approach needs some revision. The 'ordinary' (non-super) component of the distribution function for collisional energy transfer can be quantified either by empirical models (e.g., an exponential-down functional form) or by models with a physical basis, such as biased random walk (applicable to monatomic or diatomic collision partners) or ergodic (for polyatomic collision partners) treatments. The latter two models enable approximate expressions for the average energy transfer to be estimated from readily available molecular parameters. Rotational energy transfer, important for finding the pressure dependence for recombination reactions, can for these purposes usually be taken as transferring sufficient energy so that the explicit functional form is not required to predict the pressure dependence. The mechanism of 'ordinary' energy transfer seems to be dominated by low-frequency modes of the substrate, whereby there is sufficient time during a vibrational period for significant energy flow between the collision partners. Super collisions may involve sudden energy flow as an outer atom of the substrate is squashed between the substrate and the bath gas, and then is moved away from the interaction by large-amplitude motion such as a ring vibration or a rotation; improved

  6. Mechanism of formation of subnanosecond current front in high-voltage pulse open discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Alexandrov, A. L.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.; Bokhan, P. A.

    2014-11-01

    The mechanism of subnanosecond current front rise observed previously in the experiment in high-voltage pulse open discharge in helium is studied in kinetic particle-in-cell simulations. The Boltzmann equations for electrons, ions, and fast atoms are solved self-consistently with the Poisson equations for the electrical potential. The partial contributions to the secondary electron emission from the ions, fast atoms, photons, and electrons, bombarding the electrode, are calculated. In simulations, as in the experiment, the discharge glows between two symmetrical cathodes and the anode grid in the midplane at P =6 Torr and the applied voltage of 20 kV. The electron avalanche development is considered for two experimental situations during the last stage of breakdown: (i) with constant voltage and (ii) with decreasing voltage. For case (i), the subnanosecond current front rise is set by photons from the collisional excitation transfer reactions. For the case (ii), the energetic electrons swamp the cathode during voltage drop and provide the secondary electron emission for the subnanosecond current rise, observed in the experiment.

  7. Alpha particle emission as a probe of the level density in highly excited A∼200 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabris, D.; Fioretto, E.; Viesti, G.; Cinausero, M.; Gelli, N.; Hagel, K.; Lucarelli, F.; Natowitz, J.B.; Nebbia, G.; Prete, G.; Wada, R.

    1994-01-01

    The alpha particle emission from 90 to 140 MeV 19 F+ 181 Ta fusion-evaporation reactions has been studied. The comparisons of the experimental spectral shapes and multiplicities with statistical model predictions indicate a need to use an excitation energy dependent level-density parameter a=A/K in which K increases with excitation energy. This increase is more rapid than that in lower mass nuclei. The effect of this change in level density on the prescission multiplicities in fission is significant

  8. Neutron emission in fission of highly excited californium nuclei (E* = 76 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Bordyug, V.M.; Kozulin, E.M.; Levitovich, M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Muzychka, Yu.A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Pustyl'nik, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    Differential cross sections for neutron production have been measured in fission of excited californium nuclei produced in the reaction 238 U + 12 C (105 MeV). It follows from analysis of the experimental results that the number of neutrons emitted before fission considerably exceeds the number obtained in the framework of the standard statistical model. On the basis of the multiplicity of neutrons they authors have estimated the time of fission of the excited nucleus. The dependence of the number of neutrons and their average energies on the mass of the fragments is determined

  9. A full-spectrum analysis of high-speed train interior noise under multi-physical-field coupling excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu; Hao, Zhiyong; Wang, Xu; Mao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    High-speed-railway-train interior noise at low, medium, and high frequencies could be simulated by finite element analysis (FEA) or boundary element analysis (BEA), hybrid finite element analysis-statistical energy analysis (FEA-SEA) and statistical energy analysis (SEA), respectively. First, a new method named statistical acoustic energy flow (SAEF) is proposed, which can be applied to the full-spectrum HST interior noise simulation (including low, medium, and high frequencies) with only one model. In an SAEF model, the corresponding multi-physical-field coupling excitations are firstly fully considered and coupled to excite the interior noise. The interior noise attenuated by sound insulation panels of carriage is simulated through modeling the inflow acoustic energy from the exterior excitations into the interior acoustic cavities. Rigid multi-body dynamics, fast multi-pole BEA, and large-eddy simulation with indirect boundary element analysis are first employed to extract the multi-physical-field excitations, which include the wheel-rail interaction forces/secondary suspension forces, the wheel-rail rolling noise, and aerodynamic noise, respectively. All the peak values and their frequency bands of the simulated acoustic excitations are validated with those from the noise source identification test. Besides, the measured equipment noise inside equipment compartment is used as one of the excitation sources which contribute to the interior noise. Second, a full-trimmed FE carriage model is firstly constructed, and the simulated modal shapes and frequencies agree well with the measured ones, which has validated the global FE carriage model as well as the local FE models of the aluminum alloy-trim composite panel. Thus, the sound transmission loss model of any composite panel has indirectly been validated. Finally, the SAEF model of the carriage is constructed based on the accurate FE model and stimulated by the multi-physical-field excitations. The results show

  10. Open principle for large high-resolution solar telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerschlag, R.H.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Jägers, A.P.L.; Sliepen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Vacuum solar telescopes solve the problem of image deterioration inside the telescope due to refractive index fluctuations of the air heated by the solar light. However, such telescopes have a practical diameter limit somewhat over 1 m. The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) was the pioneering demonstrator

  11. High-sensitivity detection of cardiac troponin I with UV LED excitation for use in point-of-care immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Troldborg, Carl Peder; Fodgaard, Henrik; van Os, Sylvana; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay development enables determination of biological variation in healthy populations, more accurate interpretation of clinical results and points towards earlier diagnosis and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we report on preliminary tests of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by fac...

  12. Early diagnosis and research of high myopia with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People with high myopia are high risk populations to have primary open angle glaucoma. Clinically, we found that patients with primary open angle glaucoma and high myopia is closely related. So to understand the clinical features of high myopia with primary open angle glaucoma and the importance of early diagnosis, to avoiding missed diagnosis or lower misdiagnosed rate, can help to improve the vigilance and level of early diagnosis of the clinicians. In this paper, high myopia with clinical features of primary open angle glaucoma, and the research progress on the main points of early diagnosis were reviewed.

  13. Proton emission from high spin states of proton rich excited 94Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2008-01-01

    Recent observation of direct 1P and 2P decay of 21 + isomer in proton rich 94 Ag has led to the present theoretical investigation of proton radioactivity from 94 Ag in ground state and excited state and it's dependence on the structural transitions

  14. Inner shell excitation in atoms and molecules by high resolution electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this work an inner-shell spin-forbidden transition in N 2 and a parity-forbidden transition in Ar were studied. These transitions were observed by using incident electron energies as low as 1.15 times the excitation energy of the inner-shell states. (Auth.)

  15. Single photon excimer laser photodissociation of highly vibrationally excited polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiee, J.J.; Wampler, F.B.; Rice, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    The ir + uv photodissociation of SF 6 has been performed using CO 2 and ArF lasers. The two-color photolysis significantly enhances the photodissociation process over ArF irradiation alone and is found to preserve the initial isotopic specificity of the ir excitation process

  16. Atomic substitution in selected high-temperature superconductors: Elucidating the nature of Raman spectra excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kevin Cecil

    2000-10-01

    In this thesis, the effects of atomic substitution on the vibrational and electronic excitations found in the Raman spectra of selected high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are studied. In particular, atomic and isotopic substitution methods have been used to determine the character of features observed in the Raman spectra of Bi2Sr2Ca n-1CunO2 n+4+delta (n = 1 - Bi2201, n = 2 - Bi2212) and YBa2Cu3O7-delta (Y123). In Bi2201, Pb substitution for Bi (and Sr) has led to the reduction and eventual removal of the structural modulation, characteristic of all members of the Bi-family of HTS. The high quality single crystals and our sensitive triple spectrometer enabled identification of a pair of low frequency modes. The modes are determined to arise from shear and compressional rigid-layer vibrations. The normal state of underdoped cuprates is characterized by a pseudogap of unknown origin. In crystals of underdoped Bi2212 a spectral peak found at 590 cm-1, previously attributed to the pairing of quasiparticles (above Tc) and hence to the formation of a normal state pseudogap, has been found to soften by 3.8% with oxygen isotope exchange. In addition, the feature is absent in fully oxygenated and yttrium underdoped crystals. In this study, the first of its kind on underdoped and isotope substituted Bi2212, the feature has been assigned to stretching vibrations of oxygen in the a-b plane. Bi2212 crystals with varying hole concentrations (0.07 Raman scattering experiments that sample the diagonal (B 2g) and principal axes (B1 g) of the BZ have led us to conclude that the superconducting gap possesses dx2-y2 symmetry, in the underdoped and overdoped regimes. It is found that the magnitude of the superconducting gap (Delta(k)) is sensitive to changes in p. Studies of the pair-breaking peak found in the B1g spectra allow us to conclude that the magnitude of the maximum gap (Deltamax) decreases monotonically with increasing hole doping, for p > 0.13. The pair

  17. MgB_{2} nonlinear properties investigated under localized high rf magnetic field excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin Tai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The high transition temperature and low surface resistance of MgB_{2} attracts interest in its potential application in superconducting radio frequency accelerating cavities. However, compared to traditional Nb cavities, the viability of MgB_{2} at high rf fields is still open to question. Our approach is to study the nonlinear electrodynamics of the material under localized rf magnetic fields. Because of the presence of the small superconducting gap in the π band, the nonlinear response of MgB_{2} at low temperature is potentially complicated compared to a single-gap s-wave superconductor such as Nb. Understanding the mechanisms of nonlinearity coming from the two-band structure of MgB_{2}, as well as extrinsic sources of nonlinearity, is an urgent requirement. A localized and strong rf magnetic field, created by a magnetic write head, is integrated into our nonlinear-Meissner-effect scanning microwave microscope [T. Tai et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 2615 (2011ITASE91051-822310.1109/TASC.2010.2096531]. MgB_{2} films with thickness 50 nm, fabricated by a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique on dielectric substrates, are measured at a fixed location and show a strongly temperature-dependent third harmonic response. We propose that several possible mechanisms are responsible for this nonlinear response.

  18. Implementation of highly parallel and large scale GW calculations within the OpenAtom software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    The need to describe electronic excitations with better accuracy than provided by band structures produced by Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been a long-term enterprise for the computational condensed matter and materials theory communities. In some cases, appropriate theoretical frameworks have existed for some time but have been difficult to apply widely due to computational cost. For example, the GW approximation incorporates a great deal of important non-local and dynamical electronic interaction effects but has been too computationally expensive for routine use in large materials simulations. OpenAtom is an open source massively parallel ab initiodensity functional software package based on plane waves and pseudopotentials (http://charm.cs.uiuc.edu/OpenAtom/) that takes advantage of the Charm + + parallel framework. At present, it is developed via a three-way collaboration, funded by an NSF SI2-SSI grant (ACI-1339804), between Yale (Ismail-Beigi), IBM T. J. Watson (Glenn Martyna) and the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (Laxmikant Kale). We will describe the project and our current approach towards implementing large scale GW calculations with OpenAtom. Potential applications of large scale parallel GW software for problems involving electronic excitations in semiconductor and/or metal oxide systems will be also be pointed out.

  19. Experimental investigation shell model excitations of 89Zr up to high spin and its comparison with 88,90Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, S.; Palit, R.; Sethi, J.

    2012-01-01

    The excited states of nuclei near N=50 closed shell provide suitable laboratory for testing the interactions of shell model states, possible presence of high spin isomers and help in understanding the shape transition as the higher orbitals are occupied. In particular, the structure of N = 49 isotones (and Z =32 to 46) with one hole in N=50 shell gap have been investigated using different reactions. Interestingly, the high spin states in these isotones have contribution from particle excitations across the respective proton and neutron shell gaps and provide suitable testing ground for the prediction of shell model interactions describing theses excitations across the shell gap. In the literature, extensive study of the high spin states of heavier N = 49 isotones starting with 91 Mo up to 95 Pd are available. Limited information existed on the high spin states of lighter isotones. Therefore, the motivation of the present work is to extend the high spin structure of 89 Zr and to characterize the structure of these levels through comparison with the large scale shell model calculations based on two new residual interactions in f 5/2 pg 9/2 model space

  20. Elementary excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmer, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The role of elementary quasi-particle and quasi-hole excitations is reviewed in connection with the analysis of data involving high-lying nuclear states. This article includes discussions on: (i) single quasi-hole excitations in pick-up reactions, (ii) the formation of single quasi-hole and quasi-particle excitations (in different nuclei) during transfer reactions, followed by (iii) quasi-particle quasi-hole excitations in the same nucleus that are produced by photon absorption. Finally, the question of photon absorption in the vicinity of the elementary Δ resonance is discussed, where nucleonic as well as nuclear degrees of freedom can be excited

  1. A highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons excitation achieved with a metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal (MC-MIM waveguide which can achieve a highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs excitation. The MC-MIM waveguide is formed by inserting a thin metal film in the insulator of an MIM. The introduction of the metal film, functioning as an SPPs coupler, provides a space for the interaction between SPPs and a confined electromagnetic field of the intermediate metal surface, which makes energy change and phase transfer in the metal-dielectric interface, due to the joint action of incomplete electrostatic shielding effect and SPPs coupling. Impacts of the metal film with different materials and various thickness on SPPs excitation are investigated. It is shown that the highest efficient SPPs excitation is obtained when the gold film thickness is 60 nm. The effect of refractive index of upper and lower symmetric dielectric layer on SPPs excitation is also discussed. The result shows that the decay value of refractive index is 0.3. Our results indicate that this proposed MC-MIM waveguide may offer great potential in designing a new SPPs source.

  2. A Simultaneous and Continuous Excitation Method for High-Speed Electrical Impedance Tomography with Reduced Transients and Noise Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Dupré

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for soft field tomographic scan of all the projections of electromagnetic waves emanating from an array of electrodes. Instead of the sequential excitation of all pairs of electrodes in the list of all projections, the new method present here consists of a single and continuous excitation. This excitation signal is the linear combination of the excitation signals in the projection set at different AC frequencies. The response to a given projection is discriminated by selecting the corresponding AC frequency component in the signal spectra of the digitally demodulated signals. The main advantage of this method is the suppression of transients after each projection, which is particularly problematic in electrical impedance tomography due to contact impedance phenomena and skin effect. The second benefit over the sequential scan method is the increased number of samples for each measurement for reduced noise sensitivity with digital demodulation. The third benefit is the increased temporal resolution in high-speed applications. The main drawback is the increased number of signal sources required (one per electrode. This paper focuses on electrical impedance tomography, based on earlier work by the authors. An experimental proof-of-concept using a simple 4-electrodes electrical impedance tomographic system is presented using simulations and laboratory data. The method presented here may be extended to other modalities (ultrasonic, microwave, optical, etc..

  3. Luminescence of the SrCl2:Pr crystals under high-energy excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonyak, O.T.; Voloshinovskii, A.S.; Vistovskyy, V.V.; Stryganyuk, G.B.; Kregel, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    The present research was carried out in order to elucidate the mechanisms of energy transfer from the crystal lattice to Pr 3+ ions in SrCl 2 . The luminescence excitation and emission spectra as well as luminescence kinetics of the SrCl 2 :Pr single crystals containing 0.2 mol% Pr were investigated at 300 and 10 K using the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. The X-ray excited luminescence spectra of the SrCl 2 :Pr (C Pr =0.2 and 0.5 mol%) and SrCl 2 :Pr, K (C Pr =1.5 mol%; C K =1.5 mol%) crystals were studied at 294 and 80 K. Under optical excitation of the samples in the Pr 3+ absorption bands, there were observed five fast ultraviolet emissions assigned to the 4f 1 5d→4f 2 transitions, and two long-wave bands corresponding to the f–f transitions. Furthermore, the intrinsic emission bands of SrCl 2 were observed at 10 K. The X-ray excited luminescence spectrum of the SrCl 2 :Pr crystal containing 0.2 mol% Pr, besides intrinsic emission band near 400 nm, has got a long-wave band at about 490 nm of the Pr 3+ centers. There were not observed any emission bands of the Pr 3+ centers corresponding to the 4f 1 5d–4f 2 transitions in the X-ray excited luminescence spectrum of the SrCl 2 :Pr crystal. The possible mechanisms of energy transfer from the SrCl 2 matrix to the Pr 3+ centers are discussed. -- Highlights: • Spectral-luminescent properties of SrCl 2 :Pr have been investigated. • The identification of emission 4f–4f and 5d–4f bands of Pr 3+ ions was performed. • Adding of potassium prevents clustering of the Pr 3+ centers in the SrCl 2 :Pr, K crystals. • Under X-ray excitation at 80–300 K only Pr 3+ 4f–4f and intrinsic emission is observed

  4. The observation of nonlinear ion cyclotron wave excitation during high-harmonic fast wave heating in the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, H.; Seki, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Saito, K.; Mutoh, T.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Yamada, I.; Tokuzawa, T.; Ohdachi, S.; Morita, S.; Nomura, G.; Shimpo, F.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.; Oosako, T.; Takase, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A wave detector, a newly designed magnetic probe, is installed in the large helical device (LHD). This wave detector is a 100-turn loop coil with electrostatic shield. Comparing a one-loop coil to this detector, this detector has roughly constant power coupling in the lower frequency range of 40 MHz, and it can easily detect magnetic wave in the frequency of a few megahertz. During high-harmonic fast wave heating, lower frequency waves (<10 MHz) were observed in the LHD for the first time, and for the power density threshold of lower frequency wave excitation (7.5 MHz) the power density of excited pumped wave (38.47 MHz) was approximately -46 dBm/Hz. These lower frequencies are kept constant for electron density and high energy particle distribution, and these lower frequency waves seem to be ion cyclotron waves caused by nonlinear wave-particle interaction, for example, parametric decay instability.

  5. Resonance Analysis of High-Frequency Electrohydraulic Exciter Controlled by 2D Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonant characteristic of hydraulic system has not been described yet because it is necessarily restricted by linear assumptions in classical fluid theory. A way of the resonance analysis is presented for an electrohydraulic exciter controlled by 2D valve. The block diagram of this excitation system is established by extracting nonlinear parts from the traditional linearization analysis; as a result the resonant frequency is obtained. According to input energy from oil source which is equal to the reverse energy to oil source, load pressure and load flow are solved analytically as the working frequency reaches the natural frequency. The analytical expression of resonant peak is also derived without damping. Finally, the experimental system is built to verify the theoretical analysis. The initial research on resonant characteristic will lay theoretical foundation and make useful complement for resonance phenomena of classical fluid theory in hydraulic system.

  6. High spin spectroscopy near the N=Z line: Channel selection and excitation energy systematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, C.E.; Cameron, J.A.; Flibotte, S. [McMaster Univ., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The total {gamma}-ray and charged-particle energies emitted in fusion-evaporation reactions leading to N=Z compound systems in the A = 50-70 mass region have been measured with the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer and the miniball charged-particle detector array. A new method of channel selection has been developed which combines particle identification with these total energy measurements and greatly improves upon the selectivity possible with particle detection alone. In addition, the event by event measurement of total {gamma}-ray energies using the BGO ball of the 8{pi} spectrometer has allowed a determination of excitation energies following particle evaporation for a large number of channels in several different reactions. The new channel selection procedure and excitation energy systematics are illustrated with data from the reaction of {sup 24}Mg on {sup 40}Ca at E{sub lab} = 80MeV.

  7. Portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer of high sensitivity using X-ray tube excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatai, E.; Ando, L.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the three main methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis and their problems is given. The attainable accuracy and effectiveness of each method are discussed. The main properties of portable X-ray analyzers required by the industry are described. The results and experiences of R and D activities in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) for developing portable X-ray analyzers are presented. The only way for increasing the accuracy and decreasing the measuring time is the application of X-ray tube excitation instead of radioactive sources. The new ATOMKI equipment presently under construction and patenting uses X-ray tube excitation; it will increase the accuracy of concentration determination by one order of magnitude. (D.Gy.)

  8. Wave Packet Simulation of Nonadiabatic Dynamics in Highly Excited 1,3-Dibromopropane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Rasmus Y.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2008-01-01

    ]. In the experiment. DBP is excited to a Rydberg state 8 eV above the ground state. The interpretation of the results is that a torsional motion of the bromomethylene groups with a vibrational period of 680 is is activated upon excitation. The Rydberg state decays to a valence state, causing a dissociation of one...... of the carbon bromine bonds oil a time scale of 2.5 ps. Building the theoretical framework for the wave packet propagation around this model of the reaction dynamics, the Simulations reproduce, to a good extent, the time scales observed in the experiment. Furthermore. the Simulations provide insight into how...... the torsion motion influences the bond breakage, and C we can conclude that the mechanism that delays the dissociation is solely the electronic transition from the Rydberg state to the valence state and does not involve, for example, intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR)....

  9. Intramolecular Dynamics: A Study of Molecules at High Levels of Vibrational Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-27

    aareemlent stith the photoa.couxueC rexults.,I4 % obintied t r iii pfii ioaCOI it tic tveaxu retntsx." Si ne thle xhoxs xthat Iii the I ott fi nence...t 0 200 400 ns 6000 between pump and probe pulse for CH3 CHF2 at 660 Pa. Infrared excitation: 10.6 pim P(20) line, 0.5 ns pulse with average fluence

  10. Ionization steps and phase-space metamorphoses in the pulsed microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayfield, J.E.; Luie, S.Y.; Perotti, L.C.; Skrzypkowski, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    As the peak electric field of the microwave pulse is increased, steps in the classical microwave ionization probability of the highly excited hydrogen atom are produced by phase-space metamorphosis. They arise from new layers of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) islands being exposed as KAM surfaces are destroyed. Both quantum numerical calculations and laboratory experiments exhibit the ionization steps, showing that such metamorphoses influence pulsed semiclassical systems. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. The form of electron-atom excitation amplitudes at high momentum transfers in the Faddeev-Watson approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, G.; Roberts, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A form of the off-shell Coulomb T matrix, which has a well defined on-shell limit, is used in the Faddeev-Watson multiple-scattering expansion for a direct three-body collision process. Using the excitation of atomic hydrogen by electron impact as an example, approximations to the second-order terms, which are valid for high momentum transfers of the incident electron, are derived. It is shown how the resulting asymptotic behaviour of the second-order Faddeev-Watson approximation is related to the high momentum transfer limit of the second Born approximation. The results are generalised to the excitation of more complex atoms. The asymptotic forms of the Faddeev-Watson and Born approximations are compared with other theories and with measurements of differential cross sections and angular correlation parameters for the excitation of H(2p) and He(2 1 P). The results indicate that the Faddeev-Watson approximation converges more rapidly at high momentum transfers than does the Born approximation. (author)

  12. The dynamics of highly excited hydrogen atoms in microwave fields: Application of the Floquet picture of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holthaus, M.

    1990-04-01

    The study of short-time phenomena in strongly interacting quantum systems requires on the theoretical side the development of methods, which are both non-perturbative and 'dynamical', which thus regard the change of outer parameters in the slope of time. For systems with a periodic, fast and a further slow, parametric time dependence both requirements are fulfilled by the Floquet picture of quantum mechanics. This picture, which starts from the adiabatic evolution on effective quasi-energy surfaces, is presented in the first chapter of the present thesis, whereby especially the term of the adiabaticity for periodically time dependent systems is explained. In the second chapter the Floquet theory is applied to the description of microwave experiments with highly excited hydrogen atoms. Here it is shown that the Floquet picture permits to understand a manifold of experimental observations under a unified point of view. Really these microwave experiments offer an ideal possibility for the test of the Floquet picture: On the one hand there is the strength of the outer field of the same order of magnitude as that of the nuclear field, by which the highly excited electron is bound, on the other hand in the experiment an extremely precise control of amplitude, frequency, and pulse shape is possible, so that the conditions for a detailed comparison of theory and experiment are given. The insights, which model calculations yield in the dynamics of highly excited hydrogen atoms in strong alternating fields, allow a prediction of further effects, for which it is to be looked for in new experiments. In the following third chapter some further aspects of these model calculations are discussed, whereby also common properties of the dynamics of excited atoms in microwave fields and that of atoms under the influence of strong laser pulses are discussed. (orig./HSI) [de

  13. Cryogenic exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  14. High Throughput PBTK: Open-Source Data and Tools for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation on High Throughput PBTK at the PBK Modelling in Risk Assessment meeting in Ispra, Italy Presentation on High Throughput PBTK at the PBK Modelling in Risk Assessment meeting in Ispra, Italy

  15. A Strategy for Magnifying Vibration in High-Energy Orbits of a Bistable Oscillator at Low Excitation Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guang-Qing; Liao Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on how to maintain a high-energy orbit motion of a bistable oscillator when subjected to a low level excitation. An elastic magnifier (EM) positioned between the base and the bistable oscillator is used to magnify the base vibration displacement to significantly enhance the output characteristics of the bistable oscillator. The dimensionless electromechanical equations of the bistable oscillator with an EM are derived, and the effects of the mass and stiffness ratios between the EM and the bistable oscillator on the output displacement are studied. It is shown that the jump phenomenon occurs at a lower excitation level with increasing the mass and stiffness ratios. With the comparison of the displacement trajectories and the phase portraits obtained from experiments, it is validated that the bistable oscillator with an EM can effectively oscillate in a high-energy orbit and can generate a superior output vibration at a low excitation level as compared with the bistable oscillator without an EM. (paper)

  16. Highly excited bound-state resonances of short-range inverse power-law potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-11-15

    We study analytically the radial Schroedinger equation with long-range attractive potentials whose asymptotic behaviors are dominated by inverse power-law tails of the form V(r) = -β{sub n}r{sup -n} with n > 2. In particular, assuming that the effective radial potential is characterized by a short-range infinitely repulsive core of radius R, we derive a compact analytical formula for the threshold energy E{sub l}{sup max} = E{sub l}{sup max}(n, β{sub n}, R), which characterizes the most weakly bound-state resonance (the most excited energy level) of the quantum system. (orig.)

  17. Radiative capture studies of the electromagnetic decays of highly excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snover, K. A. [Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    Selected examples of interesting E1, M1 and E2 resonance studies in (p, ..gamma..) and (..cap alpha.., ..gamma..) reactions are discussed. These include a unique determination of E1 amplitudes in the /sup 12/C(p,..gamma..sub(o))/sup 13/N reaction, E2 strength in light nuclei, M1 decays to the ground states and to the excited O/sup +/ states of the doubly magic /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ca nuclei, ''second harmonic'' E1 resonances in (p, ..gamma..), and M1 ..gamma..-decay of stretched particle-hole states in /sup 16/O and /sup 28/Si.

  18. Experimental results of high power dual frequency resonant magnet excitation at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiniger, K.W.; Heritier, G.

    1988-06-01

    We present some results of duel frequency resonant magnet excitation at full power using the old NINA synchrotron dipoles. These tests will simulate a typical resonant cell as proposed for the accelerating rings of the TRIUMF KAON Factory. These test have two main purposes: to verify circuit parameters and component ratings for the dual frequency resonant power supply system; and to measure directly electrical losses in a transverse magnet field, such as eddy current losses in magnet conductors, vacuum tubes and core losses in laminations. These data will be required for the detailed design of the accelerator system components. (Author) (Ref., 9 figs., tab.)

  19. Monte Carlo calculation of collisions of directionally-incident electrons on highly excited hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kazuki; Fujimoto, Takasi

    2001-01-01

    We treat classically the n-, l- and m r -changing transitions and ionization. Excitation cross sections against the final state energy continue smoothly to the 'ionization cross sections'. The steady state populations determined by elastic collisions among the degenerate states in the same n level show higher populations in the m 1 =0 states, suggesting positive polarizations of Lyman lines emitted from plasmas having directional electrons. For ionization, the two outgoing electrons have large relative angles, suggesting reduced three body recombination rates for these plasmas. (author)

  20. On the slow dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects under High excitation frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilssar, Dotan; Bucher, Izhak

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a simplified analytical model describing the governing dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects. The simplification converts the equation of motion coupled with the partial differential equation of a compressible fluid, into a compact, second order ordinary differential equation, where the local stiffness and damping are transparent. The simplified model allows one to more easily analyse and design near-field acoustic levitation based systems, and it also helps to devise closed-loop controller algorithms for such systems. Near-field acoustic levitation employs fast ultrasonic vibrations of a driving surface and exploits the viscosity and the compressibility of a gaseous medium to achieve average, load carrying pressure. It is demonstrated that the slow dynamics dominates the transient behaviour, while the time-scale associated with the fast, ultrasonic excitation has a small presence in the oscillations of the levitated object. Indeed, the present paper formulates the slow dynamics under an ultrasonic excitation without the need to explicitly consider the latter. The simplified model is compared with a numerical scheme based on Reynolds equation and with experiments, both showing reasonably good results.

  1. Statistical fission parameters for nuclei at high excitation and angular momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Komoto, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental fusion/fission excitation functions are analyzed by the statistical model with modified rotating liquid drop model barriers and with single particle level densities modeled for deformation for ground state (a/sub ν/) and saddle point nuclei (a/sub f/). Values are estimated for the errors in rotating liquid drop model barriers for the different systems analyzed. These results are found to correlate well with the trends predicted by the finite range model of Krappe, Nix, and Sierk, although the discrepancies seem to be approximately 1 MeV greater than the finite range model predictions over the limited range tested. The a priori values calculated for a/sub f/ and a/sub ν/ are within +- 2% of optimum free parameter values. Analyses for barrier decrements explore the importance of collective enhancement on level densities and of nuclear deformation in calculating transmission coefficients. A calculation is performed for the 97 Rh nucleus for which a first order angular momentum scaling is used for the J = 0 finite range corrections. An excellent fit is found for the fission excitation function in this approach. Results are compared in which rotating liquid drop model barriers are decremented by a constant energy, or alternatively multiplied by a constant factor. Either parametrization is shown to be capable of satisfactorily reproducing the data although their J = 0 extrapolated values differ markedly from one another. This underscores the dangers inherent in arbitrary barrier extrapolations

  2. Analysis of high-quality modes in open chaotic microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, W.; Yamilov, A.; Cao, H.

    2005-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the high-quality modes in two-dimensional dielectric stadium microcavities. Although the classical ray mechanics is fully chaotic in a stadium billiard, all of the high-quality modes show a 'strong scar' around unstable periodic orbits. When the deformation (ratio of the length of the straight segments over the diameter of the half circles) is small, the high-quality modes correspond to whispering-gallery-type trajectories and their quality factors decrease monotonically with increasing deformation. At large deformation, each high-quality mode is associated with multiple unstable periodic orbits. Its quality factor changes nonmonotonically with the deformation, and there exists an optimal deformation for each mode at which its quality factor reaches a local maximum. This unusual behavior is attributed to the interference of waves propagating along different constituent orbits that could minimize light leakage out of the cavity

  3. Jane Austen in the High School Classroom (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzer, Penelope

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Jane Austen's novels lend themselves to the high school curriculum, and that students will discover a leisurely, rural world in which the concerns of the young people are often similar to theirs. (SR)

  4. Decay out of the yrast and excited highly-deformed bands in the even-even nucleus {sup 134}Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrache, C.M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S. [Sezione di Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The resolving power achieved by the new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays allows now to observe transitions with intensities of the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}3} of the population of the final residual nucleus, making therefore feasible the study of the very weakly populated excited bands built on the superdeformed (SD) minimum or of the decay out of the SD bands. As a matter of fact, numerous excited SD bands have been observed in the different regions of superdeformation, which led to a deeper understanding of the single-particle excitation in the second minimum. The first experimental breakthrough in the study of the decay out process has been achieved in the odd-even {sup 133,135}Nd nuclei of the A=130 mass region. There, the observation of the discrete linking transitions has been favored by the relatively higher intensity of the highly-deformed (HD) bands ({approximately}10%), as well as by the small excitation energy with respect to the yrast line in the decay-out region ({approximately}1 MeV). No discrete linking transitions have been so far observed in the A=80, 150 mass regions. The present results suggest that the decay out of the HD bands in {sup 134}Nd is triggered by the crossing with the N=4 [402]5/2{sup +} Nilsson orbital, that has a smaller deformation than the corresponding N=6 intruder configuration. The crossing favours the mixing with the ND rotational bands strongly enhancing the decay-out process and weakening the in-band transition strength. The HD band becomes fragmented and looses part of its character. The intensity of the decay-out transitions increases when the spin of the HD state decreases, indicating enhanced ND amplitude in the wavefunction when going down the band. Lifetime measurements of the HD bands are crucial to further elucidate the decay-out process.

  5. Coulomb excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, F.K.; Stelson, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    The theory of Coulomb excitation and a brief review of pertinent treatments of the Coulomb excitation process that are useful for the analysis of experiments are given. Examples demonstrating the scope of nuclear structure information obtainable from gamma spectroscopy are presented. Direct Elambda excitation of 232 Th is discussed in terms of the one phonon octupole vibrational spectrum. B(MI) reduced transition probabilities resulting from Coulomb excitation of odd-A deformed nuclei with heavy ions are presented as a test of the rotational model. The use of gamma ray coincidence and particle-gamma coincidence as tools for investigating Coulomb excitation is discussed. (U.S.)

  6. Exposure to a high fat diet during the perinatal period alters vagal motoneurone excitability, even in the absence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Ruchi; Fortna, Samuel R; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as being multifactorial in origin, involving both genetic and environmental factors. The perinatal period is known to be critically important in the development of neural circuits responsible for energy homeostasis and the integration of autonomic reflexes. Diet-induced obesity alters the biophysical, pharmacological and morphological properties of vagal neurocircuits regulating upper gastrointestinal tract functions, including satiety. Less information is available, however, regarding the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) itself on the properties of vagal neurocircuits. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that exposure to a HFD during the perinatal period alters the electrophysiological, pharmacological and morphological properties of vagal efferent motoneurones innervating the stomach. Our data indicate that perinatal HFD decreases the excitability of gastric-projecting dorsal motor nucleus neurones and dysregulates neurotransmitter release from synaptic inputs and that these alterations occur prior to the development of obesity. These findings represent the first direct evidence that exposure to a HFD modulates the processing of central vagal neurocircuits even in the absence of obesity. The perinatal period is critically important to the development of autonomic neural circuits responsible for energy homeostasis. Vagal neurocircuits are vital to the regulation of upper gastrointestinal functions, including satiety. Diet-induced obesity modulates the excitability and responsiveness of both peripheral vagal afferents and central vagal efferents but less information is available regarding the effects of diet per se on vagal neurocircuit functions. The aims of this study were to investigate whether perinatal exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) dysregulated dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones, prior to the development of obesity. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from gastric-projecting DMV neurones in thin

  7. Lifetime measurements of highly excited Rydberg states of strontium. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, S.; Hohmann, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Monz, L.; Stenner, J.; Stratmann, K.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik)

    1993-06-01

    Lifetimes of Rydberg states of triplet-series 5s ns[sup 3]S[sub 1] with n=19-23, 35 and 5s nd[sup 3]D[sub 3] with n=18-20, 23-28 in the spectrum of neutral strontium have been determined. Observation of the exponential decay after excitation by a pulsed laser in a fast atomic beam and subsequent state-selective field ionization was employed. The lifetimes of the states of the [sup 3]S[sub 1]-series show the expected n*[sup 3] dependence on the effective principal quantum number, while the [sup 3]D[sub 3]-series is disturbed by configuration mixing. Furthermore, state re-populations induced by black-body radiation have been observed. (orig.).

  8. Lifetime measurements of highly excited Rydberg states of strontium. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.; Hohmann, R.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Monz, L.; Stenner, J.; Stratmann, K.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K.

    1993-01-01

    Lifetimes of Rydberg states of triplet-series 5s ns 3 S 1 with n=19-23, 35 and 5s nd 3 D 3 with n=18-20, 23-28 in the spectrum of neutral strontium have been determined. Observation of the exponential decay after excitation by a pulsed laser in a fast atomic beam and subsequent state-selective field ionization was employed. The lifetimes of the states of the 3 S 1 -series show the expected n* 3 dependence on the effective principal quantum number, while the 3 D 3 -series is disturbed by configuration mixing. Furthermore, state re-populations induced by black-body radiation have been observed. (orig.)

  9. 60-GHz integrated-circuit high data rate quadriphase shift keying exciter and modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, A.; Chang, K.

    1984-01-01

    An integrated-circuit quadriphase shift keying (QPSK) exciter and modulator have demonstrated excellent performance directly modulating a carrier frequency of 60 GHz with an output phase error of less than 3 degrees and maximum amplitude error of 0.5 dB. The circuit consists of a 60-GHz Gunn VCO phase-locked to a low-frequency reference source, a 4th subharmonic mixer, and a QPSK modlator packaged into a small volume of 1.8 x 2.5 x 0.35 in. The use of microstrip has the advantages of small size, light-weight, and low-cost fabrication. The unit has the potential for multigigabit data rate applications.

  10. Resonant states in 13C and 16,17O at high excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M R D; Borello-Lewin, T; Miyake, H; Duarte, J L M; Rodrigues, C L; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L B; Ukita, G M; Cappuzzello, F; Foti, A; Cavallaro, M; Agodi, C; Cunsolo, A; Carbone, D; Bondi, M; Napoli, M De; Roeder, B T; Linares, R; Lombardo, I

    2014-01-01

    The 9 Be( 6 Li,d) 13 C and 12,13 C( 6 Li,d) 16,17 O reactions were measured at the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at 25.5 MeV incident energy. The nuclear emulsion detection technique was applied. Several narrow resonances were populated up to approximately 17 MeV of excitation energy. An excellent energy resolution was obtained: 40 keV for 13 C and 15-30 keV for 16 O. The upper limit for the resonance widths were determined. Recently, d-a angular correlations were measured at θ d = 0° with incident energy of 25 MeV using the LNS Tandem-MAGNEX Spectrometer facility

  11. High-frequency domain wall excitations in magnetic garnet films with in-plane magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synogach, V.T.; Doetsch, H.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic garnet films of compositions (YBi) 3 Fe 5 O 12 and (LuBi) 3 Fe 5 O 12 are grown by liquid-phase epitaxy on [110]- and [100]-oriented substrates of gadolinium gallium garnet, respectively. All films have in-plane magnetization. 180 degree and 90 degree domain walls in these films are studied by microwave technique. In addition to the known low-frequency mode of wall translation new multiple resonant modes of both 90 degree and 180 degree domain walls with very small linewidth (4.2 MHz) are observed at frequencies near 1 GHz. Resonances are effectively excited by an rf magnetic field which is parallel or perpendicular to the wall plane. Resonance frequencies are shown to have nonlinear dispersion dependence on the mode number: they decrease with increasing in-plane magnetic field normal to the wall plane. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Resonant states in 13C and 16,17O at high excitation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Ukita, G. M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Bondi, M.; De Napoli, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Linares, R.; Lombardo, I.

    2014-12-01

    The 9Be(6Li,d)13C and 12,13C(6Li,d)16,17O reactions were measured at the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at 25.5 MeV incident energy. The nuclear emulsion detection technique was applied. Several narrow resonances were populated up to approximately 17 MeV of excitation energy. An excellent energy resolution was obtained: 40 keV for 13C and 15-30 keV for 16O. The upper limit for the resonance widths were determined. Recently, d-a angular correlations were measured at θd = 0° with incident energy of 25 MeV using the LNS Tandem-MAGNEX Spectrometer facility.

  13. High-sensitivity detection of cardiac troponin I with UV LED excitation for use in point-of-care immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Troldborg, Carl Peder; Fodgaard, Henrik; van Os, Sylvana; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-08-01

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay development enables determination of biological variation in healthy populations, more accurate interpretation of clinical results and points towards earlier diagnosis and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we report on preliminary tests of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by factor of 5 for standard troponin I and by factor of 3 for a research high-sensitivity troponin I assay, compared to the flash lamp excitation. The obtained limit of detection was 0.22 ng/L measured on plasma with the research high-sensitivity troponin I assay and 1.9 ng/L measured on tris-saline-azide buffer containing bovine serum albumin with the standard troponin I assay. We discuss the optimization of time-resolved detection of lanthanide fluorescence based on the time constants of the system and analyze the background and noise sources in a heterogeneous fluoroimmunoassay. We determine the limiting factors and their impact on the measurement performance. The suggested model can be generally applied to fluoroimmunoassays employing the dry-cup concept.

  14. open-quotes High magnetic fields in the USAclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.; Parkin, D.M.; Crow, J.E.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J.; Sullivan, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    During the past thirty years research using high magnetic fields has technically evolved in the manner, but not the magnitude, of the so-called big science areas of particle physics, plasma physics, neutron scattering, synchrotron light scattering, and astronomy. Starting from the laboratories of individual researchers it moved to a few larger universities, then to centralized national facilities with research and maintenance staffs, and, finally, to joint international ventures to build unique facilities, as illustrated by the subject of this conference. To better understand the nature of this type of research and its societal justification it is helpful to compare it, in general terms, with the aforementioned big-science fields. High magnetic field research differs from particle physics, plasma physics, and astronomy in three respects: (1) It is generic research that cuts across a wide range of scientific disciplines in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and engineering; (2) It studies materials and processes that are relevant for a variety of technological applications and it gives insight into biological processes; (3) It has produced, at least, comparably significant results with incomparably smaller resources. Unlike neutron and synchrotron light scattering, which probe matter, high magnetic fields change the thermodynamic state of matter. This change of state is fundamental and independent of other state variables, such as pressure and temperature. After the magnetic field is applied, various techniques are then used to study the new state

  15. Application of plasma erosion opening switches to high power accelerators for pulse compression and power multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.; Boller, J.R.; Commisso, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new vacuum opening switch called a plasma erosion opening switch is described. A model of its operation is presented and the energy efficiency of such a switch is discussed. Recent high power experiments on the Gamble II accelerator are described and compared to previous experiments

  16. Abnormal photothermal effect of laser radiation on highly defect oxide bronze nanoparticles under the sub-threshold excitation of absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, P.; Kotvanova, M.; Omelchenko, A.

    2017-05-01

    The mechanism of abnormal photo-thermal effect of laser radiation on nanoparticles of oxide bronzes has been proposed in this paper. The basic features of the observed effect are: a) sub-threshold absorption of laser radiation by the excitation of donor-like levels formed in the energy gap due to superficial defects of the oxide bronze nano-crystals; b) an interband radiationless transition of energy of excitation on deep triplet levels and c) consequent recombination occurring at the plasmon absorption. K or Na atoms thermally intercalated to the octahedral crystal structure of TiO2 in the wave SHS combustion generate acceptor levels in the gap. The prepared oxide bronzes of the non-stoichiometric composition NaxTiO2 and KxTiO2 were examined by high resolution TEM, and then grinded in a planetary mill with powerful dispersion energy density up to 4000 J/g. This made it possible to obtain nanoparticles about 50 nm with high surface defect density (1017-1019 cm-2 at a depth of 10 nm). High photo-thermal effect of laser radiation on the defect nanocrystals observed after its impregnation into cartilaginous tissue exceeds 7 times in comparison with the intact ones.

  17. Two-particle excitations in the Hubbard model for high-temperature superconductors. A quantum cluster study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, Sascha

    2009-01-01

    Two-particle excitations, such as spin and charge excitations, play a key role in high-T c cuprate superconductors (HTSC). Due to the antiferromagnetism of the parent compound the magnetic excitations are supposed to be directly related to the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, the so-called resonance mode is a promising candidate for the pairing glue, a bosonic excitation mediating the electronic pairing. In addition, its interactions with itinerant electrons may be responsible for some of the observed properties of HTSC. Hence, getting to the bottom of the resonance mode is crucial for a deeper understanding of the cuprate materials. To analyze the corresponding two-particle correlation functions we develop in the present thesis a new, non-perturbative and parameter-free technique for T=0 which is based on the Variational Cluster Approach (VCA, an embedded cluster method for one-particle Green's functions). Guided by the spirit of the VCA we extract an effective electron-hole vertex from an isolated cluster and use a fully renormalized bubble susceptibility χ 0 including the VCA one-particle propagators. Within our new approach, the magnetic excitations of HTSC are shown to be reproduced for the Hubbard model within the relevant strong-coupling regime. Exceptionally, the famous resonance mode occurring in the underdoped regime within the superconductivity-induced gap of spin-flip electron-hole excitations is obtained. Its intensity and hourglass dispersion are in good overall agreement with experiments. Furthermore, characteristic features such as the position in energy of the resonance mode and the difference of the imaginary part of the susceptibility in the superconducting and the normal states are in accord with Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) experiments. For the first time, a strongly-correlated parameter-free calculation revealed these salient magnetic properties supporting the S=1 magnetic exciton scenario for the resonance mode. Besides

  18. Some remarks on the disintegration of highly excited Ag and Br nuclei observed in photographic emulsion in view of the quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, T.; Breivik, F.O.; Soerensen, S.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Inst. for Teoretisk Fysikk)

    1980-01-01

    The angular distribution of the tracks of the particles emitted from highly excited Ag and Br nuclei after the cascade are consistent with isotropy, in disfavour of the hypothesis of fission preceding some subsequent disintegration by isotropic single particle emission. If it is assumed that the highly excited nucleus behaves as a gas of quarks which are confined within the Ag(Br) nucleus, the confinement may possibly cause delays between the subsequent emissions of particles in favour of thermodynamical equilibrium. Some comments are given on the mass of a quark in the nucleus and on the energy distribution of the particles emitted from these excited nuclei.

  19. Some remarks on the disintegration of highly excited Ag and Br nuclei observed in photographic emulsion in view of the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, T.; Breivik, F.O.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    The angular distribution of the tracs of the particles emitted from highly excited Ag and Br nuclei after the cascade are consistent with isotropy, in disfavour of the hypothesis of fission preceding some subsequent disintegration by isotropic single particle emission. If it is assumed that the highly excited nucleus behaves as a gas of quarks which are confined within the Ag(Br) nucleus, the confinement may possibly cause delays between the subsequent emissions of particles in favour of thermodynamical equilibrium. Some comments are given on the mass of a quark in the nucleus and on the energy distribution of the particles emitted from these excited nuclei. (author)

  20. Graphene-mediated microfluidic transport and nebulization via high frequency Rayleigh wave substrate excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kar M; Yeo, Leslie Y; Hung, Yew M; Tan, Ming K

    2016-09-21

    The deposition of a thin graphene film atop a chip scale piezoelectric substrate on which surface acoustic waves are excited is observed to enhance its performance for fluid transport and manipulation considerably, which can be exploited to achieve further efficiency gains in these devices. Such gains can then enable complete integration and miniaturization for true portability for a variety of microfluidic applications across drug delivery, biosensing and point-of-care diagnostics, among others, where field-use, point-of-collection or point-of-care functionality is desired. In addition to a first demonstration of vibration-induced molecular transport in graphene films, we show that the coupling of the surface acoustic wave gives rise to antisymmetric Lamb waves in the film which enhance molecular diffusion and hence the flow through the interstitial layers that make up the film. Above a critical input power, the strong substrate vibration displacement can also force the molecules out of the graphene film to form a thin fluid layer, which subsequently destabilizes and breaks up to form a mist of micron dimension aerosol droplets. We provide physical insight into this coupling through a simple numerical model, verified through experiments, and show several-fold improvement in the rate of fluid transport through the film, and up to 55% enhancement in the rate of fluid atomization from the film using this simple method.

  1. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled 1,1 '-Diphenylethylene: Electronically Excited and Ionic States of a Prototypical Cross-Conjugated System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolarek, S.; Vdovin, A.; Rijs, A.; van Walree, C. A.; Zgierski, M. Z.; Buma, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated pi-system, 1,1'-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio

  2. Deriving animal behaviour from high-frequency GPS: tracking cows in open and forested habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, N.; van Langevelde, F.; van Oeveren, H.; Nolet, Bart A.; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, H.H.T.; De Boer, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable

  3. Schematic large-dimension coupled-channel study of strong inelastic excitations to high-lying states in colliding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, M. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Kernfysisch Versneller Inst.; Nakano, M.; Yahiro, M.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    A mechanism of the strong inelastic excitation of colliding nuclei (e.g. deep inelastic heavy-ion collision) was studied in a schematic way based on a coupled channel (CC) framework. The purpose of this work is to see the gross behavior of the inelastic excitation strength versus epsilon (i.e. energy spectrum) for the assumed specific types of CC potentials between a large number of inelastic channels. Schematic large dimension CC calculation was considered rather than small-dimension CC calculation. The coupled N + 1 equations can be reduced to uncoupled N + 1 equations through the wellknown unitary transformation. An interesting case is that there exists strong channel independent coupling between any pair of the channels, all of which are almost degenerate in internal energy as compared with incoming c.m. energy. It was found that inelastic scattering hardly occurred while the collision was almost confined to the elastic component. The numerical calculation of S-matrix was carried out. Other cases, such as zero CC potential, the coupling between inelastic channel and entrance channel, and the case that the thickness of the coupling was changed, were investigated. As the results of the present study, it can be said that this CC coupling model may be useful for discussing continuum-continuum interactions in a breakup reaction by simulating the continuum states with many channels made discrete.

  4. Excited states v.6

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1982-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 6 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper discusses the linear polyene electronic structure and potential surfaces, considering both the theoretical and experimental approaches in such electronic states. This paper also reviews the theory of electronic structure and cites some experimental techniques on polyene excitations, polyene spectroscopic phenomenology, and those involving higher states of polyenes and their triplet states. Examples of these experimental studies of excited states involve the high-resolution one-pho

  5. High excitation of the species in nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge of N2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of Al target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peipei; Li, Yanli; Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu; Yang, Xu; Huang, Feiling; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2014-01-01

    A reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge of N 2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of an Al target is characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 species are determined by spectral simulation. The generated plasma strongly emits radiation from a variety of excited species including ambient nitrogen and ablated aluminum and exhibits unique features in optical emission and temperature evolution compared with the plasmas generated by a pure ECR discharge or by the expansion of the ablation plume. The working N 2 gas is first excited by ECR discharge and the excitation of nitrogen is further enhanced due to the fast expansion of the aluminum plume induced by target ablation, while the excitation of the ablated aluminum is prolonged during the plume expansion in the ECR nitrogen plasma, resulting in the formation of strongly reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma which contains highly excited species with high vibrational and rotational temperatures. The enhanced intensities and the prolonged duration of the optical emissions of the combined plasma would provide an improved analytical capability for spectrochemical analysis. - Highlights: • ECR discharge and pulsed laser ablation generate highly excited ECR–PLA plasma. • The expansion of PLA plasma results in excitation enhancement of ECR plasma species. • The ECR plasma leads to excitation prolongation of PLA plasma species. • The ECR–PLA plasma emits strong emissions from a variety of excited species. • The ECR–PLA plasma maintains high vibrational–rotational temperatures for a long time

  6. GROMACS 4.5: a high-throughput and highly parallel open source molecular simulation toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Sander; Páll, Szilárd; Schulz, Roland; Larsson, Per; Bjelkmar, Pär; Apostolov, Rossen; Shirts, Michael R; Smith, Jeremy C; Kasson, Peter M; van der Spoel, David; Hess, Berk; Lindahl, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Molecular simulation has historically been a low-throughput technique, but faster computers and increasing amounts of genomic and structural data are changing this by enabling large-scale automated simulation of, for instance, many conformers or mutants of biomolecules with or without a range of ligands. At the same time, advances in performance and scaling now make it possible to model complex biomolecular interaction and function in a manner directly testable by experiment. These applications share a need for fast and efficient software that can be deployed on massive scale in clusters, web servers, distributed computing or cloud resources. Here, we present a range of new simulation algorithms and features developed during the past 4 years, leading up to the GROMACS 4.5 software package. The software now automatically handles wide classes of biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, and comes with all commonly used force fields for these molecules built-in. GROMACS supports several implicit solvent models, as well as new free-energy algorithms, and the software now uses multithreading for efficient parallelization even on low-end systems, including windows-based workstations. Together with hand-tuned assembly kernels and state-of-the-art parallelization, this provides extremely high performance and cost efficiency for high-throughput as well as massively parallel simulations. GROMACS is an open source and free software available from http://www.gromacs.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. High Temperature Elastic Properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) Steel Using Impulse Excitation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Raju, Subramanian; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Saibaba, Saroja

    2018-03-01

    The polycrystalline elastic constants of an indigenous variant of 9Cr-1W-based reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel have been determined as a function of temperature from 298 K to 1323 K (25 °C to 1000 °C), using impulse excitation technique (IET). The three elastic constants namely, Young's modulus E, shear modulus G, and bulk modulus B, exhibited significant softening with increasing temperature, in a pronounced non-linear fashion. In addition, clearly marked discontinuities in their temperature variations are noticed in the region, where ferrite + carbides → austenite phase transformation occurred upon heating. Further, the incidence of austenite → martensite transformation upon cooling has also been marked by a step-like jump in both elastic E and shear moduli G. The martensite start M s and M f finish temperatures estimated from this study are, M s = 652 K (379 °C) and M f =580 K (307 °C). Similarly, the measured ferrite + carbide → austenite transformation onset ( Ac 1) and completion ( Ac 3) temperatures are found to be 1126 K and 1143 K (853 °C and 870 °C), respectively. The Poisson ratio μ exhibited distinct discontinuities at phase transformation temperatures; but however, is found to vary in the range 0.27 to 0.29. The room temperature estimates of E, G, and μ for normalized and tempered microstructure are found to be 219 GPa, 86.65 GPa, and 0.27, respectively. For the metastable austenite phase, the corresponding values are: 197 GPa, 76.5 GPa, and 0.29, respectively. The measured elastic properties as well as their temperature dependencies are found to be in good accord with reported estimates for other 9Cr-based ferritic-martensitic steel grades. Estimates of θ D el , the elastic Debye temperature and γ G, the thermal Grüneisen parameter obtained from measured bulk elastic properties are found to be θ D el = 465 K (192 °C) and γ G = 1.57.

  8. News from the Library: Publishing Open Access articles beyond High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    CERN has supported Open Access Publishing for many years, and the Scientific Information Service is working to implement this vision. We have just launched the flagship project SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics) aimed at converting high-quality journals in High Energy Physics to Open Access for articles published as of 2014. More details here.   In parallel, several win-win arrangements allow experimental and theoretical high-energy physics results from CERN to be published in Open Access in a variety of high-impact journals. More information can be found here. Open Access publishing at CERN goes far beyond High Energy Physics. Indeed, CERN is a key supporter of Open Access in accelerator science, through sponsorship of the APS journal PRSTAB and participation in the JACoW collaboration. Now CERN authors publishing in the field of engineering will also have th...

  9. Open Access Publishing in High-Energy Physics: the SCOAP(3) Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Scholarly communication in High-Energy Physics (HEP) shows traits very similar to Astronomy and Astrophysics: pervasiveness of Open Access to preprints through community-based services; a culture of openness and sharing among its researchers; a compact number of yearly articles published by a relatively small number of journals which are dear to the community. These aspects have led HEP to spearhead an innovative model for the transition of its scholarly publishing to Open Access. The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP(3)) aims to be a central body to finance peer-review service rather than the purchase of access to information as in the traditional subscription model, with all articles in the discipline eventually available in Open Access. Sustainable funding to SCOAP(3) would come from libraries, library consortia and HEP funding agencies, through a re-direction of funds currently spent for subscriptions to HEP journals. This paper presents the cultural and bibliomet...

  10. Exciting story of the high-end television projection systems and the novel compact EIDOPHOR AE-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Hennig, Joerg F.

    1998-04-01

    With the new light valve technologies and availability of international broad-band communication channels high-end large screen TV projection is a highly growing contribution to the multi-media world of today. The exciting story already started 58 years ago with the invention of the EIDOPHOR diffractive oil light modulator. The long way to turn electronic cinema into a reality triggered novel applications, e.g. teleconferencing and real time surgery transmissions at universities. Several technical approaches of spatial light modulation were tried, and finally several different solutions are feasible to provide video projectors, meeting the requirements of the different display applications of today and tomorrow. The technical history is reviewed and the limitations and feasibilities of new technologies are presented in respect to existing and new applications.

  11. Deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles enabled by exploiting higher intrinsic quantum yield through use of millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haichun; Xu, Can T.; Dumlupinar, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    We have accomplished deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles at 800 nm, using millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power. This is achieved by carefully choosing the pulse parameters, derived from time-resolved rate-equation analysis, which result in higher intrinsic...... quantum yield that is utilized by upconverting nanoparticles for generating this near infrared upconversion emission. The pulsed excitation approach thus promises previously unreachable imaging depths and shorter data acquisition times compared with continuous wave excitation, while simultaneously keeping...... therapy and remote activation of biomolecules in deep tissues....

  12. Observation of preformed electron-hole Cooper pairs in highly excited ZnO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, M.A.M.; van Lange, A.J.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Dijkhuis, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Electrons and holes in a semiconductor form hydrogen-atom-like bound states, called excitons. At high electron-hole densities the attractive Coulomb force becomes screened and excitons can no longer exist. Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory predicts that at such high densities co-operative many-body

  13. A DC excited waveguide multibeam CO2 laser using high frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High power industrial multibeam CO2 lasers consist of a large number of closely packed ... by producing pre-ionization using an auxiliary high frequency pulsed ... of few kilowatts output power, multibeam technique is used [2]. .... gas mixture of CO2, N2 and He enters in each discharge tube individually from .... Commercial.

  14. High School Teachers' Openness to Adopting New Practices: The Role of Personal Resources and Organizational Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stacy R; Pas, Elise T; Loh, Deanna; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-03-01

    Although evidence-based practices for students' social, emotional, and behavioral health are readily available, their adoption and quality implementation in schools are of increasing concern. Teachers are vital to implementation; yet, there is limited research on teachers' openness to adopting new practices, which may be essential to successful program adoption and implementation. The current study explored how perceptions of principal support, teacher affiliation, teacher efficacy, and burnout relate to teachers' openness to new practices. Data came from 2,133 teachers across 51 high schools. Structural equation modeling assessed how organizational climate (i.e., principal support and teacher affiliation) related to teachers' openness directly and indirectly via teacher resources (i.e., efficacy and burnout). Teachers with more favorable perceptions of both principal support and teacher affiliation reported greater efficacy, and, in turn, more openness; however, burnout was not significantly associated with openness. Post hoc analyses indicated that among teachers with high levels of burnout, only principal support related to greater efficacy, and in turn, higher openness. Implications for promoting teachers' openness to new program adoption are discussed.

  15. Open high-level data formats and software for gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deil, Christoph; Boisson, Catherine; Kosack, Karl; Perkins, Jeremy; King, Johannes; Eger, Peter; Mayer, Michael; Wood, Matthew; Zabalza, Victor; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Hassan, Tarek; Mohrmann, Lars; Ziegler, Alexander; Khelifi, Bruno; Dorner, Daniela; Maier, Gernot; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Rosado, Jaime; Contreras, José Luis; Lefaucheur, Julien; Brügge, Kai; Servillat, Mathieu; Terrier, Régis; Walter, Roland; Lombardi, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    In gamma-ray astronomy, a variety of data formats and proprietary software have been traditionally used, often developed for one specific mission or experiment. Especially for ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), data and software are mostly private to the collaborations operating the telescopes. However, there is a general movement in science towards the use of open data and software. In addition, the next-generation IACT instrument, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), will be operated as an open observatory. We have created a Github organisation at https://github.com/open-gamma-ray-astro where we are developing high-level data format specifications. A public mailing list was set up at https://lists.nasa.gov/mailman/listinfo/open-gamma-ray-astro and a first face-to-face meeting on the IACT high-level data model and formats took place in April 2016 in Meudon (France). This open multi-mission effort will help to accelerate the development of open data formats and open-source software for gamma-ray astronomy, leading to synergies in the development of analysis codes and eventually better scientific results (reproducible, multi-mission). This write-up presents this effort for the first time, explaining the motivation and context, the available resources and process we use, as well as the status and planned next steps for the data format specifications. We hope that it will stimulate feedback and future contributions from the gamma-ray astronomy community.

  16. High pressure luminescence studies of localized excitations in ZnS doped with Pb2+ and Mn2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, G.L.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    High pressure luminescence measurements have been made on ZnS doped with Pb +2 and Mn +2 . The data include changes in peak energy and shape, integrated intensities, and lifetimes. These localized emissions are treated in terms of a single configuration coordinate model. For Pb +2 the emission peak shifted to lower energy by a moderate amount and narrowed. For excitation in the Pb +2 absorption the intensity was independent of pressure, which is consistent with the fact that the energy barrier for radiationless return to the ground state was high at all pressures. For excitation in the ZnS absorption edge the intensity decreased significantly with pressure above about 80 kbar. Data on shifts of the conduction band with pressure would indicate that one is approaching a transition from a direct to indirect transition at high pressure so that decrease in emission intensity may be associated with decreased absorption efficiency. The Mn+ 2 emission peak shifted strongly to lower energy with increasing pressure. The direction and magnitude of the shift were consistent with the predictions of ligand field theory. The intensity doubled in 100 kbar, while the lifetime decreased by roughly a factor of 2. These results could be described in terms of a model for a phonon assisted transition. In addition, peak location, intensity, and lifetime measurements were made on ZnS:Pb:Mn. There is clear evidence of energy transfer by exchange, but in addition there is a nonradiative process in the doubly doped crystal which affects both intensities and lifetimes

  17. High spin states excited by the (p, t) reaction on lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumabe, I.; Hyakutake, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuasa, K.; Yamagata, T.; Kishimoto, S.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M [eds.

    1980-01-01

    In order to find high spin states the sup(204, 206, 208)Pb (p, t) reactions have been investigated with RCNP isochronous cyclotron and a high resolution magnetic spectrograph ''RAIDEN''. The experimental angular distributions were analyzed by DWBA calculations, and the lowest 10/sup +/, 12/sup +/ (i sub(13/2))/sup 2/ and 11/sup -/ (i sub(13/2), h sub(9/2)) states in /sup 202/Pb, /sup 204/Pb and /sup 206/Pb were established.

  18. Hydralazine-induced vasodilation involves opening of high conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Lone; Nielsen-Kudsk, J E; Gruhn, N

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK(Ca)) are mediating the vasodilator action of hydralazine. In isolated porcine coronary arteries, hydralazine (1-300 microM), like the K+ channel opener levcromakalim, preferentially relaxed......M) suppressed this response by 82% (P opening of BK(Ca) takes part in the mechanism whereby...

  19. Which Type of Inquiry Project Do High School Biology Students Prefer: Open or Guided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal

    2012-10-01

    In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant differences between the two groups: Open inquiry students were more satisfied and felt they gained benefits from implementing the project to a greater extent than guided inquiry students. On the other hand, regarding documentation throughout the project, guided inquiry students believed that they conducted more documentation, as compared to their open inquiry peers. No significant differences were found regarding `the investment of time', but significant differences were found in the time invested and difficulties which arose concerning the different stages of the inquiry process: Open inquiry students believed they spent more time in the first stages of the project, while guided inquiry students believed they spent more time in writing the final paper. In addition, other differences were found: Open inquiry students felt more involved in their project, and felt a greater sense of cooperation with others, in comparison to guided inquiry students. These findings may help teachers who hesitate to teach open inquiry to implement this method of inquiry; or at least provide their students with the opportunity to be more involved in inquiry projects, and ultimately provide their students with more autonomy, high-order thinking, and a deeper understanding in performing science.

  20. High efficiency detection technique on quantum action due to radiation excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Isao; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Masataka

    1999-01-01

    For a key point to obtain high energy resolution, three items such as long life of quasi particle, short tunneling time, and low leakage current can be shown. Then, in order to establish high energy resolution by filling these three items, a research on Nb/Al/AlO x /Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junction was proceeded. In 1997 fiscal year, elucidation on phonon relaxation phenomenon in Nb crystal grain boundary was conducted. On energy resolution, by realizing increase of quasi particle life and upgrading if junction quality, 70 to 90 eV which is higher than that of semiconductor detector could be established. After then, to remove the phonon relaxation at crystal grain boundary, it was necessary to practise high qualification of absorber such as improvement of Nb film micro structure and single crystallization, and enforcement of quasi particle trapping due to superconductor except Nb/Al. (G.K.)

  1. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the work this year has been directed toward studies of charge exchange and ionization in single collisions of heavy ions with gaseous atoms and molecules. A study of the double ionization of He by high energy N 7+ ions, which began last year, was extended up in energy to 40 MeV/amu. These measurements verified the deviations from the predictions of theory observed in our previous work and indicated that the energy required to reach the limiting value of the ratio of double-to-single ionization cross sections may be as high as 70 MeV/amu

  2. High-efficient, bicolor-emitting GdVO_4:Dy"3"+ phosphor under near ultraviolet excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jinjin; Zhou, Jia; Jia, Huayu; Tian, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Bicolor emitting GdVO_4:Dy"3"+ phosphor with short columniation-shape was prepared via a simple co-precipitation process. The optimal doping concentration for obtaining maximal luminescent intensity was confirmed to be 0.3 mol% and the electric dipole–dipole interaction is responsible for concentration quenching of Dy"3"+ emission in GdVO_4 phosphor. In order to evaluate the luminescent performance of as-prepared phosphor, the luminescent efficiency and color coordinates were studied. The results show that luminescent efficiency of this phosphor is very high under near UV excitation and twice times higher than commercial Y_2O_2S:Eu"3"+ phosphor. In addition, the color coordinates for optimal Dy"3"+ concentration are (0.339, 0.379), which are close to equal energy point. Therefore, the GdVO_4:Dy"3"+ phosphor may have potential application for solid state lighting.

  3. Inhibition of collective spontaneous decay and superradiance in an ensemble of sufficiently high quantity of excited identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    New effects of suppression of the collective spontaneous emission and superradiance have been predicted. At a certain number N of ensemble atoms, the Stark interaction with a vacuum field was shown as being high enough for the excited N-atom ensemble to be stabilized with respect to the collective decay. The result was derived analytically as a consequence of applying the quantum stochastic differential equations to the description of the atomic dynamics in vacuum, where the Stark interaction operator is expressed in terms of the quantum Poisson process. -- Highlights: → Enhancement of the Stark interaction of N atoms ensemble with vacuum, with N rising. → Representation of the Stark interaction as the quantum Poisson process. → Collective spontaneous decay and superradiance under the strong Stark interaction. → Inhibition of superradiance at a certain number of ensemble atoms. → Analysis of superradiance experiments in terms of inhibition of collective decay.

  4. Magnetic moments, E3 transitions and the structure of high spin core excited states in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Poletti, S.J.; Gerl, J.; Lewis, P.M.

    1985-03-01

    The results of g-factor measurements of high spin states in 211 Rn are: Esub(x)=8856+Δsup(') keV (Jsup(π)=63/2 - ), g=0.626(7); 6101+Δsup(') keV (49/2 + ), 0.766(8); 5247+Δsup(') keV (43/2 - ), 0.74(2); 3927+Δsup(') keV (35/2 + ), 1/017(12); 1578+Δsup(') keV (17/2 - ), 0.912(9). These results together with measured E3 transition strengths and shell model calculations are used to assign configurations to the core excited states in 211 Rn. Mixed configurations are required to explain the g-factors and enhanced E3 strengths simultaneously

  5. Magnetic moments, E3 transitions and the structure of high-spin core excited states in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Poletti, S.J.; Gerl, J.; Lewis, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of g-factor measurements of high-spin states in 211 Rn are: Esub(x)=8856+Δ' keV (Jsup(π)=63/2 - ), g=0.626(7); 6101+Δ' keV (49/2 + ), 0.766(8); 5347+Δ' keV (43/2 - ), 0.74(2); 3927+Δ keV (35/2 + ), 1.017(12); 1578+Δ keV (17/2 - ), 0.912(9). These results together with measured E3 transition strengths and shell model calculations are used to assign configurations to the core excited states in 211 Rn. Mixed configurations are required to explain the g-factors and enhanced E3 strengths simultaneously. (orig.)

  6. Inelastic scattering of high transfer moment electrons to the first excited state (Jsup(π)=3-) of 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Dominique.

    1979-10-01

    A determination was made of an angular distribution of the inelastic scattering cross-sections of electrons by the first excited state (Jsup(π)=3 - , E*=2.615 MeV) of 208 Pb. The statistical accuracy of previous data was improved between 2 and 2.7 fm -1 and the area of transfer of moment was extended up to qsub(max)=3.4 fm -1 . Cross-sections up to 10 -37 cm 2 /sr were determined whereas the limit reached before was 7x10 -35 cm 2 /sr. In order to determine the transition charge density, it was put into parametric form by a Fourier-Bessel development using 12 coefficients and an 11 fm cut-off radius. The model error inherent in this method is reduced to an insignificant contribution by the sufficiently high transfer of moment. The experimental transition charge density was compared with the theoretical predictions [fr

  7. Repetitive plasma opening switch for powerful high-voltage pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Zakatov, L.P.; Nitishinskii, M.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental studies of plasma opening switches that serve to sharpen the pulses of inductive microsecond high-voltage pulse generators. It is demonstrated that repetitive plasma opening switches can be used to create super-powerful generators operating in a quasi-continuous regime. An erosion switching mechanism and the problem of magnetic insulation in repetitive switches are considered. Achieving super-high peak power in plasma switches makes it possible to develop new types of high-power generators of electron beams and X radiation. Possible implementations and the efficiency of these generators are discussed

  8. High resolution detection and excitation of resonant magnetic perturbations in a wall-stabilized tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, David A. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Shiraki, Daisuke; Levesque, Jeffrey P.; Bialek, James; Angelini, Sarah; Byrne, Patrick; DeBono, Bryan; Hughes, Paul; Mauel, Michael E.; Navratil, Gerald A.; Peng Qian; Rhodes, Dov; Rath, Nickolaus; Stoafer, Christopher [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We report high-resolution detection of the 3D plasma magnetic response of wall-stabilized tokamak discharges in the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse [T. H. Ivers et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 1926 (1996)] device. A new adjustable conducting wall has been installed on HBT-EP made up of 20 independent, movable, wall segments instrumented with three distinct sets of 40 modular coils that can be independently driven to generate a wide variety of magnetic perturbations. High-resolution detection of the plasma response is made with 216 poloidal and radial magnetic sensors that have been located and calibrated with high-accuracy. Static and dynamic plasma responses to resonant and non-resonant magnetic perturbations are observed through measurement of the step-response following a rapid change in the toroidal phase of the applied perturbations. Biorthogonal decomposition of the full set of magnetic sensors clearly defines the structures of naturally occurring external kinks as being composed of independent m/n = 3/1 and 6/2 modes. Resonant magnetic perturbations were applied to discharges with pre-existing, saturated m/n = 3/1 external kink mode activity. This m/n = 3/1 kink mode was observed to lock to the applied perturbation field. During this kink mode locked period, the plasma resonant response is characterized by a linear, a saturated, and a disruptive plasma regime dependent on the magnitude of the applied field and value of the edge safety factor and plasma rotation.

  9. High spatial resolution and high contrast visualization of brain arteries and veins. Impact of blood pool contrast agent and water-selective excitation imaging at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuentrup, E.; Jacobs, J.E.; Kleimann, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a blood pool contrast agent and water-selective excitation imaging at 3 T for high spatial and high contrast imaging of brain vessels including the veins. Methods and Results: 48 clinical patients (47 ± 18 years old) were included. Based on clinical findings, twenty-four patients received a single dose of standard extracellular Gadoterate-meglumine (Dotarem registered ) and 24 received the blood pool contrast agent Gadofosveset (Vasovist registered ). After finishing routine MR protocols, all patients were investigated with two high spatial resolution (0.15 mm 3 voxel size) gradient echo sequences in random order in the equilibrium phase (steady-state) as approved by the review board: A standard RF-spoiled gradient-echo sequence (HR-SS, TR/TE 5.1 / 2.3 msec, FA 30 ) and a fat-suppressed gradient-echo sequence with water-selective excitation (HR-FS, 1331 binominal-pulse, TR/TE 8.8 / 3.8 msec, FA 30 ). The images were subjectively assessed (image quality with vessel contrast, artifacts, depiction of lesions) by two investigators and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared using the Student's t-test. The image quality and CNR in the HR-FS were significantly superior compared to the HR-SS for both contrast agents (p < 0.05). The CNR was also improved when using the blood pool agent but only to a minor extent while the subjective image quality was similar for both contrast agents. Conclusion: The utilized sequence with water-selective excitation improved image quality and CNR properties in high spatial resolution imaging of brain arteries and veins. The used blood pool contrast agent improved the CNR only to a minor extent over the extracellular contrast agent. (orig.)

  10. Voiced Excitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holzricher, John

    2004-01-01

    To more easily obtain a voiced excitation function for speech characterization, measurements of skin motion, tracheal tube, and vocal fold, motions were made and compared to EM sensor-glottal derived...

  11. Exciting Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  12. Open-field behavior of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, A M; Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Girard, I A; Rhodes, J S; Garland, T

    2001-05-01

    Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotionality in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video camera for 3 min in a 1-m2 open-field arena on 2 consecutive days. Mice from selected lines showed no statistical differences from control mice with respect to distance traveled, defecation, time spent in the interior, or average distance from the center of the arena during the trial. Thus, we found little evidence that open-field behavior, as traditionally defined, is genetically correlated with wheel-running behavior. This result is a useful converse test of classical studies that report no increased wheel-running in mice selected for increased open-field activity. However, mice from selected lines turned less in their travel paths than did control-line mice, and females from selected lines had slower travel times (longer latencies) to reach the wall. We discuss these results in the context of the historical open-field test and newly defined measures of open-field activity.

  13. Thermal performance of an open thermosyphon using nanofluid for evacuated tubular high temperature air solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Ren-Lin; Lu, Lin; Zhao, Feng; Xiao, Hong-shen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel solar air collector with simplified CPC and open thermosyphon is designed and tested. • Simplified CPC has a much lower cost at the expense of slight efficiency loss. • Nanofluid effectively improves thermal performance of the above solar air collector. • Solar air collector with open thermosyphon is better than that with concentric tube. - Abstract: A novel evacuated tubular solar air collector integrated with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and special open thermosyphon using water based CuO nanofluid as the working fluid is designed to provide air with high and moderate temperature. The experimental system has two linked panels and each panel includes an evacuated tube, a simplified CPC and an open thermosyphon. Outdoor experimental study has been carried out to investigate the actual solar collecting performance of the designed system. Experimental results show that air outlet temperature and system collecting efficiency of the solar air collector using nanofluid as the open thermosyphon’s working fluid are both higher than that using water. Its maximum air outlet temperature exceeds 170 °C at the air volume rate of 7.6 m 3 /h in winter, even though the experimental system consists of only two collecting panels. The solar collecting performance of the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon is also compared with that integrated with common concentric tube. Experimental results show that the solar collector integrated with open thermosyphon has a much better collecting performance

  14. Which Type of Inquiry Project Do High School Biology Students Prefer: Open or Guided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal

    2012-01-01

    In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant…

  15. Coupled-cluster calculations for ground and excited states of closed- and open-shell nuclei using methods of quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wloch, Marta; Gour, Jeffrey R; Piecuch, Piotr; Dean, David J; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten; Papenbrock, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We discuss large-scale ab initio calculations of ground and excited states of 16 O and preliminary calculations for 15 O and 17 O using coupled-cluster methods and algorithms developed in quantum chemistry. By using realistic two-body interactions and the renormalized form of the Hamiltonian obtained with a no-core G-matrix approach, we are able to obtain the virtually converged results for 16 O and promising results for 15 O and 17 O at the level of two-body interactions. The calculated properties other than binding and excitation energies include charge radius and charge form factor. The relatively low costs of coupled-cluster calculations, which are characterized by the low-order polynomial scaling with the system size, enable us to probe large model spaces with up to seven or eight major oscillator shells, for which nontruncated shell-model calculations for nuclei with A = 15-17 active particles are presently not possible

  16. Can Measured Synergy Excitations Accurately Construct Unmeasured Muscle Excitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Nicholas A; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Accurate prediction of muscle and joint contact forces during human movement could improve treatment planning for disorders such as osteoarthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy. Recent studies suggest that muscle synergies, a low-dimensional representation of a large set of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals (henceforth called "muscle excitations"), may reduce the redundancy of muscle excitation solutions predicted by optimization methods. This study explores the feasibility of using muscle synergy information extracted from eight muscle EMG signals (henceforth called "included" muscle excitations) to accurately construct muscle excitations from up to 16 additional EMG signals (henceforth called "excluded" muscle excitations). Using treadmill walking data collected at multiple speeds from two subjects (one healthy, one poststroke), we performed muscle synergy analysis on all possible subsets of eight included muscle excitations and evaluated how well the calculated time-varying synergy excitations could construct the remaining excluded muscle excitations (henceforth called "synergy extrapolation"). We found that some, but not all, eight-muscle subsets yielded synergy excitations that achieved >90% extrapolation variance accounted for (VAF). Using the top 10% of subsets, we developed muscle selection heuristics to identify included muscle combinations whose synergy excitations achieved high extrapolation accuracy. For 3, 4, and 5 synergies, these heuristics yielded extrapolation VAF values approximately 5% lower than corresponding reconstruction VAF values for each associated eight-muscle subset. These results suggest that synergy excitations obtained from experimentally measured muscle excitations can accurately construct unmeasured muscle excitations, which could help limit muscle excitations predicted by muscle force optimizations.

  17. A novel PM motor with hybrid PM excitation and asymmetric rotor structure for high torque performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaohong Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet (PM motor for high torque performance, in which hybrid PM material and asymmetric rotor design are applied. The hybrid PM material is adopted to reduce the consumption of rare-earth PM because ferrite PM is assisted to enhance the torque production. Meanwhile, the rotor structure is designed to be asymmetric by shifting the surface-insert PM (SPM, which is used to improve the torque performance, including average torque and torque ripple. Moreover, the reasons for improvement of the torque performance are explained by evaluation and analysis of the performances of the proposed motor. Compared with SPM motor and V-type motor, the merit of high utilization ratio of rare-earth PM is also confirmed, showing that the proposed motor can offer higher torque density and lower torque ripple simultaneously with less consumption of rare-earth PM.

  18. High-spin levels in 39K excited by the 41Ca(d,α) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarbaker, E.; Boyd, R.N.; Cline, D.; Vold, P.B.; Lien, J.R.; Goode, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The 41 Ca(d,α) 39 K reaction has been used to investigate the low-lying high-spin states in 39 K. Conflicting spin assignments for the 5.719 MeV level in 39 K of 9/2 - of 13/2 - have been suggested in earlier studies. A 1p-2h model reproduces both the 41 Ca(d,α) 39 K and 39 K(α,α') 39 K reaction data leading to the high-spin states if the 5.719 MeV level is assumed to have a J/sup π/ of 13/2 - . An alternate assignment of J/sup π/ = 9/2 - for this level is shown to produce very poor agreement with the model predictions

  19. Exciting middle and high school students about immunology: an easy, inquiry-based lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Kara

    2013-03-01

    High school students in the United States are apathetic about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and the workforce pipeline in these areas is collapsing. The lack of understanding of basic principles of biology means that students are unable to make educated decisions concerning their personal health. To address these issues, we have developed a simple, inquiry-based outreach lesson centered on a mouse dissection. Students learn key concepts in immunology and enhance their understanding of human organ systems. The experiment highlights aspects of the scientific method and authentic data collection and analysis. This hands-on activity stimulates interest in biology, personal health and careers in STEM fields. Here, we present all the information necessary to execute the lesson effectively with middle and high school students.

  20. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1974-01-01

    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  1. Excitation and ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact. Progress report, January 1, 1978-July 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.H.

    1979-07-01

    Reduced ionization cross sections Q/sub R//sup H/(nl,u) were obtained for the nl = 3p and 3d sublevels, as well as for more energy points for the lower sublevels considered in our earlier work. Thus, results are now available for the eight impact electron energies in threshold units u = 1.125, 1.25, 1.5, 2.25, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 for each of the sublevels 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, and 3d. From these results for Q/sub R//sup H/(nl,u) one can readily obtain the cross section for ionization from any of these sublevels in any highly charged complex ion using the simple procedures given in our earlier work. The theory and computer programs developed in our previous work on excitation were used to calculate intermediate coupling collision strengths for all fine structure transitions from the 2P levels to the nP and nD levels with 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 5 in He-like ions. Similar calculations have also been made for inner shell excitation of Li-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 10 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 74. The theory and programs were also extended to treat Δn = 0 transitions and were used to obtain intermediate coupling collision strengths for all Δn = 0 fine structure transitions with n = 2 in 10 He-like ions with Z in the range 6 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 74 and 10 Be-like ions with Z in the range 14 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 74. For excitation the results appear to be accurate to within approx. 30% for 3N less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 74, where N is the number of bound electrons per ion, and more accurate for most of this range. For ionization the results appear to be accurate down to Z/N approx. = 2. 21 references

  2. OpenMM 4: A Reusable, Extensible, Hardware Independent Library for High Performance Molecular Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Peter; Friedrichs, Mark S; Chodera, John D; Radmer, Randall J; Bruns, Christopher M; Ku, Joy P; Beauchamp, Kyle A; Lane, Thomas J; Wang, Lee-Ping; Shukla, Diwakar; Tye, Tony; Houston, Mike; Stich, Timo; Klein, Christoph; Shirts, Michael R; Pande, Vijay S

    2013-01-08

    OpenMM is a software toolkit for performing molecular simulations on a range of high performance computing architectures. It is based on a layered architecture: the lower layers function as a reusable library that can be invoked by any application, while the upper layers form a complete environment for running molecular simulations. The library API hides all hardware-specific dependencies and optimizations from the users and developers of simulation programs: they can be run without modification on any hardware on which the API has been implemented. The current implementations of OpenMM include support for graphics processing units using the OpenCL and CUDA frameworks. In addition, OpenMM was designed to be extensible, so new hardware architectures can be accommodated and new functionality (e.g., energy terms and integrators) can be easily added.

  3. A Hall-current model of electron loss after POS opening into high-impedance loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenly, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how a self-consistent relativistic model of laminar Hall (E x B) electron flow across a POS plasma allows a loss mechanism after opening even in a strongly magnetically-insulated line, downstream of the remaining POS plasma. Opening is assumed to occur at the cathode, either by erosion or push-back. The loss results only when a large voltage appears after opening into a high impedance load. Then the difference in potential between the plasma, which is near anode potential, and the cathode results in an axial component of E at the load end of the plasma, which supports an E x B drift of electrons across the gap. The analytic model predicts that this loss should increase with higher voltage after opening, and could be eliminated only by removing the plasma from the gap, or eliminating cathode electron emission (both difficult), or by confining this downstream electron flow with an applied magnetic field

  4. High-resolution K-shell spectra from laser excited molybdenum plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo C.I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available X-ray spectra from Molybdenum plasmas were recorded by a Cauchois-type cylindrically bent Transmission Crystal Spectrometer (TCS. The absolutely calibrated spectrometer provides an unprecedented resolution of inner shell transitions (K x-ray radiation. This tool allows us to resolve individual lines from different charge states existing inside the laser-produced plasma. The inner shell transitions from highly charged Molybdenum shown in this report have never been resolved before in such detail in a laser-produced plasma.

  5. Development of the model describing highly excited states of odd deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, L.A.; Solov'ev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    An approximate method is given for solving the system of equations obtained earlier for describing the structure of states with intermediate and high energies in the framework of the model taking into account the interaction of quasiparticles with phonons. The new method possesses a number of advantages over the approximate methods of solving the system of equations mentioned. The study is performed for the example of an odd deformed nucleus when several one-quasiparticle components are taken into account at the same time

  6. Suppression and nonlinear excitation of parasitic modes in second harmonic gyrotrons operating in a very high order mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Pu, Ruifeng; Granatstein, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there was an active development of high-power, sub-terahertz (sub-THz) gyrotrons for numerous applications. For example, a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering more than 200 kW with about 20% efficiency was developed. This record high efficiency was achieved because the gyrotron operated in a high-order TE 31,8 -mode with the power of ohmic losses less than 10% of the power of outgoing radiation. That gyrotron operated at the fundamental cyclotron resonance, and a high magnetic field of about 27 T was created by a pulse solenoid. For numerous applications, it is beneficial to use gyrotrons at cyclotron harmonics which can operate in available cryomagnets with fields not exceeding 15 T. However, typically, the gyrotron operation at harmonics faces severe competition from parasitic modes at the fundamental resonance. In the present paper, we consider a similar 0.67 THz gyrotron designed for operation in the same TE 31,8 -mode, but at the second harmonic. We focus on two nonlinear effects typical for interaction between the fundamental and second harmonic modes, viz., the mode suppression and the nonlinear excitation of the mode at the fundamental harmonic by the second harmonic oscillations. Our study includes both the analytical theory and numerical simulations performed with the self-consistent code MAGY. The simulations show that stable second harmonic operation in the TE 31,8 mode is possible with only modest sacrifice of efficiency and power

  7. High-excitation lines of deuterated formaldehyde (HDCO) in the Orion molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loren, R.B.; Wootten, A.

    1985-01-01

    Five HDCO lines (up to 35 cm -1 ) have been detected in the narrow OMC-1 kinematic component. The best estimate of the [HDCO]/[H 2 CO] abundance ratio in OMC-1 is 0.01-0.03, at least an order of magnitude greater than the observed [DCO + ]/[HCO + ] abundance ratio. The [DCO + ]/[HCO + ] ratio greatly exceeds the [HDCO]/[H 2 CO] radio in cold clouds where the enhancement of both HDCO and DCO + abundances originates from H 2 D + . H 2 D + is abundant only at temperatures lower than found in OMC-1. The combination of a low [DCO + ]/[HCO + ] and high [HDCO]/[H 2 CO] abundance ratio in OMC-1 requires a different HDCO formation route at high temperature. This alternate HDCO formation path can occur because the exothermicity of the ion exchange reaction of HD and CH 3 + is greater than for the HD+H 3 + reaction. The CH 2 D + thus formed survives to higher temperatures than H 2 D + . Subsequent reactions with H 2 lead to CH 4 D + which by electronic recombination forms CH 2 D. The HDCO (H 2 CO) forms in the neutral-neutral reaction of CH 2 D (CH 3 ) and O. These reactions are not competitive in forming a variety of deuterated molecules at low temperatures since electronic recombination rapidly removes CH 2 D + and CH 4 D + ions while the abundant H 2 D + ion is slow to recombine, as reported by Smith and Adam in 1984

  8. Obtaining highly excited eigenstates of the localized XX chain via DMRG-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakul, Trithep; Khemani, Vedika; Pollmann, Frank; Huse, David A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2017-10-01

    We benchmark a variant of the recently introduced density matrix renormalization group (DMRG)-X algorithm against exact results for the localized random field XX chain. We find that the eigenstates obtained via DMRG-X exhibit a highly accurate l-bit description for system sizes much bigger than the direct, many-body, exact diagonalization in the spin variables is able to access. We take advantage of the underlying free fermion description of the XX model to accurately test the strengths and limitations of this algorithm for large system sizes. We discuss the theoretical constraints on the performance of the algorithm from the entanglement properties of the eigenstates, and its actual performance at different values of disorder. A small but significant improvement to the algorithm is also presented, which helps significantly with convergence. We find that, at high entanglement, DMRG-X shows a bias towards eigenstates with low entanglement, but can be improved with increased bond dimension. This result suggests that one must be careful when applying the algorithm for interacting many-body localized spin models near a transition. This article is part of the themed issue 'Breakdown of ergodicity in quantum systems: from solids to synthetic matter'.

  9. High Frequency Near-Field Ground Motion Excited by Strike-Slip Step Overs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    We performed dynamic rupture simulations on step overs with 1-2 km step widths and present their corresponding horizontal peak ground velocity distributions in the near field within different frequency ranges. The rupture speeds on fault segments are determinant in controlling the near-field ground motion. A Mach wave impact area at the free surface, which can be inferred from the distribution of the ratio of the maximum fault-strike particle velocity to the maximum fault-normal particle velocity, is generated in the near field with sustained supershear ruptures on fault segments, and the Mach wave impact area cannot be detected with unsustained supershear ruptures alone. Sub-Rayleigh ruptures produce stronger ground motions beyond the end of fault segments. The existence of a low-velocity layer close to the free surface generates large amounts of high-frequency seismic radiation at step over discontinuities. For near-vertical step overs, normal stress perturbations on the primary fault caused by dipping structures affect the rupture speed transition, which further determines the distribution of the near-field ground motion. The presence of an extensional linking fault enhances the near-field ground motion in the extensional regime. This work helps us understand the characteristics of high-frequency seismic radiation in the vicinities of step overs and provides useful insights for interpreting the rupture speed distributions derived from the characteristics of near-field ground motion.

  10. Satellite bands of the RbCs molecule in the range of highly excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakić, Mario; Beuc, Robert; Skenderović, Hrvoje, E-mail: hrvoje@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, Bijenička cesta 46, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Vexiau, Romain [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, ENS Cachan, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 505, Campus d’Orsay, Orsay Cedex 91405 (France); Pichler, Goran [Physics Department, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969, Safat—13060 (Kuwait)

    2016-05-28

    We report on the observation of three RbCs satellite bands in the blue and green ranges of the visible spectrum. Absorption measurements are performed using all-sapphire cell filled with a mixture of Rb and Cs. We compare high resolution absorption spectrum of Rb-Cs vapor mixture with pure Rb and Cs vapor spectra from the literature. After detailed analysis, the new satellite bands of RbCs molecule at 418.3 nm, 468.3, and 527.5 nm are identified. The origin of these bands is discussed by direct comparison with difference potentials derived from quantum chemistry calculations of RbCs potential energy curves. These bands originate from the lower Rydberg states of the RbCs molecule. This study thus provides further insight into photoassociation of lower Rydberg molecular states, approximately between Cs(7s) + Rb(5s) and Cs(6s) + Rb(6p) asymptotes, in ultracold gases.

  11. Synthesis of nanoscale copper nitride thin film and modification of the surface under high electronic excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Tripathi, A; Ganesan, V; Avasthi, D K

    2008-05-01

    Nanoscale (approximately 90 nm) Copper nitride (Cu3N) films are deposited on borosilicate glass and Si substrates by RF sputtering technique in the reactive environment of nitrogen gas. These films are irradiated with 200 MeV Au15+ ions from Pelletron accelerator in order to modify the surface by high electronic energy deposition of heavy ions. Due to irradiation (i) at incident ion fluence of 1 x 10(12) ions/cm2 enhancement of grains, (ii) at 5 x 10912) ions/cm2 mass transport on the films surface, (iii) at 2 x 10(13) ions/cm2 line-like features on Cu3N/glass and nanometallic structures on Cu3N/Si surface are observed. The surface morphology is examined by atomic force microscope (AFM). All results are explained on the basis of a thermal spike model of ion-solid interaction.

  12. Libraries as a venue for exciting education technology, both high tech and low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.; Holland, A.

    2016-12-01

    Public libraries provide a broad range of possibilities for reaching diverse audiences with NASA and STEM related content and activities, from hands-on activities, to interactive kiosks incorporating science based games, simulations, and real-time data. NCIL/SSI has been developing STEM-based exhibits and program activities for public libraries since 2007, and is currently managing 7 national tours in partnership with the American Library Association and other organizations. Past and current exhibitions will reach over 100 libraries and an estimated 1.5 million patrons. In this paper we will discuss a range of findings from almost a decade of deploying both high and low tech STEM learning strategies into libraries, including usage and engagement by library patrons, and challenges (and solutions) for deploying technologically sophisticated components into libraries which may or may not have dedicated technical staff.

  13. HIGHLY EXCITED H{sub 2} IN HERBIG–HARO 7: FORMATION PUMPING IN SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, R. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI (United States); Burton, M. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Chrysostomou, A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-10

    We have obtained K -band spectra at R ∼ 5000 and an angular resolution of 0.″3 of a section of the Herbig–Haro 7 (HH7) bow shock, using the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph at Gemini North. Present in the portion of the data cube corresponding to the brightest part of the bow shock are emission lines of H{sub 2} with upper state energies ranging from ∼6000 K to the dissociation energy of H{sub 2}, ∼50,000 K. Because of low signal-to-noise ratios, the highest excitation lines cannot be easily seen elsewhere in the observed region. However, excitation temperatures, measured throughout much of the observed region using lines from levels as high as 25,000 K, are a strong function of upper level energy, indicating that the very highest levels are populated throughout. The level populations in the brightest region are well fit by a two-temperature model, with 98.5% of the emitting gas at T = 1800 K and 1.5% at T = 5200 K. The bulk of the H{sub 2} line emission in HH7, from the 1800 K gas, has previously been well-modeled by a continuous shock, but the 5200 K cozmponent is inconsistent with standalone standard continuous shock models. We discuss various possible origins for the hot component and suggest that this component is H{sub 2} newly reformed on dust grains and then ejected from them, presumably following dissociation of some of the H{sub 2} by the shock.

  14. Propagation and Breaking at High Altitudes of Gravity Waves Excited by Tropospheric Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1996-01-01

    An anelastic approximation is used with a time-variable coordinate transformation to formulate a two-dimensional numerical model that describes the evolution of gravity waves. The model is solved using a semi-Lagrangian method with monotone (nonoscillatory) interpolation of all advected fields. The time-variable transformation is used to generate disturbances at the lower boundary that approximate the effect of a traveling line of thunderstorms (a squall line) or of flow over a broad topographic obstacle. The vertical propagation and breaking of the gravity wave field (under conditions typical of summer solstice) is illustrated for each of these cases. It is shown that the wave field at high altitudes is dominated by a single horizontal wavelength; which is not always related simply to the horizontal dimension of the source. The morphology of wave breaking depends on the horizontal wavelength; for sufficiently short waves, breaking involves roughly one half of the wavelength. In common with other studies, it is found that the breaking waves undergo "self-acceleration," such that the zonal-mean intrinsic frequency remains approximately constant in spite of large changes in the background wind. It is also shown that many of the features obtained in the calculations can be understood in terms of linear wave theory. In particular, linear theory provides insights into the wavelength of the waves that break at high altitudes, the onset and evolution of breaking. the horizontal extent of the breaking region and its position relative to the forcing, and the minimum and maximum altitudes where breaking occurs. Wave breaking ceases at the altitude where the background dissipation rate (which in our model is a proxy for molecular diffusion) becomes greater than the rate of dissipation due to wave breaking, This altitude, in effect, the model turbopause, is shown to depend on a relatively small number of parameters that characterize the waves and the background state.

  15. High voltage, high power operation of the plasma erosion opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, J.M.; Boller, J.R.; Ottinger, P.F.; Weber, B.V.; Young, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    A Plasma Erosion Opening Switch (PEOS) is used as the opening switch for a vacuum inductive storage system driven by a 1.8-MV, 1.6-TW pulsed power generator. A 135-nH vacuum inductor is current charged to ∼750 kA in 50 ns through the closed PEOS which then opens in <10 ns into an inverse ion diode load. Electrical diagnostics and nuclear activations from ions accelerated in the diode yield a peak load voltage (4.25 MV) and peak load power (2.8 TW) that are 2.4 and 1.8 times greater than ideal matched load values for the same generator pulse

  16. The development of an open architecture control system for CBN high speed grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, E. Jannone da; Biffi, M.; Oliveira, J. F. G. de

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project is the development of an open architecture controlling (OAC) system to be applied in the high speed grinding process using CBN tools. Besides other features, the system will allow a new monitoring and controlling strategy, by the adoption of open architecture CNC combined with multi-sensors, a PC and third-party software. The OAC system will be implemented in a high speed CBN grinding machine, which is being developed in a partnership between the University of São Paul...

  17. Dynamics of Nonlinear Excitation of the High-Order Mode in a Single-Mode Step-Index Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdin, V.; Bourdine, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work is concerned with approximate model of higher-order mode nonlinear excitation in a singlemode silica optical fiber. We present some results of simulation for step-index optical fiber under femtosecond optical pulse launching, which confirm ability of relatively stable higher-order mode excitation in such singlemode optical fiber over sufficiently narrow range of launched optical power variation.

  18. Method for exciting inductive-resistive loads with high and controllable direct current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The apparatus and method for transmitting dc power to a load circuit by applying a dc voltage from a standard waveform synthesizer to duration modulate a bipolar rectangular wave generator are described. As the amplitude of the dc voltage increases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses increase, and as the amplitude of the dc voltage decreases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses decrease. Thus, the waveform synthesizer selectively changes the durations of the rectangular wave generator bipolar output pulses so as to produce a rectangular wave ac carrier that is duration modulated in accordance with and in direct proportion to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. Thereupon, by transferring the carrier to the load circuit through an amplifier and a rectifier, the load current also corresponds directly to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. To this end, the rectified wave at less than 100 percent duty factor amounts to a doubled frequency direct voltage pulse train for applying a direct current to the load, while the current ripple is minimized by a high L/R in the load circuit. In one embodiment, a power transmitting power amplifier means having a dc power supply is matched to the load circuit through a transformer for current magnification without sacrificing load current duration capability, while negative voltage and current feedback are provided in order to insure good output fidelity. 4 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures

  19. Highly sensitive magneto-motive photoacoustic and ultrasound (PAUS) imaging with cyclic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, B; Wei, C-W; Li, J; Gao, X; O’Donnell, M

    2016-01-01

    Highly specific molecular imaging with photoacoustics (PA) must suppress background endogenous signals while maintaining signals from target nanoagents. Magneto-motive PA was introduced to perform motion-based background suppression using a low frequency magnetic field. Previous studies show suppression based on displacement magnitude can suffer if significant physiological motion is present. This limitation can be overcome using cyclic magneto-motive PA (cmmPA), where multiple cycles of an ac magnetic field are used and the coherence of detected displacements is the retrieved information. In this paper, we show a method to enhance the magnetic response of an electromagnet specifically for cmmPA. Several magnetic frequencies were tested and a simple model is proposed to describe displacement frequency dependence. By choosing optimal parameters based on this model, we show that the technique can detect a low number of tagged cells using either US-based or PA-based displacement estimation. In addition, robustness to physiological motion is demonstrated in a moving phantom. (paper)

  20. The effect of lower anterior high pull headgear on treatment of moderate open bite in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Showkatbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various methods are used for treatment of open bite. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lower Anterior High Pull Headgear (LAHPH appliance in Class I subjects with moderate open bite and high lower lip line.Materials and Methods: The study group was composed of 10 subjects with a mean age of 15.8±2.5 years and 3.05 ± 0.07 mm moderate open bite. All the patients rejected orthognathic surgery. The treatment included extraction of upper and lower second premolars followed by leveling, banding, bonding, posterior space closure, and anterior retraction. After these procedures, the open bite was reduced to 2.04±1.17 mm. Afterwards, LAHPH was applied for 18 hours per day for 8±2 months. LAHPH appliance was composed of High Pull Headgear and two hooks mounted on its inner bow. Two elastics (1.8, light, Dentaurum connected the upper hooks on the inner bow to the lower hooks on the mandibular canines vertically. The forces produced by the prescribed elastics were 10 and 60 g during mouth closing and opening, respectively. Paired T-test was used to evaluate pre-andpost-treatment outcomes.Results: The pre-and post-treatment cephalometric evaluations showed that the LAHPH reduced effectively the open bite of the patients to 0.15±1.7 mm (P<0.001.Conclusion: This appliance can be used as an acceptable method for closing the open bite in Class I subjects.

  1. Collective excitations and superconductivity in reduced dimensional systems - Possible mechanism for high Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoyo, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The author studies in full detail a possible mechanism of superconductivity in slender electronic systems of finite cross section. This mechanism is based on the pairing interaction mediated by the multiple modes of acoustic plasmons in these structures. First, he shows that multiple non-Landau-damped acoustic plasmon modes exist for electrons in a quasi-one dimensional wire at finite temperatures. These plasmons are of two basic types. The first one is made up by the collective longitudinal oscillations of the electrons essentially of a given transverse energy level oscillating against the electrons in the neighboring transverse energy level. The modes are called Slender Acoustic Plasmons or SAP's. The other mode is the quasi-one dimensional acoustic plasmon mode in which all the electrons oscillate together in phase among themselves but out of phase against the positive ion background. He shows numerically and argues physically that even for a temperature comparable to the mode separation Δω the SAP's and the quasi-one dimensional plasmon persist. Then, based on a clear physical picture, he develops in terms of the dielectric function a theory of superconductivity capable of treating the simultaneous participation of multiple bosonic modes that mediate the pairing interaction. The effect of mode damping is then incorporated in a simple manner that is free of the encumbrance of the strong-coupling, Green's function formalism usually required for the retardation effect. Explicit formulae including such damping are derived for the critical temperature T c and the energy gap Δ 0 . With those modes and armed with such a formalism, he proceeds to investigate a possible superconducting mechanism for high T c in quasi-one dimensional single-wire and multi-wire systems

  2. High efficiency high rate microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells deposited at plasma excitation frequencies larger than 100 MHz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strobel, C.; Leszczynska, B.; Merkel, U.; Kuske, J.; Fischer, D.D.; Albert, M.; Holovský, Jakub; Michard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, Dec (2015), 347-353 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12029 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - Fast Track Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : VHF * PECVD * microcrystalline silicon * solar cell * high rate * high efficiency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.732, year: 2015

  3. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  4. [Excitation transfer between high-lying states in K2 in collisions with ground state K and H2 molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Jing; Dai, Kang; Shen, Yi-Fan

    2010-02-01

    Pure potassium vapor or K-H2 mixture was irradiated in a glass fluorescence cell with pulses of 710 nm radiation from an OPO laser, populating K2 (1lambda(g)) state by two-photon absorption. Cross sections for 1lambda(g)-3lambda(g) transfer in K2 were determined using methods of molecular fluorescence. During the experiments with pure K vapor, the cell temperature was varied between 553 and 603 K. The K number density was determined spectroscopically by the white-light absorption measurement in the blue wing of the self-broadened resonance D2 line. The resulting fluorescence included a direct component emitted in the decay of the optically excitation and a sensitized component arising from the collisionally populated state. The decay signal of time-resolved fluorescence from1lambda(g) -->1 1sigma(u)+ transition was monitored. It was seen that just after the laser pulse the fluorescence of the photoexcited level decreased exponentially. The effective lifetimes of the 1lambda(g) state can be resolved. The plot of reciprocal of effective lifetimes of the 1lambda(g) state against K densities yielded the slope that indicated the total cross section for deactivation and the intercept that provided the radiative lifetime of the state. The radiative lifetime (20 +/- 2) ns was obtained. The cross section for deactivation of the K2(1lambda(g)) molecules by collisions with K is (2.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(-14) cm2. The time-resolved intensities of the K23lambda(g) --> 1 3sigma(u)+ (484 nm) line were measured. The radiative lifetime (16.0 +/- 3.2) ns and the total cross section (2.5 +/- 0.6) x 10(-14) cm2 for deactivation of the K2 (3lambda(g)) state can also be determined through the analogous procedure. The time-integrated intensities of 1lambda(g) --> 1 1sigma(u)+ and 3lambda(g) --> 1 3sigma(u)+ transitions were measured. The cross section (1.1 +/- 0.3) x10(-14) cm2 was obtained for K2 (1lambda(g))+ K --> K2 (3lambda(g)) + K collisions. During the experiments with K-H2 mixture, the

  5. High temperature high velocity direct power extraction using an open-cycle oxy-combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The implementation of oxy-fuel technology in fossil-fuel power plants may contribute to increased system efficiencies and a reduction of pollutant emissions. One technology that has potential to utilize the temperature of undiluted oxy-combustion flames is open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators. These systems can be configured as a topping cycle and provide high enthalpy, electrically conductive flows for direct conversion of electricity. This report presents the design and modeling strategies of a MHD combustor operating at temperatures exceeding 3000 K. Throughout the study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were extensively used as a design and optimization tool. A lab-scale 60 kWth model was designed, manufactured and tested as part of this project. A fully-coupled numerical method was developed in ANSYS FLUENT to characterize the heat transfer in the system. This study revealed that nozzle heat transfer may be predicted through a 40% reduction of the semi-empirical Bartz correlation. Experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical evaluation, with the combustor exhibiting a favorable performance when tested during extended time periods. A transient numerical method was employed to analyze fuel injector geometries for the 60-kW combustor. The ANSYS FLUENT study revealed that counter-swirl inlets achieve a uniform pressure and velocity ratio when the ports of the injector length to diameter ratio (L/D) is 4. An angle of 115 degrees was found to increase distribution efficiency. The findings show that this oxy-combustion concept is capable of providing a high-enthalpy environment for seeding, in order to render the flow to be conductive. Based on previous findings, temperatures in the range of 2800-3000 K may enable magnetohydrodynamic power extraction. The heat loss fraction in this oxy-combustion system, based on CFD and analytical calculations, at optimal operating conditions, was estimated to be less than 10 percent

  6. ON THE ORIGIN OF HIGH-ALTITUDE OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México, D.F., México (Mexico); Velazquez, H., E-mail: lamartinez@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 877, 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico)

    2016-01-20

    We present a dynamical study of the effect of the bar and spiral arms on the simulated orbits of open clusters in the Galaxy. Specifically, this work is devoted to the puzzling presence of high-altitude open clusters in the Galaxy. For this purpose we employ a very detailed observationally motivated potential model for the Milky Way and a careful set of initial conditions representing the newly born open clusters in the thin disk. We find that the spiral arms are able to raise an important percentage of open clusters (about one-sixth of the total employed in our simulations, depending on the structural parameters of the arms) above the Galactic plane to heights beyond 200 pc, producing a bulge-shaped structure toward the center of the Galaxy. Contrary to what was expected, the spiral arms produce a much greater vertical effect on the clusters than the bar, both in quantity and height; this is due to the sharper concentration of the mass on the spiral arms, when compared to the bar. When a bar and spiral arms are included, spiral arms are still capable of raising an important percentage of the simulated open clusters through chaotic diffusion (as tested from classification analysis of the resultant high-z orbits), but the bar seems to restrain them, diminishing the elevation above the plane by a factor of about two.

  7. Excited fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjema, F.; Djouadi, A.; Kneur, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The production of excited fermions with mass above 100 GeV is considered. f→Vf (1) decay widths are calculated where V=γ, Z or W. Excited fermion pair production in e + e - annihilation and in γγ collisions, and single production in e + e - annihilation, eγ and γγ collisions is also discussed. Cross sections are calculated for all these cases. The discovery potential of the NLC at 500 GeV is compared with that of other colliders. (K.A.) 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Effects of intermediate load on performance limitations in excitation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichai Aree

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The stability of excitation control systems is of great concern in power system operations. In this paper, the effects of intermediate load on performance limitation in excitation control are studied. The results reveal that the open-loop characteristic of synchronous machine’s flux linkage can be changed from minimum to non-minimum phase at a high level of intermediate load. This change leads to instability of synchronous machines under manual excitation control. A particular emphasis is also given to investigate the fundamental limitations in excitation control, imposed by non-minimum phases with regard to the open-loop right-half-plane (ORHP pole. The study demonstrates the difficulties of excitation control tuning to achieve the desired performance and robustness under the ORHP pole occurrence. Moreover, this paper shows the conditional stability in excitation control loop, where either an increase or decrease of the exciter gain causes a destabilization of the system’s stability. Frequency response techniques are used for these investigations.

  9. A Low-Energy-Gap Thienochrysenocarbazole Dye for Highly Efficient Mesoscopic Titania Solar Cells: Understanding the Excited State and Charge Carrier Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junting; Xie, Xinrui; Weng, Guorong; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Peng

    2018-05-09

    Maintaining both a high external quantum efficiency and a large open-circuit photovoltage of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is a crucial challenge in the process of developing narrow-energy-gap dyes for the capture of infrared solar photons. Herein, we report two donor-acceptor organic dyes, C294 and C295, with a polycyclic heteroaromatic unit, 6,11-dihydrothieno[3',2':8,9]chryseno[10,11,12,1-bcdefg]carbazole (TCC), as the central module of the electron donor, and ethylbenzothiadiazole-benzioc acid as the electron acceptor. The interfacial charge recombination was successfully mitigated by introducing an additional branched aliphatic chain in C295. Furthermore, the O⋅⋅⋅S nonbonding interaction between the oxygen atom of the alkoxy group and the sulfur atom of the thiophene in C295 controlled the conformation of C295, resulting in a narrow energy-gap. Time-resolved spectroscopic measurements on C294 and the model dye C272 indicated that the elevation of the HOMO energy level decreased the kinetics and yield of hole injection owing to a reduction in the driving force and that the shortened excited-state lifetime caused by the narrowing of the energy gap was unfavorable for electron injection. By fine tuning the composition of the electrolyte, C294 and C295 eventually achieved high power conversion efficiencies of 11.5 % and 12.4 %, respectively, under full sunlight of air mass 1.5 global conditions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Fabrication of nickel hydroxide electrodes with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays for high capacitance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Huang, Kuo-Chih

    2011-11-28

    A nickel hydroxide electrode with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays, prepared by hydrolysis of nickel chloride in the presence of hexagonal ZnO nanorods, shows a very high capacitance of 1328 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) due to the significantly improved ion transport.

  11. Deriving animal behaviour from high-frequency GPS: tracking cows in open and forested habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, de N.; Langevelde, van F.; Oeveren, van H.; Nolet, B.A.; Kölzsch, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Boer, de W.F.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data.We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable

  12. Applications of high order harmonic radiation to UVX-solids interaction: high excitation density in electronic relaxation dynamics and surface damaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grazia, M.

    2007-12-01

    The new sources of radiation in the extreme-UV (X-UV: 10-100 nm), which deliver spatially coherent, ultra-short and intense pulses, allow studying high flux processes and ultra-fast dynamics in various domains. The thesis work presents two applications of the high-order laser harmonics (HH) to solid state physics. In Part I, we describe the optimization of the harmonic for studies of X-UV/solids interaction. In Part II, we investigate effects of high excitation density in the dynamics of electron relaxation in dielectric scintillator crystals - tungstates and fluorides, using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Quenching of luminescence at short time gives evidence of the competition between radiative and non-radiative recombination of self-trapped excitons (STE). The non-radiative channel is identified to mutual interaction of STE at high excitation density. In Part III, we study the X-UV induced damage mechanism in various materials, either conductor (amorphous carbon) or insulators (organic polymers, e.g., PMMA). In PMMA-Plexiglas, in the desorption regime (0.2 mJ/cm 2 , i.e., below damage threshold), the surface modifications reflect X-UV induced photochemical processes that are tentatively identified, as a function of dose: at low dose, polymer chain scission followed by the blow-up of the volatile, low-molecular fragments leads to crater formation; at high dose, cross-linking in the near-surface layer of remaining material leads to surface hardening. These promising results have great perspectives considering the performances already attained and planned in the next future in the development of the harmonic sources. (author)

  13. Early age stress-crack opening relationships for high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Lange, David A.; Stang, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Stress–crack opening relationships for concrete in early age have been determined for two high performance concrete mixes with water to cementitious materials ratios of 0.307 and 0.48. The wedge splitting test setup was used experimentally and the cracked nonlinear hinge model based...... on the fictitious crack model was applied for the interpretation of the results. A newly developed inverse analysis algorithm was utilized for the extraction of the stress–crack opening relationships. Experiments were conducted at 8, 10, 13, 17, 22, 28, 48, 168 h (7 days) and 672 h (28 days). At the same ages...

  14. Effects of high frequency fluctuations on DNS of turbulent open-channel flow with high Pr passive scalar transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Serizawa, Akimi

    2002-01-01

    In this study, investigation on effects of high frequency fluctuations on DNS of turbulent open-channel flows with high Pr passive scalar transport was conducted. As the results, although significant differences of energy spectra behaviors in temperature fields, are caused at high wave number region where insignificant area for velocity components, large difference dose not caused in mean and statistic behaviors in temperature component. But, if the buoyancy were considered, this temperature high-frequency fluctuations would be greatly changed mean and statistics behaviors from the difference of the accuracy and resolution at high wave number region. (author)

  15. State-selective charge transfer and excitation in ion-ion interactions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, R; Purkait, M

    2012-01-01

    Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation and Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) methods are applied to calculate the charge transfer and excitation cross sections for ion-ion collisions.

  16. Classical/quantum correspondence in state selective charge transfer and excitation reactions involving highly charged ions and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M

    2009-01-01

    State selective charge transfer and excitation cross sections for collisions of Ne q+ (q = 1-10) with atomic hydrogen are calculated within the framework of Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation.

  17. Premotor spinal network with balanced excitation and inhibition during motor patterns has high resilience to structural division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter C; Vestergaard, Mikkel; Reveles Jensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Direct measurements of synaptic inhibition (I) and excitation (E) to spinal motoneurons can provide an important insight into the organization of premotor networks. Such measurements of flexor motoneurons participating in motor patterns in turtles have recently demonstrated strong concurrent E...

  18. Wavelet Entropy-Based Traction Inverter Open Switch Fault Diagnosis in High-Speed Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keting Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a diagnosis plan is proposed to settle the detection and isolation problem of open switch faults in high-speed railway traction system traction inverters. Five entropy forms are discussed and compared with the traditional fault detection methods, namely, discrete wavelet transform and discrete wavelet packet transform. The traditional fault detection methods cannot efficiently detect the open switch faults in traction inverters because of the low resolution or the sudden change of the current. The performances of Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy (WPESE, Wavelet Packet Energy Tsallis Entropy (WPETE with different non-extensive parameters, Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy with a specific sub-band (WPESE3,6, Empirical Mode Decomposition Shannon Entropy (EMDESE, and Empirical Mode Decomposition Tsallis Entropy (EMDETE with non-extensive parameters in detecting the open switch fault are evaluated by the evaluation parameter. Comparison experiments are carried out to select the best entropy form for the traction inverter open switch fault detection. In addition, the DC component is adopted to isolate the failure Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT. The simulation experiments show that the proposed plan can diagnose single and simultaneous open switch faults correctly and timely.

  19. Open Access Publishing in High-Energy Physics: the SCOAP3 Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, S.

    2010-10-01

    Scholarly communication in High-Energy Physics (HEP) shows traits very similar to Astronomy and Astrophysics: pervasiveness of Open Access to preprints through community-based services; a culture of openness and sharing among its researchers; a compact number of yearly articles published by a relatively small number of journals which are dear to the community. These aspects have led HEP to spearhead an innovative model for the transition of its scholarly publishing to Open Access. The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP) aims to be a central body to finance peer-review service rather than the purchase of access to information as in the traditional subscription model, with all articles in the discipline eventually available in Open Access. Sustainable funding to SCOAP would come from libraries, library consortia and HEP funding agencies, through a re-direction of funds currently spent for subscriptions to HEP journals. This paper presents the cultural and bibliometric factors at the roots of SCOAP and the current status of this worldwide initiative.

  20. Semiclassical study of the collision of a highly excited Rydberg atom with the molecules HF and HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, M.; Lane, N.F.

    1990-01-01

    The semiclassical impact-parameter method is applied to the processes of state changing and energy transfer in the collision of a highly excited Rydberg atom (n≥20) with the polar molecules HF and HCl. The relative motion of the molecule and atomic nucleus is taken to be rectilinear; the electron-molecule and ion core-molecule interactions are represented by cutoff dipole forms. Cross sections for transitions involving quantum numbers n and l of the atom and rotational quantum number j of the molecule are obtained for a range of collision energies and initial atomic and molecular states. Comparisons are made with the results of earlier classical studies and with the quantum-mechanical impulse approximation. Collision rates are calculated and compared with experimental values for l mixing and n and j changing. The agreement between experiment and theory is shown to be satisfactory, within the uncertainties of both the measurements and the theory. Cases of agreement and disagreement between various theories are examined. One finding of the present work is that the quantum-mechanical impulse approximation appears to significantly overestimate the values of various state-changing cross sections when the internal energy defect is small. The validity of the impulse approximation for collisions of Rydberg atoms with polar molecules is discussed

  1. Resonant excitation of high order modes in the 3.9 GHz cavity of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Solyak, N.; Sukhanov, A.; Yakovlev, V.

    2018-02-01

    Construction of the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) is underway for the world's first hard x-ray free-electron laser. A central part of the LCLS-II project is a 4 GeV superconducting radio frequency electron linac that will operate in the continuous wave (cw) mode. The linac is segmented into four sections named as L 0 , L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 . Two 3.9 GHz cryomodules, each housing of eight third-harmonic cavities similar to the cavities developed for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL), will be used in section L 1 of the linac for linearizing the longitudinal beam profile. In this paper, we present a study of trapped high order modes (HOMs) excited by a cw electron beam in the third-harmonic cavities of the LCLS-II linac. A detailed comparison of the original XFEL design and the LCLS-II design with a modified end group is performed in order to estimate the effect of a reduced beam pipe aperture on the efficiency of HOM damping. Furthermore, we apply a statistical analysis of the eigenmode spectrum for the estimation of the probability of resonant HOM losses and influence of HOMs on beam dynamics.

  2. Search for aligned structure of 12C-α-12C type at high excitation energy in 28Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnereau, Nicole.

    1975-01-01

    The 16 O+ 12 C→ 12 C+α+ 12 C reaction is studied mainly at 46MeV (at this energy a state of 28 Si is presumably formed with a spin value of 14 + ; resonance of 19.7MeV c.m.). The motivation is to detect an α particle with a negligible energy in the c.m. system. This is the signature of the preformation of three aligned clusters in which the average location of the α particle is in between the two 12 C's at the center of symmetry of the system. Such a detection is performed by detecting two 12 C's in coincidence at specific angles. The data are understood by three-body calculations with a coupling of relative angular momenta governed by an unique J value. Experimentally, an α energy of 200keV is measured with good statistics, supporting the idea of aligned clusters as 28 Si intrinsic shape, related to some highly excited states [fr

  3. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  4. The CHESS survey of the L1157-B1 bow-shock: high and low excitation water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, G.; Lefloch, B.; Benedettini, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Codella, C.; Cabrit, S.; Nisini, B.; Viti, S.; Gómez-Ruiz, A. I.; Gusdorf, A.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Molecular outflows powered by young protostars strongly affect the kinematics and chemistry of the natal molecular cloud through strong shocks. This results in substantial modifications of the abundance of several species. In particular, water is a powerful tracer of shocked material because of its sensitivity to both physical conditions and chemical processes. Aims: As part of the Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star-forming regions (CHESS) guaranteed time key program, we aim at investigating the physical and chemical conditions of H2O in the brightest shock region B1 of the L1157 molecular outflow. Methods: We observed several ortho- and para-H2O transitions using the HIFI and PACS instruments on board Herschel toward L1157-B1, providing a detailed picture of the kinematics and spatial distribution of the gas. We performed a large velocity gradient (LVG) analysis to derive the physical conditions of H2O shocked material, and ultimately obtain its abundance. Results: We detected 13 H2O lines with both instruments probing a wide range of excitation conditions. This is the largest data set of water lines observed in a protostellar shock and it provides both the kinematics and the spatial information of the emitting gas. The PACS maps reveal that H2O traces weak and extended emission associated with the outflow identified also with HIFI in the o-H2O line at 556.9 GHz, and a compact (~10'') bright, higher excitation region. The LVG analysis of H2O lines in the bow-shock show the presence of two gas components with different excitation conditions: a warm (Tkin ≃ 200-300 K) and dense (n(H2) ≃ (1-3) × 106 cm-3) component with an assumed extent of 10'', and a compact (~2''-5'') and hot, tenuous (Tkin ≃ 900-1400 K, n(H2) ≃ 103-4 cm-3) gas component that is needed to account for the line fluxes of high Eu transitions. The fractional abundance of the warm and hot H2O gas components is estimated to be (0.7-2) × 10-6 and (1-3) × 10-4, respectively. Finally, we

  5. Demonstration of a High Open-Circuit Voltage GaN Betavoltaic Microbattery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zai-Jun; San Hai-Sheng; Chen Xu-Yuan; Liu Bo; Feng Zhi-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A high open-circuit voltage betavoltaic microbattery based on a GaN p-i-n diode is demonstrated. Under the irradiation of a 4×4 mm 2 planar solid 63 Ni source with an activity of 2 mCi, the open-circuit voltage V oc of the fabricated single 2×2mm 2 cell reaches as high as 1.62 V, the short-circuit current density J sc is measured to be 16nA/cm 2 . The microbattery has a fill factor of 55%, and the energy conversion efficiency of beta radiation into electricity reaches to 1.13%. The results suggest that GaN is a highly promising potential candidate for long-life betavoltaic microbatteries used as power supplies for microelectromechanical system devices. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. High frequency time modulation of neutrons by LiNbO3 crystals with surface acoustic waves excited under the diffraction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Granzer, E.; Kikuta, Seishi; Tomimitsu, Hiroshi; Doi, Kenji.

    1985-01-01

    High frequency time modulation of neutrons was investigated by using Y-cut LiNbO 3 crystals with surface acoustic waves excited. A double crystal arrangement of (+, -) parallel setting was used for 030 symmetric Bragg-case reflections. Synchronized standing waves with a resonance frequency of 14.26 MHz were excited on the both crystals. Variation of the diffracted intensity with phase difference between two standing waves was studied. The result showed an intensity change of diffracted neutrons with twice the resonance frequency. (author)

  7. Whole body traveling wave magnetic resonance imaging at high field strength: homogeneity, efficiency, and energy deposition as compared with traditional excitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Sodickson, Daniel K; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Duan, Qi; Stoeckel, Bernd; Wiggins, Graham C

    2012-04-01

    In 7 T traveling wave imaging, waveguide modes supported by the scanner radiofrequency shield are used to excite an MR signal in samples or tissue which may be several meters away from the antenna used to drive radiofrequency power into the system. To explore the potential merits of traveling wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 7 T, we compare numerical simulations of traveling wave and TEM systems, and juxtapose full-wave electrodynamic simulations using a human body model with in vivo human traveling wave imaging at multiple stations covering the entire body. The simulated and in vivo traveling wave results correspond well, with strong signal at the periphery of the body and weak signal deep in the torso. These numerical results also illustrate the complicated wave behavior that emerges when a body is present. The TEM resonator simulation allowed comparison of traveling wave excitation with standard quadrature excitation, showing that while the traveling wave B +1 per unit drive voltage is much less than that of the TEM system, the square of the average B +1 compared to peak specific absorption rate (SAR) values can be comparable in certain imaging planes. Both systems produce highly inhomogeneous excitation of MR signal in the torso, suggesting that B(1) shimming or other parallel transmission methods are necessary for 7 T whole body imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. High-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon investigated by spectroscopic femtosecond pump–probe reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yurkevich, Igor V. [Aston University, Nonlinearity and Complexity Research Group, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zakar, Ammar [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kaplan, Andrey, E-mail: a.kaplan.1@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    We report an investigation into the high-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers far from equilibrium with the lattice. The investigated samples consist of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films grown on a thin film of silicon oxide on top of a silicon substrate. For the investigation, we used an optical femtosecond pump–probe setup to measure the reflectance change of a probe beam. The pump beam ranged between 580 and 820 nm, whereas the probe wavelength spanned 770 to 810 nm. The pump fluence was fixed at 0.6 mJ/cm{sup 2}. We show that at a fixed delay time of 300 fs, the conductivity of the excited electron–hole plasma is described well by a classical conductivity model of a hot charge carrier gas found at Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, while Fermi–Dirac statics is not suitable. This is corroborated by values retrieved from pump–probe reflectance measurements of the conductivity and its dependence on the excitation wavelength and carrier temperature. The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the excitation wavelength, as expected for a nondegenerate charge carrier gas. - Highlights: • We study high‐frequency conductivity of excited hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon. • Reflectance change was measured as a function of pump and probe wavelength. • Maxwell–Boltzmann transport theory was used to retrieve the conductivity. • The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the pump wavelength.

  9. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1,1 '-diphenylethylene: electronically excited and ionic states of a prototypical cross-conjugated system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolarek, S.; Vdovin, A.; Rijs, A.; van Walree, C.A.; Zgierski, M.Z.; Buma, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated π-system, 1,1′-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio calculations. We

  10. [Atomic/ionic fluorescence in microwave plasma torch discharge with excitation of high current and microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp: Ca atomic/ionic fluorescence spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhen-bin; Liang, Feng; Yang, Peng-yuan; Jin, Qin-han; Huang, Ben-li

    2002-02-01

    A system of atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry in microwave plasma torch (MPT) discharge excited by high current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp (HCMP HCL) has been developed. The operation conditions for Ca atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry have been optimized. Compared with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in argon microwave induced plasma (MIP) and MPT with the excitation of direct current and conventional pulsed HCL, the system with HCMP HCL excitation can improve AFS and ionic fluorescence spectrometry (IFS) detection limits in MPT atomizer and ionizer. Detection limits (3 sigma) with HCMP HCL-MPT-AFS/IFS are 10.1 ng.mL-1 for Ca I 422.7 nm, 14.6 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 393.4 nm, and 37.4 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 396.8 nm, respectively.

  11. Quadri-Pulse Theta Burst Stimulation using Ultra-High Frequency Bursts - A New Protocol to Induce Changes in Cortico-Spinal Excitability in Human Motor Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Gleich, Bernhard; Gattinger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Patterned transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) such as theta burst stimulation (TBS) or quadri-pulse stimulation (QPS) can induce changes in cortico-spinal excitability, commonly referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP)-like and long-term depression (LTD)-like effects in human motor cortex (M...... of sinusoidal TMS pulses elicited either a posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) directed current in M1. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded before and after qTBS to probe changes in cortico-spinal excitability. PA-qTBS at 666 Hz caused a decrease in PA-MEP amplitudes, whereas AP...... in cortico-spinal excitability. Induced current direction in the brain appears to be relevant when qTBS targets I-wave periodicity, corroborating that high-fidelity spike timing mechanisms are critical for inducing bi-directional plasticity in human M1....

  12. UV excitation of single DNA and RNA strands produces high yields of exciplex states between two stacked bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Tomohisa; Su, Charlene; de La Harpe, Kimberly; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E; Kohler, Bern

    2008-07-29

    Excited electronic states created by UV excitation of the diribonucleoside monophosphates ApA, ApG, ApC, ApU, and CpG were studied by the femtosecond transient-absorption technique. Bleach recovery signals recorded at 252 nm show that long-lived excited states are formed in all five dinucleosides. The lifetimes of these states exceed those measured in equimolar mixtures of the constituent mononucleotides by one to two orders of magnitude, indicating that electronic coupling between proximal nucleobases dramatically slows the relaxation of excess electronic energy. The decay rates of the long-lived states decrease with increasing energy of the charge-transfer state produced by transferring an electron from one base to another. The charge-transfer character of the long-lived states revealed by this analysis supports their assignment to excimer or exciplex states. Identical bleach recovery signals were seen for ApA, (A)(4), and poly(A) at delay times >10 ps after photoexcitation. This indicates that excited states localized on a stack of just two bases are the common trap states independent of the number of stacked nucleotides. The fraction of initial excitations that decay to long-lived exciplex states is approximately equal to the fraction of stacked bases determined by NMR measurements. This supports a model in which excitations associated with two stacked bases decay to exciplex states, whereas excitations in unstacked bases decay via ultrafast internal conversion. These results establish the importance of charge transfer-quenching pathways for UV-irradiated RNA and DNA in room-temperature solution.

  13. Excited baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested

  14. Excited baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

  15. Deviation from normal Boltzmann distribution of high-lying energy levels of iron atom excited by Okamoto-cavity microwave-induced plasmas using pure nitrogen and nitrogen–oxygen gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes several interesting excitation phenomena occurring in a microwave-induced plasma (MIP) excited with Okamoto-cavity, especially when a small amount of oxygen was mixed with nitrogen matrix in the composition of the plasma gas. An ion-to-atom ratio of iron, which was estimated from the intensity ratio of ion to atomic lines having almost the same excitation energy, was reduced by adding oxygen gas to the nitrogen MIP, eventually contributing to an enhancement in the emission intensities of the atomic lines. Furthermore, Boltzmann plots for iron atomic lines were observed in a wide range of the excitation energy from 3.4 to 6.9 eV, indicating that plots of the atomic lines having lower excitation energies (3.4 to 4.8 eV) were well fitted on a straight line while those having more than 5.5 eV deviated upwards from the linear relationship. This overpopulation would result from any other excitation process in addition to the thermal excitation that principally determines the Boltzmann distribution. A Penning-type collision with excited species of nitrogen molecules probably explains this additional excitation mechanism, in which the resulting iron ions recombine with captured electrons, followed by cascade de-excitations between closely-spaced excited levels just below the ionization limit. As a result, these high-lying levels might be more populated than the low-lying levels of iron atom. The ionization of iron would be caused less actively in the nitrogen–oxygen plasma than in a pure nitrogen plasma, because excited species of nitrogen molecule, which can provide the ionization energy in a collision with iron atom, are consumed through collisions with oxygen molecules to cause their dissociation. It was also observed that the overpopulation occurred to a lesser extent when oxygen gas was added to the nitrogen plasma. The reason for this was also attributed to decreased number density of the excited nitrogen species due to collisions with oxygen

  16. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, David E.; Hass, William J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses.

  17. Google Classroom and Open Clusters: An Authentic Science Research Project for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Cuba, Allison Frances; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hogan, Eleanor B.; Karos, Demetra N.; Kozikowski, Kendall G.; Kozikowski, Lauren Paige; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Hara, Kevin Thomas; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Garmany, Catharine D.

    2016-01-01

    STEM education is about offering unique opportunities to our students. For the past three years, students from two high schools (Breck School in Minneapolis, MN, and Carmel Catholic High School in Mundelein, IL) have collaborated on authentic astronomy research projects. This past year they surveyed archival data of open clusters to determine if a clear turnoff point could be unequivocally determined. Age and distance to each open cluster were calculated. Additionally, students requested time on several telescopes to obtain original data to compare to the archival data. Students from each school worked in collaborative teams, sharing and verifying results through regular online hangouts and chats. Work papers were stored in a shared drive and on a student-designed Google site to facilitate dissemination of documents between the two schools.

  18. Changes in patellofemoral alignment do not cause clinical impact after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Lee, Sang Bok; Oh, Won Seok; Kwon, Yong Eok; Lee, Beom Koo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of open-wedge high tibial osteotomy focusing on patellofemoral alignment and (2) to search for correlation between variables and patellofemoral malalignment. A total of 46 knees (46 patients) from 32 females and 14 males who underwent open-wedge high tibial osteotomy were included in this retrospective case series. Outcomes were evaluated using clinical scales and radiologic parameters at the last follow-up. Pre-operative and final follow-up values were compared for the outcome analysis. For the focused analysis of the patellofemoral joint, correlation analyses between patellofemoral variables and pre- and post-operative weight-bearing line (WBL), clinical score, posterior slope, Blackburn Peel ratio, lateral patellar tilt, lateral patellar shift, and congruence angle were performed. The minimum follow-up period was 2 years and median follow-up period was 44 months (range 24-88 months). The percentage of weight-bearing line was shifted from 17.2 ± 11.1 to 56.7 ± 12.7%, and it was statistically significant (p patellofemoral malalignment, the pre-operative weight-bearing line showed an association with the change in lateral patellar tilt and lateral patellar shift (correlation coefficient: 0.3). After open-wedge high tibial osteotomy, clinical results showed improvement, compared to pre-operative values. The patellar tilt and lateral patellar shift were not changed; however, descent of the patella was observed. Therefore, mild patellofemoral problems should not be a contraindication of the open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Case series, Level IV.

  19. OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography

  20. High-uniformity centimeter-wide Si etching method for MEMS devices with large opening elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yuki; Tohyama, Yukiya; Inagaki, Shunsuke; Takiguchi, Mikio; Ono, Tomoki; Lebrasseur, Eric; Mita, Yoshio

    2018-04-01

    We propose a compensated mesh pattern filling method to achieve highly uniform wafer depth etching (over hundreds of microns) with a large-area opening (over centimeter). The mesh opening diameter is gradually changed between the center and the edge of a large etching area. Using such a design, the etching depth distribution depending on sidewall distance (known as the local loading effect) inversely compensates for the over-centimeter-scale etching depth distribution, known as the global or within-die(chip)-scale loading effect. Only a single DRIE with test structure patterns provides a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) designer with the etched depth dependence on the mesh opening size as well as on the distance from the chip edge, and the designer only has to set the opening size so as to obtain a uniform etching depth over the entire chip. This method is useful when process optimization cannot be performed, such as in the cases of using standard conditions for a foundry service and of short turn-around-time prototyping. To demonstrate, a large MEMS mirror that needed over 1 cm2 of backside etching was successfully fabricated using as-is-provided DRIE conditions.

  1. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C; Campbell, Malachy T; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-05-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C.; Campbell, Malachy T.; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R.; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. PMID:27141917

  3. A separately excited synchronous motor as high efficient drive in electric vehicles; Die stromerregte Synchronmaschine als hocheffizienter Traktionsmotor in Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illiano, Enzo [ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigung; Brusa Elektronik AG, Sennfeld (Switzerland)

    2013-08-15

    The separately excited synchronous motor has several advantages which make this topology a very promising traction drive for electric vehicles. The comparison of the separately excited motor with other common topologies also shows the proper regulation of the current in the rotor will rise the complexity of the entire system. In addition the presence of a rotor current has a negative effect on the continuous power of the motor, as the investigations of ETH Zuerich and Brusa show. An optimised motor regulation and an accurate rotor shape design are indispensible to reduce the power deficit. (orig.)

  4. OpenMSI: A High-Performance Web-Based Platform for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Greiner, Annette; Cholia, Shreyas; Louie, Katherine; Bethel, E. Wes; Northen, Trent R.; Bowen, Benjamin P.

    2013-10-02

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables researchers to directly probe endogenous molecules directly within the architecture of the biological matrix. Unfortunately, efficient access, management, and analysis of the data generated by MSI approaches remain major challenges to this rapidly developing field. Despite the availability of numerous dedicated file formats and software packages, it is a widely held viewpoint that the biggest challenge is simply opening, sharing, and analyzing a file without loss of information. Here we present OpenMSI, a software framework and platform that addresses these challenges via an advanced, high-performance, extensible file format and Web API for remote data access (http://openmsi.nersc.gov). The OpenMSI file format supports storage of raw MSI data, metadata, and derived analyses in a single, self-describing format based on HDF5 and is supported by a large range of analysis software (e.g., Matlab and R) and programming languages (e.g., C++, Fortran, and Python). Careful optimization of the storage layout of MSI data sets using chunking, compression, and data replication accelerates common, selective data access operations while minimizing data storage requirements and are critical enablers of rapid data I/O. The OpenMSI file format has shown to provide >2000-fold improvement for image access operations, enabling spectrum and image retrieval in less than 0.3 s across the Internet even for 50 GB MSI data sets. To make remote high-performance compute resources accessible for analysis and to facilitate data sharing and collaboration, we describe an easy-to-use yet powerful Web API, enabling fast and convenient access to MSI data, metadata, and derived analysis results stored remotely to facilitate high-performance data analysis and enable implementation of Web based data sharing, visualization, and analysis.

  5. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerd, Nelleke; van Langevelde, Frank; van Oeveren, Herman; Nolet, Bart A; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, Herbert H T; de Boer, W Fred

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking). We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57%) than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to detect deviations

  6. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelleke de Weerd

    Full Text Available The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking. We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57% than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to

  7. Impact of ischemic and valvular heart disease on atrial excitation : A high-resolution epicardial mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.J.P. Mouws (Elisabeth); E. Lanters (Eva); C. Teuwen (Christophe); L. van der Does (Lisette); C. Kik (Charles); S.P. Knops (Simon); A. Yaksh (Ameeta); J.A. Bekkers (Jos); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); N.M.S. de Groot (Natasja)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground--The influence of underlying heart disease or presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) on atrial excitation during sinus rhythm (SR) is unknown. We investigated atrial activation patterns and total activation times of the entire atrial epicardial surface during SR in patients

  8. Crystal field and low energy excitations measured by high resolution RIXS at the L edge of Cu, Ni and Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Wang, X.

    2009-01-01

    of the 3d transition metals with unprecedented energy resolution, of the order of 100 meV for Mn, Ni and Cu. We present here some preliminary spectra on CuO, malachite, NiO, , MnO and . The dd excitations are very well resolved allowing accurate experimental evaluation of 3d state energy splitting. The low...

  9. Scalable High Performance Message Passing over InfiniBand for Open MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedley, A; Hoefler, T; Leininger, M L; Lumsdaine, A

    2007-10-24

    InfiniBand (IB) is a popular network technology for modern high-performance computing systems. MPI implementations traditionally support IB using a reliable, connection-oriented (RC) transport. However, per-process resource usage that grows linearly with the number of processes, makes this approach prohibitive for large-scale systems. IB provides an alternative in the form of a connectionless unreliable datagram transport (UD), which allows for near-constant resource usage and initialization overhead as the process count increases. This paper describes a UD-based implementation for IB in Open MPI as a scalable alternative to existing RC-based schemes. We use the software reliability capabilities of Open MPI to provide the guaranteed delivery semantics required by MPI. Results show that UD not only requires fewer resources at scale, but also allows for shorter MPI startup times. A connectionless model also improves performance for applications that tend to send small messages to many different processes.

  10. Exploring Infiniband Hardware Virtualization in OpenNebula towards Efficient High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais Pitta de Lacerda Ruivo, Tiago [IIT, Chicago; Bernabeu Altayo, Gerard [Fermilab; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun-Woo [Fermilab; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon; Raicu, Ioan [IIT, Chicago

    2014-11-11

    has been widely accepted that software virtualization has a big negative impact on high-performance computing (HPC) application performance. This work explores the potential use of Infiniband hardware virtualization in an OpenNebula cloud towards the efficient support of MPI-based workloads. We have implemented, deployed, and tested an Infiniband network on the FermiCloud private Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud. To avoid software virtualization towards minimizing the virtualization overhead, we employed a technique called Single Root Input/Output Virtualization (SRIOV). Our solution spanned modifications to the Linux’s Hypervisor as well as the OpenNebula manager. We evaluated the performance of the hardware virtualization on up to 56 virtual machines connected by up to 8 DDR Infiniband network links, with micro-benchmarks (latency and bandwidth) as well as w a MPI-intensive application (the HPL Linpack benchmark).

  11. A narrow open tubular column for high efficiency liquid chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huang; Yang, Yu; Qiao, Zhenzhen; Xiang, Piliang; Ren, Jiangtao; Meng, Yunzhu; Zhang, Kaiqi; Juan Lu, Joann; Liu, Shaorong

    2018-04-30

    We report a great feature of open tubular liquid chromatography when it is run using an extremely narrow (e.g., 2 μm inner diameter) open tubular column: more than 10 million plates per meter can be achieved in less than 10 min and under an elution pressure of ca. 20 bar. The column is coated with octadecylsilane and both isocratic and gradient separations are performed. We reveal a focusing effect that may be used to interpret the efficiency enhancement. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique for separating complex peptide samples. This high-resolution and fast separation technique is promising and can lead to a powerful tool for trace sample analysis.

  12. CellProfiler and KNIME: open source tools for high content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöter, Martin; Niederlein, Antje; Barsacchi, Rico; Meyenhofer, Felix; Brandl, Holger; Bickle, Marc

    2013-01-01

    High content screening (HCS) has established itself in the world of the pharmaceutical industry as an essential tool for drug discovery and drug development. HCS is currently starting to enter the academic world and might become a widely used technology. Given the diversity of problems tackled in academic research, HCS could experience some profound changes in the future, mainly with more imaging modalities and smart microscopes being developed. One of the limitations in the establishment of HCS in academia is flexibility and cost. Flexibility is important to be able to adapt the HCS setup to accommodate the multiple different assays typical of academia. Many cost factors cannot be avoided, but the costs of the software packages necessary to analyze large datasets can be reduced by using Open Source software. We present and discuss the Open Source software CellProfiler for image analysis and KNIME for data analysis and data mining that provide software solutions which increase flexibility and keep costs low.

  13. Excitation of high frequency pressure driven modes in non-axisymmetric equilibrium at high βpol in PBX-M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnic, S.; Holland, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Asakura, N.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Chance, M. S.; Duperrex, P.-A.; Fonck, R. J.; Gammel, G. M.; Greene, G. J.; Hatcher, R. E.; Jardin, S. C.; Jiang, T.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B.; Levinton, F. M.; Manickam, J.; Ono, M.; Paul, S. F.; Powell, E. T.; Qin, Y.; Roberts, D. W.; Sauthoff, N. R.

    1993-12-01

    High frequency pressure driven modes have been observed in high poloidal beta discharges in the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M). These modes are excited in a non-axisymmetric equilibrium characterized by a large, low frequency mt = 1/nt = 1 island, and they are capable of expelling fast ions. The modes reside on or very close to the q = 1 surface and have mode numbers with either mh = nh or (less probably) mh/nh = mh/(mh-1), with mh varying between 3 and 10. Occasionally these modes are simultaneously localized in the vicinity of the ml = 2/nl = 1 island. The high frequency modes near the q = 1 surface also exhibit a ballooning character, being significantly stronger on the large major radius side of the plasma. When a large mt = 1/nt = 1 island is present, the mode is poloidally localized in the immediate vicinity of the X point of the island. The modes occur exclusively in high beta beam heated discharges and are likely to be driven by the beam ions. They can thus be a manifestation of either a toroidicity induced shear Alfven eigenmode (TAE) at q = (2mh+1)/2nh, a kinetic ballooning mode, or some other type of pressure driven (high β) mode. Most of the data are consistent with the theoretical predictions for the TAE gap mode. Since the high frequency modes in PBX-M, however, are found exclusively on or in the immediate neighbourhood of magnetic surfaces with low rational numbers (q = 1, 2,...), other possibilities are not excluded

  14. A high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet incorporating a single octupole lens for a low spherical aberration probe forming lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yanxin; Jamieson, David N.; Liu, Jianli; Li, Liyi

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a new probe forming lens system consisting of a high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet that incorporates a single magnetic octupole lens. This system achieves both a high demagnification and a low spherical aberration compared to conventional high excitation systems and is intended for deployment for the Harbin 300 MeV proton microprobe for applications in space science and ion beam therapy. This relative simplicity of the ion optical design to include a single octupole lens minimizes the risks associated with the constructional and operational precision usually needed for the probe forming lens system and this system could also be deployed in microprobe systems that operate with less magnetically rigid ions. The design of the new system is validated with reference to two independent ion optical computer codes.

  15. Long-term outcome of high-energy open Lisfranc injuries: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyananth, Manasseh; Boopalan, Palapattu R J V C; Titus, Vijay T K; Sundararaj, Gabriel D; Lee, Vernon N

    2011-03-01

    The outcome of open Lisfranc injuries has been reported infrequently. Should these injuries be managed as closed injuries and is their outcome different? We undertook a retrospective study of high-energy, open Lisfranc injuries treated between 1999 and 2005. The types of dislocation, the associated injuries to the same foot, the radiologic and functional outcome, and the complications were studied. There were 22 patients. Five patients died. One had amputation. Of the remaining 16 patients, 13 men were followed up at a mean of 56 months (range, 29-88 months). The average age was 36 years (range, 7-55 years). According to the modified Hardcastle classification, type B2 injury was the commonest. Ten patients had additional forefoot or midfoot injury. All patients were treated with debridement, open reduction, and multiple Kirschner (K) wire fixation. All injuries were Gustilo Anderson type IIIa or IIIb. Nine patients had split skin graft for soft tissue cover. Mean time taken for wound healing was 16 days (range, 10-30 days). Ten patients (77%) had fracture comminution. Eight patients had anatomic reduction, whereas five had nonanatomic reduction. Ten of 13 (77%) patients had at least one spontaneous tarsometatarsal joint fusion. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 82 (range, 59-100). Nonanatomic reduction, osteomyelitis, deformity of toes, planus foot, and mild discomfort on prolonged walking were the unfavorable outcomes present. In open Lisfranc injuries, multiple K wire fixation should be considered especially in the presence of comminution and soft tissue loss. Although anatomic reduction is always not obtained, the treatment principles should include adequate debridement, maintaining alignment with multiple K wires, and obtaining early soft tissue cover. There is a high incidence of fusion across tarsometatarsal joints. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  16. High-density optical data storage based on grey level recording in photobleaching polymers using two-photon excitation under ultrashort pulse and continuous wave illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganic, D.; Day, D.; Gu, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Two-photon excitation has been employed in three-dimensional optical data storage by many researchers in an attempt to increase the storage density of a given material. The probability of two-photon excitation is proportional to the squared intensity of the incident light; this effect produces excitation only within a small region of the focus spot. Another advantage of two-photon excitation is the use of infrared illumination, which results in the reduction of scattering and enables the recording of layers at a deep depth in a thick material. The storage density thus obtained using multi-layered bit optical recording can be as high as Tbit/cm 3 . To increase this storage density even further, grey level recording can be employed. This method utilises variable exposure times of a laser beam focused into a photobleaching sample. As a result, the bleached area possesses a certain pixel value which depends upon the exposure time; this can increase the storage density many times depending upon the number of grey levels used. Our experiment shows that it is possible to attain grey level recording using both ultrashort pulsed and continuous-wave illumination. Although continuous wave illumination requires an average power of approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that for ultrashort pulsed illumination, it is a preferred method of recording due to its relatively low system cost and compactness. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  17. The results of high tibial open wedge osteotomy in patients with varus deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Jabalameli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High tibial open wedg osteotomy is one of the most important modality for treatment of varus deformity in order to correct deformity and improving signs and symptoms of patients with primary degenerative osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of high tibial open wedge osteotomy in patients with varus deformities.Methods: This retrospective study conducted on twenty nine patients (36 knees undergone proximal tibial osteotomy operation in Shafa Yahyaian University Hospital from 2004 to 2010. Inclusion criteria were: age less than 60 years, high physical activity, varus deformity and involvement of medical compartment of knee. Patients with obesity, smoking, patelofemoral pain, lateral compartment lesion, deformity degree more than 20 degree, extension limitation and range of motion less than 90 degree were excluded. The clinical and radiologic characteristics were measured before and after operation.Results: Fourteen patients were females. All of them were younger than 50 years, with mean (±SD 27.64 (±10.88. The mean (±SD of follow up time was 4.33 (±1.7. All the patients were satisfied with the results of operation. Tenderness and pain decreased in all of them. In all patients autologus bone graft were used, in 15 cases (42.5% casting and in the rest T.Buttress plate were used for fixation of fractures. In both groups of primary and double varus the International knee documentation committee (IKDC and modified Larson indices were improved after operation, but there was no significant difference between two groups.Conclusion: High tibial open wedge osteotomy can have satisfying results in clinical signs and symptoms of patients with primary medial joint degenerative osteoarthritis. This procedure also may correct the deformity and improves the radiologic parameters of the patients.

  18. Highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules in low-pressure inductively-coupled plasmas detected by high sensitivity ultra-broad-band optical absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Carbone, Emile; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2015-08-01

    Inductively-coupled plasmas in pure O2 (at pressures of 5-80 mTorr and radiofrequency power up to 500 W) were studied by optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range 200-450 nm, showing the presence of highly vibrationally excited O2 molecules (up to vʺ = 18) by Schumann-Runge band absorption. Analysis of the relative band intensities indicates a vibrational temperature up to 10,000 K, but these hot molecules only represent a fraction of the total O2 density. By analysing the (11-0) band at higher spectral resolution the O2 rotational temperature was also determined, and was found to increase with both pressure and power, reaching 900 K at 80 mTorr 500 W. These measurements were achieved using a new high-sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy setup, based on a laser-plasma light source, achromatic optics and an aberration-corrected spectrograph. This setup allows the measurement of weak broadband absorbances due to a baseline variability lower than 2   ×   10-5 across a spectral range of 250 nm.

  19. A sustainable business model for Open-Access journal publishing a proposed plan for High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vigen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The High Energy Physics community over the last 15 years has achieved so-called full green Open Access through the wide dissemination of preprints via arXiv, a central subject repository managed by Cornell University. However, green Open Access does not alleviate the economic difficulties of libraries as they are still expected to offer access to versions of record of the peer-reviewed literature. For this reason the particle physics community is now addressing the issue of gold Open Access by converting a set of the existing core journals to Open Access. A Working Party has been established to bring together funding agencies, laboratories and libraries into a single consortium, called SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). This consortium will engage with publishers to build a sustainable model for Open Access publishing. In this model, subscription fees from multiple institutions are replaced by contracts with publishers of Open Access journals, where the SCOAP3 conso...

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction Using High-Order Doubly Asymptotic Open Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dam-reservoir system is divided into the near field modeled by the finite element method, and the far field modeled by the excellent high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary (DAOB. Direct and partitioned coupled methods are developed for the analysis of dam-reservoir system. In the direct coupled method, a symmetric monolithic governing equation is formulated by incorporating the DAOB with the finite element equation and solved using the standard time-integration methods. In contrast, the near-field finite element equation and the far-field DAOB condition are separately solved in the partitioned coupled methodm, and coupling is achieved by applying the interaction force on the truncated boundary. To improve its numerical stability and accuracy, an iteration strategy is employed to obtain the solution of each step. Both coupled methods are implemented on the open-source finite element code OpenSees. Numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the performance of these two proposed methods.

  1. Thermocleavable Materials for Polymer Solar Cells with High Open Circuit Voltage-A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    The search for polymer solar cells giving a high open circuit voltage was conducted through a comparative study of four types of bulk-heterojunction solar cells employing different photoactive layers. As electron donors the thermo-cleavable polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)dithiophene) (P3......MHOCT) and unsubstituted polythiophene (PT) were used, the latter of which results from thermo cleaving the former at 310 °C. As reference, P3HT solar cells were built in parallel. As electron acceptors, either PCBM or bis-[60]PCBM were used. In excess of 300 solar cells were produced under as identical...... conditions as possible, varying only the material combination of the photo active layer. It was observed that on replacing PCBM with bis[60]PCBM, the open circuit voltage on average increased by 100 mV for P3MHOCT and 200 mV for PT solar cells. Open circuit voltages approaching 1 V were observed for the PT:bis...

  2. GROMACS 4.5: A high-throughput and highly parallel open source molecular simulation toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronk, Sander [Science for Life Lab., Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Pall, Szilard [Science for Life Lab., Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Schulz, Roland [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Larsson, Per [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Bjelkmar, Par [Science for Life Lab., Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Apostolov, Rossen [Science for Life Lab., Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Shirts, Michael R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Smith, Jeremy C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kasson, Peter M. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); van der Spoel, David [Science for Life Lab., Stockholm (Sweden); Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Hess, Berk [Science for Life Lab., Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindahl, Erik [Science for Life Lab., Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-13

    In this study, molecular simulation has historically been a low-throughput technique, but faster computers and increasing amounts of genomic and structural data are changing this by enabling large-scale automated simulation of, for instance, many conformers or mutants of biomolecules with or without a range of ligands. At the same time, advances in performance and scaling now make it possible to model complex biomolecular interaction and function in a manner directly testable by experiment. These applications share a need for fast and efficient software that can be deployed on massive scale in clusters, web servers, distributed computing or cloud resources. As a result, we present a range of new simulation algorithms and features developed during the past 4 years, leading up to the GROMACS 4.5 software package. The software now automatically handles wide classes of biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, and comes with all commonly used force fields for these molecules built-in. GROMACS supports several implicit solvent models, as well as new free-energy algorithms, and the software now uses multithreading for efficient parallelization even on low-end systems, including windows-based workstations. Together with hand-tuned assembly kernels and state-of-the-art parallelization, this provides extremely high performance and cost efficiency for high-throughput as well as massively parallel simulations.

  3. A Block-Based Linear MMSE Noise Reduction with a High Temporal Resolution Modeling of the Speech Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chunjian; Andersen, S. V.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) approach for parametric speech enhancement is developed. The proposed algorithms aim at joint LMMSE estimation of signal power spectra and phase spectra, as well as exploitation of correlation between spectral components. The major cause...... of this interfrequency correlation is shown to be the prominent temporal power localization in the excitation of voiced speech. LMMSE estimators in time domain and frequency domain are first formulated. To obtain the joint estimator, we model the spectral signal covariance matrix as a full covariancematrix instead...... of a diagonal covariance matrix as is the case in the Wiener filter derived under the quasi-stationarity assumption. To accomplish this, we decompose the signal covariance matrix into a synthesis filter matrix and an excitation matrix. The synthesis filter matrix is built from estimates of the all-pole model...

  4. Experimental studies on a new highly porous hydroxyapatite matrix for obliterating open mastoid cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punke, Christoph; Zehlicke, Thorsten; Boltze, Carsten; Pau, Hans Wilhelm

    2008-09-01

    In an initial preliminary study, the applicability of a new high-porosity hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic for obliterating large open mastoid cavities was proven and tested in an animal model (bulla of guinea pig). Experimental study. NanoBone, a highly porous matrix consisting of 76% hydroxyl apatite and 24% silicone dioxide fabricated in a sol-gel technique, was administered unilaterally into the opened bullae of 30 guinea pigs. In each animal, the opposite bulla was filled with Bio-Oss, a bone substitute consisting of a portion of mineral bovine bone. Histologic evaluations were performed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 12 weeks after the implantation. After an initial phase in which the ceramic granules were surrounded by inflammatory cells (1-2 wk), there were increasing signs of vascularization. Osteoneogenesis and-at the same time-resorption of the HA ceramic were observed after the third week. No major difference in comparison to the bovine bone material could be found. Our results confirm the favorable qualities of the new ceramic reported in association with current maxillofacial literature. Conventional HA granules used for mastoid obliteration to date often showed problems with prolonged inflammatory reactions and, finally, extrusions. In contrast to those ceramics, the new material seems to induce more osteoneogenesis and undergoes early resorption probably due to its high porosity. Overall, it is similar to the bovine bone substance tested on the opposite ear in each animal. Further clinical studies may reveal whether NanoBone can be an adequate material for obliterating open mastoid cavities in patients.

  5. Excitation and ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact: Progress report for period May 1, 1986-April 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Cross sections and rate coefficients with inclusion of mixing effects have been obtained for innershell ionization of Na-like ions. This is an important mechanism for populating the excited levels of Neon-like ions and the importance increases with Z. (2) Cross sections and rate coefficients with inclusion of mixing effects have been obtained for innershell ionization of Li-like ions. This appears to be an important mechanism for populating the excited levels of He-like ions and its importance also increases with Z. (3) The collision strengths have been calculated for all 1171 innershell excitation transitions from the five lower levels of the form 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3l 2 L/sub J/ to the doubly excited upper levels of kinds 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 (3l'3l''/sup 2S''+1/L''/sub J'/ and 1s 2 2s2p 6 (3l'3l''/sup 2S''+1/L'')/sup 2S'+1/L'/sub J'/ in 22 Na-like ions. These upper levels can radiatively decay, which produces satellite lines to those due to n = 3 to n = 2 transitions in neon-like ions, or they can autoionize, which populates the 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1 S 0 ground level of neon-like ions. Considerable progress has also been made on our new quasirelativistic code development. After checking the accuracy for hydrogenic ions with Z values up to 90, we have now obtained preliminary quasirelativistic results for both structure and collision strengths for neon-like ions. These generally agree well with fully relativistic calculations. 41 refs

  6. Excitation of Nucleon Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, Volker D.

    2001-01-01

    I discuss developments in the area of nucleon resonance excitation, both necessary and feasible, that would put our understanding of nucleon structure in the regime of strong QCD on a qualitatively new level. They involve the collection of high quality data in various channels, a more rigorous approach in the search for ''missing'' resonances, an effort to compute some critical quantities in nucleon resonance excitations from first principles, i.e. QCD, and a proposal focused to obtain an understanding of a fundamental quantity in nucleon structure

  7. Open charm production at high energies and the quark Reggeization hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Shipilova, A.V.

    2008-12-01

    We study open charm production at high energies in the framework of the quasi-multi-Regge-kinematics approach applying the quark-Reggeization hypothesis implemented with Reggeon-Reggeon-particle and Reggeon-particle-particle effective vertices. Adopting the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin unintegrated quark and gluon distribution functions of the proton and photon, we thus nicely describe the proton structure function F 2,c measured at DESY HERA as well as the transverse-momentum distributions of D mesons created by photoproduction at HERA and by hadroproduction at the Fermilab Tevatron. (orig.)

  8. Facilitating the openEHR approach - organizational structures for defining high-quality archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Christian Dominik; Garde, Sebastian; Knaup, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Using openEHR archetypes to establish an electronic patient record promises rapid development and system interoperability by using or adopting existing archetypes. However, internationally accepted, high quality archetypes which enable a comprehensive semantic interoperability require adequate development and maintenance processes. Therefore, structures have to be created involving different health professions. In the following we present a model which facilitates and governs distributed but cooperative development and adoption of archetypes by different professionals including peer reviews. Our model consists of a hierarchical structure of professional committees and descriptions of the archetype development process considering these different committees.

  9. Three-phase multilevel inverter configuration for open-winding high power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2015-01-01

    This paper work exploits a new dual open-winding three-phase multilevel inverter configuration suitable for high power medium-voltage applications. Modular structure comprised of standard three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) along with one additional bi-directional semiconductor device (MOSFET...... for implementation purpose. Proposed dual-inverter configuration generates multilevel outputs with benefit includes reduced THD and dv/dt in comparison to other dual-inverter topologies. Complete model of the multilevel ac drive is developed with simple MSCFM modulation in Matlab/PLECs numerical software...

  10. Scalable implementations of accurate excited-state coupled cluster theories: application of high-level methods to porphyrin based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Karol; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Olson, Ryan M.; Tipparaju, Vinod; Apra, Edoardo

    2011-11-30

    The development of reliable tools for excited-state simulations is emerging as an extremely powerful computational chemistry tool for understanding complex processes in the broad class of light harvesting systems and optoelectronic devices. Over the last years we have been developing equation of motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) methods capable of tackling these problems. In this paper we discuss the parallel performance of EOMCC codes which provide accurate description of the excited-state correlation effects. Two aspects are discuss in details: (1) a new algorithm for the iterative EOMCC methods based on the novel task scheduling algorithms, and (2) parallel algorithms for the non-iterative methods describing the effect of triply excited configurations. We demonstrate that the most computationally intensive non-iterative part can take advantage of 210,000 cores of the Cray XT5 system at OLCF. In particular, we demonstrate the importance of non-iterative many-body methods for achieving experimental level of accuracy for several porphyrin-based system.

  11. Highly Active N,O Zinc Guanidine Catalysts for the Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Pascal M; Fuchs, Martin; Ohligschläger, Andreas; Rittinghaus, Ruth; McKeown, Paul; Akin, Enver; Schmidt, Maximilian; Hoffmann, Alexander; Liauw, Marcel A; Jones, Matthew D; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja

    2017-09-22

    New zinc guanidine complexes with N,O donor functionalities were prepared, characterized by X-Ray crystallography, and examined for their catalytic activity in the solvent-free ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of technical-grade rac-lactide at 150 °C. All complexes showed a high activity. The fastest complex [ZnCl 2 (DMEGasme)] (C1) produced colorless poly(lactide) (PLA) after 90 min with a conversion of 52 % and high molar masses (M w =69 100, polydispersity=1.4). The complexes were tested with different monomer-to-initiator ratios to determine the rate constant k p . Furthermore, a polymerization with the most active complex C1 was monitored by in situ Raman spectroscopy. Overall, conversion of up to 90 % can be obtained. End-group analysis was performed to clarify the mechanism. All four complexes combine robustness against impurities in the lactide with high polymerization rates, and they represent the fastest robust lactide ROP catalysts to date, opening new avenues to a sustainable ROP catalyst family for industrial use. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Opposite effects of low and high doses of Abeta42 on electrical network and neuronal excitability in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Guangping; Zhou, Hongwei; Barakat, Amey; Querfurth, Henry

    2009-12-21

    Changes in neuronal synchronization have been found in patients and animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synchronized behaviors within neuronal networks are important to such complex cognitive processes as working memory. The mechanisms behind these changes are not understood but may involve the action of soluble beta-amyloid (Abeta) on electrical networks. In order to determine if Abeta can induce changes in neuronal synchronization, the activities of pyramidal neurons were recorded in rat prefrontal cortical (PFC) slices under calcium-free conditions using multi-neuron patch clamp technique. Electrical network activities and synchronization among neurons were significantly inhibited by low dose Abeta42 (1 nM) and initially by high dose Abeta42 (500 nM). However, prolonged application of high dose Abeta42 resulted in network activation and tonic firing. Underlying these observations, we discovered that prolonged application of low and high doses of Abeta42 induced opposite changes in action potential (AP)-threshold and after-hyperpolarization (AHP) of neurons. Accordingly, low dose Abeta42 significantly increased the AP-threshold and deepened the AHP, making neurons less excitable. In contrast, high dose Abeta42 significantly reduced the AP-threshold and shallowed the AHP, making neurons more excitable. These results support a model that low dose Abeta42 released into the interstitium has a physiologic feedback role to dampen electrical network activity by reducing neuronal excitability. Higher concentrations of Abeta42 over time promote supra-synchronization between individual neurons by increasing their excitability. The latter may disrupt frontal-based cognitive processing and in some cases lead to epileptiform discharges.

  13. Opposite effects of low and high doses of Abeta42 on electrical network and neuronal excitability in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    Full Text Available Changes in neuronal synchronization have been found in patients and animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Synchronized behaviors within neuronal networks are important to such complex cognitive processes as working memory. The mechanisms behind these changes are not understood but may involve the action of soluble beta-amyloid (Abeta on electrical networks. In order to determine if Abeta can induce changes in neuronal synchronization, the activities of pyramidal neurons were recorded in rat prefrontal cortical (PFC slices under calcium-free conditions using multi-neuron patch clamp technique. Electrical network activities and synchronization among neurons were significantly inhibited by low dose Abeta42 (1 nM and initially by high dose Abeta42 (500 nM. However, prolonged application of high dose Abeta42 resulted in network activation and tonic firing. Underlying these observations, we discovered that prolonged application of low and high doses of Abeta42 induced opposite changes in action potential (AP-threshold and after-hyperpolarization (AHP of neurons. Accordingly, low dose Abeta42 significantly increased the AP-threshold and deepened the AHP, making neurons less excitable. In contrast, high dose Abeta42 significantly reduced the AP-threshold and shallowed the AHP, making neurons more excitable. These results support a model that low dose Abeta42 released into the interstitium has a physiologic feedback role to dampen electrical network activity by reducing neuronal excitability. Higher concentrations of Abeta42 over time promote supra-synchronization between individual neurons by increasing their excitability. The latter may disrupt frontal-based cognitive processing and in some cases lead to epileptiform discharges.

  14. High-throughput metagenomic technologies for complex microbial community analysis: open and closed formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili; Yang, Yunfeng; Deng, Ye; Tringe, Susannah G; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-01-27

    Understanding the structure, functions, activities and dynamics of microbial communities in natural environments is one of the grand challenges of 21st century science. To address this challenge, over the past decade, numerous technologies have been developed for interrogating microbial communities, of which some are amenable to exploratory work (e.g., high-throughput sequencing and phenotypic screening) and others depend on reference genes or genomes (e.g., phylogenetic and functional gene arrays). Here, we provide a critical review and synthesis of the most commonly applied "open-format" and "closed-format" detection technologies. We discuss their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages within the context of environmental applications and focus on analysis of complex microbial systems, such as those in soils, in which diversity is high and reference genomes are few. In addition, we discuss crucial issues and considerations associated with applying complementary high-throughput molecular technologies to address important ecological questions. Copyright © 2015 Zhou et al.

  15. TERRA REF: Advancing phenomics with high resolution, open access sensor and genomics data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBauer, D.; Kooper, R.; Burnette, M.; Willis, C.

    2017-12-01

    Automated plant measurement has the potential to improve understanding of genetic and environmental controls on plant traits (phenotypes). The application of sensors and software in the automation of high throughput phenotyping reflects a fundamental shift from labor intensive hand measurements to drone, tractor, and robot mounted sensing platforms. These tools are expected to speed the rate of crop improvement by enabling plant breeders to more accurately select plants with improved yields, resource use efficiency, and stress tolerance. However, there are many challenges facing high throughput phenomics: sensors and platforms are expensive, currently there are few standard methods of data collection and storage, and the analysis of large data sets requires high performance computers and automated, reproducible computing pipelines. To overcome these obstacles and advance the science of high throughput phenomics, the TERRA Phenotyping Reference Platform (TERRA-REF) team is developing an open-access database of high resolution sensor data. TERRA REF is an integrated field and greenhouse phenotyping system that includes: a reference field scanner with fifteen sensors that can generate terrabytes of data each day at mm resolution; UAV, tractor, and fixed field sensing platforms; and an automated controlled-environment scanner. These platforms will enable investigation of diverse sensing modalities, and the investigation of traits under controlled and field environments. It is the goal of TERRA REF to lower the barrier to entry for academic and industry researchers by providing high-resolution data, open source software, and online computing resources. Our project is unique in that all data will be made fully public in November 2018, and is already available to early adopters through the beta-user program. We will describe the datasets and how to use them as well as the databases and computing pipeline and how these can be reused and remixed in other phenomics pipelines

  16. High-lying Gamow-Teller excited states in the deformed nuclei,76Ge,82Se and N = 20 nuclei in the island of inversion by the Deformed QRPA (DQRPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ha, Eunja

    2013-07-01

    With the advent of high analysis technology in detecting the Gamow-Teller (GT) excited states beyond one nucleon emission threshold, the quenching of the GT strength to the Ikeda sum rule (ISR) seems to be recovered by the high-lying (HL) GT states. We address that these HL GT excited states result from the smearing of the Fermi surface by the increase of the chemical potential owing to the deformation within a framework of the deformed quasi-particle random phase approximation (DQRPA). Detailed mechanism leading to the smearing is discussed, and comparisons to the available experimental data on 76Ge,82Se and N = 20 nuclei are shown to explain the strong peaks on the HL GT excited states.

  17. High-lying Gamow-Teller excited states in the deformed nuclei,76Ge,82Se and N = 20 nuclei in the island of inversion by the Deformed QRPA (DQRPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ha, Eunja

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of high analysis technology in detecting the Gamow-Teller (GT) excited states beyond one nucleon emission threshold, the quenching of the GT strength to the Ikeda sum rule (ISR) seems to be recovered by the high-lying (HL) GT states. We address that these HL GT excited states result from the smearing of the Fermi surface by the increase of the chemical potential owing to the deformation within a framework of the deformed quasi-particle random phase approximation (DQRPA). Detailed mechanism leading to the smearing is discussed, and comparisons to the available experimental data on 76 Ge, 82 Se and N = 20 nuclei are shown to explain the strong peaks on the HL GT excited states

  18. Vibrational-rotational excitation: chemical reactions of vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.B.; Smith, I.W.M.

    1979-03-01

    This review considers a limited number of systems, particularly gas-phase processes. Excited states and their preparation, direct bimolecular reactions, reactions of highly excited molecules, and reactions in condensed phases are discussed. Laser-induced isotope separation applications are mentioned briefly. 109 references

  19. Open wedge high tibial osteotomy using three-dimensional printed models: Experimental analysis using porcine bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, Jun-Dae; Kim, Hee-June; Park, Jaeyoung; Park, Il-Hyung; Kyung, Hee-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) printed models for open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) in porcine bone. Computed tomography (CT) images were obtained from 10 porcine knees and 3D imaging was planned using the 3D-Slicer program. The osteotomy line was drawn from the three centimeters below the medial tibial plateau to the proximal end of the fibular head. Then the osteotomy gap was opened until the mechanical axis line was 62.5% from the medial border along the width of the tibial plateau, maintaining the posterior tibial slope angle. The wedge-shaped 3D-printed model was designed with the measured angle and osteotomy section and was produced by the 3D printer. The open wedge HTO surgery was reproduced in porcine bone using the 3D-printed model and the osteotomy site was fixed with a plate. Accuracy of osteotomy and posterior tibial slope was evaluated after the osteotomy. The mean mechanical axis line on the tibial plateau was 61.8±1.5% from the medial tibia. There was no statistically significant difference (P=0.160). The planned and post-osteotomy correction wedge angles were 11.5±3.2° and 11.4±3.3°, and the posterior tibial slope angle was 11.2±2.2° pre-osteotomy and 11.4±2.5° post-osteotomy. There were no significant differences (P=0.854 and P=0.429, respectively). This study showed that good results could be obtained in high tibial osteotomy by using 3D printed models of porcine legs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Uncertainty of soil erosion modelling using open source high resolution and aggregated DEMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Mondal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Model (DEM is one of the important parameters for soil erosion assessment. Notable uncertainties are observed in this study while using three high resolution open source DEMs. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model has been applied to analysis the assessment of soil erosion uncertainty using open source DEMs (SRTM, ASTER and CARTOSAT and their increasing grid space (pixel size from the actual. The study area is a part of the Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh state, which is located in the central part of India and the area covered 20,558 km2. The actual resolution of DEMs is 30 m and their increasing grid spaces are taken as 90, 150, 210, 270 and 330 m for this study. Vertical accuracy of DEMs has been assessed using actual heights of the sample points that have been taken considering planimetric survey based map (toposheet. Elevations of DEMs are converted to the same vertical datum from WGS 84 to MSL (Mean Sea Level, before the accuracy assessment and modelling. Results indicate that the accuracy of the SRTM DEM with the RMSE of 13.31, 14.51, and 18.19 m in 30, 150 and 330 m resolution respectively, is better than the ASTER and the CARTOSAT DEMs. When the grid space of the DEMs increases, the accuracy of the elevation and calculated soil erosion decreases. This study presents a potential uncertainty introduced by open source high resolution DEMs in the accuracy of the soil erosion assessment models. The research provides an analysis of errors in selecting DEMs using the original and increased grid space for soil erosion modelling.

  1. Falcon: a highly flexible open-source software for closed-loop neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Davide; Kloosterman, Fabian

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Closed-loop experiments provide unique insights into brain dynamics and function. To facilitate a wide range of closed-loop experiments, we created an open-source software platform that enables high-performance real-time processing of streaming experimental data. Approach. We wrote Falcon, a C++ multi-threaded software in which the user can load and execute an arbitrary processing graph. Each node of a Falcon graph is mapped to a single thread and nodes communicate with each other through thread-safe buffers. The framework allows for easy implementation of new processing nodes and data types. Falcon was tested both on a 32-core and a 4-core workstation. Streaming data was read from either a commercial acquisition system (Neuralynx) or the open-source Open Ephys hardware, while closed-loop TTL pulses were generated with a USB module for digital output. We characterized the round-trip latency of our Falcon-based closed-loop system, as well as the specific latency contribution of the software architecture, by testing processing graphs with up to 32 parallel pipelines and eight serial stages. We finally deployed Falcon in a task of real-time detection of population bursts recorded live from the hippocampus of a freely moving rat. Main results. On Neuralynx hardware, round-trip latency was well below 1 ms and stable for at least 1 h, while on Open Ephys hardware latencies were below 15 ms. The latency contribution of the software was below 0.5 ms. Round-trip and software latencies were similar on both 32- and 4-core workstations. Falcon was used successfully to detect population bursts online with ~40 ms average latency. Significance. Falcon is a novel open-source software for closed-loop neuroscience. It has sub-millisecond intrinsic latency and gives the experimenter direct control of CPU resources. We envisage Falcon to be a useful tool to the neuroscientific community for implementing a wide variety of closed-loop experiments, including those

  2. Falcon: a highly flexible open-source software for closed-loop neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Davide; Kloosterman, Fabian

    2017-08-01

    Closed-loop experiments provide unique insights into brain dynamics and function. To facilitate a wide range of closed-loop experiments, we created an open-source software platform that enables high-performance real-time processing of streaming experimental data. We wrote Falcon, a C++ multi-threaded software in which the user can load and execute an arbitrary processing graph. Each node of a Falcon graph is mapped to a single thread and nodes communicate with each other through thread-safe buffers. The framework allows for easy implementation of new processing nodes and data types. Falcon was tested both on a 32-core and a 4-core workstation. Streaming data was read from either a commercial acquisition system (Neuralynx) or the open-source Open Ephys hardware, while closed-loop TTL pulses were generated with a USB module for digital output. We characterized the round-trip latency of our Falcon-based closed-loop system, as well as the specific latency contribution of the software architecture, by testing processing graphs with up to 32 parallel pipelines and eight serial stages. We finally deployed Falcon in a task of real-time detection of population bursts recorded live from the hippocampus of a freely moving rat. On Neuralynx hardware, round-trip latency was well below 1 ms and stable for at least 1 h, while on Open Ephys hardware latencies were below 15 ms. The latency contribution of the software was below 0.5 ms. Round-trip and software latencies were similar on both 32- and 4-core workstations. Falcon was used successfully to detect population bursts online with ~40 ms average latency. Falcon is a novel open-source software for closed-loop neuroscience. It has sub-millisecond intrinsic latency and gives the experimenter direct control of CPU resources. We envisage Falcon to be a useful tool to the neuroscientific community for implementing a wide variety of closed-loop experiments, including those requiring use of complex data structures and real

  3. Exploring Differences between Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of High and Low Achievers in Open Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduld, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Open distance students differ in their preparedness for higher education studies. Students who are less self-regulated risk failure and drop out in the challenging milieu of open distance learning. In this study, the differences between the application of self-regulated learning strategies by low and high achievers were explored. A multi-method…

  4. The link between organisational citizenship behaviours and open innovation: A case of Malaysian high-tech sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muzamil Naqshbandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of organisational citizenship behaviours (OCBs in two types of open innovation—inbound and outbound. Data were collected using the questionnaire survey technique from middle and top managers working in high-tech industries in Malaysia. Results show that OCBs positively predict both inbound and outbound open innovation. A closer look reveals that OCBs relate positively to out-bound open innovation in aggregate and in isolation. However, OCBs relate to in-bound open innovation in aggregate only. The implications of these results are discussed and limitations of the study are highlighted.

  5. High-energy double photoeffect and photoionization with excitation from 2 {sup 1}S and 2 {sup 3}S states of helium-like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194921 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, A.I.; Mikhailov, I.A. [St Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188350 St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1999-10-28

    Double ionization and ionization with excitation of helium-like ions with Z>>1 from 2 {sup 1}S and 2 {sup 3}S states on the absorption of a high-frequency photon have been considered. The analytical calculation is performed in the non-relativistic photon energy range in the lowest order of perturbation theory in the inter-electron interaction. Coulomb wavefunctions and the Coulomb Green function are used as a zeroth-order approximation. Differential and total cross sections of the processes are expressed via the corresponding values for the single photoionization. The photoelectron energy spectrum is obtained in the marginal energy range (i.e. for p{sub 1}>>p{sub 2}, p{sub 1} and p{sub 2} momenta of photoelectrons) for the double-ionization process. Simple relations between the cross sections of double ionization and ionization with excitation are derived. (author)

  6. Excitation of a magnetospheric maser through modification of the Earth’s ionosphere by high-power HF radio emission from a ground-based transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, G. A.; Belov, A. S.; Frolov, V. L.; Rapoport, V. O.; Parrot, M.

    2010-01-01

    A method for controlled excitation of a magnetospheric maser through the production of artificial density ducts by high-power HF radio emission from the Earth’s surface has been proposed and implemented in an in-situ experiment. Artificial density ducts allow one to affect the maser resonator system and the excitation and propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in a disturbed magnetic flux tube. The experimental data presented here were obtained at the mid-latitude Sura heating facility. The characteristics of electromagnetic and plasma disturbances at outer-ionosphere altitudes were measured using the onboard equipment of the DEMETER satellite as it passed through the magnetic flux tube rested on the region of intense generation of artificial ionospheric turbulence.

  7. High School Coaches' Experiences With Openly Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrook, Meghan K; Watson, Jack C; Voelker, Dana K

    2018-01-17

    Despite reports that there has been a positive trend in perception and treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals in recent years (Griffin, 2012 ; Loftus, 2001 ), sport, in general, is still an uncertain, and sometimes even hostile, environment for LGB athletes (Anderson, 2005 ; Waldron & Krane, 2005 ). To gain more information on coach understanding and perceptions of the team environment, 10 high school head coaches in the United States were interviewed to explore their experiences coaching openly LGB athletes. Qualitative analyses revealed four primary themes associated with coach experiences: team environment dogmas and observations, fundamental beliefs contributing to perceptions of LGB athletes, types and timing of sexual orientation disclosure, and differential LGB athlete characteristics. Future research should examine these primary themes in more detail through interviews with LGB athletes, as well as high school coaches in more traditionally masculine sports, such as football, men's basketball, and wrestling.

  8. kspectrum: an open-source code for high-resolution molecular absorption spectra production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymet, V.; Coustet, C.; Piaud, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the kspectrum, scientific code that produces high-resolution synthetic absorption spectra from public molecular transition parameters databases. This code was originally required by the atmospheric and astrophysics communities, and its evolution is now driven by new scientific projects among the user community. Since it was designed without any optimization that would be specific to any particular application field, its use could also be extended to other domains. kspectrum produces spectral data that can subsequently be used either for high-resolution radiative transfer simulations, or for producing statistic spectral model parameters using additional tools. This is a open project that aims at providing an up-to-date tool that takes advantage of modern computational hardware and recent parallelization libraries. It is currently provided by Méso-Star (http://www.meso-star.com) under the CeCILL license, and benefits from regular updates and improvements. (paper)

  9. Probing the fundamental limit of niobium in high radiofrequency fields by dual mode excitation in superconducting radiofrequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari

    2011-01-01

    We have studied thermal breakdown in several multicell superconducting radiofrequency cavity by simultaneous excitation of two TM 010 passband modes. Unlike measurements done in the past, which indicated a clear thermal nature of the breakdown, our measurements present a more complex picture with interplay of both thermal and magnetic effects. JLab LG-1 that we studied was limited at 40.5 MV/m, corresponding to B peak = 173 mT, in 89 mode. Dual mode measurements on this quench indicate that this quench is not purely magnetic, and so we conclude that this field is not the fundamental limit in SRF cavities

  10. Causality between trade openness and energy consumption: What causes what in high, middle and low income countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Nasreen, Samia; Ling, Chong Hui; Sbia, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between trade openness and energy consumption using data of 91 high, middle and low income countries. The study covers the period of 1980–2010. We have applied panel cointegration to examine long run relationship between the variables. The direction of causal relationship between trade openness is investigated by applying Homogenous non-causality, Homogenous causality and Heterogeneous causality tests. Our variables are integrated at I(1) confirmed by time series and panel unit root tests and cointegration is found between trade openness and energy consumption. The relationship between trade openness and energy consumption is inverted U-shaped in high income countries but U-shaped in middle and low income countries. The homogenous and non-homogenous causality analysis reveals the bidirectional causality between trade openness and energy consumption. This paper opens up new insights for policy makers to design a comprehensive economic, trade and policies for sustainable economic growth in long run following heterogeneous causality findings. - Highlights: • Trade openness and energy consumption are cointegrated for long run. • The feedback effect exists between trade openness and energy consumption. • The inverted U-shaped relationship is found between both variables in high income countries

  11. Inner-Shell Excitations of 2p Electrons of Argon Investigated by Fast Electron Impact with High Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Lin-Mao; Wang You-Yan; Li Dong-Dong; Yuan Zhen-Sheng; Zhu Lin-Fan

    2011-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectra of inner-shell excitations of 2p electrons of argon are measured at an incident electron energy of 2500 eV and scattering angles of 0° and 4°. The dipole-forbidden transitions of 2p −1 3/2 4p and 2p −1 3/2 5p are observed in the measured spectra and assigned based on the calculations of the Cowan code. The positions and line widths for the excitations of 2p −1 3/2 nl and 2p −1 1/2 nl (n ≤ 5) of argon are determined. The present results show that the line widths of the electric quadrupole transitions of 2p −1 3/2 4p[5/2 + 3/2] 2 and the electric monopole one of 2p −1 3/2 4p[1/2] 0 are less than those of the dipole-allowed transitions. (atomic and molecular physics)

  12. Direct observation of low energy nuclear spin excitations in HoCrO3 by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, T; Jalarvo, N; Kumar, C M N; Xiao, Y; Brückel, Th

    2013-07-17

    We have investigated low energy nuclear spin excitations in the strongly correlated electron compound HoCrO3. We observe clear inelastic peaks at E = 22.18 ± 0.04 μeV in both energy loss and gain sides. The energy of the inelastic peaks remains constant in the temperature range 1.5-40 K at which they are observed. The intensity of the inelastic peak increases at first with increasing temperature and then decreases at higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the energy and intensity of the inelastic peaks is very unusual compared to that observed in other Nd, Co, V and also simple Ho compounds. Huge quasielastic scattering appears at higher temperatures presumably due to the fluctuating electronic moments of the Ho ions that get increasingly disordered at higher temperatures. The strong quasielastic scattering may also originate in the first Ho crystal-field excitations at about 1.5 meV.

  13. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C

    2007-01-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C 60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si q+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O q+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C 60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening

  14. Core excitation and de-excitation spectroscopies of free atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a review of the current status of core excitation and de-excitation spectroscopy studies of free atoms molecules using a high-resolution soft X-ray monochromator and a high-resolution electron energy analyzer, installed in the soft X-ray photochemistry beam line at SPring-8. Experimental results are discussed for 1s excitation of Ne, O 1s excitation of CO and H 2 O, and F 1s excitation of CF 4 . (author)

  15. Sensitive method for the determination of rare earth elements by radioisotope-excited XRF employing a high purity germanium detector in optimized geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.; Joseph, D.; Patra, P.K.; Bajpal, H.N.

    1993-01-01

    A close-coupled side-source geometrical configuration is proposed for obtaining a high detection sensitivity for rare earth elements (57 ≤ Z ≤ 69) by radioisotope-excited energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. In this configuration a disc source of 241 Am (100 mCi), a high-purity germanium detector and thin samples of rare earth elements on a Mylar backing are employed in an optimized geometry to achieve detection limits in the range 20-50 ng for these elements in a counting time of 1 h. (author)

  16. MANTA--an open-source, high density electrophysiology recording suite for MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englitz, B; David, S V; Sorenson, M D; Shamma, S A

    2013-01-01

    The distributed nature of nervous systems makes it necessary to record from a large number of sites in order to decipher the neural code, whether single cell, local field potential (LFP), micro-electrocorticograms (μECoG), electroencephalographic (EEG), magnetoencephalographic (MEG) or in vitro micro-electrode array (MEA) data are considered. High channel-count recordings also optimize the yield of a preparation and the efficiency of time invested by the researcher. Currently, data acquisition (DAQ) systems with high channel counts (>100) can be purchased from a limited number of companies at considerable prices. These systems are typically closed-source and thus prohibit custom extensions or improvements by end users. We have developed MANTA, an open-source MATLAB-based DAQ system, as an alternative to existing options. MANTA combines high channel counts (up to 1440 channels/PC), usage of analog or digital headstages, low per channel cost (1 year, recording reliably from 128 channels. It offers a growing list of features, including integrated spike sorting, PSTH and CSD display and fully customizable electrode array geometry (including 3D arrays), some of which are not available in commercial systems. MANTA runs on a typical PC and communicates via TCP/IP and can thus be easily integrated with existing stimulus generation/control systems in a lab at a fraction of the cost of commercial systems. With modern neuroscience developing rapidly, MANTA provides a flexible platform that can be rapidly adapted to the needs of new analyses and questions. Being open-source, the development of MANTA can outpace commercial solutions in functionality, while maintaining a low price-point.

  17. MANTA – An Open-Source, High Density Electrophysiology Recording Suite for MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eEnglitz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The distributed nature of nervous systems makes it necessary to record from a large number of sites in order to break the neural code, whether single cell, local field potential (LFP, micro-electrocorticograms (μECoG, electroencephalographic (EEG, magnetoencephalographic (MEG or in vitro micro-electrode array (MEA data are considered. High channel-count recordings also optimize the yield of a preparation and the efficiency of time invested by the researcher. Currently, data acquisition (DAQ systems with high channel counts (>100 can be purchased from a limited number of companies at considerable prices. These systems are typically closed-source and thus prohibit custom extensions or improvements by end users.We have developed MANTA, an open-source MATLAB-based DAQ system, as an alternative to existing options. MANTA combines high channel counts (up to 1440 channels/PC, usage of analog or digital headstages, low per channel cost (<$90/channel, feature-rich display & filtering, a user-friendly interface, and a modular design permitting easy addition of new features. MANTA is licensed under the GPL and free of charge. The system has been tested by daily use in multiple setups for >1 year, recording reliably from 128 channels. It offers a growing list of features, including integrated spike sorting, PSTH and CSD display and fully customizable electrode array geometry (including 3D arrays, some of which are not available in commercial systems. MANTA runs on a typical PC and communicates via TCP/IP and can thus be easily integrated with existing stimulus generation/control systems in a lab at a fraction of the cost of commercial systems.With modern neuroscience developing rapidly, MANTA provides a flexible platform that can be rapidly adapted to the needs of new analyses and questions. Being open-source, the development of MANTA can outpace commercial solutions in functionality, while maintaining a low price-point.

  18. Mobile Measurements of Methane Using High-Speed Open-Path Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, T.; Ediger, K.; von Fischer, J.; Gioli, B.; Ham, J. M.; Hupp, J. R.; Kohnert, K.; Levy, P. E.; Polidori, A.; Pikelnaya, O.; Price, E.; Sachs, T.; Serafimovich, A.; Zondlo, M. A.; Zulueta, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Methane plays a critical role in the radiation balance, chemistry of the atmosphere, and air quality. The major anthropogenic sources of CH4 include oil and gas development sites, natural gas distribution networks, landfill emissions, and agricultural production. The majority of oil and gas and urban CH4 emission occurs via variable-rate point sources or diffused spots in topographically challenging terrains (e.g., street tunnels, elevated locations at water treatment plants, vents, etc.). Locating and measuring such CH4 emissions is challenging when using traditional micrometeorological techniques, and requires development of novel approaches. Landfill CH4 emissions traditionally assessed at monthly or longer time intervals are subject to large uncertainties because of the snapshot nature of the measurements and the barometric pumping phenomenon. The majority of agricultural and natural CH4 production occurs in areas with little infrastructure or easily available grid power (e.g., rice fields, arctic and boreal wetlands, tropical mangroves, etc.). A lightweight, high-speed, high-resolution, open-path technology was recently developed for eddy covariance measurements of CH4 flux, with power consumption 30-150 times below other available technologies. It was designed to run on solar panels or a small generator and be placed in the middle of the methane-producing ecosystem without a need for grid power. Lately, this instrumentation has been utilized increasingly more frequently outside of the traditional use on stationary flux towers. These novel approaches include measurements from various moving platforms, such as cars, aircraft, and ships. Projects included mapping of concentrations and vertical profiles, leak detection and quantification, mobile emission detection from natural gas-powered cars, soil CH4 flux surveys, etc. This presentation will describe key projects utilizing the novel lightweight low-power high-resolution open-path technology, and will highlight

  19. OpenCL-Based Linear Algebra Libraries for High-Performance Computing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite its promise, OpenCL adoption is slow, owing to a lack of libraries and tools. Vendors have shown few signs of plans to provide OpenCL libraries, and were...

  20. Open Access Publishing in High-Energy Physics the SCOAP$^{3}$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, S

    2009-01-01

    The Open Access (OA) movement is gaining an increasing momentum: its goal is to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of publicly funded scientific research. The High- Energy Physics (HEP) community has pioneered OA for decades, through its widespread “pre-print culture”. After almost half a century of worldwide dissemination of pre-prints, in paper first and electronically later, OA journals are becoming the natural evolution of scholarly communication in HEP. Among other OA business models, the one based on a sponsoring consortium appears as the most viable option for a transition of the HEP peer-reviewed literature to OA. The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) is proposed as a central body to remunerate publishers for their peer-review service, effectively replacing the “reader-pays” model of traditional subscriptions with an “author-side” funding, without any direct financial burden on individual authors and research groups. Su...

  1. Impact of Ischemic and Valvular Heart Disease on Atrial Excitation:A High-Resolution Epicardial Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Yaksh, Ameeta; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-03-08

    The influence of underlying heart disease or presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) on atrial excitation during sinus rhythm (SR) is unknown. We investigated atrial activation patterns and total activation times of the entire atrial epicardial surface during SR in patients with ischemic and/or valvular heart disease with or without AF. Intraoperative epicardial mapping (N=128/192 electrodes, interelectrode distances: 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle (BB), left atrioventricular groove, and pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 253 patients (186 male [74%], age 66±11 years) with ischemic heart disease (N=132, 52%) or ischemic valvular heart disease (N=121, 48%). As expected, SR origin was located at the superior intercaval region of the right atrium in 232 patients (92%). BB activation occurred via 1 wavefront from right-to-left (N=163, 64%), from the central part (N=18, 7%), or via multiple wavefronts (N=72, 28%). Left atrioventricular groove activation occurred via (1) BB: N=108, 43%; (2) pulmonary vein area: N=9, 3%; or (3) BB and pulmonary vein area: N=136, 54%; depending on which route had the shortest interatrial conduction time ( P <0.001). Ischemic valvular heart disease patients more often had central BB activation and left atrioventricular groove activation via pulmonary vein area compared with ischemic heart disease patients (N=16 [13%] versus N=2 [2%]; P =0.009 and N=86 [71%] versus N=59 [45%]; P <0.001, respectively). Total activation times were longer in patients with AF (AF: 136±20 [92-186] ms; no AF: 114±17 [74-156] ms; P <0.001), because of prolongation of right atrium ( P =0.018) and BB conduction times ( P <0.001). Atrial excitation during SR is affected by underlying heart disease and AF, resulting in alternative routes for BB and left atrioventricular groove activation and prolongation of total activation times. Knowledge of atrial excitation patterns during SR and its electropathological variations, as demonstrated in

  2. Realizing the increased potential of an open-system high-definition digital projector design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Reginald

    1999-05-01

    Modern video projectors are becoming more compact and capable. Various display technologies are very competitive and are delivering higher performance and more compact projectors to market at an ever quickening pace. However the end users are often left with the daunting task of integrating the 'off the self projectors' into a previously existing system. As the projectors become more digitally enhanced, there will be a series of designs, and the digital projector technology matures. The design solutions will be restricted by the state of the art at the time of manufacturing. In order to allow the most growth and performance for a given price, many design decisions will be made and revisited over a period of years or decades. A modular open digital system design concept is indeed a major challenge of the future high definition digital displays for al applications.

  3. Highly Defined Multiblock Copolypeptoids: Pushing the Limits of Living Nucleophilic Ring-Opening Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Fetsch, Corinna

    2012-06-05

    Advanced macromolecular engineering requires excellent control over the polymerization reaction. Living polymerization methods are notoriously sensitive to impurities, which makes a practical realization of such control very challenging. Reversible-deactivation radical polymerization methods are typically more robust, but have other limitations. Here, we demonstrate by repeated (ge;10 times) chain extension the extraordinary robustness of the living nucleophilic ring-opening polymerization of N-substituted glycine N-carboxyanhydrides, which yields polypeptoids. We observe essentially quantitative end-group fidelity under experimental conditions that are comparatively easily managed. This is employed to synthesize a pentablock quinquiespolymer with high definition. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Crossfostering in mice selectively bred for high and low levels of open-field thigmotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M

    2005-02-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate whether the difference in open-field (OF) thigmotaxis between mice selectively bred for high and low levels of wall-seeking behavior originated from genetic or acquired sources. Unfostered, infostered, and crossfostered mice were compared in two experiments in which the effects of strain, sex, and fostering on ambulation, defecation, exploration, grooming, latency to move, radial latency, rearing, thigmotaxis, and urination were studied. These experiments revealed that OF thigmotaxis was unaffected by the foster condition and thus genetically determined. The selected strains of mice also diverged repeatedly with regard to exploration and rearing. The findings are in line with the previously described existence of an inverse relationship between emotionality and exploration.

  5. Highly Defined Multiblock Copolypeptoids: Pushing the Limits of Living Nucleophilic Ring-Opening Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Fetsch, Corinna; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Advanced macromolecular engineering requires excellent control over the polymerization reaction. Living polymerization methods are notoriously sensitive to impurities, which makes a practical realization of such control very challenging. Reversible-deactivation radical polymerization methods are typically more robust, but have other limitations. Here, we demonstrate by repeated (ge;10 times) chain extension the extraordinary robustness of the living nucleophilic ring-opening polymerization of N-substituted glycine N-carboxyanhydrides, which yields polypeptoids. We observe essentially quantitative end-group fidelity under experimental conditions that are comparatively easily managed. This is employed to synthesize a pentablock quinquiespolymer with high definition. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. HTSstation: a web application and open-access libraries for high-throughput sequencing data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Fabrice P A; Delafontaine, Julien; Carat, Solenne; Ross, Frederick J; Lefebvre, Gregory; Jarosz, Yohan; Sinclair, Lucas; Noordermeer, Daan; Rougemont, Jacques; Leleu, Marion

    2014-01-01

    The HTSstation analysis portal is a suite of simple web forms coupled to modular analysis pipelines for various applications of High-Throughput Sequencing including ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, 4C-seq and re-sequencing. HTSstation offers biologists the possibility to rapidly investigate their HTS data using an intuitive web application with heuristically pre-defined parameters. A number of open-source software components have been implemented and can be used to build, configure and run HTS analysis pipelines reactively. Besides, our programming framework empowers developers with the possibility to design their own workflows and integrate additional third-party software. The HTSstation web application is accessible at http://htsstation.epfl.ch.

  7. Development of highly open polyhedral networks from vitreous carbon for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güiza-Argüello, V.; Bayona-Becerra, M.; Cruz-Orellana, S.; Córdoba-Tuta, E.

    2017-01-01

    Highly open polyhedral networks were fabricated using an economical and environmentally friendly template route. Recycled cellulose foams were impregnated with a sucrose resin and then pyrolyzed in order to produce reticulated vitreous carbon foams with morphological features that closely resemble trabecular bone. Also, cell sizes ~1mm were achieved, a trait that will allow the mechanical reinforcement of such scaffolds using a biomaterial coating without compromising the pore size that favors osteoblast cell infiltration and growth (200-500µm). Moreover, initial studies showed that carbonization conditions have an effect on the mechanical properties of the synthesized foams and, therefore, such process parameters could be further evaluated towards the enhancement of the mechanical resistance of the scaffolds. The materials developed here are visualized as the porous component of a synthetic bone graft with features that could help overcome the current limitations associated with the medical treatments used for bone defect repair.

  8. Observation of an energy threshold for large ΔE collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (Evib=31 000-41 000 cm-1) by CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elioff, Michael S.; Wall, Mark C.; Lemoff, Andrew S.; Mullin, Amy S.

    1999-03-01

    Energy dependent studies of the collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine through collisions with CO2 were performed for initial pyrazine energies Evib=31 000-35 000 cm-1. These studies are presented along with earlier results for pyrazine with Evib=36 000-41 000 cm-1. High-resolution transient IR laser absorption of individual CO2 (0000) rotational states (J=56-80) was used to investigate the magnitude and partitioning of energy gain into CO2 rotation and translation, which comprises the high energy tail of the energy transfer distribution function. Highly vibrationally excited pyrazine was prepared by absorption of pulsed UV light at seven wavelengths in the range λ=281-324 nm, followed by radiationless decay to pyrazine's ground electronic state. Nascent CO2 (0000) rotational populations were measured for each UV excitation wavelength and distributions of nascent recoil velocities for individual rotational states of CO2 (0000) were obtained from Doppler-broadened transient linewidth measurements. Measurements of energy transfer rate constants at each UV wavelength yield energy-dependent probabilities for collisions involving large ΔE values. These results reveal that the magnitude of large ΔE collisional energy gain in CO2 (0000) is fairly insensitive to the amount of vibrational energy in pyrazine for Evib=31 000-35 000 cm-1. A comparison with earlier studies on pyrazine with Evib=36 000-41 000 cm-1 indicates that the V→RT energy transfer increases both in magnitude and probability for Evib>36 000 cm-1. Implications of incomplete intramolecular vibrational relaxation, electronic state coupling, and isomerization barriers are discussed in light of these results.

  9. Large-eddy simulation of convective boundary layer generated by highly heated source with open source code, OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Sano, Tadashi; Shirai, Koji; Ishihara, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    Spatial- and temporal-characteristics of turbulence structures in the close vicinity of a heat source, which is a horizontal upward-facing round plate heated at high temperature, are examined by using well resolved large-eddy simulations. The verification is carried out through the comparison with experiments: the predicted statistics, including the PDF distribution of temperature fluctuations, agree well with measurements, indicating that the present simulations have a capability to appropriately reproduce turbulence structures near the heat source. The reproduced three-dimensional thermal- and fluid-fields in the close vicinity of the heat source reveals developing processes of coherence structures along the surface: the stationary- and streaky-flow patterns appear near the edge, and such patterns randomly shift to cell-like patterns with incursion into the center region, resulting in thermal-plume meandering. Both the patterns have very thin structures, but the depth of streaky structure is considerably small compared with that of cell-like patterns; this discrepancy causes the layered structures. The structure is the source of peculiar turbulence characteristics, the prediction of which is quite difficult with RANS-type turbulence models. The understanding such structures obtained in present study must be helpful to improve the turbulence model used in nuclear engineering. (author)

  10. Building highly available control system applications with Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture and open standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, Artem; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for modern and future control systems for large projects like International Linear Collider demand high availability for control system components. Recently telecom industry came up with a great open hardware specification - Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA). This specification is aimed for better reliability, availability and serviceability. Since its first market appearance in 2004, ATCA platform has shown tremendous growth and proved to be stable and well represented by a number of vendors. ATCA is an industry standard for highly available systems. On the other hand Service Availability Forum, a consortium of leading communications and computing companies, describes interaction between hardware and software. SAF defines a set of specifications such as Hardware Platform Interface, Application Interface Specification. SAF specifications provide extensive description of highly available systems, services and their interfaces. Originally aimed for telecom applications, these specifications can be used for accelerator controls software as well. This study describes benefits of using these specifications and their possible adoption to accelerator control systems. It is demonstrated how EPICS Redundant IOC was extended using Hardware Platform Interface specification, which made it possible to utilize benefits of the ATCA platform.

  11. Differential Expression and Functional Analysis of High-Throughput -Omics Data Using Open Source Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebschull, Moritz; Fittler, Melanie Julia; Demmer, Ryan T; Papapanou, Panos N

    2017-01-01

    Today, -omics analyses, including the systematic cataloging of messenger RNA and microRNA sequences or DNA methylation patterns in a cell population, organ, or tissue sample, allow for an unbiased, comprehensive genome-level analysis of complex diseases, offering a large advantage over earlier "candidate" gene or pathway analyses. A primary goal in the analysis of these high-throughput assays is the detection of those features among several thousand that differ between different groups of samples. In the context of oral biology, our group has successfully utilized -omics technology to identify key molecules and pathways in different diagnostic entities of periodontal disease.A major issue when inferring biological information from high-throughput -omics studies is the fact that the sheer volume of high-dimensional data generated by contemporary technology is not appropriately analyzed using common statistical methods employed in the biomedical sciences.In this chapter, we outline a robust and well-accepted bioinformatics workflow for the initial analysis of -omics data generated using microarrays or next-generation sequencing technology using open-source tools. Starting with quality control measures and necessary preprocessing steps for data originating from different -omics technologies, we next outline a differential expression analysis pipeline that can be used for data from both microarray and sequencing experiments, and offers the possibility to account for random or fixed effects. Finally, we present an overview of the possibilities for a functional analysis of the obtained data.

  12. A simplistic analytical unit cell based model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X H; Kuang, J J; Lu, T J; Han, F S; Kim, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a simplistic yet accurate analytical model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams saturated in a low conducting fluid (air). The model is derived analytically based on a realistic representative unit cell (a tetrakaidecahedron) under the assumption of one-dimensional heat conduction along highly tortuous-conducting ligaments at high porosity ranges (ε ⩾ 0.9). Good agreement with existing experimental data suggests that heat conduction along highly conducting and tortuous ligaments predominantly defines the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell metal foams with negligible conduction in parallel through the fluid phase. (paper)

  13. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Phillip W.K.; Sauer, Stephan P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Oddershede, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sabin, John R., E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.

  14. Analysis of Ling'ao nuclear power station unit 1 exciter No.11 bearing white metal damage and its operating temperature abnormally high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Kaili

    2005-01-01

    On the base of analyzing the type of exciter No.11 bearing white metal damage, the root cause and its solution are found. No damage was found on bearing white metal in the later time. On the base of analyzing the structure of the generator end bracket, it is pointed out that when the generator frame is full of pressed gas, the end bracket will deform, that result in the load on No.11 bearing increase, as a result causes the bearing temperature high. A proposal to this problem is presented. (author)

  15. High-transmission excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter edge filter based on a Halbach cylinder magnetic-field configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Walther, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We report on the realization of an excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (ESFADOF) edge filter based on the 5P(3/2)→8D(5/2) transition in rubidium. A maximum transmission of 81% has been achieved. This high transmission is only possible by utilizing a special configuration of magnetic fields taken from accelerator physics to provide a strong homogeneous magnetic field of approximately 6000 G across the vapor cell. The two resulting steep transmission edges are separated by more than 13 GHz, enabling its application in remote sensing.

  16. Gap formation processes in a high-density plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, J.M.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Ottinger, P.F.; Commisso, R.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Weber, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    A gap opening process in plasma opening switches (POS) is examined with the aid of numerical simulations. In these simulations, a high density (n e =10 14 --5x10 15 cm -3 ) uniform plasma initially bridges a small section of the coaxial transmission line of an inductive energy storage generator. A short section of vacuum transmission line connects the POS to a short circuit load. The results presented here extend previous simulations in the n e =10 12 --10 13 cm -3 density regime. The simulations show that a two-dimensional (2-D) sheath forms in the plasma near a cathode. This sheath is positively charged, and electrostatic sheath potentials that are large compared to the anode--cathode voltage develop. Initially, the 2-D sheath is located at the generator edge of the plasma. As ions are accelerated out of the sheath, it retains its original 2-D structure, but migrates axially toward the load creating a magnetically insulated gap in its wake. When the sheath reaches the load edge of the POS, the POS stops conducting current and the load current increases rapidly. At the end of the conduction phase a gap exists in the POS whose size is determined by the radial dimensions of the 2-D sheath. Simulations at various plasma densities and current levels show that the radial size of the gap scales roughly as B/n e , where B is the magnetic field. The results of this work are discussed in the context of long-conduction-time POS physics, but exhibit the same physical gap formation mechanisms as earlier lower density simulations more relevant to short-conduction-time POS. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. The dynamic behavior of microbubbles during long ultrasound tone-burst excitation: mechanistic insights into ultrasound-microbubble mediated therapeutics using high-speed imaging and cavitation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, John J.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-microbubble (MB) mediated therapies have been shown to restore perfusion and enhance drug/gene delivery. Due to the presumption that MBs do not persist during long US exposure under high acoustic pressures, most schemes utilize short US pulses when a high US pressure is employed. However, we recently observed an enhanced thrombolytic effect using long US pulses at high acoustic pressures. Therefore we explored the fate of MBs during long tone-burst exposures (5 ms) at various acoustic pressures and MB concentrations via direct high-speed optical observation and passive cavitation detection. MBs first underwent stable or inertial cavitation depending on the acoustic pressure, and then formed gas-filled clusters that continued to oscillate, break up, and form new clusters. Cavitation detection confirmed continued, albeit diminishing acoustic activity throughout the 5-ms US excitation. These data suggest that persisting cavitation activity during long tone-bursts may confer additional therapeutic effects. PMID:26603628

  18. Luminescence of highly excited nonpolar a-plane GaN and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursenas, S.; Kuokstis, E.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurilcik, G.; Zukauskas, A.; Chen, C.Q.; Yang, J.W.; Adivarahan, V.; Asif Khan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Carrier recombination dynamics in polar and nonpolar GaN epilayers and GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown over sapphire substrates with a various crystallographic orientation were studied under high photoexcitation by 20 ps laser pulses. The transient luminescence featured a significant enhancement on nonradiative recombination of free carriers for nonpolar a-plane GaN epilayers compared to conventional c-plane samples. The epitaxial layer overgrowth technique was demonstrated to significantly improve the quality of nonpolar a-plane films. This was proved by more than 40-fold increase in luminescence decay time (430 ps compared to ≤ 10 ps in the ordinary a-plane epilayer). Under high-excitation regime, a complete screening of built-in electric field by free carriers in multiple quantum wells grown on c-plane and r-plane sapphire substrates was achieved. Under such high excitation, luminescence efficiency and carrier lifetime of multiple quantum wells were shown to be determined by the substrate quality. (author)

  19. Outlook for the use of microsecond plasma opening switches to generate high-power nanosecond current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Maslennikov, D.D.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Paper deals with a phenomenon of current breaking in a conducting plasma volume of plasma opening switchers with a nanosecond time of energy initiation and their application in high-power generators. One determined the conditions to ensure megavolt voltages under the erosion mode making use of external applied magnetic field to ensure magnetic insulation of gap of plasma opening switchers. One studied the peculiar features of application of plasma opening switchers under 5-6 MV voltages to ensure X-ray and gamma-radiation pulses [ru

  20. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Davis

    with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P < 0.01, OR = 0.69, P = 0.02, respectively. Post-estimation Wald tests confirmed the negative associations with marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety perceptions than knowledge of DUI laws. Increased perceptions that driving while high is unsafe was associated with significantly lower willingness to drive after using marijuana while increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was not associated with these outcomes.Despite recent interventions targeting public awareness of the legal consequences of marijuana DUI, our results suggest that knowledge of these laws is a weaker predictor of DUI behavior than perceptions that driving high is unsafe. In addition, safety perceptions predict decreased openness to driving high while knowledge of DUI laws was not associated with openness. These findings suggest that interventions for reducing the incidence of marijuana DUI are likely to be more successful by targeting safety perceptions related to marijuana DUI rather than knowledge of DUI laws. We caution that because these data are limited to an online convenience sample, results may not be generalizable beyond our sample.

  1. The Open Connectome Project Data Cluster: Scalable Analysis and Vision for High-Throughput Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Randal; Roncal, William Gray; Kleissas, Dean; Lillaney, Kunal; Manavalan, Priya; Perlman, Eric; Berger, Daniel R.; Bock, Davi D.; Chung, Kwanghun; Grosenick, Logan; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Weiler, Nicholas C.; Deisseroth, Karl; Kazhdan, Michael; Lichtman, Jeff; Reid, R. Clay; Smith, Stephen J.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We describe a scalable database cluster for the spatial analysis and annotation of high-throughput brain imaging data, initially for 3-d electron microscopy image stacks, but for time-series and multi-channel data as well. The system was designed primarily for workloads that build connectomes— neural connectivity maps of the brain—using the parallel execution of computer vision algorithms on high-performance compute clusters. These services and open-science data sets are publicly available at openconnecto.me. The system design inherits much from NoSQL scale-out and data-intensive computing architectures. We distribute data to cluster nodes by partitioning a spatial index. We direct I/O to different systems—reads to parallel disk arrays and writes to solid-state storage—to avoid I/O interference and maximize throughput. All programming interfaces are RESTful Web services, which are simple and stateless, improving scalability and usability. We include a performance evaluation of the production system, highlighting the effec-tiveness of spatial data organization. PMID:24401992

  2. HiGIS: An Open Framework for High Performance Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIONG, W.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Big data era expose many challenges to geospatial data management, geocomputation and cartography. There is no exception in geographic information systems (GIS community. Technologies and facilities of high performance computing (HPC become more and more feasible to researchers, while mobile computing, ubiquitous computing, and cloud computing are emerging. But traditional GIS need to be improved to take advantages of all these evolutions. We proposed and implemented a GIS married with high performance computing, which is called HiGIS. The goal of HiGIS is to promote the performance of geocomputation by leveraging the power of HPC, and to build an open framework for geospatial data storing, processing, displaying and sharing. In this paper the architecture, data model and modules of the HiGIS system are introduced. A geocomputation scheduling engine based on communicating sequential process was designed to exploit spatial analysis and processing. Parallel I/O strategy using file view was proposed to improve the performance of geospatial raster data access. In order to support web-based online mapping, an interactive cartographic script was provided to represent a map. A demostration of locating house was used to manifest the characteristics of HiGIS. Parallel and concurrency performance experiments show the feasibility of this system.

  3. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  4. dc SQUID electronics based on adaptive noise cancellation and a high open-loop gain controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppae, H.

    1992-01-01

    A low-noise SQUID readout electronics with a high slew rate and an automatic gain control feature has been developed. Flux noise levels of 5x10 -7 Φ 0 /√Hz at 1 kHz and 2x10 -6 Φ 0 /√Hz at 1 Hz have been measured with this readout scheme. The system tolerates sinusoidal disturbances having amplitudes up to 140 Φ 0 at 1 kHz without loosing lock. The electronics utilizes a cooled GaAs FET to control the cancellation of the voltage noise of the room temperature amplifier, a PI 3/2 controller to provide a high open-loop gain at low frequencies, and a square-wave flux and offset voltage modulation to enable automatic control of the noise reduction. The cutoff frequency of the flux-locked-loop is 300 kHz and the feedback gain is more than 130 dB at 10 Hz. (orig.)

  5. The Open Connectome Project Data Cluster: Scalable Analysis and Vision for High-Throughput Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Randal; Roncal, William Gray; Kleissas, Dean; Lillaney, Kunal; Manavalan, Priya; Perlman, Eric; Berger, Daniel R; Bock, Davi D; Chung, Kwanghun; Grosenick, Logan; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Weiler, Nicholas C; Deisseroth, Karl; Kazhdan, Michael; Lichtman, Jeff; Reid, R Clay; Smith, Stephen J; Szalay, Alexander S; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Vogelstein, R Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We describe a scalable database cluster for the spatial analysis and annotation of high-throughput brain imaging data, initially for 3-d electron microscopy image stacks, but for time-series and multi-channel data as well. The system was designed primarily for workloads that build connectomes - neural connectivity maps of the brain-using the parallel execution of computer vision algorithms on high-performance compute clusters. These services and open-science data sets are publicly available at openconnecto.me. The system design inherits much from NoSQL scale-out and data-intensive computing architectures. We distribute data to cluster nodes by partitioning a spatial index. We direct I/O to different systems-reads to parallel disk arrays and writes to solid-state storage-to avoid I/O interference and maximize throughput. All programming interfaces are RESTful Web services, which are simple and stateless, improving scalability and usability. We include a performance evaluation of the production system, highlighting the effec-tiveness of spatial data organization.

  6. Investigations of dynamic interactions coupled by soil between neighbouring nuclear power plants of high mass in case of seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthees, W.; Magiera, G.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitivity study for the interaction effects for adjacent structures of nuclear power plants i.e. for main buildings and auxiliary buildings has been performed due to horizontal seismic excitation. An interaction measuring rule for response spectra has been defined as the ratio of amplitude of response calculated inclusive the auxiliary building to the amplitude calculated without the auxiliary building in respect to the proper eigen-frequencies. The calculations of the three-dimensional effects are approximated with the program FLUSH. The accuracy of the achievable response herewith calculated is proven in comparison with other suitable methods. The interaction measuring rule is determined by a parameter investigation including the mathematical model consisting of the soil, the main building, and the auxiliary building. The following assumptions are asserted: 1. the soil characteristics are temporarily constant. Ignorance of the accuracy of the realistic i.e. stress depending soil values is encountered by variation of the decisive characteristics within their applicable band-width. 2. The fineness of the mathematical-mechanical modelling for the structural systems i.e. the number of the degrees of freedom is limited to a minimum. Attention is hereby paid that the eigen-frequencies of the main building as well as the eigen-frequencies of the layered soil system in the range of 0 to 10 Hz are computed with sufficient accuracy. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Spectroscopic and electric dipole properties of Sr+Ar and SrAr systems including high excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Rafika; Abdessalem, Kawther; Dardouri, Riadh; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier

    2018-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the fundamental and several excited states of Sr+Ar and SrAr, Van der Waals systems are investigated by employing an ab initio method in a pseudo-potential approach. The potential energy curves and the spectroscopic parameters are displayed for the 1-10 2Σ+, 1-6 2Π and 1-3 2Δ electronic states of the Sr+Ar molecule and for the 1-6 1Σ+, 1-4 3Σ+, 1-3 1,3Π and 1-3 1,3Δ states of the neutral molecule SrAr. In addition, from these curves, the vibrational levels and their energy spacing are deduced for Σ+, Π and Δ symmetries. The spectra of the permanent and transition dipole moments are studied for the 1,3Σ+ states of SrAr, which are considered to be two-electron systems and 2Σ+ states of the single electron Sr+Ar ion. The spectroscopic parameters obtained for each molecular system are compared with previous theoretical and experimental works. A significant correlation revealed the accuracy of our results.

  8. Unraveling the High Open Circuit Voltage and High Performance of Integrated Perovskite/Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shiqi; Liu, Yongsheng; Hong, Ziruo; Yao, Enping; Sun, Pengyu; Meng, Lei; Lin, Yuze; Huang, Jinsong; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2017-08-09

    We have demonstrated high-performance integrated perovskite/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells due to the low carrier recombination velocity, high open circuit voltage (V OC ), and increased light absorption ability in near-infrared (NIR) region of integrated devices. In particular, we find that the V OC of the integrated devices is dominated by (or pinned to) the perovskite cells, not the organic photovoltaic cells. A Quasi-Fermi Level Pinning Model was proposed to understand the working mechanism and the origin of the V OC of the integrated perovskite/BHJ solar cell, which following that of the perovskite solar cell and is much higher than that of the low bandgap polymer based organic BHJ solar cell. Evidence for the model was enhanced by examining the charge carrier behavior and photovoltaic behavior of the integrated devices under illumination of monochromatic light-emitting diodes at different characteristic wavelength. This finding shall pave an interesting possibility for integrated photovoltaic devices to harvest low energy photons in NIR region and further improve the current density without sacrificing V OC , thus providing new opportunities and significant implications for future industry applications of this kind of integrated solar cells.

  9. Does human body odor represent a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin T Lübke

    Full Text Available Across a wide variety of domains, experts differ from novices in their response to stimuli linked to their respective field of expertise. It is currently unknown whether similar patterns can be observed with regard to social expertise. The current study therefore focuses on social openness, a central social skill necessary to initiate social contact. Human body odors were used as social cues, as they inherently signal the presence of another human being. Using functional MRI, hemodynamic brain responses to body odors of women reporting a high (n = 14 or a low (n = 12 level of social openness were compared. Greater activation within the inferior frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus was observed in high socially open individuals compared to individuals low in social openness. With the inferior frontal gyrus being a crucial part of the human mirror neuron system, and the caudate nucleus being implicated in social reward, it is discussed whether human body odor might constitute more of a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness compared to individuals low in social openness process.

  10. Does human body odor represent a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Croy, Ilona; Hoenen, Matthias; Gerber, Johannes; Pause, Bettina M; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Across a wide variety of domains, experts differ from novices in their response to stimuli linked to their respective field of expertise. It is currently unknown whether similar patterns can be observed with regard to social expertise. The current study therefore focuses on social openness, a central social skill necessary to initiate social contact. Human body odors were used as social cues, as they inherently signal the presence of another human being. Using functional MRI, hemodynamic brain responses to body odors of women reporting a high (n = 14) or a low (n = 12) level of social openness were compared. Greater activation within the inferior frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus was observed in high socially open individuals compared to individuals low in social openness. With the inferior frontal gyrus being a crucial part of the human mirror neuron system, and the caudate nucleus being implicated in social reward, it is discussed whether human body odor might constitute more of a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness compared to individuals low in social openness process.

  11. Electrically Excited Plasmonic Nanoruler for Biomolecule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dathe, André; Ziegler, Mario; Hübner, Uwe; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Stranik, Ondrej

    2016-09-14

    Plasmon-based sensors are excellent tools for a label-free detection of small biomolecules. An interesting group of such sensors are plasmonic nanorulers that rely on the plasmon hybridization upon modification of their morphology to sense nanoscale distances. Sensor geometries based on the interaction of plasmons in a flat metallic layer together with metal nanoparticles inherit unique advantages but need a special optical excitation configuration that is not easy to miniaturize. Herein, we introduce the concept of nanoruler excitation by direct, electrically induced generation of surface plasmons based on the quantum shot noise of tunneling currents. An electron tunneling junction consisting of a metal-dielectric-semiconductor heterostructure is directly incorporated into the nanoruler basic geometry. With the application of voltage on this modified nanoruler, the plasmon modes are directly excited without any additional optical component as a light source. We demonstrate via several experiments that this electrically driven nanoruler possesses similar properties as an optically exited one and confirm its sensing capabilities by the detection of the binding of small biomolecules such as antibodies. This new sensing principle could open the way to a new platform of highly miniaturized, integrated plasmonic sensors compatible with monolithic integrated circuits.

  12. Continuum emission of excited sodium dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Poyato, J.M.L.; Alonso, J.I.; Rico, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been made of the behaviour of excited molecular sodium using high-power Ar + laser radiation. A continuum emission was observed in the red wavelength region. This emission was thought to be caused by the formation of excited triatomic molecules. Energy transfer was observed from excited molecules to atoms. (orig.)

  13. Exotic nuclear excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Pancholi, S C

    2011-01-01

    By providing the reader with a foundational background in high spin nuclear structure physics and exploring exciting current discoveries in the field, this book presents new phenomena in a clear and compelling way. The quest for achieving the highest spin states has resulted in some remarkable successes which this monograph will address in comprehensive detail. The text covers an array of pertinent subject matter, including the rotational alignment and bandcrossings, magnetic rotation, triaxial strong deformation and wobbling motion and chirality in nuclei. Dr. Pancholi offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. The prerequisites for a proper appreciation are courses in nuclear physics and nuclear models and measurement techniques of observables like gamma-ray energies, intensities, multi-fold coincidences, angular correlations or distributions, linear polarization, internal conversion coefficients, short lifetime (pico-second range) of excited states etc. and instrum...

  14. Early weight bearing versus delayed weight bearing in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdaal, Joris Radboud; Mouton, Tanguy; Wascher, Daniel Charles; Demey, Guillaume; Lustig, Sebastien; Neyret, Philippe; Servien, Elvire

    2017-12-01

    The need for a period of non-weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy remains controversial. It is hypothesized that immediate weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy would have no difference in functional scores at one year compared to delayed weight bearing. Fifty patients, median age 54 years (range 40-65), with medial compartment osteoarthritis, underwent a medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy utilizing a locking plate without bone grafting. Patients were randomized into an Immediate or a Delayed (2 months) weight bearing group. All patients were assessed at one-year follow-up and the two groups compared. The primary outcome measure was the IKS score. Secondary outcome measures included the IKDC score, the VAS pain score and rate of complications. The functional scores significantly improved in both groups. The IKS score increased from 142 ± 31 to 171 ± 26 in the Immediate group (p bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy had no effect on functional scores at 1 year follow-up and did not significantly increase the complication rate. Immediate weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy appears to be safe and can allow some patients a quicker return to activities of daily living and a decreased convalescence period. II.

  15. Excitation thresholds of field-aligned irregularities and associated ionospheric hysteresis at very high latitudes observed using SPEAR-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wright

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 October 2006 the SPEAR high power radar facility was operated in a power-stepping mode where both CUTLASS radars were detecting backscatter from the SPEAR-induced field-aligned irregularities (FAIs. The effective radiated power of SPEAR was varied from 1–10 MW. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the power thresholds for excitation (Pt and collapse (Pc of artificially-induced FAIs in the ionosphere over Svalbard. It was demonstrated that FAI could be excited by a SPEAR ERP of only 1 MW, representing only 1/30th of SPEAR's total capability, and that once created the irregularities could be maintained for even lower powers. The experiment also demonstrated that the very high latitude ionosphere exhibits hysteresis, where the down-going part of the power cycle provided a higher density of irregularities than for the equivalent part of the up-going cycle. Although this second result is similar to that observed previously by CUTLASS in conjunction with the Tromsø heater, the same is not true for the equivalent incoherent scatter measurements. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR failed to detect any hysteresis in the plasma parameters over Svalbard in stark contract with the measurements made using the Tromsø UHF.

  16. Excitation thresholds of field-aligned irregularities and associated ionospheric hysteresis at very high latitudes observed using SPEAR-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wright

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 October 2006 the SPEAR high power radar facility was operated in a power-stepping mode where both CUTLASS radars were detecting backscatter from the SPEAR-induced field-aligned irregularities (FAIs. The effective radiated power of SPEAR was varied from 1–10 MW. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the power thresholds for excitation (Pt and collapse (Pc of artificially-induced FAIs in the ionosphere over Svalbard. It was demonstrated that FAI could be excited by a SPEAR ERP of only 1 MW, representing only 1/30th of SPEAR's total capability, and that once created the irregularities could be maintained for even lower powers. The experiment also demonstrated that the very high latitude ionosphere exhibits hysteresis, where the down-going part of the power cycle provided a higher density of irregularities than for the equivalent part of the up-going cycle. Although this second result is similar to that observed previously by CUTLASS in conjunction with the Tromsø heater, the same is not true for the equivalent incoherent scatter measurements. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR failed to detect any hysteresis in the plasma parameters over Svalbard in stark contract with the measurements made using the Tromsø UHF.

  17. Excitation of half-integer up-shifted decay channel and quasi-mode in plasma edge for high power electron Bernstein wave heating scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Asgarian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electron Bernstein waves (EBW consist of promising tools in driving localized off-axis current needed for sustained operation as well as effective selective heating scenarios in advanced over dense fusion plasmas like spherical tori and stellarators by applying high power radio frequency waves within the range of Megawatts. Here some serious non-linear effects like parametric decay modes are highly expect-able which have been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. In general, the decay of an EBW depends on the ratio of the incident frequency and electron cyclotron frequency. At ratios less than two, parametric decay leads to a lower hybrid wave (or an ion Bernstein wave and EBWs at a lower frequency. For ratios more than two, the daughter waves constitute either an electron cyclotron quasi-mode and another EBW or an ion wave and EBW. However, in contrast with these decay patterns, the excitation of an unusual up-shifted frequency decay channel for the ratio less than two is demonstrated in this study which is totally different as to its generation and persistence. It is shown that this mode varies from the conventional parametric decay channels which necessarily satisfy the matching conditions in frequency and wave-vector. Moreover, the excitation of some less-known local non-propagating quasi-modes (virtual modes through weak-turbulence theory and their contributions to energy leakage from conversion process leading the reduction in conversion efficiency is assessed.

  18. Design and implementation of improved LsCpLp resonant circuit for power supply for high-power electromagnetic acoustic transducer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zao, Yongming; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Xinglan; Hou, Shuaicheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the design and implementation of an improved series-parallel inductor-capacitor-inductor (LsCpLp) resonant circuit power supply for excitation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). The main advantage of the proposed resonant circuit is the absence of a high-permeability dynamic transformer. A high-frequency pulsating voltage gain can be achieved through a double resonance phenomenon. Both resonant tailing behavior and higher harmonics are suppressed by the improved resonant circuit, which also contributes to the generation of ultrasonic waves. Additionally, the proposed circuit can realize impedance matching and can also optimize the transduction efficiency. The complete design and implementation procedure for the power supply is described and has been validated by implementation of the proposed power supply to drive a portable EMAT. The circuit simulation results show close agreement with the experimental results and thus confirm the validity of the proposed topology. The proposed circuit is suitable for use as a portable EMAT excitation power supply that is fed by a low-voltage source.

  19. Design and implementation of improved LsCpLp resonant circuit for power supply for high-power electromagnetic acoustic transducer excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zao, Yongming; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Xinglan; Hou, Shuaicheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the design and implementation of an improved series-parallel inductor-capacitor-inductor (L s C p L p ) resonant circuit power supply for excitation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). The main advantage of the proposed resonant circuit is the absence of a high-permeability dynamic transformer. A high-frequency pulsating voltage gain can be achieved through a double resonance phenomenon. Both resonant tailing behavior and higher harmonics are suppressed by the improved resonant circuit, which also contributes to the generation of ultrasonic waves. Additionally, the proposed circuit can realize impedance matching and can also optimize the transduction efficiency. The complete design and implementation procedure for the power supply is described and has been validated by implementation of the proposed power supply to drive a portable EMAT. The circuit simulation results show close agreement with the experimental results and thus confirm the validity of the proposed topology. The proposed circuit is suitable for use as a portable EMAT excitation power supply that is fed by a low-voltage source.

  20. Excitation of half-integer up-shifted decay channel and quasi-mode in plasma edge for high power electron Bernstein wave heating scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Asgarian, M.; Abbasi, M.

    2018-04-01

    Electron Bernstein waves (EBW) consist of promising tools in driving localized off-axis current needed for sustained operation as well as effective selective heating scenarios in advanced over dense fusion plasmas like spherical tori and stellarators by applying high power radio frequency waves within the range of Megawatts. Here some serious non-linear effects like parametric decay modes are highly expect-able which have been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. In general, the decay of an EBW depends on the ratio of the incident frequency and electron cyclotron frequency. At ratios less than two, parametric decay leads to a lower hybrid wave (or an ion Bernstein wave) and EBWs at a lower frequency. For ratios more than two, the daughter waves constitute either an electron cyclotron quasi-mode and another EBW or an ion wave and EBW. However, in contrast with these decay patterns, the excitation of an unusual up-shifted frequency decay channel for the ratio less than two is demonstrated in this study which is totally different as to its generation and persistence. It is shown that this mode varies from the conventional parametric decay channels which necessarily satisfy the matching conditions in frequency and wave-vector. Moreover, the excitation of some less-known local non-propagating quasi-modes (virtual modes) through weak-turbulence theory and their contributions to energy leakage from conversion process leading the reduction in conversion efficiency is assessed.